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Sample records for age discrimination act

  1. 12 CFR 268.201 - Age Discrimination in Employment Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Age Discrimination in Employment Act. 268.201... Age Discrimination in Employment Act. (a) As an alternative to filing a complaint under this part, an... Commission establishes a maximum age requirement for the position on the basis of a determination that age...

  2. 12 CFR 268.201 - Age Discrimination in Employment Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Age Discrimination in Employment Act. 268.201... Age Discrimination in Employment Act. (a) As an alternative to filing a complaint under this part, an... Commission establishes a maximum age requirement for the position on the basis of a determination that age...

  3. 12 CFR 268.201 - Age Discrimination in Employment Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Age Discrimination in Employment Act. 268.201... Complaints § 268.201 Age Discrimination in Employment Act. (a) As an alternative to filing a complaint under... ADEA if the Commission establishes a maximum age requirement for the position on the basis of...

  4. 12 CFR 268.201 - Age Discrimination in Employment Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Age Discrimination in Employment Act. 268.201... Complaints § 268.201 Age Discrimination in Employment Act. (a) As an alternative to filing a complaint under... ADEA if the Commission establishes a maximum age requirement for the position on the basis of...

  5. 12 CFR 268.201 - Age Discrimination in Employment Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Age Discrimination in Employment Act. 268.201... Complaints § 268.201 Age Discrimination in Employment Act. (a) As an alternative to filing a complaint under... ADEA if the Commission establishes a maximum age requirement for the position on the basis of...

  6. 29 CFR 1614.201 - Age Discrimination in Employment Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Age Discrimination in Employment Act. 1614.201 Section 1614... SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.201 Age... establishes a maximum age requirement for the position on the basis of a determination that age is a bona...

  7. 29 CFR 1614.201 - Age Discrimination in Employment Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Age Discrimination in Employment Act. 1614.201 Section 1614... SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.201 Age... establishes a maximum age requirement for the position on the basis of a determination that age is a bona...

  8. 29 CFR 1614.201 - Age Discrimination in Employment Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Age Discrimination in Employment Act. 1614.201 Section 1614... SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.201 Age... establishes a maximum age requirement for the position on the basis of a determination that age is a bona...

  9. 29 CFR 1614.201 - Age Discrimination in Employment Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Age Discrimination in Employment Act. 1614.201 Section 1614... SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.201 Age... establishes a maximum age requirement for the position on the basis of a determination that age is a bona...

  10. 29 CFR 1614.201 - Age Discrimination in Employment Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Age Discrimination in Employment Act. 1614.201 Section 1614... SECTOR EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY Provisions Applicable to Particular Complaints § 1614.201 Age... establishes a maximum age requirement for the position on the basis of a determination that age is a bona...

  11. 76 FR 73986 - Redelegation of Authority Under the Age Discrimination Act of 1975

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Redelegation of Authority Under the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 AGENCY: Office of... Age Discrimination Act of 1975, and retains and redelegates this authority, with noted exceptions, to... statutes. Included in that consolidated delegation is the authority to act under the Age Discrimination...

  12. 29 CFR 1614.407 - Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Rehabilitation Act. 1614.407 Section 1614.407 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... Actions § 1614.407 Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Rehabilitation Act....

  13. 29 CFR 1614.407 - Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Rehabilitation Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Rehabilitation Act. 1614.407 Section 1614.407 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... Actions § 1614.407 Civil action: Title VII, Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Rehabilitation Act....

  14. Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967; A Report Covering Activities in Connection with the Act During 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wage and Labor Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This annual report on the Age Discrimination in Employment Act describes activities conducted under the Act in 1969. The Act prohibits discrimination in any of the terms of employment against individuals between 40 and 65 years of age. Coverage is extended to employers of 25 or more persons in occupations for which age is not a bona fide…

  15. Procedural Complexity of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act: An Age-Old Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeder, Robert E.

    1980-01-01

    The procedural prerequisites to an Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) action are examined. The 1978 amendments to the Act as well as the leading decisions involving procedural matters are discussed. Available from The Duquesne Law Review, 901 Rockwell Hall, 600 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, PA 15219. (Author/MLF)

  16. 45 CFR 90.3 - What programs or activities does the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Discrimination Act of 1975 cover? 90.3 Section 90.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 90.3 What programs or activities does the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 cover? (a) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975 applies to any program or activity receiving...

  17. Trends and Patterns in Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) Charges.

    PubMed

    von Schrader, Sarah; Nazarov, Zafar E

    2016-07-01

    The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) protects individuals aged 40 years and over from discrimination throughout the employment process. Using data on ADEA charges from the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission from 1993 to 2010, we present labor force-adjusted charge rates demonstrating that the highest charge rates are among those in the preretirement age range, and only the rate of charges among those aged 65 years and older has not decreased. We examine characteristics of ADEA charges including the prevalence of different alleged discriminatory actions (or issues) and highlight the increasing proportion of age discrimination charges that are jointly filed with other antidiscrimination statutes. Through a regression analysis, we find that the likelihood of citing various issues differs by charging party characteristics, such as age, gender, and minority status, and on charges that cite only age discrimination as compared to those that are jointly filed. Implications of these findings for employers are discussed. PMID:26168798

  18. 45 CFR 91.1 - What is the purpose of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the purpose of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975? 91.1 Section 91.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS General § 91.1 What is...

  19. Defenses under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act: Misinterpretation, Misdirection, and the 1978 Amendments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Player, Mack A.

    1978-01-01

    Three exceptions or defenses to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 are analyzed--the bona fide occupational qualification, bona fide seniority system, and bona fide benefit plan. Available from Georgia Law Review, University of Georgia School of Law, Athens, Georgia 30602; sc $3.50. (IRT)

  20. 45 CFR 90.1 - What is the purpose of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the purpose of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975? 90.1 Section 90.1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE General § 90.1 What is the purpose of...

  1. 29 CFR 1626.2 - Terms defined in the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terms defined in the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, as amended. 1626.2 Section 1626.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL... the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, as amended. The terms person, employer,...

  2. 29 CFR 1626.2 - Terms defined in the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, as amended.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Terms defined in the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, as amended. 1626.2 Section 1626.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT § 1626.2 Terms defined...

  3. 45 CFR 90.3 - What programs or activities does the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Assistance Act of 1972 (31 U.S.C. 1221 et seq.). (b) The Age Discrimination Act of 1975 does not apply to: (1... employment under the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1974 (CETA), (29 U.S.C. 801 et seq.)....

  4. 45 CFR 90.3 - What programs or activities does the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 cover?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Discrimination Act of 1975 cover? 90.3 Section 90.3 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...) An age distinction contained in that part of a Federal, State or local statute or ordinance adopted by an elected, general purpose legislative body which: (i) Provides any benefits or assistance...

  5. 1978 Age Discrimination Act Amendments. Explanation of 1978 Age Discrimination Act Amendments. Report of Committee on Conference, Including Text of H.R. 5383. Text of Age Discrimination Act, as Amended. Report of House Labor Committee. Report of Senate Human Resources Committee. Union Labor Report No. 1596, Special Supplement, Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of National Affairs, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This booklet explains and reproduces the text of the 1978 amendments to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). It also gives the actual committee on conference report as well as reports of the House labor committee and the Senate human resources committee. In its introductory explanation, the booklet discusses the most publicized…

  6. 29 CFR 1625.2 - Discrimination prohibited by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited by the Act. 1625.2 Section 1625.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT Interpretations § 1625.2 Discrimination prohibited by the Act. It is...

  7. 10 CFR 1040.84 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1040.84 Section 1040.84... ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1040.84 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this...

  8. 10 CFR 1040.84 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1040.84 Section 1040.84... ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1040.84 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this...

  9. 10 CFR 1040.84 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1040.84 Section 1040.84... ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1040.84 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this...

  10. 10 CFR 1040.84 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1040.84 Section 1040.84... ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1040.84 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this...

  11. 10 CFR 1040.84 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1040.84 Section 1040.84... ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1040.84 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this...

  12. 10 CFR 4.311 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 4.311 Section 4.311... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 4.311 Rules against...

  13. 10 CFR 4.311 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 4.311 Section 4.311... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 4.311 Rules against...

  14. 10 CFR 4.311 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 4.311 Section 4.311... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 4.311 Rules against...

  15. 10 CFR 4.311 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 4.311 Section 4.311... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 4.311 Rules against...

  16. 10 CFR 4.311 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 4.311 Section 4.311... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE COMMISSION Regulations Implementing the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 4.311 Rules against...

  17. 29 CFR 1625.2 - Discrimination prohibited by the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited by the Act. 1625.2 Section 1625.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION AGE... for an employer to discriminate against an individual in any aspect of employment because...

  18. International Comparison of Age Discrimination Laws.

    PubMed

    Lahey, Joanna N

    2010-11-01

    European age discrimination legislation is discussed in the context of the US Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and related state laws. US law was originally introduced to protect productive older workers from age stereotypes, but more recently preventing age discrimination has become important as a means of keeping costs down on entitlement programs as the population ages. Changes in enforcement, penalties, exemptions, length of time to file, and burden of proof have changed the effects of the laws over time. The ADEA has had both positive effects on currently employed older workers and negative effects on the hiring of older workers. Enforcement and publicity are offered as possible explanations for the strength of these positive and negative effects. Age discrimination legislation in Europe, indicated in the Framework Directive 2000/78, is driven by economic and political considerations. European legislation calls for less enforcement and more exemptions than the corresponding US cases which could lead to smaller effects on employment. However, pensions, disability, unemployment, and social security potentially have a stronger effect on social norms for retirement age than does anti-discrimination legislation.

  19. International Comparison of Age Discrimination Laws

    PubMed Central

    Lahey, Joanna N.

    2014-01-01

    European age discrimination legislation is discussed in the context of the US Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and related state laws. US law was originally introduced to protect productive older workers from age stereotypes, but more recently preventing age discrimination has become important as a means of keeping costs down on entitlement programs as the population ages. Changes in enforcement, penalties, exemptions, length of time to file, and burden of proof have changed the effects of the laws over time. The ADEA has had both positive effects on currently employed older workers and negative effects on the hiring of older workers. Enforcement and publicity are offered as possible explanations for the strength of these positive and negative effects. Age discrimination legislation in Europe, indicated in the Framework Directive 2000/78, is driven by economic and political considerations. European legislation calls for less enforcement and more exemptions than the corresponding US cases which could lead to smaller effects on employment. However, pensions, disability, unemployment, and social security potentially have a stronger effect on social norms for retirement age than does anti-discrimination legislation. PMID:25197154

  20. 38 CFR 18.511 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules against age...-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 18.511 Rules against age discrimination. The rules in this section...

  1. 38 CFR 18.511 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rules against age...-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 18.511 Rules against age discrimination. The rules in this section...

  2. 38 CFR 18.511 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rules against age...-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 18.511 Rules against age discrimination. The rules in this section...

  3. 38 CFR 18.511 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rules against age...-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 18.511 Rules against age discrimination. The rules in this section...

  4. 38 CFR 18.511 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rules against age...-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 18.511 Rules against age discrimination. The rules in this section...

  5. 75 FR 7212 - Definition of “Reasonable Factors Other Than Age” Under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-18

    ... policy where EEOC regulations advised employers to take all steps necessary to prevent harassment and holding as a matter of law that employer did not exercise reasonable care to prevent sexual harassment... and rectify acts of sexual harassment of its employees, the court observed that ``what is...

  6. Age Discrimination in Employment Act--Waiver of Rights. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Labor of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This congressional hearing addresses the issue of the waiver of rights under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA). It reviews an Equal Employment Opportunity Commission rule permitting employees to waive their rights under the ADEA without federal supervision. Testimony includes statements, prepared statements, articles, publications,…

  7. Perceived Age Discrimination and Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Anastasia S. Vogt

    2007-01-01

    Although perceived discrimination (especially due to race-ethnicity) decreases mental health, the influence of perceived discrimination due to other reasons on mental health needs to be explored. This study examines the relationship between perceived age discrimination and mental health and determines whether psychosocial resources explain or…

  8. 10 CFR 1040.87 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination. Reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination. Reasonable factors other than age. 1040.87 Section 1040.87 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age-Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as...

  9. 43 CFR 17.301 - What is the purpose of DOI's age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... general age discrimination regulations at 45 CFR part 90. The Act and the general regulations prohibit... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the purpose of DOI's age... Age General § 17.301 What is the purpose of DOI's age discrimination regulations? The purpose of...

  10. 10 CFR 4.314 - Exceptions to the rule against age discrimination. Reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exceptions to the rule against age discrimination. Reasonable factors other than age. 4.314 Section 4.314 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION... COMMISSION Regulations Implementing the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Standards for...

  11. 10 CFR 4.314 - Exceptions to the rule against age discrimination. Reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to the rule against age discrimination. Reasonable factors other than age. 4.314 Section 4.314 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION... COMMISSION Regulations Implementing the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended Standards for...

  12. 40 CFR 7.180 - Mediation of age discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mediation of age discrimination... Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 7.180 Mediation of age discrimination complaints. (a) The OCR will refer all accepted complaints alleging age discrimination to the Mediation Agency designated...

  13. 40 CFR 7.180 - Mediation of age discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation of age discrimination... Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 7.180 Mediation of age discrimination complaints. (a) The OCR will refer all accepted complaints alleging age discrimination to the Mediation Agency designated...

  14. 40 CFR 7.180 - Mediation of age discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mediation of age discrimination... Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 7.180 Mediation of age discrimination complaints. (a) The OCR will refer all accepted complaints alleging age discrimination to the Mediation Agency designated...

  15. 40 CFR 7.180 - Mediation of age discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mediation of age discrimination... Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 7.180 Mediation of age discrimination complaints. (a) The OCR will refer all accepted complaints alleging age discrimination to the Mediation Agency designated...

  16. 40 CFR 7.180 - Mediation of age discrimination complaints.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mediation of age discrimination... Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 7.180 Mediation of age discrimination complaints. (a) The OCR will refer all accepted complaints alleging age discrimination to the Mediation Agency designated...

  17. Age Discrimination, Social Closure and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscigno, Vincent J.; Mong, Sherry; Byron, Reginald; Tester, Griff

    2007-01-01

    Age discrimination in employment has received mounting attention over the past two decades, and from various cross-cutting social science disciplines. Findings from survey and experimental analyses have revealed the pervasiveness of ageist stereotypes, while aggregate and life course analyses suggest trends toward downward occupational mobility…

  18. The Age Discrimination Study. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flemming, Arthur S.; And Others

    By the Older Americans Amendments of 1975, the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights was directed to investigate unreasonable age discrimination in federally-assisted programs, report the findings and recommend statutory changes for administrative actions. Results of examinations of the literature, field studies and public hearings on the following…

  19. 43 CFR 17.310 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Rules against age discrimination. 17.310... FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.310 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated...

  20. 15 CFR 20.4 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 20.4... OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 20.4 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this section are limited by...

  1. 45 CFR 90.12 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 90.12 Section 90... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE What is Age Discrimination? Standards for Determining Discriminatory Practices § 90.12 Rules against age discrimination....

  2. 43 CFR 17.310 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 17.310... FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.310 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated...

  3. 43 CFR 17.310 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 17.310... FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.310 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated...

  4. 34 CFR 110.10 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 110.10 Section 110.10... EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 110.10 Rules against age discrimination. The...

  5. 15 CFR 20.4 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 20.4... OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 20.4 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this section are limited by...

  6. 45 CFR 90.12 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 90.12 Section 90... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE What is Age Discrimination? Standards for Determining Discriminatory Practices § 90.12 Rules against age discrimination....

  7. 45 CFR 91.11 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 91.11 Section 91... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 91.11 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in...

  8. 14 CFR 1252.200 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Rules against age discrimination. 1252.200... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1252.200 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this...

  9. 45 CFR 91.11 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 91.11 Section 91... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 91.11 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in...

  10. 45 CFR 90.12 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 90.12 Section 90... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE What is Age Discrimination? Standards for Determining Discriminatory Practices § 90.12 Rules against age discrimination....

  11. 45 CFR 91.11 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 91.11 Section 91... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 91.11 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in...

  12. 34 CFR 110.10 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 110.10 Section 110.10... EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 110.10 Rules against age discrimination. The...

  13. 14 CFR 1252.200 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1252.200... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1252.200 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this...

  14. 15 CFR 20.4 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 20.4... OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 20.4 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this section are limited by...

  15. 45 CFR 91.11 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 91.11 Section 91... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 91.11 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in...

  16. 45 CFR 91.11 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 91.11 Section 91... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM HHS Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 91.11 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in...

  17. 34 CFR 110.10 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 110.10 Section 110.10... EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 110.10 Rules against age discrimination. The...

  18. 34 CFR 110.10 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 110.10 Section 110.10... EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 110.10 Rules against age discrimination. The...

  19. 14 CFR § 1252.200 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. § 1252... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1252.200 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this...

  20. 14 CFR 1252.200 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1252.200... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1252.200 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this...

  1. 34 CFR 110.10 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 110.10 Section 110.10... EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 110.10 Rules against age discrimination. The...

  2. 14 CFR 1252.200 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1252.200... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1252.200 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this...

  3. 43 CFR 17.310 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 17.310... FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.310 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated...

  4. 15 CFR 20.4 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 20.4... OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 20.4 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this section are limited by...

  5. 43 CFR 17.310 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 17.310... FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.310 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated...

  6. 15 CFR 20.4 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 20.4... OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 20.4 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this section are limited by...

  7. 45 CFR 90.12 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 90.12 Section 90... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE What is Age Discrimination? Standards for Determining Discriminatory Practices § 90.12 Rules against age discrimination....

  8. 45 CFR 90.12 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 90.12 Section 90... THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE What is Age Discrimination? Standards for Determining Discriminatory Practices § 90.12 Rules against age discrimination....

  9. Age and Disability Employment Discrimination: Occupational Rehabilitation Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bjelland, Melissa J.; von Schrader, Sarah; Houtenville, Andrew J.; Ruiz-Quintanilla, Antonio; Webber, Douglas A.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction As concerns grow that a thinning labor force due to retirement will lead to worker shortages, it becomes critical to support positive employment outcomes of groups who have been underutilized, specifically older workers and workers with disabilities. Better understanding perceived age and disability discrimination and their intersection can help rehabilitation specialists and employers address challenges expected as a result of the evolving workforce. Methods Using U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission Integrated Mission System data, we investigate the nature of employment discrimination charges that cite the Americans with Disabilities Act or Age Discrimination in Employment Act individually or jointly. We focus on trends in joint filings over time and across categories of age, types of disabilities, and alleged discriminatory behavior. Results We find that employment discrimination claims that originate from older or disabled workers are concentrated within a subset of issues that include reasonable accommodation, retaliation, and termination. Age-related disabilities are more frequently referenced in joint cases than in the overall pool of ADA filings, while the psychiatric disorders are less often referenced in joint cases. When examining charges made by those protected under both the ADA and ADEA, results from a logit model indicate that in comparison to charges filed under the ADA alone, jointly-filed ADA/ADEA charges are more likely to be filed by older individuals, by those who perceive discrimination in hiring and termination, and to originate from within the smallest firms. Conclusion In light of these findings, rehabilitation and workplace practices to maximize the hiring and retention of older workers and those with disabilities are discussed. PMID:19680793

  10. Age, Cohort and Perceived Age Discrimination: Using the Life Course to Assess Self-Reported Age Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Gilbert C.; Pavalko, Eliza K.; Long, J. Scott

    2007-01-01

    Self-reported discrimination is linked to diminished well-being, but the processes generating these reports remain poorly understood. Employing the life course perspective, this paper examines the correspondence between expected age preferences for workers and perceived age discrimination among a nationally representative sample of 7,225 working…

  11. Perceived Discrimination and Heavy Episodic Drinking among African American Youth: Differences by Age and Reason for Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Kristina; Wang, Heng; Miles, Thomas T.; Mather, Frances; Shankar, Arti

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether associations between perceived discrimination and heavy episodic drinking (HED) varies by age and by discrimination type (e.g., racial, age, physical appearance) among African American youth. Methods National data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics Transition to Adulthood Study were analyzed. Youth participated in up to four interviews (2005, 2007, 2009, 2011; n=657) between ages 18–25. Respondents reported past-year engagement in HED (4 or more drinks for females, 5 or more drinks for males), and frequency of discriminatory acts experienced (e.g., receiving poor service, being treated with less courtesy). Categorical latent growth curve models, including perceived discrimination types (racial, age, and physical appearance) as a time-varying predictors of HED, were run in MPlus. Controls for gender, birth cohort, living arrangement in adolescence, familial wealth, parental alcohol use, and college attendance were explored. Results The average HED trajectory was curvilinear (increasing followed by flattening), while perceived discrimination remained flat with age. In models including controls, odds of HED were significantly higher than average around ages 20–21 with greater frequency of perceived racial discrimination; associations were not significant at other ages. Discrimination attributed to age or physical appearance was not associated with HED at any age. Conclusions Perceived racial discrimination may be a particularly salient risk factor for HED around the ages of transition to legal access to alcohol among African American youth. Interventions to reduce discrimination or its impact could be targeted before this transition to ameliorate the negative outcomes associated with HED. PMID:26499858

  12. Age-Related Changes in Odor Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Richard J.; Mahmut, Mehmet; Sundqvist, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Odor naming and recognition memory are poorer in children than in adults. This study explored whether such differences might result from poorer discriminative ability. Experiment 1 used an oddity test of discrimination with familiar odors on 6-year-olds, 11-year-olds, and adults. Six-year-olds were significantly poorer at discrimination relative…

  13. 24 CFR 146.13 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rules against age discrimination... EMPLOYMENT AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN HUD PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 146.13 Rules...

  14. 41 CFR 101-8.704 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rules against age... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.704 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this section are limited by the exceptions contained in §...

  15. 45 CFR 1156.6 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1156.6 Section... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE Standards for Determining Discriminatory Practices § 1156.6 Rules against age discrimination. The rules...

  16. 24 CFR 146.13 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rules against age discrimination... EMPLOYMENT AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN HUD PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 146.13 Rules...

  17. 45 CFR 1172.11 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1172.11 Section... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1172.11...

  18. 41 CFR 101-8.704 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Rules against age... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.704 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this section are limited by the exceptions contained in §...

  19. 24 CFR 146.13 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rules against age discrimination... EMPLOYMENT AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN HUD PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 146.13 Rules...

  20. 41 CFR 101-8.704 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rules against age... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.704 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this section are limited by the exceptions contained in §...

  1. 45 CFR 1156.6 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1156.6 Section... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE Standards for Determining Discriminatory Practices § 1156.6 Rules against age discrimination. The rules...

  2. 41 CFR 101-8.704 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Rules against age... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.704 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this section are limited by the exceptions contained in §...

  3. 24 CFR 146.13 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rules against age discrimination... EMPLOYMENT AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN HUD PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 146.13 Rules...

  4. 24 CFR 146.13 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rules against age discrimination... EMPLOYMENT AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN HUD PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 146.13 Rules...

  5. 45 CFR 1156.6 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1156.6 Section... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE Standards for Determining Discriminatory Practices § 1156.6 Rules against age discrimination. The rules...

  6. 41 CFR 101-8.704 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Rules against age... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.704 Rules against age discrimination. The rules stated in this section are limited by the exceptions contained in §...

  7. 45 CFR 1156.6 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1156.6 Section... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE Standards for Determining Discriminatory Practices § 1156.6 Rules against age discrimination. The rules...

  8. 45 CFR 1156.6 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 1156.6 Section... ARTS AND THE HUMANITIES NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE Standards for Determining Discriminatory Practices § 1156.6 Rules against age discrimination. The rules...

  9. 14 CFR 1252.100 - What is the purpose of NASA's age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 45 CFR part 90. (Published at 44 FR 33768, June 12, 1979.) The Act and the government-wide... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is the purpose of NASA's age... ASSISTANCE General § 1252.100 What is the purpose of NASA's age discrimination regulations? The purpose...

  10. 14 CFR § 1252.100 - What is the purpose of NASA's age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 45 CFR part 90. (Published at 44 FR 33768, June 12, 1979.) The Act and the government-wide... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is the purpose of NASA's age... ASSISTANCE General § 1252.100 What is the purpose of NASA's age discrimination regulations? The purpose...

  11. 14 CFR 1252.100 - What is the purpose of NASA's age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 45 CFR part 90. (Published at 44 FR 33768, June 12, 1979.) The Act and the government-wide... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is the purpose of NASA's age... ASSISTANCE General § 1252.100 What is the purpose of NASA's age discrimination regulations? The purpose...

  12. 14 CFR 1252.100 - What is the purpose of NASA's age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 45 CFR part 90. (Published at 44 FR 33768, June 12, 1979.) The Act and the government-wide... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false What is the purpose of NASA's age... ASSISTANCE General § 1252.100 What is the purpose of NASA's age discrimination regulations? The purpose...

  13. Age Prejudice of 'Act Your Age.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponzo, Zander

    1978-01-01

    Many life-style decisions are often adversely influenced by prejudicial attitudes, norms, and laws about age. The relationship between ways of thinking about developmental tasks and age prejudice is discussed. (Author)

  14. How Old Do You Feel? The Role of Age Discrimination and Biological Aging in Subjective Age

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age, or how young or old individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, is a crucial construct in gerontology. Subjective age is a significant predictor of important health outcomes, but little is known about the criteria by which individuals' subjectively evaluate their age. To identify psychosocial and biomedical factors linked to the subjective evaluation of age, this study examined whether perceived age discrimination and markers of biological aging are associated with subjective age. Participants were 4776 adults (Mage = 68) from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who completed measures of subjective age, age discrimination, demographic variables, self-rated health and depression, and had physical health measures, including peak expiratory flow, grip strength, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Telomere length was available for a subset of participants in the 2008 wave (n = 2214). Regression analysis indicated that perceived age discrimination, lower peak expiratory flow, lower grip strength, and higher waist circumference were associated with an older subjective age, controlling for sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, and depression. In contrast, blood pressure and telomere length were not related to subjective age. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that how old a person feels depends in part on psychosocial and biomedical factors, including the experiences of ageism and perceptible indices of fitness and biological age. PMID:25738579

  15. Charges of human immunodeficiency virus discrimination in the workplace: the Americans with Disabilities Act in action.

    PubMed

    Studdert, David M

    2002-08-01

    Congress enacted the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to provide persons living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other vulnerable populations with legal means of redress against discrimination, yet virtually nothing is known about how the intended beneficiaries have used these protections. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of ADA charges alleging employment-related discrimination due to HIV and to investigate the charge-filing behavior of workers with HIV. Using a national database of all HIV discrimination charges filed since the inception of the ADA in 1991, the author described respondent employers, issues in dispute, and outcomes of charges. Next, he used multivariate regression analyses to compare the sociodemographic characteristics of charge filers with those of a nationally representative baseline sample of workers with HIV. Of the 3,520 HIV discrimination charges filed through 1999, 18.0% had merit and 14.1% received monetary compensation. Workers who were female (odds ratio (OR) = 0.79, p < 0.01), aged less than 25 years (OR = 0.36, p < 0.01), and aged 25-34 years (OR = 0.77, p < 0.01) filed disproportionately fewer charges. Controlling for underlying rates of discrimination in the baseline population magnified this "underclaiming" among young workers. The findings should help to target dissemination and support activities, designed to help workers take advantage of antidiscrimination protections, at the subgroups of workers who need them most.

  16. Age Discrimination: Quality of Enforcement. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    The text of a Congressional hearing exploring whether there is validity to complaints that the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) is not adequately and effectively enforcing the protections of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act is presented in this document. The document begins with the opening statement of committee chairman…

  17. Too Old for the Job? Sovereign Immunity, School Boards, and Age Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling-Sendor, Benjamin

    2000-01-01

    In "Kimel v. Florida Board of Regents," the U.S. Supreme Court did not entirely strike down application of the federal Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967) to state and local government agencies. The Court would probably permit some types of lawsuits in federal and state courts to enforce the ADEA against school districts. (MLH)

  18. 29 CFR 35.10 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 35.10 Section 35.10 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Standards for Determining...

  19. 29 CFR 35.10 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Rules against age discrimination. 35.10 Section 35.10 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Standards for Determining...

  20. 29 CFR 35.10 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Rules against age discrimination. 35.10 Section 35.10 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Standards for Determining...

  1. 29 CFR 35.10 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 35.10 Section 35.10 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Standards for Determining...

  2. 29 CFR 35.10 - Rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Rules against age discrimination. 35.10 Section 35.10 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Standards for Determining...

  3. Age-related decline in emotional prosody discrimination: acoustic correlates.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Rachel L C; Kingston, Rachel A

    2014-01-01

    It is now accepted that older adults have difficulty recognizing prosodic emotion cues, but it is not clear at what processing stage this ability breaks down. We manipulated the acoustic characteristics of tones in pitch, amplitude, and duration discrimination tasks to assess whether impaired basic auditory perception coexisted with our previously demonstrated age-related prosodic emotion perception impairment. It was found that pitch perception was particularly impaired in older adults, and that it displayed the strongest correlation with prosodic emotion discrimination. We conclude that an important cause of age-related impairment in prosodic emotion comprehension exists at the fundamental sensory level of processing.

  4. How old is old in allegations of age discrimination? The limitations of existing law.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Richard L; Farnum, Katlyn S

    2016-10-01

    Under Title VII, courts may give a mixed motive instruction allowing jurors to determine that defendants are liable for discrimination if an illegal factor (here: race, color, religion, sex, or national origin) contributed to an adverse decision. Recently, the Supreme Court held that to conclude that an employer discriminated against a worker because of age, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, unlike Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, requires "but for" causality, necessitating jurors to find that age was the determinative factor in an employer's adverse decision regarding that worker. Using a national online sample (N = 392) and 2 study phases, 1 to measure stereotypes, and a second to present experimental manipulations, this study tested whether older worker stereotypes as measured through the lens of the Stereotype Content Model, instruction type (but for vs. mixed motive causality), and plaintiff age influenced mock juror verdicts in an age discrimination case. Decision modeling in Phase 2 with 3 levels of case orientation (i.e., proplaintiff, prodefendant, and neutral) showed that participants relied on multiple factors when making a decision, as opposed to just 1, suggesting that mock jurors favor a mixed model approach to discrimination verdict decisions. In line with previous research, instruction effects showed that mock jurors found in favor of plaintiffs under mixed motive instructions but not under "but for" instructions especially for older plaintiffs (64- and 74-year-old as opposed to 44- and 54-year-old-plaintiffs). Most importantly, in accordance with the Stereotype Content Model theory, competence and warmth stereotypes moderated the instruction effects found for specific judgments. The results of this study show the importance of the type of legal causality required for age discrimination cases. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27227275

  5. How old is old in allegations of age discrimination? The limitations of existing law.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Richard L; Farnum, Katlyn S

    2016-10-01

    Under Title VII, courts may give a mixed motive instruction allowing jurors to determine that defendants are liable for discrimination if an illegal factor (here: race, color, religion, sex, or national origin) contributed to an adverse decision. Recently, the Supreme Court held that to conclude that an employer discriminated against a worker because of age, the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, unlike Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, requires "but for" causality, necessitating jurors to find that age was the determinative factor in an employer's adverse decision regarding that worker. Using a national online sample (N = 392) and 2 study phases, 1 to measure stereotypes, and a second to present experimental manipulations, this study tested whether older worker stereotypes as measured through the lens of the Stereotype Content Model, instruction type (but for vs. mixed motive causality), and plaintiff age influenced mock juror verdicts in an age discrimination case. Decision modeling in Phase 2 with 3 levels of case orientation (i.e., proplaintiff, prodefendant, and neutral) showed that participants relied on multiple factors when making a decision, as opposed to just 1, suggesting that mock jurors favor a mixed model approach to discrimination verdict decisions. In line with previous research, instruction effects showed that mock jurors found in favor of plaintiffs under mixed motive instructions but not under "but for" instructions especially for older plaintiffs (64- and 74-year-old as opposed to 44- and 54-year-old-plaintiffs). Most importantly, in accordance with the Stereotype Content Model theory, competence and warmth stereotypes moderated the instruction effects found for specific judgments. The results of this study show the importance of the type of legal causality required for age discrimination cases. (PsycINFO Database Record

  6. Age-based discrimination of rival males in western bluebirds.

    PubMed

    Akçay, Çağlar; Arnold, J Andrew; Hambury, Katherine L; Dickinson, Janis L

    2016-09-01

    Adaptive social behavior frequently involves discriminating between classes of individuals such as relatives versus non-relatives, older versus younger individuals, or individuals of different status. In the absence of spatial cues, this discrimination may be based on signals that correlate with fitness-related traits (e.g., older or high-status males may sing higher performance songs) or with identity, for example, when receivers distinguish and classify signalers based on their unique signal structure. Here, we examine vocal age-based discrimination in western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana), a North American songbird in which older males have a significant advantage in obtaining extra-pair fertilizations, and therefore pose a significantly higher threat to paternity than younger males. We asked whether western bluebird males showed a higher response to playback of songs of older males compared to younger males relative to their own age. We prepared song stimuli by removing three potential signals of age that have been identified as important in other species: (1) note consistency (which was achieved by playing a single instance of each note repeatedly), (2) note repertoire size, and (3) singing rate (the latter two were equalized across conditions). Even in the absence of these potential signals of age, young males responded more strongly to playback of older males' songs than to young males' songs, suggesting that they are able to discriminate between age classes relative to the threat they pose. Further research is required to determine whether this discrimination is based on individual recognition or signal features that are correlated with age. PMID:27271774

  7. Teaching age and discrimination: a life course perspective.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth; Foster, Celeste

    2014-08-01

    Age discrimination in health and social care is a universal issue with significant potential ramifications for practice, and one which should be explicitly addressed in health and social care pre-registration education. However, developing teaching and learning strategies to effectively address this subject is complex given that implicit/indirect discrimination based upon tacit beliefs and assumptions, is problematic and difficult to tackle. This paper discusses the importance of teaching age and discrimination to student nurses in the context of the development of a novel approach to this aspect of education from a life course perspective. This discussion is based personal and professional reflections of the authors on the delivery of the teaching session over a number of years with approximately 500 student mental health nurses to date. The emerging themes of this are reported here and their implications for education and practice discussed. Exploring age and discrimination in relation to children and young people and older people in particular has enabled student nurses to explore the concept as one which requires critical reflection. This promotes awareness of usually unexamined personal attitudes in relation to age in order to enhance the potential for good experiences of health services for all people in need of them.

  8. Teaching age and discrimination: a life course perspective.

    PubMed

    Collier, Elizabeth; Foster, Celeste

    2014-08-01

    Age discrimination in health and social care is a universal issue with significant potential ramifications for practice, and one which should be explicitly addressed in health and social care pre-registration education. However, developing teaching and learning strategies to effectively address this subject is complex given that implicit/indirect discrimination based upon tacit beliefs and assumptions, is problematic and difficult to tackle. This paper discusses the importance of teaching age and discrimination to student nurses in the context of the development of a novel approach to this aspect of education from a life course perspective. This discussion is based personal and professional reflections of the authors on the delivery of the teaching session over a number of years with approximately 500 student mental health nurses to date. The emerging themes of this are reported here and their implications for education and practice discussed. Exploring age and discrimination in relation to children and young people and older people in particular has enabled student nurses to explore the concept as one which requires critical reflection. This promotes awareness of usually unexamined personal attitudes in relation to age in order to enhance the potential for good experiences of health services for all people in need of them. PMID:24378077

  9. Age Discrimination in Employment Suits: A Practical Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, J. Michael

    1979-01-01

    Focuses on those elements of an age discrimination suit that have traditionally presented the most difficulty for attorneys--burden of proof, bona fide occupational qualifications, and procedure matters among them. Available from West Virginia Law Review, W.V.U. Law Center, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506; sc $4.00. (Author/IRT)

  10. A geographical discrimination of Shanxi extra aged vinegars using polyalcohols as the discriminators.

    PubMed

    Luo, Meizhong; Zheng, Yanjie; Xiong, Cen; Li, Bifang; Chen, Sujuan; Bai, Wenliang; Zeng, Yongting; Li, Yongle; Zhang, Xieguang

    2013-01-01

    A discrimination method based on polyalcohol determination was developed for authenticity of protected geographical indication (PGI) vinegars-Shanxi extra aged vinegar (SVs) in China. Six polyalcohols in vinegars including erythritol, arabitol, xylitol, inositol, mannitol, and sorbitol were selected as the PGI discriminators. GC/MS was used to analyze the polyalcohols in the SVs, Zhenjiang vinegars (ZVs), Kazuo aged vinegars (KVs), and other non-geographical indication protected vinegars (NVs). SVs can be distinguished from KVs by the chemical markers mannitol and sorbitol, although the production processes for both types of vinegars are similar. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to distinguish SVs from ZVs and NVs. The differences among the three kinds of vinegars shown by PCA results may be due to the higher erythritol content in SVs, and the inositol and mannitol in ZVs. This study also found that the amount of polyalcohols in Chinese vinegars increases with the acidity value only, regardless of the aging time. The overall results indicated that the polyalcohols can be practicable discriminators for SV discrimination.

  11. Portable Electronic Nose to Discriminate Artificial Aged Wine from Barrel-Aged Wine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, J. P.; Cabellos, J. M.; Arroyo, T.; Horrillo, M. C.

    2011-09-01

    A novel portable electronic nose is presented as a fast tool to differentiate traditional aged wines from artificial aged wines. The instrument we have developed for testing the wines is a general purpose wireless portable electronic nose base on micromechanical tin oxide sensors. This system may discriminate among the wine samples obtained with the different aging methods.

  12. Chemosensory age discrimination in the snake Boa constrictor (Serpentes: Boidae).

    PubMed

    Gabirot, Marianne; Picerno, Pablo; Valencia, Jorge; Lopez, Pilar; Martin, José

    2012-12-01

    Many snakes are able to use their chemosensory system to detect scent of conspecifics, which is important in many social contexts. Age discrimination based on chemical cues may be especially important to ensure access to sexually mature potential partners. In this study, we used 24 individual Boa constrictor snakes (12 adults mature and 12 non-mature individuals) that had been captured in different areas of Ecuador, and were maintained in captivity at the Vivarium of Quito. We used tongue-flick experiments to examine whether these snakes were able to discriminate between scents from mature and non-mature individuals. Results showed that B. constrictor snakes used chemical cues to recognize conspecifics and that the scent of individuals of different ages elicited chemosensory responses of different magnitudes. The scents from adult conspecifics elicited the quickest and highest chemosensory responses (i.e., short latency times and high tongue-flick rates), although we did not find differential responses to scent of males and females. The magnitude of the responses was lower to scent of sub adult individuals, and then even lower to scent of juvenile snakes, but in all cases the scent of snakes was discriminated from a blank control. We discuss the potential chemical mechanisms that may allow age recognition and its implications for social and sexual behavior of this snake species.

  13. Greater Perceived Age Discrimination in England than the United States: Results from HRS and ELSA

    PubMed Central

    Zaninotto, Paola; Steptoe, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined cross-national differences in perceptions of age discrimination in England and the United States. Under the premise that the United States has had age discrimination legislation in place for considerably longer than England, we hypothesized that perceptions of age discrimination would be lower in the United States. Methods. We analyzed data from two nationally representative studies of aging, the U.S. Health and Retirement Study (n = 4,818) and the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 7,478). Respondents aged 52 years and older who attributed any experiences of discrimination to their age were treated as cases of perceived age discrimination. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the odds ratios of experiencing perceived age discrimination in relation to selected sociodemographic factors. Results. Perceptions of age discrimination were significantly higher in England than the United States, with 34.8% of men and women in England reporting age discrimination compared with 29.1% in the United States. Associations between perceived age discrimination and older age and lower levels of household wealth were observed in both countries, but we found differences between England and the United States in the relationship between perceived age discrimination and education. Discussion. Our study revealed that levels of perceived age discrimination are lower in the United States than England and are less socially patterned. This suggests that differing social and political circumstances in the two countries may have an important role to play. PMID:26224759

  14. Effects of aging on mnemonic discrimination of emotional information

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Stephanie L.; Yassa, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory loss is one of the hallmarks of age-related cognitive decline and a major symptom of Alzheimer's disease. The persistence and strength of memories is determined by modulatory factors such as emotional arousal. Whether emotional memories are preserved with age or if these memories are just as susceptible to loss and forgetting is not well understood. We have recently shown that emotion alters how similar memories are stored using non-overlapping representations (i.e. pattern separation), in an emotional mnemonic discrimination task. Here, we extend this work to testing young and older adults at two time-points (immediately after encoding and 24 hours later). Overall, older adults performed worse than young adults, a memory deficit that was not secondary to perceptual or attentional deficits. When tested immediately, older adults were impaired on neutral target recognition but intact on emotional target recognition. We also found that a pattern we previously reported in young adults (reduced emotional compared to neutral discrimination of similar items) was reversed in older adults. When tested after 24-hours, young adults exhibited less forgetting of emotional targets compared to neutral, while older adults exhibited more forgetting of emotional targets. Finally, discrimination of highly similar positive items was preserved in older adults. These results suggest that emotional modulation of memory interacts with age in a complex manner such that the emotion-induced memory trade-off reported in young adults is reversed in older adults. These findings shed light on how emotion and memory interact in the aging brain. PMID:25150544

  15. Genetic discrimination and the public entities and public accommodations titles of the americans with disabilities act

    SciTech Connect

    Alper, J.S. ); Natowicz, M.R. Shriver Center for Mental Retardation, Waltham, MA )

    1993-07-01

    The introduction of newly developed medical genetic diagnostic tests has been accompanied by social problems involving privacy issues and genetic discrimination. Previous studies of genetic discrimination have focused on the areas of employment and insurance. In this paper, the authors provide six hypothetical illustrative cases of genetic discrimination involving access to public entities and to private entities considered to be public accommodations. They argue that many of these forms of genetic discrimination that arise in both the public and private sectors should be prohibited by Titles II and III, respectively, of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.

  16. Genetic discrimination and the public entities and public accommodations Titles of the Americans with Disabilities Act.

    PubMed

    Alper, J S; Natowicz, M R

    1993-07-01

    The introduction of newly developed medical genetic diagnostic tests has been accompanied by social problems involving privacy issues and genetic discrimination. Previous studies of genetic discrimination have focused on the areas of employment and insurance. In this paper, we provide six hypothetical illustrative cases of genetic discrimination involving access to public entities and to private entities considered to be public accommodations. We argue that many of these forms of genetic discrimination that arise in both the public and private sectors should be prohibited by Titles II and III, respectively, of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990.

  17. 41 CFR 101-8.706 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... against age discrimination. 101-8.706 Section 101-8.706 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... IN PROGRAMS RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.706 Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination....

  18. 41 CFR 101-8.706 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... against age discrimination. 101-8.706 Section 101-8.706 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... IN PROGRAMS RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.706 Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination....

  19. 41 CFR 101-8.706 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... against age discrimination. 101-8.706 Section 101-8.706 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... IN PROGRAMS RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.706 Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination....

  20. 41 CFR 101-8.706 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... against age discrimination. 101-8.706 Section 101-8.706 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... IN PROGRAMS RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE 8.7-Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 101-8.706 Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination....

  1. Discriminating Projections for Estimating Face Age in Wild Images

    SciTech Connect

    Tokola, Ryan A; Bolme, David S; Ricanek, Karl; Barstow, Del R; Boehnen, Chris Bensing

    2014-01-01

    We introduce a novel approach to estimating the age of a human from a single uncontrolled image. Current face age estimation algorithms work well in highly controlled images, and some are robust to changes in illumination, but it is usually assumed that images are close to frontal. This bias is clearly seen in the datasets that are commonly used to evaluate age estimation, which either entirely or mostly consist of frontal images. Using pose-specific projections, our algorithm maps image features into a pose-insensitive latent space that is discriminative with respect to age. Age estimation is then performed using a multi-class SVM. We show that our approach outperforms other published results on the Images of Groups dataset, which is the only age-related dataset with a non-trivial number of off-axis face images, and that we are competitive with recent age estimation algorithms on the mostly-frontal FG-NET dataset. We also experimentally demonstrate that our feature projections introduce insensitivity to pose.

  2. Work Force Changes and Age Discrimination: Educating Business Leaders in the 1990s and Beyond. A Project To Produce an Educational Package on Age Discrimination in Employment for Business Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Bar Association, Washington, DC. Commission on Legal Problems of the Elderly.

    The purposes of the project that developed this education package for business were as follows: (1) enhance employer knowledge and understanding of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), especially in its application to corporate downsizing and the use of early retirement incentives; (2) discourage employer practices that violate the act…

  3. What Employment Counselors Need to Know about Employment Discrimination and the Civil Rights Act of 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagen, Janet W.; Hagen, Willis W., III

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the major components of the Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1991, and advocates a proactive approach to using equal opportunity law in employment counseling. The Civil Rights Act of 1991 enabled plaintiffs to more readily bring a discrimination case in terms of either disparate treatment or impact, a modification applicable to employment…

  4. 43 CFR 17.311 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age... Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.311 Exceptions to the rules against age... against age discrimination: Normal operation or statutory objective of any program or activity....

  5. 43 CFR 17.311 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age... Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.311 Exceptions to the rules against age... against age discrimination: Normal operation or statutory objective of any program or activity....

  6. 43 CFR 17.311 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age... Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.311 Exceptions to the rules against age... against age discrimination: Normal operation or statutory objective of any program or activity....

  7. 43 CFR 17.311 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Exceptions to the rules against age... Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.311 Exceptions to the rules against age... against age discrimination: Normal operation or statutory objective of any program or activity....

  8. 43 CFR 17.311 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age... Age Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 17.311 Exceptions to the rules against age... against age discrimination: Normal operation or statutory objective of any program or activity....

  9. Age Discrimination. Use of Waivers by Large Companies Offering Exit Incentives to Employees. Report to Congressional Requesters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    A study reviewed Fortune 100 companies' use of waivers that release employers from certain legal claims under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 in special short-term exit incentive programs offered to employees. These programs were designed to encourage employees' early departure through some form of financial incentive. Telephone…

  10. 44 CFR 7.922 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: Reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... against age discrimination: Reasonable factors other than age. 7.922 Section 7.922 Emergency Management... NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS (FEMA REG. 5) Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Financial Assistance From FEMA Standards for Determining Age Discrimination §...

  11. 14 CFR 1252.201 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1252.201 Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination. (a)...

  12. 18 CFR 1309.5 - What are the rules against age discrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... against age discrimination? 1309.5 Section 1309.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO AGE § 1309.5 What are the rules against age discrimination? (a) General rule. No person in the United States shall, on the basis of age, be excluded...

  13. 18 CFR 1309.5 - What are the rules against age discrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... against age discrimination? 1309.5 Section 1309.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO AGE § 1309.5 What are the rules against age discrimination? (a) General rule. No person in the United States shall, on the basis of age, be excluded...

  14. 18 CFR 1309.5 - What are the rules against age discrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... against age discrimination? 1309.5 Section 1309.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO AGE § 1309.5 What are the rules against age discrimination? (a) General rule. No person in the United States shall, on the basis of age, be excluded...

  15. 14 CFR 1252.201 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1252.201 Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination. (a)...

  16. 18 CFR 1309.5 - What are the rules against age discrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... against age discrimination? 1309.5 Section 1309.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO AGE § 1309.5 What are the rules against age discrimination? (a) General rule. No person in the United States shall, on the basis of age, be excluded...

  17. 18 CFR 1309.5 - What are the rules against age discrimination?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... against age discrimination? 1309.5 Section 1309.5 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY NONDISCRIMINATION WITH RESPECT TO AGE § 1309.5 What are the rules against age discrimination? (a) General rule. No person in the United States shall, on the basis of age, be excluded...

  18. 14 CFR 1252.201 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1252.201 Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination. (a)...

  19. Not in Australia. Migration, work and age discrimination.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Simon; Fredvang, Marthe; Haapala, Irja

    2013-06-01

    Perceptions of older people are changing both nationally and internationally, with policy developments that emphasise the value of older workers and the extension of working life to accommodate a longer life-course. For national economies older workers produce benefits of increasing tax dollars and personal savings and reduce claims on the state through pensions. In terms of migration, older adults bring assets and other benefits generated elsewhere into the host economy, as skilled workers or as active retirees. It has also been argued that older societies may be more productive as a consequence of the contribution of older citizens. Nations that create barriers to older migration, such as is currently the case for Australia, run the risk not only of perpetuating age discrimination, but also of failing to take advantage of population change in a global context. The authors critically examine this area and raise a series of questions for future policy. PMID:23773254

  20. 40 CFR 7.155 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination-reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination-reasonable factors other than age. 7.155 Section 7.155 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY Discrimination Prohibited on the Basis of Age § 7.155 Exceptions to the...

  1. 29 CFR 35.13 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: reasonable factors other than age. 35.13 Section 35.13 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 35.13 Exceptions to the rules against...

  2. 24 CFR 146.3 - Purpose of HUD's age discrimination regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., consistent with the government-wide age discrimination regulation contained at 45 CFR part 90. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Purpose of HUD's age discrimination... EMPLOYMENT AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN HUD PROGRAMS OR...

  3. 24 CFR 146.3 - Purpose of HUD's age discrimination regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., consistent with the government-wide age discrimination regulation contained at 45 CFR part 90. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Purpose of HUD's age discrimination... EMPLOYMENT AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN HUD PROGRAMS OR...

  4. 24 CFR 146.3 - Purpose of HUD's age discrimination regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., consistent with the government-wide age discrimination regulation contained at 45 CFR part 90. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Purpose of HUD's age discrimination... EMPLOYMENT AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN HUD PROGRAMS OR...

  5. 18 CFR 1316.6 - Discrimination on the basis of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...: Discrimination On The Basis Of Age Executive Order 11141, 3 CFR, 1964-1965 Comp., p. 179, states that it is the... basis of age. 1316.6 Section 1316.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.6 Discrimination on the basis of age. When so indicated in TVA...

  6. 18 CFR 1316.6 - Discrimination on the basis of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...: Discrimination On The Basis Of Age Executive Order 11141, 3 CFR, 1964-1965 Comp., p. 179, states that it is the... basis of age. 1316.6 Section 1316.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.6 Discrimination on the basis of age. When so indicated in TVA...

  7. 18 CFR 1316.6 - Discrimination on the basis of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...: Discrimination On The Basis Of Age Executive Order 11141, 3 CFR, 1964-1965 Comp., p. 179, states that it is the... basis of age. 1316.6 Section 1316.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.6 Discrimination on the basis of age. When so indicated in TVA...

  8. 18 CFR 1316.6 - Discrimination on the basis of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...: Discrimination On The Basis Of Age Executive Order 11141, 3 CFR, 1964-1965 Comp., p. 179, states that it is the... basis of age. 1316.6 Section 1316.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.6 Discrimination on the basis of age. When so indicated in TVA...

  9. 18 CFR 1316.6 - Discrimination on the basis of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: Discrimination On The Basis Of Age Executive Order 11141, 3 CFR, 1964-1965 Comp., p. 179, states that it is the... basis of age. 1316.6 Section 1316.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Conditions and Certifications § 1316.6 Discrimination on the basis of age. When so indicated in TVA...

  10. 24 CFR 146.3 - Purpose of HUD's age discrimination regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., consistent with the government-wide age discrimination regulation contained at 45 CFR part 90. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Purpose of HUD's age discrimination... EMPLOYMENT AND BUSINESS OPPORTUNITY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN HUD PROGRAMS OR...

  11. 14 CFR 1252.201 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1252.201 Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination. (a) Definitions... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Exceptions to the rules against...

  12. Workplace discrimination and autism spectrum disorders: The National EEOC Americans with Disabilities Act Research project.

    PubMed

    Van Wieren, Todd A; Reid, Christine A; McMahon, Brian T

    2008-01-01

    Using the Integrated Mission System of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), the employment discrimination experience of Americans with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) is documented for Title I of the Americans with Disabilities Act. The researchers examine demographic characteristics of the charging parties; the industry designation, location, and size of employers against whom complaints are filed; the nature of discrimination (i.e., type of complaint) alleged to occur; and the legal outcome or resolution of these complaints. Researchers compare and contrast these key dimensions of workplace discrimination involving individuals with ASDs and persons with other physical, sensory, and neurological impairments. Researchers also attempt to discern whether or not the resolutions of the ASD charges can be predicted using the variables available for analysis. The comparative findings of this study indicate that individuals with ASDs were more likely to make charges of discrimination against Retail industry employers. Persons with ASDs were also more likely to make charges of discrimination when they were younger, male, and/or of Native American/Alaskan Native ethnicity. The predictive findings of this study indicate that the odds of ASD charges resulting in meritorious resolution (i.e., discrimination determined by the EEOC to have occurred) increase when the discrimination was encountered in Service industries and by larger employers. Implications for policy, advocacy and further research efforts are addressed.

  13. A Differential Item Functional Analysis by Age of Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination in a Multi-racial/ethnic Sample of Adults.

    PubMed

    Owens, Sherry; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether individual items on the nine item William's Perceived Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) functioned differently by age (<45 vs ≥ 45) within five racial groups in the United States: Asians (n=2,017); Hispanics (n=2,688); Black Caribbeans (n=1,377); African Americans (n=3,434); and Whites (n=854). We used data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Lives and the 2001-2003 National Latino and Asian Studies. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models (MIMIC) were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the EDS by age within each racial/ethnic group. Overall, Asian and Hispanic respondents reported less discrimination than Whites; on the other hand, African Americans and Black Caribbeans reported more discrimination than Whites. Regardless of race/ethnicity, the younger respondents (aged <45 years) reported less discrimination than the older respondents (aged ≥ 45 years). In terms of age by race/ethnicity, the results were mixed for 19 out of 45 tests of DIF (40%). No differences in item function were observed among Black Caribbeans. "Being called names or insulted" and others acting as "if they are afraid" of the respondents were the only two items that did not exhibit differential item functioning by age across all racial/ethnic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that the EDS scale should be used with caution in multi-age multi-racial/ethnic samples.

  14. A Differential Item Functional Analysis by Age of Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination in a Multi-racial/ethnic Sample of Adults.

    PubMed

    Owens, Sherry; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether individual items on the nine item William's Perceived Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) functioned differently by age (<45 vs ≥ 45) within five racial groups in the United States: Asians (n=2,017); Hispanics (n=2,688); Black Caribbeans (n=1,377); African Americans (n=3,434); and Whites (n=854). We used data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Lives and the 2001-2003 National Latino and Asian Studies. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models (MIMIC) were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the EDS by age within each racial/ethnic group. Overall, Asian and Hispanic respondents reported less discrimination than Whites; on the other hand, African Americans and Black Caribbeans reported more discrimination than Whites. Regardless of race/ethnicity, the younger respondents (aged <45 years) reported less discrimination than the older respondents (aged ≥ 45 years). In terms of age by race/ethnicity, the results were mixed for 19 out of 45 tests of DIF (40%). No differences in item function were observed among Black Caribbeans. "Being called names or insulted" and others acting as "if they are afraid" of the respondents were the only two items that did not exhibit differential item functioning by age across all racial/ethnic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that the EDS scale should be used with caution in multi-age multi-racial/ethnic samples. PMID:26673317

  15. Age Discrimination in Employment--The Bona Fide Occupational Qualification Defense--Balancing the Interest of the Older Worker in Acquiring and Continuing Employment against the Interest in Public Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Janet C.; Obee, John A.

    1978-01-01

    The judicial interpretations of age as a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 are examined. The applications, extension, and results of these interpretations, and alternate approaches to BFOQ analysis in age discrimination cases are discussed. (BH)

  16. Discrimination and Reversal Learning by Toddlers Aged 15–23 Months

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Naiara Minto; Gil, Maria Stella Coutinho de Alcantara; McIlvane, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have investigated simple discrimination and discrimination reversal learning by children younger than 2 years. Extant research has shown that teaching discrimination reversals may be challenging with this population. We used social reinforcement and correction procedures to teach simple simultaneous discrimination and discrimination reversal tasks involving three pairs of animal pictures displayed in a paper notebook. Participants were eight typically-developing toddlers aged 15–23 months. All learned at least one simple discrimination/discrimination reversal problem. Four children learned all problems and showed evidence of learning set formation. Perhaps surprisingly, discrimination reversals were sometimes learned more rapidly than original discriminations. The procedures suggest a potentially efficient methodology for investigating more complex aspects of relational learning in toddlers. PMID:25663716

  17. Family physicians' awareness and knowledge of the Genetic Information Non-Discrimination Act (GINA).

    PubMed

    Laedtke, Amanda L; O'Neill, Suzanne M; Rubinstein, Wendy S; Vogel, Kristen J

    2012-04-01

    Historically, physicians have expressed concern about their patients' risk of genetic discrimination, which has acted as a barrier to uptake of genetic services. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA) is intended to protect patients against employer and health insurance discrimination. Physicians' awareness and knowledge of GINA has yet to be evaluated. In 2009, we mailed surveys to 1500 randomly selected members of the American Academy of Family Physicians. Questions measured physicians' current knowledge of GINA and their level of concern for genetic discrimination. In total, 401 physicians completed the survey (response rate 26.9%). Approximately half (54.5%) of physicians had no awareness of GINA. Of physicians who reported basic knowledge of GINA, the majority were aware of the protections offered for group health insurance (92.7%), private health insurance (82.9%), and employment (70.7%). Fewer physicians were aware of GINA's limitations regarding life insurance (53.7%) and long-term care insurance (58.8%). Physicians demonstrated highest levels of concern for health insurance, life insurance, and long-term care insurance discrimination, with less concern for employer and family/social discrimination. Level of concern for the risk of genetic discrimination did not correlate significantly with awareness of GINA. Approximately 17 months after GINA was signed into federal law, physicians' knowledge remained limited regarding the existence of this legislation and relevant details. Physicians who are aware of GINA continue to have significant concerns regarding the risk of genetic discrimination. This study reveals the need to further educate physicians about the existence of GINA and the protections offered.

  18. The Removal of Age Ceiling Cap under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on Employment Opportunities of the Committee on Education and Labor and the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document presents witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the removal of the mandatory retirement age by taking the cap off of employees in the private sector through the passage of H.R. 4154. Opening statements are included from Congressmen Pepper and Martinez. Arthur Flemming, the…

  19. Consumer awareness and attitudes about insurance discrimination post enactment of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act.

    PubMed

    Allain, Dawn C; Friedman, Sue; Senter, Leigha

    2012-12-01

    To examine the awareness and attitudes about the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act in individuals who made contact with a Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome advocacy group. This is a descriptive study of individuals (n = 1,699) who were invited via email and advertisements to complete an online questionnaire available from August 2009 through December 2010. Response distributions of relevant subgroups were compared using cross tabulation and Chi-squared tests were used. The majority of respondents (69.2 %) had undergone genetic testing (n = 1,156) and 30.2 % had not. Of those who did not undergo genetic testing, the most common reason given for declining testing was cost (28.8 %), followed by concerns about insurance discrimination (19.5 %). More than half (60.5 %) were worried about health insurance discrimination when they first considered genetic testing and 28.6 % were worried about employment discrimination. Slightly more individuals were worried about health insurance discrimination if they had no prior knowledge of GINA. While "cost" was cited most frequently as the reason not to test, "fear of insurance discrimination" was the second most common reason. Knowledge of GINA among consumers is still limited and public education may help promote reduction in fear.

  20. Discrimination performance in aging is vulnerable to interference and dissociable from spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sarah A; Sacks, Patricia K; Turner, Sean M; Gaynor, Leslie S; Ormerod, Brandi K; Maurer, Andrew P; Bizon, Jennifer L; Burke, Sara N

    2016-07-01

    Hippocampal-dependent episodic memory and stimulus discrimination abilities are both compromised in the elderly. The reduced capacity to discriminate between similar stimuli likely contributes to multiple aspects of age-related cognitive impairment; however, the association of these behaviors within individuals has never been examined in an animal model. In the present study, young and aged F344×BN F1 hybrid rats were cross-characterized on the Morris water maze test of spatial memory and a dentate gyrus-dependent match-to-position test of spatial discrimination ability. Aged rats showed overall impairments relative to young in spatial learning and memory on the water maze task. Although young and aged learned to apply a match-to-position response strategy in performing easy spatial discriminations within a similar number of trials, a majority of aged rats were impaired relative to young in performing difficult spatial discriminations on subsequent tests. Moreover, all aged rats were susceptible to cumulative interference during spatial discrimination tests, such that error rate increased on later trials of test sessions. These data suggest that when faced with difficult discriminations, the aged rats were less able to distinguish current goal locations from those of previous trials. Increasing acetylcholine levels with donepezil did not improve aged rats' abilities to accurately perform difficult spatial discriminations or reduce their susceptibility to interference. Interestingly, better spatial memory abilities were not significantly associated with higher performance on difficult spatial discriminations. This observation, along with the finding that aged rats made more errors under conditions in which interference was high, suggests that match-to-position spatial discrimination performance may rely on extra-hippocampal structures such as the prefrontal cortex, in addition to the dentate gyrus.

  1. 45 CFR 1156.7 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination... AGE Standards for Determining Discriminatory Practices § 1156.7 Exceptions to the rules against age... to take an action otherwise prohibited by § 1156.6 if the action reasonably takes into account age...

  2. 45 CFR 1156.7 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination... AGE Standards for Determining Discriminatory Practices § 1156.7 Exceptions to the rules against age... to take an action otherwise prohibited by § 1156.6 if the action reasonably takes into account age...

  3. 45 CFR 1156.7 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination... AGE Standards for Determining Discriminatory Practices § 1156.7 Exceptions to the rules against age... to take an action otherwise prohibited by § 1156.6 if the action reasonably takes into account age...

  4. Face and Object Discrimination in Autism, and Relationship to IQ and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallett, Pamela M.; Cohen, Shereen J.; Dobkins, Karen R.

    2014-01-01

    The current study tested fine discrimination of upright and inverted faces and objects in adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) as compared to age- and IQ-matched controls. Discrimination sensitivity was tested using morphed faces and morphed objects, and all stimuli were equated in low-level visual characteristics (luminance, contrast,…

  5. Discrimination Performance in Aging Is Vulnerable to Interference and Dissociable from Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sarah A.; Sacks, Patricia K.; Turner, Sean M.; Gaynor, Leslie S.; Ormerod, Brandi K.; Maurer, Andrew P.; Bizon, Jennifer L.; Burke, Sara N.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal-dependent episodic memory and stimulus discrimination abilities are both compromised in the elderly. The reduced capacity to discriminate between similar stimuli likely contributes to multiple aspects of age-related cognitive impairment; however, the association of these behaviors within individuals has never been examined in an animal…

  6. 29 CFR 35.13 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: reasonable factors other than age. 35.13 Section 35.13 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Standards for Determining...

  7. 45 CFR 90.15 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination. Reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination. Reasonable factors other than age. 90.15 Section 90.15 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  8. 34 CFR 110.13 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: Reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: Reasonable factors other than age. 110.13 Section 110.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining...

  9. 45 CFR 91.14 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: Reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: Reasonable factors other than age. 91.14 Section 91.14 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  10. 34 CFR 110.13 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: Reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: Reasonable factors other than age. 110.13 Section 110.13 Education Regulations of the Offices of the... AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining...

  11. Devolution and Disability Equality Legislation: The Implementation of Part 4 of the Disability Discrimination Act 1995 in England and Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila

    2003-01-01

    This article explores key differences between special education legislation in England and Scotland and their implications for delivering consistent anti-discrimination policies. It is argued that close monitoring of the implementation of Part 4 of the Disability Discrimination Act in English and Scottish schools is necessary. (Contains…

  12. Age effects in discrimination of intervals within rhythmic tone sequences.

    PubMed

    Fitzgibbons, Peter J; Gordon-Salant, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    This study measured listener sensitivity to increments of a target inter-onset interval (IOI) embedded within tone sequences that featured different rhythmic patterns. The sequences consisted of six 50-ms 1000-Hz tone bursts separated by silent intervals that were adjusted to create different timing patterns. Control sequences were isochronous, with all tonal IOIs fixed at either 200 or 400 ms, while other patterns featured combinations of the two IOIs arranged to create different sequential tonal groupings. Duration difference limens in milliseconds for increments of a single sequence IOI were measured adaptively by adjusting the duration of an inter-tone silent interval. Specific target IOIs within sequences differed across discrimination conditions. Listeners included younger normal-hearing adults and groups of older adults with and without hearing loss. Discrimination performance measured for each of the older groups of listeners was observed to be equivalent, with each group exhibiting significantly poorer discrimination performance than the younger listeners in each sequence condition. Additionally, the specific influence of variable rhythmic grouping on temporal sensitivity was found to be greatest among older listeners. PMID:25618068

  13. 14 CFR § 1252.201 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age... ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Standards for Determining Age Discrimination § 1252.201 Exceptions to the rules against...

  14. Managing Age Discrimination: An Examination of the Techniques Used when Seeking Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Ellie D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the age-related management techniques used by older workers in their search for employment. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from interviews with individuals aged 45-65 years (N = 30). Results: Findings indicate that participants develop "counteractions" and "concealments" to manage perceived age discrimination.…

  15. Age Differences on Alcoholic MMPI Scales: A Discriminant Analysis Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faulstich, Michael E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory to 91 male alcoholics after detoxification. Results indicated that the Psychopathic Deviant and Paranoia scales declined with age, while the Responsibility scale increased with age. (JAC)

  16. 10 CFR 1040.87 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination. Reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination. Reasonable factors other than age. 1040.87 Section 1040.87 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of...

  17. Age discrimination among basalt flows using digitally enhanced LANDSAT imagery. [Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, H. W.; Brown, G. F.

    1984-01-01

    Digitally enhanced LANDSAT MSS data were used to discriminate among basalt flows of historical to Tertiary age, at a test site in Northwestern Saudi Arabia. Spectral signatures compared favorably with a field-defined classification that permits discrimination among five groups of basalt flows on the basis of geomorphic criteria. Characteristics that contributed to age definition include: surface texture, weathering, color, drainage evolution, and khabrah development. The inherent gradation in the evolution of geomorphic parameters, however, makes visual extrapolation between areas subjective. Therefore, incorporation of spectrally-derived volcanic units into the mapping process should produce more quantitatively consistent age groupings.

  18. Normal aging increases discriminal dispersion in visuospatial short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Noack, Hannes; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2012-09-01

    Computational models of cognitive aging propose that age-related decrements in cognitive performance, including short-term memory (STM), result from less distinct stimulus representations. When applied to visual STM, these models predict higher discriminal dispersion (L. L. Thurstone, 1927, Psychophysical analysis, The American Journal of Psychology, 38, 368-389.) in older adults than in younger adults. To test this prediction, we used a change-detection paradigm for visuospatial locations, with different levels of cognitive load (one, three, or five items) and retention interval (100 or 1,000 ms). Adult age differences were not reliable at Load 1, but were substantial at Loads 3 and 5. Effects of retention time did not differ across age groups, suggesting that age-related differences originated mainly from early processing stages. Applying a mixture model to the data revealed age-related increases in discriminal dispersion and decreases in asymptotic discrimination performance (indexing STM capacity). We concluded that age-related declines in discriminal dispersion, in addition to increasing capacity limitations, impair visual STM performance with advancing adult age. PMID:22563939

  19. Discriminating between Survivors and Nonsurvivors among Working Class Aged Living in the Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harel, Zev

    1979-01-01

    The predictive significance of select variables on survival was ascertained among community-living aged of working class background. Sex and performance of daily routines were found to be better initial discriminators, while age and a perceptual style variable termed field dependence/independence were found to have better long-range predictive…

  20. Pilocarpine Seizures Cause Age-Dependent Impairment in Auditory Location Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Neill, John C; Liu, Zhao; Mikati, Mohammad; Holmes, Gregory L

    2005-01-01

    Children who have status epilepticus have continuous or rapidly repeating seizures that may be life-threatening and may cause life-long changes in brain and behavior. The extent to which status epilepticus causes deficits in auditory discrimination is unknown. A naturalistic auditory location discrimination method was used to evaluate this question using an animal model of status epilepticus. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with saline on postnatal day (P) 20, or a convulsant dose of pilocarpine on P20 or P45. Pilocarpine on either day induced status epilepticus; status epilepticus at P45 resulted in CA3 cell loss and spontaneous seizures, whereas P20 rats had no cell loss or spontaneous seizures. Mature rats were trained with sound-source location and sound-silence discriminations. Control (saline P20) rats acquired both discriminations immediately. In status epilepticus (P20) rats, acquisition of the sound-source location discrimination was moderately impaired. Status epilepticus (P45) rats failed to acquire either sound-source location or sound-silence discriminations. Status epilepticus in rat causes an age-dependent, long-term impairment in auditory discrimination. This impairment may explain one cause of impaired auditory location discrimination in humans. PMID:16596970

  1. Aging effects on discrimination learning, logical reasoning and memory in pet dogs.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Lisa J; Virányi, Zsófia; Müller, Corsin A; Serisier, Samuel; Huber, Ludwig; Range, Friederike

    2016-02-01

    In laboratory dogs, aging leads to a decline in various cognitive domains such as learning, memory and behavioural flexibility. However, much less is known about aging in pet dogs, i.e. dogs that are exposed to different home environments by their caregivers. We used tasks on a touchscreen apparatus to detect differences in various cognitive functions across pet Border Collies aged from 5 months to 13 years. Ninety-five dogs were divided into five age groups and tested in four tasks: (1) underwater photo versus drawing discrimination, (2) clip art picture discrimination, (3) inferential reasoning by exclusion and (4) a memory test with a retention interval of 6 months. The tasks were designed to test three cognitive abilities: visual discrimination learning, logical reasoning and memory. The total number of sessions to reach criterion and the number of correction trials needed in the two discrimination tasks were compared across age groups. The results showed that both measures increased linearly with age, with dogs aged over 13 years displaying slower learning and reduced flexibility in comparison to younger dogs. Inferential reasoning ability increased with age, but less than 10 % of dogs showed patterns of choice consistent with inference by exclusion. No age effect was found in the long-term memory test. In conclusion, the discrimination learning tests used are suitable to detect cognitive aging in pet dogs, which can serve as a basis for comparison to help diagnose cognition-related problems and as a tool to assist with the development of treatments to delay cognitive decline.

  2. SEM analysis of rock varnish chemistry: A geomorphic age discriminator

    SciTech Connect

    Harrington, C.D.; Raymond, R. Jr.

    1989-07-01

    Rock varnish, a manganese- and iron-rich coating commonly found on rock surfaces in arid and semiarid regions, has long been of interest as a potential age indicator. Rock varnish has been shown to be an effective medium for dating of geomorphic surfaces over a time range of several thousand to over a million years, utilizing a ratio among minor cations ((K + Ca)/Ti) for the total volume of rock varnish. We have recently, developed a technique using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with an energy dispersive x-ray analyzer (EDAX) to analyze the chemistry of rock varnish. This technique has several advantages over the earlier cation ratio technique.

  3. Age-related impairment in a complex object discrimination task that engages perirhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ryan, L; Cardoza, J A; Barense, M D; Kawa, K H; Wallentin-Flores, J; Arnold, W T; Alexander, G E

    2012-10-01

    Previous lesion studies have shown compromised complex object discrimination in rats, monkeys, and human patients with damage to the perirhinal cortical region (PRC) of the medial temporal lobe. These findings support the notion that the PRC is involved in object discrimination when pairs of objects have a high degree of overlapping features but not when object discrimination can be resolved on the basis of a single feature (e.g., size or color). Recent studies have demonstrated age-related functional changes to the PRC in animals (rats and monkeys) resulting in impaired complex object discrimination and object recognition. To date, no studies have compared younger and older humans using paradigms previously shown to engage the PRC. To investigate the influence of age on complex object discrimination in humans, the present study used an object matching paradigm for blob-like objects that have previously been shown to recruit the PRC. Difficulty was manipulated by varying the number of overlapping features between objects. Functional MRI data was acquired to determine the involvement of the PRC in the two groups during complex object discrimination. Results indicated that while young and older adults performed similarly on the easy version of the task, most older adults were impaired relative to young participants when the number of overlapping features increased. fMRI results suggest that older adults do not engage bilateral anterior PRC to the same extent as young adults. Specifically, complex object matching performance in older adults was predicted by the degree to which they engage left anterior PRC. These results provide evidence for human age-related changes in PRC function that impact complex object discrimination.

  4. Discrimination of speech sounds by children with dyslexia: comparisons with chronological age and reading level controls.

    PubMed

    Bogliotti, C; Serniclaes, W; Messaoud-Galusi, S; Sprenger-Charolles, L

    2008-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that children suffering from developmental dyslexia have a deficit in categorical perception of speech sounds. The aim of the current study was to better understand the nature of this categorical perception deficit. In this study, categorical perception skills of children with dyslexia were compared with those of chronological age and reading level controls. Children identified and discriminated /do-to/ syllables along a voice onset time (VOT) continuum. Results showed that children with dyslexia discriminated among phonemically contrastive pairs less accurately than did chronological age and reading level controls and also showed higher sensitivity in the discrimination of allophonic contrasts. These results suggest that children with dyslexia perceive speech with allophonic units rather than phonemic units. The origin of allophonic perception in the course of perceptual development and its implication for reading acquisition are discussed. PMID:18462745

  5. LAWS ON SEX DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT--FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS ACT, TITLE VII. STATE FAIR EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES LAWS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    TITLE VII OF THE FEDERAL CIVIL RIGHTS ACT (1964) PROHIBITS DISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN ADDITION TO THE USUAL GROUNDS OF RACE, COLOR, RELIGION, AND NATIONAL ORIGIN. IT COVERS PRIVATE EMPLOYMENT AND LABOR ORGANIZATIONS ENGAGED IN INDUSTRIES AFFECTING COMMERCE, AS WELL AS EMPLOYMENT AGENCIES. IT IS UNLAWFUL FOR EMPLOYERS TO REFUSE TO HIRE,…

  6. 20 CFR 1002.21 - Do the Act's prohibitions against discrimination and retaliation apply to all employment positions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... discrimination and retaliation apply to all employment positions? 1002.21 Section 1002.21 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS UNDER THE UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994...

  7. 20 CFR 1002.21 - Do the Act's prohibitions against discrimination and retaliation apply to all employment positions?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... discrimination and retaliation apply to all employment positions? 1002.21 Section 1002.21 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR VETERANS' EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS UNDER THE UNIFORMED SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994...

  8. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (Continued) EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY COMMISSION GUIDELINES ON DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX Pt. 1604, App... prohibits, among other things, discrimination in employment on the basis of sex. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act makes it clear that “because of sex” or “on the basis of sex”, as used in title VII,...

  9. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults

    PubMed Central

    Weikum, Whitney M.; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F.

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  10. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood. PMID:24312020

  11. Age-related sensitive periods influence visual language discrimination in adults.

    PubMed

    Weikum, Whitney M; Vouloumanos, Athena; Navarra, Jordi; Soto-Faraco, Salvador; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Werker, Janet F

    2013-01-01

    Adults as well as infants have the capacity to discriminate languages based on visual speech alone. Here, we investigated whether adults' ability to discriminate languages based on visual speech cues is influenced by the age of language acquisition. Adult participants who had all learned English (as a first or second language) but did not speak French were shown faces of bilingual (French/English) speakers silently reciting sentences in either language. Using only visual speech information, adults who had learned English from birth or as a second language before the age of 6 could discriminate between French and English significantly better than chance. However, adults who had learned English as a second language after age 6 failed to discriminate these two languages, suggesting that early childhood exposure is crucial for using relevant visual speech information to separate languages visually. These findings raise the possibility that lowered sensitivity to non-native visual speech cues may contribute to the difficulties encountered when learning a new language in adulthood.

  12. Running rescues a fear-based contextual discrimination deficit in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Melody V.; Luna, Victor M.; Hen, René

    2015-01-01

    Normal aging and exercise exert extensive, often opposing, effects on the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus altering volume, synaptic function, and behaviors. The DG is especially important for behaviors requiring pattern separation—a cognitive process that enables animals to differentiate between highly similar contextual experiences. To determine how age and exercise modulate pattern separation in an aversive setting, young, aged, and aged mice provided with a running wheel were assayed on a fear-based contextual discrimination task. Aged mice showed a profound impairment in contextual discrimination compared to young animals. Voluntary exercise rescued this deficit to such an extent that behavioral pattern separation of aged-run mice was now similar to young animals. Running also resulted in a significant increase in the number of immature neurons with tertiary dendrites in aged mice. Despite this, neurogenesis levels in aged-run mice were still considerably lower than in young animals. Thus, mechanisms other than DG neurogenesis likely play significant roles in improving behavioral pattern separation elicited by exercise in aged animals. PMID:26321926

  13. 29 CFR 35.1 - What is the purpose of the Department of Labor (DOL) age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Department of Labor (DOL) age discrimination regulations? 35.1 Section 35.1 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE... LABOR General § 35.1 What is the purpose of the Department of Labor (DOL) age discrimination...

  14. 29 CFR 35.12 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: normal operation or statutory objective of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: normal operation or statutory objective of any program or activity. 35.12 Section 35.12 Labor Office of the... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Standards for Determining Age Discrimination §...

  15. Perceptual discrimination across contexts and contrasts in preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    BYUN, Tara McALLISTER

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates a proposed phonetically-based account of developmental phonological patterns that lack counterparts in adult typology. Adult listeners perceive some phonemic contrasts more accurately than others, and these differences in perceptual recoverability are posited to represent one influence on phonological typology. One hypothesis suggests that children and adults could differ in their patterns of relative perceptual sensitivity, and these differences could form the basis for some child-specific phonological patterns in production. However, there has been a lack of empirical evidence to support this claim. This study used a nonword discrimination task to investigate differences in perceptual recoverability across contrasts and contexts in typically-developing preschool children. Participants heard nonwords that were identical or differed by a single segment in initial or final position. Results revealed general agreement between child and adult listeners in the relative discriminability of different featural contrasts. For certain contrasts, discrimination accuracy was significantly greater in initial than final position, mirroring an asymmetry seen in adults. Overall, these results suggest that perceptual discrimination in preschool-aged children is broadly congruent with patterns of relative sensitivity observed in adult listeners. These findings suggest that factors other than perceptual recoverability should be explored to account for child-specific phonological patterns. PMID:26213418

  16. Ageism and age discrimination in health care: Fact or fiction? A narrative review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kydd, Angela; Fleming, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Ageism and age discrimination are terms used in best practice statements and in the literature to define negative attitudes towards older people and towards people because of their age (whether old or young). However, 'old age' is a nebulous concept with definitions ranging from the over 50s to the over 85s. In seeking to explore ageism and age discrimination within health care, this paper discusses the concept of 'old' and discusses the findings of a narrative review of the literature on these two concepts. Results show that negative attitudes have been perceived by users of health care services, but the reasons are not clear. Such attitudes are usually reported in acute health care settings, where targets and quick turnover are encouraged. Thus people, usually those with complex needs, who require longer periods of recuperation and rehabilitation following an episode of ill health, are troublesome to staff working in a system geared up for early discharges. This type of service user is usually over the age of 85. Recommendations from this paper include the need for acute frailty units, with well trained staff, where frail older people can be comprehensively assessed, receive timely and targeted care, followed by a supported discharge.

  17. Oral administration of adrafinil improves discrimination learning in aged beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Milgram, N W; Siwak, C T; Gruet, P; Atkinson, P; Woehrlé, F; Callahan, H

    2000-06-01

    Aged beagle dogs were trained on either a size or intensity discrimination task 2 h following treatment with either 20 mg/kg of adrafinil or a placebo control. Training continued until the dogs reached a predetermined criterion level of performance, or failed to acquire the task after 40 sessions. The treatments and tasks were then reversed, with both the test order and treatment order counterbalanced. Thus, half of the animals were first tested on the intensity discrimination, and half of these were first tested under adrafinil. Treatment with adrafinil produced significant improvement in learning, as indicated by a decrease in both errors and trials to criterion. An effect of adrafinil on motivation may partially account for these findings; however, adrafinil did not significantly affect response latency. Adrafinil is believed to serve as an alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist. The improved learning may also result from enhancement of vigilance due to facilitation of noradrenergic transmission in the central nervous system. PMID:10880682

  18. Effect of age on silent gap discrimination in synthetic speech stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lister, Jennifer; Tarver, Kenton

    2004-04-01

    The difficulty that older listeners experience understanding conversational speech may be related to their limited ability to use information present in the silent intervals (i.e., temporal gaps) between dynamic speech sounds. When temporal gaps are present between nonspeech stimuli that are spectrally invariant (e.g., noise bands or sinusoids), older listeners are less able to resolve temporal gaps than are younger listeners. It has also been demonstrated that temporal gap perception deteriorates as the frequency difference between the sounds bordering the silent gap increases, and this effect becomes more pronounced with age (J. Lister, J. Besing, and J. Koehnke, 2002; J. Lister, J. Koehnke, and J. Besing, 2000). In this study, the effect of age on the ability to discriminate temporal gaps in dynamic stimuli (i.e., changing in frequency and duration over time) was measured in a gap duration discrimination (GDD) task. The participants were two groups of listeners with normal hearing sensitivity through at least 4000 Hz: (a) ages 21-38 years and (b) ages 50-72 years. Stimuli simulated the frequency characteristics of 1 consonant (/s/), a steady-state vowel (/a/), a weak diphthong (/eI/), and a voiced bilabial plosive (/burst/) in 6 combinations: (a) /s-a/, (b) /s-eI/, (c) /a-a/, (d) /eI-eI/, (e) /burst-a/, and (f) /burst-eI/. For each of the 6 phoneme combinations, 2 conditions of stimulus duration were used: (a) fixed, meaning that the durations of leading and trailing noises were fixed at values typical for the speech sounds being simulated, and (b) random, meaning that duration varied randomly within a range acceptable for accurate perception of the speech contrasts. Gap duration difference limens (GDDLs) were significantly larger for the older listeners than for younger listeners. For both groups, GDDLs were poorer for the spectrally dynamic marker pairs (e.g., /burst-eI/) than for the marker pairs that were relatively stable in frequency over time (/a-a/). GDD

  19. Ontogeny of two-point discrimination for fingers and toes in children (ages 7 through 15 years).

    PubMed

    Richards, P M; Persinger, M A; Michel, R N

    1998-06-01

    Accuracies of two-point discrimination (successive 2-min increments between 0 and 10 mm) for the middle fingers and the middle toes for 87 children from ages 7 through 15 years were measured to obtain normative data. The finer discriminative capacity for the fingers rather than the toes was evident. Whereas discriminative accuracy approached the asymptote with distances equal to or greater than 4 mm for the fingers, distances equal to or greater than 8 mm were required for the toes. For this ontogenetic range, the effects for toes vs fingers was much greater than the effect size for age.

  20. 29 CFR 35.12 - Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: normal operation or statutory objective of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Exceptions to the rules against age discrimination: normal operation or statutory objective of any program or activity. 35.12 Section 35.12 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. Aging and visual length discrimination: sequential dependencies, biases, and the effects of multiple implicit standards.

    PubMed

    Norman, J Farley; Cheeseman, Jacob R; Baxter, Michael W; Thomason, Kelsey E; Adkins, Olivia C; Rogers, Connor E

    2014-05-01

    Younger (20-25 years of age) and older (61-79 years) adults were evaluated for their ability to visually discriminate length. Almost all experiments that have utilized the method of single stimuli to date have required participants to judge test stimuli relative to a single implicit standard (for a rare exception, see Morgan, On the scaling of size judgements by orientational cues, Vision Research, 1992, 32, 1433-1445). In the current experiments, we not only asked participants to judge lengths relative to a single implicit standard, but they also compared test stimuli to two different implicit standards within the same blocks of trials. We analyzed our participants' judgments to evaluate whether significant sequential dependencies occurred. We found that while individual younger and older adults possessed similar length difference thresholds and exhibited similar overall biases, the judgments of older adults within individual blocks of trials were more strongly biased (than younger adults) by preceding responses (i.e., their judgments on any given trial were more strongly affected by responses to previously viewed stimuli). In addition, the judgments of both younger and older adults were more strongly biased by preceding responses in the blocks of trials with multiple implicit standards. Overall, our results are consistent with the operation of the tracking mechanism described by Criterion-setting theory (Lages and Treisman, Spatial frequency discrimination: Visual long-term memory or criterion setting? Vision Research, 1998, 38, 557-572). PMID:24705076

  2. The Rehabilitation Act: Outcomes for Transition-Age Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, together with the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, set in motion policy changes that have allowed many thousands of children and youth with disabilities in the United States the opportunity to gain the educational and vocational skills needed to transition to living, working, and participating as…

  3. Unravelling fears of genetic discrimination: an exploratory study of Dutch HCM families in an era of genetic non-discrimination acts.

    PubMed

    Geelen, Els; Horstman, Klasien; Marcelis, Carlo L M; Doevendans, Pieter A; Van Hoyweghen, Ine

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1990s, many countries in Europe and the United States have enacted genetic non-discrimination legislation to prevent people from deferring genetic tests for fear that insurers or employers would discriminate against them based on that information. Although evidence for genetic discrimination exists, little is known about the origins and backgrounds of fears of discrimination and how it affects decisions for uptake of genetic testing. The aim of this article is to gain a better understanding of these fears and its possible impact on the uptake of testing by studying the case of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). In a qualitative study, we followed six Dutch extended families involved in genetic testing for HCM for three-and-a-half years. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 57 members of these families. Based on the narratives of the families, we suggest that fears of discrimination have to be situated in the broader social and life-course context of family and kin. We describe the processes in which families developed meaningful interpretations of genetic discrimination and how these interpretations affected family members' decisions to undergo genetic testing. Our findings show that fears of genetic discrimination do not so much stem from the opportunity of genetic testing but much more from earlier experiences of discrimination of diseased family members. These results help identify the possible limitations of genetic non-discrimination regulations and provide direction to clinicians supporting their clients as they confront issues of genetic testing and genetic discrimination.

  4. Age discrimination in trials and treatment: old dogs and new tricks.

    PubMed

    Godlovitch, Glenys

    2003-07-01

    It is common for drug trials to exclude older people, usually over 65 or 70. Many of the drugs which are successfully tested are then registered and become available either on prescription or over the counter. Healthcare professionals are left in a bind: either they do not prescribe the medications to those in the excluded age groups because of the lack of age-relevant data, or they prescribe, off-label, despite the lack of systematic collection of age-relevant data. Alternatively, if the pharmaceutical is available without prescription, older people may be buying without any inkling or warning that the drug was never tried on people of their own age. Either way, our older fellow citizens are not getting the same ethical treatment as younger adults. Compounding the questionable ethics involved is the fact that as age increases, the ratio of women to men increases. Amplified by the fact that women consume more pharmaceuticals than do men, the discrimination takes on a distinctively sexist slant as well as an ageist one. Two other groups often excluded from trials are (a) minors and (b) pregnant or lactating women. But the rationale for their exclusion is different from that for the exclusion of seniors. A major reason for these two groups' exclusion is the legal incapacity of the young to consent and the concomitant flow-on liability for injuries and damages to the youngsters. The potential exposure to later legal claims may be a strong motivating force for pharmaceutical companies to exclude from their trials people without legal capacity to consent. But the third group of people, seniors, is excluded by reference to their seniority not their inability to give informed consent. While the other two exclusions can be explained in terms of moral, social and legal conventions, seniority alone is based on two practical concerns: firstly, whether seniors are likely to die before the end of the trial, and secondly, the compounding effects of the so-called diseases of old

  5. Discriminating lava flows of different age within Nyamuragira's volcanic field using spectral mixture analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Long; Canters, Frank; Solana, Carmen; Ma, Weiwei; Chen, Longqian; Kervyn, Matthieu

    2015-08-01

    In this study, linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) is used to characterize the spectral heterogeneity of lava flows from Nyamuragira volcano, Democratic Republic of Congo, where vegetation and lava are the two main land covers. In order to estimate fractions of vegetation and lava through satellite remote sensing, we made use of 30 m resolution Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) imagery. 2 m Pleiades data was used for validation. From the results, we conclude that (1) LSMA is capable of characterizing volcanic fields and discriminating between different types of lava surfaces; (2) three lava endmembers can be identified as lava of old, intermediate and young age, corresponding to different stages in lichen growth and chemical weathering; (3) a strong relationship is observed between vegetation fraction and lava age, where vegetation at Nyamuragira starts to significantly colonize lava flows ∼15 years after eruption and occupies over 50% of the lava surfaces ∼40 years after eruption. Our study demonstrates the capability of spectral unmixing to characterize lava surfaces and vegetation colonization over time, which is particularly useful for poorly known volcanoes or those not accessible for physical or political reasons.

  6. Age discrimination among eruptives of Menengai Caldera, Kenya, using vegetation parameters from satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blodget, Herbert W.; Heirtzler, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation to determine the degree to which digitally processed Landsat TM imagery can be used to discriminate among vegetated lava flows of different ages in the Menengai Caldera, Kenya. A selective series of five images, consisting of a color-coded Landsat 5 classification and four color composites, are compared with geologic maps. The most recent of more than 70 postcaldera flows within the caldera are trachytes, which are variably covered by shrubs and subsidiary grasses. Soil development evolves as a function of time, and as such supports a changing plant community. Progressively older flows exhibit the increasing dominance of grasses over bushes. The Landsat images correlated well with geologic maps, but the two mapped age classes could be further subdivided on the basis of different vegetation communities. It is concluded that field maps can be modified, and in some cases corrected by use of such imagery, and that digitally enhanced Landsat imagery can be a useful aid to field mapping in similar terrains.

  7. Development of sampling efficiency and internal noise in motion detection and discrimination in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Falkenberg, Helle K; Simpson, William A; Dutton, Gordon N

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to use an equivalent noise paradigm to investigate the development and maturation of motion perception, and how the underlying limitations of sampling efficiency and internal noise effect motion detection and direction discrimination in school-aged children (5-14 years) and adults. Contrast energy thresholds of a 2c/deg sinusoidal grating drifting at 1.0 or 6.0 Hz were measured as a function of added dynamic noise in three tasks: detection of a drifting grating; detection of the sum of two oppositely drifting gratings and direction discrimination of oppositely drifting gratings. Compared to the ideal observer, in both children and adults, the performance for all tasks was limited by reduced sampling efficiency and internal noise. However, the thresholds for discrimination of motion direction and detection of moving gratings show very different developmental profiles. Motion direction discrimination continues to improve after the age of 14 years due to an increase in sampling efficiency that differs with speed. Motion detection and summation were already mature at the age of 5 years, and internal noise was the same for all tasks. These findings were confirmed in a 1-year follow-up study on a group of children from the initial study. The results support suggestions that the detection of a moving pattern and discriminating motion direction are processed by different systems that may develop at different rates.

  8. 29 CFR 35.1 - What is the purpose of the Department of Labor (DOL) age discrimination regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What is the purpose of the Department of Labor (DOL) age discrimination regulations? 35.1 Section 35.1 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF AGE IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR General § 35.1 What is the...

  9. Aging, tumor suppression and cancer: High-wire act!

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, Judith

    2004-08-15

    Evolutionary theory holds that aging is a consequence of the declining force of natural selection with age. We discuss here the evidence that among the causes of aging in complex multicellular organisms, such as mammals, is the antagonistically pleiotropic effects of the cellular responses that protect the organism from cancer. Cancer is relatively rare in young mammals, owing in large measure to the activity of tumor suppressor mechanisms. These mechanisms either protect the genome from damage and/or mutations, or they elicit cellular responses--apoptosis or senescence--that eliminate or prevent the proliferation of somatic cells at risk for neoplastic transformation.We focus here on the senescence response, reviewing its causes, regulation and effects. In addition, we describe recent data that support the idea that both senescence and apoptosis may indeed be the double-edged swords predicted by the evolutionary hypothesis of antagonistic pleiotropy--protecting organisms from cancer early in life, but promoting aging phenotypes, including late life cancer, in older organisms.

  10. Pilocarpine Seizures Cause Age-Dependent Impairment in Auditory Location Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, John C.; Liu, Zhao; Mikati, Mohammad; Holmes, Gregory L.

    2005-01-01

    Children who have status epilepticus have continuous or rapidly repeating seizures that may be life-threatening and may cause life-long changes in brain and behavior. The extent to which status epilepticus causes deficits in auditory discrimination is unknown. A naturalistic auditory location discrimination method was used to evaluate this…

  11. Apple Can Act as Anti-Aging on Yeast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Palermo, Vanessa; Mattivi, Fulvio; Silvestri, Romano; La Regina, Giuseppe; Falcone, Claudio; Mazzoni, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components. PMID:22970337

  12. Apple can act as anti-aging on yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Vanessa; Mattivi, Fulvio; Silvestri, Romano; La Regina, Giuseppe; Falcone, Claudio; Mazzoni, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, epidemiological and biochemical studies have shown that eating apples is associated with reduction of occurrence of cancer, degenerative, and cardiovascular diseases. This association is often attributed to the presence of antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and polyphenols. The substances that hinder the presence of free radicals are also able to protect cells from aging. In our laboratory we used yeast, a unicellular eukaryotic organism, to determine in vivo efficacy of entire apples and their components, such as flesh, skin and polyphenolic fraction, to influence aging and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that all the apple components increase lifespan, with the best result given by the whole fruit, indicating a cooperative role of all apple components.

  13. Metalloproteolytic receptor shedding…platelets "acting their age".

    PubMed

    Andrews, Robert K; Gardiner, Elizabeth E

    2016-09-01

    Whilst significant effort has been focused on development of tools and approaches to clinically modulate activation processes that consume platelets, the platelet receptors that initiate activation processes remain untargeted. The modulation of receptor levels is also linked to underlying platelet aging processes which influence normal platelet lifespan and also the functionality and survival of stored platelets that are used in transfusion. In this review, we will focus on platelet adhesion receptors initiating thrombus formation, and discuss how regulation of levels of these receptors impact platelet function and platelet survival. PMID:27459696

  14. Effects of Age and Hearing Loss on the Relationship between Discrimination of Stochastic Frequency Modulation and Speech Perception

    PubMed Central

    Sheft, Stanley; Shafiro, Valeriy; Lorenzi, Christian; McMullen, Rachel; Farrell, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Objective The frequency modulation (FM) of speech can convey linguistic information and also enhance speech-stream coherence and segmentation. Using a clinically oriented approach, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of age and hearing loss on the ability to discriminate between stochastic patterns of low-rate FM and determine whether difficulties in speech perception experienced by older listeners relate to a deficit in this ability. Design Data were collected from 18 normal-hearing young adults, and 18 participants who were at least 60 years old, nine normal-hearing and nine with a mild-to-moderate sensorineural hearing loss. Using stochastic frequency modulators derived from 5-Hz lowpass noise applied to a 1-kHz carrier, discrimination thresholds were measured in terms of frequency excursion (ΔF) both in quiet and with a speech-babble masker present, stimulus duration, and signal-to-noise ratio (SNRFM) in the presence of a speech-babble masker. Speech perception ability was evaluated using Quick Speech-in-Noise (QuickSIN) sentences in four-talker babble. Results Results showed a significant effect of age, but not of hearing loss among the older listeners, for FM discrimination conditions with masking present (ΔF and SNRFM). The effect of age was not significant for the FM measures based on stimulus duration. ΔF and SNRFM were also the two conditions for which performance was significantly correlated with listener age when controlling for effect of hearing loss as measured by pure-tone average. With respect to speech-in-noise ability, results from the SNRFM condition were significantly correlated with QuickSIN performance. Conclusions Results indicate that aging is associated with reduced ability to discriminate moderate-duration patterns of low-rate stochastic FM. Furthermore, the relationship between QuickSIN performance and the SNRFM thresholds suggests that the difficulty experienced by older listeners with speech

  15. AN INVESTIGATION OF DISCRIMINATION LEARNING ABILITY IN MONGOLOID AND NORMAL CHILDREN OF COMPARABLE MENTAL AGE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CANTOR, GORDON N.; GIRARDEAU, FREDERIC L.

    THIS INQUIRY INVESTIGATED DISCRIMINATION LEARNING PROCESSES IN TRAINABLE MONGOLOID CHILDREN AS COMPARED WITH NORMAL PRESCHOOL CHILDREN. ITS PURPOSE WAS TO CONTRIBUTE TO GENERAL BEHAVIOR THEORY AND TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF MENTAL DEFICIENCY BY SEEING IF SUCH VARIABLES AS TRANSFER OF TRAINING, ACQUIRED DISTINCTIVENESS OF CUES, AND ACQUIRED EQUIVALENCE OF…

  16. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings.

  17. Age and education adjusted normative data and discriminative validity for Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test in the elderly Greek population.

    PubMed

    Messinis, Lambros; Nasios, Grigorios; Mougias, Antonios; Politis, Antonis; Zampakis, Petros; Tsiamaki, Eirini; Malefaki, Sonia; Gourzis, Phillipos; Papathanasopoulos, Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) is a widely used neuropsychological test to assess episodic memory. In the present study we sought to establish normative and discriminative validity data for the RAVLT in the elderly population using previously adapted learning lists for the Greek adult population. We administered the test to 258 cognitively healthy elderly participants, aged 60-89 years, and two patient groups (192 with amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI, and 65 with Alzheimer's disease, AD). From the statistical analyses, we found that age and education contributed significantly to most trials of the RAVLT, whereas the influence of gender was not significant. Younger elderly participants with higher education outperformed the older elderly with lower education levels. Moreover, both clinical groups performed significantly worse on most RAVLT trials and composite measures than matched cognitively healthy controls. Furthermore, the AD group performed more poorly than the aMCI group on most RAVLT variables. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to examine the utility of the RAVLT trials to discriminate cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients. Area under the curve (AUC), an index of effect size, showed that most of the RAVLT measures (individual and composite) included in this study adequately differentiated between the performance of healthy elders and aMCI/AD patients. We also provide cutoff scores in discriminating cognitively healthy controls from aMCI and AD patients, based on the sensitivity and specificity of the prescribed scores. Moreover, we present age- and education-specific normative data for individual and composite scores for the Greek adapted RAVLT in elderly subjects aged between 60 and 89 years for use in clinical and research settings. PMID:26588427

  18. Discrimination between Newly Formed and Aged Thrombi Using Empirical Mode Decomposition of Ultrasound B-Scan Image

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound imaging is a first-line diagnostic method for screening the thrombus. During thrombus aging, the proportion of red blood cells (RBCs) in the thrombus decreases and therefore the signal intensity of B-scan can be used to detect the thrombus age. To avoid the effect of system gain on the measurements, this study proposed using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) of ultrasound image as a strategy to classify newly formed and aged thrombi. Porcine blood samples were used for the in vitro induction of fresh and aged thrombi (at hematocrits of 40%). Each thrombus was imaged using an ultrasound scanner at different gains (15, 20, and 30 dB). Then, EMD of ultrasound signals was performed to obtain the first and second intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), which were further used to calculate the IMF-based echogenicity ratio (IER). The results showed that the performance of using signal amplitude of B-scan to reflect the thrombus age depends on gain. However, the IER is less affected by the gain in discriminating between fresh and aged thrombi. In the future, ultrasound B-scan combined with the EMD may be used to identify the thrombus age for the establishment of thrombolytic treatment planning. PMID:25695073

  19. Acting Out History from the Ice Age to the Modern Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattioli, Denee J.; Drake, Frederick

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the teaching methods of Michael Welch, a seventh grade teacher, who incorporates the humanities, such as drama and literature, into his history classroom in order to help students learn to question, think analytically, solve problems, and make decisions. Summarizes a particular unit on the Ice Age. (CMK)

  20. Weaning from mechanical ventilation: a cross-sectional study of reference values and the discriminative validity of aging

    PubMed Central

    Corbellini, Camilo; Trevisan, Cristiane Brenner Eilert; Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Doval da Costa, Alexandre; Vieira, Silvia Regina Rios

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To evaluate pre-extubation variables and check the discriminative validity of age as well as its correlation with weaning failure in elderly patients. [Subjects and Methods] Two hundred thirty-nine consecutive patients (48% female) who were on mechanical ventilation and had undergone orotracheal intubation were divided into four subgroups according to their age: <59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and >80 years old. The expiratory volume (VE), respiratory frequency (f), tidal volume (VT), and respiratory frequency/tidal volume ratio (f/VT) were used to examine differences in weaning parameters between the four subgroups, and age was correlated with weaning failure. [Results] The rate of weaning failure was 27.8% in patients aged >80 years and 22.1% in patients aged <60 years old. Elderly patients presented higher f/VT and f values and lower VT values. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for f/VT ratio were smaller than those published previously. [Conclusion] Our results indicate that aging influences weaning criteria without causing an increase in weaning failure. PMID:26180354

  1. Act Your Age! A Cultural Construction of Adolescence. Critical Social Thought. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesko, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Are our current ways of talking about "the problem of adolescence" really that different than those of past generations? For the past decade, Act Your Age! has provided a provocative and now classic analysis of the accepted ways of viewing teens. By employing a groundbreaking "history of the present" methodology that resists traditional…

  2. Act Smart. HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum for Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff facilitator…

  3. The federal law of age discrimination in the U.S.A.

    PubMed

    Finkin, M W

    1990-01-01

    The American workforce and society as a whole is aging, and age-based decisions and policies are increasingly under attack as violative of a civil right. At the federal level, the response has been to deal with discrete problems as they arise by separate pieces of legislation: of age bias in the administration of programs receiving federal funds; of age bias in employment; and of decisions based upon the reduction of benefit costs that impact with special harshness on older workers. The author supplies a very brief and simplified overview of the relevant federal law in the U.S.A.

  4. The alpha-2A noradrenergic receptor agonist guanfacine improves visual object discrimination reversal performance in aged rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Steere, J C; Arnsten, A F

    1997-10-01

    Administration of either low or high doses of the alpha-2A adrenergic agonist guanfacine (GFC) to aged monkeys has been shown to improve performance of the delayed-response task, a task linked to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). Monkeys treated with higher guanfacine doses also appeared less disinhibited, suggesting enhanced ventromedial-orbital PFC (vmPFC) function. To test this hypothesis, the current study examined the effects of low versus high doses of GFC on reversal of a visual object discrimination task, a task particularly sensitive to vmPFC lesions. The results of this study showed that high (0.1 mg/kg) but not low (0.00001-0.001 mg/kg) doses of GFC significantly improved reversal performance in aged monkeys. These results may be relevant to GFC's calming effects in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. PMID:9383511

  5. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA): public policy and medical practice in the age of personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Eric A

    2012-06-01

    Survey data suggest that many people fear genetic discrimination by health insurers or employers. In fact, such discrimination has not yet been a significant problem. This article examines the fear and reality of genetic discrimination in the United States, describes how Congress sought to prohibit such discrimination by passing the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act of 2008 (GINA), and explores the implications of GINA for general internists and their institutions. It concludes that medical providers and health care institutions must be familiar with the general intent and specific terms of GINA, and should continue to collect genetic information that can contribute to the high quality provision of medical treatment. Not doing so violates their medical mission and diminishes the quality of care patients deserve.

  6. Adolescent rats discriminate a mild state of ethanol intoxication likely to act as an appetitive unconditioned stimulus.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Vidal, Juan M; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan Carlos

    2003-05-01

    Practically no information is available in relation to the capability of the adolescent animal in terms of discriminating postabsorptive effects of ethanol. Three experiments were conducted to analyze whether young, genetically heterogeneous rats discriminate different stages of the process of intoxication exerted by a low dose (0.5 g/kg) of ethanol. An ethanol pharmacokinetic profile was first examined to select two stages within the process of ethanol intoxication that, as a function of the corresponding blood ethanol concentrations (BECs), could represent two potentially discriminable drug states. In a second experiment, sucrose was available when the BECs of rats peaked or were of a lesser magnitude (5 and 30 min postadministration time, respectively). When animals were tested under similar or different drug states relative to the training procedure, no behavioral evidence indicative of differential sucrose expectancy was obtained. In Experiment 3, rats discriminated each of the previously defined ethanol states from a non-drug state. Unexpectedly, it was also found that the pharmacological effects of the 0.5-g/kg dose of ethanol are likely to support appetitive associative learning that involves the taste of sucrose as a conditioned stimulus. The apparent positive affective components of the state of ethanol intoxication have rarely been observed in genetically heterogeneous rats with rather brief experiences with the drug's effects. PMID:12878274

  7. Acute effects of oral low doses of pyridostigmine on simple visual discrimination and unconditioned consummatory acts in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, W F

    1992-01-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (Pyr), a reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, is currently suggested to be the most effective pretreatment drug against intoxication with potent organophosphates (OP). This investigation was conducted to determine if oral low doses of Pyr would affect performance of a simple visual discrimination task, and further to assess the alterations of motor or motivational function that might underlie the performance deficits in the water-deprived rats. Rats were trained extensively on a successive light-intensity discrimination implemented with the use of a multiple schedule. The multiple schedule consisted of one fixed-ratio (FR-10) and one differential reinforcement of low rates (DRL-10 s) component, which were signalled by the 10-s discriminative stimuli of bright (S+) and dim (S-) houselights, respectively, in simple alternation. The light intensity difference (S-/S+) was about 0.6. Pyr, at doses (3-12 mg/kg), which did not cause overt symptoms, moderately decreased S+ respondings but did not affect S- respondings. The ratio of S+/S- respondings, an index of discrimination performance, was moderately decreased. Over the range of doses evaluated, Pyr also attenuated the corresponding water intake in a dose-dependent manner, but it did not significantly affect locomotor activity. The lowest effective doses of the above affected behaviors were virtually identical (6 mg/kg). These results suggest that the disruptive effects of a single oral low dose of Pyr on the rat operant performance involve motivational dysfunction rather than motor impairment.

  8. Ethnic aged discrimination and disparities in health and social care: a question of social justice.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-09-01

    Older overseas-born Australians of diverse cultural and language backgrounds experience significant disparities in their health and social care needs and support systems. Despite being identified as a 'special needs' group, the ethnic aged in Australia are generally underserved by local health and social care services, experience unequal burdens of disease and encounter cultural and language barriers to accessing appropriate health and social care compared to the average Australian-born population. While a range of causes have been suggested to explain these disparities, rarely has the possibility of cultural racism been considered. In this article, it is suggested that cultural racism be named as a possible cause of ethnic aged disparities and disadvantage in health and social care. It is further suggested that unless cultural racism is named as a structural mechanism by which ethnic aged disparities in health and social care have been created and maintained, redressing them will remain difficult.

  9. The Impact of Age-Discrimination on Older People of Color Who Wish To Teach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David

    This paper discusses Martin University, the only predominantly African-American school of higher learning in Indiana. Its philosophy is that higher education needs to be made available to all who can benefit. Martin University consciously exists to assist adult-aged individuals and the whole community to become free of everything that holds the…

  10. NanoESI-MS-based lipidomics to discriminate between cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts of Panax ginseng.

    PubMed

    Kim, So-Hyun; Shin, Yoo-Soo; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon

    2016-03-01

    Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) is one of the most popular medicinal herbs used in Asia, including Korea and China. In the present study lipid profiling of two officially registered cultivars (P. ginseng 'Chunpoong' and P. ginseng 'Yunpoong') was performed at different cultivation ages (5 and 6 years) and on different parts (tap roots, lateral roots, and rhizomes) using nano-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (nanoESI-MS). In total, 30 compounds including galactolipids, phospholipids, triacylglycerols, and ginsenosides were identified. Among them, triacylglycerol 54:6 (18:2/18:2/18:2), phosphatidylglycerol 34:3 (16:0/18:3), monogalactosyldiacylglycerol 36:4 (18:2/18:2), phosphatidic acid species 36:4 (18:2/18:2), and 34:1 (16:0/18:1) were selected as biomarkers to discriminate cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts. In addition, an unknown P. ginseng sample was successfully predicted by applying validated partial least squares projection to latent structures regression models. This is the first study regarding the identification of intact lipid species from P. ginseng and to predict cultivars, cultivation ages, and parts of P. ginseng using nanoESI-MS-based lipidomic profiling with a multivariate statistical analysis.

  11. Age and Abundance Discrimination in Old Stellar Populations Using Mid-Ultraviolet Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorman, Ben; O'Connell, Robert W.; Rood, Robert T.

    2003-07-01

    The rest-frame mid-ultraviolet spectral region (2000-3200 Å) is important in analyzing the stellar populations of the ``red envelope'' systems observed at high redshifts. Here we explore the usefulness of the mid-UV for determining ages and abundances of old populations. We work with a theoretical set of low-resolution spectra and broadband colors because tests show that these are at present more realistic than high-resolution models. A mid-UV to optical/IR wavelength baseline provides good separation of population components because the main-sequence turnoff dominates the integrated light between 2500 and 4000 Å. Mid-UV spectral features are not sensitive to the dwarf/giant mixture in the population, unlike those in the optical region. We find a 6 mag difference in the mid-UV continuum level (normalized at V) over the metallicity range -1.5ages in the range 4-16 Gyr. Logarithmic derivatives of mid-UV colors with respect to age or metal abundance are 3-10 times larger than for the UBV region. Most of the spectral information on old populations therefore resides below 4000 Å. Measurement of a single mid-UV color is capable of placing a strong lower bound on the mean metallicity of an old population. We investigate the capability of UBV and mid-UV broadband colors to separately determine age and abundance, taking into account precision in the color measurements. We find that the mid-UV improves resolution in logt, logZ space by about a factor of 3 for a given observational precision. Contamination by hot, post-He flash evolutionary phases can seriously affect the mid-UV spectra of old populations. A simple estimate shows that contamination can reach over 80% in some cases. However, this is straightforward to remove as long as far-UV measurements are available. We find that extinction should have relatively small effects on parameters derived for old populations from the mid-UV. Finally, we show

  12. Frequency distribution and discrimination probability of twelve protein genetic variants in human blood as functions of race, sex, and age.

    PubMed

    Grunbaum, B W; Selvin, S; Pace, N; Black, D M

    1978-07-01

    Fresh blood samples were obtained from 6004 whites, 1025 blacks, 1596 Chicano/Amerindians, and 3053 Asians of California and Hawaii. The samples were typed for ABO and Rh groups and were analyzed electrophoretically for ten genetically determined protein variant systems. The effects of race, age, and sex on phenotypic frequencies within each of the twelve genetic systems were investigated. Large frequency differences were found between races but not between different age and sex subgroups within races. It was also demonstrated that the twelve genetic systems behaved statistically independently. Discrimination probabilities were computed for each of the four ethnic groups. These serve as a measure of the effectiveness of the twelve genetic systems examined in individualizing blood samples. The method is discussed for computing the probability that a randomly chosen individual of a given ethnic group possesses the same blood phenotypes as found in a predetermined sample of blood. The results presented here should prove useful in the investigation of civil and criminal cases involving blood samples.

  13. Age Discrimination and the FAA Age 60 Rule. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document presents witness testimonies and related materials from a Congressional hearing called to examine the mandatory retirement age of 60 for airline pilots. In opening remarks, Congressmen Roybal and Pepper question this ruling, citing productivity of older workers and the lack of data to support any specific age for mandatory…

  14. The paradox of the Aged Care Act 1997: the marginalisation of nursing discourse.

    PubMed

    Angus, Jocelyn; Nay, Rhonda

    2003-06-01

    This paper examines the marginalisation of nursing discourse, which followed the enactment of the Aged Care Act 1997. This neo-reform period in aged care, dominated by theories of economic rationalism, enshrined legislation based upon market principles and by implication, the provision of care at the cheapest possible price. This paper exposes some of the gaps in the neo-reform period and challenges the assertion that the amalgamation of nursing homes and hostels in such an environment can provide better quality of care and life for residents. It argues that this amalgamation entails a transformation towards a social model of care and fails to address the professional healthcare needs of the acutely sick and complex extreme old person and makes evident new gaps in the provision of aged care services. The paper proceeds to present strategies where the future for nursing practice in aged care necessarily involves a judicious balancing of individual cases alongside economic prescriptions of care and ever-changing public policy initiatives. It concludes that this can be achieved through a more interactive public, professional and advocacy discourse. The methodology involves extensive analysis of public documents including media, academic journals, government reports and interviews with recognised leaders in the field of aged care. The study utilises a critical interpretative framework consistent with the logic of Michel Foucault.

  15. Discrimination in Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarsky, Irving

    Intended as a guide on discrimination problems and issues for students and practitioners in the area of employment relations, this book interrelates historical, religious, economic, medical, and sociological factors surrounding racial, religious, national, sex, age, and physical and mental discrimination to explain discrimination in employment.…

  16. SPM-based count normalization provides excellent discrimination of mild Alzheimer's disease and amnestic mild cognitive impairment from healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Yakushev, Igor; Hammers, Alexander; Fellgiebel, Andreas; Schmidtmann, Irene; Scheurich, Armin; Buchholz, Hans-Georg; Peters, Jürgen; Bartenstein, Peter; Lieb, Klaus; Schreckenberger, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Statistical comparisons of [(18)F]FDG PET scans between healthy subjects and patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) using Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) usually require normalization of regional tracer uptake via ROIs defined using additional software. Here, we validate a simple SPM-based method for count normalization. FDG PET scans of 21 mild, 15 very mild AD, 11 aMCI patients and 15 age-matched controls were analyzed. First, we obtained relative increases in the whole patient sample compared to controls (i.e. areas relatively preserved in patients) with proportional scaling to the cerebral global mean (CGM). Next, average absolute counts within the cluster with the highest t-value were extracted. Statistical comparisons of controls versus three patients groups were then performed using count normalization to CGM, sensorimotor cortex (SMC) as standard, and to the cluster-derived counts. Compared to controls, relative metabolism in aMCI patients was reduced by 15%, 20%, and 23% after normalization to CGM, SMC, and cluster-derived counts, respectively, and 11%, 21%, and 25% in mild AD patients. Logistic regression analyses based on normalized values extracted from AD-typical regions showed that the metabolic values obtained using CGM, SMC, and cluster normalization correctly classified 81%, 89% and 92% of aMCI and controls; classification accuracies for AD groups (very mild and mild) were 91%, 97%, and 100%. The proposed algorithm of fully SPM-based count normalization allows for a substantial increase of statistical power in detecting very early AD-associated hypometabolism, and very high accuracy in discriminating mild AD and aMCI from healthy aging. PMID:18691659

  17. Genetic discrimination in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Miller, P S

    1998-01-01

    Author argues that the Americans with Disabilities Act prohibits discrimination against workers based on their genetic makeup. He also examines state legislation and recently proposed federal legislation prohibiting genetic discrimination.

  18. Relating Age Change and Behavior to Job Requirements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaie, K. Warner

    The Age Discrimination in Employment Act has been amended to outlaw mandatory retirement at any age. However, the act permits employers to impose a specific retirement age if there is a bona fide occupational qualification (BFOQ) which cannot be met by all or most individuals. Imposition of BFOQ mandatory retirement ages by employers has led to…

  19. Comparison of Employer Factors in Disability and Other Employment Discrimination Charges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nazarov, Zafar E.; von Schrader, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: We explore whether certain employer characteristics predict Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) charges and whether the same characteristics predict receipt of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act charges. Method: We estimate a set of multivariate regressions using the ordinary least squares…

  20. Race and Sex Discrimination in the Operation of the Job Training Partnership Act. Hearing before the Employment and Housing Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (July 17, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Government Operations.

    This document reports on a congressional hearing on race and sex discrimination in the operation of the Job Training Partnership Act. It examines findings of a General Accounting Office investigation that revealed that women received disparate treatment in job training services in nearly two-thirds of the localities surveyed and that black males…

  1. Effect of age and ration on diet-tissue isotopic (Δ13C, Δ15N) discrimination in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Hobson, Keith A; Quirk, Travis W

    2014-01-01

    An important prerequisite for the effective use of stable isotopes in animal ecology is the accurate assessment of isotopic discrimination factors linking animals to their diets for a multitude of tissue types. Surprisingly, these values are poorly known in general and especially for mammalian carnivores and omnivores in particular. Also largely unknown are the factors that influence diet-tissue isotopic discrimination such as nutritional quality and age. We raised adult and juvenile striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in captivity on a constant omnivore diet (Mazuri Omnivore A 5635). Adults (n=6) and juveniles (n=3) were kept for 7 months and young (n=7) to the age of 50 days. We then examined individuals for stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope values of hair, nails, lipid, liver, muscle, bone collagen and the plasma, and cellular fractions of blood. Discrimination values differed among age groups and were significantly higher for young compared with their mothers, likely due to the effects of weaning. Δ(15)N isotopic discrimination factors ranged from 3.14 (nails) to 5.6‰ (plasma) in adults and 4.3 (nails) to 5.8‰ (liver) for young. For Δ(13)C, values ranged from-3.3 (fat) to 3.0‰ (collagen) in adults and from-3.3 (fat) to 2.0‰ (collagen) in young. Our data provide an important tool for predicting diets and source of feeding for medium-sized mammalian omnivorous adults integrated over short (e.g. liver, plasma) through long (e.g. collagen) periods and underline the potential effects of age on isotopic values in omnivore diets. PMID:24506487

  2. Effect of age and ration on diet-tissue isotopic (Δ13C, Δ15N) discrimination in striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis).

    PubMed

    Hobson, Keith A; Quirk, Travis W

    2014-01-01

    An important prerequisite for the effective use of stable isotopes in animal ecology is the accurate assessment of isotopic discrimination factors linking animals to their diets for a multitude of tissue types. Surprisingly, these values are poorly known in general and especially for mammalian carnivores and omnivores in particular. Also largely unknown are the factors that influence diet-tissue isotopic discrimination such as nutritional quality and age. We raised adult and juvenile striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) in captivity on a constant omnivore diet (Mazuri Omnivore A 5635). Adults (n=6) and juveniles (n=3) were kept for 7 months and young (n=7) to the age of 50 days. We then examined individuals for stable carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope values of hair, nails, lipid, liver, muscle, bone collagen and the plasma, and cellular fractions of blood. Discrimination values differed among age groups and were significantly higher for young compared with their mothers, likely due to the effects of weaning. Δ(15)N isotopic discrimination factors ranged from 3.14 (nails) to 5.6‰ (plasma) in adults and 4.3 (nails) to 5.8‰ (liver) for young. For Δ(13)C, values ranged from-3.3 (fat) to 3.0‰ (collagen) in adults and from-3.3 (fat) to 2.0‰ (collagen) in young. Our data provide an important tool for predicting diets and source of feeding for medium-sized mammalian omnivorous adults integrated over short (e.g. liver, plasma) through long (e.g. collagen) periods and underline the potential effects of age on isotopic values in omnivore diets.

  3. Bodacious Berry, Potency Wood and the Aging Monster: Gender and Age Relations in Anti-Aging Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…

  4. The utility of placing recollection in opposition to familiarity in early discrimination of healthy aging and very mild dementia of the Alzheimer’s type

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Chi-Shing; Balota, David A.; Moynan, Sarah C.; Duchek, Janet M.; Jacoby, Larry L.

    2009-01-01

    The present study explored the ability to control familiarity-based information in a memory exclusion paradigm in healthy young, older adults, and early-stage DAT individuals. We compared the predictive power of memory exclusion performance to standard psychometric performance in discriminating between healthy aging and the earliest detectable form of DAT and between APOe4-present and APOe4-absent genotype in healthy control individuals. Participants responded “yes” to words that were previously semantically encoded, and “no” to other words. The number of targets and distractors on the read “distractor” list was manipulated to investigate the degree to which aging and DAT influence the ability to recollect specific details of study episodes in the face of distractor familiarity due to repetition. Memory exclusion performance (as reflected by d′) decreased across participant groups (young > healthy old control > very mild DAT). Logistic regression analyses showed that d′ increased the discriminative power for healthy older adults vs. very mild DAT individuals above and beyond standard psychometric measures. Memory exclusion d′ was also lower for healthy control individuals with APOe4 allele, compared to those without the APOe4 allele after partialing out baseline psychometric performance. Discussion focuses on the importance of attentional control systems in memory retrieval and the utility of the opposition paradigm for early discrimination between healthy and pathological aging. PMID:20063946

  5. Effects of leaf age within growth stages of pepper and sorghum plants on leaf thickness, water, chlorophyll, and light reflectance. [in spectral vegetation discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Berumen, A.

    1974-01-01

    Pepper and sorghum plants (characterized by porous and compact leaf mesophylls, respectively) were used to study the influence of leaf age on light reflectance. Measurements were limited to the upper five nodal positions within each growth stage, since upper leaves make up most of the reflectance surfaces remotely sensed. The increase in leaf thickness and water content with increasing leaf age was taken into consideration, since each of these factors affects the reflectance as well as the selection of spectral wavelength intervals for optimum discrimination of vegetation.

  6. Institutional Racism and Pregnancy Health: Using Home Mortgage Disclosure Act Data to Develop an Index for Mortgage Discrimination at the Community Level

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Dara D.; Hogan, Vijaya K.; Culhane, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Objectives We used Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data to demonstrate a method for constructing a residential redlining index to measure institutional racism at the community level. We examined the application of the index to understand the social context of health inequities by applying the residential redlining index among a cohort of pregnant women in Philadelphia. Methods We used HMDA data from 1999–2004 to create residential redlining indices for each census tract in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. We linked the redlining indices to data from a pregnancy cohort study and the 2000 Census. We spatially mapped the levels of redlining for each census tract for this pregnancy cohort and tested the association between residential redlining and other community-level measures of segregation and individual health. Results From 1999–2004, loan applicants in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, of black race/ethnicity were almost two times as likely to be denied a mortgage loan compared with applicants who were white (e.g., 1999 odds ratio [OR] = 2.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.63, 2.28; and 2004 OR=2.26, 95% CI 1.98, 2.58). The majority (77.5%) of the pregnancy cohort resided in redlined neighborhoods, and there were significant differences in residence in redlined areas by race/ethnicity (p<0.001). Among the pregnancy cohort, redlining was associated with residential segregation as measured by the percentage of black population (r=0.155), dissimilarity (r=0.250), exposure (r=–0.115), and isolation (r=0.174) indices. Conclusions The evidence of institutional racism may contribute to our understanding of health disparities. Residential redlining and mortgage discrimination against communities may be a major factor influencing neighborhood structure, composition, development, and wealth attainment. This residential redlining index as a measure for institutional racism can be applied in health research to understand the unique social and neighborhood

  7. 20 CFR 404.1401 - What is the interrelationship between the Railroad Retirement Act and the Old-Age, Survivors and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Railroad Retirement Act and the Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program of the Social Security Act? 404.1401 Section 404.1401 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Interrelationship of Old-Age, Survivors and Disability...

  8. 20 CFR 404.1401 - What is the interrelationship between the Railroad Retirement Act and the Old-Age, Survivors and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Railroad Retirement Act and the Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program of the Social Security Act? 404.1401 Section 404.1401 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Interrelationship of Old-Age, Survivors and Disability...

  9. 20 CFR 404.1401 - What is the interrelationship between the Railroad Retirement Act and the Old-Age, Survivors and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Railroad Retirement Act and the Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program of the Social Security Act? 404.1401 Section 404.1401 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Interrelationship of Old-Age, Survivors and Disability...

  10. 20 CFR 404.1401 - What is the interrelationship between the Railroad Retirement Act and the Old-Age, Survivors and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Railroad Retirement Act and the Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program of the Social Security Act? 404.1401 Section 404.1401 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Interrelationship of Old-Age, Survivors and Disability...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1401 - What is the interrelationship between the Railroad Retirement Act and the Old-Age, Survivors and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Railroad Retirement Act and the Old-Age, Survivors and Disability Insurance Program of the Social Security Act? 404.1401 Section 404.1401 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Interrelationship of Old-Age, Survivors and Disability...

  12. Disability Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Mark C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court cases in 1999 related to disability discrimination in higher education focusing on the Americans with Disabilities Act and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. The "Garrett" case regarding Eleventh Amendment immunity is the case most likely to be significant in the development of the law of disability discrimination. (SLD)

  13. Rapid discrimination of cultivated Codonopsis lanceolata in different ages by FT-IR and 2DCOS-IR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yun; Xu, Chang-hua; Huang, Jian; Li, Guo-yu; Liu, Xin-Hu; Sun, Su-qin; Wang, Jin-hui

    2014-07-01

    Deodeok (Codonopsis lanceolata) root, a traditional Chinese herbal medicine, has been used to treat lung ailments, rheumatism, menstrual disturbance and bruises with a long history in China and some other Asian countries. In this study, four types of Deodeok with different growth years were discriminated and identified by a Tri-step infrared spectroscopy method (Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (conventional FT-IR) coupled with second derivative infrared spectroscopy (SD-IR) and two dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy(2DCOS-IR) under thermal perturbation. Although only small differences were found in the FT-IR spectra of the samples, the positions and intensities of peaks around 1736, 1634, 1246, 1055, 1033, 818, 779 cm-1 could be considered as the key factors for discriminating them. The differences among them were amplified by their SD-IR spectra. The 2DCOS-IR spectra provided obvious dynamic chemical structure information of Deodeok samples, which present different particular auto peak clusters in the range of 875-1130 cm-1 and 1170-1630 cm-1, respectively. It was demonstrated that the content of triterpene were decreasing when C. lanceolata were growing older, but the relative content of saccharides initially increased and decreased significantly afterwards. It indicated a general trend that the content of polysaccharides accumulated with increasing years. Specifically, the content of polysaccharides accumulated in the root of 2-year-old plant was the lowest, 4-years-old was the highest, and then the content decreased gradually. Furthermore, according to the differences of locations and intensities of auto-peaks in 2D-IR spectra, the integral changes of components were revealed. This study offers a promising method inherent with cost-effective and time-saving to characterize and discriminate the complicated system like Deodeok.

  14. Early discrimination of Atlantic salmon smolt age: Time course of the relative effectiveness of body size and shape

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearlstein, J.H.; Letcher, B.H.; Obedzinski, M.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to test the relative effectiveness of morphological measurements and body size in predicting the smolt age of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and to determine the time course of body size and shape differences between smolt ages. Analyses were conducted on age-0 to age-2 fish that were stocked as fry in the West Brook, Massachusetts and on laboratory-raised age-0 to age-1 fish. Using both body size and shape, we could partition the age-0 fish collected during fall into future early or late smolts, although the predictive ability of body shape was somewhat weaker than that of body size, especially in the laboratory. Classification success averaged 81% (size) and 79% (shape) in the field and 85% (size) and 73% (shape) in the laboratory. Despite differences in smolt age between the field and the laboratory, the relative timing of growth rate differences between future early and late smolts was similar in the field and the laboratory and peaked at 50-60% of development from fry to smolt. While body shape differed between early and late smolts well before smoltification, it did not improve classification based on size alone.

  15. 76 FR 71108 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records Notice

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket... Privacy Act systems of records, are published in the Federal Register at 75 FR 82132, December 29, 2010... Rights Act of 1964, as amended; Section 15 of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act, Section 501...

  16. 29 CFR 1626.4 - Information concerning alleged violations of the Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION PROCEDURES-AGE DISCRIMINATION IN EMPLOYMENT ACT § 1626.4 Information concerning alleged violations... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Information concerning alleged violations of the Act. 1626... 6 and 7 of the Act. The Commission shall also receive information concerning alleged violations...

  17. Can Age at Sexual Maturity act as a Predictive Biomarker for prodromal negative symptoms?

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Seethalakshmi; Miewald, Jean; Montrose, Debra; Keshavan, Matcheri S

    2015-01-01

    Background Puberty and reproductive hormones have been identified as having a potential role in schizophrenia. Earlier reports have suggested associations between later age at puberty and schizophrenia in males. Similarly, associations have been reported between testosterone levels and psychotic symptoms. In this report, we examined the association between age at puberty and prodromal symptoms of psychosis. Methods 58 child or adolescent family members of individuals with schizophrenia were interviewed using the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms and the Tanner Maturational Scale. Age at tanner pubertal stage was determined and regression analyses were used to explore associations between prodromal symptoms and age at puberty. Results Among males, delayed age at puberty was associated with greater severity of prodromal symptoms; the association between negative prodromal symptoms and delayed age was significant (p=0.001). In females, the association was not statistically significant. Conclusions Our results suggest that delayed age at puberty may be associated with negative prodromal symptoms of schizophrenia in males. Our findings suggest that delayed age at puberty could potentially be a predictive biomarker for psychopathology in males at risk for schizophrenia. PMID:25778616

  18. [Experimental techniques for developing new drugs acting on dementia (4)--Aged rats].

    PubMed

    Egashira, T

    1994-08-01

    We have devised a method for the procurement and breeding of aged rats used for aiding in the development of drugs for disease, involving Alzheimer's disease and cerebrovascular dementia. The changes in choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), muscarinic receptor binding (mAChR) and Na(+)-dependent high affinity choline uptake (HACU) are generally consistent with age-dependent declines in cholinergic neurotransmission, although these decreases may include differences in strain/species, sex, tissue sampling and assay procedures. So, the choice of time points during the life cycle selected for comparison between young and aged rats is particularly important when using laboratory animals. These observations support the utility of the senescent rat model in studying aging and development of nootropic drugs.

  19. GIT2 Acts as a Systems-Level Coordinator of Neurometabolic Activity and Pathophysiological Aging

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Bronwen; Chadwick, Wayne; Janssens, Jonathan; Premont, Richard T.; Schmalzigaug, Robert; Becker, Kevin G.; Lehrmann, Elin; Wood, William H.; Zhang, Yongqing; Siddiqui, Sana; Park, Sung-Soo; Cong, Wei-na; Daimon, Caitlin M.; Maudsley, Stuart

    2016-01-01

    Aging represents one of the most complicated and highly integrated somatic processes. Healthy aging is suggested to rely upon the coherent regulation of hormonal and neuronal communication between the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. The hypothalamus is one of the main structures in the body responsible for sustaining an efficient interaction between energy balance and neurological activity and therefore likely coordinates multiple systems in the aging process. We previously identified, in hypothalamic and peripheral tissues, the G protein-coupled receptor kinase interacting protein 2 (GIT2) as a stress response and aging regulator. As metabolic status profoundly affects aging trajectories, we investigated the role of GIT2 in regulating metabolic activity. We found that genomic deletion of GIT2 alters hypothalamic transcriptomic signatures related to diabetes and metabolic pathways. Deletion of GIT2 reduced whole animal respiratory exchange ratios away from those related to primary glucose usage for energy homeostasis. GIT2 knockout (GIT2KO) mice demonstrated lower insulin secretion levels, disruption of pancreatic islet beta cell mass, elevated plasma glucose, and insulin resistance. High-dimensionality transcriptomic signatures from islets isolated from GIT2KO mice indicated a disruption of beta cell development. Additionally, GIT2 expression was prematurely elevated in pancreatic and hypothalamic tissues from diabetic-state mice (db/db), compared to age-matched wild type (WT) controls, further supporting the role of GIT2 in metabolic regulation and aging. We also found that the physical interaction of pancreatic GIT2 with the insulin receptor and insulin receptor substrate 2 was diminished in db/db mice compared to WT mice. Therefore, GIT2 appears to exert a multidimensional “keystone” role in regulating the aging process by coordinating somatic responses to energy deficits. PMID:26834700

  20. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to go on leave as long as she can still work... conditions. However, health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the... complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers about the Pregnancy Discrimination...

  1. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to go on leave as long as she can still work... conditions. However, health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the... complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers about the Pregnancy Discrimination...

  2. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to go on leave as long as she can still work... conditions. However, health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the... complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers about the Pregnancy Discrimination...

  3. 29 CFR Appendix to Part 1604 - Questions and Answers on the Pregnancy Discrimination Act, Public Law 95-555, 92 Stat. 2076 (1978)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... pregnant or has had an abortion. She usually cannot be forced to go on leave as long as she can still work... conditions. However, health insurance for expenses arising from abortion is not required except where the... complications have arisen from an abortion. Some questions and answers about the Pregnancy Discrimination...

  4. Similarly Strong Purifying Selection Acts on Human Disease Genes of All Evolutionary Ages

    PubMed Central

    Cai, James J.; Borenstein, Elhanan; Chen, Rong

    2009-01-01

    A number of studies have showed that recently created genes differ from the genes created in deep evolutionary past in many aspects. Here, we determined the age of emergence and propensity for gene loss (PGL) of all human protein–coding genes and compared disease genes with non-disease genes in terms of their evolutionary rate, strength of purifying selection, mRNA expression, and genetic redundancy. The older and the less prone to loss, non-disease genes have been evolving 1.5- to 3-fold slower between humans and chimps than young non-disease genes, whereas Mendelian disease genes have been evolving very slowly regardless of their ages and PGL. Complex disease genes showed an intermediate pattern. Disease genes also have higher mRNA expression heterogeneity across multiple tissues than non-disease genes regardless of age and PGL. Young and middle-aged disease genes have fewer similar paralogs as non-disease genes of the same age. We reasoned that genes were more likely to be involved in human disease if they were under a strong functional constraint, expressed heterogeneously across tissues, and lacked genetic redundancy. Young human genes that have been evolving under strong constraint between humans and chimps might also be enriched for genes that encode important primate or even human-specific functions. PMID:20333184

  5. Discrimination and health inequities.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    In 1999, only 20 studies in the public health literature employed instruments to measure self-reported experiences of discrimination. Fifteen years later, the number of empirical investigations on discrimination and health easily exceeds 500, with these studies increasingly global in scope and focused on major types of discrimination variously involving race/ethnicity, indigenous status, immigrant status, gender, sexuality, disability, and age, separately and in combination. And yet, as I also document, even as the number of investigations has dramatically expanded, the scope remains narrow: studies remain focused primarily on interpersonal discrimination, and scant research investigates the health impacts of structural discrimination, a gap consonant with the limited epidemiologic research on political systems and population health. Accordingly, to help advance the state of the field, this updated review article: (a) briefly reviews definitions of discrimination, illustrated with examples from the United States; (b) discusses theoretical insights useful for conceptualizing how discrimination can become embodied and produce health inequities, including via distortion of scientific knowledge; (c) concisely summarizes extant evidence--both robust and inconsistent--linking discrimination and health; and (d) addresses several key methodological controversies and challenges, including the need for careful attention to domains, pathways, level, and spatiotemporal scale, in historical context. PMID:25626224

  6. Institutional Discrimination in Agricultural Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, William C., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Examines history of discrimination within U.S. agricultural programs, specifically in U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). Compares USDA employment and grant allocations for Blacks and Whites since Civil Rights Act of 1964. Cites other examples of institutional discrimination in federal agriculture programs. Calls for development of policy…

  7. Addressing Discrimination in School Matters!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Amanda L.

    2009-01-01

    Every student has the right to an education free from discrimination that provides high-quality, equitable opportunities to learn. Unfortunately, sometimes individuals or systems may act in ways that violate this right. Discrimination occurs when people are treated unequally or less favorably than others because of some real or perceived…

  8. Perceived discrimination as a risk factor for Latina/o youth's substance use: do parent- and peer-based communication and relationship resources act as protective factors?

    PubMed

    Kam, Jennifer A; Cleveland, Michael J

    2011-03-01

    Based on general strain theory, it was hypothesized that as Latina/o youth experience perceived discrimination, they are more likely to develop acculturation stress and, in turn, more likely to use substances. Two additional hypotheses were set forth to examine how parent- and peer-based communication, relationship, and norm resources may function as buffers, thereby decreasing the likelihood that strained youth will use substances. Latina/o youth (N = 728) from 23 schools in Phoenix, AZ, completed surveys at three waves over 2 years. Structural equation modeling (SEM) results supported the first hypothesis. Yet, contrary to the second hypothesis, neither parent nor peer resources were significant moderators. Implications are discussed for theory and parent- and peer-based prevention research directed at perceived discrimination, acculturation stress, and substance use.

  9. Discriminant factors for adolescent sexual offending: On the usefulness of considering both victim age and sibling incest.

    PubMed

    Joyal, Christian C; Carpentier, Julie; Martin, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the pathways and circumstances of juvenile sexual offending is of utmost importance. However, juvenile sexual offenders (JSO) represent an especially diverse group of individuals, and several categorizations have been proposed to obtain more homogeneous subgroups. Victim age-based and family relation-based categorizations are particularly promising because they seem theoretically and clinically relevant. Empirical results however are still inconsistent, and most studies have not considered these two dimensions jointly. The first goal of this study was to further examine the value of subgrouping JSO according to the age of their victim. A second goal was to determine the supplementary value, if any, of considering sibling incest. Based on a sample of 351 male JSO, it was first confirmed that sexual abuse of children was more strongly related to asociality (social skill deficits) than sexual abuse of peers, the latter being more closely associated with antisociality (general delinquency). The relevance of considering mixed-type JSO (with both child and peer victims) separately was also confirmed. More importantly, multivariate statistical analyses demonstrated that adding sibling incest to the equation was useful. JSO of intra-familial child were significantly more likely to have been victimized during their own childhood compared to JSO with extra-familial victims. Nevertheless, adolescents who had committed sibling incest obtained middle ground results on most variables (except for crime severity), suggesting that they constitute a distinct but not extreme, subgroup. This study confirmed the utility of using both the age and the family relation with the victim in characterizing juvenile sexual offending.

  10. Act Your (Old) Age: Prescriptive, Ageist Biases Over Succession, Consumption, and Identity

    PubMed Central

    North, Michael S.; Fiske, Susan T.

    2015-01-01

    Perspectives on ageism have focused on descriptive stereotypes concerning what older people allegedly are. By contrast, we introduce prescriptive stereotypes that attempt to control how older people should be: encouraging active Succession of envied resources, preventing passive Consumption of shared resources, and avoidance of symbolic, ingroup identity resources. Six studies test these domains, utilizing vignette experiments and simulated behavioral interactions. Across studies, younger (compared with middle-aged and older) raters most resented elder violators of prescriptive stereotypes. Moreover, these younger participants were most polarized toward older targets (compared with middle-aged and younger analogues) – rewarding elders most for prescription adherences and punishing them most for violations. Taken together, these findings offer a novel approach to ageist prescriptions, which disproportionately target older people, are most endorsed by younger people, and suggest how elders shift from receiving the default prejudice of pity to either prescriptive resentment or reward. PMID:23471317

  11. Act your (old) age: prescriptive, ageist biases over succession, consumption, and identity.

    PubMed

    North, Michael S; Fiske, Susan T

    2013-06-01

    Perspectives on ageism have focused on descriptive stereotypes concerning what older people allegedly are. By contrast, we introduce prescriptive stereotypes that attempt to control how older people should be: encouraging active Succession of envied resources, preventing passive Consumption of shared resources, and avoidance of symbolic, ingroup identity resources. Six studies test these domains, utilizing vignette experiments and simulated behavioral interactions. Across studies, younger (compared with middle-aged and older) raters most resented elder violators of prescriptive stereotypes. Moreover, these younger participants were most polarized toward older targets (compared with middle-aged and younger analogues)--rewarding elders most for prescription adherences and punishing them most for violations. Taken together, these findings offer a novel approach to ageist prescriptions, which disproportionately target older people, are most endorsed by younger people, and suggest how elders shift from receiving the default prejudice of pity to either prescriptive resentment or reward.

  12. The Molecular Balancing Act of p16INK4a in Cancer and Aging

    PubMed Central

    LaPak, Kyle M.; Burd, Christin E.

    2013-01-01

    Located on chromosome 9p21.3, p16INK4a seems lost amongst a cluster of neighboring tumor suppressor genes. While best known for inhibiting cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) activity, p16INK4a is not a one trick pony. Long term p16INK4a expression pushes cells to enter senescence, an irreversible cell cycle arrest that prevents the growth of would-be cancer cells, but also contributes to aging. Loss of p16INK4a is one of the most frequent events in human tumors and allows pre-cancerous lesions to bypass senescence. Therefore, precise regulation of p16INK4a is essential to tissue homeostasis, maintaining a tight balance between tumor suppression and aging. Here, we outline the pathways required for proper p16INK4a regulation and highlight the critical functions of p16INK4a in cancer, aging and human physiology that make this gene special. PMID:24136988

  13. Human Rights Act, 12 February 1987.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    This document reprints major provisions of the Yukon's (Canada) 1987 Human Rights Act. The Act furthers the public policy that every individual is free and equal in dignity and rights, seeks to discourage and eliminate discrimination, and promotes the underlying principles of Canadian and international human rights instruments. Part 1 contains a Bill of Rights that protects the right to freedom of: 1) religion and conscience, 2) expression, 3) assembly and association, and 4) to enjoyment and disposition of property. Part 2 prohibits discrimination based on ancestry (including color and race), national origin, ethnic or linguistic background or origin, age, sex (including pregnancy), and marital or family status. Discrimination is also prohibited when offering services, goods, or facilities to the public; in connection with employment; in connection with membership in trade unions or trade, occupational, or professional associations; and in negotiation or performance of public contracts. The Bill of Rights lists reasonable causes for discrimination as well as exemptions, including preferential treatment for organization or family members or employment in a private home. Special programs and affirmative action programs are specifically not considered discrimination under this Act. The Act sets forth rules for providing equal pay for work of equal value and creates a Yukon Human Rights Commission to promote human rights and assist adjudication of complaints. PMID:12346749

  14. 28 CFR 42.722 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Duties of Recipients §...

  15. 28 CFR 42.722 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Duties of Recipients §...

  16. 28 CFR 42.722 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Duties of Recipients §...

  17. 28 CFR 42.722 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Duties of Recipients §...

  18. 28 CFR 42.722 - Recipient assessment of age distinctions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Recipient assessment of age distinctions... EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Duties of Recipients §...

  19. The Left Hand Second to Fourth Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Does Not Discriminate World-Class Female Gymnasts from Age Matched Sedentary Girls

    PubMed Central

    Peeters, Maarten W.; Claessens, Albrecht L.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The second to fourth-digit-ratio (2D:4D), a putative marker of prenatal androgen action and a sexually dimorphic trait, has been suggested to be related with sports performance, although results are not univocal. If this relation exists, it is most likely to be detected by comparing extreme groups on the continuum of sports performance. Methods In this study the 2D:4D ratio of world-class elite female artistic gymnasts (n = 129), competing at the 1987 Rotterdam World-Championships was compared to the 2D:4D ratio of sedentary age-matched sedentary girls (n = 129), alongside with other anthropometric characteristics including other sexually dimorphic traits such as an androgyny index (Bayer & Bayley) and Heath-Carter somatotype components (endomorphy, mesomorphy, ectomorphy) using AN(C)OVA. 2D:4D was measured on X-rays of the left hand. Results Left hand 2D:4D digit ratio in world class elite female gymnasts (0.921±0.020) did not differ significantly from 2D:4D in age-matched sedentary girls (0.924±0.018), either with or without inclusion of potentially confounding covariates such as skeletal age, height, weight, somatotype components or androgyny index. Height (161.9±6.4 cm vs 155.4±6.6 cm p<0.01), weight (53.9±7.6 kg vs 46.2 6.3 kg p<0.01), BMI (20.51±2.41 kg/m2 vs 19.05±1.56 kg/m2), skeletal age (15.2±1.1 y vs 14.5±1.2 y p>0.01), somatotype components (4.0/3.0/2.9 vs 1.7/3.7/3.2 for endomorphy (p<0.01), mesomorphy (p<0.01) and ectomorphy (p<0.05) respectively) all differed significantly between sedentary girls and elite gymnasts. As expressed by the androgyny index, gymnasts have, on average, broader shoulders relative to their hips, compared to the reference sample. Correlations between the 2D:4D ratio and chronological age, skeletal age, and the anthropometric characteristics are low and not significant. Conclusion Although other anthropometric characteristics of sexual dimorphism were significantly different between the two samples

  20. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  1. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  2. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  3. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  4. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 100.3 Section 100.3... EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program...

  5. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  6. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 100.3 Section 100.3... EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program...

  7. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  8. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 611.3 Section 611.3... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  9. 22 CFR 141.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 141.3 Section 141.3... DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.3 Discrimination... discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  10. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  11. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  12. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., condition, or privilege of employment. (2) The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the...

  13. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 100.3 Section 100.3... EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program...

  14. 22 CFR 141.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 141.3 Section 141.3... DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.3 Discrimination... discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  15. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  16. 45 CFR 80.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 80.3 Section 80.3... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  17. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b)...

  18. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  19. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., condition, or privilege of employment. (2) The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the...

  20. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 611.3 Section 611.3... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  1. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  2. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 611.3 Section 611.3... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  3. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., condition, or privilege of employment. (2) The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the...

  4. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where...

  5. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  6. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where...

  7. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  8. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b)...

  9. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination...

  10. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 100.3 Section 100.3... EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program...

  11. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., condition, or privilege of employment. (2) The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the...

  12. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination...

  13. 15 CFR 8.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 8.4 Section... General Provisions; Prohibitions: Nondiscrimination Clause; Applicability to Programs § 8.4 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory acts prohibited. (1)...

  14. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b)...

  15. 22 CFR 141.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 141.3 Section 141.3... DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.3 Discrimination... discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  16. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination...

  17. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where...

  18. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  19. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  20. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where...

  1. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 611.3 Section 611.3... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  2. 10 CFR 1040.13 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1040.13 Section 1040.13 Energy..., as Amended; and Section 401 of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 § 1040.13 Discrimination... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this subpart...

  3. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited:...

  4. 22 CFR 141.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 141.3 Section 141.3... DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.3 Discrimination... discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  5. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination...

  6. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  7. 34 CFR 100.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 100.3 Section 100.3... EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 100.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No... participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program...

  8. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  9. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited:...

  10. 45 CFR 611.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 611.3 Section 611.3... CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 611.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United States... benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which this part applies....

  11. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b)...

  12. 45 CFR 80.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 80.3 Section 80.3... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  13. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  14. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  15. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited:...

  16. 22 CFR 141.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 141.3 Section 141.3... DEPARTMENT OF STATE-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 141.3 Discrimination... discrimination under any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited....

  17. 45 CFR 80.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 80.3 Section 80.3... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  18. 28 CFR 42.104 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.104 Section... Civil Rights Act of 1964 1 § 42.104 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the United... denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to which...

  19. 29 CFR 1630.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1630.4 Section 1630.4 Labor... EQUAL EMPLOYMENT PROVISIONS OF THE AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT § 1630.4 Discrimination prohibited..., or privilege of employment. The term discrimination includes, but is not limited to, the...

  20. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited:...

  1. 28 CFR 42.503 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.503 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 General Provisions § 42.503 Discrimination... from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or otherwise be subjected to discrimination under...

  2. 29 CFR 502.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 502.3 Section 502.3 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) General Provisions § 502.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a... Department regulation promulgated pursuant to sec. 218 of the INA. (b) Allegations of discrimination...

  3. 29 CFR 501.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 501.4 Section 501.4 Labor... IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT General Provisions § 501.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a) A person may not... discrimination against any person under paragraph (a) of this section will be investigated by the WHD. Where...

  4. 13 CFR 112.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 112.3... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.3 Discrimination... be otherwise subjected to discrimination by any business or other activity. (b)...

  5. 49 CFR 21.5 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 21.5 Section 21.5... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 21.5 Discrimination... discrimination under, any program to which this part applies. (b) Specific discriminatory actions prohibited:...

  6. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  7. 28 CFR 42.520 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.520 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Accessibility § 42.520 Discrimination prohibited... participation in, or otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program or activity receiving...

  8. 45 CFR 80.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 80.3 Section 80.3... TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 80.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in the..., be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to discrimination under any program to...

  9. Genetic Discrimination

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medicine Working Group New Horizons and Research Patient Management Policy and Ethics Issues Quick Links for Patient Care ... genetic discrimination. April 25, 2007, Statement of Administration Policy, Office of Management and Budget Official Statement from the Office of ...

  10. Sex Discrimination and Hair-Length Requirements Under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 -- the Long and Short of It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, H. Bruce

    1974-01-01

    Since the passage of Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, an employer's rights to establish dress and appearance standards for employees has been challenged with increasing frequency as a discriminatory employment practice based upon sex. The majority of such cases have concerned the right of male employees to wear their hair as long as that…

  11. The Equality Act 2010 and mental health.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Graeme; Henderson, Claire; Thornicroft, Graham

    2012-03-01

    One aim of the Equality Act 2010 is to protect people with disabilities and prevent disability discrimination. We review the key provisions of the Act relevant to disability discrimination with respect to mental illness.

  12. Discrimination against Muslim American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroian, Karen J.

    2012-01-01

    Although there is ample evidence of discrimination toward Muslim Americans in general, there is limited information specific to Muslim American adolescents. The few existing studies specific to this age group suggest that Muslim American adolescents encounter much discrimination from teachers, school administrators, and classmates. This…

  13. Children's Perceptions of Gender Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Bigler, Rebecca S.

    2004-01-01

    Children (N = 76; ages 5-10 years) participated in a study designed to examine perceptions of gender discrimination. Children were read scenarios in which a teacher determined outcomes for 2 students (1 boy and 1 girl). Contextual information (i.e., teacher's past behavior), the gender of the target of discrimination (i.e., student), and the…

  14. 78 FR 28569 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... first proposed agency-specific regulations implementing the Act on October 4, 1979 (44 FR 57130), which... Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities AGENCY: National Endowment for... National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is issuing Age Discrimination Act of 1975 regulations at 45...

  15. Acting Their Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiConsiglio, John

    2010-01-01

    Between 42 and 45 percent of American students are "adult learners." They're over 25. They're returning to school for career change more than career advancement. And they're challenging the educational world to understand and meet their needs. Educational institutions have adult learners squarely on their radars. Over-25s are among the fastest…

  16. Working Americans: Equality at Any Age. Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This report of a congressional hearing focuses on the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA), which permits forced retirement of American workers solely on the basis of age, that is, mandatory retirement at age 70. Testimony includes statements and prepared statements from a United States Representative, individuals who have been forced to…

  17. Folate Acts in E. coli to Accelerate C. elegans Aging Independently of Bacterial Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Bhupinder; Jia, Jie; Maynard, Claire A.; Raimundo, Adelaide; Lefebvre, Jolien; Richards, Shane A.; Chetina, Natalia; Liang, Yen; Helliwell, Noel; Cipinska, Marta; Weinkove, David

    2016-01-01

    Summary Folates are cofactors for biosynthetic enzymes in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Animals cannot synthesize folate and must acquire it from their diet or microbiota. Previously, we showed that inhibiting E. coli folate synthesis increases C. elegans lifespan. Here, we show that restriction or supplementation of C. elegans folate does not influence lifespan. Thus, folate is required in E. coli to shorten worm lifespan. Bacterial proliferation in the intestine has been proposed as a mechanism for the life-shortening influence of E. coli. However, we found no correlation between C. elegans survival and bacterial growth in a screen of 1,000+ E. coli deletion mutants. Nine mutants increased worm lifespan robustly, suggesting specific gene regulation is required for the life-shortening activity of E. coli. Disrupting the biosynthetic folate cycle did not increase lifespan. Thus, folate acts through a growth-independent route in E. coli to accelerate animal aging. PMID:26876180

  18. Folate Acts in E. coli to Accelerate C. elegans Aging Independently of Bacterial Biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Virk, Bhupinder; Jia, Jie; Maynard, Claire A; Raimundo, Adelaide; Lefebvre, Jolien; Richards, Shane A; Chetina, Natalia; Liang, Yen; Helliwell, Noel; Cipinska, Marta; Weinkove, David

    2016-02-23

    Folates are cofactors for biosynthetic enzymes in all eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Animals cannot synthesize folate and must acquire it from their diet or microbiota. Previously, we showed that inhibiting E. coli folate synthesis increases C. elegans lifespan. Here, we show that restriction or supplementation of C. elegans folate does not influence lifespan. Thus, folate is required in E. coli to shorten worm lifespan. Bacterial proliferation in the intestine has been proposed as a mechanism for the life-shortening influence of E. coli. However, we found no correlation between C. elegans survival and bacterial growth in a screen of 1,000+ E. coli deletion mutants. Nine mutants increased worm lifespan robustly, suggesting specific gene regulation is required for the life-shortening activity of E. coli. Disrupting the biosynthetic folate cycle did not increase lifespan. Thus, folate acts through a growth-independent route in E. coli to accelerate animal aging.

  19. Age-specific discrimination of blood plasma samples of healthy and ovarian cancer prone mice using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikechi, Noureddine; Markushin, Yuri; Connolly, Denise C.; Lasue, Jeremie; Ewusi-Annan, Ebo; Makrogiannis, Sokratis

    2016-09-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) mortality rates are strongly correlated with the stage at which it is diagnosed. Detection of EOC prior to its dissemination from the site of origin is known to significantly improve the patient outcome. However, there are currently no effective methods for early detection of the most common and lethal subtype of EOC. We sought to determine whether laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and classification techniques such as linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and random forest (RF) could classify and differentiate blood plasma specimens from transgenic mice with ovarian carcinoma and wild type control mice. Herein we report results using this approach to distinguish blood plasma samples obtained from serially bled (at 8, 12, and 16 weeks) tumor-bearing TgMISIIR-TAg transgenic and wild type cancer-free littermate control mice. We have calculated the age-specific accuracy of classification using 18,000 laser-induced breakdown spectra of the blood plasma samples from tumor-bearing mice and wild type controls. When the analysis is performed in the spectral range 250 nm to 680 nm using LDA, these are 76.7 (± 2.6)%, 71.2 (± 1.3)%, and 73.1 (± 1.4)%, for the 8, 12 and 16 weeks. When the RF classifier is used, we obtain values of 78.5 (± 2.3)%, 76.9 (± 2.1)% and 75.4 (± 2.0)% in the spectral range of 250 nm to 680 nm, and 81.0 (± 1.8)%, 80.4 (± 2.1)% and 79.6 (± 3.5)% in 220 nm to 850 nm. In addition, we report, the positive and negative predictive values of the classification of the two classes of blood plasma samples. The approach used in this study is rapid, requires only 5 μL of blood plasma, and is based on the use of unsupervised and widely accepted multivariate analysis algorithms. These findings suggest that LIBS and multivariate analysis may be a novel approach for detecting EOC.

  20. 28 CFR 42.713 - Exception; reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... age. 42.713 Section 42.713 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Standards for Determining...

  1. 28 CFR 42.713 - Exception; reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... age. 42.713 Section 42.713 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Standards for Determining...

  2. 28 CFR 42.713 - Exception; reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... age. 42.713 Section 42.713 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Standards for Determining...

  3. 28 CFR 42.713 - Exception; reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... age. 42.713 Section 42.713 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Standards for Determining...

  4. 28 CFR 42.713 - Exception; reasonable factors other than age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... age. 42.713 Section 42.713 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION; EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities; Implementation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975 Standards for Determining...

  5. Perceived weight discrimination and obesity.

    PubMed

    Sutin, Angelina R; Terracciano, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Weight discrimination is prevalent in American society. Although associated consistently with psychological and economic outcomes, less is known about whether weight discrimination is associated with longitudinal changes in obesity. The objectives of this research are (1) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of becoming obese (Body Mass Index≥30; BMI) by follow-up among those not obese at baseline, and (2) to test whether weight discrimination is associated with risk of remaining obese at follow-up among those already obese at baseline. Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative longitudinal survey of community-dwelling US residents. A total of 6,157 participants (58.6% female) completed the discrimination measure and had weight and height available from the 2006 and 2010 assessments. Participants who experienced weight discrimination were approximately 2.5 times more likely to become obese by follow-up (OR = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.58-4.08) and participants who were obese at baseline were three times more likely to remain obese at follow up (OR = 3.20, 95% CI = 2.06-4.97) than those who had not experienced such discrimination. These effects held when controlling for demographic factors (age, sex, ethnicity, education) and when baseline BMI was included as a covariate. These effects were also specific to weight discrimination; other forms of discrimination (e.g., sex, race) were unrelated to risk of obesity at follow-up. The present research demonstrates that, in addition to poorer mental health outcomes, weight discrimination has implications for obesity. Rather than motivating individuals to lose weight, weight discrimination increases risk for obesity.

  6. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  7. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  8. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  9. 28 CFR 42.510 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.510 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Employment § 42.510 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap be subjected to...

  10. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  11. 28 CFR 42.510 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.510 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Employment § 42.510 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap be subjected to...

  12. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office of... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) General Provisions § 34.3 Discrimination... participation in JTPA, be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, subjected to...

  13. 28 CFR 42.510 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.510 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Employment § 42.510 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap be subjected to...

  14. 28 CFR 42.510 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.510 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Employment § 42.510 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap be subjected to...

  15. 28 CFR 42.510 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 42.510 Section...-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Employment § 42.510 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. (1) No qualified handicapped person shall on the basis of handicap be subjected to...

  16. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... III of Executive Order 11246 (3 CFR Chapter IV) or any Executive order which supersedes it. (2) In... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in...

  17. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... III of Executive Order 11246 (3 CFR Chapter IV) or any Executive order which supersedes it. (2) In... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in...

  18. 29 CFR 34.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Discrimination prohibited. 34.3 Section 34.3 Labor Office of... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT OF 1982, AS AMENDED (JTPA) General Provisions § 34.3 Discrimination... participation in JTPA, be excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, subjected to...

  19. 24 CFR 1.4 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 1.4... DEVELOPMENT-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 1.4 Discrimination prohibited. (a... excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be otherwise subjected to...

  20. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... III of Executive Order 11246 (3 CFR Chapter IV) or any Executive order which supersedes it. (2) In... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in...

  1. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... III of Executive Order 11246 (3 CFR Chapter IV) or any Executive order which supersedes it. (2) In... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in...

  2. 38 CFR 18.3 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... III of Executive Order 11246 (3 CFR Chapter IV) or any Executive order which supersedes it. (2) In... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discrimination prohibited... THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 General § 18.3 Discrimination prohibited. (a) General. No person in...

  3. The immediate effect of the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement on HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men in Nigeria: analysis of prospective data from the TRUST cohort

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Sheree R; Nowak, Rebecca G; Orazulike, Ifeanyi; Keshinro, Babajide; Ake, Julie; Kennedy, Sara; Njoku, Ogbonnaya; Blattner, William A; Charurat, Manhattan E; Baral, Stefan D

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background In January, 2014, the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act was signed into law in Nigeria, further criminalising same-sex sexual relationships. We aimed to assess the immediate effect of this prohibition act on stigma, discrimination, and engagement in HIV prevention and treatment services in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Nigeria. Methods The TRUST cohort study uses respondent-driven sampling to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of engagement of MSM in HIV prevention and treatment services at a clinical site located with a community-based organisation trusted by the MSM community. TRUST is a prospective implementation research cohort of MSM (≥16 years) in Abuja, Nigeria. We compared HIV clinical outcomes and stigma, including fear and avoidance of health care, across baseline and quarterly visits before and after implementation of the the Same-Sex Marriage Prohibition Act. Outcomes assessed were measures of stigma and discrimination, loss to follow-up, antiretroviral therapy status, and viral load. We compared outcomes before and after the legislation with χ2 statistics, and estimated incident stigma-related events and loss to follow-up with Poisson regression. Findings Between March 19, 2013, and Aug 7, 2014, 707 MSM participated in baseline study procedures, contributing to 756 before legislation (prelaw) and 420 after legislation (postlaw) visits. Reported history of fear of seeking health care was significantly higher in postlaw visits than in prelaw visits (n=161 [38%] vs n=187 [25%]; p<0.0001), as was avoidance of health care (n=118 [28%] vs n=151 [20%]; p=0.001). In incidence analyses, of 192 MSM with follow-up data and no history of an event at baseline, reported fear of seeking health care was higher in the postlaw than the prelaw period (n=144; incidence rate ratio 2.57, 95% CI 1.29–5.10; p=0.007); loss to follow-up and incident healthcare avoidance were similar across periods. Of the 161 (89%) of 181 HIV-infected MSM with

  4. Managing Liability. Employment Discrimination: A Risk Management Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullan, Sandra H.

    This booklet discusses the risks that educational institutions face in regard to employment discrimination litigation and outlines a program to effectively manage such risks. Institutions need to address three main types of employment discrimination issues: sexual harassment, disability-based discrimination, and age discrimination. To deal with…

  5. Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Merkley, Jeff [D-OR

    2013-04-25

    01/08/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on the Constitution and Civil Justice. (All Actions) Notes: On 9/17/2014, a motion was filed to discharge the Committee on Rules from the consideration of H.Res.678 a resolution providing for consideration of S.815. A discharge petition requires 218 signatures for further action. (Discharge Petition No. 113-11: text with signatures.) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Protecting Older Workers Against Discrimination Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2012-03-13

    03/13/2012 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1616-1617) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Student Non-Discrimination Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Polis, Jared [D-CO-2

    2011-03-10

    03/21/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  8. Student Non-Discrimination Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Franken, Al [D-MN

    2011-03-10

    03/10/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced: CR S1558-1559) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  9. Employment Non-Discrimination Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Merkley, Jeff [D-OR

    2011-04-13

    06/12/2012 Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. Hearings held. Hearings printed: S.Hrg. 112-915. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. [Postvaccinal immunity and immunological aspects of Haemophilus influenzae carrier state in children of different age groups after the administration of "Act-HIB" vaccine].

    PubMed

    Gorbunov, S G; Bondarenko, V M; Demina, A A; Spirikhina, L V; Iastrebova, N E; Vaneeva, N P; Orlova, E V; Tamazian, G V; Zakharova, N I

    2003-01-01

    The article deals with H. influenzae (different serotypes) carrier state and immune response before and after the administration of the vaccine "Act-HIB" to children of different age groups. Children aged up to 1 year and over 1 year have been found to differ in the dynamics of carrier state and in the concentration of antibodies of different classes to the antigens of this infective agent, which makes it necessary to carry out their early immunization with a view to ensure their protection from H. influenzae infection.

  11. The Older Americans Act and Its Application to Native Americans. Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (Oklahoma City, OK, June 28, 1986).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    Three panels appearing before the Senate Special Committee on Aging discuss the sensitivity of the Administration on Aging to Native Americans, coordination of services between Title II and Title VI of the Older Americans Act, and availability of services under the act. Witnesses recommend language be included in the reauthorization of the Older…

  12. Fighting discrimination.

    PubMed

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK. PMID:22784927

  13. Fighting discrimination.

    PubMed

    Wientjens, Wim; Cairns, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    In the fight against discrimination, the IDF launched the first ever International Charter of Rights and Responsibilities of People with Diabetes in 2011: a balance between rights and duties to optimize health and quality of life, to enable as normal a life as possible and to reduce/eliminate the barriers which deny realization of full potential as members of society. It is extremely frustrating to suffer blanket bans and many examples exist, including insurance, driving licenses, getting a job, keeping a job and family affairs. In this article, an example is given of how pilots with insulin treated diabetes are allowed to fly by taking the responsibility of using special blood glucose monitoring protocols. At this time the systems in the countries allowing flying for pilots with insulin treated diabetes are applauded, particularly the USA for private flying, and Canada for commercial flying. Encouraging developments may be underway in the UK for commercial flying and, if this materializes, could be used as an example for other aviation authorities to help adopt similar protocols. However, new restrictions implemented by the new European Aviation Authority take existing privileges away for National Private Pilot Licence holders with insulin treated diabetes in the UK.

  14. The Real Education for Healthy Youth Act: Honest, Age Appropriate Sexual Health Education for Responsible Decision Making. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillip, Jendayi

    2012-01-01

    The Real Education for Healthy Youth Act (S. 1782/H.R. 3324), introduced in November 2011 by Senator Frank Lautenberg (D-NJ) and Representative Barbara Lee (D-CA), would ensure that federal funding is allocated to comprehensive sexual health education programs that provide young people with the skills and information they need to make informed,…

  15. A bill to amend the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 and other laws to clarify appropriate standards for Federal employment discrimination and retaliation claims, and for other purposes.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Harkin, Tom [D-IA

    2013-07-30

    07/30/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (text of measure as introduced in Senate: CR S6076-6077) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Paeoniflorin protects HUVECs from AGE-BSA-induced injury via an autophagic pathway by acting on the RAGE.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yufang; Du, Xing; Zhou, Yande; Zhang, Yanlin; Yang, Yaping; Liu, Zhihua; Liu, Chunfeng; Xie, Ying

    2015-01-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the protective effects of Paeoniflorin (PF) against injury induced by AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and to examine the underlying mechanisms of these effects. A 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay was used to determine cell viability. Protein expression levels were determined by western blotting. For function-blocking experiments, we used small interfering RNA molecules (siRNA) for function-blocking experiments. At 6 h, we found that 100 μg/mL AGE-BSA reduced the viability of HUVECs. However, pretreatment with PF restored cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. AGE-BSA increased the levels of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-II (LC3-II) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Expression of p62 protein was also increased, but not at a statistically significant level. Pretreatment with PF further increased levels of LC3-II and RAGE, but reduced the expression of p62. In cells transfected with Atg5 and RAGE siRNA, cell viability and expression of LC3-II decreased in both the AGE-BSA and PF + AGE-BSA treatments. PF can protect HUVECs from AGE-BSA-induced injury by upregulating autophagy and promoting the completion of autophagy flux. RAGE plays an important role in this autophagic protection effect.

  17. 29 CFR 1604.4 - Discrimination against married women.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... DISCRIMINATION BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.4 Discrimination against married women. (a) The Commission has determined... applicable to married men is a discrimination based on sex prohibited by title VII of the Civil Rights Act... married females, for so long as sex is a factor in the application of the rule, such application...

  18. Auditory Discrimination Development through Vestibulo-Cochlear Stimulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Lyelle L.

    1980-01-01

    Three types of vestibular activities (active, adaptive, and passively imposed) to improve auditory discrimination development are described and results of a study using the vestibular stimulation techniques with 20 Ss (average age 9) having abnormal auditory discrimination. (PHR)

  19. Age inclusive services or separate old age and working age services? A historical analysis from the formative years of old age psychiatry c.1940-1989.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Claire

    2015-04-01

    The Equality Act 2010 made it unlawful to discriminate in the provision of services on the grounds of age. This legislation is open to interpretation, but it is affecting the way older people's services are defined and provided. Historical evidence indicates that, since the 1940s, apart from psychiatrists working in dedicated old age services, most were unenthusiastic about working with mentally unwell older people and unsupportive of those who chose to do so. A historical analysis might shed light on current dilemmas about 'all age' or 'old age' services and inform decision-making on future mental health services.

  20. Perceived Discrimination and Personality Development in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutin, Angelina R.; Stephan, Yannick; Terracciano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Perceived discrimination is common and a significant source of stress that may have implications for personality development across adulthood. In this study, we examined whether experiences with discrimination were associated with maladaptive changes in the 5 major dimensions of personality using 2 longitudinal samples that differed in age and…

  1. Coping with Discrimination among Mexican Descent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2008-01-01

    The current research is designed to explore the relationship among discrimination stress, coping strategies, and self-esteem among Mexican descent youth (N = 73, age 11-15 years). Results suggest that primary control engagement and disengagement coping strategies are positively associated with discrimination stress. Furthermore, self-esteem is…

  2. Absolute Ligand Discrimination by Dimeric Signaling Receptors.

    PubMed

    Fathi, Sepehr; Nayak, Chitra R; Feld, Jordan J; Zilman, Anton G

    2016-09-01

    Many signaling pathways act through shared components, where different ligand molecules bind the same receptors or activate overlapping sets of response regulators downstream. Nevertheless, different ligands acting through cross-wired pathways often lead to different outcomes in terms of the target cell behavior and function. Although a number of mechanisms have been proposed, it still largely remains unclear how cells can reliably discriminate different molecular ligands under such circumstances. Here we show that signaling via ligand-induced receptor dimerization-a very common motif in cellular signaling-naturally incorporates a mechanism for the discrimination of ligands acting through the same receptor. PMID:27602720

  3. Sexual Orientation Discrimination: Teachers as Positive Role Models for Tolerance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenmenger, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Discusses Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the proposed Employment Non-Discrimination Act in terms of their potential legal remedies for victims of sexual-orientation discrimination. Examines several relevant federal appellate and Supreme Court decisions and the role of homosexual teachers. (PKP)

  4. Determinants of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods utilization among married women of reproductive age groups in western Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Melka, Alemu Sufa; Tekelab, Tesfalidet; Wirtu, Desalegn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction In Ethiopia information on the level of utilization of the long term and permanent contraceptive methods and associated factorsis lacking. The aim of this study was to understand the determinant factors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods use among married women of reproductive age in Western Ethiopia. Methods A community based cross- sectional study design was employed. Multi stage sampling was used to select 1003 study participants. Data was collected from April 10 to April 25,2014 using a pre- tested structured questionnaire. The data were entered using Epi-info version 3.5.1 and exported to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done to identify predictors of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods at 95% CL. Results Use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods in this study was found to be 20%. Survey results showed a significant positive association between utilization of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods and women's education (AOR = 1.72, 95%CI = 1.02 - 3.05), women's occupation (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.11 -3.58), number of live children (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI: 1.46- 4.02), joint fertility related decision (AOR = 6.11, 95% CI: 2.29- 16.30), having radio/TV (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.40 - 3.80), and discussion with health care provider about long acting and permanent contraceptive methods (AOR = 13.72, 95% CI: 8.37 - 22.47). Conclusion Efforts need to be aimed at women empowerment, health education, and encouraging open discussion of family planning by couples PMID:26523185

  5. Is the WMS-IV verbal paired associates as effective as other memory tasks in discriminating amnestic mild cognitive impairment from normal aging?

    PubMed

    Pike, Kerryn E; Kinsella, Glynda J; Ong, Ben; Mullaly, Elizabeth; Rand, Elizabeth; Storey, Elsdon; Ames, David; Saling, Michael; Clare, Linda; Parsons, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    Paired associate learning tasks are reportedly particularly sensitive to preclinical Alzheimer's disease. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of the recently updated Wechsler Memory Scale verbal paired associates (VPA) in distinguishing the earliest stages of memory impairment (amnestic mild cognitive impairment, aMCI), and the clinical application at the case level, compared with other episodic memory tasks. Participants were 77 people with aMCI and 77 matched healthy older adults (HOA). VPA performance distinguished aMCI from HOA at the group level with large effect sizes, of similar size to the other tasks at immediate recall, but smaller than the CVLT-II list-learning task at delayed recall. Similarly, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis demonstrated good discrimination, similar to other tasks, but again with CVLT-II more accurate at delayed recall. Although group differences remained for normative data, on a case basis using existing normative data the VPA failed to identify 70% of aMCI as impaired. The findings suggest further examination of the normative data is required before the VPA is useful in clinical practice, and highlight the importance of comprehensive neuropsychological assessment in detecting mild memory changes in older adults.

  6. Discrimination and Exiting Homelessness among Homeless Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Milburn, Norweeta G.; Ayala, George; Rice, Eric; Batterham, Philip; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how newly homeless adolescents’ discrimination experiences were associated with exiting homelessness after six months. A sample of 262 homeless adolescents, aged 12 to 20 years, were recruited and followed longitudinally (six-month retention rate = 88%). Discrimination was related to being gay, lesbian, or bisexual (LGB). Discrimination from family was related to exiting homelessness. Other than those who were LGB, adolescents who reported discrimination from their families were more likely to exit homelessness than adolescents who did not report such discrimination. Suggestions for future research include focusing on the experiences of LGB homeless adolescents, the role of families in the lives of homeless adolescents, and other aspects of discrimination, including salience, frequency, intensity, and duration. PMID:17087527

  7. TRS-PCR profiling for discrimination of Escherichia coli strains isolated from children with diarrhea under 5 years of age in Lodz region, Poland.

    PubMed

    Kubiak-Szeligowska, Anna B; Bartnicka, Milena; Jarych, Dariusz; Majchrzak, Marta

    2016-09-01

    Escherichia coli is one of the most frequently isolated gram-negative pathogens in cases of foodborne diseases and hospital infections. What is more, diarrheal diseases, including these associated with pathogenic E. coli strains, are leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among children. Improvements of the management of diarrheal diseases caused by these bacteria are in the spotlight of the World Health Organization. Therefore, there is still a need to develop new methods or improve ones that are commonly used to characterize and distinguish E. coli strains more precisely. In this work, TRS-based PCRs were effectively used for discrimination of 123 E. coli strains isolated from children with diarrhea in the Lodz region (Poland). The composite TRS-PCR approach, based on similarity comparisons of GTG-PCR and CGG-PCR fingerprints, enabled us to distinguish strains with very good efficacy. This was confirmed by the high diversity index (0.991) and high reproducibility of the band patterns obtained (95.0 %). These results showed the great variation in strains that may cause infections in children under 38 months. However, the stains were grouped in three separate clusters, which were different in terms of their phylogenetic affiliation and virulence factor repertoire. The obtained results support and are consistent with the need of public health surveillance for searching new and fast assays as far as children's health is concerned. TRS-PCR profiling is an effective tool for genotyping of E. coli strains isolated from children with diarrhea. PMID:27389591

  8. Effects of Presentation Rate and Attention on Auditory Discrimination: A Comparison of Long-Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials in School-Aged Children and Adults

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Naseem A.; Parascando, Jessica A.; Benasich, April A.

    2015-01-01

    Decoding human speech requires both perception and integration of brief, successive auditory stimuli that enter the central nervous system as well as the allocation of attention to language-relevant signals. This study assesses the role of attention on processing rapid transient stimuli in adults and children. Cortical responses (EEG/ERPs), specifically mismatch negativity (MMN) responses, to paired tones (standard 100–100Hz; deviant 100–300Hz) separated by a 300, 70 or 10ms silent gap (ISI) were recorded under Ignore and Attend conditions in 21 adults and 23 children (6–11 years old). In adults, an attention-related enhancement was found for all rate conditions and laterality effects (L>R) were observed. In children, 2 auditory discrimination-related peaks were identified from the difference wave (deviant-standard): an early peak (eMMN) at about 100–300ms indexing sensory processing, and a later peak (LDN), at about 400–600ms, thought to reflect reorientation to the deviant stimuli or “second-look” processing. Results revealed differing patterns of activation and attention modulation for the eMMN in children as compared to the MMN in adults: The eMMN had a more frontal topography as compared to adults and attention played a significantly greater role in childrens’ rate processing. The pattern of findings for the LDN was consistent with hypothesized mechanisms related to further processing of complex stimuli. The differences between eMMN and LDN observed here support the premise that separate cognitive processes and mechanisms underlie these ERP peaks. These findings are the first to show that the eMMN and LDN differ under different temporal and attentional conditions, and that a more complete understanding of children’s responses to rapid successive auditory stimulation requires an examination of both peaks. PMID:26368126

  9. Effects of Presentation Rate and Attention on Auditory Discrimination: A Comparison of Long-Latency Auditory Evoked Potentials in School-Aged Children and Adults.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Naseem A; Parascando, Jessica A; Benasich, April A

    2015-01-01

    Decoding human speech requires both perception and integration of brief, successive auditory stimuli that enter the central nervous system as well as the allocation of attention to language-relevant signals. This study assesses the role of attention on processing rapid transient stimuli in adults and children. Cortical responses (EEG/ERPs), specifically mismatch negativity (MMN) responses, to paired tones (standard 100-100 Hz; deviant 100-300 Hz) separated by a 300, 70 or 10 ms silent gap (ISI) were recorded under Ignore and Attend conditions in 21 adults and 23 children (6-11 years old). In adults, an attention-related enhancement was found for all rate conditions and laterality effects (L>R) were observed. In children, 2 auditory discrimination-related peaks were identified from the difference wave (deviant-standard): an early peak (eMMN) at about 100-300 ms indexing sensory processing, and a later peak (LDN), at about 400-600 ms, thought to reflect reorientation to the deviant stimuli or "second-look" processing. Results revealed differing patterns of activation and attention modulation for the eMMN in children as compared to the MMN in adults: The eMMN had a more frontal topography as compared to adults and attention played a significantly greater role in childrens' rate processing. The pattern of findings for the LDN was consistent with hypothesized mechanisms related to further processing of complex stimuli. The differences between eMMN and LDN observed here support the premise that separate cognitive processes and mechanisms underlie these ERP peaks. These findings are the first to show that the eMMN and LDN differ under different temporal and attentional conditions, and that a more complete understanding of children's responses to rapid successive auditory stimulation requires an examination of both peaks. PMID:26368126

  10. Age-Related Differences in Susceptibility to Carcinogenesis. II. Approaches for Application and Uncertainty Analyses for Individual Genetically Acting Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Hattis, Dale; Goble, Robert; Chu, Margaret

    2005-01-01

    In an earlier report we developed a quantitative likelihood-based analysis of the differences in sensitivity of rodents to mutagenic carcinogens across three life stages (fetal, birth to weaning, and weaning to 60 days) relative to exposures in adult life. Here we draw implications for assessing human risks for full lifetime exposures, taking into account three types of uncertainties in making projections from the rodent data: uncertainty in the central estimates of the life-stage–specific sensitivity factors estimated earlier, uncertainty from chemical-to-chemical differences in life-stage–specific sensitivities for carcinogenesis, and uncertainty in the mapping of rodent life stages to human ages/exposure periods. Among the uncertainties analyzed, the mapping of rodent life stages to human ages/exposure periods is most important quantitatively (a range of several-fold in estimates of the duration of the human equivalent of the highest sensitivity “birth to weaning” period in rodents). The combined effects of these uncertainties are estimated with Monte Carlo analyses. Overall, the estimated population arithmetic mean risk from lifetime exposures at a constant milligrams per kilogram body weight level to a generic mutagenic carcinogen is about 2.8-fold larger than expected from adult-only exposure with 5–95% confidence limits of 1.5-to 6-fold. The mean estimates for the 0- to 2-year and 2- to 15-year periods are about 35–55% larger than the 10- and 3-fold sensitivity factor adjustments recently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. The present results are based on data for only nine chemicals, including five mutagens. Risk inferences will be altered as data become available for other chemicals. PMID:15811844

  11. Older Americans Act Amendments of 1987: A Summary of Provisions. Public Law 100-175. An Information Paper Prepared for Use by the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, 100th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Carol

    The Older American Act Amendments of 1987 (Public Law 100-175) contain no major overhaul of the Act, but new provisions do significantly expand certain service components of the state and area agency on aging program under title III to address the special needs of certain populations, including the frail elderly living at home, residents of…

  12. 75 FR 31738 - Nondiscrimination on the Basis of Age in Programs or Activities Receiving Federal Assistance From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... (see 75 FR 7212 (Feb. 18, 2010)). EEOC's NPRM defines the term ``reasonable factors other than age... January 8, 1981 (46 FR 2306-2312). The Age Discrimination Act provisions were not included in the final... interested in the ADEA action should refer to the Federal Register; 75 FR 7212 (Feb. 18, 2010). The...

  13. 36 CFR 1005.8 - Discrimination in employment practices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Discrimination in employment... maintaining any employment practice which discriminates because of race, creed, color, ancestry, sex, age... Trust. No discrimination in employment practices on the basis of race, creed, color, ancestry, sex,...

  14. Workplace Discrimination, A Picture of Hope and Concern. Global Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World of Work, 2003

    2003-01-01

    An International Labour Organisation report finds that workplace discrimination is a persistent global problem. Although sex discrimination is most prevalent, discrimination in racial, HIV/AIDS, disability, religious, and age categories is rising. Progress is uneven, and inequalities within groups are widening. (SK)

  15. 76 FR 1449 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Housing Discrimination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB; Housing Discrimination... comments on the subject proposal. The Housing Discrimination Information Form (HUD-903.1) is necessary for... discrimination complaints with HUD under the Fair Housing Act of 1968 (Act), as amended [42 U.S.C. 3601 et...

  16. Identifying group discriminative and age regressive sub-networks from DTI-based connectivity via a unified framework of non-negative matrix factorization and graph embedding.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Yasser; Smith, Alex R; Schultz, Robert T; Verma, Ragini

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) offers rich insights into the physical characteristics of white matter (WM) fiber tracts and their development in the brain, facilitating a network representation of brain's traffic pathways. Such a network representation of brain connectivity has provided a novel means of investigating brain changes arising from pathology, development or aging. The high dimensionality of these connectivity networks necessitates the development of methods that identify the connectivity building blocks or sub-network components that characterize the underlying variation in the population. In addition, the projection of the subject networks into the basis set provides a low dimensional representation of it, that teases apart different sources of variation in the sample, facilitating variation-specific statistical analysis. We propose a unified framework of non-negative matrix factorization and graph embedding for learning sub-network patterns of connectivity by their projective non-negative decomposition into a reconstructive basis set, as well as, additional basis sets representing variational sources in the population like age and pathology. The proposed framework is applied to a study of diffusion-based connectivity in subjects with autism that shows localized sparse sub-networks which mostly capture the changes related to pathology and developmental variations. PMID:25037933

  17. Eliminating Mandatory Retirement. A Report by the Chairman of the Subcommittee on Health and Long-Term Care of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document is a short report on issues related to eliminating mandatory retirement ages. H.R. 4154, Congressman Pepper's bill to legislate elimination of mandatory retirement by removing the maximum age limitation of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967, is included. The report includes the following sections: (1) questions and…

  18. Perceived Discrimination as a Risk Factor for Latina/o Youth’s Substance Use: Do Parent- and Peer-Based Communication and Relationship Resources Act as Protective Factors?

    PubMed Central

    Kam, Jennifer A.; Cleveland, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Based on general strain theory, it was hypothesized that as Latina/o youth experience perceived discrimination, they are more likely to develop acculturation stress and, in turn, more likely to use substances. Two additional hypotheses were set forth to examine how parent- and peer-based communication, relationship, and norm resources may function as buffers, thereby decreasing the likelihood that strained youth will use substances. Latina/o youth (N = 728) from 23 schools in Phoenix, AZ, completed surveys at three waves over 2 years. Structural equation modeling (SEM) results supported the first hypothesis. Yet, contrary to the second hypothesis, neither parent nor peer resources were significant moderators. Implications are discussed for theory and parent- and peer-based prevention research directed at perceived discrimination, acculturation stress, and substance use. PMID:21271420

  19. Aged Distilled Spirits Competitiveness Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. McConnell, Mitch [R-KY

    2013-08-01

    08/01/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6229) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Discrimination among adults with craniofacial conditions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to establish the level of perceived discrimination experienced by adults with congenital craniofacial conditions in Australia and to examine predictors of discrimination. Specifically, this study tested whether social support mediates the relationship between discrimination and health. Adults (n = 93) who had been treated at the Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide for congenital craniofacial conditions (not including cleft lip and/or palate) completed questionnaires examining satisfaction with life, quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, and satisfaction with appearance. A substantial minority of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions reported that they experience discrimination almost every day in a range of areas. Higher reports of discrimination were related to older age, being male, and less education. Other factors related to higher discrimination included lower levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, satisfaction with appearance and mental quality of life, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social support partially mediated the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes. The current study shows that discrimination experiences continue into adulthood confirming the importance of ensuring patients are well supported both by psychosocial services as well as within their own social support networks. PMID:24240765

  1. Discrimination among adults with craniofacial conditions.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Rachel M

    2014-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to establish the level of perceived discrimination experienced by adults with congenital craniofacial conditions in Australia and to examine predictors of discrimination. Specifically, this study tested whether social support mediates the relationship between discrimination and health. Adults (n = 93) who had been treated at the Australian Craniofacial Unit, Women's and Children's Hospital, Adelaide for congenital craniofacial conditions (not including cleft lip and/or palate) completed questionnaires examining satisfaction with life, quality of life, anxiety and depression, self-esteem, satisfaction with social support, and satisfaction with appearance. A substantial minority of adults with congenital craniofacial conditions reported that they experience discrimination almost every day in a range of areas. Higher reports of discrimination were related to older age, being male, and less education. Other factors related to higher discrimination included lower levels of satisfaction with life, self-esteem, satisfaction with appearance and mental quality of life, as well as higher levels of anxiety and depression. Social support partially mediated the relationship between discrimination and mental health outcomes. The current study shows that discrimination experiences continue into adulthood confirming the importance of ensuring patients are well supported both by psychosocial services as well as within their own social support networks.

  2. Older Workers Benefit Protection Act [16 October 1990]. [Summary].

    PubMed

    1990-01-01

    On October 16, 1990, the US adopted a law which amends the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967 to prohibit discrimination against older workers in all employee benefits unless reductions in benefits are justified by a significant cost consideration. Further refinements to the ADEA include allowing employers to observe the terms of a bona fide seniority system which does not seek to circumvent the ADEA, requiring employers to pay as much for benefits for an older employee as is paid for a younger worker, prohibiting the failure to hire an individual or the invoking of involuntary retirement because of age, and allowing employers to reduce longterm disability benefits received by an individual by any pension benefits (other than those attributable to employee contributions). Provisions are made for the phased-in application of this Title. Title 2 prohibits an individual from waiving rights or claims under ADEA unless such a waiver is voluntary and knowing.

  3. A Developmental Study of Factors Influencing Discrimination Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Michael

    1973-01-01

    Examines the importance of (1) dimensional characteristics of stimuli present in discrimination transfer tasks, (2) having contrasting stimuli presented simultaneously, and (3) subjects age. Subjects were rural Mexican youths, ages 4 to 10. Reversal and nonreversal type discrimination transfer problems were used in the study. (DP)

  4. The development of facial identity discrimination through learned attention.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Elizabeth A; Jakobsen, Krisztina V; Fragaszy, Dorothy M; Okada, Kazunori; Frick, Janet E

    2014-07-01

    Learned attention models of perceptual discrimination predict that with age, sensitivity will increase for dimensions of stimuli useful for discrimination. We tested this prediction by examining the face dimensions 4- to 6-month-olds (n = 77), 9- to 12-month-olds (n = 66), and adults (n = 73) use for discriminating human, monkey, and sheep faces systematically varying in outer features (contour), inner features (eyes, mouth), or configuration (feature spacing). We controlled interindividual variability across species by varying faces within natural ranges and measured stimulus variability using computational image similarity. We found the most improvement with age in human face discrimination, and older participants discriminated more species and used more facial properties for discrimination, consistent with learned attention models. Older infants and adults discriminated human, monkey, and sheep faces; however, they used different facial properties for primates and sheep. Learned attention models may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying perceptual narrowing.

  5. 14 CFR 271.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 49 CFR part 21; and (3) The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 49 CFR part 27, and part 382 of this chapter... assurances required by 49 CFR parts 20, 21, 27 and 29, and § 382.21 of this chapter. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 271.9...

  6. 14 CFR 271.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 49 CFR part 21; and (3) The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 49 CFR part 27, and part 382 of this chapter... assurances required by 49 CFR parts 20, 21, 27 and 29, and § 382.21 of this chapter. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 271.9...

  7. 14 CFR 271.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 49 CFR part 21; and (3) The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 49 CFR part 27, and part 382 of this chapter... assurances required by 49 CFR parts 20, 21, 27 and 29, and § 382.21 of this chapter. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 271.9...

  8. 14 CFR 271.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 49 CFR part 21; and (3) The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 49 CFR part 27, and part 382 of this chapter... assurances required by 49 CFR parts 20, 21, 27 and 29, and § 382.21 of this chapter. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 271.9...

  9. 14 CFR 271.9 - Discrimination prohibited.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 49 CFR part 21; and (3) The Rehabilitation Act of 1973, 49 CFR part 27, and part 382 of this chapter... assurances required by 49 CFR parts 20, 21, 27 and 29, and § 382.21 of this chapter. ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination prohibited. 271.9...

  10. 13 CFR 112.6 - Discrimination in accommodations or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discrimination in accommodations or services. 112.6 Section 112.6 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 § 112.6 Discrimination in accommodations...

  11. 29 CFR 452.129 - Non-discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Non-discrimination. 452.129 Section 452.129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.129 Non-discrimination....

  12. 29 CFR 452.129 - Non-discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Non-discrimination. 452.129 Section 452.129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.129 Non-discrimination....

  13. 29 CFR 452.129 - Non-discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Non-discrimination. 452.129 Section 452.129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.129 Non-discrimination....

  14. 29 CFR 452.129 - Non-discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-discrimination. 452.129 Section 452.129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.129 Non-discrimination....

  15. 29 CFR 452.129 - Non-discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Non-discrimination. 452.129 Section 452.129 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT... DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.129 Non-discrimination....

  16. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education--A Review of the Case Law from 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodensteiner, Jill

    2002-01-01

    Reviews employment discrimination cases in higher education in 2000, which included an overwhelming number of retaliation and denial of promotion to tenure claims; case law also included age discrimination, religious discrimination, and sexual harassment issues, and a handful of wage discrimination cases. Courts also continued to explore the…

  17. Assessing Toddlers’ Speech-Sound Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Rachael Frush; Lalonde, Kaylah

    2012-01-01

    Objective Valid and reliable methods for assessing speech perception in toddlers are lacking in the field, leading to conspicuous gaps in understanding how speech perception develops and limited clinical tools for assessing sensory aid benefit in toddlers. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate speech-sound discrimination in toddlers using modifications to the Change/No-Change procedure1. Methods Normal-hearing 2- and 3-year-olds’ discrimination of acoustically dissimilar (“easy”) and similar (“hard”) speech-sound contrasts were evaluated in a combined repeated measures and factorial design. Performance was measured in d’. Effects of contrast difficulty and age were examined, as was test-retest reliability, using repeated measures ANOVAs, planned post-hoc tests, and correlation analyses. Results The easy contrast (M=2.53) was discriminated better than the hard contrast (M=1.72) across all ages (p < .0001). The oldest group of children (M=3.13) discriminated the contrasts better than youngest (M=1.04; p < .0001) and the mid-age children (M=2.20; p = .037), who in turn discriminated the contrasts better than the youngest children (p = .010). Test-retest reliability was excellent (r = .886, p < .0001). Almost 90% of the children met the teaching criterion. The vast majority demonstrated the ability to be tested with the modified procedure and discriminated the contrasts. The few who did not were 2.5 years of age and younger. Conclusions The modifications implemented resulted, at least preliminarily, in a procedure that is reliable and sensitive to contrast difficulty and age in this young group of children, suggesting that these modifications are appropriate for this age group. With further development, the procedure holds promise for use in clinical populations who are believed to have core deficits in rapid phonological encoding, such as children with hearing loss or specific language impairment, children who are struggling to read, and

  18. Justice and Reverse Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Alan H.

    Defining reverse discrimination as hiring or admissions decisions based on normally irrelevant criteria, this book develops principles of rights, compensation, and equal opportunity applicable to the reverse discrimination issue. The introduction defines the issue and discusses deductive and inductive methodology as applied to reverse…

  19. Employment Discrimination: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Gerald A.

    Chapter 4 in a book on school law provides a general overview of the various federal statutes directed toward discrimination in employment and considers some of the recent developments under these statutes. The first section is a survey of the employment discrimination laws and their interrelationships. The second section analyzes more closely…

  20. Flash-Type Discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshak, William J.

    2010-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the significant progress made in the flash-type discrimination algorithm development. The contents include: 1) Highlights of Progress for GLM-R3 Flash-Type discrimination Algorithm Development; 2) Maximum Group Area (MGA) Data; 3) Retrieval Errors from Simulations; and 4) Preliminary Global-scale Retrieval.

  1. Microscale acceleration history discriminators

    DOEpatents

    Polosky, Marc A.; Plummer, David W.

    2002-01-01

    A new class of micromechanical acceleration history discriminators is claimed. These discriminators allow the precise differentiation of a wide range of acceleration-time histories, thereby allowing adaptive events to be triggered in response to the severity (or lack thereof) of an external environment. Such devices have applications in airbag activation, and other safety and surety applications.

  2. Reverse Discrimination: Recent Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhilber, August W.

    This paper discusses reverse discrimination cases with particular emphasis on Bakke v. Regents of University of California and those cases which preceded it. A brief history is given of court cases used by opponents and proponents in the discussion of reverse discrimination. Legal theory and a discussion of court cases that preceded Bakke follow.…

  3. Dynamics of temporal discrimination.

    PubMed

    Guilhardi, Paulo; Church, Russell M

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to describe and explain the acquisition of temporal discriminations, transitions from one temporal interval to another, and asymptotic performance of stimulus and temporal discriminations. Rats were trained on a multiple cued interval (MCI) procedure with a head entry response on three signaled fixed-interval schedules of reinforcement (30, 60, and 120 sec). They readily learned the three temporal discriminations, whether they were presented simultaneously or successively, and they rapidly adjusted their performance to new intervals when the intermediate interval was varied daily. Although exponential functions provided good descriptions of many measures of temporal discrimination, different parameter values were required for each measure. The addition of a linear operator to a packet theory of timing with a single set of parameters provided a quantitative process model that fit many measures of the dynamics of temporal discrimination.

  4. Perceived discrimination and children's mental health symptoms.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Cheryl L; Bowie, Bonnie H; Carrère, Sybil

    2014-01-01

    Perceived discrimination has been shown to be strongly associated with mental health outcomes, such as depression, anxiety, chronic stress, post traumatic stress disorder, and low self-esteem. This study (N = 88) examined the effects of perceived discrimination and its association with child mental health symptoms. African American children had a significantly stronger association between social stress and a sense of exclusion/rejection than Multiracial or European American children. Nurses need to assess and counsel families of color about their experiences with perceived discriminatory acts.

  5. Reauthorization of the Older Americans Act: South Carolina. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Services of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session. Anderson, SC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document provides the transcripts from the Congressional hearings on the reauthorization of the Older Americans Act. Opening statements from Representatives Butler Derrick and Mike Synar are presented. Testimony of 19 directors of state and area agencies on aging, Meals on Wheels, Green Thumb, and the American Association of Retired Persons…

  6. Optimal discrimination index and discrimination efficiency for essay questions.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing-shing

    2014-01-01

    Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of multiple choice questions are often indiscriminately applied to essay type questions also. Optimal discrimination index under normality condition for essay question is independently derived. Satisfactory region for discrimination index of essay questions with passing mark at 50% of the total is between 0.12 and 0.31 instead of 0.40 or more in the case for multiple-choice questions. Optimal discrimination index for essay question is shown to increase proportional to the range of scores. Discrimination efficiency as the ratio of the observed discrimination index over the optimal discrimination index is defined. Recommended guidelines for discrimination index of essay questions are provided.

  7. Quadratic negative evidence discrimination

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.N.; Redgate, T.; Anderson, K.K.; Rohay, A.C.; Ryan, F.M.

    1997-05-01

    This paper develops regional discrimination methods which use information inherent in phase magnitudes that are unmeasurable due to small amplitudes and/or high noise levels. The methods are enhancements to teleseismic techniques proposed by, and are extended to regional discrimination. Events observed at teleseismic distances are effectively identified with the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant because relative to the pressure wave energy (m{sub b}) of an event, an earthquake generates more shear wave energy (M{sub s}) than does an explosion. For some teleseismic events, the M{sub s} magnitude is difficult to measure and is known only to be below a threshold . With M{sub s} unmeasurable, the M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant cannot be formed. However, if the M{sub s} is sufficiently small relative to a measured m{sub b}, then the event is still likely to be an explosion. The methods presented in this report are developed for a single seismic station, and make use of empirical evidence in the regional L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant. The L{sub g} vs p{sub g} discriminant is analogous to the teleseismic M{sub s} vs m{sub b} discriminant.

  8. Frequency discriminator/phase detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.

    1974-01-01

    Circuit provides dual function of frequency discriminator/phase detector which reduces frequency acquisition time without adding to circuit complexity. Both frequency discriminators, in evaluated frequency discriminator/phase detector circuits, are effective two decades above and below center frequency.

  9. Tectonic discrimination diagrams revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeesch, Pieter

    2006-06-01

    The decision boundaries of most tectonic discrimination diagrams are drawn by eye. Discriminant analysis is a statistically more rigorous way to determine the tectonic affinity of oceanic basalts based on their bulk-rock chemistry. This method was applied to a database of 756 oceanic basalts of known tectonic affinity (ocean island, mid-ocean ridge, or island arc). For each of these training data, up to 45 major, minor, and trace elements were measured. Discriminant analysis assumes multivariate normality. If the same covariance structure is shared by all the classes (i.e., tectonic affinities), the decision boundaries are linear, hence the term linear discriminant analysis (LDA). In contrast with this, quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) allows the classes to have different covariance structures. To solve the statistical problems associated with the constant-sum constraint of geochemical data, the training data must be transformed to log-ratio space before performing a discriminant analysis. The results can be mapped back to the compositional data space using the inverse log-ratio transformation. An exhaustive exploration of 14,190 possible ternary discrimination diagrams yields the Ti-Si-Sr system as the best linear discrimination diagram and the Na-Nb-Sr system as the best quadratic discrimination diagram. The best linear and quadratic discrimination diagrams using only immobile elements are Ti-V-Sc and Ti-V-Sm, respectively. As little as 5% of the training data are misclassified by these discrimination diagrams. Testing them on a second database of 182 samples that were not part of the training data yields a more reliable estimate of future performance. Although QDA misclassifies fewer training data than LDA, the opposite is generally true for the test data. Therefore LDA is a cruder but more robust classifier than QDA. Another advantage of LDA is that it provides a powerful way to reduce the dimensionality of the multivariate geochemical data in a similar

  10. 20 CFR 702.271 - Discrimination; against employees who bring proceedings, prohibition and penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discrimination; against employees who bring...' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION ACT AND RELATED STATUTES ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Claims Procedures Discrimination § 702.271 Discrimination;...

  11. Discrimination and health among Asian American immigrants: disentangling racial from language discrimination.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hyung Chol; Gee, Gilbert C; Takeuchi, David

    2009-02-01

    We examined whether self-reported discrimination based on race and language was associated with the number of chronic health conditions among Asian American immigrants. We also examined whether these relationships were moderated by years in the United States. Data are from adults participating in an Asian American supplement to the 2001 Health Care Quality Survey. Language and racial discrimination in seeking health care were independently associated with increased number of chronic health conditions after controlling for age, sex, education, family income, health insurance, primary language, nativity, and ethnicity. Language discrimination was significantly associated with health conditions even with the presence of racial discrimination in the statistical model. Racial discrimination did not show a significant association in the full analytic model. The relationship between language discrimination and chronic conditions was stronger for Asian immigrants living in the USA 10 years or more compared to more recently arrived immigrants. Language discrimination may be an understudied type of discrimination associated with chronic illness among Asian Americans.

  12. "Chartering" the limits of involuntary psychiatric treatment in Victoria: interpreting the Mental Health Act 1986 (Vic) in the age of the Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic).

    PubMed

    Bradfield, Owen

    2010-09-01

    The Mental Health Act 1986 (Vic) allows for individuals with a serious mental illness to be treated on an involuntary basis either in a psychiatric hospital (on an involuntary treatment order) or in the community (on a community treatment order). The Act also establishes the Mental Health Review Board with the authority to review these orders within eight weeks of those orders being made and at least once every 12 months thereafter. This article analyses a recent decision of the board, Re Appeal of 09-085 [2009] VMHRB 1, in which the appellant challenged a decision of a psychiatrist to extend his community treatment order for a further 12 months. The appellant argued that aspects of his involuntary treatment under the Act amounted to "cruel, inhuman or degrading" treatment and therefore breached his right to freedom from "cruel, inhuman or degrading" treatment under s 10(b) of Victoria's recently enacted Charter of Human Rights and Responsibilities Act 2006 (Vic). Thus, the board was asked to consider whether the definition of "treatment" under the Act was compatible with the rights and freedoms enacted by the Charter. This was the first time that a Victorian court or tribunal had considered the impact of the Charter on involuntary psychiatric treatment. The decision was also a prelude to the Victorian Government's announcement that it would comprehensively review its mental health legislation, now the oldest in Australia. As this case highlights, in determining the future direction of mental health legislation and policy in Victoria, the Charter has been crucial.

  13. 77 FR 75362 - Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities of SBA-Effectuation of the Age...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION 13 CFR Part 117 Nondiscrimination in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities of SBA--Effectuation of the Age Discrimination Act of 1975, as Amended CFR Correction 0 In Title 13 of the Code...

  14. 76 FR 13977 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Complaint of Discrimination Against the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Office of the Secretary Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Complaint of Discrimination... discrimination based on race, color, sex, national origin, religion, age, disability, or reprisal for...

  15. Reauthorization of the Older Americans Act. Hearing before the Special Committee on Aging. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (Casselberry, Florida).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This document presents witnesses' testimonies from the Senate hearing held in Casselberry, Florida to consider the reauthorization of the Older Americans Act. In his opening statement, Senator Lawton Chiles reviews the history of the Older Americans Act and its amendments since its creation in 1965 and notes that the recent increase in the number…

  16. Mass discrimination during weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.

    1981-01-01

    An experiment concerned with the ability of astronauts to discriminate between the mass of objects when both the objects and the astronauts are in weightless states is described. The main object of the experiment is to compare the threshold for weight-discrimination on Earth with that for mass-discrimination in orbit. Tests will be conducted premission and postmission and early and late during the mission while the crew is experiencing weightlessness. A comparison of early and late tests inflight and postflight will reveal the rate of adaptation to zero-gravity and 1-g. The mass discrimination box holds 24 balls which the astronaut will compare to one another in a random routine.

  17. Employment Discrimination--"Sex Discrimination" under Title VII Includes Differential Treatment of Pregnancy Related Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harpool, M. Douglas

    1980-01-01

    Public Law 95-555, which expands the definition of sex discrimination in Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, reverses the judicial determination that pregnancy is not a sex-based attribute. Available from School of Law, University of Missouri-Columbia, Columbia, MO 65211. (Author/IRT)

  18. Observers' Proficiency at Identifying Pretense Acts Based on Behavioral Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richert, Rebekah A.; Lillard, Angeline S.

    2004-01-01

    Discriminating what is pretense from what is real is a fundamental problem in development. Research has addressed the proficiency with which adults and children discriminate between play fighting and real fighting, and yet none (to our knowledge) has investigated discrimination of other kinds of pretense and real acts. In addition, little is known…

  19. Angular velocity discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, Mary K.

    1990-01-01

    Three experiments designed to investigate the ability of naive observers to discriminate rotational velocities of two simultaneously viewed objects are described. Rotations are constrained to occur about the x and y axes, resulting in linear two-dimensional image trajectories. The results indicate that observers can discriminate angular velocities with a competence near that for linear velocities. However, perceived angular rate is influenced by structural aspects of the stimuli.

  20. Odor quality: discrimination versus free and cued identification.

    PubMed

    de Wijk, R A; Cain, W S

    1994-07-01

    Eighty-two adults, ranging in age from young to elderly, performed odor-quality discrimination and both free and cued identification on six odorants presented at two intensity levels. The odorants simulated the real-world substances banana, licorice, cherry/almond, wintergreen, clove, and lemon. Performance on all three tasks declined with age, but improved with stimulus intensity. Performance at discrimination benefited from the mere availability of the six names during testing. Performance in cued identification far exceeded that in free identification and, for young and middle-aged adults, fell close to that for discrimination. For elderly adults, however, performance in cued identification fell substantially below that in discrimination. Although not entirely free of cognitive influences, discrimination seems to offer particularly clear resolution of alterations in olfactory functioning.

  1. Impulsivity moderates the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Latzman, Robert D; Chan, Wing Yi; Shishido, Yuri

    2013-12-01

    Alcohol use among university students is a serious public health concern, particularly among minority students who may use alcohol to cope with experiences of racial discrimination. Although the impact of racial discrimination on alcohol use has been well-established, individual differences in factors that may act to either attenuate or exacerbate the negative effects of racial discrimination are largely unknown. One potentially fruitful individual differences trait that has repeatedly been found to predict alcohol problems is the multidimensional personality trait of impulsivity. Nonetheless, the ways in which various aspects of impulsivity interact with racial discrimination is yet unknown. The current study, therefore, examined the joint and interactive contribution of racial discrimination and impulsivity in the prediction of alcohol consumption among racial minority university students. Participants included 336 Black/African-American and Asian/Asian-American university students. Results revealed both racial discrimination and impulsivity to be significantly associated with alcohol problems. Further, individuals' responses to racial discrimination were not uniform. Specifically, the association between racial discrimination and alcohol problems was moderated by lack of Premeditation; racial discrimination was most strongly predictive of alcohol problems for those who reported low level of premeditation. Findings from the present study highlight the importance of investigating risk factors for alcohol problems across multiple levels of the ecology as individual personality traits appear to relate to how one might respond to the experience of racial discrimination.

  2. Autism and ADHD: Overlapping and Discriminating Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Mayes, Rebecca D.; Molitoris, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Children with ADHD and autism have some similar features, complicating a differential diagnosis. The purpose of our study was to determine the degree to which core ADHD and autistic symptoms overlap in and discriminate between children 2-16 years of age with autism and ADHD. Our study demonstrated that 847 children with autism were easily…

  3. Wage Discrimination and Comparable Worth: A Legal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinzler, Isabelle Katz; Ellis, Deborah

    1989-01-01

    Discusses ways to close the gap between the courts' approach to applying Federal law to sex-based and race-based wage discrimination and the law's potential to change wage inequities. Discusses the Equal Pay Act and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Explores ways the court applies these laws. (JS)

  4. Auditory Discrimination and Auditory Sensory Behaviours in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Catherine R. G.; Happe, Francesca; Baird, Gillian; Simonoff, Emily; Marsden, Anita J. S.; Tregay, Jenifer; Phillips, Rebecca J.; Goswami, Usha; Thomson, Jennifer M.; Charman, Tony

    2009-01-01

    It has been hypothesised that auditory processing may be enhanced in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We tested auditory discrimination ability in 72 adolescents with ASD (39 childhood autism; 33 other ASD) and 57 IQ and age-matched controls, assessing their capacity for successful discrimination of the frequency, intensity and duration…

  5. Discriminators of Loneliness Among the Rural Elderly: Implications for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kivett, Vira R.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the most important physical and social discriminators of loneliness among 418 rural adults aged 65 to 99 years. A multiple stepwise discriminant analysis which incorporated 18 classifying variables was used to determine the best classifiers of adults into three levels of loneliness. Two significant…

  6. Simultaneous Visual Discrimination In Asian Elephants

    PubMed Central

    Nissani, Moti; Hoefler-Nissani, Donna; Lay, U Tin; Htun, U Wan

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments explored the behavior of 20 Asian elephants (Elephas aximus) in simultaneous visual discrimination tasks. In Experiment 1, 7 Burmese logging elephants acquired a white+/black− discrimination, reaching criterion in a mean of 2.6 sessions and 117 discrete trials, whereas 4 elephants acquired a black+/white− discrimination in 5.3 sessions and 293 trials. One elephant failed to reach criterion in the white+/black− task in 9 sessions and 549 trials, and 2 elephants failed to reach criterion in the black+/white− task in 9 sessions and 452 trials. In Experiment 2, 3 elephants learned a large/small transposition problem, reaching criterion within a mean of 1.7 sessions and 58 trials. Four elephants failed to reach criterion in 4.8 sessions and 193 trials. Data from both the black/ white and large/small discriminations showed a surprising age effect, suggesting that elephants beyond the age of 20 to 30 years either may be unable to acquire these visual discriminations or may require an inordinate number of trials to do so. Overall, our results cannot be readily reconciled with the widespread view that elephants possess exceptional intelligence. PMID:15762378

  7. A district nurses' guide to disability discrimination law: part 1.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard; Tengnah, Cassam

    2007-01-01

    District nurses have a unique role in the continuing care of people with disabilities. Some 20% of people are considered disabled and they now have rights under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995. However, to benefit from these rights people must meet the legal definition of disabled under the Act. It is essential therefore that district nurses are able to interpret and apply this legal definition in relation to their patients in order to better advise them regarding their disability and their rights under the Act. In the first of two articles on disability discrimination, Richard Griffith and Cassam Tengnah discuss the requirements that need to be fulfilled in order to meet the definition of disabled under the Disability Discrimination Act 1995.

  8. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Attributions Regarding Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Sellers, Robert M; Jackson, James S

    2010-09-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13 to 17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life (NSAL). Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination attributions, depressive symptoms, self-esteem and life satisfaction. Approximately half the youth attributed discrimination to race/ethnicity (43%), followed by age (17%), physical appearance (16.5%) and gender (7.5%) and there were no ethnic, gender or age differences regarding discrimination attributions. Key findings suggest that the association between perceived discrimination and psychological did not vary according to discrimination attribution, which implies that discrimination is harmful for Black youth regardless of the attribution.

  9. Age Discrimination in Federally-Assisted Programs. Hearing Before the United States Commission on Civil Rights; Hearing Held in Denver, Colorado, July 28-29, 1977. Volume I: Testimony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The statements presented by numerous individuals at the hearing are recorded in this volume. Specific examples of discrimination against older adults in such Federally-assisted programs as the food stamp program, Medicaid, the community mental health centers program, the vocational rehabilitation program, the social services program under Title XX…

  10. DIFFERENTIAL PULSE HEIGHT DISCRIMINATOR

    DOEpatents

    Test, L.D.

    1958-11-11

    Pulse-height discriminators are described, specifically a differential pulse-height discriminator which is adapted to respond to pulses of a band of amplitudes, but to reject pulses of amplitudes greater or less than tbe preselected band. In general, the discriminator includes a vacuum tube having a plurality of grids adapted to cut off plate current in the tube upon the application of sufficient negative voltage. One grid is held below cutoff, while a positive pulse proportional to the amplltude of each pulse is applled to this grid. Another grid has a negative pulse proportional to the amplitude of each pulse simultaneously applied to it. With this arrangement the tube will only pass pulses which are of sufficlent amplitude to counter the cutoff bias but not of sufficlent amplitude to cutoff the tube.

  11. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called "androids" have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm-a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android-two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants' looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human.

  12. Infant discrimination of humanoid robots

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Goh; Ishiguro, Hiroshi; Hiraki, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, extremely humanlike robots called “androids” have been developed, some of which are already being used in the field of entertainment. In the context of psychological studies, androids are expected to be used in the future as fully controllable human stimuli to investigate human nature. In this study, we used an android to examine infant discrimination ability between human beings and non-human agents. Participants (N = 42 infants) were assigned to three groups based on their age, i.e., 6- to 8-month-olds, 9- to 11-month-olds, and 12- to 14-month-olds, and took part in a preferential looking paradigm. Of three types of agents involved in the paradigm—a human, an android modeled on the human, and a mechanical-looking robot made from the android—two at a time were presented side-by-side as they performed a grasping action. Infants’ looking behavior was measured using an eye tracking system, and the amount of time spent focusing on each of three areas of interest (face, goal, and body) was analyzed. Results showed that all age groups predominantly looked at the robot and at the face area, and that infants aged over 9 months watched the goal area for longer than the body area. There was no difference in looking times and areas focused on between the human and the android. These findings suggest that 6- to 14-month-olds are unable to discriminate between the human and the android, although they can distinguish the mechanical robot from the human. PMID:26441772

  13. Drugs, discrimination and disability.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Frances

    2009-12-01

    Whether addiction to prohibited drugs should be classified as a disability for the purposes of disability discrimination is a controversial question in Australia. The leading Australian case of Marsden v Human Rights Equal Opportunity Commission & Coffs Harbour & District Ex-Servicemen & Women's Memorial Club Ltd (HREOC, No H98/51, 30 August 1999); [2000] FCA 1619 concerned a disability discrimination complaint brought by Mr Marsden as a result of his treatment by the club. The case was brought as a public interest test case by the New South Wales Legal Aid Commission. Mr Marsden was on a methadone program at the time. The reasoning of the decision at the Federal Court opened the way for a finding that dependence on illegal drugs constituted a disability under disability discrimination legislation. The media reaction to the court's decision led to State and federal governments proposing legislation limiting legal protection from discrimination for people addicted to illegal drugs on the basis of their drug use. While the proposed federal legislation lapsed after objections from a coalition of medical, legal and other advocacy groups, the New South Wales legislation still provides that, in employment matters, it is not unlawful to discriminate against a person on the ground of disability if the disability relates to the person's addiction to a prohibited drug and the person is actually addicted to a prohibited drug at the time of the discrimination. The article details the sequence of events in the Marsden case, reflects on the role of public interest litigation in achieving social justice outcomes and suggests that Australia's recent ratification of the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities on 17 July 2008 should encourage legislators to review legislation which may have a discriminatory effect on people suffering from addictions. PMID:20169800

  14. Age Discrimination--Notice--Filing Notice of Intent to Sue Within 180 Days After the Alleged Violation Is a Jurisdictional Prerequisite to an Action Under the Age Discrimination in Employment Act. Hiscott v. General Elec. Co., 521 F. 2d 632 (6th Cir. 1975)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiltner, L. Del

    1976-01-01

    The Hiscott decision indicates that the court will require notice to meet specific standards before an individual's right to maintain a civil action under the ADEA becomes operative. It also suggests that strict compliance with the 180-day notice provision will continue to be a condition precedent to suit. (Author/LBH)

  15. Hue memory and discrimination in young children.

    PubMed

    Petzold, A; Sharpe, L T

    1998-12-01

    As first remarked by Charles Darwin (1877), very young children frequently have difficulty when naming or choosing colors. To investigate the cause of this difficulty, we have tested preschoolers (mean age = 4.1) for hue discrimination and hue memory and compared their results with those of preadolescents (mean age = 9.6) and young adults (mean age = 25.8). The tests were designed to minimize the influence of verbal coding on the results. We find that preschoolers are as good as the two older groups in hue discrimination. However, in visual hue memory, they are significantly poorer. The 3-fold increased errors they make, relative to preadolescents and young adults, may be related to the development of visual hue categories and the integration of verbal and visual processes. However, such errors cannot explain why young children often experience extreme difficulty in color naming.

  16. Forest discrimination with multipolarization imaging radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, J. P.; Wickland, D. E.

    1985-01-01

    The use of radar polarization diversity for discriminating forest canopy variables on airborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) images is evaluated. SAR images were acquired at L-Band (24.6 cm) simultaneously in four linear polarization states (HH, HV, VH, and VV) in South Carolina on March 1, 1984. In order to relate the polarization signatures to biophysical properties, false-color composite images were compared to maps of forest stands in the timber compartment. In decreasing order, the most useful correlative forest data are stand basal area, forest age, site condition index, and forest management type. It is found that multipolarization images discriminate variation in tree density and difference in the amount of understory, but do not discriminate between evergreen and deciduous forest types.

  17. An Old Road Rapidly Aging? The Settlement of Apollo's Long-Standing False Claims Act Lawsuit and the Changing Appeal of Commission-Based Recruitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Observatory on Borderless Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Last month, higher education company the Apollo Group, Inc. (Apollo) confirmed that it entered into an agreement with the United States (US) federal government to resolve a long-standing lawsuit concerning its subsidiary, the for-profit University of Phoenix (Phoenix). Originating in 2003, the False Claims Act lawsuit filed by university officials…

  18. Discrimination Learning in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochocki, Thomas E.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Examined the learning performance of 192 fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade children on either a two or four choice simultaneous color discrimination task. Compared the use of verbal reinforcement and/or punishment, under conditions of either complete or incomplete instructions. (Author/SDH)

  19. Reversing Discrimination: A Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pati, Gopal; Reilly, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the debate over affirmative action and reverse discrimination, and discusses how and why the present dilemma has developed. Suggests that organizations can best address the problem through an honest, in-depth analysis of their organizational structure and management practices. (JG)

  20. Airborne particulate discriminator

    DOEpatents

    Creek, Kathryn Louise; Castro, Alonso; Gray, Perry Clayton

    2009-08-11

    A method and apparatus for rapid and accurate detection and discrimination of biological, radiological, and chemical particles in air. A suspect aerosol of the target particulates is treated with a taggant aerosol of ultrafine particulates. Coagulation of the taggant and target particles causes a change in fluorescent properties of the cloud, providing an indication of the presence of the target.