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  1. "Healthy Aging at Older Ages: Are Income and Education Important?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Neil J.; Denton, Frank T.; Robb, A. Leslie; Spencer, Byron G.

    2004-01-01

    Being higher on the socio-economic scale is correlated with being in better health, but is there is a causal relationship? Using 3 years of longitudinal data for individuals aged 50 and older from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we study the health transitions for those who were in good health in the first year, focusing…

  2. What users want in e-commerce design: effects of age, education and income.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Nancy J

    2003-01-15

    Preferences for certain characteristics of an online shopping experience may be related to demographic data. This paper discusses the characteristics of that experience, demographic data and preferences by demographic group. The results of an online survey of 488 individuals in the United States indicate that respondents are generally satisfied with their online shopping experiences, with security, information quality and information quantity ranking first in importance overall. The sensory impact of a site ranked last overall of the seven characteristics measured. Preferences for these characteristics in e-commerce sites were differentiated by age, education and income. The sensory impact of sites became less important as respondents increased in age, income or education. As the income of respondents increased, the importance of the reputation of the vendor rose. Web site designers may incorporate these findings into the design of e-commerce sites in an attempt to increase the shopping satisfaction of their users. Results from the customer relationship management portion of the survey suggest that current push technologies and site personalization are not an effective means of achieving user satisfaction.

  3. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns.

  4. Income, education, and fertility.

    PubMed

    1978-01-01

    A study based on data from the National Impact Survey (1968-69) delineates the impact of family planning programs on the demography of Pakistan. Son preference was found to be a strong factor in deciding the desire for an additional child. Raising the status of women would decrease the fertility rate. In the rural areas higher income had a positive effect on fertility; in the urban areas it had a negative effect. Policies explicitly directed at actual distribution of income would have a positive effect. The educational level of the family, especially the wife, was related to lower family size. Families with at least one child in school had a lower completed family size. Couples who married later in life did not tend to have smaller families but smaller intervals between births. Rural nuclear families have more children than non-nuclear families or kinship groups, presumably because they need children for labor and old age security. Incentives and disincentives to motivate couples to limit family size should be offered by the Pakistan government.

  5. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  6. Income Sustainability through Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ronald H.; McChesney, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the sustainability of income, as it relates to educational attainment, from the two recent decades, which includes three significant economic downturns. The data was analyzed to determine trends in the wealth gap, parsed by educational attainment and gender. Utilizing the data from 1991 through 2010, predictions in changes in…

  7. Trends in overweight by educational level in 33 low- and middle-income countries: The role of parity, age at first birth and breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Arana, Sandra; Burdorf, Alex; Avendano, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    Summary This study examined trends in overweight among women of reproductive age by educational level in 33 low- and middle income countries, and estimated the contribution of parity, age at first birth and breastfeeding to these trends. We used repeated cross-sectional demographic health surveys (DHS) of 255,828 women aged 25-49 years interviewed between 1992 and 2009. We applied logistic regression to model overweight (> 25 kg/m2) as a function of education, reproductive variables and time period by country and region. The prevalence of overweight ranged from 3.4% in South and Southeast Asia to 73.7% in North Africa West/Central Asia during the study period. The association between education and overweight differed across regions. In North Africa West/Central Asia and Latin American, lower education was associated with higher overweight prevalence, while the inverse was true in South/Southeast Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. In all regions, there was a consistent pattern of increasing overweight trends across all educational groups. Older age at first birth, longer breastfeeding, and lower parity were associated with less overweight, but these variables did not account for the association or the increasing trends between education and overweight. PMID:23782957

  8. [The impact of income and education on medicine consumption in a representative sample of Lodz inhabitants between the ages of 18-64 years].

    PubMed

    Stelmach, Włodzimierz; Kaczmarczyk-Chałas, Krystyna; Mianowany, Mariusz; Drygas, Wojciech

    2004-01-01

    Evaluation of medicine consumption and factors influencing it's level is an important element in estimation of health care system functionality. One of the purposes of CINDI Programme (Countrywide Integrated Noncommunicable Diseases Intervention Programme) conducted among the insured in Regional Health Authority in Lodz was to evaluate medicine consumption and factors influencing it's level. The study was conducted according to WHO standards set for CINDI Programme in 27 countries. The surveys were directed at random samples of the adult population, 1857 men and women age 18 to 64 were selected. The data were collected with questionnaire at the doctor's visit. The study showed that medicine was taken by people in the oldest age groups, with higher education and women. Income had no effect on medicine consumption level. Medicine consumption in people with diagnosed circulatory system disease depended on age. Analgesic drugs are taken more often by older people, women and people with higher education. Sedative drugs are more often taken by older women, vitamins are more often taken by women with higher education. Among women questioned, small proportion is taking substitutive hormonal therapy and contraceptives. Women with higher education are taking that therapy most often. Medicine consumption was strongly related to poor self-rated health, especially among people with diagnosed chronic disease.

  9. Income Inequality and the Education Divide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    The economics of the decision to go to college or obtain technical training is discussed in this booklet. To stay competitive in the job market requires constant educational updating. The following questions are discussed: (1) how income inequality is measured; (2) how income is distributed in the United States; (3) why income inequality is…

  10. Contingent Repayment Education Loans Related to Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannon, Gerard M.

    This paper explores some questions about the use of income for determining repayment of educational loans. The plans generally call for a level of repayment to cover the initial advances, plus interest for a college graduate with average income, but would require less than full repayment for the students with low income, and over full repayment…

  11. Income prospects and age-at-marriage.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, T; Schoeni, R F

    1996-05-01

    "This paper provides an empirical investigation of a theoretical model of the marriage market. In the model, women are valued more for their ability to bear children and men are valued more for the ability to make money. Men cannot reveal their labor market ability to potential spouses until they enter the labor force. At the same time, the relevant information for evaluating females as spouses is revealed at a younger age. The model predicts that the income of males will be positively associated with age-at-first-marriage. We find empirical support for the model [based on U.S. data]. However, we also find the association between male earnings and age-at-first-marriage becomes negative for those who married after age 30, which was not predicted by the model. Consistent with the model, we do not find a strong relationship between earnings and age-at-first-marriage among females."

  12. Education for an Aging Planet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…

  13. American Higher Education and Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catharine B.

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates that increasing income inequality can contribute to the trends we see in American higher education, particularly in the selective, private nonprofit and public sectors. Given these institutions' selective admissions and commitment to socioeconomic diversity, the paper demonstrates how increasing income inequality leads to…

  14. Educational Expansion and Educational Inequality on Income Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kang H.

    1996-01-01

    Examines educational variables' effects on income distribution, using cross-sectional data covering 59 countries. Empirical results show that a higher level of educational attainment in the labor force has an equalizing effect on income distribution; the larger the dispersion of educational attainment among the workforce, the greater the income…

  15. Changes in the incomes of age groups, 1984-89.

    PubMed

    Radner, D B

    1991-12-01

    In terms of changes in the incomes of age groups, the 1984-89 period was very different from the periods that immediately preceded it. This summary focuses on changes for aged family units. During the 1984-89 period, the rate of growth of real median income of aged units was substantially lower than in other subperiods since 1967, the first year for which comparable detailed estimates are available. During the 1984-89 period, the ratio of aged to nonaged median incomes fell for 4 consecutive years, after generally rising since about 1970. The relative medians of almost all detailed aged age groups fell at least slightly from 1984 to 1989, after a period of substantial rises. The increases in income for aged units during 1984-89 were higher for high-income units than for low-income units, producing an increase in inequality. The percentage of aged persons who were poor fell slightly from 1984 to 1989, but that percentage remained above the rates for other adult age groups. A relatively high percentage of aged persons had income that was less than 50 percent above the poverty threshold. The increase in the real mean total income of aged units from 1984 to 1989 was the net result of substantial increases in earnings and pension income and a substantial decrease in property income. In contrast, the much larger increase in real mean total income for aged units from 1979 to 1984 was characterized by a large increase in property income, substantial increases in Social Security benefits and pension income, and a small decrease in earnings.

  16. [Income as a condition of self care in the aged].

    PubMed

    Pfaff, A B

    1982-01-01

    The current type of distribution of tasks between the generations leads to a system of income maintenance programs for the aged, which is based on their own past (largely statutory) provision for their old age income via public institutions. On the whole, the aged are to a very limited degree in the labor force. Most of them receive public transfer payments. On the average, the diverse income maintenance systems dependent on own past performance provide a fairly substantial income level when compared with wages and salaries. The transfer level is largely dependent on the type of old age security institution, on the extent of past labor force participation or contribution and past income; consequently it is quite diverse. Sex largely correlates with income differentials. While some groups end up with retirement incomes higher than their last wage income, others are definitely needy. Especially women constitute a substantial part of the poor. Besides low income, the danger of becoming a nursing case makes the aged dependent on other persons' or institutions' aid. The forthcoming reform of the public pension system shows little hope of eliminating the pockets of poverty among the aged by assuring a redistribution also among the aged.

  17. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  18. Income inequality and educational assortative mating: Evidence from the Luxembourg Income Study.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, David

    2015-07-01

    Though extensive research has explored the prevalence of educational assortative mating, what causes its variation across countries and over time is not well understood. Using data from the Luxembourg Income Study Database, I investigate the hypothesis that assortative mating by income is influenced by income inequality between educational strata. I find that in countries with greater returns to education, the odds of any sort of union that crosses educational boundaries is substantially reduced. However, I do not find substantial evidence of an effect of changes in returns to education on marital sorting within countries. Educational and labor market parity between males and females appear to be negatively related to marital sorting.

  19. Assessment of Low-Income Adults' Access to Technology: Implications for Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuenschwander, Lauren M.; Abbott, Angela; Mobley, Amy R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of this study was to investigate access and use of technologies such as the Internet among Indiana's low-income population. The secondary objective was to determine whether access and use of computers significantly differed by age, race, and/or education level. Methods: Data were collected from low-income adult…

  20. Educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Breen, Richard; Andersen, Signe Hald

    2012-08-01

    Many writers have expressed a concern that growing educational assortative mating will lead to greater inequality between households in their earnings or income. In this article, we examine the relationship between educational assortative mating and income inequality in Denmark between 1987 and 2006. Denmark is widely known for its low level of income inequality, but the Danish case provides a good test of the relationship between educational assortative mating and inequality because although income inequality increased over the period we consider, educational homogamy declined. Using register data on the exact incomes of the whole population, we find that change in assortative mating increased income inequality but that these changes were driven by changes in the educational distributions of men and women rather than in the propensity for people to choose a partner with a given level of education.

  1. Educational Inequality and Income Inequality: An Empirical Study on China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Jun; Huang, Xiao; Li, Xiaoyu

    2009-01-01

    Based on the endogenous growth theory, this paper uses the Gini coefficient to measure educational inequality and studies the empirical relationship between educational inequality and income inequality through a simultaneous equation model. The results show that: (1) Income inequality leads to educational inequality while the reduction of…

  2. Education's Effect on Income Inequality: An Economic Globalisation Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    Utilising a globalisation framework this study contributes to discussions concerning inequality, education, and development by re-examining the effects of educational and economic variables on income inequality. This research shows that the effects of education on income inequality are affected by the level of economic freedom in a country, and…

  3. Income gradients in oral health according to child age.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Murasko, Jason E; Gansky, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether the well-known income disparities in oral health seen over the life course are indeed absent in 9- to 11-yr-old children, and to explore the role of access to dental care in explaining the age-profile of the income gradient in child oral health. We used data from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health. Income gradients in parental reports of children's decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, broken teeth, bleeding gums, and fair/poor condition of teeth were assessed in stratified analyses according to age of child (1-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 yr), using survey logistic regression to control for family-, parental-, and child-level covariates. Health insurance status and use of preventive dental care were the indicators for children's access to dental care. The adjusted ORs for the effect of family income on having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth were not significant in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Different age-patterns were found for broken teeth and bleeding gums. The attenuation of the income gradients in having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth, previously seen in 9- to 11-yr-old children, was also seen in 15- to 17-, 12- to 14-, and 6- to 8-yr-old children, respectively, after controlling for children's access to dental care. This study supports the attenuation of income inequalities in oral health in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Access to dental care could attenuate income gradients in oral health in other age groups.

  4. Personal Income Taxation. National Education Association Search.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Research Div.

    The second in a series on school finance, this report describes the principles of fair and adequate state and local income taxation. The political setting is discussed, and the nature of indiviudal income taxes is explained by examining which states tax income and what income they tax. Tables 2, 3, and 4 demonstrate the expanding school financing…

  5. The Income Generation Handbook: A Practical Guide for Educational Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David; Leonard, Charles

    This book sets out the British policy context and theoretical framework for income generation by institutions of higher education and provides practical guidance in this area. Income generation is defined as all income generated over and above the core funding provided by an institution's primary funding body. Chapter 1 offers an overview of…

  6. Cohort Change and Racial Differences in Educational and Income Mobility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloome, Deirdre; Western, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Policy reforms and rising income inequality transformed educational and economic opportunities for Americans approaching midlife in the 1990s. Rising income inequality may have reduced mobility, as income gaps increased between rich and poor children. Against the effects of rising inequality, Civil Rights reforms may have increased mobility, as…

  7. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  8. Aging and Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzarre, Terry L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…

  9. The Role of Educational Aspirations and Expectations in the Discontinuity of Intergenerational Low-Income Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated one potential mechanism mediating continuity and discontinuity in low-income status across generations: children's educational aspirations and expectations. Data were drawn from a community sample of 808 participants who were followed from age 10 to 30. Four trajectory groups of children's educational aspirations and…

  10. Nuclear Age Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…

  11. Family income dynamics, early childhood education and care, and early child behavior problems in Norway.

    PubMed

    Zachrisson, Henrik D; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the effects of income dynamics. In a population-based sample (N = 75,296), within-family changes in income-to-needs predicted changes in externalizing and internalizing problems (from ages 18 to 36 months), particularly for lower income children. For internalizing problems, ECEC buffered the effect of income-to-needs changes. These findings lend further support to the potential benefits of ECEC for children from lower income families.

  12. Low-Income Students' Access to Selective Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eunkyoung

    2013-01-01

    The undermatch between low-income students' academic achievement and college destinations has become increasingly important in discussions of higher education access and equity. This study investigates whether low-income students are undermatched in their college choice, and if so, what factors are related to the undermatching. Specifically, this…

  13. Middle Income Undergraduates: Where They Enroll and How They Pay for Their Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Jennifer B.; Clery, Suzanne B.

    2001-01-01

    Profiles middle income undergraduates in comparison to their lower income and higher income counterparts, examines where middle income undergraduates enroll by price of attendance, and discusses how they pay for postsecondary education, including the role of financial aid. (Author)

  14. Sex differences in genetic and environmental influences on educational attainment and income.

    PubMed

    Orstavik, Ragnhild E; Czajkowski, Nikolai; Røysamb, Espen; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Tambs, Kristian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted

    2014-12-01

    In many Western countries, women now reach educational levels comparable to men, although their income remains considerably lower. For the past decades, it has become increasingly clear that these measures of socio-economic status are influenced by genetic as well as environmental factors. Less is known about the relationship between education and income, and sex differences. The aim of this study was to explore genetic and environmental factors influencing education and income in a large cohort of young Norwegian twins, with special emphasis on gender differences. National register data on educational level and income were obtained for 7,710 twins (aged 29-41 years). Bivariate Cholesky models were applied to estimate qualitative and quantitative gender differences in genetic and environmental influences, the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the correlation between education and income, and genetic correlations within and between sexes and phenotypes. The phenotypic correlation between educational level and income was 0.34 (0.32-0.39) for men and 0.45 (0.43-0.48) for women. An ACE model with both qualitative and quantitative sex differences fitted the data best. The genetic correlation between men and women (rg) was 0.66 (0.22-1.00) for educational attainment and 0.38 (0.01-0.75) for income, and between the two phenotypes 0.31 (0.08-0.52) for men and 0.72 (0.64-0.85) for women. Our results imply that, in relatively egalitarian societies with state-supported access to higher education and political awareness of gender equality, genetic factors may play an important role in explaining sex differences in the relationship between education and income.

  15. Consumer Education for Families with Limited Incomes. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    Designed as an aid for those teaching disadvantaged adults, this guide for consumer education for families with limited incomes consists of an overview for preparing teachers to teach consumer education to disadvantaged adults as well as English and Spanish instructional materials in 10 areas of consumer education. In the overview of teaching…

  16. Employment status and income as potential mediators of educational inequalities in population mental health

    PubMed Central

    Niedzwiedz, Claire L.; Popham, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We assessed whether educational inequalities in mental health may be mediated by employment status and household income. Poor mental health was assessed using General Health Questionnaire ‘caseness’ in working age adult participants (N = 48 654) of the Health Survey for England (2001–10). Relative indices of inequality by education level were calculated. Substantial inequalities were apparent, with adjustment for employment status and household income markedly reducing their magnitude. Educational inequalities in mental health were attenuated by employment status. Policy responses to economic recession (such as active labour market interventions) might reduce mental health inequalities but longitudinal research is needed to exclude reverse causation. PMID:27593454

  17. Burden of disease associated with lower levels of income among US adults aged 65 and older

    PubMed Central

    Lubetkin, Erica I; Jia, Haomiao

    2017-01-01

    Background Persons aged 65 years and older represent a heterogeneous group whose prevalence in the USA is expected to markedly increase. Few investigations have examined the total burden of disease attributable to lower levels of income in a single number that accounts for morbidity and mortality. Methods We ascertained respondents' health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores and mortality status from the 2003 to 2004, 2005 to 2006, 2007 to 2008 and 2009 to 2010 cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with mortality follow-up through 31 December 2011. A mapping algorithm based on respondents' age and answers to the 4 core Healthy Days questions was used to obtain values of a preference-based measure of HRQOL, the EuroQol five dimensions questionnaire (EQ-5D) index, which enables quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) to be calculated. We included only respondents aged 65 years and older at the baseline, yielding a total sample size of 4952. We estimated mean QALYs according to different categories of income based on the percentage of Federal Poverty Level (FPL). Results After adjusting for age, gender and education, the remaining QALYs decreased with each successive decrement of category of income, ranging from 18.4 QALY (≥500% FPL) to 8.6 QALY (<100% FPL). Compared with participants with a mean income of ≥250% FPL, participants with an income <250% FPL had significant losses in QALY for most of the sociodemographic groups examined. In contrast, persons with a lower educational attainment did not show a corresponding loss in QALY according to income category. Conclusions This study confirmed the association between lower income category and greater burden of disease, as measured by QALYs lost, among the US population aged 65 years and older. Our findings provide additional evidence of the role played by other key determinants of health and how factors not traditionally addressed by the healthcare system impact the life

  18. Meeting the Educational Challenges of Income Inequality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Can the nation's schools meet today's challenge of providing all students with the skills they will need to thrive in the rapidly changing economy and society of the 21st century? The authors point out in this article that a large percentage of children, overwhelmingly from low-income families, end their formal schooling without the…

  19. Temporal discounting in choice between delayed rewards: the role of age and income.

    PubMed

    Green, L; Myerson, J; Lichtman, D; Rosen, S; Fry, A

    1996-03-01

    This study examined the effects of age and income temporal discounting (i.e. the decrease in the subjective value of a reward as the delay to its receipt increases). The value of delayed hypothetical monetary rewards was discounted at similar rates by adults of different ages but similar income levels, but at different rates by adults of similar age but different income levels. Specifically, lower income older adults showed a greater degree of temporal discounting than did either upper income older adults or upper income younger adults, but there were no age differences in discounting between the upper income groups. Comparison of these findings with those of a previous study (Green, Fry, & Myerson, 1994) suggests that impulsivity in decision making declines rapidly in young adulthood, reaching stable levels in the 30s. Further, age and income appear to interact in determining the impulsivity of decision making by adults.

  20. Educational Level Attained & Family Income by Junior College Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Gulf Coast Junior Coll., Perkinston.

    This document consists of two charts indicating the average educational levels and the average yearly family incomes of the populations served by the colleges and junior colleges in l3 areas of Mississippi. Information presented includes a listing of colleges and counties in each area, area population, average educational level, and average annual…

  1. How Convincing Is the Evidence Linking Education and Income?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashenfelter, Orley

    Recent research has studied the link between schooling and income. Evidence indicates the strong relationship found between level of education and lifetime earnings levels. Labor economists have designed studies and measured educational outcomes to differentiate between earnings associated with innate ability and earnings associated with…

  2. Best Practices in Nutrition Education for Low-Income Audiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Susan; Auld, Garry; MacKinnon, Chloe; Ammerman, Alice; Hanula, Gail; Lohse, Barbara; Scott, Marci; Serrano, Elena; Tucker, Easter; Wardlaw, Mary Kay

    2014-01-01

    The Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) identified a need for a comprehensive set of best practices in nutrition education for low-income audiences for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) educational projects, including SNAP-Ed. A comprehensive list of best practices would promote consistency and efficacy in program planning,…

  3. Reading Disability and Adult Attained Education and Income: Evidence from a 30-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret J.; Speirs, Katherine E.; Shenassa, Edmond D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of childhood reading disability (RD) on adult educational attainment and income. Participants' (N = 1,344) RD was assessed at age 7, and adult educational attainment and income were assessed in midlife using categorical variables. Participants with RD at age 7 were 74% (95% CI: 0.18, 0.37) less likely to attain a…

  4. Education and Income Inequality among Asian Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macaranas, Federico M.

    The reduction of social inequalities through education is widely believed to be possible. In the past decade however, social scientists have increasingly questioned the posited conventional relationship between education and socio-economic equality. Factors other than the number of years and/or the quality of schooling have to be considered in…

  5. Aging Education: A National Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…

  6. Second Chance Education Matters! Income Trajectories of Poorly Educated Non-Nordics in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Bonfanti, Sara; Strandh, Mattias

    2015-01-01

    In this study we examine the long-term impact of second chance education (SCE) on incomes of poorly educated individuals who live in Sweden but were not born in a Nordic country, using data on income changes from 1992 to 2003 compiled by Statistics Sweden. Ordinary Least Squares regression analyses show that participation in SCE increased the work…

  7. Condition of Access: Higher Education for Lower Income Students. ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Donald E., Ed.

    Chapters in this collection discuss the state of access to U.S. higher education institutions for lower income students and the status of student aid programs. The chapters of part 1, "College Access Issues for Lower Income Students," contains: (1) "Educational Opportunity in America" (Brian K. Fitzgerald and Jennifer A. Delaney); and (2) "An…

  8. Managing Personal Income: Teacher Guide. Family Financial Education Program 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Co., Chicago.

    The teacher's guide is for a high school unit on personal income management, part of a family financial education program which also includes a unit on accepting credit responsibility. It can be used by teachers of any subject attempting to develop in students habits and attitudes in the area of earning, saving, and spending. The unit is based on…

  9. Child Care Choices, Consumer Education, and Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anne; And Others

    In 1991, the National Center for Children in Poverty undertook a study of low-income parents as child care consumers. The study involved a review of current research findings, interviews with staff of child resource and referral agencies, and an examination of child care consumer education provided in the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS)…

  10. Tailoring science education graduate programs to the needs of science educators in low-income countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunetta, Vincent N.; van den Berg, Euwe

    Science education graduate programs in high-income countries frequently enroll students from low-income countries. Upon admission these students have profiles of knowledge, skills, and experiences which can be quite different from those of students from the host high-income countries. Upon graduation, they will normally return to work in education systems with conditions which differ greatly from those in high-income countries. This article attempts to clarify some of the differences and similarities between such students. It offers suggestions for making graduate programs more responsive to the special needs of students from low-income countries and to the opportunities they offer for enhancing cross-cultural sensitivity. Many of the suggestions can be incorporated within existing programs through choices of elective courses and topics for papers, projects, and research. Many references are provided to relevant literature on cultural issues and on science education in low-income countries.

  11. Distinct impact of education and income on habitual exercise: a cross-sectional analysis in a rural city in Japan.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Keiko; Hashimoto, Hideki; Lee, Jung Su; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi; Mori, Katsumi; Akabayashi, Akira

    2011-12-01

    Education and income are important socioeconomic indicators that reflect different aspects of social hierarchy. However, only a few studies have explicitly examined how different the relationship between education and health behaviour is from that between income and health behaviour. According to the human capital theory of health investment, education would reflect knowledge assets that allow an efficient investment in health, while income would relate to the value of healthy days and/or the time cost of health investment. Since time cost and the relative price of health would differ across age strata, we examined the significance of effect modification by age strata to distinguish the effects of education on habitual exercise from the effects of income. A cross-sectional survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire in a rural city in northern Japan in January 2007 (n = 3385). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association of educational attainment and household income with habitual exercise. Interaction terms of these socioeconomic indicators with age strata (<60 years versus ≥60 years) were included to test the distinctive association across age, followed by a stratified analysis. As theoretically predicted, higher income was significantly associated with habitual exercise among those aged 25-59 years, while the association was null or negative among those aged 60 and above. Education was significantly associated with habitual exercise regardless of the age groups. These results suggest that the effects of socioeconomic factors on health behaviours vary according to which socioeconomic indicators are analysed, and which age group is selected. We conclude that studies on the socioeconomic disparity of health behaviours should carefully choose socioeconomic indicators to explain specific health behaviours to reveal underlying mechanisms and provide relevant policy implications, based on explicit behavioural models.

  12. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility... FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY, RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  13. Do age-friendly characteristics influence the expectation to age in place? A comparison of low-income and higher income Detroit elders.

    PubMed

    Lehning, Amanda J; Smith, Richard J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2015-03-01

    Currently there is limited evidence linking age-friendly characteristics to outcomes in elders. Using a representative sample of 1,376 adults aged 60 and older living in Detroit, this study examined the association between age-friendly social and physical environmental characteristics and the expectation to age in place, and the potential differences between low- and higher-income elders. Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) age-friendly guide, we identified six factors reflecting age-friendly characteristics. Logistic regression models indicated that regardless of income level only neighborhood problems were significantly associated with expecting to age in place. Low-income elders were more likely to expect to age in place than their higher-income counterparts, and it is unclear whether this resulted from a desire to remain in the home or that there is no place else to go. Future research should address the ways in which financial resources affect the choices, expectations, and outcomes of aging in place.

  14. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  15. Preferred Educational Delivery Strategies among Limited Income Older Adults Enrolled in Community Nutrition Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Stephany; Powell, Laura; Hermann, Janice; Phelps, Joshua; Brown, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here explored educational delivery preference of limited income older Oklahomans. Sixty participants 60 years or older enrolled in Community Nutrition Education Programs observed three educational delivery strategies and participated in a group discussion. Two researchers independently coded focus group transcripts and frequency…

  16. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge from Age 4 to 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An Early Math Trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from age 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math…

  17. The Effects of Age and Household Income on the Use of Literate Language Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmon, Regina D.; McDade, Hiram L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of literate language features (LLFs) in the oral narratives of African American and Caucasian American preschoolers residing in either low- or middle-income homes to determine whether differences existed as a result of age or household income. The oral narratives of 96 preschoolers enrolled in public school programs and…

  18. The effects of income level, income distribution, education and urbanization on fertility rates among 28 administrative regions of China.

    PubMed

    Lee, B S

    1990-07-01

    Conflicting empirical evidence on the role of income distribution on fertility rates is the impetus for this 1982 study of providence-specific Chinese Census data, excluding Tibet. The findings support the prior thesis of Repetto but utilize the micromethods and per household income measures of the competing findings of Boulier. It is cautioned that in the Chinese analysis equal income distribution depresses fertility, but China may not reflect world wide patterns. China did not have until recently a market incentive system, and there are income measurement problems. The data are per capita economic output not per capita income, and those high output areas which did not produce low fertility may actually have had households with low incomes. The importance of this research is in establishing that cross-province data are a useful tool in understanding the influence of income distribution on fertility. As with most developing countries, women's education, for instance, at least junior high education explained the largest variation of fertility differences among the 28 provinces. The urbanization variable when controlling for income was positive, unlike the other developing countries. The 1949 Chinese government's spatial industrial policy encouraged urbanization and industrialization in rural areas and family planning programs such that highly urbanized provinces have low population density. A variety of variables on income level, income distribution, education, and urbanization are discussed. OLSQ regressions were generated utilizing such independent variables as output per capita in yuan (YOUTHPC80), the square of YOUTHPC80 (YOUTHPC802), YOUTHPC80 multiplied by the average family size in each province (YOUTHPH80), and the squared value of YOUTHPH80.

  19. Socioeconomic status and health: how education, income, and occupation contribute to risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed Central

    Winkleby, M A; Jatulis, D E; Frank, E; Fortmann, S P

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Socioeconomic status (SES) is usually measured by determining education, income, occupation, or a composite of these dimensions. Although education is the most commonly used measure of SES in epidemiological studies, no investigators in the United States have conducted an empirical analysis quantifying the relative impact of each separate dimension of SES on risk factors for disease. METHODS. Using data on 2380 participants from the Stanford Five-City Project (85% White, non-Hispanic), we examined the independent contribution of education, income, and occupation to a set of cardiovascular disease risk factors (cigarette smoking, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, and total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). RESULTS. The relationship between these SES measures and risk factors was strongest and most consistent for education, showing higher risk associated with lower levels of education. Using a forward selection model that allowed for inclusion of all three SES measures after adjustment for age and time of survey, education was the only measure that was significantly associated with the risk factors (P less than .05). CONCLUSION. If economics or time dictate that a single parameter of SES be chosen and if the research hypothesis does not dictate otherwise, higher education may be the best SES predictor of good health. PMID:1585961

  20. Aging and Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Margaret M.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The elderly death rate is somewhat higher than the death rate in general. Numbers of schools with gerontological curricula and frequency of death education courses are positively related to elderly death rates. The contention that elderly deaths have less social impact is not supported. (JAC)

  1. An Educational Response to Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Rosemary

    1978-01-01

    The emphasis of this article is on aging and the needs of the elderly as a basis for developing educational content in the curriculum. It includes a description of a theoretical framework developed by Abraham Maslow for a holistic approach to needs of the aged. (Editor/RK)

  2. Assistive technologies for ageing populations in six low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Marasinghe, Keshini Madara; Lapitan, Jostacio Moreno; Ross, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Despite the benefits derived from the use of assistive technologies (AT), some parts of the world have minimal or no access to AT. In many low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), only 5–15% of people who require AT have access to them. Rapid demographic changes will exacerbate this situation as populations over 60 years of age, as well as functional limitations among older populations, in LMIC are expected to be higher than in high-income countries in the coming years. Given both these trends, AT are likely to be in high demand and provide many benefits to respond to challenges related to healthy and productive ageing. Multiple databases were searched for English literature. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to AT, ageing population and LMIC selected for this study, namely Brazil, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Turkey and Zimbabwe. These countries are expected to see the most rapid growth in the 65 and above population in the coming years. Results indicate that all countries had AT designed for older adults with existing impairment and disability, but had limited AT that are designed to prevent impairment and disability among older adults who do not currently have any disabilities. All countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The findings conclude that AT for ageing populations have received some attention in LMIC as attested by the limited literature results. Analysis of review findings indicate the need for a comprehensive, integrated health and social system approach to increase the current availability of AT for ageing populations in LMIC. These would entail, yet not be limited to, work on: (1) promoting initiatives for low-cost AT; (2) awareness raising and capacity building on AT; (3) bridging the gap between AT policy and practice; and (4) fostering targeted research on AT. PMID:26688747

  3. Assistive technologies for ageing populations in six low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Marasinghe, Keshini Madara; Lapitan, Jostacio Moreno; Ross, Alex

    2015-10-01

    Despite the benefits derived from the use of assistive technologies (AT), some parts of the world have minimal or no access to AT. In many low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), only 5-15% of people who require AT have access to them. Rapid demographic changes will exacerbate this situation as populations over 60 years of age, as well as functional limitations among older populations, in LMIC are expected to be higher than in high-income countries in the coming years. Given both these trends, AT are likely to be in high demand and provide many benefits to respond to challenges related to healthy and productive ageing. Multiple databases were searched for English literature. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to AT, ageing population and LMIC selected for this study, namely Brazil, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Turkey and Zimbabwe. These countries are expected to see the most rapid growth in the 65 and above population in the coming years. Results indicate that all countries had AT designed for older adults with existing impairment and disability, but had limited AT that are designed to prevent impairment and disability among older adults who do not currently have any disabilities. All countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The findings conclude that AT for ageing populations have received some attention in LMIC as attested by the limited literature results. Analysis of review findings indicate the need for a comprehensive, integrated health and social system approach to increase the current availability of AT for ageing populations in LMIC. These would entail, yet not be limited to, work on: (1) promoting initiatives for low-cost AT; (2) awareness raising and capacity building on AT; (3) bridging the gap between AT policy and practice; and (4) fostering targeted research on AT.

  4. Widening Income Inequalities: Higher Education's Role in Serving Low Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Jon C.; Crosby, Pamela C.

    2015-01-01

    Many scholars argue that America is becoming a dangerously divided nation because of increasing inequality, especially in income distribution. This article examines the problem of widening income inequality with particular focus on the role that colleges and universities and their student affairs organizations play in serving low income students…

  5. Mental disorders and termination of education in high-income and low- and middle-income countries: epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, S.; Tsang, A.; Breslau, J.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Angermeyer, M.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; de Girolamo, G.; Fayyad, J.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J. M.; Kawakami, N.; Levinson, D.; Browne, M. A. Oakley; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Williams, D. R.; Kessler, R. C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies of the impact of mental disorders on educational attainment are rare in both high-income and low- and middle-income (LAMI) countries. Aims To examine the association between early-onset mental disorder and subsequent termination of education. Method Sixteen countries taking part in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative were surveyed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (n=41 688). Survival models were used to estimate associations between DSM–IV mental disorders and subsequent non-attainment of educational milestones. Results In high-income countries, prior substance use disorders were associated with non-completion at all stages of education (OR 1.4–15.2). Anxiety disorders (OR=1.3), mood disorders (OR=1.4) and impulse control disorders (OR=2.2) were associated with early termination of secondary education. In LAMI countries, impulse control disorders (OR=1.3) and substance use disorders (OR=1.5) were associated with early termination of secondary education. Conclusions Onset of mental disorder and subsequent non-completion of education are consistently associated in both high-income and LAMI countries. PMID:19407270

  6. Age at Immigration and the Incomes of Older Immigrants, 1994–2010

    PubMed Central

    Tienda, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Method. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994–2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Results. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Discussion. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. PMID:24942972

  7. Family income and tooth decay in US children: does the association change with age?

    PubMed

    Bernabé, E; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Murasko, J E; Marcenes, W

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether the association of family income with tooth decay changes with age among children in the United States. A second objective was to explore the role of access to dental health care services in explaining the interrelationships between family income, child age and tooth decay. Data from 7,491 2- to 15-year-old children who participated in the 1999-2004 National and Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. The association of family income with the prevalence of tooth decay in primary, permanent and primary or permanent teeth was first estimated in logistic regression models with all children, and then, separately in four age groups that reflect the development of the dentition (2-5, 6-8, 9-11 and 12-15 years, respectively). Findings showed that the income gradient in tooth decay attenuated significantly in 9- to 11-year-olds only to re-emerge in 12- to 15-year-olds. The age profile of the income gradient in tooth decay was not accounted for by a diverse set of family and child characteristics. This is the first study providing some evidence for age variations in the income gradient in tooth decay among children in the United States.

  8. Personality Traits and Gender-Specific Income Expectations in Dutch Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Need, Ariana; de Jong, Uulkje

    2008-01-01

    In this article we examine gender differences in income expectations of students in higher education. We found quite large gender differences. Men and women differ significantly in the income they expect to earn at the top of their career. We examined how much personality traits contribute to explain gender differences in income expectations, and…

  9. Low-Income Students: Who They Are and How They Pay for Their Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan P.

    2000-01-01

    Profiles low-income students, focusing on financial need and the contribution of financial aid. Findings from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study show that low-income students who began their postsecondary education in 1995-1996 were less likely than their not-low-income counterparts to have earned a degree or certificate or still be…

  10. Impact of demographic characteristics in pet ownership: modeling animal count according to owners income and age.

    PubMed

    Martins, Camila Marinelli; Mohamed, Ahmed; Guimarães, Ana Marcia Sá; de Barros, Cristiane da Conceição; Pampuch, Raquel Dos Santos; Svoboda, Walfrido; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria; Ferreira, Fernando; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2013-05-01

    Pet owner characteristics such as age, gender, income/social class, marital status, rural/urban residence and household type have been shown to be associated with the number of owned pets. However, few studies to date have attempted to evaluate these associations in Brazil. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between age and income of owners and the number of owned dogs and cats in a Brazilian urban center. Pinhais, metropolitan area of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, the seventh largest city in Brazil, was chosen for this study. Questionnaires were administered door-to-door between January and February 2007 and data were analyzed by zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models. A total of 13,555 of 30,380 (44.62%) households were interviewed. The majority (62.43%) of households reported having one or more dogs, with one or two dogs being the most common (29.97% and 19.71%, respectively). Cat ownership per household was much lower (P=0.001) than dog ownership, with 90% of the households reported having no owned cats. ZINB analyses indicated that income is not associated with the number of both dogs and cats among households that have pets. However, households from higher income categories were more likely to have dogs (but not cats) when compared to the lowest income category (P<0.05), contradicting a common belief that the poorer the family, the more likely they have pets. Certain age categories were significantly associated with the number of dogs or cats in households that have pets. In addition, most age categories were significantly associated with having dogs and/or cats (P<0.05). In conclusion, our study has found that age but not household income is associated with the number of dogs or cats in households that have pets; higher income households were more likely to have dogs when compared to low-income households.

  11. The role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and income: evidence from the National Child Development Study.

    PubMed

    Davies, Neil M; Hemani, Gibran; Timpson, Nic J; Windmeijer, Frank; Davey Smith, George

    2015-11-12

    We investigated the role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and household income. We used data from 5,458 participants of the National Child Development Study to estimate: 1) the associations of rs9320913, rs11584700 and rs4851266 and socioeconomic position and educational phenotypes; and 2) the univariate chip-heritability of each phenotype, and the genetic correlation between each phenotype and educational attainment at age 16. The three SNPs were associated with most measures of educational attainment. Common genetic variation contributed to 6 of 14 socioeconomic background phenotypes, and 17 of 29 educational phenotypes. We found evidence of genetic correlations between educational attainment at age 16 and 4 of 14 social background and 8 of 28 educational phenotypes. This suggests common genetic variation contributes both to differences in educational attainment and its relationship with other phenotypes. However, we remain cautious that cryptic population structure, assortative mating, and dynastic effects may influence these associations.

  12. The role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and income: evidence from the National Child Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Neil M.; Hemani, Gibran; Timpson, Nic J.; Windmeijer, Frank; Davey Smith, George

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and household income. We used data from 5,458 participants of the National Child Development Study to estimate: 1) the associations of rs9320913, rs11584700 and rs4851266 and socioeconomic position and educational phenotypes; and 2) the univariate chip-heritability of each phenotype, and the genetic correlation between each phenotype and educational attainment at age 16. The three SNPs were associated with most measures of educational attainment. Common genetic variation contributed to 6 of 14 socioeconomic background phenotypes, and 17 of 29 educational phenotypes. We found evidence of genetic correlations between educational attainment at age 16 and 4 of 14 social background and 8 of 28 educational phenotypes. This suggests common genetic variation contributes both to differences in educational attainment and its relationship with other phenotypes. However, we remain cautious that cryptic population structure, assortative mating, and dynastic effects may influence these associations. PMID:26561353

  13. Old-age income security and private transfers in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jinkook; Lee, Youngae

    2009-01-01

    We examined the relative contributions of government income support programs and familial transfers to old-age income security in Korea. This issue is critical, as policy reforms are in progress, and the potential crowding-out effect of government programs on familial transfer is at the center of heated debate. Using the 2006 Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging, we found that one-third of the elderly were poor and the contribution of public transfer to income security for the elderly was limited, whereas family, especially children, played a large role both by co-residing and through private transfers. Crowding out is less of a problem for the poor but a sensitive issue for middle-income families.

  14. Education, income, and occupational class cannot be used interchangeably in social epidemiology. Empirical evidence against a common practice

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Siegfried; Hemström, Örjan; Peter, Richard; Vågerö, Denny

    2006-01-01

    Study objective Education, income, and occupational class are often used interchangeably in studies showing social inequalities in health. This procedure implies that all three characteristics measure the same underlying phenomena. This paper questions this practice. The study looked for any independent effects of education, income, and occupational class on four health outcomes: diabetes prevalence, myocardial infarction incidence and mortality, and finally all cause mortality in populations from Sweden and Germany. Design Sweden: follow up of myocardial infarction mortality and all cause mortality in the entire population, based on census linkage to the Cause of Death Registry. Germany: follow up of myocardial infarction morbidity and all cause mortality in statutory health insurance data, plus analysis of prevalence data on diabetes. Multiple regression analyses were performed to calculate the effects of education, income, and occupational class before and after mutual adjustments. Setting and participants Sweden (all residents aged 25–64) and Germany (Mettman district, Nordrhein‐Westfalen, all insured persons aged 25–64). Main results Correlations between education, income, and occupational class were low to moderate. Which of these yielded the strongest effects on health depended on type of health outcome in question. For diabetes, education was the strongest predictor and for all cause mortality it was income. Myocardial infarction morbidity and mortality showed a more mixed picture. In mutually adjusted analyses each social dimension had an independent effect on each health outcome in both countries. Conclusions Education, income, and occupational class cannot be used interchangeably as indicators of a hypothetical latent social dimension. Although correlated, they measure different phenomena and tap into different causal mechanisms. PMID:16905727

  15. Lower education among low-income Brazilian adolescent females is associated with planned pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Faisal-Cury, Alexandre; Tabb, Karen M; Niciunovas, Guilherme; Cunningham, Carrie; Menezes, Paulo R; Huang, Hsiang

    2017-01-01

    Adolescent pregnancy has social, economic, and educational consequences and is also linked to adverse perinatal outcomes. However, studies show a positive relationship between pregnancy and increased social status among low-income adolescents. This study aims to assess the association between planned pregnancy and years of schooling among low-income Brazilian adolescents. This is a secondary analysis of a cohort study conducted from May 2005 to March 2007 in public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Participants (n=168) completed a detailed structured questionnaire. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between years of schooling and planned pregnancy. After adjusting for the covariates income, wealth score, crowding, age, marital status, and race, planned pregnancy was independently associated with lower years of education (odds ratio: 1.82; 95% confidence interval: 1.02–3.23). Although this finding may be related to these adolescents having less access to information and health services, another possible explanation is that they have a greater desire to have children during adolescence. PMID:28176946

  16. Low-income parents' perceptions of pediatrician advice on early childhood education.

    PubMed

    Brown, Courtney M; Girio-Herrera, Erin L; Sherman, Susan N; Kahn, Robert S; Copeland, Kristen A

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians promote early childhood education (ECE). However, pediatricians have met resistance from low-income parents when providing anticipatory guidance on some topics outside the realm of physical health. Parents' views on discussing ECE with the pediatrician have not been studied. We sought to understand low-income parents' experiences and attitudes with regard to discussing ECE with the pediatrician and to identify opportunities for pediatrician input. We conducted 27 in-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with parents of 3- and 4-year-old patients (100% Medicaid, 78% African American) at an urban primary care center. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed for themes by a multidisciplinary team. Most low-income parents in our study reported they primarily sought ECE advice from family and friends but were open to talking about ECE with the pediatrician. They considered their children's individual behavior and development to be important factors in ECE decisions and appreciated pediatricians' advice about developmental readiness for ECE. Participants' decisions about ECE were often driven by fears that their children would be abused or neglected. Many viewed 3 years as the age at which children had sufficient language skills to report mistreatment and could be safely enrolled in ECE. Participants were generally accepting of discussions about ECE during well child visits. There may be opportunity for the pediatrician to frame ECE discussions in the context of development, behavior, and safety and to promote high-quality ECE at an earlier age.

  17. Income Distribution and Colombian Rural Education. Program of Development Studies Paper No. 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thirsk, Wayne R.

    Education policies can discriminate against different income groups through the supply of educational opportunities. Expansion of primary school facilities in neglected areas, in this case rural Colombia, may have a high rate of return as well as raise relative incomes of poor people. A simple theoretical model deals with linkages between…

  18. Economic Growth, Rural Educational Investment and the Level and Distribution of Rural Incomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badiani, Reena Chandu

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines two related questions. First, it estimates the effect of growth in the demand for skilled and unskilled labor on rural household incomes and the rural wage structure. Second, it examines the effect of growth in household incomes and in labor market returns to education on household educational investment. The…

  19. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M.; Nfor, Oswald N.; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category“51” or “52”) and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18–44 years) and males (45–64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937–4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603–3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878–3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821–2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65. PMID:27082549

  20. Influence of Parental Education and Family Income on Children's Education in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drajea, Alice J.; O'Sullivan, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of parents' literacy levels and family income in Uganda on the quality and nature of parents' involvement in their children's primary education. A mixed-methods study with an ethnographic element was employed to explore the views and opinions of 21 participants through a qualitative approach. Methods for data…

  1. Increasing Access for Low-Income Students and Making Financial Education a Priority for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna

    2009-01-01

    While widespread financial illiteracy and reduced opportunities for low-income students to participate in higher education may seem unrelated, both challenges can be addressed through Individual Development Accounts (IDAs), an existing but widely underutilized tool. IDAs have the potential both to increase access and retention of low-income…

  2. Family income, parental education and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among 2-3-year-old Chinese children: the mediator effect of parent-child conflict.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    Using a sample of 156 Chinese children aged 2-3 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socio-economic status, specifically family income and parental education, on the children's internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and whether these effects were mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. Results indicated that family income, maternal education and paternal education all negatively predicted externalizing symptoms. Income also negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among boys but not girls. Maternal education negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among girls but not boys. The effects of income on psychopathology were fully mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. In contrast, the effects of education were not mediated or only partially mediated by conflict. Findings are discussed in the framework of the family stress model.

  3. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children’s preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  4. Relations of growth in effortful control to family income, cumulative risk, and adjustment in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Lengua, Liliana J; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2015-05-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50 % girls, 50 % boys) from families representing a range of income (29 % at- or near-poverty; 28 % lower-income; 25 % middle-income; 18 % upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36-40 month. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children's preschool adjustment.

  5. Low-income parents’ perceptions of pediatrician advice on early childhood education

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Courtney M.; Girio-Herrera, Erin L.; Sherman, Susan N.; Kahn, Robert S.; Copeland, Kristen A.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that pediatricians promote early childhood education (ECE). However, pediatricians have met resistance from low-income parents when providing anticipatory guidance on some topics outside the realm of physical health. Parents’ views on discussing ECE with the pediatrician have not been studied. OBJECTIVES We sought to understand low-income parents’ experiences and attitudes with regard to discussing early childhood education (ECE) with the pediatrician and to identify opportunities for pediatrician input. METHODS We conducted 27 in-depth, semi-structured, qualitative interviews with parents of 3- and 4-year-old patients (100% Medicaid, 78% African American) at an urban primary care center. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and reviewed for themes by a multidisciplinary team. RESULTS Most low-income parents in our study reported they primarily sought ECE advice from family and friends but were open to talking about ECE with the pediatrician. They considered their children’s individual behavior and development to be important factors in ECE decisions and appreciated pediatricians’ advice about developmental readiness for ECE. Participants’ decisions about ECE were often driven by fears that their children would be abused or neglected. Many viewed 3 years as the age at which children had sufficient language skills to report mistreatment and could be safely enrolled in ECE. CONCLUSIONS Participants were generally accepting of discussions about ECE during well child visits. There may be opportunity for the pediatrician to frame ECE discussions in the context of development, behavior, and safety and to promote high-quality ECE at an earlier age. PMID:23324946

  6. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  7. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  8. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  9. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  10. Are Household Income, Gender, and Race Important in Shaping Parental Involvement in Children's Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas D.; Ellis, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    The authors used data from the National Household Education Surveys (NHES) Program 2007 Parent and Family Involvement in Education Survey (National Center for Education Statistics, 2007) (N=10,681) to examine household income, gender, and race of parents, and their importance in shaping parental involvement in children's education. The study finds…

  11. Higher Education, Real Income and Real Investment in China: Evidence from Granger Causality Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar; Smyth, Russell

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs cointegration and error-correction modelling to test the causal relationship between real income, real investment and tertiary education using data for the People's Republic of China over the period 1952-1999. To proxy tertiary education we use higher education enrolments and higher education graduates in alternative empirical…

  12. Increases in maternal education and low-income children's cognitive and behavioral outcomes.

    PubMed

    Harding, Jessica F

    2015-05-01

    Although the strong link between maternal education and children's outcomes is one of the most well-established findings in developmental psychology (Reardon, 2011; Sirin, 2005), less is known about how young, low-income children are influenced by their mothers completing additional education. In this research, longitudinal data from the Head Start Impact Study were used to explore the associations between increases in maternal education and Head Start eligible children's cognitive skills and behavioral problems in 1st grade. Propensity score weighting was used to identify a balanced comparison group of 1,362 children whose mothers did not increase their education between baseline (when children were aged 3 or 4) and children's kindergarten year, who are similar on numerous covariates to the 262 children whose mothers did increase their education. Propensity-score weighted regression analyses indicated that increases in maternal education were positively associated with children's standardized cognitive scores, but also with higher teacher-reported externalizing behavioral problems in 1st grade. The increases in externalizing behavioral problems were larger for children whose mothers had less than a college degree at baseline.

  13. Education, income and ethnic differences in cumulative biological risk profiles in a national sample of US adults: NHANES III (1988-1994).

    PubMed

    Seeman, Teresa; Merkin, Sharon S; Crimmins, Eileen; Koretz, Brandon; Charette, Susan; Karlamangla, Arun

    2008-01-01

    Data from the nationally representative US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III cohort were used to examine the hypothesis that socio-economic status is consistently and negatively associated with levels of biological risk, as measured by nine biological parameters known to predict health risks (diastolic and systolic blood pressure, pulse, HDL and total cholesterol, glycosylated hemoglobin, c-reactive protein, albumin and waist-hip ratio), resulting in greater cumulative burdens of biological risk among those of lower education and/or income. As hypothesized, consistent education and income gradients were seen for biological parameters reflecting cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory risk: those with lower education and income exhibiting greater prevalence of high-risk values for each of nine individual biological risk factors. Significant education and income gradients were also seen for summary indices reflecting cumulative burdens of cardiovascular, metabolic and inflammatory risks as well as overall total biological risks. Multivariable cumulative logistic regression models revealed that the education and income effects were each independently and negatively associated with cumulative biological risks, and that these effects remained significant independent of age, gender, ethnicity and lifestyle factors such as smoking and physical activity. There were no significant ethnic differences in the patterns of association between socio-economic status and biological risks, but older age was associated with significantly weaker education and income gradients.

  14. Education Modifies the Association of Wealth with Obesity in Women in Middle-Income but Not Low-Income Countries: An Interaction Study Using Seven National Datasets, 2005-2010

    PubMed Central

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina; Bell, Ruth; Shipley, Martin J.; Marmot, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Education and wealth may have different associations with female obesity but this has not been investigated in detail outside high-income countries. This study examines the separate and inter-related associations of education and household wealth in relation to obesity in women in a representative sample of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods The seven largest national surveys were selected from a list of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) ordered by decreasing sample size and resulted in a range of country income levels. These were nationally representative data of women aged 15–49 years collected in the period 2005–2010. The separate and joint effects, unadjusted and adjusted for age group, parity, and urban/rural residence using a multivariate logistic regression model are presented Results In the four middle-income countries (Colombia, Peru, Jordan, and Egypt), an interaction was found between education and wealth on obesity (P-value for interaction <0.001). Among women with no/primary education the wealth effect was positive whereas in the group with higher education it was either absent or inverted (negative). In the poorer countries (India, Nigeria, Benin), there was no evidence of an interaction. Instead, the associations between each of education and wealth with obesity were independent and positive. There was a statistically significant difference between the average interaction estimates for the low-income and middle-income countries (P<0.001). Conclusions The findings suggest that education may protect against the obesogenic effects of increased household wealth as countries develop. Further research could examine the factors explaining the country differences in education effects. PMID:24608086

  15. Education, Income Distribution and Intergenerational Mobility: Findings from Field Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohanty, Alekha Chandra

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of widespread poverty and the increasing inequality in income distribution across nations point to the failure of the trickle-down theory. The long-held faith in the growth of income as the sole policy instrument to achieve the national objective of growth with equity has been put to the test. The increasing numbers of the poor,…

  16. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge From Ages 4 to 11.

    PubMed

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R; Hofer, Kerry G; Farran, Dale C

    2016-12-06

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An early math trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from ages 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math topics, as well as potential pathways from preschool to middle grades mathematics achievement. In preschool, nonsymbolic quantity, counting, and patterning knowledge predicted fifth-grade mathematics achievement. By the end of first grade, symbolic mapping, calculation, and patterning knowledge were the important predictors. Furthermore, the first-grade predictors mediated the relation between preschool math knowledge and fifth-grade mathematics achievement. Findings support the early math trajectories model among low-income children.

  17. Educational Outcomes and Socioeconomic Status: A Decomposition Analysis for Middle-Income Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sandra; Ramos, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the factors that explain the gap in educational outcomes between the top and bottom quartile of students in different countries, according to their socioeconomic status. To do so, it uses PISA microdata for 10 middle-income and 2 high-income countries, and applies the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Its results show that…

  18. Why Are Some Low-Income Countries Better at Providing Secondary Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Melissa

    2009-01-01

    Despite the tremendous expansion in education access worldwide, countries differ dramatically both in primary and secondary enrollment rates and in student achievement. Although per capita income explains a great deal of the difference, schooling outcomes vary sharply even among countries at similar income levels. This study asks whether…

  19. Educator Perceptions of Low-Income Elementary Students and Their Effects on Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Mark S.

    2013-01-01

    The correlation between income level and achievement has led some educators to believe that low-income students cannot learn at the same level as can middle-class and affluent peers. This problem is significant because as more families become impoverished, more students may be at risk for failure. Many studies have identified challenges facing…

  20. Population increase, economic growth, educational inequality, and income distribution: some recent evidence.

    PubMed

    Ram, R

    1984-04-01

    The relationship between population increase, economic growth, education and income inequality was examined in a cross-section study based on data from 26 developing and 2 developed countries. As other studies have noted, high population growth is associated with a less equal income distribution. A 1 percentage point reduction in the rate of population growth tends to raise the income share of the poorest 80% in the less developed world by almost 5 percentage points and is associated with a 1.7 percentage point increase in the income share of the poorest 40%. The relationship between short-run income growth and equality, on the other hand, is strong and positive. Estimates suggest that a 1 percentage point increase in the short-run rate of growth of the gross domestic product (GDP) increases the income share of the bottom 80% by about 2 percentage points and that of the poorest 40% by almost 1 percentage point. Although higher mean schooling appears to be a mild equalizer, educational inequality does not appear to have an adverse effect on income distribution. Overall, these results challenge the widely held belief that there must be a growth-equity trade-off. Moreover, they suggest that the impact of educational inequality on income distribution may be different from that observed in earlier studies, implying a need for caution in using these earlier results as a basis for educational policy development.

  1. Federally Funded Education and Job Training Programs for Low-Income Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy

    2011-01-01

    With the growing demand for highly skilled workers and declining wages for those who are less skilled, low-income youth with limited education and no work experience have few opportunities for gainful employment. Since the Great Depression, the federal government has been funding programs that provide low-income, out-of-school, and unemployed…

  2. Perceived Income Adequacy among Older Adults in 12 Countries: Findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwin, Howard; Sapir, Eliyahu V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a survey research measure of subjective income, as measured by perceived income adequacy, in an international context. Design and Methods: The study population comprised persons aged 50 years and older in 12 countries from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 28,939). Perceived difficulty in making ends…

  3. Correlates of HPV knowledge among low-income, minority mothers with a child 9 – 17 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Davlin, S.L.; Berenson, A.B.; Rahman, M.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objective To assess the level of HPV knowledge among low income, minority mothers with a child between the ages of 9 – 17 years. Design Women who sought care at a university-based clinic and had at least one child aged 9 to 17 years were approached. A total of 638 mothers were recruited. Only those who had heard of HPV were included in the correlation analyses (n = 468). Main Outcome Measures HPV knowledge was assessed utilizing a self-administered questionnaire consisting of 20 questions. Results There were differences between those who had heard of HPV and those who had not. More of those who had not heard of HPV were Hispanic (63%), low-income (89%), and did not graduate high school (59%). Of those who had heard of HPV, the majority did not answer 50% of questions correctly. Few knew the vaccine could prevent genital warts (19.7%). Factors independently associated with HPV knowledge included age, personal history of HPV, cervical dysplasia or cervical cancer, acquiring knowledge from ≥2 sources, having known someone with HPV or cervical cancer, having seen a brochure on the vaccine, and having seen an advertisement for the vaccine. Conclusions Knowledge regarding HPV is low among low-income women with children in the target age range for HPV vaccination. Increased awareness should focus on genital warts and other cancers, since this population has virtually no knowledge of other health outcomes related to HPV infection. Educational programs tailored to this population need to be developed to increase vaccination. PMID:25444051

  4. Effect of Family Income on the Relationship Between Parental Education and Sealant Prevalence, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Al Agili, Dania E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We examined the association between sealant prevalence and parental education for different levels of family income, controlling for other covariates. Methods We combined data from 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study sample was 7,090 participants aged 6 to 19 years. Explanatory variables, chosen on the basis of Andersen and Aday’s framework of health care utilization, were predisposing variables — child’s age, sex, race/ethnicity, and parental education (high school diploma); enabling variables — family income (<100% of the federal poverty level [FPL]; 100%–200% of the FPL; and >200% of the FPL), health insurance status, and regular source of medical care; and a need variable — future need for care (perceived child health status is excellent/very good, good, fair/poor). We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses and included a term for interaction between education and income in the multivariate model. We report significant findings (P ≤ .05). Results Sealant prevalence was associated with all explanatory variables in bivariate and multivariate analyses. In bivariate analyses, higher parental education and family income were independently associated with higher sealant prevalence. In the multivariate analysis, higher parental education was associated with sealant prevalence among higher income children, but not among low-income children (<100% FPL). Sealant prevalence was higher among children with parental education greater than a high school diploma versus less than a high school diploma in families with income ≥100% FPL. Conclusion Our findings suggest that income modifies the association of parental education on sealant prevalence. Recognition of this relationship may be important for health promotion efforts. PMID:26312383

  5. Family income, parental education and brain structure in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Houston, Suzanne M; Brito, Natalie H; Bartsch, Hauke; Kan, Eric; Kuperman, Joshua M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J; Murray, Sarah S; Casey, B J; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Frazier, Jean A; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Kennedy, David N; Van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Kaufmann, Walter E; Kenet, Tal; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. We investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1,099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data imply that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children.

  6. Education in Old Age: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various…

  7. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anne CC; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Kozuki, Naoko; Vogel, Joshua P; Adair, Linda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Marchant, Tanya; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndirangu, James; Newell, Marie-Louise; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Rosen, Heather E; Sania, Ayesha; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Willey, Barbara A; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010. Methods Small for gestational age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (23 countries) were used to model the prevalence of term-SGA births. Prevalence of preterm-SGA infants was calculated from meta-analyses. Findings In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born small for gestational age in low-income and middle-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18 million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were born in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. Interpretation The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia. Implementation of effective interventions for babies born too small or too soon is an urgent priority to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to

  8. Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2014-12-01

    Family and neighborhood influences related to low-income were examined to understand their association with harsh parenting among an ethnically diverse sample of families. Specifically, a path model linking household income to harsh parenting via neighborhood disorder, fear for safety, maternal depressive symptoms, and family conflict was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 2,132 families with children ages 5-16 years from Chicago. The sample was 42% Mexican American, 41% African American, and 17% European American. Results provide support for a family process model where a lower income-to-needs ratio is associated with higher reports of neighborhood disorder, greater fear for safety, and more family conflict, which is in turn, associated with greater frequency of harsh parenting. Our tests for moderation by ethnicity/immigrant status, child gender, and child age (younger child vs. adolescent) indicate that although paths are similar for families of boys and girls, as well as for families of young children and adolescents, there are some differences by ethnic group. Specifically, we find the path from neighborhood disorder to fear for safety is stronger for Mexican American (United States born and immigrant) and European American families in comparison with African American families. We also find that the path from fear for safety to harsh parenting is significant for European American and African American families only. Possible reasons for such moderated effects are considered.

  9. Opening Doors: Expanding Educational Opportunities for Low-Income Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golonka, Susan; Matus-Grossman, Lisa

    This report is a summary of discussions at a roundtable meeting conducted in April 2000 by the National Governors' Association Center for Best Practices and Manpower Demonstration Research Corporation to discuss expanding postsecondary opportunities for low-income, working parents and welfare recipients. Section I offers background. Sections II-IX…

  10. Low income, unemployment, and suicide mortality rates for middle-age persons in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akiko; Sakai, Ryoji; Shirakawa, Taro

    2005-04-01

    The relationships between age-specific suicide mortality rates and social life factors for all 47 Japanese prefectures in 1980, 1985, and 1990 were assessed by multiple regression analysis after factor analysis on 20 social life indicators. During this period, Japan experienced a secondary oil crisis in 1980-1983 and a bubble economy in 1986-1990. It was concluded that (1) low income was the major determinant which positively affected suicide mortality rate in middle-aged men during a previous 20-yr. period (1970-1990), (2) urbanization was negatively associated with male suicide mortality rates in most of the age classes in the 1980s, (3) unemployment was one of the major determinants of increased suicide mortality rate in middle-age men in the 1980s, and (4) unemployment was the major factor which was inversely associated with suicide mortality rate for elderly women from 1980 to 1990 in Japan.

  11. Feeding Practices and Styles Used by a Diverse Sample of Low-Income Parents of Preschool-age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Alison K.; Gromis, Judy C.; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Design: Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Setting: Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Participants: Thirty-two parents of…

  12. Socioeconomic status and health: education and income are independent and joint predictors of ambulatory blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Uchino, Bert N; Smith, Timothy W; Birmingham, Wendy

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiological research suggests that different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES) such as income and education may have independent and/or interactive effects on health outcomes. In this study, we examined both simple and more complex associations (i.e., interactions) between different indicators of SES and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) during daily life. Our sample consisted of 94 married couples who completed a one-day ABP protocol. Both income and education were independently related to systolic blood pressure and only income was significantly related to diastolic blood pressure. There were also statistical interactions such that individuals with high levels of both income and education evidenced the lowest ABP. Gender moderated these findings. Three-way interactions revealed that, in general, women appear to benefit from either indicator of SES, whereas men appear to benefit more from income. The findings are consistent with epidemiological research and suggest one important physiological mechanism by which income and education may have independent and interactive effects on health.

  13. The Gender Income Gap and the Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobbitt-Zeher, Donna

    2007-01-01

    Education is thought to be the pathway to success for disadvantaged groups. Given that young women now match or surpass men's educational achievements on many measures, how do they fare in terms of equal earnings? Would further educational changes matter for closing any existing gap? Analyzing data from the National Educational Longitudinal…

  14. A Phenomenological Inquiry into the Financial Education Experiences of Young, Low-Income Credit Union Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santangelo, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative phenomenological study engaged 20 young, low-income credit union members who participated in financial education classes at Denver Community Credit Union. The study explored learning experiences that generated changes in money management behaviors and sought evidence of transformational learning in a nonformal education setting.…

  15. Increases in Maternal Education and Low-Income Children's Cognitive and Behavioral Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Jessica F.

    2015-01-01

    Although the strong link between maternal education and children's outcomes is one of the most well-established findings in developmental psychology (Reardon, 2011; Sirin, 2005), less is known about how young, low-income children are influenced by their mothers completing additional education. In this research, longitudinal data from the Head…

  16. Educational expansion and the education gradient in health: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health.

  17. Language, income, education, and alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Romano, Eduardo O; Tippetts, A Scott; Voas, Robert B

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the role of race/ethnicity, language skills (a proxy for acculturation among Hispanics in Arizona, California, New Mexico, and Texas), income, and education level on alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle crashes. Using the Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS), we confirmed previous state-based studies showing that high income and education levels have a protective influence on alcohol-related fatal motor vehicle crashes. We also confirmed that language proficiency/acculturation tends to increase the vulnerability of Hispanic women to alcohol-related fatalities. Differences in alcohol-related fatality rates across Hispanic subgroups are observed. Future reductions in alcohol-related traffic fatalities may require prevention policies that take into account existent variations in acculturation, income, and education among racial/ethnic groups and subgroups.

  18. Systematic Review of Postgraduate Surgical Education in Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Rickard, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    Surgical care is recognized as an important component of public health, however, many low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) are faced with a shortage of trained personnel. In response to this unmet need, many countries have developed local postgraduate training programs in surgery. This study aims to characterize general surgery postgraduate education in LMICs. PubMed, EMBASE, and Global Index Medicus databases were searched for articles related to postgraduate general surgery education in LMICs. Studies in other surgical specialties and those published prior to 1990 were excluded. Data were collected on the characteristics of postgraduate training programs. Sixty-four articles discussed postgraduate surgical education in LMICs. Programs in 34 different countries and 6 different regions were represented. Nine countries were low-income, 12 were low-middle-income, and 13 were upper-middle-income countries. Sixty-four articles described aspects of the local postgraduate training program. Prior to postgraduate training, residents complete an undergraduate medical degree with 19 programs describing a pre-training experience such as internship. Surgical curricula were broad-based to prepare trainees to work in low-resource settings. At the completion of postgraduate training, examination formats varied including oral, written, and clinical exams. Postgraduate general surgery programs ranged from 2.5 to 7 years. Postgraduate surgical education is one mechanism to increase surgical capacity in LMICs. Different strategies have been employed to improve surgical education in LMICs and learning from these programs can optimize surgical education across teaching sites.

  19. Intimate partner violence and current tobacco smoking in low- to middle-income countries: Individual participant meta-analysis of 231,892 women of reproductive age.

    PubMed

    Caleyachetty, Rishi; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Stephenson, Rob; Muennig, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Research on the health impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) has primarily focused on gynaecological and sexual health outcomes or psychiatric disorders. Much less is known about the association between IPV and tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. This study examines the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age from low- to middle-income countries. We used data from Demographic and Health Surveys from 29 countries (231,892 women, aged 15-49) to examine the association between exposure to IPV and current tobacco smoking. Data were pooled using random-effects meta-analysis. There was a significant association between IPV and current tobacco smoking (pooled adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.38-1.79) after controlling for age, education, occupation, household wealth, religion and pregnancy status across countries. The association was moderately consistent across the 29 countries (I(2) = 55.3%, p < 0.0001). These findings suggest that exposure to IPV is associated with an increased likelihood of current tobacco smoking among women of reproductive age in low- to middle-income countries. Future research on the association between exposure to IPV and tobacco smoking in prospective cohort studies is warranted.

  20. Income and Education in Turkey: A Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Ramazan; Soytas, Ugur

    2006-01-01

    Although the role of education in an economy is emphasized in theoretical studies, empirical literature finds mixed results for the relationship between growth and education. We examine the relationship between Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and enrollments in primary, secondary, and high schools, as well as universities in Turkey for 1937-1996, in…

  1. Impact of Teacher's Income on Student's Educational Achievements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukaš, Mirko; Samardžic, Darko

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an objective overview of the impact of teacher salaries on the educational achievements of students. It is often debated about teacher salaries and improvement or jeopardizing their standard, but educational consequences that may ensue as a result of these intentions are rarely addressed. Teacher's role in…

  2. Negro Californians: Population, Employment, Income, Education (and Supplement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Industrial Relations, San Francisco. Fair Employment Practices Commission.

    The Negro population in California increased sevenfold from 1940 to 1960 due principally to in-migration from other states. Settlement of immigrants occurred in urban areas. Educational attainment of Negroes in California is lower than that of white Californians reflecting social, economic, and educational restrictions. Employment statistics show…

  3. The challenge of cancer in middle-income countries with an ageing population: Mexico as a case study.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Lewison, Grant; Sullivan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing rapid population ageing as a result of its epidemiological transition. This study explores the interface between this rapid population ageing and the burden of cancer. The number of new cancer cases is expected to increase by nearly 75% by 2030 (107,000 additional cases per annum), with 60% of cases in the elderly (aged ≥ 65). A review of the literature was supplemented by a bibliometric analysis of Mexico's cancer research output. Cancer incidence projections for selected sites were estimated with Globocan software. Data were obtained from recent national census, surveys, and cancer death registrations. The elderly, especially women and those living in rural areas, face high levels of poverty, have low rates of educational attainment, and many are not covered by health insurance schemes. Out of pocket payments and private health care usage remain high, despite the implementation of Seguro Popular that was designed to achieve financial protection for the lowest income groups. A number of cancers that predominate in elderly persons are not covered by the scheme and individuals face catastrophic expenditure in seeking treatment. There is limited research output in those cancer sites that have a high burden in the elderly Mexican population, especially research that focuses on outcomes. The elderly population in Mexico is vulnerable to the effects of the rising cancer burden and faces challenges in accessing high quality cancer care. Based on our evidence, we recommend that geriatric oncology should be an urgent public policy priority for Mexico.

  4. The challenge of cancer in middle-income countries with an ageing population: Mexico as a case study

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Ajay; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Lewison, Grant; Sullivan, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Mexico is undergoing rapid population ageing as a result of its epidemiological transition. This study explores the interface between this rapid population ageing and the burden of cancer. The number of new cancer cases is expected to increase by nearly 75% by 2030 (107,000 additional cases per annum), with 60% of cases in the elderly (aged ≥ 65). A review of the literature was supplemented by a bibliometric analysis of Mexico’s cancer research output. Cancer incidence projections for selected sites were estimated with Globocan software. Data were obtained from recent national census, surveys, and cancer death registrations. The elderly, especially women and those living in rural areas, face high levels of poverty, have low rates of educational attainment, and many are not covered by health insurance schemes. Out of pocket payments and private health care usage remain high, despite the implementation of Seguro Popular that was designed to achieve financial protection for the lowest income groups. A number of cancers that predominate in elderly persons are not covered by the scheme and individuals face catastrophic expenditure in seeking treatment. There is limited research output in those cancer sites that have a high burden in the elderly Mexican population, especially research that focuses on outcomes. The elderly population in Mexico is vulnerable to the effects of the rising cancer burden and faces challenges in accessing high quality cancer care. Based on our evidence, we recommend that geriatric oncology should be an urgent public policy priority for Mexico. PMID:26015805

  5. Status Report: Air Age Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cessna Aircraft Co., Wichita, KS.

    This publication offers information that may be of assistance in the development of programs or activities in aviation education. This report includes a listing of: the number of schools in each state offering high school aviation courses, state aerospace education advisory committees, high school teacher associations, full-time state personnel…

  6. Social Determinants of Active Aging: Differences in Mortality and the Loss of Healthy Life between Different Income Levels among Older Japanese in the AGES Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hirai, Hiroshi; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2012-01-01

    We examined the relationship between income, mortality, and loss of years of healthy life in a sample of older persons in Japan. We analyzed 22,829 persons aged 65 or older who were functionally independent at baseline as a part of the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES). Two outcome measures were adopted, mortality and loss of healthy life. Independent variables were income level and age. The occurrence of mortality and need for care during these 1,461 days were tracked. Cox regressions were used to calculate the hazard ratio for mortality and loss of healthy life by income level. We found that people with lower incomes were more likely than those with higher incomes to report worse health. For the overall sample, using the governmental administrative data, the hazard ratios of mortality and loss of healthy life-years comparing the lowest to the highest income level were 3.50 for men and 2.48 for women for mortality and 3.71 for men and 2.27 for women for loss of healthy life. When only those who responded to questions about income on the mail survey were included in the analysis, the relationships became weaker and lost statistical significance.

  7. Distance Education: An Information Age Approach to Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigerell, James

    This study provides an extensive review of the literature on distance education and of representative distance education projects and institutions in the United States and abroad, emphasizing those using telecommunications technologies. The introductory section includes a sketch of the information age and its implications for adult education and…

  8. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  9. Financial capability, asset ownership, and later-age immigration: evidence from a sample of low-income older Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yunju; Lee, Eun Jeong; Huang, Jin; Kim, Junpyo

    2015-01-01

    We examined financial capability and asset ownership among low-income older Asian immigrants with special attention given to later-age immigrants who came to the United States when they were 55 years old or older. Survey data collected from supported employment program participants (N = 150) were used. The analyses demonstrated a low level of financial knowledge and asset ownership in the sample. The findings also indicated that later-age immigrants' financial-management skills, knowledge of social programs, and asset ownership were significantly lower than those of young-age immigrants. These findings call for active interventions to enhance economic security among low-income older Asian immigrants.

  10. A Survey of Current Pre-School Education of/for Children from Urban Low-Income Families in Beijing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin-Qinghua; Liu-Yan; Zhang-Yan; Li-Qiong

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the pre-school education of children from low-income families in six urban districts of Beijing, using questionnaires and in-depth interviews with respondents from district educational committees, sub-district and resident's committees, nursery schools, and low-income families. The results indicated that (1) the number of…

  11. Optimistic or Quixotic? More Data on Marriage and Relationship Education Programs for Lower Income Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    The author is gratified and encouraged that such an esteemed group of relationship scientists as Hawkins et al. (2013, this issue) want to continue the discussion of government-supported marriage and relationship education (MRE) programs for lower income couples by responding to his article (Johnson, May-June 2012). In their comment, they argued…

  12. Income and Education as Predictors of Children's School Readiness. The Social Genome Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Julia; Magnuson, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    This study uses data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth (ECLS-B) Cohort to estimate associations between two important indicators of family socioeconomic status--family income and maternal education--and children's school readiness measured by academic skills, behavior, and physical health at school entry. We find large gaps in our…

  13. Pathways to Boosting the Earnings of Low-Income Students by Increasing Their Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Louis; Mokher, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Attaining a post-secondary credential has become increasingly important for securing opportunities to get high-return jobs in the United States in the 21st century. Students from low-income families are underrepresented at every milestone in the educational pipeline, limiting their ability to attain post-secondary credentials and break the…

  14. Education, Income, and Support for Suicide Bombings: Evidence from Six Muslim Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. The authors make two contributions. First, they present a conceptual model, which has been…

  15. Education, Income and Support for Suicide Bombings: Evidence from Six Muslim Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Sinno, Abdulkader H.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effect of educational attainment and income on support for suicide bombing among Muslim publics in six predominantly Muslim countries that have experienced suicide bombings: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Pakistan, and Turkey. We make two contributions. First, we present a conceptual model, which has been lacking in the…

  16. The Modifying Effects of Education and Income on Hispanics Reporting Perceived Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardarelli, Kathryn Marie; Chiapa, Ana Luz

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown that experiences of discrimination negatively affect health. However, little is known about whether socioeconomic position modifies the reporting of perceived discrimination. This cross-sectional study of 69 participants investigated the modifying effects of education and income on the reporting of perceived discrimination among…

  17. Managing Personal Income: Student Problem Book. Family Financial Education Program 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Co., Chicago.

    The student workbook was designed for a high school unit on personal income management, part of a family financial education program which also includes a unit on accepting credit responsibility. The student guide follows the same format as the teacher's guide and is based on three experiences--understanding checks, using a checking account, and…

  18. Racial Integration and Learners from Limited Income Families--An Essay for American Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, James B.

    The challenge of educating learners from limited-income families, combined with the challenge of racial integration in the schools, is discussed in this essay. Some learning problems among impoverished children are attributed to segregation, prejudice, and the class-caste system. The inadequacies of segregated schools serving minority groups as…

  19. Language-in-Education Policy in Low-Income, Postcolonial Contexts: Towards a Social Justice Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tikly, Leon

    2016-01-01

    The article considers how language-in-education policy in low-income, postcolonial countries may be better understood from a social justice perspective and some of the implications for policy, practice and research that arise from this. The article starts with a critical overview of the two dominant approaches towards conceptualising…

  20. Facebook Is an Effective Strategy to Recruit Low-Income Women to Online Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Nutrition education research recruitment expense and effort are substantial; sample selection is crucial for intervention assessment. Effectiveness and cost of Facebook to recruit low-income women to an online nutrition program were examined, including biopsychosocial characteristics of Facebook responders. Methods: An ad appeared on…

  1. Running in Place: Low-Income Students and the Dynamics of Higher Education Stratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastedo, Michael N.; Jaquette, Ozan

    2011-01-01

    The increasing concentration of wealthy students at highly selective colleges is widely perceived, but few analyses examine the underlying dynamics of higher education stratification over time. To examine these dynamics, the authors build an analysis data set of four cohorts from 1972 to 2004. They find that low-income students have made…

  2. Promoting Access to Postsecondary Education for Low-Income Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madaus, Joseph W.; Grigal, Meg; Hughes, Carolyn

    2014-01-01

    Few students with disabilities from high-poverty backgrounds attend college. We discuss the effects of disability and growing up in poverty on expectations for postsecondary education attendance. We describe the limiting effects of attending high-poverty high schools on student achievement followed by challenges faced by low-income students with…

  3. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  4. Income Inequality, the Median Voter, and the Support for Public Education. NBER Working Paper No. 16097

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcoran, Sean; Evans, William N.

    2010-01-01

    Using a panel of U.S. school districts spanning 1970-2000, we examine the relationship between income inequality and fiscal support for public education. In contrast with recent theoretical and empirical work suggesting a negative relationship between inequality and public spending, we find results consistent with a median voter model, in which…

  5. Escaping Poverty: Rural Low-Income Mothers' Opportunity to Pursue Post-Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodford, Michelle; Mammen, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Using human capital theory, this paper identifies the factors that may affect the opportunity for rural low-income mothers to pursue post-secondary education or training in order to escape poverty. Dependent variables used in the logistic regression model included micro-level household variables as well as the effects of state-wide welfare…

  6. A Mobile Farmers' Market Brings Nutrition Education to Low-Income Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellsworth, Devin; Ernst, Jenny; Snelling, Anastasia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of a nutrition-education intervention delivered at low-income middle schools in Washington, DC in the USA, using a mobile farmers' market to bring hands-on lessons to schools. The program was a partnership between a local farm and university and was funded by the United States Department…

  7. The Effects of Education Quality on Income Growth and Mortality Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamison, Eliot A.; Jamison, Dean T.; Hanushek, Eric A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous work shows that higher levels of education quality (as measured by international student achievement tests) increase growth rates of national income. This paper begins by confirming those findings in an analysis involving more countries over more time with additional controls. We then use the panel structure of our data to assess whether…

  8. Higher Education Financial Assistance Tools for Middle- and Upper-Income Taxpayers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Condon, James V.; Prince, Lori H.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes higher education financial assistance tools designed mainly for students of middle- and upper-income families who may not be eligible for financial aid from other sources. It includes the 2007 legislative updates for these tools, all of which have been devised and offered by either state or federal governments. The authors…

  9. Dual-Language Education for Low-Income Children: Preliminary Evidence of Benefits for Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Alena G.; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This investigation is an initial examination of possible enhancement of executive function through a dual-language (50:50) education model. The ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 120 children from Grades K, 2, and 4 consisted of approximately equal numbers of children enrolled in dual-language and traditional classrooms. Dual-language…

  10. American Indians in California: Population, Education, Employment, Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Industrial Relations, San Francisco. Fair Employment Practices Commission.

    Analysis of 1960 census statistics reveals that American Indians in California had the highest growth rate of any ethnic group in the state from 1950 to 19 0. This is attributed to improved health practices plus an in-migration of Indians from other states. Educational attainment of the American Indian in California is low compared with other…

  11. The sustainability of European health care systems: beyond income and aging.

    PubMed

    Pammolli, Fabio; Riccaboni, Massimo; Magazzini, Laura

    2012-10-01

    During the last 30 years, health care expenditure (HCE) has been growing much more rapidly than GDP in OECD countries. In this paper, we review the determinants of HCE dynamics in Europe, taking into account the role of income, aging population, technological progress, female labor participation and public budgetary variables. We show that HCE is a multifaceted phenomenon where demographic, social, economic, technological and institutional factors all play an important role. The comparison of total, public and private HCE reveals an imbalance of European welfare toward the care of the elderly. European Governments should increasingly rely on pluralistic systems to balance sustainability and access and equilibrate the distribution of resources across the functions of the public welfare system.

  12. Parenting among low-income, African American single mothers with preschool-age children: patterns, predictors, and developmental correlates.

    PubMed

    McGroder, S M

    2000-01-01

    Dimensions and patterns of parenting were examined in a sample of 193 low-income African American single mothers with preschool-age children. Factor analyses yielded three dimensions: Aggravation, Nurturance, and Cognitive Stimulation. Cluster analysis yielded four patterns of parenting: Aggravated but Nurturant; Cognitively Stimulating; Patient and Nurturant; and Low Nurturance. Discriminant function analysis was used to predict membership in each of the four parenting clusters. Two composite functions emerged, the first representing maternal well-being (locus of control, depressive symptoms), the second representing sociodemographic characteristics (maternal education, duration on welfare, age at first birth), accounting for 93% of between-groups variability. Children's scores on measures of cognitive school readiness and personal maturity were significantly related to parenting pattern, even after controlling for significant predictors of parenting pattern; children's verbal ability was no longer related to parenting pattern once significant maternal characteristics were controlled. Findings are discussed in terms of contributions to the literature on parenting and in terms of implications for welfare policy and programs.

  13. Racial Disparities in Health Outcomes After Spinal Cord Injury: Mediating Effects of Education and Income

    PubMed Central

    Krause, James S; Broderick, Lynne E; Saladin, Lisa K; Broyles, Joy

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate heath disparities as a function of race and gender and the extent to which socioeconomic factors mediate disparities among participants with spinal cord injury. Design: Survey methodology. Cross-sectional data. Setting: A large Southeastern specialty hospital. Participants: There were 1,342 participants in the current analysis, all of whom were identified from patient records. There were 3 inclusion criteria: (a) traumatic SCI, (b) at least 18 years of age at the time of study, and (c) injury duration of more than 1 year. Main outcome measures: Six outcomes were measured, including 3 general outcomes (self-ratings, days impacted by poor health, days impacted by poor mental health) and 3 that reflect utilization of services (hospitalizations, days hospitalized, and nonroutine physician visits in the past 2 years). Results: Results of multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated significant main effects for both race and gender. Follow-up tests identified racial disparities on 3 of the 6 outcomes, whereas gender disparities were observed for a single outcome. Years of education and household income mediated interrelationships between race and health (but not gender) as racial disparities disappeared after consideration of these factors. Conclusions: These findings suggest the need to work more diligently to promote better health outcomes among African Americans and to further investigate how socioeconomic factors and access to health care related to diminished health outcomes among African Americans with spinal cord injury. PMID:16572561

  14. Retirement Wealth, Income, and Decision Making in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, W. Cris

    1996-01-01

    Retirement programs for college faculty are evaluated in terms of both their wealth-creation attributes and the incentives they provide for retirement. Wealth accumulation and relative cash flow from working compared to retirement are evaluated at various ages under alternative assumptions about rates of return and contribution rates. The nature…

  15. Assessment and Age 16+ Education Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Chevalier, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises our research into the relationship between pupil assessment at age 14 (Key Stage 3) and participation in age 16+ education. We question whether a systematic gap between teacher-based assessment and externally marked tests indicates assessment bias or uncertainty, either in testing procedures or through teachers' perceptions…

  16. Achieving the Middle Ground in an Age of Concentrated Extremes: Mixed Middle-Income Neighborhoods and Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    SAMPSON, ROBERT J.; MARE, ROBERT D.; PERKINS, KRISTIN L.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on stability and change in “mixed middle-income” neighborhoods. We first analyze variation across nearly two decades for all neighborhoods in the United States and in the Chicago area, particularly. We then analyze a new longitudinal study of almost 700 Chicago adolescents over an 18-year span, including the extent to which they are exposed to different neighborhood income dynamics during the transition to young adulthood. The concentration of income extremes is persistent among neighborhoods, generally, but mixed middle-income neighborhoods are more fluid. Persistence also dominates among individuals, though Latino-Americans are much more likely than African Americans or whites to be exposed to mixed middle-income neighborhoods in the first place and to transition into them over time, even when adjusting for immigrant status, education, income, and residential mobility. The results here enhance our knowledge of the dynamics of income inequality at the neighborhood level, and the endurance of concentrated extremes suggests that policies seeking to promote mixed-income neighborhoods face greater odds than commonly thought. PMID:26722129

  17. Pathways among Caregiver Education, Household Resources, and Infant Growth in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Bradley, Robert H; Lansford, Jennifer E; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver education is known to relate to the growth of children, but possible mediation mechanisms of this association are poorly characterized and generally lack empirical support. We test whether instructional capital (caregiver education) leads to improved infant growth through availability of physical capital (household resources) across a wide swath of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS3), we explore relations among caregiver education, household resources, and infant (M age = .99 years) growth in 117,881 families living in 39 LMIC. Overall, household resources mediated 76% of the small association between caregiver education and infant growth. When disaggregated by countries characterized by low, medium, and high levels of human development (as indexed by average life expectancy, education, and gross domestic product), household resources mediated 48% to 78% of the association between caregiver education and infant growth. Caregiver education had effects on infant growth through household resources in countries characterized by low, medium, and high levels of human development; for girls and boys; and controlling for indexes of infant feeding and health.

  18. Pathways among Caregiver Education, Household Resources, and Infant Growth in 39 Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Bradley, Robert H.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Deater-Deckard, Kirby

    2015-01-01

    Caregiver education is known to relate to the growth of children, but possible mediation mechanisms of this association are poorly characterized and generally lack empirical support. We test whether instructional capital (caregiver education) leads to improved infant growth through availability of physical capital (household resources) across a wide swath of low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Using the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS3), we explore relations among caregiver education, household resources, and infant (M age = .99 years) growth in 117,881 families living in 39 LMIC. Overall, household resources mediated 76% of the small association between caregiver education and infant growth. When disaggregated by countries characterized by low, medium, and high levels of human development (as indexed by average life expectancy, education, and gross domestic product), household resources mediated 48% to 78% of the association between caregiver education and infant growth. Caregiver education had effects on infant growth through household resources in countries characterized by low, medium, and high levels of human development; for girls and boys; and controlling for indexes of infant feeding and health. PMID:26273231

  19. Futurism, Aging, and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdman, Geral Dene M.

    1979-01-01

    This study of futurism is important to gerontology in order to bridge the gap between theory, policy statement, and actual practice in the field of aging. There is a need to prepare competent individuals for direct service, and to provide increased exposure to gerontology throughout the curriculum. (Author/LPG)

  20. Perceived benefits and challenges for low-income mothers of having family meals with preschool-aged children: childhood memories matter.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Khushi; Herman, Allison N; Wright, Gretchen; Bruton, Yasmeen; Fisher, Jennifer O; Whitaker, Robert C

    2013-11-01

    Eating regular family meals is associated with a lower risk of obesity among preschool-aged children. Children in lower-income households are at higher risk for obesity, but there is little information about their mothers' perceptions of family meals, and such information could improve nutrition counseling. To identify the perceived benefits and challenges of having family meals, four focus groups were conducted with 20 mothers of preschool-aged children living in low-income households in Philadelphia, PA. Three authors independently analyzed verbatim transcripts using an inductive method of open coding, and themes were established by consensus among all authors. Of the 20 mothers, 18 were black, 11 had education beyond high school, and 12 were living with an adult partner or husband. Mothers' strong childhood memories of mealtimes, both negative and positive, motivated them to have family meals because of the opportunities afforded by mealtimes to build strong relationships with their children. However, mothers also described needing help, especially from other household adults, in preparing meals and establishing calm and order with their children during mealtimes. To identify what motivates the mothers of low-income, preschool-aged children to have family meals, registered dietitians can benefit from asking about the mothers' own childhood experiences of family meals. Studies are needed to examine whether such an approach to identifying maternal motivations, when combined with practical advice about overcoming challenges with meal preparation and managing children's mealtime behavior, could lead to more frequent and nutritious family meals in this population.

  1. Formulation of the age-education index: measuring age and education effects in neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S E; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-03-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830 English-speaking ethnic Chinese. Neuropsychological measures such as Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, Token Motor Task, Semantic Fluency, Symbol Coding, Tower of London, Judgment of Line Orientation, and Matrix Reasoning of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were administered. Education was measured by total years of education and adjusted years of education, as well as ratios of both measures with age. Age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance. Adjusted years of education was associated with fluency and higher cognitive processes, while the ratio between adjusted years of education and age was associated with tasks implicating working memory. Changes in education modalities implicated tasks requiring language abilities. Education and age represent key neurodevelopmental milestones. In light of our findings, special consideration should to be given when neuropsychological assessments are carried out in cross-cultural contexts and in societies where educational systems and pedagogy tend to be complex.

  2. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  3. Over the Ivy Walls: The Educational Mobility of Low-Income Chicanos. SUNY Series, Social Context of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Patricia

    This study examined the factors influencing the academic success of 50 Mexican-Americans from low-income families who received Ph.D., J.D., or M.D. degrees from prestigious universities. All of the subjects received their college and graduate education during the 1960s and 1970s, and were interviewed using a 141-question interview protocol. The…

  4. Science education in a secular age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David E.

    2013-03-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.

  5. The possible importance of income and education as covariates in cohort studies that investigate the relationship between diet and disease

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Norman

    2016-01-01

    Background:  Many cohort studies have been carried out that have provided information on the relationship between diet and health-related outcomes. Omission of important covariates during multivariate analysis may give rise to error due to residual confounding. A possibly important covariate is socioeconomic status (SES) as this is related to both diet and health. Objective: To determine the frequency with which different measures of SES are included as covariates during multivariate analysis of cohort studies that investigated the relationship between diet and health. Methodology:  An analysis was carried out of 76 randomly selected papers from 66 cohort studies. The papers covered many dietary variables and a wide variety of diseases/health-related outcomes. The cohort studies were carried out in many different locations and the subjects varied widely in age. Results:  Approximately two-thirds of the papers (65.8%) used at least one measure of SES as a covariate. Education was used most often (60.5% of papers), followed by income (14.4%) and social class (2.6%). More than one measure of SES was used in 11.8% of papers. Conclusions:  Failure to include income (or another measure of present SES, such as occupation) may be a common source of error in cohort studies. Over-reliance on education may be particularly important as it is likely to be a weaker measure of present SES than is income. There is a need for more research on this question. SES in childhood is almost never included in multivariate analysis in cohort studies carried out on adults. This could also play a significant role in disease risk in middle age or later. Very little is known regarding whether this is also a source of residual confounding. PMID:27303622

  6. Public Pensions as the Great Equalizer? Decomposition of Old-Age Income Inequality in South Korea, 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sun-Jae

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the redistributive effects of public pensions on old-age income inequality, testing whether public pensions function as the "great equalizer." Unlike the well-known alleviating effect of public pensions on old-age poverty, the effects of public pensions on old-age income inequality more generally have been less examined, particularly outside Western countries. Using repeated cross-sectional data of elderly Koreans between 1998 and 2010, we applied Gini coefficient decomposition to measure the impact of various income sources on old-age inequality, particularly focusing on public pensions. Our findings show that, contrary to expectations, public pension benefits have inequality-intensifying effects on old-age income in Korea, even countervailing the alleviating effects of public assistance. This rather surprising result is due to the specific institutional context of the Korean public pension system and suggests that the "structuring" of welfare policies could be as important as their expansion for the elderly, particularly for developing welfare states.

  7. The effects of parental education and family income on mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and family environments in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    Using a cross-sectional design with 407 Chinese children aged 3-5 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and family income, on the children's mother-child relationships, father-child relationships, and the social environment in their families. The results indicated that income negatively predicted conflict in father-child relationships and positively predicted family active-recreational environments. Income also positively predicted family cohesion among girls but not boys. Maternal education negatively predicted conflict in mother-child relationships and positively predicted closeness in mother-child and father-child relationships, family cohesion, and the intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments in the family. Paternal education positively predicted family cohesion and intellectual-cultural and active-recreational environments. Income was found to partially mediate the effects of both maternal and paternal education on family active-recreational environments. Findings are discussed in the frameworks of the family stress model and the family investment model.

  8. 42 CFR 435.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... program but who meet the income and resource requirements of the State's approved AFDC plan. (b) The... foster homes or private institutions for whom a public agency is assuming a full or partial financial... nursing facility services are provided under the plan to individuals within the age group selected...

  9. 42 CFR 436.222 - Individuals under age 21 who meet the income and resource requirements of AFDC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assistance but who meet the income and resource requirements of the State's approved AFDC plan. (b) The... foster homes or private institutions for whom a public agency is assuming a full or partial financial... nursing facility services are provided under the plan to individuals within the age group selected...

  10. The Social Prerequisites of Literacy Development: Home and School Experiences of Preschool-Aged Children from Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Catherine E.; And Others

    This document is a report of a symposium whose participants are involved with the Home-School Study of Language and Literacy Development, a project engaged in a longitudinal study of 80 low-income families with preschool-aged children in Boston (Massachusetts). The project was designed to identify possible success factors for children from…

  11. Relationship between gender, income and education and self-perceived oral health among elderly Mexicans. An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Palacios, Rosa Diana; Ramírez-Amador, Velia; Jarillo-Soto, Edgar Carlos; Irigoyen-Camacho, María Esther; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between sociodemographic factors and self-perceived oral health (SPOH) among the elderly. A cross-sectional, exploratory examination of 150 elderly subjects whose ages ranged from 60-86 was conducted. These subjects used the Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI) to assess their SPOH. In addition, sociodemographic data were collected from study participants. Data were analyzed using Student's t-test, the examination of odds ratio (OR) of logistic regression analysis, the chi-square test, and analysis of variance (ANOVA). The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index for the study participants was 20.1 ± 5.8; 21.3% of subjects were edentulous, and 69.3% of subjects wore removable dentures. 62.7% of study participants had poor SPOH (defined as GOHAI score <44). Poor SPOH was significantly more frequent among males (OR = 2.72, 95% CI: 1.03-7.13, p < 0.05), low-income individuals (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3 -5.8, p < 0.01), and subjects with less education (OR = 2.26, 95% CI: 1.1-4.6, p < 0.05) than among the overall subject population. The findings suggest that gender (male), low income and low educational levels have a significant influence on the self-perceived oral health status of elderly individuals, irrespective of tooth loss.

  12. First-Generation, Low-Income College Students during the First Semester in Higher Education: Challenges and Successes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chhen Stewart, Lee May

    2012-01-01

    Typically, studies first-generation, low-income students have focused on the financial aid and academic preparedness to enter college and persist. These researchers have found little data about first-generation, low-income students once they enter higher education. One question largely unexplored has been why some first-generation, low-income…

  13. Using School Scholarships to Estimate the Effect of Private Education on the Academic Achievement of Low Income Students in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Priyanka; Mizala, Alejandra; Repetto, Andrea

    2008-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of private education on the academic achievement of low-income students in Chile. To deal with selection bias, we use propensity score matching to compare the test scores of reduced-fee paying, low-income students in private voucher schools to those of similar students in public schools and free private voucher…

  14. The Effect of Lactation Educators Implementing a Telephone-Based Intervention among Low-Income Hispanics: A Randomised Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Efrat, Merav W.; Esparza, Salvador; Mendelson, Sherri G.; Lane, Christianne J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess whether a telephone-based breastfeeding intervention delivered by lactation educators influenced exclusive breastfeeding rates among low-income Hispanic women in the USA. Design: Randomised two-group design. Setting: Pregnant low-income Hispanic women (298) were recruited from community health clinics in Los Angeles County…

  15. Women, Poverty, and Educational Success: A Critical Exploration of Low-Income Women's Experience in Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Kate R.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to critically explore low-income women's experience as they negotiate post secondary education in community colleges. Three research questions explore the context through which low-income women have entered the college experience, what that experience is like for them, and how the community college experience has…

  16. Diurnal cortisol pattern, eating behaviors and overweight in low-income preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lumeng, Julie C; Miller, Alison; Peterson, Karen E; Kaciroti, Niko; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M

    2014-02-01

    This study examined, among children, the associations among chaos in the home, diurnal cortisol patterns, eating behaviors and being overweight. Participants included 331 low-income children aged 3-4years. Mean salivary cortisol-intercept (representing morning peak, 60min since waking) and cortisol-slope (representing diurnal decline after peak) were calculated using mixed models from samples obtained across 3days. Parents reported chaos in the home by questionnaire and responded to the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire, generating subscales Food Responsiveness (FR), Emotional Overeating (EO), Enjoyment of Food (EF), and Satiety Responsiveness (SR). Body mass index was categorized as overweight vs. not. Path analysis evaluated associations among chaos, cortisol patterns, eating behaviors, and weight status. Children living in more chaotic homes had lower morning cortisol levels, consistent with "hypocortisolism" reported among individuals who have experienced significant allostatic load as a result of substantial early life chronic stress. Among girls, the hypocortisolism pattern predicted a higher likelihood of being overweight both directly and mediated through reduced Satiety Responsiveness; in boys, the association of the hypocortisolism pattern with being overweight was mediated entirely through Emotional Overeating. In summary, our results provide support for the conceptual model that psychosocial stress contributes to hypocortisolism, which contributes directly to a higher likelihood of being overweight in girls, and indirectly through reduced Satiety Responsiveness in girls and through increased Emotional Overeating in boys.

  17. The Impact of Aging on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Angela

    The percentage of adults aged 65 years or older is expected to increase from 12 percent of the population in 1980 to more than 21 percent by the year 2030. Since many adults stay involved with learning activities well into their 80s and 90s, educational organizations have a great opportunity to supply learning activities to this population. To…

  18. Educational Communication in a Revolutionary Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, I. Keith, Comp.; Williams, Catharine M., Comp.

    As a tribute to Dr. Edgar Dale on his retirement from Ohio State University, the papers in this book refer to "the failures of education,""the impotence of the school,""the need for sweeping change," the existence of a "systems break," and "incipient civil war," all of which are products of an age of revolution which continues today. Educational…

  19. Multiple perspectives on nutrition education needs of low-income Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Palmeri, D; Auld, G W; Taylor, T; Kendall, P; Anderson, J

    1998-08-01

    As part of a multi-level nutrition intervention for low-income Hispanics (LIH) and the professionals and paraprofessionals who serve them, focus groups were used to 1) identify nutrition education needs and preferred means of receiving nutrition information, 2) identify the LIH's barriers/motivators to dietary behavior change, and 3) assess the feasibility of using abuelas (Hispanic grandmothers) as educators. Nine focus groups were conducted using trained, local bilingual and bicultural moderators. Low-income Hispanics' primary concerns were their children's nutritional habits and ways to prepare quick, nutritious meals and snacks. Their major barriers to dietary change were financial limitations, lack of time, and family customs/habits. Professionals were concerned with the lack of interagency cooperation. Paraprofessionals were most interested in training on how to teach. All audiences preferred to receive nutrition education through classes with hands-on, interactive formats. Professionals and paraprofessionals noted advantages and disadvantages to using abuelas as educators. Including three populations in the needs assessment allowed comparisons of perspectives across groups and allowed the design of nutrition education programs appropriately targeted to these populations.

  20. Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne CC; Kozuki, Naoko; Lawn, Joy E; Cousens, Simon; Blencowe, Hannah; Ezzati, Majid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara A; Adair, Linda; Barros, Fernando; Baqui, Abdullah H; Christian, Parul; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Humphrey, Jean; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Victora, Cesar G; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods For this pooled analysis, we searched all available studies and identified 20 cohorts (providing data for 2 015 019 livebirths) from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that recorded data for birthweight, gestational age, and vital statistics through 28 days of life. Study dates ranged from 1982 through to 2010. We calculated relative risks (RR) and risk differences (RD) for mortality associated with preterm birth (<32 weeks, 32 weeks to <34 weeks, 34 weeks to <37 weeks), small-for-gestational-age (SGA; babies with birthweight in the lowest third percentile and between the third and tenth percentile of a US reference population), and preterm and SGA combinations. Findings Pooled overall RRs for preterm were 6·82 (95% CI 3·56–13·07) for neonatal mortality and 2·50 (1·48–4·22) for post-neonatal mortality. Pooled RRs for babies who were SGA (with birthweight in the lowest tenth percentile of the reference population) were 1·83 (95% CI 1·34–2·50) for neonatal mortality and 1·90 (1·32–2·73) for post-neonatal mortality. The neonatal mortality risk of babies who were both preterm and SGA was higher than that of babies with either characteristic alone (15·42; 9·11–26·12). Interpretation Many babies in low-income and middle-income countries are SGA. Preterm birth affects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. The mortality risks associated with both characteristics extend beyond the neonatal period. Differentiation of the burden and risk of babies born preterm and SGA rather than with low birthweight could guide

  1. Higher Education R&D and Productivity Growth: An Empirical Study on High-Income OECD Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eid, Ashraf

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a macro study on higher education R&D and its impact on productivity growth. I measure the social rate of return on higher education R&D in 17 high-income OECD countries using country level data on the percentage of gross expenditure on R&D performed by higher education, business, and government sectors over the period…

  2. Adult children's socioeconomic positions and their parents' mortality: a comparison of education, occupational class, and income.

    PubMed

    Torssander, Jenny

    2014-12-01

    Recent research has shown that the parents of well-educated children live longer than do other parents and that this association is only partly confounded by the parent's own socioeconomic position. However, the relationships between other aspects of children's socioeconomic position (e.g., occupational class and economic resources) and parental mortality have not been examined. Using the Swedish Multi-generation Register that connects parents to their children, this paper studies the associations of children's various socioeconomic resources (education, occupation, and income) and parents' mortality. The models are adjusted for a range of parental socioeconomic resources and include the resources of the parents' partners. In addition to all-cause mortality, five causes of death are analyzed separately (circulatory disease mortality, overall cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer). The results show net associations between all included indicators of children's socioeconomic position and parents' mortality risk, with the clearest association for education. Children's education is significantly associated with all of the examined causes of death except prostate cancer. Breast cancer mortality is negatively related to offspring's education but not the mothers' own education. To conclude, children's education seems to be a key factor compared with other dimensions of socioeconomic position in the offspring generation. This finding suggests that explanations linked to behavioral norms or knowledge are more plausible than those linked to access to material resources. However, it is possible that children's education - to a greater degree than class and income - captures unmeasured parental characteristics. The cause-specific analyses imply that future research should investigate whether offspring's socioeconomic position is linked to the likelihood of developing diseases and/or the chances of treating them. A broader family perspective in the description

  3. Nutrition and Health Characteristics of Low-Income Populations, Volume III, School-Age Children. E-FAN-04-014-3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Mary Kay; Cole, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES-III), conducted in 1988-94, were used to compare the nutrition and health characteristics of the Nation's school-age children--boys and girls ages 5-18. Three groups of children were compared based on household income: income at or below 130 percent of poverty (lowest…

  4. Differences among Preferred Methods for Furthering Aging Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods included…

  5. An evaluation of the age-profile in the relationship between household income and the health of children in the United States.

    PubMed

    Murasko, Jason E

    2008-12-01

    Previous work has shown that the income gradient in child health for the United States becomes steeper with age. This paper shows a similar pattern using the 1996-2005 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys (MEPS). A framework is also presented to evaluate cumulative and contemporaneous income effects through the use of baseline health controls. The analysis shows that poor health is more persistent in older children, and that the income gradient is substantially flattened over age groups when controlling for baseline health. However, even when controlling for baseline health, there remains a stronger effect from income on the health of adolescents. These results may reflect a cumulative effect from income that explains much of the strengthening association between income and health before adolescence, with a remaining stronger contemporaneous association in that age group. The analysis is unable to identify a major role of chronic conditions or injuries in these relationships.

  6. How postsecondary education improves adult outcomes for Supplemental Security Income children with severe hearing impairments.

    PubMed

    Weathers, Robert R; Walter, Gerard; Schley, Sara; Hennessey, John; Hemmeter, Jeffrey; Burkhauser, Richard V

    2007-01-01

    The rapid growth in the number of children participating in the Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program before the age of 18 has led policymakers to consider new methods of assisting children with disabilities in their transition from school to work. Postsecondary education represents one path that SSI children may take to acquire the skills necessary to enter employment and reduce dependency on the SSI disability program as adults. Yet little is known about SSI children's experience with postsecondary education, let alone their ability to increase their labor market earnings and reduce their time on SSI as adults in the long term. This lack of information on long-term outcomes is due in part to a lack of longitudinal data. This article uses a unique longitudinal data set to conduct a case study of SSI children who applied for postsecondary education at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID) within the Rochester Institute of Technology. The data set was created by merging NTID administrative data on the characteristics and experiences of its applicants to Social Security Administration (SSA) longitudinal data on earnings and program participation. We used this data file to estimate the likelihood that an SSI child will graduate from NTID relative to other hearing-impaired NTID applicants, and we estimated the influence of graduation from NTID on participation in the SSI adult program and later success in the labor market. The results of our analysis show that the percentage of NTID applicants who were SSI children increased over time, from a low of 10 percent in 1982 to more than 41 percent in 2000. However, the differences in the probability of graduation from NTID between deaf SSI children and deaf applicants who were not SSI children did not change accordingly. The probability of graduation for SSI children who applied to NTID was 13.5 percentage points lower than for those who were not SSI children. The estimated disparity indicates that

  7. Aging and Adult Education: A Challenge for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kamp, Max

    By the year 2000, at least 20 percent of Europeans will be over 60 years old. As the labor force ages, older employees will have to contribute more to the productivity of organizations. Due to rapid technological changes, more retraining will be required. Education can fulfill important functions for older adults, but their learning style must be…

  8. How Pronounced Is Income Inequality around the World--and How Can Education Help Reduce It? Education Indicators in Focus. No. 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    How pronounced is income inequality around the world--and how can education help reduce it? This paper reports the following: (1) Across OECD (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, the average income of the richest 10% of the population was about nine times that of the poorest 10% before the onset of the global economic…

  9. Enhancing Neurosurgical Education in Low- and Middle-income Countries: Current Methods and New Advances

    PubMed Central

    LIANG, Kevin E; BERNSTEIN, Ilia; KATO, Yoko; KAWASE, Takeshi; HODAIE, Mojgan

    2016-01-01

    Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) face a critical shortage of basic surgical services. Adequate neurosurgical services can have a far-reaching positive impact on society’s health care and, consequently, the economic development in LMICs. Yet surgery, and specifically neurosurgery has been a long neglected sector of global health. This article reviews the current efforts to enhance neurosurgery education in LMICs and outlines ongoing approaches for improvement. In addition, we introduce the concept of a sustainable and cost-effective model to enhance neurosurgical resources in LMICs and describe the process and methods of online curriculum development. PMID:27616319

  10. Childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure and household income among US children aged 0 to 2 years.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juhee; Gallien, Tara L

    2016-07-01

    The primary objective of this study is to examine the disparities in childcare and infant feeding practices by family structure (single-mother vs. two-parent households) and whether household income level may modify the observed associations by family structure. The cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 2 years enrolled in the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. The analytic sample is children from single mothers (n = 1801, 16.0%) and children from two parents (n = 11 337, 84.0%). Children of single mothers used more non-parental childcare [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.99-3.58], especially relative care and centre care, than children of two parents. Lower rates of any breastfeeding for 6 months (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.77) and ever breastfed (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89) were reported among children of single mothers than those of two parents. The many observed differences in childcare arrangements and breastfeeding by family structure remained significant in both low- and high-income households. However, children of low-income single mothers had more last-minute changes of childcare arrangement (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.55-3.52) than children of low-income two-parent households and children of high-income single mothers had more early introduction of complementary foods (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.12-3.29) than children of high-income two-parent households. This study documented disparities in childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure, regardless of income level. These findings support the need to for comprehensive policies that address maternal employment leave, childcare support and workplace accommodations and support for breastfeeding for children 0 to 2 years, especially among single mothers, regardless of income.

  11. Family income and education were related with 30-year time trends in dietary and meal behaviors of American children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2013-05-01

    Recent survey data reveal the persistence of long-acknowledged socioeconomic status (SES) differentials in the prevalence of obesity in U.S. children and adolescents. We examined 30-y changes in the association of dietary and meal behaviors with family income and education to understand the possible contribution of these trends to SES trends in obesity rates in 2- to 19-y-old Americans. We used dietary and SES data for 2- to 19-y olds from the NHANES 1971-1974 to 2003-2008 (n = 39,822). The secular changes in the independent association of family income and education with 24-h dietary behaviors [energy intake (kcal), amount of foods and beverages (g), percent energy from all beverages and from nutritive beverages, and energy density of foods] and 24-h meal behaviors [number of eating occasions, energy from snack episodes (%), and mention of breakfast] were examined using multivariable regression methods. The secular increase in energy intake and food and beverage amount was significant in the lowest family SES categories. The positive association of family income and education with intakes of energy, food amounts, and beverage energy, noted in 1971-1974 or 1976-1980, was not observed in later surveys. There was an age gradient in changes in most diet and SES associations over time, with largest adverse changes in 12- to 19-y olds. Higher education was associated with lower energy from snack episodes, breakfast skipping, and energy density of foods and these associations did not change over time. Overall, these results suggest both income and education differentials in secular increases in food amounts and energy intakes.

  12. Do Electronic Technologies Increase or Narrow Differences in Higher Education Quality between Low- and High-Income Countries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capshaw, Norman Clark

    2008-01-01

    The disruptive technologies of the Internet and computers are changing our world in myriad ways. These technologies are also increasingly being employed in higher education but to what effect? Are the effects on higher education quality measurable, and if so, what is the effect on the traditional gap between high-income and low- to middle-income…

  13. How Income Contingent Loans Could Affect the Returns to Higher Education: A Microsimulation of the French Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtioux, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    We assess the implementation of income contingent loan (ICL) schemes for higher education in a context characterized by two main features: a formerly tuition-free system and a great heterogeneity in the quality and cost of higher education. In that case, ICL implementation leads to a trade-off between increasing "career" equity in terms…

  14. Educational Status Orientations of Mexican American and Anglo American Youth in Selected Low-Income Counties of Texas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juarez, Rumaldo Z.

    Research was conducted to determine the educational status orientations of a sample of Mexican American boys and girls living in low-income rural areas of Texas, and to compare the results by sex with educational status orientations of a similar sample of Anglo American boys and girls. Informational responses from a sample of 290 male and 306…

  15. Federal Contributions to High-Income School Districts: The Use of Tax Deductions for Funding K-12 Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Susannna; Socias, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    The federal role in education finance is commonly seen as compensatory. The federal government gives large sums of money to low-income schools and school districts through programs such as Title 1. Yet, this view of federal aid is based solely on direct educational expenditures. The federal government and state governments also support schools…

  16. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  17. Predictors for Asthma at Age 7 Years for Low-Income Children Enrolled in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Tamesis, Grace P; Covar, Ronina A; Strand, Matthew; Liu, Andrew H; Szefler, Stanley J.; Klinnert, Mary D

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the predictive factors of early childhood wheezing in children of low socioeconomic status. Study design The Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) enrolled 177 low-income children (9–24 months old) with frequent wheezing. At age 7 years, presence of asthma was assessed through caregiver reports of physician diagnosis of asthma (CRPDA) and corroborated by assessment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Lung function, inflammatory markers, and asthma symptom severity were compared for children with ±CRPDA, ±BHR, and asthma. Baseline predictors for CRPDA, BHR and asthma at 7 years of age were examined. Results Maternal symptom report strongly differentiated children with +CRPDA (50%) despite comparable airflow measurements (p<0.0001), and spirometric lung function measurements were different for +BHR (65%) vs. −BHR (p<0.005). Univariate analyses revealed different baseline predictors of +CRPDA and +BHR for children at age 7 years. Higher levels of maternal psychological resources were associated with +CRPDA, but not +BHR. Only 39% of children with a history of frequent wheezing met the conservative definition of asthma at age 7 years, with the following significant predictors found: low birth weight, baseline symptom severity and maternal psychological resources. Conclusions This low-income, multi-ethnic group of wheezing infants represents a unique population of children with distinct characteristics and risks for persistent asthma. Determination of asthma status at 7 years of age required objective measurement of BHR in addition to CRPDA. The association of maternal psychological resources with +CRPDA may represent a previously unrecognized factor in determination of asthma status among low-income groups. PMID:23036483

  18. Validation of the Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire in a low-income preschool-aged sample in the United States.

    PubMed

    Domoff, Sarah E; Miller, Alison L; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-12-01

    The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ; Wardle, Guthrie, Sanderson, & Rapoport, 2001) is a widely used measure of child eating behaviors. Yet, only one study has examined the factor structure of the CEBQ among low-income children. In the current study, we examined the internal consistency, factor structure, and validity of the CEBQ among 1002 low-income preschool-age children recruited from Head Start locations in the United States. Confirmatory Factor Analysis indicated the CEBQ evidenced a reasonable fit to the data. Results also indicate that CEBQ subscales demonstrate good internal reliability (α's ≥ .70) and validity, with 7 of the 8 subscales associated with children's BMI z-scores in the expected directions. Equivalent factor loadings and indicator means across White and Black non-Hispanic participants were found, supporting measurement invariance between these two groups. In sum, our study supports the factor structure of the CEBQ among low-income preschool-aged children in the United States.

  19. An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

  20. Breastfeeding and educational achievement at age 5.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Kelly, Yvonne; Renfrew, Mary J; Sacker, Amanda; Quigley, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether the duration of breastfeeding, at all or exclusively, is associated with educational achievement at age 5. We used data from a prospective, population-based UK cohort study, the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). 5489 children from White ethnic background born at term in 2000-2001, attending school in England in 2006, were included in our analyses. Educational achievement was measured using the Foundation Stage Profile (FSP), a statutory assessment undertaken by teachers at the end of the child's first school year. Breastfeeding duration was ascertained from interviews with the mother when the child was 9 months old. We used modified Poisson's regression to model the association of breastfeeding duration with having reached a good level of achievement overall (≥78 overall points and ≥6 in 'personal, social and emotional development' and 'communication, language and literacy' points) and in specific areas (≥6 points) of development. Children who had been breastfed for up to 2 months were more likely to have reached a good level of overall achievement [adjusted rate ratio (RR): 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.19] than never breastfed children. This association was more marked in children breastfed for 2-4 months (adjusted RR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.29) and in those breastfed for longer than 4 months (adjusted RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.26). The associations of exclusive breastfeeding with the educational achievement were similar. Our findings suggest that longer duration of breastfeeding, at all or exclusively, is associated with better educational achievement at age 5.

  1. A tailored prostate cancer education intervention for low-income African Americans: impact on knowledge and screening.

    PubMed

    Ukoli, Flora A; Patel, Kushal; Hargreaves, Margaret; Beard, Katina; Moton, Pierre J; Bragg, Richard; Beech, Derrick; Davis, Rodney

    2013-02-01

    African American men bear disproportionate burden of prostate cancer (PCa) that can be reduced by early detection. A 15-minute culturally appropriate PCa education intervention developed to communicate effective, relevant, and balanced PCa screening information to low-income African American men was evaluated in men 42 years and older who had not been screened in one year. Of 539 men enrolled, 392 (72.7%) completed the six-month follow-up. Mean age was 54.4±8.9, 34.7% had no high school diploma, and 65.3% earned less than $25,000 annually. Barriers to screening included health insurance (41.4%), discomfort of digital rectal exam (32.1%), and fear of cancer diagnosis (29.9%). Mean knowledge score of 21 points increased from 13.27±3.51 to 14.95±4.14 (p<.001), and prostate-specific antigen screening from 22.1% to 62.8%. Men without high school diploma recorded the lowest post-intervention PCa knowledge and screening rate (47.7%), suggestive of the need for more than a single education session. Annual physicals with free prostate examination can maintain the positive trend observed.

  2. "Snacks are not food". Low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J O; Wright, G; Herman, A N; Malhotra, K; Serrano, E L; Foster, G D; Whitaker, R C

    2015-01-01

    Snacking has become more frequent among US preschool-aged children in recent decades and represents a significant proportion of daily energy intake. Social influences on snacking among children, however, are not well understood. This qualitative research described low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children using data from 7 focus groups with 32 participants. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method to identify themes. Mothers described snacks as involving less preparation, balance, and sustenance than meals (Theme 1). Mothers also made reference to some snacks as not being "real food" (Theme 2). At the same time, snacks had significant hedonic value as reflected in mothers' enjoyment of those foods (Theme 3), the effectiveness of snacks to manage children's behavior (Theme 4), and the variety of restrictions that mothers placed on children's access to snacks, such as locking cabinets, offering small servings, and reducing the number of snacks in sight (Theme 5). Two overarching themes highlighted distinctions mothers made in feeding children snacks vs. meals as well as the powerful hedonic appeal of snacks for both mother and child. These observations suggest that low-income, urban mothers of preschool-aged children may perceive snacks as serving a more important role in managing children's behavior than in providing nutrition. Child feeding interventions should address non-food related ways of managing children's behavior as well as encouraging caregivers to see snacks as structured opportunities for nutrition and connecting with their children.

  3. Aging: Aging as a Theme in Art and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1987-01-01

    Presents several central themes about aging which may prove useful in interpreting art works and increasing students' awareness of the human qualities of aging. Indicates that, when the artist represents the physical changes of aging, he or she equally characterizes cognitive, emotional, social, and spiritual levels of aging. Includes seven…

  4. Longitudinal Effects of a Two-Generation Preschool Programme on Receptive Language Skill in Low-Income Canadian Children to Age 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the "Peabody picture vocabulary test" (3rd ed.). Effects of culture…

  5. Estimating and explaining the effect of education and income on head and neck cancer risk: INHANCE consortium pooled analysis of 31 case-control studies from 27 countries

    PubMed Central

    Conway, David I.; Brenner, Darren R.; McMahon, Alex D.; Macpherson, Lorna M.D.; Agudo, Antonio; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Bosetti, Cristina; Brenner, Hermann; Castellsague, Xavier; Chen, Chu; Curado, Maria Paula; Curioni, Otávio A.; Maso, Luigino Dal; Daudt, Alexander W.; de Gois Filho, José F.; D'Souza, Gypsyamber; Edefonti, Valeria; Fabianova, Eleonora; Fernandez, Leticia; Franceschi, Silvia; Gillison, Maura; Hayes, Richard B.; Healy, Claire M.; Herrero, Rolando; Holcatova, Ivana; Jayaprakash, Vijayvel; Kelsey, Karl; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Koifman, Sergio; La Vecchia, Carlo; Lagiou, Pagona; Lazarus, Philip; Levi, Fabio; Lissowska, Jolanta; Luce, Daniele; Macfarlane, Tatiana V.; Mates, Dana; Matos, Elena; McClean, Michael; Menezes, Ana M; Menvielle, Gwenn; Merletti, Franco; Morgenstern, Hal; Moysich, Kirsten; Müller, Heiko; Muscat, Joshua; Olshan, Andrew F.; Purdue, Mark P.; Ramroth, Heribert; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rudnai, Peter; Schantz, Stimson; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Shangina, Oxana; Simonato, Lorenzo; Smith, Elaine; Stucker, Isabelle; Sturgis, Erich M.; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Talamini, Renato; Thomson, Peter; Vaughan, Thomas L.; Wei, Qingyi; Winn, Deborah M.; Wunsch-Filho, Victor; Yu, Guo-Pei; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Zheng, Tongzhang; Znaor, Ariana; Boffetta, Paolo; Chuang, Shu-Chun; Ghodrat, Marianoosh; Lee, Yuan-Chin Amy; Hashibe, Mia; Brennan, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status has been reported to be associated with head and neck cancer risk. However, previous studies have been too small to examine the associations by cancer subsite, age, sex, global region and calendar time and to explain the association in terms of behavioral risk factors. Individual participant data of 23,964 cases with head and neck cancer and 31,954 controls from 31 studies in 27 countries pooled with random effects models. Overall, low education was associated with an increased risk of head and neck cancer (OR = 2.50; 95% CI = 2.02 – 3.09). Overall one-third of the increased risk was not explained by differences in the distribution of cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors; and it remained elevated among never users of tobacco and nondrinkers (OR = 1.61; 95% CI = 1.13 – 2.31). More of the estimated education effect was not explained by cigarette smoking and alcohol behaviors: in women than in men, in older than younger groups, in the oropharynx than in other sites, in South/Central America than in Europe/North America and was strongest in countries with greater income inequality. Similar findings were observed for the estimated effect of low versus high household income. The lowest levels of income and educational attainment were associated with more than 2-fold increased risk of head and neck cancer, which is not entirely explained by differences in the distributions of behavioral risk factors for these cancers and which varies across cancer sites, sexes, countries and country income inequality levels. PMID:24996155

  6. Higher Education and Happiness in the Age of Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…

  7. Compensatory Education for Children Ages Two to Eight: Recent Studies of Educational Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C., Ed.

    This volume of recent studies in educational intervention includes articles by noted researchers reporting on research on Sesame Street, early intervention programs, research on planned variation in Head Start and Follow Through, evaluation of research in compensatory education for handicapped and low income children, an introduction to the…

  8. Comparison of a web-based vs in-person nutrition education program for low-income adults.

    PubMed

    Neuenschwander, Lauren M; Abbott, Angela; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-01-01

    As access to computers and the Internet by the low-income population is increasing and the "digital divide" is slowly diminishing, other methods of delivering nutrition information to this audience are evolving. This randomized, block equivalence trial sought to determine whether web-based nutrition education could result in equivalent nutrition-related behavior outcomes when compared with traditional in-person nutrition education in low-income adults. A convenience sample of low-income adults (n=123) was randomized to receive in-person education (n=66) or web-based education (n=57) in a community setting within 14 counties of Indiana from April through December 2010. The web-based group received three nutrition education lessons (eg, fruits and vegetables, Nutrition Facts label reading, and whole grains) designed to replicate lessons received by the in-person group. Lessons were developed using Kolb's Learning Styles and Experiential Learning Model. Self-reported nutrition-related behaviors were assessed using a previously validated survey for low-income adults. Most nutrition-related behavior outcomes (eg, fruit, vegetable, whole-grain intake, Nutrition Facts label use, breakfast, and meal-planning frequency) improved significantly (P<0.05) from pre to post within both groups, meaning that each intervention was effective. When these nutrition-related behavior improvements were compared between groups, the changes were statistically equivalent (P>0.05), except for one question about use of the Nutrition Facts label. Therefore, web-based nutrition education can lead to favorable and equivalent nutrition-related changes when compared with in-person delivery. Most (83%) web-based participants also reported willingness to use the website again. Future application of web-based interventions for low-income populations could broaden delivery reach, increase frequency and length of contacts, and possibly decrease costs.

  9. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. Methods As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age <21 years, who had survived ≥5 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor. Siblings were used as a comparison group. We asked questions about education, profession and income and retrieved clinical data from the SCCR. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with income. Results We analyzed data from 1’506 survivors and 598 siblings. Survivors were less likely than siblings to have a high monthly income (>4’500 CHF), even after we adjusted for socio-demographic and educational factors (OR = 0.46, p<0.001). Older age, male sex, personal and parental education, and number of working hours were associated with high income. Survivors of leukemia (OR = 0.40, p<0.001), lymphoma (OR = 0.63, p = 0.040), CNS tumors (OR = 0.22, p<0.001), bone tumors (OR = 0.24, p = 0.003) had a lower income than siblings. Survivors who had cranial irradiation, had a lower income than survivors who had no cranial irradiation (OR = 0.48, p = 0.006). Discussion Even after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, education and working hours, survivors of various diagnostic groups have lower incomes than siblings. Further research needs to identify the underlying causes. PMID:27213682

  10. Aligning and Elevating University-Based Low-Income Nutrition Education through the Land-Grant University Cooperative Extension System. National Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Connie

    2014-01-01

    The nation's Land-Grant University Cooperative Extension System (LGU-CES) is committed to ensuring that low-income populations have a safe, affordable, and healthy food supply. Two low-income nutrition education programs that are core to this commitment are the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) and the Supplemental Nutrition…

  11. Academic Performance in ADHD when Controlled for Comorbid Learning Disorders, Family Income, and Parental Education in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmine Pastura, Giuseppe Mario; Mattos, Paulo; Campos Araujo, Alexandra Prufer de Queiroz

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Scholastic achievement in a nonclinical sample of ADHD children and adolescents was evaluated taking into consideration variables such as comorbid learning disorders, family income, and parental education which may also be associated with poor academic performance. Method: After screening for ADHD in 396 students, the authors compared…

  12. Delayed College Entry and the Socioeconomic Gap: Examining the Roles of Student Plans, Family Income, Parental Education, and Parental Occupation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan S.; Lynch, Cassie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates delayed college entry, including how college enrollment differs based on students' plans while in high school. Results confirm that low-SES students are repeatedly disadvantaged in the college transition, but add complexity concerning the influences of family income, parental education, and parental occupational status.…

  13. Effect of Nutrition Supplement Education on Nutrition Supplement Knowledge among High School Students from a Low-Income Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Jeffrey C.; Perry, Danielle R.; Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the effectiveness of a nutrition supplement educational intervention in improving the nutrition supplement knowledge of low-income adolescents. Data on high school students separated into experimental and control groups indicated that they had extremely poor pre-intervention knowledge. However, the short-term nutrition education…

  14. The Effects of Learning Styles and Online Education on Low-Income and First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Marissa Arboe

    2012-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the impact of a learning style intervention on persistence and success of low-income and first-generation college students enrolled in online courses. With the continuing rise of online education, there is potential for both promise and problems within higher academia. The TRiO Student Support Services…

  15. Do Education and Income Affect Support for Democracy in Muslim Countries? Evidence from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2010-01-01

    Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project 2005", this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary…

  16. Do Education and Income Affect Support for Democracy in Muslim Countries? Evidence from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2009-01-01

    Using micro-level public opinion data from the "Pew Global Attitudes Project" 2005, this study investigates the effect of educational attainment and income on support for democracy in five predominantly Muslim countries: Indonesia, Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. Holding all else constant and compared to not finishing primary…

  17. In Italy, North-South Differences in IQ Predict Differences in Income, Education, Infant Mortality, Stature, and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Regional differences in IQ are presented for 12 regions of Italy showing that IQs are highest in the north and lowest in the south. Regional IQs obtained in 2006 are highly correlated with average incomes at r = 0.937, and with stature, infant mortality, literacy and education. The lower IQ in southern Italy may be attributable to genetic…

  18. Public and Private Lives: Institutional Structures and Personal Supports in Low-Income Single Mothers' Educational Pursuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cerven, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a case study of 60 low-income single mothers in California, I present a grounded account of the barriers and supports single mothers encounter in their pursuit of postsecondary education (PSE) and detail what the women themselves attributed to their success. I highlight the role both significant others (peers, family, friends) and…

  19. Bakke v. Regents of University of California: Potential Implications for Income Tax Exemptions and Affirmative Action in Private Educational Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, G. Stephen

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed are the position of the Internal Revenue Service on racial discrimination and federal income tax exemptions for private educational organizations and possible impacts of the Bakke decision on the issue. (Journal availability: School of Law, Martin Luther King, Jr. Hall, University of California, Davis, CA 95616.) (MSE)

  20. Low educational level but not low income impairs the achievement of cytogenetic remission in chronic myeloid leukemia patients treated with imatinib in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rego, Monica Napoleão Fortes; Metze, Konradin; Lorand-Metze, Irene

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In Brazil, imatinib mesylate is supplied as the first-line therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia in the chronic phase through the public universal healthcare program, Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). We studied the socio-demographic factors that influenced therapy success in a population in the northeast region of Brazil. METHODS: Patients with chronic myeloid leukemia from the state of Piauí were treated in only one reference center. Diagnosis was based on WHO 2008 criteria. Risk was assessed by Sokal, Hasford and EUTOS scores. Patients received 400 mg imatinib daily. We studied the influence of the following factors on the achievement of complete cytogenetic response within one year of treatment: age, clinical risk category, time interval between diagnosis and the start of imatinib treatment, geographic distance from the patient's home to the hospital, years of formal education and monthly income. RESULTS: Among 103 patients studied, the median age was 42 years; 65% of the patients had 2-9 years of formal education, and the median monthly income was approximately 100 US$. Imatinib was started in the first year after diagnosis (early chronic phase) in 69 patients. After 12 months of treatment, 68 patients had a complete cytogenetic response. The Hasford score, delay to start imatinib and years of formal education influenced the attainment of a complete cytogenetic response, whereas income and the distance from the home to the healthcare facility did not. CONCLUSION: Patients require additional healthcare information to better understand the importance of long-term oral anticancer treatment and to improve their compliance with the treatment. PMID:26039947

  1. E-learning in medical education in resource constrained low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the face of severe faculty shortages in resource-constrained countries, medical schools look to e-learning for improved access to medical education. This paper summarizes the literature on e-learning in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and presents the spectrum of tools and strategies used. Methods Researchers reviewed literature using terms related to e-learning and pre-service education of health professionals in LMIC. Search terms were connected using the Boolean Operators “AND” and “OR” to capture all relevant article suggestions. Using standard decision criteria, reviewers narrowed the article suggestions to a final 124 relevant articles. Results Of the relevant articles found, most referred to e-learning in Brazil (14 articles), India (14), Egypt (10) and South Africa (10). While e-learning has been used by a variety of health workers in LMICs, the majority (58%) reported on physician training, while 24% focused on nursing, pharmacy and dentistry training. Although reasons for investing in e-learning varied, expanded access to education was at the core of e-learning implementation which included providing supplementary tools to support faculty in their teaching, expanding the pool of faculty by connecting to partner and/or community teaching sites, and sharing of digital resources for use by students. E-learning in medical education takes many forms. Blended learning approaches were the most common methodology presented (49 articles) of which computer-assisted learning (CAL) comprised the majority (45 articles). Other approaches included simulations and the use of multimedia software (20 articles), web-based learning (14 articles), and eTutor/eMentor programs (3 articles). Of the 69 articles that evaluated the effectiveness of e-learning tools, 35 studies compared outcomes between e-learning and other approaches, while 34 studies qualitatively analyzed student and faculty attitudes toward e-learning modalities. Conclusions E

  2. EDUCATIONAL RESTRICTIONS TO AGRICULTURAL SUCCESS AND THE RELATIONSHIP OF EDUCATION TO INCOME AMONG FARMERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PERSONS, EDGAR A.; SWANSON, GORDON I.

    THE MAIN PURPOSE OF THIS PROJECT WAS TO STUDY THE RELATIONSHIPS OF EDUCATIONAL, ECONOMIC, AND BIOGRAPHICAL VARIABLES TO FARM SUCCESS. UNDERSTANDING THESE RELATIONSHIPS WAS PREREQUISITE TO DEVISING A MEANS OF PREDICTING SUCCESS FOR A YOUNG MAN CONTEMPLATING PRODUCTION AGRICULTURE AS AN OCCUPATION. SPECIAL ATTENTION WAS FOCUSED ON THE ROLE OF THE…

  3. 20 CFR 404.1025 - Work for religious, charitable, educational, or certain other organizations exempt from income tax.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Work Excluded from Employment § 404.1025 Work for... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Work for religious, charitable,...

  4. Education and income: double-edged swords in the epidemiologic transition of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Thomas A

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 World Health Report warns that the allies of poverty and ignorance are joining forces with the new formidable enemies of health. This describes the epidemiologic transition of burden of disease from infectious and parasitic diseases to that of noncommunicable diseases. All parts of the world, with the possible exception of sub-Saharan Africa, have well-established epidemics of coronary heart disease and stroke. Hypertension contributes significantly to mortality everywhere and is a leading global problem. Education and wealth have strong influences on the epidemiologic transition and might serve as a double-edged sword of benefit and risk. While improved education and enhanced resources are necessary to reduce infectious, parasitic, and perinatal diseases, these factors are also associated with adoption of deleterious health behaviors, which lead to the atherosclerotic diseases. The diffusion of innovation theory describes the early adoption of unhealthy lifestyles in the educated and wealthy, who soon recognize the costs to their community and modify these lifestyles. The uneducated poor may adopt these unhealthy lifestyles later, but, once that occurs, are left with higher risk and burden of cardiovascular disease. One possible reason for this is that discretionary income and the desire for modern conveniences quickly attract unhealthy products (tobacco, high fat/high salt foods) and unhealthy behaviors (sedentary entertainment transportation without physical exertion). The commercial interests of these products have been efficient and effective in delivering their messages to developing societies. Heart health organizations must be more aggressive in their assessment of needs for programs, education of people over a broad range of education levels, assurance of access to heart health services, alteration of the environment to facilitate heart health, and the development of policies and laws to limit deleterious products and behaviors. These late

  5. The Needs of the Aging: Implications for Home Economics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Louise; Whatley, Alice Elrod

    1975-01-01

    Home economics teachers sensitive to aging can be effective agents in forming healthy attitudes toward the aged and aging; they will see the need for increased concern for the influence of housing on the aged. Housing will be seen as an arrangement promoting continuous education. (Author)

  6. Effects of aging and education on false memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the recall and recognition of the studied word and nonstudied lures. A low education level had a negative effect on memory performance for both young and middle-aged adults. Older adults with a high level of education had a higher level of false memory than those with a lower education level. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the importance of education on false memory and mechanisms that create false memory of words in older adults.

  7. Age-related cognitive decline during normal aging: the complex effect of education.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Rosselli, M; Gómez, C

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education on cognitive decline during normal aging. An 806-subject sample was taken from five different Mexican regions. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. Subjects were grouped into four educational levels: illiterate, 1-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years of education, and four age ranges: 16-30, 31-50, 51-65, and 66-85 years. A brief neuropsychological test battery (NEUROPSI), standardized and normalized in Spanish, was administered. The NEUROPSI test battery includes assessment of orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, motor skills, and executive functions. In general, test scores were strongly associated with level of educational, and differences among age groups were smaller than differences among education groups. However, there was an interaction between age and education such as that among illiterate individuals scores of participants 31-50 years old were higher than scores of participants 16-30 years old for over 50% of the tests. Different patterns of interaction among educational groups were distinguished. It was concluded that: (a) The course of life-span changes in cognition are affected by education. Among individuals with a low level of education, best neuropsychological test performance is observed at an older age than among higher-educated subjects; and (b) there is not a single relationship between age-related cognitive decline and education, but different patterns may be found, depending upon the specific cognitive domain.

  8. Vietnamese Immigrant and Refugee Women's Mental Health: An Examination of Age of Arrival, Length of Stay, Income, and English Language Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Chris; Schale, Codi L.; Nilsson, Johanna E.

    2010-01-01

    Vietnamese immigrant and refugee women (N = 83) were surveyed regarding their mental health, English language proficiency, age of arrival, length of stay, and income. English language proficiency and age of arrival correlated with reduced symptomatology. Moreover, English language proficiency was the sole predictor of somatic distress. (Contains 1…

  9. A Digital Program Informs Low-Income Caregivers of Preschool-Age Children about Family Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara; Rifkin, Robin; Arnold, Kristen; Least, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the digital program, "Mealtime is Family Time", as a means of educating caregivers of preschoolers on the importance of family meals within the division of feeding responsibility framework. Methods: Descriptive design using 2 approaches: focus group program review and discussion or self-report survey after independent…

  10. Education of Social Skills among Senior High School Age Students in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akelaitis, Arturas V.; Malinauskas, Romualdas K.

    2016-01-01

    Research aim was to reveal peculiarities of the education of social skills among senior high school age students in physical education classes. We hypothesized that after the end of the educational experiment the senior high school age students will have more developed social skills in physical education classes. Participants in the study were 51…

  11. Educational Credentialing of an Aging Workforce: Uneasy Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the educational attainment of an aging workforce from the perspective of educational credentialing. The research questions are defined as follows: Why are workers over age 50 attaining university degrees? How do they narratively construct the rational for pursuing well-recognized credentials in midlife? The specific focus…

  12. Obesity-Related Hormones in Low-Income Preschool-Age Children: Implications for School Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alison L.; Lumeng, Carey N.; Delproposto, Jennifer; Florek, Brian; Wendorf, Kristin; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2013-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities in school readiness and health outcomes, particularly obesity, among preschool-aged children are complex and poorly understood. Obesity can induce changes in proteins in the circulation that contribute to the negative impact of obesity on health; such changes may relate to cognitive and emotion…

  13. Social-cognitive predictors of low-income parents' restriction of screen time among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents (N = 147) of preschool-aged children (2-6 years) completed self-administered questionnaires examining parent and child screen time, parent restriction of screen time, self-efficacy to restrict screen time, and beliefs about screen time. Structural equation modeling results indicated that greater self-efficacy to restrict screen time (β = .29, p = .016) and greater perceived importance of restricting child screen use (β = .55, p < .001) were associated with greater restriction of child screen use, after controlling for parent screen time. Family-based interventions that consider broader attitudinal factors around child screen time may be necessary to engage parents in restricting screen use.

  14. Family Income, Parental Education and Brain Structure in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Houston, Suzanne M.; Brito, Natalie H.; Bartsch, Hauke; Kan, Eric; Kuperman, Joshua M.; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G.; Bloss, Cinnamon S.; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J.; Murray, Sarah S.; Casey, B. J.; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M.; Frazier, Jean A.; Gruen, Jeffrey R.; Kennedy, David N.; Zijl, Peter Van; Mostofsky, Stewart; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Kenet, Tal; Dale, Anders M.; Jernigan, Terry L.; Sowell, Elizabeth R.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. Here, we investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Specifically, among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data indicate that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children. Potential implications are discussed. PMID:25821911

  15. Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…

  16. Coming of Age: The Department of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Putallaz, Martha; Malone, David

    2002-01-01

    Introduces special section on the history, leadership, and policies of the U.S. Department of Education based on presentations by five (four former and the current) Secretaries of Education at the Duke University Education Leadership Summit, held in Durham, North Carolina, on February 2002. (PKP)

  17. Marketing Education in the Postmodern Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In Australia, education is expected to serve national and international market economies and is being steered by market forces within and beyond education. Recent forms of education markets raise social-justice issues inadequately treated in literature. Markets operate according to profit motive and are not premised on equality or fairness…

  18. Nursing Education and the Nuclear Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Literature of nursing education and baccalaureate nursing education programs were surveyed to investigate the degree to which nurses' professional responsibility for preventing nuclear war is being addressed. It was found that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest within nursing education about nuclear…

  19. Neuroanatomical correlates of aging, cardiopulmonary fitness level, and education

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Brian A.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena I.; Brumback, Carrie R.; Lee, Yukyung; Elavsky, Steriani; Konopack, James F.; Mcauley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.; Colcombe, Stanley; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Fitness and education may protect against cognitive impairments in aging. They may also counteract age-related structural changes within the brain. Here we analyzed volumetric differences in cerebrospinal fluid and gray and white matter, along with neuropsychological data, in adults differing in age, fitness, and education. Cognitive performance was correlated with fitness and education. Voxel-based morphometry was used for a whole-brain analysis of structural magnetic resonance images. We found age-related losses in gray and white matter in medial-temporal, parietal, and frontal areas. As in previous work, fitness within the old correlated with preserved gray matter in the same areas. In contrast, higher education predicted preserved white matter in inferior frontal areas. These data suggest that fitness and education may both be predictive of preserved cognitive function in aging through separable effects on brain structure. PMID:18627534

  20. Sheltering Retirement Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, E. Lewis; Cash, L. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Eligibility for an IRA has been severely changed by the Tax Reform Act of 1986. In 1987 educators who have a retirement plan administered by their employer will face new eligibility rules. For self-employment income, a Keogh plan is an excellent way to shelter income and provide retirement income. (MLW)

  1. The Age of Information and the Future of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eugene A.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that the function of futurism is essentially one of stimulating thinking. Discusses changes in the age of information; compulsory education; how the future looks for schools, administrators, and teachers; the role of the school; how teachers look at education; and the role of technology within education. (CT)

  2. Incidence of Major Depressive Disorder: Variation by Age and Sex in Low-Income Individuals: A Population-Based 10-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chun-Te; Chiang, Yi-Cheng; Huang, Jing-Yang; Tantoh, Disline M; Nfor, Oswald N; Lee, Jia-Fu; Chang, Cheng-Chen; Liaw, Yung-Po

    2016-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD), the most prevalent mental disorder is a global public health issue. The aim of this study was to assess the association between low income and major depressive disorder (MDD) by age and sex. The National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan was used to retrieve data. A total of 1,743,948 participants were eligible for the study. Low-income individuals were identified from 2001 and 2003 (specifically, Group Insurance Applicants, ie, category"51" or "52") and followed from 2004 to 2010. MDD was identified using the ICD-9-CM 296.2 and 296.3 codes. Among non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates increased with age in both males and females, that is, 0.35, 0.93, 0.97, 1.40 per 10,000 person-months for males and 0.41, 1.60, 1.89, 1.95 per 10,000 person-months for females aged 0 to 17, 18 to 44, 45 to 64, and ≥65 years, respectively. Low-income females (18-44 years) and males (45-64 years) had the highest incidence of MDD, which was 3.90 and 3.04, respectively, per 10,000 person-months. Among low and non-low-income individuals, the MDD incidence rates were higher in the females than males in all age groups. Males aged 45 to 64 and 0 to 17 years had highest hazard ratios (HR) of 2.789 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.937-4.014) and 2.446 (95% CI, 1.603-3.732), respectively. The highest HRs for females were 2.663 (95% CI, 1.878-3.775) and 2.219 (CI, 1.821-2.705) in the 0 to 17 and 18- to 44-year age groups. Low income was not found to serve as a risk factor for the development of MDD in males and females aged ≥65 years. Among the non-low-income males and females, the incidence rates of MDD were found to increase with age. Low income was found to serve as a significant risk factor for MDD only in individuals under age 65.

  3. The Economics of Education: Public Benefits of High-Quality Preschool Education for Low-Income Children. Building Communities for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheim, Jerrold; MacGregor, Theo

    Noting that high-quality preschool increases the ability of low-income children to profit from elementary and secondary education, thereby increasing their high school graduation rate and generating economic and other returns for taxpayers, this report articulates and analyzes the economic benefits of providing a high-quality preschool education…

  4. Low-Income and Minority Serving Institutions: Department of Education Could Improve Its Monitoring and Assistance. Report to the Secretary of Education. GAO-04-961

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, Cornelia M.

    2004-01-01

    Congress has expanded the number of low-income and minority-serving institutions eligible for grants under Titles III and V of the Higher Education Act and significantly increased funding for the grants. This study investigated: how institutions used their Title III and Title V grants, and benefits they received from using the grant funds;…

  5. Trends in Income-Related Gaps in Enrollment in Early Childhood Education: 1968 to 2013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Katherine; Waldfogel, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The academic achievement gap between children from the lowest- and highest-income families appears to have risen in recent decades in the United States. Such income-related disparities in academic skills are already present when children enter elementary school, suggesting that the explanation for changing gaps can be traced to changing…

  6. Accounting for Intergenerational Income Persistence: Non-Cognitive Skills, Ability and Education. CEE DP 73

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanden, Jo; Gregg, Paul; Macmillan, Lindsey

    2006-01-01

    We analyse in detail the factors that lead to intergenerational persistence among sons, where this is measured as the association between childhood family income and later adult earnings. We seek to account for the level of income persistence in the 1970 BCS cohort and also to explore the decline in mobility in the UK between the 1958 NCDS cohort…

  7. LOW INCOME FAMILY, TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS, HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION, EDUCATION 685.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANN, OPAL H.

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE NEED FOR EXTENSION WORK WITH LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN EASTERN KENTUCKY (APPALACHIA) AND OF THE PROBLEMS AND TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS WHO WORK WITH THESE FAMILIES. THE AGENTS FELT THEY HAD A RESPONSIBILITY TO HELP LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN BUDGETING TIME, EFFORT, AND RESOURCES TO MEET MINIMUM…

  8. Volunteer Income Tax Assistance: A Community Coalition for Financial Education and Asset Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koonce, Joan; Scarrow, Andrea; Palmer, Lance

    2016-01-01

    Free tax programs, such as Volunteer Income Tax Assistance (VITA), allow recipients of the earned income tax credit (EITC) to have their returns filed for free. VITA and other free tax programs are nationwide. However, each program is distinct, and the services provided by these programs differ. This article discusses a successful and unique…

  9. Exercise and Aging: New Perspectives and Educational Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Darrell; Rosato, Frank D.

    1979-01-01

    Several factors have focused new attention on aging and the aged. A major concern emanating from these has been the role of physical fitness upon the health status of the aging. Benefits of exercise and educational and curricular modifications are identified to promote health and well-being among the elderly. (Author/BEF)

  10. Moral Education in an Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.

  11. Experiential Environmental Education for Primary Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heather

    Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.…

  12. Education for the Age of Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the changing role of university computing departments in relation to changing models of computer professionals, universities, education, research, innovation, and work. Suggestions for transforming education include broadening research, reorganizing curricula, and implementing feedback to tie research back into the curriculum. (LRW)

  13. Mature Age Students in Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore, Terry; West, Leo H. T.

    A study was undertaken, in 1976 and for the three following years, of adult students in Australian higher education. The study examined: (1) the phenomenon of adult students and the extent of their involvement in higher education; (2) the politics and practices of institutions towards these students; (3) staff attitudes in the courses; (4) adult…

  14. Using School Scholarships to Estimate the Effect of Private Education on the Academic Achievement of Low-Income Students in Chile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anand, Priyanka; Mizala, Alejandra; Repetto, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This paper estimates the impact of private education on the academic achievement of low-income students in Chile. To deal with selection bias, we use propensity score matching to compare the test scores of reduced-fee paying, low-income students in fee-charging private voucher schools to those of similar students in public schools and free private…

  15. Poverty-Related Adversity and Emotion Regulation Predict Internalizing Behavior Problems among Low-Income Children Ages 8–11

    PubMed Central

    Raver, C. Cybele; Roy, Amanda L.; Pressler, Emily; Ursache, Alexandra M.; Charles McCoy, Dana

    2016-01-01

    The current study examines the additive and joint roles of chronic poverty-related adversity and three candidate neurocognitive processes of emotion regulation (ER)—including: (i) attention bias to threat (ABT); (ii) accuracy of facial emotion appraisal (FEA); and (iii) negative affect (NA)—for low-income, ethnic minority children’s internalizing problems (N = 338). Children were enrolled in the current study from publicly funded preschools, with poverty-related adversity assessed at multiple time points from early to middle childhood. Field-based administration of neurocognitively-informed assessments of ABT, FEA and NA as well as parental report of internalizing symptoms were collected when children were ages 8–11, 6 years after baseline. Results suggest that chronic exposure to poverty-related adversity from early to middle childhood predicted higher levels of internalizing symptomatology when children are ages 8–11, even after controlling for initial poverty status and early internalizing symptoms in preschool. Moreover, each of the 3 hypothesized components of ER played an independent and statistically significant role in predicting children’s parent-reported internalizing symptoms at the 6-year follow-up, even after controlling for early and chronic poverty-related adversity. PMID:28036091

  16. Poverty-Related Adversity and Emotion Regulation Predict Internalizing Behavior Problems among Low-Income Children Ages 8-11.

    PubMed

    Raver, C Cybele; Roy, Amanda L; Pressler, Emily; Ursache, Alexandra M; Charles McCoy, Dana

    2016-12-29

    The current study examines the additive and joint roles of chronic poverty-related adversity and three candidate neurocognitive processes of emotion regulation (ER)-including: (i) attention bias to threat (ABT); (ii) accuracy of facial emotion appraisal (FEA); and (iii) negative affect (NA)-for low-income, ethnic minority children's internalizing problems (N = 338). Children were enrolled in the current study from publicly funded preschools, with poverty-related adversity assessed at multiple time points from early to middle childhood. Field-based administration of neurocognitively-informed assessments of ABT, FEA and NA as well as parental report of internalizing symptoms were collected when children were ages 8-11, 6 years after baseline. Results suggest that chronic exposure to poverty-related adversity from early to middle childhood predicted higher levels of internalizing symptomatology when children are ages 8-11, even after controlling for initial poverty status and early internalizing symptoms in preschool. Moreover, each of the 3 hypothesized components of ER played an independent and statistically significant role in predicting children's parent-reported internalizing symptoms at the 6-year follow-up, even after controlling for early and chronic poverty-related adversity.

  17. Impact of age at calving on lactation, reproduction, health, and income in first-parity Holsteins on commercial farms.

    PubMed

    Ettema, J F; Santos, J E P

    2004-08-01

    The objective was to examine milk production, health, and economic performance among Holstein heifers during first lactation on 3 commercial dairy farms in California. Heifers (n = 1905) were moved to the breeding group between 360 and 390 d of age and grouped retrospectively according to age at first calving (AFC) as low (< or =700 d), medium (701 to 750 d), and high (> or =751 d). Within farm, growing heifers were managed similarly, as were lactating primiparous cows, for the first 310 d in lactation. Heifers were fed to gain 0.70 to 0.80 kg/d from 4 mo of age to breeding, and 0.8 to 0.9 kg/d from breeding to 252 to 258 d of pregnancy. First calving at <700 d was associated with reduced yields of milk and milk components. Cows in the high age group produced more milk fat and true protein than medium and low cows. Incidence of stillbirths was highest for cows in the low group (19.8%), but stillbirths were also a concern for those calving at medium (16.1%) or high age groups (13.5%). Both low and high cows had lower conception rates at first postpartum AI, and abortions averaged 9.8% across groups. Days open and number of inseminations were lower for medium than low cows. Incidence of mastitis and lameness was lowest for cows in the medium group. Culling and mortality rates were not affected by AFC, but among those that died, cows in the low group tended to die earlier postpartum than cows in the high group. Heifers in the medium group had an adjusted income value numerically higher by 138.33 dollars and 98.81 dollars compared with those in the low and high groups, respectively. First calving at <700 d compromised first lactation yields of milk and milk components and impaired reproductive performance. However, extending AFC beyond 750 d did not improve lactation, reproduction, or health of primiparous cows. Although not preassigned to age groups before start of breeding, Holstein heifers managed as in this study had the highest economic return when calving between

  18. The more things change: revisiting a comparison of educational costs and incomes of physicians and other professionals.

    PubMed

    Weeks, William B; Wallace, Amy E

    2002-04-01

    The authors previously compared the 1990 educational costs and incomes of physicians and other professional groups. Since then, there have been dramatic changes in the market for the groups examined. This article reports their update of the previous analysis, using 1997 data. For this update, the authors applied standard financial techniques to expected incomes and educational costs to determine the return on educational investment over the working lifetime for five professional groups: primary care physicians, procedure-based physicians, dentists, attorneys, and graduates of the top 20 business schools. The hours-adjusted net present values of the educational investments for attorneys ($10.73) and procedure-based physicians ($10.40) are considerably higher than those for dentists ($8.90) and businessmen ($8.27); the return for primary care physicians ($5.97) remains much lower than all others. Primary care physicians have an hours-adjusted internal rate of return on their educational investment equal to 16%, compared with 18% for procedure-based medicine, 22% for dentistry, 23% for law, and 26% for business. Although it remains the lowest of all professional groups examined, primary care medicine has made the largest percentage gain in net present value of all groups. Although anticipated changes in physician incomes have occurred, the standing of physicians relative to other professional groups has not changed. Students can still anticipate relatively poorer returns on their educational investment when they choose a career in primary care medicine as compared with careers in procedure-based medicine or surgical specialties, business, law, or dentistry.

  19. Maine Department of Education Regulation 180: Early Intervention and Special Education for Children Age Birth to under Age Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

    This document contains regulations governing the administration of the Childfind system for children age birth to under age 6, the provision of early intervention services to eligible children birth through two with disabilities and their families, and the provision of special education and related services to eligible children age 3 to under 6…

  20. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A.; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Evans, Alan C.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. Methods: We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. Results: The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. Conclusions: The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. PMID:27664981

  1. Education to Promote Positive Attitudes about Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Diane; Council, Kathy; Mcguire, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined what a one-time intervention about aging does to the attitudes of high-school students toward aging. Early findings from the study support previous research that indicates ageist attitudes formed in early childhood become difficult to change as children reach adolescence. This research further supports the need for…

  2. Assessment of the nutrition and physical activity education needs of low-income, rural mothers: can technology play a role?

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Nancy L; Billing, Amy S; Desmond, Sharon M; Gold, Robert S; Tournas-Hardt, Amy

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptions of low-income, rural mothers regarding their need for nutrition and physical activity education and the role of technology in addressing those needs. Quantitative and qualitative research was combined to examine the nature and scope of the issues faced by this target population. Women who were currently receiving food stamps and had children in nursery school to eighth grade were recruited through a state database to participate in a telephone survey (N = 146) and focus groups (N = 56). Low-income, rural mothers were aware of and practiced many health behaviors related to nutrition and physical activity, but they faced additional barriers due to their income level, rural place of residence, and having children. They reported controlling the fat content in the food they cooked and integrating fruits and vegetables but showed less interest in increasing fiber consumption. They reported knowing little about physical activity recommendations, and their reported activity patterns were likely inflated because of seeing housework and child care as exercise. To stretch their food budget, the majority reported practicing typical shopping and budgeting skills, and many reported skills particularly useful in rural areas: hunting, fishing, and canning. Over two-thirds of the survey respondents reported computer access and previous Internet use, and most of those not yet online intended to use the Internet in the future. Those working in rural communities need to consider technology as a way to reach traditionally underserved populations like low-income mothers.

  3. A Demographic Profile of Incoming Matriculated Students, Fall, 1977. Research Report: BCC 3-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronx Community Coll., NY.

    Demographic data were compiled on incoming fall 1977 freshmen at Bronx Community College (BCC), including sex, age, ethnic group, veteran status, satisfaction with BCC curriculum, highest expected educational level, number living in household, parental education, total household income, counseling requests, marital status, employment status, and…

  4. 34 CFR 80.25 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 80.25 Section 80.25 Education Office of... income. (a) General. Grantees are encouraged to earn income to defray program costs. Program income includes income from fees for services performed, from the use or rental of real or personal...

  5. Nursing education and the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.

    1989-05-01

    As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.

  6. Waking Up the Mind: Qualitative Study Findings About the Process Through Which Programs Combining Income Generation and Health Education Can Empower Indigenous Guatemalan Women.

    PubMed

    Gurman, Tilly A; Ballard, Anne; Kerr, Samantha; Walsh, Janée; Petrocy, Amy

    2016-01-01

    We explored the process through which two income-generation programs that include health education empower indigenous Guatemalan women artisans. Both artisans (n = 44) and program staff (n = 11) participated in semistructured interviews. Respondents expressed that women gained support about personal issues and experienced an awakening of the mind (despertar la mente). Through active participation, women's fear of strangers and speaking in public decreased. Women also gained mobility, awareness of their rights as women, and self-confidence from earning and managing their own income. Given our findings, we suggest that programs combining income generation and health education have the potential to empower women.

  7. Toward Dialogic Literacy Education for the Internet Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegerif, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    In order to reconceptualize literacy education for the Internet Age, we first need to understand the extent to which our thinking has already been shaped by literacy practices. I begin this article with an exploration of the relationship between ways of communicating, ways of thinking, and the way in which we understand education. Face-to-face…

  8. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

  9. Teachers' Reflections on Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, Laura Kyser; Osborn, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents profiles of and reflections by teachers with international experience, including the authors, who offer insights on education in a global age. The respondents who were colleagues of the authors were interviewed to learn about their K-12 education, insights into and analysis of their experiences teaching abroad, and thoughts…

  10. Drugs Education and Prevention for School-Aged Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Drug misuse in Northern Ireland, like many parts of the world, is becoming one of the major issues facing society today. A first stage to addressing this problem is effective drugs education and prevention strategies to school-aged young people. A survey of a range of education providers including mainstream and special needs schools, and school…

  11. The Age and Qualifications of Special Education Staff in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tony

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a survey distributed in April 2007 to government special education schools and settings throughout Australia. The survey collected information about the age and special education qualifications of teaching staff. It followed a similar survey that was distributed in May 2006 to Victorian special schools that…

  12. Education, Schooling and Young Offenders of Secondary School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines the evidence about education, schooling and young offenders of secondary school age. Education and experiences of schooling are shown to be potentially risk or protective factors in relation to offending behaviour by young people. The victimisation and vulnerability of more serious young offenders is highlighted in the case…

  13. Thoughts on Education for an Age of Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Bom Mo

    2000-01-01

    Discusses reason-driven, dichotomized attributes of the 20th Century. Asserts that the 21st Century should be the age of synthesis. To achieve that end, proposes three major tasks of education: Educating the whole person, building progressive self-identity, and developing strategies for productive conflict solution. (PKP)

  14. Dealing with Unseen Obstacles to Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Valerie J. H.; Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zomp, Christopher; Johnson, Randall S.; Miller, Phillip; Powell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper updates the efforts to educate blind students in higher education in the digital age and describes how to support the development of mental models in learning through tactile learning and 3D-printing technology. It cites research documenting a drop in Braille literacy along with the growth in use of digital technologies by blind…

  15. Teaching and Age: Training Tutors for Pre-retirement Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallam, John

    1982-01-01

    The relatively recent emergence of a large, healthy group of adults over 65 years of age has created a social demographic situation for which there are no historical precedents. The author argues that education should play a more active role in providing preretirement educational programs for older adults. (SSH)

  16. Making Tobacco Education Relevant to the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the trend toward more smoking among the young and to the effect of smoking on human health and life, educators need to devise effective antismoking programs as part of the secondary curriculum. The real problem lies in educating youths prior to the age at which the decision to smoke is made. (JN)

  17. Ageing and dementia in low and middle income countries - Using research to engage with public and policy makers

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Acosta, Daisy; Albanese, Emiliano; Arizaga, Raul; Ferri, Cleusa P.; Guerra, Mariella; Huang, Yueqin; Jacob, Ks; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Rodriguez, Juan Llibre; Salas, Aquiles; Sosa, Ana Luisa; Sousa, Renata; Uwakwe, Richard; Van Der Poel, Rikus; Williams, Joseph; Wortmann, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Abstract While two thirds of the 24 million people with dementia worldwide live in low and middle income countries, very little research has been conducted to support policy making in these regions. Among the non-communicable diseases, dementia (in common with other chronic NCDs linked more to long-term disability than to mortality) has been relatively under-prioritized. International agreements, plans and policy guidelines have called for an end to ageist discrimination and a focus upon reducing disadvantage arising from poverty and the consequences of ill health. Social protection, access to good quality age-appropriate healthcare and addressing the problem of disability are all key issues. However, as yet, little progress has been made in addressing these concerns. In this review we outline the current international policy agenda for older individuals, and its specific relevance to those with dementia and other disabling non-communicable diseases. We consider the potential for epidemiological research to raise awareness, refine the policy agenda, and promote action, using the example of the dissemination strategy developed by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. PMID:18925482

  18. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  19. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group.

  20. The influence of parent education and family income on child achievement: the indirect role of parental expectations and the home environment.

    PubMed

    Davis-Kean, Pamela E

    2005-06-01

    This study examined the process of how socioeconomic status, specifically parents' education and income, indirectly relates to children's academic achievement through parents' beliefs and behaviors. Data from a national, cross-sectional study of children were used for this study. The subjects were 868 8-12-year-olds, divided approximately equally across gender (436 females, 433 males). This sample was 49% non-Hispanic European American and 47% African American. Using structural equation modeling techniques, the author found that the socioeconomic factors were related indirectly to children's academic achievement through parents' beliefs and behaviors but that the process of these relations was different by racial group. Parents' years of schooling also was found to be an important socioeconomic factor to take into consideration in both policy and research when looking at school-age children.

  1. Psychological Skills Education for School Aged Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the potential for teaching psychological skills to student athletes in school sport programs, outlining a conceptual approach to psychological skills training for athletic coaches. The paper details how to develop a psychological skills education curriculum, explaining issues of curriculum sequence and implementation strategies in the…

  2. Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Steven H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of medical ethics in the medical curriculum reviews its recent history, examines areas of consensus, and describes teaching objectives and methods, course content, and program evaluation at preclinical and clinical levels. Prerequisites for successful institutionalization of medical ethics education are defined, and its future is…

  3. Gender and Age in Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajek, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities' rights have to be secured, but also majorities…

  4. Art Education in the Age of Guantanamo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistolesi, Edie

    2007-01-01

    Censorship exists in institutions where art exists, and also where art education exists. In fall 2005, a group of instructors and the author taught a group project with a political theme--peace. In this article, she examines institutionalized censorship within schools, and the ramifications of teaching the subject of peace in a time of war.…

  5. Drama Education in the Age of AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This article arose out of my involvement in an undergraduate drama module at the School of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, where I made use of workshop theatre methodologies to explore how second-year drama students construct knowledge and develop sociocultural understandings of critical issues in society. The workshop theatre project…

  6. Higher Education in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Everette E., Ed.; LaMay, Craig L., Ed.

    This book of 16 author-contributed chapters examines issues of the media and public institutions of higher education including: the media ranking of universities and their contribution to low expectations of universities; the disjunction between massive support for college and university sports events and the intellectual and presumed academic…

  7. Science Education in a Secular Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education…

  8. Rethinking Education: The Coming Age of Enlightenment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roger J.

    The world's most serious problems involve people's inability to peacefully coexist with other people. The only antidote to prejudice, injustice, murder, and terrorism is to develop an understanding of the many different patterns of human life. However, western civilization and its educational systems have developed into fragmented forms, resulting…

  9. An Educational Experiment Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raices, Emanuel; Braestrup, Angelica Hollins

    1991-01-01

    The Ventures in Education program, begun 10 years ago, includes honors-level curriculum, advanced placement courses, summer workshops, enrichment, a longer school day, and continued counseling and guidance. It has demonstrated that poor, disadvantaged high school students can learn to excel in demanding courses of study. (MSE)

  10. Level of nutrition knowledge and its association with weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women

    PubMed Central

    Laz, Tabassum H.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Berenson, Abbey B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine influence of nutrition knowledge on weight loss behaviors among low-income reproductive-age women. Methods we conducted a self-administered cross-sectional survey of health behaviors including socio-demographic characteristics, nutrition knowledge, and weight loss behaviors of 16–40 year old women (n=1057) attending reproductive health clinics located in Southeast Texas between July 2010 and February 2011. Multiple linear regression and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify correlates of nutrition knowledge and examine its association with various weight loss behaviors after adjusting for confounders. Results The mean nutrition knowledge score was low (5.7 ± 2.8) (possible score 0–15). It was significantly lower among African American women than whites (P<.001). Obese women (P=.002), women with high school enrollment/diploma (P=.030), and some college hours/degree (P<.001) had higher nutrition knowledge scores than their counterparts. The higher score of nutrition knowledge was significantly associated with higher odds of engaging in healthy weight loss behaviors: eating less food (odds ratio (OR) 1.12, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–1.18), switching to foods with fewer calories (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), exercising (OR 1.10, 95% CI 1.04–1.16), eating more fruits/vegetables/salads (OR 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.17) and less sugar/candy/sweets (OR 1.09, 95% CI 1.04–1.15). However, it was not associated with unhealthy weight loss behaviors, such as using laxatives/diuretics or inducing vomiting. Conclusions Nutrition knowledge is low among reproductive-age women. An increase in nutrition knowledge may promote healthy weight loss behaviors. PMID:25394404

  11. Parenting Behaviours among Low-Income Mothers of Preschool Age Children in the USA: Implications for Parenting Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Yvonne; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall quality of parenting behaviours among low-income mothers in the USA and the extent to which they are influenced by risk factors within the family environment, maternal well-being and maternal risk characteristics associated with socio-economic status. Participants consisted of 1070 low-income mothers of…

  12. Chronic Noncommunicable Diseases in 6 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: Findings From Wave 1 of the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Arokiasamy, Perianayagam; Uttamacharya; Kowal, Paul; Capistrant, Benjamin D; Gildner, Theresa E; Thiele, Elizabeth; Biritwum, Richard B; Yawson, Alfred E; Mensah, George; Maximova, Tamara; Wu, Fan; Guo, Yanfei; Zheng, Yang; Kalula, Sebastiana Zimba; Salinas Rodríguez, Aarón; Manrique Espinoza, Betty; Liebert, Melissa A; Eick, Geeta; Sterner, Kirstin N; Barrett, Tyler M; Duedu, Kwabena; Gonzales, Ernest; Ng, Nawi; Negin, Joel; Jiang, Yong; Byles, Julie; Madurai, Savathree Lorna; Minicuci, Nadia; Snodgrass, J Josh; Naidoo, Nirmala; Chatterji, Somnath

    2017-03-15

    In this paper, we examine patterns of self-reported diagnosis of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and prevalences of algorithm/measured test-based, undiagnosed, and untreated NCDs in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, Russia, and South Africa. Nationally representative samples of older adults aged ≥50 years were analyzed from wave 1 of the World Health Organization's Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health (2007-2010; n = 34,149). Analyses focused on 6 conditions: angina, arthritis, asthma, chronic lung disease, depression, and hypertension. Outcomes for these NCDs were: 1) self-reported disease, 2) algorithm/measured test-based disease, 3) undiagnosed disease, and 4) untreated disease. Algorithm/measured test-based prevalence of NCDs was much higher than self-reported prevalence in all 6 countries, indicating underestimation of NCD prevalence in low- and middle-income countries. Undiagnosed prevalence of NCDs was highest for hypertension, ranging from 19.7% (95% confidence interval (CI): 18.1, 21.3) in India to 49.6% (95% CI: 46.2, 53.0) in South Africa. The proportion untreated among all diseases was highest for depression, ranging from 69.5% (95% CI: 57.1, 81.9) in South Africa to 93.2% (95% CI: 90.1, 95.7) in India. Higher levels of education and wealth significantly reduced the odds of an undiagnosed condition and untreated morbidity. A high prevalence of undiagnosed NCDs and an even higher proportion of untreated NCDs highlights the inadequacies in diagnosis and management of NCDs in local health-care systems.

  13. Flourishing Creativity: Education in an Age of Wonder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2015-01-01

    The twenty-first century is often described as an age of uncertainty and ambiguity with unprecedented challenges. Those with a creative mind-set however might call this millennium an age of wonder. New technologies and digital media are facilitating imagination and inventiveness. How are we innovating education? Are schools and classroom fostering…

  14. Changes in the Age and Education Profile of Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Zavodny, Madeline

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Displaced Workers Surveys suggests that between 1983-97, the likelihood of job loss declined among most age groups but rose for middle-aged/older workers relative to younger workers. Changes in educational attainment and industry shifts were contributing factors. Probability of displacement increased significantly for service workers.…

  15. Are tuition-free primary education policies associated with lower infant and neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries?

    PubMed

    Quamruzzaman, Amm; Mendoza Rodríguez, José M; Heymann, Jody; Kaufman, Jay S; Nandi, Arijit

    2014-11-01

    Robust evidence from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) suggests that maternal education is associated with better child health outcomes. However, whether or not policies aimed at increasing access to education, including tuition-free education policies, contribute to lower infant and neonatal mortality has not been empirically tested. We joined country-level data on national education policies for 37 LMICs to information on live births to young mothers aged 15-21 years, who were surveyed as part of the population-based Demographic and Health Surveys. We used propensity scores to match births to mothers who were exposed to a tuition-free primary education policy with births to mothers who were not, based on individual-level, household, and country-level characteristics, including GDP per capita, urbanization, and health expenditures per capita. Multilevel logistic regression models, fitted using generalized estimating equations, were used to estimate the effect of exposure to tuition-free primary education policies on the risk of infant and neonatal mortality. We also tested whether this effect was modified by household socioeconomic status. The propensity score matched samples for analyses of infant and neonatal mortality comprised 24,396 and 36,030 births, respectively, from 23 countries. Multilevel regression analyses showed that, on average, exposure to a tuition-free education policy was associated with 15 (95% CI=-32, 1) fewer infant and 5 (95% CI=-13, 4) fewer neonatal deaths per 1000 live births. We found no strong evidence of heterogeneity of this effect by socioeconomic level.

  16. Knowledge, skills, and behavior improvements on peer educators and low-income Hispanic participants after a stage of change-based bilingual nutrition education program.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T; Serrano, E; Anderson, J; Kendall, P

    2000-06-01

    A nutrition education program, entitled La Cocina Saludable, was designed according to the Stage of Change Model and implemented in ten southern Colorado counties. The objectives were to improve the nutrition related knowledge, skills, and behaviors that lead to healthy lifestyles in a low-income Hispanic population. The content of the program included nutrition information designed to help mothers of preschool children provide for their children's nutritional needs. Previous studies suggest that low-income Hispanics often demonstrate low intakes of vitamins A and C, calcium, iron, and protein, and high rates of diabetes, obesity, and infections. Additionally, this population presents many obstacles for nutrition educators including limited resources, child care, transportation, time, language, culture, literacy, health beliefs, and, in some cases, the transient nature of the population. The program attempted to overcome these barriers by incorporating a flexible program format carried out by abuela (Hispanic grandmother) educators using the processes described in the Stage of Change Model. The program was evaluated using a knowledge, skills and behavior pre-test, post-test, and six-month follow-up survey on both the abuela educators as well as the actual class participants. Results of the peer education training sessions suggest that this type of training program can be effective in increasing the knowledge, skills, and behavior of peer educators as well as reduce need for retraining for educators who continuously teach classes. Additionally, the results suggest that this type of program can be effective in changing selected nutrition related knowledge, skills, and behaviors leading to healthy lifestyles for low-income Hispanic mothers of preschool children.

  17. Education for Aging. A Teacher's Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Fran

    This sourcebook contains background readings for teachers and suggests learning activities and resources for teaching about aging at the secondary level. During the lifetimes of present students, the population 65 and over will grow from 11% to 20%. Most children now in school will live well beyond their 70th birthday. There is, therefore, a…

  18. A Golden Age? Dostoevsky, Daoism and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    There is much of value for educationists in the work of the great Russian novelist and thinker, Fyodor Dostoevsky. This paper explores a key theme in Dostoevsky's later writings: the notion of a "Golden Age". It compares the ideal depicted in Dostoevsky's story "The Dream of a Ridiculous Man" with the implied utopia of the…

  19. Social stratification and adolescent overweight in the United States: how income and educational resources matter across families and schools.

    PubMed

    Martin, Molly A; Frisco, Michelle L; Nau, Claudia; Burnett, Kristin

    2012-02-01

    The current study examines how poverty and education in both the family and school contexts influence adolescent weight. Prior research has produced an incomplete and often counterintuitive picture. We develop a framework to better understand how income and education operate alone and in conjunction with each other across families and schools. We test it by analyzing data from Wave 1 of the U.S.-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 16,133 in 132 schools) collected in 1994-1995. Using hierarchical logistic regression models and parallel indicators of family- and school-level poverty and educational resources, we find that at the family-level, parent's education, but not poverty status, is associated with adolescent overweight. At the school-level, the concentration of poverty within a school, but not the average level of parent's education, is associated with adolescent overweight. Further, increases in school poverty diminish the effectiveness of adolescents' own parents' education for protecting against the risks of overweight. The findings make a significant contribution by moving beyond the investigation of a single socioeconomic resource or social context. The findings push us to more fully consider when, where, and why money and education matter independently and jointly across health-related contexts.

  20. Practice-based evidence of effectiveness in an integrated nutrition and parenting education intervention for low-income parents.

    PubMed

    Dickin, Katherine L; Hill, Tisa F; Dollahite, Jamie S

    2014-06-01

    Research identifying associations between parental behaviors and children's food and activity choices and weight suggests that the integration of parenting and nutrition education holds promise for promoting healthful eating and activity in families. However, translational research leading to sustainable interventions lags behind. Development and testing of interventions within actual program contexts is needed to facilitate translation to full-scale implementation. Therefore, the goal of this pilot study was to develop and test an integrated nutrition and parenting education intervention for low-income families within the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program in New York State. During a 21-month period, low-income parents of 3- to 11-year-olds were recruited through usual programmatic channels by nutrition program staff to participate in a series of eight workshops delivered to small groups. A validated self-administered questionnaire was used to assess behavior change outcomes among 210 parents who completed the program. Mean scores improved significantly for most behaviors, including adult fruit and vegetable intake; adult and child low-fat dairy and soda intake; and child fast-food intake, activity, and screen time (P<0.001). Many parents reported eating together with children at program entry, leaving little room to improve, but about 20% reported at least a 1-point improvement (on a 5-point scale). The most frequent change was reducing how often children ate fast food and was reported by >50% of parents. Design and testing through practice-based research can facilitate development of interventions that are both feasible and likely to improve eating and activity behaviors among low-income families.

  1. Education and obesity at age 40 among American adults

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rehkopf, David H.; Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Although many have studied the association between educational attainment and obesity, studies to date have not fully examined prior common causes and possible interactions by race/ethnicity or gender. It is also not clear if the relationship between actual educational attainment and obesity is independent of the role of aspired educational attainment or expected educational attainment. The authors use generalized linear log link models to examine the association between educational attainment at age 25 and obesity (BMI≥30) at age 40 in the USA’s National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, adjusting for demographics, confounders, and mediators. Race/ethnicity but not gender interacted with educational attainment. In a complete case analysis, after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, among whites only, college graduates were less likely than high school graduates to be obese (RR= 0.69, 95%CI: 0.57, 0.83). The risk ratio remained similar in two sensitivity analyses when the authors adjusted for educational aspirations and educational expectations and analyzed a multiply imputed dataset to address missingness. This more nuanced understanding of the role of education after controlling for a thorough set of confounders and mediators helps advance the study of social determinants of health and risk factors for obesity. PMID:23246398

  2. Reflections on Costing, Pricing and Income Measurement at UK Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oduoza, Chike F.

    2009-01-01

    In these days of radical contraction of funding and expansion in student numbers, universities are under pressure to prioritise their resources, as well as to achieve effective costing and pricing to support judgement and decision making for funding and any external work undertaken. This study reviews costing, pricing and income measurement in…

  3. Nutrition Education among Low-Income Older Adults: A Randomized Intervention Trial in Congregate Nutrition Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Roger E.; Ash, Sarah L.; McClelland, Jacquelyn W.

    2006-01-01

    Nutritional well-being among older adults is critical for maintaining health, increasing longevity, and decreasing the impact of chronic illness. However, few well-controlled studies have examined nutritional behavior change among low-income older adults. A prospective, controlled, randomized design examined a five session nutrition education…

  4. Cultural Relay in Early Childhood Education: Methods of Teaching School Behavior to Low-Income Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Stephanie C.

    2012-01-01

    There is a distinct class difference in the way that children are taught school behavior. Teachers in affluent schools use more implicit teaching techniques while teachers of low-income children are more explicit in their teaching of behavior. This stems largely from the alignment of the home culture of middle class children to school behavior and…

  5. A Randomized Study of Neighborhood Effects on Low-Income Children's Educational Outcomes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Tama; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2004-01-01

    Experimental data from the Moving to Opportunity for Fair Housing Demonstration were used to examine (a) if moving from high- to low-poverty neighborhoods (via randomization) was associated with low-income minority children's achievement, grade retention, and suspensions/expulsions; (b) if moving minimized gender differences in these outcomes; and…

  6. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Housing. Module III-B-1: Low-Income Housing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennings, Patricia

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on low income housing is the first in a set of three modules on housing in economically depressed areas. (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education [MATCHE]--see CE 019 901-967.) Following…

  7. Lessons Learned from the Development and Implementation of a Parent Nutrition Education Program with Low-Income Latina Mothers in an Urban School District Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thai, Chan Le; Prelip, Michael; Erausquin, Jennifer Toller; Slusser, Wendelin

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the steps involved in the development and implementation of a parent nutrition education workshop series for a low-income, primarily Spanish-speaking population in an urban school district setting. Overall, those parents who participated in the nutrition education workshops showed positive changes in their knowledge,…

  8. Getting into the Black Box: How Do Low-Income Parents Make Choices about Early Care and Education in Maryland? Publication #2012-42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Wessel, Julia; Simkin, Shana; Rodrigues, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Existing literature highlights the positive influence of high-quality early care and education on the development of young children, and particularly young children in impoverished or low-income families. Reflecting the promising influence of high-quality early care and education on children's developmental outcomes, policy makers and state…

  9. Age 26 Cost-Benefit Analysis of the Child-Parent Center Early Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Temple, Judy A.; White, Barry A. B.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Robertson, Dylan L.

    2011-01-01

    Using data collected up to age 26 in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, this cost-benefit analysis of the Child-Parent Centers (CPC) is the first for a sustained publicly funded early intervention. The program provides services for low-income families beginning at age 3 in 20 school sites. Kindergarten and school-age services are provided up to age 9…

  10. The effect of lactation educators implementing a telephone-based intervention among low-income Hispanics: A randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Efrat, Merav W; Esparza, Salvador; Mendelson, Sherri G; Lane, Christianne J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether a phone-based breastfeeding intervention delivered by lactation educators influenced exclusive breastfeeding rates amongst low-income Hispanic women in the USA. Design Randomised two-group design Setting Pregnant low-income Hispanic women (298) were recruited from community health clinics in Los Angeles County (USA) and randomly assigned to either a control or an intervention group. Methods Data relating to the factors associated with breastfeeding were collected during the third trimester. Breastfeeding outcome data was collected at 72 hours, one month, three months, and six months postpartum. Results There were no differences between the groups in rates of breastfeeding initiation. There was a significant difference in the duration of exclusive breastfeeding among participants during the infant's first week of life. While not significant, after controlling for covariates and intent to breastfeed at third trimester, the duration of exclusive breastfeeding amongst all participants was, on average, longer for intervention group mothers than control group mothers. Additionally, , the intervention group mothers were more likely to report exclusive and only breastfeeding at all data points compared to the control group, and less likely to discontinue breastfeeding. Conclusion Findings from this study suggest that telephone-based breastfeeding interventions delivered by a lactation educator show promise as a cost-effective strategy for improving both the quantity and duration of breastfeeding among low-income Hispanic women in the USA. Intervention group mothers not only sustained breastfeeding for a longer durations, but also provided their infants with greater amounts of breast milk over these longer durations. PMID:26941454

  11. Making a difference: using the safe surgery checklist to initiate continuing education for perioperative nurses in low-income settings.

    PubMed

    Leifso, Genelle

    2014-03-01

    The WHO Safe Surgery Checklist (2008) patient safety focus and communication prompts are widely accepted. In many low-income regions (as defined by the World Bank and accepted by the World Health Organization) perioperative nurses have little or no formal training; continuing and in-service education are virtually unknown; nor does an articulated "culture of safety" exist. In 2009 the Canadian Network for International Surgery (CNIS) piloted a two-day perioperative nursing course, in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, using lectures, case studies, skills sessions, and role-play exercises based on the SSSL Checklist outline and protocols. Canadian instructors (who are certified after taking the Canadian Network for International Surgery-sponsored Instructor's Course) have since returned and taught at additional sites in Ethiopia and Uganda. Course participants now include perioperative nurses, anaesthetists, and junior surgical residents--mirroring the interdisciplinary teamwork that is crucial to safe perioperative patient care. The course's facilitated discussions focus on workplace and practice issues in order to allow for appropriate evaluation and planning of future educational initiatives. Participants complete pre- and post-course questionnaires, which evaluate baseline and post-course knowledge, and further follow-up is completed four months after course completion. This article explains the need for aiding in the expansion of perioperative nursing knowledge and skill in low-income settings and provides the author's personal perspective and experience in responding to this need. Her experience as facilitator in a pilot project and subsequent course development described. The objective is to discuss ways that other perioperative nurses can work to make a positive difference on professional practice and patient care in low-income regions.

  12. Investment in Second-Chance Education for Adults and Income Development in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordlund, Madelene; Stehlik, Tom; Strandh, Mattias

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates the relation between the second chance of increase in formal education amongst low-educated adults in Sweden and long-term wage development. Despite the awareness of the role of education for employability and individuals' overall life chances, surprisingly few studies have investigated the wage effects of Second-Chance…

  13. American Opportunity Credit: Key to Education for Lower and Middle Income College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Robin; Tiggeman, Theresa; Edmond, Tracie

    2011-01-01

    The Tax Relief Act of 1997 created an important tax provision which helped taxpayers offset the cost of higher education. This provision was in the form of education tax credits. Because a tax credit is a dollar for dollar reduction in tax liability, these education credits were designed to reduce the amount of tax due for college students or…

  14. Low health-related quality of life in school-aged children in Tonga, a lower-middle income country in the South Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Solveig; Swinburn, Boyd; Mavoa, Helen; Fotu, Kalesita; Tupoulahi-Fusimalohi, Caroline; Faeamani, Gavin; Moodie, Marjory

    2014-01-01

    Background Ensuring a good life for all parts of the population, including children, is high on the public health agenda in most countries around the world. Information about children's perception of their health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and its socio-demographic distribution is, however, limited and almost exclusively reliant on data from Western higher income countries. Objectives To investigate HRQoL in schoolchildren in Tonga, a lower income South Pacific Island country, and to compare this to HRQoL of children in other countries, including Tongan children living in New Zealand, a high-income country in the same region. Design A cross-sectional study from Tonga addressing all secondary schoolchildren (11–18 years old) on the outer island of Vava'u and in three districts of the main island of Tongatapu (2,164 participants). A comparison group drawn from the literature comprised children in 18 higher income and one lower income country (Fiji). A specific New Zealand comparison group involved all children of Tongan descendent at six South Auckland secondary schools (830 participants). HRQoL was assessed by the self-report Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory 4.0. Results HRQoL in Tonga was overall similar in girls and boys, but somewhat lower in children below 15 years of age. The children in Tonga experienced lower HRQoL than the children in all of the 19 comparison countries, with a large difference between children in Tonga and the higher income countries (Cohen's d 1.0) and a small difference between Tonga and the lower income country Fiji (Cohen's d 0.3). The children in Tonga also experienced lower HRQoL than Tongan children living in New Zealand (Cohen's d 0.6). Conclusion The results reveal worrisome low HRQoL in children in Tonga and point towards a potential general pattern of low HRQoL in children living in lower income countries, or, alternatively, in the South Pacific Island countries. PMID:25150029

  15. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79.

    PubMed

    Wyshak, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women's Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS) was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women's health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM). New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income--contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks--religion and clubs--among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists, sociologists, and others.

  16. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1974-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a framework by which educators interested in stimulating career development can choose the learning experiences most likely to have payoffs for different age youth. Eight stages of child development are described with career development themes suggested for each stage along with sample activities. (Author)

  17. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    This paper presents a career developmental model covering the ages of 5 to 18. Career development education includes experiences which facilitate self-awareness, career-awareness and career decision-making. Before choosing a model for career development, it is necessary to decide on a model for child development. The model developed here borrows…

  18. Media Arts: Arts Education for a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppler, Kylie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: New technologies have been largely absent in arts education curriculum even though they offer opportunities to address arts integration, equity, and the technological prerequisites of an increasingly digital age. This paper draws upon the emerging professional field of "media arts" and the ways in which youth use new…

  19. The New Age of Telecommunication: Setting the Context for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J.

    1986-01-01

    This overview provides a technological context for the telecommunications age by describing existing and emerging systems--telephone, broadcasting, cable television, fiber optic, satellite, optical disk, and computer technology--and services available via these systems. It is suggested that educators need to become technologically literate and…

  20. The Impact of Higher Education on Mature Age Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Leo H. T.; And Others

    Changes in the working and personal lives of adults as a result of completing a bachelor's degree as a mature-age student were studied in Australia. Also considered were students' progress through the degree, patterns of employment while enrolled, and additional formal higher education after completing (or withdrawing from) the program. The study…

  1. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  2. Income and Expenditure Trends of Higher Education Institutions in South Africa: 1986-2003. Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, Pierre; Steyn, Gert

    2006-01-01

    There is a world-wide trend to expect individuals to pay more of the cost of their higher education. This is also the case in South Africa since public funding of higher education decreased from 0.86% of GDP in 1986 to only 0.68% in 2005. Higher education institutions were forced to increase tuition fees to compensate for this "loss"…

  3. Income, cumulative risk, and longitudinal profiles of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Thompson, Stephanie F; Kiff, Cara J

    2016-05-01

    Environmental risk predicts disrupted basal cortisol levels in preschool children. However, little is known about the stability or variability of diurnal cortisol morning levels or slope patterns over time in young children. This study used latent profile analysis to identify patterns of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity during the preschool period. Using a community sample (N = 306), this study measured income, cumulative risk, and children's diurnal cortisol (morning level and slope) four times across 2.5 years, starting when children were 36 months old. Latent profile analysis profiles indicated that there were predominantly stable patterns of diurnal cortisol level and slope over time and that these patterns were predicted by income and cumulative risk. In addition, there were curvilinear relations of income and cumulative risk to profiles of low morning cortisol level and flattened diurnal slope across time, suggesting that both lower and higher levels of income and cumulative risk were associated with a stress-sensitive physiological system. Overall, this study provides initial evidence for the role of environmental risk in predicting lower, flattened basal cortisol patterns that remain stable over time.

  4. 26 CFR 1.37-3 - Credit for individuals under age 65 who have public retirement system income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... trade or business if capital is not a material income-producing factor in that trade or business; or (ii) Thirty percent of the taxpayer's share of the net profits from the trade or business if capital is a... receives social security payments totalling $1,400. During 1978 W, who is 63 years old, earns $1,600...

  5. 26 CFR 1.37-3 - Credit for individuals under age 65 who have public retirement system income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... trade or business if capital is not a material income-producing factor in that trade or business; or (ii) Thirty percent of the taxpayer's share of the net profits from the trade or business if capital is a... receives social security payments totalling $1,400. During 1978 W, who is 63 years old, earns $1,600...

  6. 34 CFR 361.63 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Program income. 361.63 Section 361.63 Education... State Vocational Rehabilitation Programs § 361.63 Program income. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, program income means gross income received by the State that is directly generated by an...

  7. 34 CFR 361.63 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Program income. 361.63 Section 361.63 Education... State Vocational Rehabilitation Programs § 361.63 Program income. (a) Definition. For purposes of this section, program income means gross income received by the State that is directly generated by an...

  8. Income and Subjective Well-Being: New Insights from Relatively Healthy American Women, Ages 49-79

    PubMed Central

    Wyshak, Grace

    2016-01-01

    The interests of economists, psychologists, social scientists and others on the relations of income, demographics, religion and subjective well-being, have generated a vast global literature. It is apparent that biomedical research has focused on white with men. The Women’s Health Initiative and Observational Study (WHI OS) was initiated in 1992. The OS represents the scientific need for social priorities to improve the health and welfare of women; it includes 93.676 relatively healthy postmenopausal women, 49 to 79, from diverse backgrounds. The objective of this study is to examine how lifestyle and other factors influence women’s health. Data from the WHI OS questionnaire were analyzed. Statistical methods included descriptive statistics square, correlations, linear regression and analyses of covariance (GLM). New findings and insights relate primarily to general health, religion, club attendance, and likelihood of depression. The most important predictor of excellent or very good health is quality of life and general health is a major predictor of quality of life. A great deal of strength and comfort from religion was reported by 62.98% of the women, with little variation by denomination. More from religion related to poorer health, and less likelihood of depression. Religion and lower income are in accord with of across country studies. Attendance at clubs was associated with religion and with all factors associated with religion, except income. Though general health and likelihood of depression are highly correlated, better health is associated with higher income; however, likelihood of depression is not associated with income—contrary to conventional wisdom about socioeconomic disparities and mental health. Subjective well-being variables, with the exception of quality of life, were not associated with income. Social networks—religion and clubs—among a diverse population, warrant further attention from economists, psychologists, sociologists, and

  9. Learning Reconsidered: Education in the Digital Age. Communications, Convergence and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Everette E.; Meyer, Philip; Sundar, S. Shyam; Pryor, Larry; Rogers, Everett M.; Chen, Helen L.; Pavlik, John

    2003-01-01

    Includes thoughts of seven educators on the place of digital communication in journalism and mass communication education. Discusses communication scholars and the professional field's readiness for the digital age. Notes educators' attitudes towards technology and technology's applications in education. (PM)

  10. Education, Employment and Income of High School Vocational Agriculture Graduates. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quesada, R. M.; Seaver, S. K.

    In order to evaluate vocational agriculture education in 21 Connecticut high schools for the purposes of developing or updating curriculums, this study intended to: (1) determine employment rates of vocational agriculture graduates in agricultural areas, (2) determine post-secondary educational attainment levels, (3) determine variables affecting…

  11. Education Tax Credits: Refundability Critical to Making Credits Helpful to Low-Income Students and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Katherine; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Half of all non-loan federal student aid is now offered as tax benefits for educational costs in the form of credits, deductions, and college savings accounts. These benefits help students and families offset the costs of their postsecondary education with tax savings. Yet, as explained in the 2013 report, "Reforming Student Aid: How to…

  12. Raising Reading Readiness in Low-Income Children by Parent Education. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drazen, Shelley M.; Haust, Mary

    A study evaluated the effectiveness of a parent education program in increasing school readiness in poor and high-needs children. Participants in the Parents and Children Together program (PACT) of Binghamton, New York, receive home visits from trained and certified parent educators, beginning when a child is born and continuing until he or she is…

  13. The Impact of Assessing Technology Competencies of Incoming Teacher Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannatta, Rachel A.; Banister, Savilla

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to establish a baseline of technology competency among our entering education students, our College of Education began implementing the Assessment of Technology Competencies (ATC) in Fall 2003. This performance-based assessment evaluates word-processing, presentation, spreadsheet, graphic/drawing, and Internet skills. Although…

  14. Framing and Selling Global Education Policy: The Promotion of Public-Private Partnerships for Education in Low-Income Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni

    2012-01-01

    Public-private partnerships in education (ePPP) are acquiring increasing centrality in the agendas of international organizations and development agencies dealing with educational affairs. They are designed as an opportunity to correct inefficiencies in the public delivery of education and to mobilize new resources to increase the access to and…

  15. Role of Service Learning Activities: Assessing and Enhancing Food Security in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerr, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Many low-income families are at risk for food insecurity. In addition, with the aging of America, multigenerational families are becoming more prevalent, resulting in excessive strain and burden on the resources of low-income families. Family and consumer sciences educators need to teach their students about factors that contribute to food…

  16. Benefits of High Quality Childcare for Low-Income Mothers: The Abecedarian Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungello, Elizabeth; Campbell, Frances A.; Miller-Johnson, Shari

    This follow-up study examined the long-term effects of providing 5 years of high-quality childcare for low-income mothers participating in the Abecedarian study, a randomized trial of early childhood educational intervention for children from low-income families. Participating in the age-21 follow-up were 100 of the original 109 biological…

  17. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  18. Motivations and Perceived Benefits of Older Learners in a Public Continuing Education Program: Influence of Gender, Income, and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narushima, Miya; Liu, Jian; Diestelkamp, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    The demographic shift towards an older population combined with the increasing demand for self-reliance and community-based care for the elderly calls for a thorough examination of continuing education programs in local communities as a viable means of promoting successful and active aging. This study examined patterns of older adults' motivations…

  19. Back to the Dark Ages: Neoliberalism and The Decline of Labor and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzner, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the convergence of inequality across social and economic dimensions in the United States. Chief among these are wealth accumulation, labor, and education. Specifically, I discuss the transference of wealth to the top of the income hierarchy, the automation and polarization of labor, and threats to public education.…

  20. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Economically Depressed Areas Strand: Management. Module III-F-3: Marketing Practices in Relation to Low Income Clientele.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on marketing practices in relation to low income clientele is the third in a set of three modules on management in economically depressed areas (EDAs). (This set is part of a larger set of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking…

  1. Impact of an Online Alcohol Education Course on Behavior and Harm for Incoming First-Year College Students: Short-Term Evaluation of a Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croom, Katherine; Lewis, Deborah; Marchell, Timothy; Lesser, Martin L.; Reyna, Valerie F.; Kubicki-Bedford, Lisa; Feffer, Mitchel; Staiano-Coico, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed short-term effectiveness of a Web-based alcohol education program on entering freshmen. Participants: 3,216 incoming first-year students were randomized to a control or intervention group. Methods: Controls completed a survey and knowledge test the summer before college; 4 to 6 weeks after arrival on campus, they…

  2. Cognitive and Non-Cognitive Predictors of Success in Adult Education Programs: Evidence from Experimental Data with Low-Income Welfare Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leininger, Lindsey Jeanne; Kalil, Ariel

    2008-01-01

    Using data on approximately 2,000 low-income welfare recipients in a three-site random-assignment intervention conducted in the early 1990s (the NEWWS), we examine the role of cognitive and non-cognitive factors in moderating experimental impacts of an adult education training program for women who lacked a high school degree or GED at the time of…

  3. Living Two Lives: The Ability of Low Income African American Females in Their Quest to Break the Glass Ceiling of Education through the Ellison Model (TEM) Mentoring Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, DaVina J.

    2013-01-01

    It is often that during their academic pursuits, to become successful, low-income African-American women must learn to navigate an upstream current through higher education, where the established order in the academy is based on Western European values that often conflict with African-American values (Harper, Patton & Wooden, 2009; Phinney,…

  4. Diabetes Awareness of Low-Income Middle School Students Participating in the Help a Friend, Help Yourself Youth Diabetes Awareness Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wroten, Kathryn; Reames, Elizabeth S.; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here investigated the effectiveness of the LSU AgCenter Help a Friend, Help Yourself youth diabetes education curriculum to increase knowledge and awareness of diabetes and its symptoms in low-income middle school students participating in the Boys and Girls Club after-school program. The curriculum includes four lessons with…

  5. Sociocultural Constraints: The Relation between Generations in the United States, Parental Education, Income, Hispanic Origin and the Financial Aid Packages of Hispanic Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Razo, Parvati Heliana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out if the demographic variables of country of origin, generation in the United States (immigration status), income and parental education had an impact on the financial aid packages of Hispanic undergraduate students. This dissertation asked: What is the relation between generation in the United States,…

  6. Mapping Low-Income African American Parents' Roles in Their Children's Education in a Changing Political Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Background: Much discussion and debate has surrounded the role that low-income minority parents can play in their children's education. Research focusing on parents' roles has stressed parents' sense of self-efficacy, cultural background, socio-economic factors, and the context of school to explain not only what motivates parents to…

  7. Education for Agriculture and Rural Development in Low-Income Countries: Implications of the Digital Divide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasperini, Lavinia; Mclean, Scott

    The "digital divide" refers to inequitable access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) between wealthy and poor countries and between privileged and underprivileged social groups within all countries. This presentation outlines global parameters of the digital divide, discusses the use of ICTs in education in…

  8. The Effect of Postsecondary Education on Employment and Income for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sannicandro, Tom

    2016-01-01

    The low employment rates of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) are a major concern. In 2011 only 34% of adults with ID were employed compared to 76% of adults without disabilities (Siperstein, Parker, & Drascher, 2013). Higher educational attainment is associated with higher employment rates for students with ID (Smith, Grigal,…

  9. Essaying a Pseudo-Panel Approach: Studies on Education, Women, and Income Inequality in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warunsiri, Sasiwimon

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation is composed of three studies on Thai labor markets using a pseudo-panel data set: The first chapter estimates the rate of return to education in Thailand, while treating the endogeneity bias common to estimates from data on individuals. Pseudo-panel data are constructed from repeated cross sections of Labor Force Surveys…

  10. Integrative Review of Educational Television for Young Children: Implications for Children from Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weatherholt, Tara N.

    2007-01-01

    Since the creation of "Sesame Street", children's educational television programs have grown in both number and popularity. However, controversy has shadowed the children's television arena for many years. Some have claimed that viewing television is a passive event, requiring little or no effort on the part of the viewer. However, research on…

  11. The Impact of Nutrition Education on Food Insecurity among Low-Income Participants in EFNEP.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dollahite, Jamie; Olson, Christine; Scott-Pierce, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Comparison of 15,846 completers and 300 noncompleters of New York's Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program showed that both groups significantly decreased food insecurity scores. Multiple regression analyses indicated that scores decreased significantly more for completers. The number of lessons was associated with food insecurity…

  12. Understanding the Persistence of Low-Income Students in Postsecondary Education: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Paul

    2013-01-01

    In contemporary America, postsecondary education has now become almost a prerequisite for anyone wishing to matriculate into a higher socioeconomic class. Over the last five decades there has been a steady increase in the number of high school students entering college and university, with now over 75% of high school graduates enrolling in some…

  13. The Expenditure Impacts of London's Higher Education Institutions: The Role of Diverse Income Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermannsson, Kristinn; Lisenkova, Katerina; McGregor, Peter G.; Swales, J. Kim

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the impact of London-based higher education institutions (HEIs) on the English economy. When we treat each of the HEIs as separate sectors in conventional input-output analysis, their expenditure impacts appear rather homogenous, with the apparent heterogeneity of their overall impacts being primarily driven by scale. However,…

  14. Gender Pay Equity in Higher Education: Salary Differentials and Predictors of Base Faculty Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates faculty gender pay equity in higher education. Using data from the 2004 National Study of Postsecondary Faculty and drawing on human capital theory, structural theory, and the theory of comparable worth, this study uses cross-classified random effects modeling to explore what factors may be contributing to the pay…

  15. Asian American Education and Income Attainment in the Era of Post-Racial America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covarrubias, Alejandro; Liou, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevailing perceptions of Asian Americans as model minorities have long situated this population within postracial discourse, an assumption that highlights their educational success as evidence of the declining significance of race and racism, placing them as models of success for other people of color. Despite evidence to repudiate…

  16. Income inequality, parental socioeconomic status, and birth outcomes in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Ito, Jun; Kawachi, Ichiro

    2013-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of income inequality and parental socioeconomic status on several birth outcomes in Japan. Data were collected on birth outcomes and parental socioeconomic status by questionnaire from Japanese parents nationwide (n = 41,499) and then linked to Gini coefficients at the prefectural level in 2001. In multilevel analysis, z scores of birth weight for gestational age decreased by 0.018 (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.029, -0.006) per 1-standard-deviation (0.018-unit) increase in the Gini coefficient, while gestational age at delivery was not associated with the Gini coefficient. For dichotomous outcomes, mothers living in prefectures with middle and high Gini coefficients were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.47) and 1.23 (95% CI: 1.02, 1.48) times more likely, respectively, to deliver a small-for-gestational-age infant than mothers living in more egalitarian prefectures (low Gini coefficients), although preterm births were not significantly associated with income distribution. Parental educational level, but not household income, was significantly associated with the z score of birth weight for gestational age and small-for-gestational-age status. Higher income inequality at the prefectural level and parental educational level, rather than household income, were associated with intrauterine growth but not with shorter gestational age at delivery.

  17. An Audio-Visual Resource Notebook for Adult Consumer Education. An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Audio-Visual Aids for Adult Consumer Education, with Special Emphasis on Materials for Elderly, Low-Income and Handicapped Consumers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Richmond, VA.

    This document is an annotated bibliography of audio-visual aids in the field of consumer education, intended especially for use among low-income, elderly, and handicapped consumers. It was developed to aid consumer education program planners in finding audio-visual resources to enhance their presentations. Materials listed include 293 resources…

  18. A matter of perception: exploring the role of income satisfaction in the income-mortality relationship in German survey data 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    Miething, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Individual- and community-level income has been shown to be linked to social inequalities in health and mortality. On the individual level, social comparisons and relative deprivation resulting from them have been identified as relevant mechanisms involved in the relationship between income and health, but it is mainly income-based measures of relative deprivation that have been considered in previous studies. Using income satisfaction, this study employs a perception-based indicator of relative deprivation. The study, covering the period between 1995 and 2010, utilized the German Socio-Economic Panel. The follow-up included 11,056 men and 11,512 women at employment age 25-64. Discrete-time survival analysis with Cox regression was performed to estimate the effects of relative income position and income satisfaction on all-cause mortality. The univariate analysis revealed an income gradient on mortality and further showed a strong association between income satisfaction and survival. After education and employment status were adjusted for, the effect of discontent with income on mortality was still present in the female sample, whereas in the male sample only the income gradient prevailed. When self-rated health was controlled for, the hazard ratios of income satisfaction attenuated and turned non-significant for both men and women while the effects of income position remained stable. In conclusion, the findings suggest that income satisfaction and income position measure different aspects of income inequality and complement one another. Income satisfaction appeared to be a possible contributing component to the causal pathway between income and mortality.

  19. Middle Income Undergraduates: Where They Enroll and How They Pay for Their Education. Statistical Analysis Report. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presley, Jennifer B.; Clery, Suzanne B.

    This report provides a profile of middle income undergraduates in comparison to their lower income and higher income counterparts and examines where middle income students enroll by price of attendance and how they and their families pay for college. Data are from the 1995-1996 National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS:96). Middle income…

  20. Indoor exposure to particulate matter and age at first acute lower respiratory infection in a low-income urban community in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Gurley, Emily S; Salje, Henrik; Homaira, Nusrat; Ram, Pavani K; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A; Bresee, Joseph; Moss, William J; Luby, Stephen P; Breysse, Patrick; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2014-04-15

    The timing of a child's first acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) is important, because the younger a child is when he or she experiences ALRI, the greater the risk of death. Indoor exposure to particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 µm in diameter (PM2.5) has been associated with increased frequency of ALRI, but little is known about how it may affect the timing of a child's first ALRI. In this study, we aimed to estimate the association between a child's age at first ALRI and indoor exposure to PM2.5 in a low-income community in Dhaka, Bangladesh. We followed 257 children from birth through age 2 years to record their age at first ALRI. Between May 2009 and April 2010, we also measured indoor concentrations of PM2.5 in children's homes. We used generalized gamma distribution models to estimate the relative age at first ALRI associated with the mean number of hours in which PM2.5 concentrations exceeded 100 µg/m(3). Each hour in which PM2.5 levels exceeded 100 µg/m(3) was independently associated with a 12% decrease (95% confidence interval: 2, 21; P = 0.021) in age at first ALRI. Interventions to reduce indoor exposure to PM2.5 could increase the ages at which children experience their first ALRI in this urban community.

  1. Longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language skill in low-income Canadian children to age 10 years.

    PubMed

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S; Perry, Robert L; Benzies, Karen M

    2016-08-02

    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the Peabody picture vocabulary test (3rd ed.). Effects of culture (Aboriginal, other Canadian-born, and recent immigrant), and gender of the children were explored. Between programme intake and age 10, scores improved significantly, F(3, 75) = 21.11, p < .0005. There were significant differences among cultural groups at all time-points except age 10. Scores differed significantly for girls, but not boys, at age 10, F = 5.11, p = .01. Recent immigrant boys reached the Canadian average, while girls were two-thirds of the standard deviation below average. Early intervention programmes must include a focus on the unique circumstances of recent immigrant girls; supportive transition workers in schools are one recommendation.

  2. Longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language skill in low-income Canadian children to age 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the Peabody picture vocabulary test (3rd ed.). Effects of culture (Aboriginal, other Canadian-born, and recent immigrant), and gender of the children were explored. Between programme intake and age 10, scores improved significantly, F(3, 75) = 21.11, p < .0005. There were significant differences among cultural groups at all time-points except age 10. Scores differed significantly for girls, but not boys, at age 10, F = 5.11, p = .01. Recent immigrant boys reached the Canadian average, while girls were two-thirds of the standard deviation below average. Early intervention programmes must include a focus on the unique circumstances of recent immigrant girls; supportive transition workers in schools are one recommendation. PMID:27453625

  3. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    PubMed

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  4. Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance of the Child Feeding Questionnaire in low-income Hispanic and African-American mothers with preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Kong, Angela; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Fitzgibbon, Marian L; Schiffer, Linda A; Campbell, Richard T

    2015-07-01

    Validation work of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) in low-income minority samples suggests a need for further conceptual refinement of this instrument. Using confirmatory factor analysis, this study evaluated 5- and 6-factor models on a large sample of African-American and Hispanic mothers with preschool-age children (n = 962). The 5-factor model included: 'perceived responsibility', 'concern about child's weight', 'restriction', 'pressure to eat', and 'monitoring' and the 6-factor model also tested 'food as a reward'. Multi-group analysis assessed measurement invariance by race/ethnicity. In the 5-factor model, two low-loading items from 'restriction' and one low-variance item from 'perceived responsibility' were dropped to achieve fit. Only removal of the low-variance item was needed to achieve fit in the 6-factor model. Invariance analyses demonstrated differences in factor loadings. This finding suggests African-American and Hispanic mothers may vary in their interpretation of some CFQ items and use of cognitive interviews could enhance item interpretation. Our results also demonstrated that 'food as a reward' is a plausible construct among a low-income minority sample and adds to the evidence that this factor resonates conceptually with parents of preschoolers; however, further testing is needed to determine the validity of this factor with older age groups.

  5. Confirmatory factor analysis and measurement invariance of the Child Feeding Questionnaire in low-income Hispanic and African-American mothers with preschool-age children☆

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Angela; Vijayasiri, Ganga; Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Schiffer, Linda A.; Campbell, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Validation work of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ) in low-income minority samples suggests a need for further conceptual refinement of this instrument. Using confirmatory factor analysis, this study evaluated 5- and 6-factor models on a large sample of African-American and Hispanic mothers with preschool-age children (n = 962). The 5-factor model included: ‘perceived responsibility’, ‘concern about child’s weight’, ‘restriction’, ‘pressure to eat’, and ‘monitoring’ and the 6-factor model also tested ‘food as a reward’. Multi-group analysis assessed measurement invariance by race/ethnicity. In the 5-factor model, two low-loading items from ‘restriction’ and one low-variance item from ‘perceived responsibility’ were dropped to achieve fit. Only removal of the low-variance item was needed to achieve fit in the 6-factor model. Invariance analyses demonstrated differences in factor loadings. This finding suggests African-American and Hispanic mothers may vary in their interpretation of some CFQ items and use of cognitive interviews could enhance item interpretation. Our results also demonstrated that ‘food as a reward’ is a plausible construct among a low-income minority sample and adds to the evidence that this factor resonates conceptually with parents of preschoolers; however, further testing is needed to determine the validity of this factor with older age groups. PMID:25728882

  6. Effects of an AIDS education program on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of low income black and Latina women.

    PubMed

    Flaskerud, J H; Nyamathi, A M

    1990-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the effects of an AIDS education program on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of low income black and Latina women. A pretest-posttest nonequivalent control group design was used with a 2-3 month retest of the experimental group. The sample consisted of 506 experimental and 206 control group women who were clients of the Public Health Foundation's Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in Los Angeles County. The program included a slide-tape presentation, and educational and resource brochures in English and Spanish. Knowledge, attitudes, and sexual and drug use practices were measured using a structured questionnaire that was developed in English and Spanish. Content validity and reliability of the questionnaire were established. A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA examined differences in pretest-posttest knowledge, attitudes, and practices for experimental and control groups and for both racial/ethnic groups. The experimental group made significant gains over the control group on pretest-posttest measures of knowledge and attitudes. Both experimental and control groups made significant changes in practice. Changes in knowledge were retained on retest; changes in practices came close to significance on retest. Blacks and Latinas differed on pretest knowledge and attitudes but not practices. Blacks had more knowledge and positive attitudes on pretest. However, posttest improvements for both knowledge and attitudes were greater in Latinas than in blacks. A multiple regression analysis revealed that the best predictors of knowledge, attitudes and practices were racial/ethnic group, education, and religion. It is concluded that a didactic audio visual program can positively affect the knowledge and possibly the practices of participants and that these are retained over time but that changes in attitudes will take further efforts.

  7. Narratives of silenced critiques and how they inform pedagogy and policy: Conversations with low-income urban parents about education, science, and science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Prix, Courtney Desmond

    This dissertation examines the concerns of fourteen, low-income, urban parents for their children's needs in education in general and science education in particular. A motivation behind this investigation is to resist the top-down dissemination of educational policy and value the perspectives of so-called "culturally deprived" parents. I contrast the parents' vision for science education with those expressed by AAAS and NRC. I collected data through interviews, conversation groups, and participant observation conducted at a homeless shelter in a major American city. Initially, I conducted individual interviews that were coded, and themes of social mobility and issues of pedagogy surfaced as major areas of concern for parents. I developed questions under each theme for discussion with parents in conversation groups comprised of five parents. Additional conversation groups were developed later under emergent themes of parent-school relations and science education reform. As an assistant in both the after-school program and the parent-teachers association, I obtained additional data through field-notes. I analyzed the data using critical theory as my lens. However, it was a critical theory that had been repositioned from a eurocentric viewpoint to encompass the critical elements that emerge through the struggles of people of color and women. The parents considered the educational system to be uncaring and inflexible. They expressed that science is not taught in an engaging manner that is relevant to the lives of poor students. There was a great deal of overlap between the parents' vision and that of the science education reform initiatives. However, while the reform initiatives focused on "what" and "how" science was being taught, the parents' recommendations focused on "who" was being taught. They called for a more flexible, caring educational system that pays attention to the needs of the whole child. Finally, I analyzed the parents' perspectives as reflecting

  8. Lifetime income patterns and alcohol consumption: investigating the association between long- and short-term income trajectories and drinking.

    PubMed

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki D; Galea, Sandro

    2011-10-01

    Lifetime patterns of income may be an important driver of alcohol use. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between long-term and short-term measures of income and the relative odds of abstaining, drinking lightly-moderately and drinking heavily. We used data from the US Panel Study on Income Dynamics (PSID), a national population-based cohort that has been followed annually or biannually since 1968. We examined 3111 adult respondents aged 30-44 in 1997. Latent class growth mixture models with a censored normal distribution were used to estimate income trajectories followed by the respondent families from 1968 to 1997, while repeated measures multinomial generalized logit models estimated the odds of abstinence (no drinks per day) or heavy drinking (at least 3 drinks a day), relative to light/moderate drinking (<1-2 drinks a day), in 1999-2003. Lower income was associated with higher odds of abstinence and of heavy drinking, relative to light/moderate drinking. For example, belonging to a household with stable low income ($11-20,000) over 30 years was associated with 1.57 odds of abstinence, and 2.14 odds of heavy drinking in adulthood. The association between lifetime income patterns and alcohol use decreased in magnitude and became non-significant once we controlled for past-year income, education and occupation. Lifetime income patterns may have an indirect association with alcohol use, mediated through current socioeconomic conditions.

  9. The vulnerability of middle-aged and older adults in a multiethnic, low-income area: contributions of age, ethnicity, and health insurance.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kara Odom; Steers, Neil; Liang, Li-Jung; Morales, Leo S; Forge, Nell; Jones, Loretta; Brown, Arleen F

    2010-12-01

    This community-partnered study was developed and fielded in partnership with key community stakeholders and describes age- and race-related variation in delays in care and preventive service utilization between middle-aged and older adults living in South Los Angeles. The survey sample included adults aged 50 and older who self-identified as African American or Latino and lived in ZIP codes of South Los Angeles (N=708). Dependent variables were self-reported delays in care and use of preventive services. Insured participants aged 50 to 64 were more likely to report any delay in care (adjusted predicted percentage (APP)=18%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=14-23) and problems obtaining needed medical care (APP=15%, 95% CI=12-20) than those aged 65 and older. Uninsured participants aged 50 to 64 reported even greater delays in care (APP=45%, 95% CI=33-56) and problems obtaining needed medical (APP=33%, 95% CI=22-45) and specialty care (APP=26%, 95% CI=16-39) than those aged 65 and older. Participants aged 50 to 64 were generally less likely to receive preventive services, including influenza and pneumococcal vaccines and colonoscopy than older participants, but women were more likely to receive mammograms. Participants aged 50 to 64 had more problems obtaining recommended preventive care and faced more delays in care than those aged 65 and older, particularly if they were uninsured. Providing insurance coverage for this group may improve access to preventive care and promote wellness.

  10. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population, making Chile an intriguing case study for examining the impact of these societal-level trends on the aging experience. This paper highlights essential characteristics of this country for understanding its emerging aging society. It reveals that there is a fundamental lack of adequate and depthful epidemiologic and country-specific research from which to fully understand the aging experience and guide new policies in support of health and well-being. PMID:22534464

  11. Family income per capita, age, and smoking status are predictors of low fiber intake in residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Victória Félix Dos; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Santos; de Mello Fontanelli, Mariane; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesized that dietary total fiber intake may be less than recommendations and that the intake of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber may be associated with demographic, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Data were drawn from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents, adults, and elderly persons living in São Paulo city were included. Demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected from households. Dietary intake was measured using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All analyses were conducted based on the sample design of the study. The proportion of individuals who met the adequate intake (AI) for total fiber intake was examined, and foods that contributed to the intake of fiber and fractions were evaluated. The relationship of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber intake with demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle characteristics was determined using multiple linear regression models. A low proportion of individuals met the AI for dietary fiber. The foods that most contributed to total fiber intake were beans, French bread, and rice. Total fiber intake was negatively associated with former and current smokers and positively associated with family income per capita and age. Soluble fiber intake was negatively associated with current smokers and positively associated with female sex, age, and family income per capita. Insoluble fiber intake was negatively associated with former or current smokers and positively associated with age. In summary, residents in the city of São Paulo had a low fiber intake, and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors were associated with dietary fiber and intake of its fractions.

  12. Problem-solving education to prevent depression among low-income mothers of preterm infants: a randomized controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Silverstein, Michael; Feinberg, Emily; Cabral, Howard; Sauder, Sara; Egbert, Lucia; Schainker, Elisabeth; Kamholz, Karen; Hegel, Mark; Beardslee, William

    2011-08-01

    We sought to assess the feasibility and document key study processes of a problem-solving intervention to prevent depression among low-income mothers of preterm infants. A randomized controlled pilot trial (n = 50) of problem-solving education (PSE) was conducted. We assessed intervention provider training and fidelity; recruitment and retention of subjects; intervention acceptability; and investigators' ability to conduct monthly outcome assessments, from which we could obtain empirical estimates of depression symptoms, stress, and functioning over 6 months. Four of four bachelor-level providers were able to deliver PSE appropriately with standardized subjects within 4 weeks of training. Of 12 randomly audited PSE sessions with actual subjects, all met treatment fidelity criteria. Nineteen of 25 PSE subjects (76%) received full four-session courses; no subjects reported negative experiences with PSE. Eighty-eight percent of scheduled follow-up assessments were completed. Forty-four percent of control group mothers experienced an episode of moderately severe depression symptoms over the follow-up period, compared to 24% of PSE mothers. Control mothers experienced an average 1.19 symptomatic episodes over the 6 months of follow-up, compared to 0.52 among PSE mothers. PSE appears feasible and may be a promising strategy to prevent depression among mothers of preterm infants.

  13. Do parental education and income matter? A nationwide register-based study on HPV vaccine uptake in the school-based immunisation programme in Norway

    PubMed Central

    Feiring, Berit; Laake, Ida; Molden, Tor; Cappelen, Inger; Håberg, Siri E; Magnus, Per; Steingrímsdóttir, Ólöf Anna; Strand, Bjørn Heine; Stålcrantz, Jeanette; Trogstad, Lill

    2015-01-01

    Objective Vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) has been offered free of charge to all 12-year-old girls in Norway since 2009. Nevertheless, the uptake of HPV vaccine is lower than for other childhood vaccines. The aim of this study was to examine whether parental education and income are associated with initiation and completion of HPV vaccination. Design Nationwide register-based study. Setting Publicly funded childhood immunisation programme in Norway. Participants 91 405 girls born between 1997 and 1999 and registered in the Norwegian Central Population Registry were offered HPV vaccine during the first 3 programme years. Of these, 84 139 had complete information on all variables and were included in the study. Measurements Information on HPV-vaccination status was obtained from the Norwegian Immunisation Registry. Data on socioeconomic factors were extracted from Statistics Norway. Risk differences (RDs) and CIs were estimated with Poisson regression. Results In the study sample, 78.3% received at least one dose of HPV vaccine and 73.6% received all three doses. High maternal education was significantly associated with lower probability of initiating HPV vaccination (multivariable RD=−5.5% (95% CI −7.0% to −4.0%) for highest compared with lowest education level). In contrast, high maternal income was significantly associated with higher probability of initiating vaccination (multivariable RD=10.1% (95% CI 9.0% to 11.3%) for highest compared with lowest quintile). Paternal education and income showed similar, but weaker, associations. The negative association between education and initiation was only seen for incomes below the median value. Conclusions In spite of the presumably equal access to HPV vaccine in Norway, we found socioeconomic disparities in vaccine uptake. More studies are needed to explain the underlying factors responsible for the observed socioeconomic differences. Insight into these factors is necessary to target information and

  14. School-Aged Children Who Are Educated at Home by Their Parents: Is There a Role for Educational Psychologists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Tiny C. M. J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on home education with reference to issues that may concern educational psychologists. It notes the fast growing number of families (at present, 1% of the UK school population) who have chosen to educate their school-aged children at home. The great majority of home-educated children are reported to be well…

  15. 34 CFR 74.24 - Program income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Program income. 74.24 Section 74.24 Education Office of... Program Management § 74.24 Program income. (a) The Secretary applies the standards contained in this section in requiring recipient organizations to account for program income related to projects financed...

  16. Family Income, Parent Education, and Perceived Constraints as Predictors of Observed Program Quality and Parent Rated Program Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torquati, Julia C.; Raikes, Helen H.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Bovaird, James A.; Harris, Beatrice A.

    2011-01-01

    Observed child care quality and parent perceptions of child care quality received by children in poor (below Federal Poverty Line, FPL), low-income (between FPL and 200% of FPL), and non-low-income families were examined. Observations were completed in 359 center- and home-based child care programs in four Midwestern states and surveys were…

  17. The Changing Nature of Adult Education in the Age of Transnational Migration: Toward a Model of Recognitive Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.

  18. The Republic of Chile: An Upper Middle-Income Country at the Crossroads of Economic Development and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Fuentes, Patricio

    2012-01-01

    Chile is a developing country with a rapidly expanding economy and concomitant social and cultural changes. It is expected to become a developed country within 10 years. Chile is also characterized as being in an advanced demographic transition. Unique challenges are posed by the intersection of rapid economic development and an aging population,…

  19. A test of the Family Stress Model on toddler-aged children's adjustment among Hurricane Katrina impacted and nonimpacted low-income families.

    PubMed

    Scaramella, Laura V; Sohr-Preston, Sara L; Callahan, Kristin L; Mirabile, Scott P

    2008-07-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family Stress Model explained toddler-aged adjustment among Hurricane Katrina affected and nonaffected families. Two groups of very low-income mothers and their 2-year-old children participated (pre-Katrina, n = 55; post-Katrina, n = 47). Consistent with the Family Stress Model, financial strain and neighborhood violence were associated with higher levels of mothers' depressed mood; depressed mood was linked to less parenting efficacy. Poor parenting efficacy was associated to more child internalizing and externalizing problems.

  20. Growth trajectories from conception through middle childhood and cognitive achievement at age 8 years: Evidence from four low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Georgiadis, Andreas; Benny, Liza; Crookston, Benjamin T; Duc, Le Thuc; Hermida, Priscila; Mani, Subha; Woldehanna, Tassew; Stein, Aryeh D; Behrman, Jere R

    2016-12-01

    Child chronic malnutrition is endemic in low- and middle-income countries and deleterious for child development. Studies investigating the relationship between nutrition at different periods of childhood, as measured by growth in these periods (growth trajectories), and cognitive development have produced mixed evidence. Although an explanation of this has been that different studies use different approaches to model growth trajectories, the differences across approaches are not well understood. Furthermore, little is known about the pathways linking growth trajectories and cognitive achievement. In this paper, we develop and estimate a general path model of the relationship between growth trajectories and cognitive achievement using data on four cohorts from Ethiopia, India, Peru, and Vietnam. The model is used to: a) compare two of the most common approaches of modelling growth trajectories in the literature, namely the lifecourse plot and the conditional body size model, and b) investigate the potential channels via which the association between growth in each period and cognitive achievement manifests. We show that the two approaches are expected to produce systematically different results that have distinct interpretations. Results suggest that growth from conception through age 1 year, between age 1 and 5 years, and between 5 and 8 years are each positively and significantly associated with cognitive achievement at age 8 years and that this may be partly explained by the fact that faster-growing children start school earlier. We also find that a significant share of the association between early growth and later cognitive achievement is mediated through growth in interim periods.

  1. Education, but not occupation or household income, is positively related to favorable dietary intake patterns in pregnant Japanese women: the Osaka Maternal and Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kentaro; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tanaka, Keiko; Ohya, Yukihiro; Hirota, Yoshio

    2009-03-01

    Although a large body of epidemiologic data accumulated in Western countries show that individuals with a higher socioeconomic position consume higher quality diets, information on such socioeconomic differences in the diets of non-Western populations, including Japanese, is absolutely lacking. This cross-sectional study examined the association of socioeconomic position with dietary intake in a group of pregnant Japanese women. Subjects were 1002 Japanese women during pregnancy. Socioeconomic position was assessed by education, occupation, and household income. Dietary intake was estimated using a validated, self-administered, comprehensive diet history questionnaire. Education was associated positively with intake of protein; total n-3 and marine-origin n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; dietary fiber; cholesterol; potassium; calcium; magnesium; iron; vitamins A, D, E, and C; and folate 9 and inversely with that of carbohydrate. No associations were seen between education and intake of total fat; saturated, monounsaturated, and total and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids; alcohol; or sodium. Regarding food, higher education was associated with a higher intake of vegetables, fish and shellfish, and potatoes and lower intake of rice. Education was not associated with intake of bread, noodles, confectioneries and sugars, fats and oils, pulses and nuts, meat, eggs, dairy products, or fruit. For occupation, housewives had a higher intake of dietary fiber, magnesium, iron, vitamin A, folate, and pulses and nuts than working women. Household income was not associated with any nutrient or food examined. In conclusion, education, but not occupation or household income, was positively associated with favorable dietary intake patterns in a group of pregnant Japanese women.

  2. Effects of Age and Education on the Lexico-Semantic Content of Connected Speech in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Dorze, Guylaine; Bedard, Christine

    1998-01-01

    Connected speech of 134 healthy, Canadian French-speaking adults, grouped according to age and education level, was analyzed using an aphasia battery. Results demonstrated that older subjects with less education produced fewer content units and were less efficient in transmitting lexico-semantic information. Effects of age and education level on…

  3. An Analysis of Arizona Individual Income Tax-Credit Scholarship Recipients' Family Income, 2009-10 School Year. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper. PEPG 10-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Vicki E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the "East Valley Tribune and the Arizona Republic" alleged that Arizona's individual income tax-credit scholarship program disproportionately serves privileged students from higher-income families over those from lower-income backgrounds. Yet neither paper collected the student-level, scholarship recipient family income data…

  4. Early-life mental disorders and adult household income in the World Mental Health Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Norito; Abdulghani, Emad Abdulrazaq; Alonso, Jordi; Bromet, Evelyn; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Almeida, Jose Miguel Caldas; Chiu, Wai Tat; de Girolamo, Giovanni; de Graaf, Ron; Fayyad, John; Ferry, Finola; Florescu, Silvia; Gureje, Oye; Hu, Chiyi; Lakoma, Matthew D.; LeBlanc, William; Lee, Sing; Levinson, Daphna; Malhotra, Savita; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Browne, Mark A. Oakley; Okoliyski, Michail; Posada-Villa, Jose; Sampson, Nancy A.; Viana, Maria Carmen; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Better information on the human capital costs of early-onset mental disorders could increase sensitivity of policy-makers to the value of expanding initiatives for early detection-treatment. Data are presented on one important aspect of these costs: the associations of early-onset mental disorders with adult household income. Methods Data come from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys in eleven high income, five upper-middle income, and six low/lower-middle income countries. Information about 15 lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders as of age of completing education, retrospectively assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview, was used to predict current household income among respondents ages 18-64 (n = 37,741) controlling for level of education. Gross associations were decomposed to evaluate mediating effects through major components of household income. Results Early-onset mental disorders are associated with significantly reduced household income in high and upper-middle income countries but not low/lower-middle income countries, with associations consistently stronger among women than men. Total associations are largely due to low personal earnings (increased unemployment, decreased earnings among the employed) and spouse earnings (decreased probabilities of marriage and, if married, spouse employment and low earnings of employed spouses). Individual-level effect sizes are equivalent to 16-33% of median within-country household income, while population-level effect sizes are in the range 1.0-1.4% of Gross Household Income. Conclusions Early mental disorders are associated with substantial decrements in income net of education at both individual and societal levels. Policy-makers should take these associations into consideration in making healthcare research and treatment resource allocation decisions. PMID:22521149

  5. Preschool Education: Federal Investment for Low-Income Children Significant but Effectiveness Unclear. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Children and Families, Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaul, Marnie S.

    This statement presented as testimony before the U.S. Senate discusses the importance of preschool education for children of low-income families. The testimony focuses on the federal and state commitment to preschool programs, including funding and collaborative efforts, and what is known about the effectiveness of federal preschool programs.…

  6. Relationship between depressive symptom severity and emergency department use among low-income, depressed homebound older adults aged 50 years and older

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous research found a high prevalence of depression, along with chronic illnesses and disabilities, among older ED patients. This study examined the relationship between depressive symptom severity and the number of ED visits among low-income homebound older adults who participated in a randomized controlled trial of telehealth problem-solving therapy (PST). Methods The number of and reasons for ED visits were collected from the study participants (n=121 at baseline) at all assessment points—baseline and 12- and 24-week follow-ups. Depressive symptoms were measured with the 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD). All multivariable analyses examining the relationships between ED visits and depressive symptoms were conducted using zero-inflated Poisson regression models. Results Of the participants, 67.7% used the ED at least once and 61% of the visitors made at least one return visit during the approximately 12-month period. Body pain (not from fall injury and not including chest pain) was the most common reason. The ED visit frequency at baseline and at follow-up was significantly positively associated with the HAMD scores at the assessment points. The ED visit frequency at follow-up, controlling for the ED visits at baseline, was also significantly associated with the HAMD score change since baseline. Conclusions The ED visit rate was much higher than those reported in other studies. Better education on self-management of chronic conditions, depression screening by primary care physicians and ED, and depression treatment that includes symptom management and problem-solving skills may be important to reduce ED visits among medically ill, low-income homebound adults. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00903019 PMID:23267529

  7. Risk of childhood undernutrition related to small-for-gestational age and preterm birth in low- and middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Parul; Lee, Sun Eun; Donahue Angel, Moira; Adair, Linda S; Arifeen, Shams E; Ashorn, Per; Barros, Fernando C; Fall, Caroline HD; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Hao, Wei; Hu, Gang; Humphrey, Jean H; Huybregts, Lieven; Joglekar, Charu V; Kariuki, Simon K; Kolsteren, Patrick; Krishnaveni, Ghattu V; Liu, Enqing; Martorell, Reynaldo; Osrin, David; Persson, Lars-Ake; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Richter, Linda; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Tielsch, James; Victora, Cesar G; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S; Yan, Hong; Zeng, Lingxia; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Background Low- and middle-income countries continue to experience a large burden of stunting; 148 million children were estimated to be stunted, around 30–40% of all children in 2011. In many of these countries, foetal growth restriction (FGR) is common, as is subsequent growth faltering in the first 2 years. Although there is agreement that stunting involves both prenatal and postnatal growth failure, the extent to which FGR contributes to stunting and other indicators of nutritional status is uncertain. Methods Using extant longitudinal birth cohorts (n = 19) with data on birthweight, gestational age and child anthropometry (12–60 months), we estimated study-specific and pooled risk estimates of stunting, wasting and underweight by small-for-gestational age (SGA) and preterm birth. Results We grouped children according to four combinations of SGA and gestational age: adequate size-for-gestational age (AGA) and preterm; SGA and term; SGA and preterm; and AGA and term (the reference group). Relative to AGA and term, the OR (95% confidence interval) for stunting associated with AGA and preterm, SGA and term, and SGA and preterm was 1.93 (1.71, 2.18), 2.43 (2.22, 2.66) and 4.51 (3.42, 5.93), respectively. A similar magnitude of risk was also observed for wasting and underweight. Low birthweight was associated with 2.5–3.5-fold higher odds of wasting, stunting and underweight. The population attributable risk for overall SGA for outcomes of childhood stunting and wasting was 20% and 30%, respectively. Conclusions This analysis estimates that childhood undernutrition may have its origins in the foetal period, suggesting a need to intervene early, ideally during pregnancy, with interventions known to reduce FGR and preterm birth. PMID:23920141

  8. A Demographic Profile of Incoming Matriculated Students, Spring, 1975. Research Report, BBC 3-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagle, Norman; And Others

    This study presents non-scholastic, non-cognitive factors which a previous study at Bronx Community College (BCC) showed were highly related to student persistence: sex, ethnic group, veteran status, age, income, home ownership, size of household, primary language spoken as a child, parental education, educational aspiration level, satisfaction…

  9. "What do you think of when I say the word 'snack'?" Towards a cohesive definition among low-income caregivers of preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Younginer, Nicholas A; Blake, Christine E; Davison, Kirsten K; Blaine, Rachel E; Ganter, Claudia; Orloski, Alexandria; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet

    2016-03-01

    Despite agreement that snacks contribute significant energy to children's diets, evidence of the effects of snacks on health, especially in children, is weak. Some of the lack of consistent evidence may be due to a non-standardized definition of snacks. Understanding how caregivers of preschool-aged children conceptualize and define child snacks could provide valuable insights on epidemiological findings, targets for anticipatory guidance, and prevention efforts. Participants were 59 ethnically-diverse (White, Hispanic, and African American), low-income urban caregivers of children age 3-5 years. Each caregiver completed a 60-90 min semi-structured in-depth interview to elicit their definitions of child snacks. Data were coded by two trained coders using theoretically-guided emergent coding techniques to derive key dimensions of caregivers' child snack definitions. Five interrelated dimensions of a child snack definition were identified: (1) types of food, (2) portion size, (3) time, (4) location, and (5) purpose. Based on these dimensions, an empirically-derived definition of caregivers' perceptions of child snacks is offered: A small portion of food that is given in-between meals, frequently with an intention of reducing or preventing hunger until the next mealtime. These findings suggest interrelated dimensions that capture the types of foods and eating episodes that are defined as snacks. Child nutrition studies and interventions that include a focus on child snacks should consider using an a priori multi-dimensional definition of child snacks.

  10. A Study of Elementary and Secondary Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes toward Aging and the Implementation of Aging Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Shan

    2012-01-01

    This study surveys elementary and secondary teachers in Taiwan and compares the findings with other studies conducted in America and Japan. The objective is to explore differences among teachers in Taiwan, Japan, and the United States in terms of their knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging and the implementation of aging education in schools.…

  11. Effect of age, education, and bilingualism on confrontation naming in older illiterate and low-educated populations.

    PubMed

    Ashaie, Sameer; Obler, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of age as well as the linked factors of education and bilingualism on confrontation naming in rural Kashmir by creating a culturally appropriate naming test with pictures of 60 objects. We recruited 48 cognitively normal participants whose ages ranged from 18 to 28 and from 60 to 85. Participants in our study were illiterate monolinguals (N = 18) and educated Kashmiri-Urdu bilinguals (N = 30). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that younger adults performed better than older adults (P < 0.01) and the age effect was quadratic (age(2)). It also showed Age X Education and Age X L2 Speaking interactions predicted naming performance. The Age X Education interaction indicated that the advantages of greater education increased with advancing age. Since education is in the second language (L2) in our population, this finding is no doubt linked to the Age X L2 Speaking interaction. This suggests that L2 speaking proficiency contributed more to first language (L1) naming with advancing age.

  12. Assessment of universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in six middle-income countries

    PubMed Central

    Frenz, Patricia; Grabenhenrich, Linus; Keil, Thomas; Tinnemann, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess universal health coverage for adults aged 50 years or older with chronic illness in China, Ghana, India, Mexico, the Russian Federation and South Africa. Methods We obtained data on 16 631 participants aged 50 years or older who had at least one diagnosed chronic condition from the World Health Organization Study on Global Ageing and Adult Health. Access to basic chronic care and financial hardship were assessed and the influence of health insurance and rural or urban residence was determined by logistic regression analysis. Findings The weighted proportion of participants with access to basic chronic care ranged from 20.6% in Mexico to 47.6% in South Africa. Access rates were unequally distributed and disadvantaged poor people, except in South Africa where primary health care is free to all. Rural residence did not affect access. The proportion with catastrophic out-of-pocket expenditure for the last outpatient visit ranged from 14.5% in China to 54.8% in Ghana. Financial hardship was more common among the poor in most countries but affected all income groups. Health insurance generally increased access to care but gave insufficient protection against financial hardship. Conclusion No country provided access to basic chronic care for more than half of the participants with chronic illness. The poor were less likely to receive care and more likely to face financial hardship in most countries. However, inequity of access was not fully determined by the level of economic development or insurance coverage. Future health reforms should aim to improve service quality and increase democratic oversight of health care. PMID:27034521

  13. Social Work Knowledge of Facts on Aging: Influence of Field and Classroom Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenmaier, Julie; Rowan, Noell L.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

    2009-01-01

    Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) was used to measure aging knowledge outcomes of 323 practicum students engaged in aging-focused practica at pre- and posttest across 11 universities. Significant improvement in knowledge scores (p = 0.0001) was found for graduates of the enhanced field education programs. Taking aging course work was a…

  14. Education, Globalization, and the State in the Age of Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Education plays an important role in challenging, combating and in understanding terrorism in its different forms, whether as counter-terrorism or as a form of human rights education. Just as education has played a significant role in the process of nation-building, so education also plays a strong role in the process of empire, globalization and…

  15. Liberal Education in the Age of the Unthinkable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinn, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    Those who work in all sectors of higher education--from community and liberal arts colleges to undergraduate programs in public and research universities--often assert that a "liberal education" is precisely the kind of undergraduate education that is needed for both living and working in the challenging 21st-century world. "Liberal education" or…

  16. Acceptance of Home-Based Telehealth Problem-Solving Therapy for Depressed, Low-Income Homebound Older Adults: Qualitative Interviews With the Participants and Aging-Service Case Managers

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Namkee G.; Wilson, Nancy L.; Sirrianni, Leslie; Marinucci, Mary Lynn; Hegel, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To report low-income homebound older adults’ experience of telehealth problem-solving therapy (tele-PST) and aging-service case managers’ (CMs’) experience/perception of client-level personal barriers to accessing psychotherapy in general and PST specifically. Design and Methods: The study sample consisted of 42 homebound older adults who participated in the feasibility and efficacy trial of tele-PST and completed 36-week follow-up assessments and 12 CMs of a large home-delivered meals program who referred their clients to the tele-PST trial. In-depth interviews with the older adults and written feedback and focus group discussions with the CMs provided the data. Results: Older adults reported a high rate of approval of PST procedures and acknowledged its positive treatment effect. Tele-PST participants were satisfied with videoconferenced sessions because they were convenient and allowed them to see their therapist. However, CMs reported that only about 10%–20% of potentially eligible older adults gave oral consent for PST. Significant treatment engagement barriers were the older adults’ lack of motivation, denial of depression, perceived stigma, and other personal attitudinal factors. Implications: The real-world implementation of tele-PST or other psychotherapies needs to include educating and motivating depressed homebound elders to recognize their depression and accept treatment. PMID:23929664

  17. Environmental Justice, Cumulative Environmental Risk, and Health Among Low- and Middle-Income Children in Upstate New York

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Gary W.; Marcynyszyn, Lyscha A.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We documented inequitable, cumulative environmental risk exposure and health between predominantly White low-income and middle-income children residing in rural areas in upstate New York. Methods. Cross-sectional data for 216 third- through fifth-grade children included overnight urinary neuroendocrine levels, noise levels, residential crowding (people/room), and housing quality. Results. After control for income, maternal education, family structure, age, and gender, cumulative environmental risk exposure (0–3) (risk >1 SD above the mean for each singular risk factor [0, 1]) was substantially greater for low-income children. Cumulative environmental risk was positively correlated with elevated overnight epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol in the low-income sample but not in the middle-income sample. Conclusions. Cumulative environmental risk exposure among low-income families may contribute to bad health, beginning in early childhood. PMID:15514234

  18. Assessment of Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, Self-Efficacy, and Use of Processes of Change of Low-Income Parents for Increasing Servings of Fruits and Vegetables to Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Deana A.; Betts, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Use the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to determine the proportionate stage of change of low-income parents and primary caregivers (PPC) for increasing accessibility, measured as servings served, of fruits and vegetables (FV) to their preschool-aged children and evaluate response differences for theoretical constructs.…

  19. Effect of Childhood Victimization on Occupational Prestige and Income Trajectories

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez, Cristina A.; Christ, Sharon L.; LeBlanc, William G.; Arheart, Kristopher L.; Dietz, Noella A.; McCollister, Kathyrn E.; Fleming, Lora E.; Muntaner, Carles; Muennig, Peter; Lee, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Violence toward children (childhood victimization) is a major public health problem, with long-term consequences on economic well-being. The purpose of this study was to determine whether childhood victimization affects occupational prestige and income in young adulthood. We hypothesized that young adults who experienced more childhood victimizations would have less prestigious jobs and lower incomes relative to those with no victimization history. We also explored the pathways in which childhood victimization mediates the relationships between background variables, such as parent’s educational impact on the socioeconomic transition into adulthood. Methods A nationally representative sample of 8,901 young adults aged 18–28 surveyed between 1999–2009 from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY) were analyzed. Covariate-adjusted multivariate linear regression and path models were used to estimate the effects of victimization and covariates on income and prestige levels and on income and prestige trajectories. After each participant turned 18, their annual 2002 Census job code was assigned a yearly prestige score based on the 1989 General Social Survey, and their annual income was calculated via self-reports. Occupational prestige and annual income are time-varying variables measured from 1999–2009. Victimization effects were tested for moderation by sex, race, and ethnicity in the multivariate models. Results Approximately half of our sample reported at least one instance of childhood victimization before the age of 18. Major findings include 1) childhood victimization resulted in slower income and prestige growth over time, and 2) mediation analyses suggested that this slower prestige and earnings arose because victims did not get the same amount of education as non-victims. Conclusions Results indicated that the consequences of victimization negatively affected economic success throughout young adulthood, primarily by slowing the

  20. Low-Income and Minority Serving Institutions: Sustained Attention Needed to Improve Education's Oversight of Grant Programs. Testimony before the Subcommittee on Higher Education, Lifelong Learning, and Competitiveness, Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives. GAO-10-659T

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Higher education has become more accessible than ever before, although students from some demographic groups still face challenges in attending college. To help improve access to higher education for minority and low-income students, Titles III and V of the Higher Education Act, as amended, provide grants to strengthen and support institutions…

  1. Coeur en santé St-Henri--a heart health promotion programme in a low income, low education neighbourhood in Montreal, Canada: theoretical model and early field experience.

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, G; O'Loughlin, J; Elliott, M; Masson, P; Renaud, L; Sacks-Silver, G; Lampron, G

    1995-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--Coeur en santé St-Henri is a five year, community based, multifactorial, heart health promotion programme in a low income, low education neighbourhood in Montreal, Canada. The objectives of this programme are to improve heart-healthy behaviours among adults of St-Henri. This paper describes the theoretical model underlying programme development as well as our early field experience implementing interventions. DESIGN--The design of the intervention programme is based on a behaviour change model adapted from social learning theory, the reasoned action model, and the precede-proceed model. The Ottawa charter for health promotion provided the framework for the development of specific interventions. Each intervention is submitted to formative, implementation, and impact evaluations using simple and inexpensive methods. PARTICIPANTS--The target population consists of adults living in St-Henri, a neighbourhood of 23,360 residents. Because of costs constraints, the intervention strategy targets women more specifically. The community is one of the poorest in Canada with 46% of the population living below the poverty line and 20% being very poor. The age-sex adjusted ischaemic heart disease mortality in 1985-87 was 317 per 100,000 compared with 126 per 100,000 in an affluent adjacent neighbourhood. RESULTS--Thirty nine distinct interventions have been developed and tested in the community, eight related to tobacco, 10 to diet, seven to physical activity, and 14 which are multifactorial. The interventions include smoking cessation and healthy recipes contests, a menu labelling and healthy food discount programme in restaurants, a point of choice nutrition education campaign, healthy eating and smoking cessation workshops, a walking club, educational material, print and electronic media campaigns, heart health fairs, and community events. CONCLUSION--An integrated heart health promotion programme is feasible in low income urban neighbourhoods but not all

  2. Everything under control? The effects of age, gender, and education on trajectories of perceived control in a nationally representative German sample.

    PubMed

    Specht, Jule; Egloff, Boris; Schmukle, Stefan C

    2013-02-01

    Perceived control is an important variable for various demands involved in successful aging. However, perceived control is not set in stone but rather changes throughout the life course. The aim of this study was to identify cross-sectional age differences and longitudinal mean-level changes as well as rank-order changes in perceived control with respect to gender and education. Furthermore, changes in income and health were analyzed to explain trajectories of perceived control. In a large and representative sample of Germans across all of adulthood, 9,484 individuals gave information about their perceived control twice over a period of 6 years. Using locally weighted smoothing (LOESS) curves and latent structural equation modeling, four main findings were revealed: (a) Perceived control increased until ages 30-40, then decreased until about age 60, and increased slightly afterwards. (b) The rank order of individuals in perceived control was relatively unstable, especially in young adulthood, and reached a plateau at about age 40. (c) Men perceived that they had more control than did women, but there were no gender differences in the development of perceived control. (d) Individuals with more education perceived that they had more control than those with less education, and there were slight differences in the development of perceived control dependent on education. Taken together, these findings offer important insights into the development of perceived control across the life span.

  3. Education for the Aging; Living with a Purpose as Older Adults through Education: An Overview of Current Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.; Mason, W. Dean, Ed.

    Directed toward the practitioner, the book is a compilation by 18 knowledgeable, experienced authors of some of the recent literature and current practices in the field relating to aging. The book consists of seven parts: (1) The Older Adult as Learner, (2) The Role of Education in an Aging Society, (3) The Aging Individual and the Changing Nature…

  4. First in the Class? Age and the Education Production Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascio, Elizabeth U.; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effects of relative age in kindergarten using data from an experiment where children of the same age were randomly assigned to different kindergarten classmates. We exploit the resulting experimental variation in relative age in conjunction with variation in expected kindergarten entry age based on birth date to account for…

  5. Protective Role of Educational Level on Episodic Memory Aging: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group.…

  6. How Special Education Preschool Graduates Finish: Status at 19 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Dale, Philip S.; Mills, Paulette E.; Cole, Kevin N.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the academic and special education status of 129 graduates of special education preschools at 19 years of age. Participants had been randomly assigned to either direct instruction or mediated learning preschool classrooms. At age 19, their achievement was approximately one standard deviation below average. Consistent with…

  7. What Educational Opportunities Should Professionals in Aging Provide?: A Pilot Community Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Leson, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    With the aging workforce and the increase of older adults, educational needs of the workforce in aging services are broadening. The pilot study used a survey to examine the types of educational opportunities and needs of professionals providing services to older adults in eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. Respondents (25.9%) reported learning…

  8. Proposing a Center on Aging and Well-Being: Research, Education, and Practice Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenbach, Jeannette M.; Jessup-Falcioni, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This environmental scan aimed to discover research interests and educational needs of faculty, graduate, and undergraduate students to inspire research, education, and practice in the development of a center on aging and well-being for older adults. The scan consisted of a search of university faculty and researchers regarding research on aging; a…

  9. Principles and Practices of Mature-Age Education at U3As

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siedle, Rob

    2011-01-01

    A movement known as the Universities of the Third Age (U3As) provides educational, cultural and social services for mature-age people in Australia and internationally. This paper focuses on the educational courses run by U3As and discusses two basic questions: What are the expectations of learners who enrol in these classes? and How can tutors…

  10. Graduate Training in Education and Aging: Results of a National Survey; Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, D. Barry

    1977-01-01

    The graduate departments of adult education at 88 universities in the United States were surveyed for information pertinent to their programs in and about aging. Results show that 55 percent of the departments offer no courses dealing exclusively with education and aging. (Author)

  11. System, environmental, and policy changes: using the social-ecological model as a framework for evaluating nutrition education and social marketing programs with low-income audiences.

    PubMed

    Gregson, J; Foerster, S B; Orr, R; Jones, L; Benedict, J; Clarke, B; Hersey, J; Lewis, J; Zotz, A K

    2001-01-01

    A variety of nutrition education interventions and social marketing initiatives are being used by the Food Stamp Program to improve food resource management, food safety, dietary quality, and food security for low-income households. The Social-Ecological Model is proposed as a theory-based framework to characterize the nature and results of interventions conducted through large public/private partnerships with the Food Stamp Program. In particular, this article suggests indicators and measures that lend themselves to the pooling of data across counties and states, with special emphasis on systems, environment, and public policy change within organizations at the community and state levels.

  12. Financing Higher Education: An Assessment of Income-Contingent Loan Options and Repayment Patterns over the Life Cycle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Ann

    1995-01-01

    Outlines design issues involved with introducing an income-contingent, college student-loan program and describes the solutions adopted by Australian and New Zealand governments. Uses dynamic microsimulation to simulate the likely future repayment profiles for two Australian ICL schemes and assesses the proportion of total debt repaid. (19…

  13. Social Capital and Educational Organizing in Low Income, Minority, and New Immigrant Communities: Can the University Strengthen Community Organizations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krasner, Michael Alan; Pierre-Louis, Francois

    2009-01-01

    A college-based program that combines training, direct support, and technical assistance was found to produce significant gains in bonding and bridging social capital and key political attributes among low-income, minority, and immigrant groups organizing to enhance their power to influence public school politics and policies in New York City.…

  14. Multiple Marginality and Urban Education: Community and School Socialization among Low-Income Mexican-Descent Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Vigil, James Diego

    2010-01-01

    This article conceptualizes the crucial social and developmental features impacting Mexican-descent youth and adolescents in low-income communities in southern California. All youth in these neighborhoods must confront and come to grips with the many environmental, socioeconomic, racial, and cultural forces they confront. However, it is the…

  15. Leveraging Workforce Development and Postsecondary Education for Low-Skilled, Low-Income Workers: Lessons from the Shifting Gears Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, Debra; Dresser, Laura; Smith, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Shifting Gears was launched in 2007 by the Joyce Foundation, a Chicago-based organization focused on improving the quality of life of citizens residing in the Great Lakes region of the United States. The primary goal of Shifting Gears is to increase the number of low-skilled, low-income Midwestern adults who obtain college-level occupational…

  16. A Genealogy of Grit: Education in the New Gilded Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokas, Ariana Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Recently, due in part to the research of Angela Duckworth, the cultivation of dispositions in education, grit in particular, has gained the attention of educational policymakers and the educational research community. While much of the research has focused on how to detect grit, there has been little discussion regarding how grit came to be valued…

  17. Moving Education and Its Administration into the Microelectronic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    Education is in transition between the ascendent microelectronic and descendent industrial revolutions, with purposes ambiguously linked to both. These purposes must be clarified before educational leaders can establish priorities for adapting education to the needs of a society transformed by microelectronic technology. Accordingly, the features…

  18. Income inequality and health: pathways and mechanisms.

    PubMed Central

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P

    1999-01-01

    The relationship between income and health is well established: the higher an individual's income, the better his or her health. However, recent research suggests that health may also be affected by the distribution of income within society. We outline the potential mechanisms underlying the so-called relative income hypothesis, which predicts that an individual's health status is better in societies with a more equal distribution of incomes. The effects of income inequality on health may be mediated by underinvestment in social goods, such as public education and health care; disruption of social cohesion and the erosion of social capital; and the harmful psychosocial effects of invidious social comparisons. PMID:10199670

  19. Revisioning Education for All in the Age of Migration: Global Challenges and Opportunities for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2014-01-01

    This paper revisits and revisions Education for All (EFA) in the age of global migration with the aim of developing more inclusive approaches towards social justice and equity in education. Drawing on cases of internal and international migration in China and Canada, this paper compares and contrasts policies and practices in the education of…

  20. Distance Education in the Digital Age: Common Misconceptions and Challenging Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses in its first part three common misconceptions related to the operation of distance education providers in the digital age: The tendency to relate to e-learning as the new generation of distance education; the confusion between ends and means of distance education; and the absence of the teachers' crucial role in the…

  1. Ability of university-level education to prevent age-related decline in emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging.

  2. Parents’ Incomes and Children's Outcomes: A Quasi-Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Akee, Randall K.Q.; Copeland, William E.; Keeler, Gordon; Angold, Adrian; Costello, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    We examine the role that an exogenous increase in household income due to a government transfer unrelated to household characteristics plays in children's long run outcomes. Children in affected households have higher levels of education in their young adulthood and a lower incidence of criminality for minor offenses. Effects differ by initial household poverty status. An additional $4000 per year for the poorest households increases educational attainment by one year at age 21 and reduces having ever committed a minor crime by 22% at ages 16−17. Our evidence suggests that improved parental quality is a likely mechanism for the change. PMID:20582231

  3. The relationship between environment, efficacy beliefs, and academic achievement of low-income African American children in special education.

    PubMed

    Bean, Kristen F; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    African American students are overrepresented in special education. Ecological systems theory, social cognitive theory, and a literature review demonstrate that children's environments, particularly school, and self-efficacy impact the educational outcomes of African American children. Interventions have aimed to improve children's environmental resources and efficacy. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of environment, efficacy beliefs, and the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention on the educational achievements of African American children in special education. A secondary data analysis of 126 African American children in special education found that self-efficacy and the number of hours spent in special education were associated with their academic achievement.

  4. Early Learning Left Out: An Examination of Public Investments in Education and Development by Child Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Charles; Elias, Victor; Stein, Debbie; Schaefer, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the most comprehensive picture, to date, of public investments in the education and development of children by three age groupings--the early learning years (roughly 0-5), the school-aged years (roughly 6-18), and the college-aged years (roughly 19-23). It is based upon detailed analysis of state, federal, and school district…

  5. Higher Education and the Determination of Aggregate Male Employment by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenberg, Anders; Wikstrom, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of age-specific employment rates among Swedish males, focusing on the effect of education on employment. We use cohort specific data for the time period 1984-1996 covering male cohorts aged 21-45. It is found that aggregate age-group-specific employment rates increase with the proportion of the cohort with an…

  6. If We Build It, They Will Come: Exploring Policy and Practice Implications of Public Support for Couple and Relationship Education for Lower Income and Relationally Distressed Couples.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Angela B; Hawkins, Alan J; Acker, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, public funding for Couple and Relationship Education programs has expanded. As program administrators have been able to extend their reach to low-income individuals and couples using this support, it has become apparent that greater numbers of relationally distressed couples are attending classes than previously anticipated. Because psychoeducational programs for couples have traditionally served less distressed couples, this dynamic highlights the need to examine the policy and practice implications of more distressed couples accessing these services. This paper reviews some of the most immediate issues, including screening for domestic violence and couple needs, pedagogical considerations, and the potential integration of therapy and education services. We also make suggestions for future research that can inform policy and practice efforts.

  7. Can changes in the distributions of and associations between education and income bias temporal comparisons of health disparities? An exploration with causal graphs and simulations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jarvis T; Beckfield, Jason; Waterman, Pamela D; Krieger, Nancy

    2013-05-01

    Although socioeconomic position is conceptualized by social epidemiologists as a multidimensional construct, most research on socioeconomic disparities in health uses a limited set of observable indicators (e.g., educational attainment, household income, or occupational class) and typically analyzes and reports gradients in relation to one measure at a time. Societal changes in economic structures over time, however, can lead to changes in distributions of and associations between socioeconomic indicators, as has occurred with income returns to education in the United States over the last 50 years. Consequently, temporal comparisons of socioeconomic disparities from repeated cross-sectional surveys can be affected, particularly when salient dimensions of socioeconomic position are unobserved. We discuss this phenomenon within the framework of measurement error and identify sources of variation that can make identification of socioeconomic change difficult. Using simulations, we explore the utility of the quantile, slope index of inequality, and relative distribution approaches to minimizing bias in temporal comparisons and find that these methods yield correct inferences about temporal change only under limited conditions. We contrast these approaches with the use of an imputation model when validation data for the unobserved socioeconomic indicator exist. We discuss implications for analyzing changing socioeconomic health disparities over time.

  8. Age and education in moral judgment of participants in team sports.

    PubMed

    Proios, Miltiadis; Doganis, George

    2006-02-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effect of age and education on the moral reasoning of the same 535 individuals in sports for whom nature of sport experience was reported. All 535 participants (M age = 24.9 yr., SD = 8.3) were involved in sports at the time of the study as athletes (n = 342), referees (n = 145), or coaches (n = 48), and had a wide range of education. Analysis of variance of scores on the Defining Issues Test of Rest showed moral judgment in sports differs significantly amongst different age groups (F5.510 = 5.37, p < .001) and amounts of education (F4.511 = 6.24, p < .001). Generally, with more education, higher moral judgment can be expected. It is apparent that moral development in sport is related to age and education, as also holds for a wider social setting.

  9. Building a Global Community of Policymakers, Researchers and Educators to Move Education Systems into the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.

    2013-01-01

    The EDUsummIT 2011 aimed to develop (a) recommendations for policy, practice and research that will help educational systems move into the digital age and (b) strategies to build a global community of researchers, policymakers and teachers in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education. Thematic working groups…

  10. Media and Education in the Digital Age: Concepts, Assessments, Subversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocchetti, Matteo, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This book is an invitation to informed and critical participation in the current debate on the role of digital technology in education and a comprehensive introduction to the most relevant issues in this debate. After an early wave of enthusiasm about the emancipative opportunities of the digital "revolution" in education, recent…

  11. The Possibility of Public Education in an Instrumentalist Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In our increasingly instrumentalist culture, debates over the privatization of schooling may be beside the point. Whether we hatch some new plan for chartering or funding schools, or retain the traditional model of government-run schools, the ongoing instrumentalization of education threatens the very possibility of public education. Indeed, in…

  12. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  13. Windows on the Future: Education in the Age of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Ted; Jukes, Ian

    This book is designed to help educators cope with changes created by technology and embrace a new mindset necessary to access the burgeoning technological advances, in order to keep schools and students relevant in the 21st century. The book looks through several "windows" on the future, and asks educators to consider their own paradigms…

  14. Overflowing Every Idea of Age, Very Young Children as Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesen, Nina

    2013-01-01

    In this article I explore if and how very young children can be the educators of their early childhood educators. I describe and discuss a story constructed from a fieldwork done in one early childhood setting in Norway. The story is read with Levinas and his concepts Said and Saying. Further I discuss if and how this might be understood as…

  15. Diagrams of Europeanization: European Education Governance in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuypere, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    European education governance is increasingly affected by and effectuated through digital means. This article presents an analysis of the way in which Europe is increasingly deploying digital technologies, and more specifically websites, in order to shape and communicate its education policies. Drawing on the notion of the diagram as the…

  16. Differences between chronological and brain age are related to education and self-reported physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; O'Shea, Deirdre; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Bherer, Louis; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education and physical activity and the difference between a physiological prediction of age and chronological age. Cortical and subcortical grey matter regional volumes were calculated from 331 healthy adults (range: 19-79 years). Multivariate analyses identified a covariance pattern of brain volumes best predicting chronological age (CA)(R2 = 47%). Individual expression of this brain pattern served as a physiologic measure of brain age (BA). The difference between CA and BA was predicted by education and self-report measures of physical activity. Education and the daily number of flights of stairs climbed were the only two significant predictors of decreased brain age. Effect sizes demonstrated that brain age decreased by 0.95 years for each year of education and by 0.58 years for one additional daily FOSC. Effects of education and FOSC on regional brain volume were largely driven by temporal and subcortical volumes. These results demonstrate that higher levels of education and daily FOSC are related to larger brain volume than predicted by chronological age which supports the utility of regional grey matter volume as a biomarker of healthy brain aging. PMID:26973113

  17. Age, education, and the gender gap in the sense of control.

    PubMed

    Slagsvold, Britt; Sørensen, Annemette

    2008-01-01

    High sense of control is related to benefits in many aspects of life, and education is known to be strongly related to sense of control. In this article we explore why women tend to feel a lower sense of control than men, and why the sense of control tends to be lower among the elderly than among younger people. In particular we explore the role played by education in explaining age- and gender differences in sense of control. The analysis is based on data from the first wave of the Norwegian NorLAG study, with a representative sample of adults aged 40-79 in 30 municipalities. We find that education accounts for some of the age and gender differences in sense of control, but the mediating effects of education are rather modest. We find an increasing gender gap in sense of control with age, and this increasing gap is completely explained by differences in education. Gender differences in sense of control is explained completely by four factors, which are related to resources and power; physical health, education, living with a partner, and leadership experience. Age differences in sense of control are only partially explained. Education, physical health and employment status cuts the age effect on sense of control to half. The effect of education on sense of control is partly mediated through what we suggest are tangible benefits of education, namely health, employment, and leadership experience. Education also influences individuals through socialization mechanisms. We view agentive orientation as a psychological benefit of education, and measure this characteristic with Bem's (1981) sex-role scale on masculinity. Agentive orientation completely explains the remaining effect of education on sense of control.

  18. Community income and surgical rates in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    Westert, G; Smits, J; Polder, J; Mackenbach, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: The study describes variations in use of surgical procedures by community income in the Netherlands. From the literature it is known that surgical rates have a socioeconomic gradient. Both positive and negative associations of socioeconomic factors of patients (for example, income, education) with surgical rates have been reported. The question raised here is: how do (possible) socioeconomic variations in surgery in the Netherlands compare with variations observed elsewhere? Data and Methods: The data comprised Dutch hospital discharges and population estimates for 1999. Socioeconomic status was indicated by a patient's income and based on the average family income of the postcode area of residence. Poisson regression was used to compute relative incidence (odds ratios) for 10 common surgical procedures. The model included age, gender, degree of urbanisation, and province of residence. Results: The association between surgical rates and community level income is rather weak. For half of the surgical rates the authors observed higher utilisation rates in communities with low income levels, but the differences are small. The range of odds ratios in the lowest income quintile group (compared with the group with the highest income) observed is: 0.87 to 1.18. Men from a low income community received more appendicectomies (1.18), cholecystectomies (1.12), knee replacements (1.06), and prostatectomies (1.14) and less tonsillectomies (0.90). Women from a low income community received more appendicectomies (1.12), caesarean sections (1.18), hip and knee replacements (1.05,1.17), and hysterectomies (1.14). Whereas they received less coronary artery bypass grafts (0.92), cholecystectomies (0.87), and tonsillectomies (0.92). Conclusions: Compared with findings reported in the international literature, this study indicates that variations in use of surgical procedures by community income in the Netherlands are comparatively small. Because of lack of data the authors

  19. How Pervasive Are Relative Age Effects in Secondary School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobley, Stephen; McKenna, Jim; Baker, Joeseph; Wattie, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs; R. H. Barnsley, A. H. Thompson, & P. E. Barnsley, 1985) convey school attainment (dis)advantages depending on whether one is relatively older or younger within annually age-grouped cohorts. In the present study, the authors examined the pervasiveness of RAEs by examining (a) attainment in 4 secondary school…

  20. From GED to College: Age Trajectories of Nontraditional Educational Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maralani, Vida

    2011-01-01

    Age patterns of secondary certification and college entry differ in complex and surprising ways for traditional graduates and GED recipients. Although GED recipients are less likely to enter college in their late teens, they catch up to traditional graduates in their 20s. Results show that adjusting for differences in the age trajectories of…

  1. [Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE): determination of cutoff scores according to age and educational level].

    PubMed

    Solias, A; Skapinakis, P; Degleris, N; Pantoleon, M; Katirtzoglou, E; Politis, A

    2014-01-01

    For the last 38 years, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used as a dementia screening measure in everyday clinical practice as well as in both cohort and cross-sectional studies. Its validity and reliability for the Greek population has explicitly been documented. However, the effect of age and education on the subject's performance makes it necessary to reckon them in the estimation of the "cutoff score". The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of dementia in Greek population and determine the "cutoff score" by age and education-corrected norms. Cross sectional study of 630 patients older than 55 years, who live independently in Ilion and Helioupolis Municipalities was conducted, 27.3% of the subjects tested in the study were diagnosed with memory disorder according to their MMSE scores and the validation for the Greek population. The effect of age and education to the subjects' performance was statistically significant (p=.000). The use of standard "cutoff score" was not proved to be useful for the personalized interpretation of the results, as documented by the fact that older individuals with lower education had a poorer performance relatively to younger, highly educated subjects. Comparatively to the group age of 55-60 years, the odds ratio after the age of 75 years varies from 2.58 to 4.91. Regarding the variable factor of education, the odds ratio for the first degree education graduates decreases from 1.43 to 3.19 for the third degree education graduates in comparison with the group of illiterates. In conclusion, the use of the "cutoff score" algorithm and the simultaneous estimation of age and education effect on MMSE score may prove useful for the proper evaluation of MMSE performance. According to the age and education of examine candidates in the community and the primary care, we propose the use of the 25th percentile as a more useful cutoff score in order to decrease the false positive results.

  2. Age, education, and earnings in the course of Brazilian development: does composition matter?

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Amaral, Ernesto Friedrich; Potter, Joseph E.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The impacts of shifts in the age distribution of the working-age population have been studied in relation to the effect of the baby boom generation on the earnings of different cohorts in the U.S. However, this topic has received little attention in the context of the countries of Asia and Latin America, which are now experiencing substantial shifts in their age-education distributions. OBJECTIVE In this analysis, we estimate the impact of the changing relative size of the adult male population, classified by age and education groups, on the earnings of employed men living in 502 Brazilian local labor markets during four time periods between 1970 and 2000. METHODS Taking advantage of the huge variation across Brazilian local labor markets and demographic census micro-data, we used fixed effects models to demonstrate that age education group size depresses earnings. RESULTS These effects are more detrimental among age-education groups with higher education, but they are becoming less negative over time. The decrease in the share of workers with the lowest level of education has not led to gains in the earnings of these workers in recent years. CONCLUSIONS These trends might be a consequence of technological shifts and increasing demand for labor with either education or experience. Compositional shifts are influential, which suggests that this approach could prove useful in studying this central problem in economic development. PMID:26146484

  3. Health-related characteristics and preferred methods of receiving health education according to dominant language among Latinos Aged 25 to 64 in a large Northern California health plan

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Nancy P; Iribarren, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    Background Latinos are a fast growing segment of the U.S. health care population. Acculturation factors, including English fluency, result in an ethnic group heterogeneous with regard to SES, health practices, and health education needs. This study examined how demographic and health-related characteristics of Spanish-dominant (SD), Bilingual (BIL), and English-dominant (ED) Latino men and women aged 25–64 differed among members of a large Northern California health plan. Methods This observational study was based on data from cohorts of 171 SD (requiring an interpreter), 181 BIL, and 734 ED Latinos aged 25–64 who responded to random sample health plan member surveys conducted 2005–2006. Language groups were compared separately by gender on education, income, behavioral health risks (smoking, obesity, exercise frequency, dietary practices, health beliefs), health status (overall health and emotional health, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol, heartburn/acid reflux, back pain, depression), computer and Internet access, and health education modality preferences. Results Compared with ED Latinos, higher percentages of the SD and BIL groups had very low educational attainment and low income. While groups were similar in prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and high cholesterol, SD were less likely than ED Latinos to rate overall health and emotional well-being as good, very good, or excellent and more likely to report heartburn and back pain (women only). The groups were similar with regard to smoking and obesity, but among women, SD were more likely to be physically inactive than ED, and BIL were less likely than SD and ED groups to eat <3 servings of fruit/vegetables per day. SD and BIL of both genders were significantly less likely than ED Latinos to believe that health practices had a large impact on health. Compared to ED men and women, SD and BIL Latinos had significantly lower Internet and computer access. As a result, SD Latinos had a greater

  4. Continuing Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piatt, Virginia; Seybert, Jeff

    An in-class survey of 683 continuing education students was conducted at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) to obtain information on: (1) student characteristics, including age, sex, family characteristics, income, educational background, occupation, area of residence, distance to class, sources of information about JCCC, and method of…

  5. Marital fertility and income: moderating effects of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints religion in Utah.

    PubMed

    Stanford, Joseph B; Smith, Ken R

    2013-03-01

    Utah has the highest total fertility of any state in the United States and also the highest proportion of population affiliated with the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS or Mormon Church). Data were used from the 1996 Utah Health Status Survey to investigate how annual household income, education and affiliation with the LDS Church affect fertility (children ever born) for married women in Utah. Younger age and higher education were negatively correlated with fertility in the sample as a whole and among non-LDS respondents. Income was negatively associated with fertility among non-LDS respondents. However, income was positively correlated with fertility among LDS respondents. This association persisted when instrumental variables were used to address the potential simultaneous equations bias arising from the potential endogeneity of income and fertility. The LDS religion's pronatalist stance probably encourages childbearing among those with higher income.

  6. Aging IQ Intervention with Older Korean Americans: A Comparison of Internet-Based and In-Class Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…

  7. Experiences in the Bilingual Education of a Child of Pre-School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    1977-01-01

    This article reports on experiences in the bilingual education, psychologically and pedagogically planned, of a child who died of brain cancer at age 5. Conclusions are drawn regarding order and method of language learning. (CHK)

  8. Age, education and dementia related deaths. The Norwegian Counties Study and The Cohort of Norway.

    PubMed

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Rosness, Tor A; Bergem, Astrid Liv Mina; Engedal, Knut; Nafstad, Per; Tell, Grethe S; Ormstad, Heidi; Tambs, Kristian; Bjertness, Espen

    2014-10-15

    An inverse relationship between educational level and dementia has been reported in several studies. In this study we investigated the relationship between educational level and dementia related deaths for cohorts of people all born during 1915-39. The cohorts were followed up from adulthood or old age, taking into account possible confounders and mediating paths. Our study population comprised participants in Norwegian health examination studies in the period 1974-2002; The Counties Study and Cohort of Norway (CONOR). Dementia related deaths were defined as deaths with a dementia diagnosis on the death certificate and linked using the Cause of Death Registry to year 2012. The study included 90,843 participants, 2.06 million person years and 2440 dementia related deaths. Cox regression was used to assess the association between education and dementia related deaths. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with lower dementia related death risk compared to those with low education when follow-up started in adulthood (35-49 years, high versus low education: HR=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.93; 50-69 years, high versus low education: HR=0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.80). However, when follow-up started at old age (70-80 years) there was no significant association between education and dementia related death. Restricting the study population to those born during a five-year period 1925-29 (the birth cohort overlapping all three age groups), gave similar main findings. The protective effects found for both high and middle educational level compared to low education were robust to adjustment for cardiovascular health and life style factors, suggesting education to be a protective factor for dementia related death. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with decreased dementia related death risk compared with low educational level when follow-up started in adulthood, but no association was observed when follow-up started at old age.

  9. Cancer Genetics Education in a Low- to Middle-Income Country: Evaluation of an Interactive Workshop for Clinicians in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jessica A.; Lee, Su Yeon; Njambi, Lucy; Corson, Timothy W.; Dimaras, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical genetic testing is becoming an integral part of medical care for inherited disorders. While genetic testing and counseling are readily available in high-income countries, in low- and middle-income countries like Kenya genetic testing is limited and genetic counseling is virtually non-existent. Genetic testing is likely to become widespread in Kenya within the next decade, yet there has not been a concomitant increase in genetic counseling resources. To address this gap, we designed an interactive workshop for clinicians in Kenya focused on the genetics of the childhood eye cancer retinoblastoma. The objectives were to increase retinoblastoma genetics knowledge, build genetic counseling skills and increase confidence in those skills. Methods The workshop was conducted at the 2013 Kenyan National Retinoblastoma Strategy meeting. It included a retinoblastoma genetics presentation, small group discussion of case studies and genetic counseling role-play. Knowledge was assessed by standardized test, and genetic counseling skills and confidence by questionnaire. Results Knowledge increased significantly post-workshop, driven by increased knowledge of retinoblastoma causative genetics. One-year post-workshop, participant knowledge had returned to baseline, indicating that knowledge retention requires more frequent reinforcement. Participants reported feeling more confident discussing genetics with patients, and had integrated more genetic counseling into patient interactions. Conclusion A comprehensive retinoblastoma genetics workshop can increase the knowledge and skills necessary for effective retinoblastoma genetic counseling. PMID:26035834

  10. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  11. Aging research and education centers in the United States: a compendium.

    PubMed

    Steinecke, A; Ciok, A E

    1997-10-01

    U.S. centers and institutes for research and education devoted to aging are listed. These lists can serve as a starting point for building a more comprehensive reference resource. The first list, U.S. Aging Centers and Institutes, is a general guide to centers or institutes that combine research and education. Subsequent lists are of centers that share missions and funding sources: Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Centers (GRECCs); Exploratory Centers for Research on Health Promotion in Older Minority Populations; Centers on the Demography of Aging (CDAs); Alzheimer's Disease Centers (ADCs); Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers (OAICs); Nathan Shock Centers of Excellence in Basic Biology of Aging; and Roybal Centers for Research on Applied Gerontology. It is hoped that those who work in geriatrics and gerontology in academic medicine will develop a comprehensive system for collecting, updating, and disseminating complete information about the work being done on aging.

  12. The Role of Racial Discrimination in the Economic Value of Education Among Urban, Low-Income Latina/o Youth: Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators.

    PubMed

    Mroczkowski, Alison L; Sánchez, Bernadette

    2015-09-01

    The present study used resilience theory to explore relationships among perceived racial discrimination, ethnic identity, gender, and economic value of education (EVE) among urban, low-income, Latina/o youth. It was expected that racial discrimination would predict poorer perceptions of the EVE among Latina/o adolescents. Ethnic identity was hypothesized to buffer the negative effect of racial discrimination on Latina/o students' EVE. The participants in this study were 396 urban, low-income Latina/o high school students from a large, Midwestern city who completed surveys in both 9th- and 10th-grade. Structural equation modeling was used to test the relationships among racial discrimination, ethnic identity, and EVE. Results supported a protective model of resilience. Specifically, ethnic identity served as a protective factor by buffering the negative effect of perceived racial discrimination on EVE for male participants. The present study is the first to examine ethnic identity as a buffer of racial discrimination on EVE among Latina/o high school students. Future directions and implications are discussed.

  13. The Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), a collaborative paradigm for institutional and human resources capacity building between high- and low- and middle-income countries: the Mozambique experience

    PubMed Central

    Virgínia Noormahomed, Emília; Carrilho, Carla; Ismail, Mamudo; Noormahomed, Sérgio; Nguenha, Alcido; Benson, Constance A.; Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Schooley, Robert T.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Collaborations among researchers based in lower and middle income countries (LMICs) and high income countries (HICs) have made major discoveries related to diseases disproportionately affecting LMICs and have been vital to the development of research communities in LMICs. Such collaborations have generally been scientifically and structurally driven by HICs. Objectives: In this report we outline a paradigm shift in collaboration, exemplified by the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI), in which the formulation of priorities and administrative infrastructure reside in the LMIC. Methods: This descriptive report outlines the critical features of the MEPI partnership. Results: In the MEPI, LMIC program partners translate broad program goals and define metrics into priorities that are tailored to local conditions. Program funds flow to a LMIC-based leadership group that contracts with peers from HICs to provide technical and scientific advice and consultation in a 'reverse funds flow' model. Emphasis is also placed on strengthening administrative capacity within LMIC institutions. A rigorous monitoring and evaluation process modifies program priorities on the basis of evolving opportunities to maximize program impact. Conclusions: Vesting LMIC partners with the responsibility for program leadership, and building administrative and fiscal capacity in LMIC institutions substantially enhances program relevance, impact and sustainability.

  14. Distance Education: Growth in Distance Education Programs and Implications for Federal Education Policy. Testimony before the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, U.S. Senate. Statement of Cornelia M. Ashby, Director, Education, Workforce, and Income Security Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Data from the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study (NPSAS) supported testimony given before the Senate Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions. The testimony focused on four factors: (1) demographic characteristics of distance education students and institutional characteristics of postsecondary schools offering distance education;…

  15. Envisaging New Educational Provision: Innovative Organisation in the Age of New Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoten, David William

    2011-01-01

    In the "age of austerity", educational institutions in many countries are under pressure from a variety of sources to work more closely, reduce costs and raise educational performance. There are a number of possible outcomes that follow on from developing closer institutional ties: sharing of professional expertise through best practice…

  16. Ethics and Retail Management Professionals: An Examination of Age, Education, and Experience Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.; Cavico, Frank J.; McCartney, Timothy O.; DiPaolo, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical maturity and behavior are of great concern to all educators, firms, and investors, and even more so in a recession. This research surveyed managers and employees in the retail environment to measure their Personal Business Ethics Scores (PBES) to see if age, education, and management experience makes a difference in making more ethical…

  17. Education and Vocationalism in the Age of the "Death of Work."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquett, Jerry

    1997-01-01

    Publicly supported education will change dramatically in the postmarket age. Rapid disappearance of mass employment and economic marginalization undermines both rationales for public mass education: economic utility and cultural/intellectual development. The technological elite and unemployed will find the common-school ideal irrelevant. Instead…

  18. Effective Game Based Citizenship Education in the Age of New Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Yam San; Mehrotra, Swati; Liu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems worldwide are being challenged to respond effectively to the digital revolution and its implications for learning in the 21st century. In the present new media age, educational reforms are desperately needed to support more open and flexible structures of on-demand learning that equip students with competencies required in a…

  19. Warming the nursing education climate for traditional-age learners who are male.

    PubMed

    Bell-Scriber, Marietta J

    2008-01-01

    For nurse educators to facilitate student learning and the achievement of desired cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes, they need to be competent in recognizing the influence of gender, experience, and other factors on teaching and learning. A study was conducted in one academic institution to describe how traditional-age male learners' perceptions of the nursing education climate compare to perceptions of female learners. Interviews were conducted with a sample of four male and four female learners. Additional data from interviews with nurse educators, classroom observations, and a review of textbooks provided breadth and depth to their perceptions. Findings support a nursing education climate that is cooler to traditional-age male learners and warmer to traditional-age female learners. The main cooling factor for men was caused by nurse educators' characteristics and unsupportive behaviors. Additional factors inside and outside the education environment contributed to a cooler climate for the male learners. Based on these findings, strategies for nurse educators to warm the education climate for traditional-age male learners are presented.

  20. Innovations in Student-Centered Interdisciplinary Teaching for General Education in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Effros, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) General Education "Clusters" are innovations in student-centered undergraduate education focused on complex phenomena that require an interdisciplinary perspective. UCLA gerontology and geriatric faculty recognized the opportunity to introduce freshmen to the field of aging through this new…

  1. Solid Foundations: Health and Education Partnership for Indigenous Children Aged 0 to 8 Years. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years…

  2. The Digital Age: Five Challenges for Higher Education Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.

    2000-01-01

    The president of Pennsylvania State University (PSU) identifies five areas of technology that institutions of higher education must address: connectivity, curriculum, cost, competition, and collaboration. Examples are from PSU, with additional comments from the presidents of the University of Michigan, New York University, Northern University…

  3. Inventing the Educational Subject in the "Information Age"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojesen, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks the question of how we can situate the educational subject in what Luciano Floridi has defined as an "informational ontology" (Floridi in "The philosophy of information." Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011a). It will suggest that Jacques Derrida and Bernard Stiegler offer paths toward rethinking the…

  4. Social Work Education and Direct Practice in the Computer Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cnaan, Ram A.

    1989-01-01

    Educators must prepare social work students to use computers in practice, develop practice-relevant software, and protect and empower those who might be victimized by information technology. Issues and tasks associated with each of these areas are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  5. User Education in the Online Age. IATUL Proceedings, Vol. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Papers presented at an August 1982 international seminar on online user education include "The Impact of New Technology on Libraries and Their Users," Brian C. Vickery (United Kingdom); "The Role of NORDINFO in Promoting Online Activity: NORDINFO-Origins and Control," Theodora Oker-Blom (Finland); "Librarians and the New…

  6. At Age 100, Chemical Engineering Education Faces Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, James

    1988-01-01

    Stresses the need for chemical engineering education to keep abreast of current needs. Explores the need for global economics, marketing strategy, product differentiation, and patent law in the curriculum. Questions the abilities of current chemical engineering graduate students in those areas. (MVL)

  7. Age, Social Structure, and Socialization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Talcott; Platt, Gerald M.

    1970-01-01

    Socialization of affective and moral components of the personality is usually conceived of as completed by the end of adolescence. In contrast, this paper analyzes certain aspects of undergraduate college education which constitute a new level of socialization; although to a degree previously extant, it never before involved such a mass population…

  8. Legal Education in the Age of Accountability. The President's Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jerre S.

    In a speech to the House of Representatives, the president of the Association of American Law Schools describes the intrusions upon faculty governance of law schools by deans, university administrators, lawyer alumni, law students, and the judiciary. It is suggested that law schools have never been better, yet legal education has never been under…

  9. Assessment, Technology and Democratic Education in the Age of Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrotta, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This paper contends that powerful techniques to manipulate data, enabled by technological and economic developments, can be easily co-opted to serve the restrictive frameworks of hyper-controlling, managerial accountability that characterise current cultures of summative assessment in education. In response to these challenges, research is…

  10. Political Education: National Policy Comes of Age. The Updated Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Political insider Christopher Cross has updated his critically acclaimed book to reflect recent education policy developments, including the impact of the Obama administration and "Race to the Top" as well as the controversy over NCLB's reauthorization. Featuring a new introduction and the addition of postscripts for key chapters, this…

  11. Correctional Education: Methods and Practices in the Computer Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Ralph

    It is suggested that correctional educational programs for adults must be designed in such a manner as to rehabilitate the many who are presently incarcerated and prevent many potential perpetrators from ever engaging in crime. The continually increasing problem of overcrowding in prisons throughout the country has made the need for relevant and…

  12. Education in an Age of Social Turbulence (A Roundtable)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The latest scheduled Sorokin Readings on "Global Social Turbulence and Russia," a topic whose relevance has been confirmed by events of the past 10 years, were held on 6-7 December at Moscow State University. One key factor that keeps such turbulence in check is the education level as a factor of a high standard of living. The array of…

  13. Educational Assessment: Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Grounded in the real world of public schools and students, this engaging, insightful, and highly readable text introduces the inner-workings of K-12 educational assessment. It covers traditional topics in an approachable and understandable way; analyzes and interprets "hot-button" issues of today's complex measurement concerns; relates…

  14. A Golden Age for Adult Education: The Collective Disorienting Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The continuing challenge of engaging adult learners in the process of positive social change has summoned adult educators to a new understanding of their role as change agents in an increasingly complex world. Despite all obstacles presented by our contemporary culture, the nature of adult development continues to offer opportunities for adult…

  15. Creativity and Education Futures: Learning in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Anna

    2010-01-01

    What is the future of education when the possibilities that exist for children change and advance so rapidly and are so uncertain? Where learning occurs as naturally in a Web 2.0 environment as in the playground, playing field, front room or street? Where adults may still be playing and experimenting far beyond their childhood in ways we could…

  16. Is Our Aging Population a Threat to Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francese, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A great many New England institutions of higher education are about to find out if demography will determine their fate because unprecedented and substantial population change is sweeping across the region. With fewer than 15 million year-round residents, it is the nation's smallest and one of the slowest-growing of the nine census divisions. This…

  17. University Unbound! Higher Education in the Age of "Free"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2012-01-01

    Innovators and entrepreneurs are using technologies to make freely available the things for which universities charge significant money. MOOCs (massive open online courses), free online courses, lecture podcasts, low-cost off-the-shelf general education courses, online tutorials, digital collections of open learning resources, open badges--all are…

  18. Day School Israel Education in the Age of Birthright

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomson, Alex; Deitcher, Howard

    2010-01-01

    What are North American Jewish day schools doing when they engage in Israel education, what shapes their practices, and to what ends? In this article, we report on a multi-method study inspired by these questions. Our account is organized around an analytical model that helps distinguish between what we call the vehicles, intensifiers, and…

  19. Social Foundations of Education for the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Leonard J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Leonard J. Waks re-imagines the social foundations of education (SFE) as a project within the information society. He begins with what he believes to be a reasonably non-controversial definition: SFE is a field of scholarship and teaching aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding, through description, interpretation, and…

  20. The Victorian Age: A Teacher's Guide. Heritage Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Buren, Maurie

    This teaching guide accompanies a videocassette for teaching about the Victorian Era in the United States through the study of homes from that period. The teaching unit can be adopted for students in grades 4 through 12 and can also be used in college classes and in adult education. Skills are identified to help students interpret their physical…

  1. Catholic Theological Education in a Religiously Pluralistic Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebure, Leo D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the transformation of Catholic theological education over the last fifty years from a highly defensive posture vis-a-vis other religions toward dialogical engagement with members of other religions and all persons of good will. Until Vatican II, most Catholic theologians and officials distrusted exploration of other…

  2. Impact of education and provision of complementary feeding on growth and morbidity in children less than 2 years of age in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background About one third of deaths in children less than 5 years of age are due to underlying undernutrition. According to an estimate, 19.4% of children <5 years of age in developing countries were underweight (weight-for-age Z score <-2) and about 29.9% were stunted in the year 2011 (height-for-age Z score <-2). It is well recognized that the period of 6-24 months of age is one of the most critical time for the growth of the infant. Methods We included randomized, non-randomized trials and programs on the effect of complementary feeding (CF) (fortified or unfortified, but not micronutrients alone) and education on CF on children less than 2 years of age in low and middle income countries (LMIC). Studies that delivered intervention for at least 6 months were included; however, studies in which intervention was given for supplementary and therapeutic purposes were excluded. Recommendations are made for input to the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) model by following standardized guidelines developed by Child Health Epidemiology Reference Group (CHERG). Results We included 16 studies in this review. Amongst these, 9 studies provided education on complementary feeding, 6 provided complementary feeding (with our without education) and 1 provided both as separate arms. Overall, education on CF alone significantly improved HAZ (SMD: 0.23; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.36), WAZ (SMD 0.16, 95% CI: 0.05, 0.27), and significantly reduced the rates of stunting (RR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.91). While no significant impact were observed for height and weight gain. Based on the subgroup analysis; ten studies from food secure populations indicated education on CF had a significant impact on height gain, HAZ scores, and weight gain, however, stunting reduced non-significantly. In food insecure population, CF education alone significantly improved HAZ scores, WAZ scores and significantly reduced the rates of stunting, while CF provision with or without education improved HAZ and WAZ scores significantly

  3. The Effectiveness of Preschool for Children from Low-Income Families: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helmich, Edith

    This report, one of several background papers for a comprehensive policy study of early childhood education, examines the effects of preschool experience on Illinois children from low income families. The 1980 U. S. Census for Illinois identified 81,959 preschool-age children (3 to 5 years old) from poverty-level families; 54 of these young…

  4. From GED to College: Age Trajectories of Nontraditional Educational Paths

    PubMed Central

    Maralani, Vida

    2015-01-01

    Age patterns of secondary certification and college entry differ in complex and surprising ways for traditional graduates and GED recipients. Although GED recipients are less likely to enter college in their late teens, they catch up to traditional graduates in their 20s. Results show that adjusting for differences in the age trajectories of school continuation accounts for a substantial portion of the differences observed between the two groups. Important differences remain, however, in the type of college attended and the likelihood of college entry before age 21. Nonetheless, more GED recipients enroll in college than previous studies have suggested, and this interest in college identifies a useful place for policy to intervene to encourage school continuation for this group. PMID:26120141

  5. Contribution of income to self-management and health outcomes in pediatric type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Rechenberg, Kaitlyn; Whittemore, Robin; Grey, Margaret; Jaser, Sarah

    2016-03-01

    Low income has been established as a risk factor for poorer outcomes in youth with type 1 diabetes; however, the effect of moderate income has not been studied. The purpose of this secondary analysis of baseline data from a multi-site study was to compare glycemic control, self-management, and psychosocial outcomes [depression, stress, and quality of life (QOL)] at different income levels in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Youth (n = 320, mean age = 12.3 + 1.1, 55% female, 64% white, mean A1C = 8.3 ± 1.4) completed established self-management and psychosocial measures. A1C levels were collected from medical records. Caregivers reported annual family income, categorized as high (>$80K), moderate ($40-80K), or low (<$40K). Youth from high-income families had significantly lower A1C (mean = 7.9 ± 1.2) than those from the moderate-income group (8.6 ± 1.7, p < 0.001) or the low-income group (mean A1C = 8.6 ± 1.5, p = 0.003). Youth from the high-income group reported significantly better diabetes problem solving and more self-management goals than those from the moderate- or low-income groups (both p < 0.01). Youth from the high-income group also reported significantly fewer symptoms of depression, lower levels of perceived stress, and better QOL than those in the moderate or low-income groups (all p < 0.05). Multivariate linear regression models were used to test psychological and behavioral predictors of A1C and QOL. Parents' education status (p < 0.05) and self-management activities (p < 0.01) were significant predictors of hemoglobin A1c, while income (p < 0.01) and self-management activities (p < 0.05) were significant predictors of QOL.

  6. Relationship of Age and Education to Halstead Test Performance in Different Patient Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigatano, George P.; Parsons, Oscar A.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of age and education on Halstead test performance were examined in this cross-validation of the Vega and Parsons study. Differences between correlation in psychiatric patients and medical-surgical control subjects are discussed, as is the importance of age, and differences in reference groups when making clinical inferences about brain…

  7. My Entirely Plausible Fantasy: Early Mathematics Education in the Age of the Touchscreen Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers an account of what early mathematics education could look like in an age of young digital natives. Each "Tubby," as the tablets are called, presents Nicole (our generic little child) with stimulating mathematics microworlds, from which, beginning at age 3, she can learn basic math concepts, as well as methods of…

  8. Middle Age: A Review of the Literature and Its Implications for Educational Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the research and theory related to middle age. The literature survey is divided into three parts: (1) When is middle aged?; (2) What are its psychosocial dynamics?; and (3) Is there a mid-life crisis? Suggests implications for educational practice. (Author/CSS)

  9. SES differentials in health by age and alternative indicators of SES.

    PubMed

    Robert, S; House, J S

    1996-08-01

    Despite the general persistence and even increase of strong socioeconomic status (SES) differentials in health in the United States, research suggests that SES differentials in health may diminish or become nonexistent at older ages. However, most research has used only limited measures of SES (e.g. education, income), and has not thoroughly investigated intra-elderly age differences in this trend. The current study investigates how SES differentials in health vary by age in the United States, using fairly detailed age categories (through ages 85+), and 2 alternative indicators (home ownership and liquid assets) of a major additional dimension of SES, financial assets, which may be especially important at older ages. We address (a) how strongly financial assets are associated with health, considered both alone and net of education and income; (b) if the health effects of financial assets vary by age; and, more specifically, (c) if their effects are especially pronounced in older age, again considered both alone and net of or relative to education and income. Results show that financial assets, especially liquid assets, considered both alone and net of education and income, are associated with health throughout adulthood and old age, at least until ages 85+. Furthermore, financial assets remain associated with health until quite late in life and become more important relative to education and income at older ages for some measures of health.

  10. Do Menstrual Hygiene Management Interventions Improve Education and Psychosocial Outcomes for Women and Girls in Low and Middle Income Countries? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Hennegan, Julie; Montgomery, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Background Unhygienic and ineffective menstrual hygiene management has been documented across low resource contexts and linked to negative consequences for women and girls. Objectives To summarise and critically appraise evidence for the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions in improving women and girls’ education, work and psychosocial wellbeing in low and middle income countries. Methods Structured systematic searches were conducted in peer-reviewed and grey literature to identify studies evaluating education and resource provision interventions for menstruation management. Individual and cluster randomised controlled trials were eligible for inclusion, as were non-randomised controlled trials. Study characteristics, outcomes and risk of bias were extracted using a piloted form. Risk of bias was independently assessed by two researchers. Results Eight studies described in ten citations were eligible for inclusion. Studies were highly heterogeneous in design and context. Six included assessment of education-only interventions, and three provided assessment of the provision of different types of sanitary products (menstrual cups, disposable sanitary pads, and reusable sanitary pads). A moderate but non-significant standardised mean difference was found for the two studies assessing the impact of sanitary pad provision on school attendance: 0.49 (95%CI -0.13, 1.11). Included studies were heterogeneous with considerable risk of bias. Trials of education interventions reported positive impacts on menstrual knowledge and practices, however, many studies failed to assess other relevant outcomes. No trials assessed or reported harms. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to establish the effectiveness of menstruation management interventions, although current results are promising. Eight trials have been conducted, but a high risk of bias was found and clinical heterogeneity precluded synthesis of most results. Whilst trials provided some

  11. Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS-11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…

  12. Education and Income Imbalances Among Married Couples in Malawi as Predictors for Likelihood of Physical and Emotional Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Bonnes, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Intimate partner violence is a social and public health problem that is prevalent across the world. In many societies, power differentials in relationships, often supported by social norms that promote gender inequality, lead to incidents of intimate partner violence. Among other factors, both a woman's years of education and educational differences between a woman and her partner have been shown to have an effect on her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner abuse. Using the 2010 Malawian Demographic and Health Survey data to analyze intimate partner violence among 3,893 married Malawian women and their husbands, this article focuses on understanding the effect of educational differences between husband and wife on the likelihood of physical and emotional abuse within a marriage. The results from logistic regression models show that a woman's level of education is a significant predictor of her likelihood of experiencing intimate partner violence by her current husband, but that this effect is contingent on her husband's level of education. This study demonstrates the need to educate men alongside of women in Malawi to help decrease women's risk of physical and emotional intimate partner violence.

  13. Feasibility and Acceptability of Brighter Bites: A Food Co-Op in Schools to Increase Access, Continuity and Education of Fruits and Vegetables Among Low-Income Populations.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Shreela; Helfman, Lisa; Albus, Katherine; Pomeroy, Mike; Chuang, Ru-Jye; Markham, Christine

    2015-08-01

    Intake of fruits and vegetables (F&V) continues to be low in children in the United States. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot feasibility evaluation of Brighter Bites, a school-based food co-op to provide access to fresh F&V and nutrition education to low-income children and their families. Brighter Bites is a 16-week school-based food co-op consisting of: (1) Weekly distribution of 50-60 servings of fresh F&V; (2) Weekly bilingual parent handouts and recipe demonstrations; and (3) implementing CATCH, a coordinated school health program in schools. Brighter Bites was pilot tested using a pre-post evaluation design in one charter school in Houston, TX, USA (n = 57 3rd grade parent-child dyads; 94.1 % Hispanic, 91 % low-income). Evaluation, at baseline, midpoint, and post-intervention, included self-reported child and parent surveys on psychosocial factors, dietary habits and mealtime practices. Pearson's Chi square test, Fisher's exact-test or paired t test were used to determine changes pre- to post-intervention (at p < 0.05). Process data using parent surveys, teacher surveys, attendance logs, and produce cost data were used to determine feasibility and acceptability of program. Participants received on average 61 servings of F&V weekly for 16 weeks at the cost of $4.31/family/week. Results showed significant increases in child reported self-efficacy, outcome expectations and attitudes towards consuming F&V (p < 0.05). We found significant increases in child exposure to F&V and child preference of various F&V from baseline to post-intervention (p < 0.05). Parent surveys showed significant improvements in mealtime practices at home: decrease in children eating while watching TV, increase in eating dinner with the family, less fast food, less sugary drinks with meals, more children asking for F&V as snacks. Process data showed 98 % retention rate and high parent acceptability of program components. Brighter Bites is a promising strategy to increase F

  14. 34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments for education and services for Indian children..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Authorization... for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five. (a)...

  15. Expanding the Educational Horizons of Undergraduates through Cognitive Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laver, Gary D.

    2006-01-01

    Involving undergraduate students in cognitive aging research requires extra efforts not associated with graduate assistants. However, if the researcher acknowledges the limited experience of undergraduates in structuring their participation, the rewards are copious for the students and researcher alike. This paper describes undergraduate student…

  16. School-Aged Victims of Sexual Abuse: Implications for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishon, Phillip M.

    Each year in the United States, thousands of school-aged children become involved in sexual activities arranged by adults for purposes of pleasure and profit. Nationwide, annual profits from the child pornography industry and from female and male child prostitution are in the tens of millions of dollars. Heretofore, the majority of…

  17. The Jesuit Imaginary: Higher Education in a Secular Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Daniel Scott

    2012-01-01

    The philosopher Charles Taylor argues in "A Secular Age" (2007) that people who live in secular cultures are losing the capacity to experience genuine "fullness." Described by Taylor as a philosophical-anthropological conception of human flourishing that corresponds with existential senses of meaning and purpose, fullness is…

  18. The Education of People of the "Third Age"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergokova, Zh. Kh.

    2009-01-01

    It was acknowledged by the Second United Nations World Assembly on Aging that this process is a global social and demographic reality that has had its impact on the entire world in all aspects of its existence--the traditional national, financial economic, political, and moral-ethical aspects. At the present time every state is confronted by the…

  19. Aging Education in Elementary School Textbooks in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Shan

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of an aging society, the older population is gradually increasing and people are living longer than ever before. However, older people are often portrayed in school textbooks as insignificant, unhealthy, sad, passive, and dependent. That is, ageism emerges in school textbooks in subtle ways. Under this circumstance, children may…

  20. The new world of retirement income security in America.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Joseph F; Cahill, Kevin E

    2016-01-01

    We have entered a new world of retirement income security in America, with older individuals more exposed to market risk and more vulnerable to financial insecurity than prior generations. This reflects an evolution that has altered the historical vision of a financially secure retirement supported by Social Security, a defined-benefit pension plan, and individual savings. Today, 2 of these 3 retirement income sources-pensions and savings-are absent or of modest importance for many older Americans. Retirement income security now often requires earnings from continued work later in life, which exacerbates the economic vulnerability of certain segments of the population, including persons with disabilities, the oldest-old, single women, and individuals with intermittent work histories. Because of the unprecedented aging of our society, further changes to the retirement income landscape are inevitable, but policymakers do have options to help protect the financial stability of older Americans. We can begin by promoting savings at all (especially younger) ages and by removing barriers that discourage work later in life. For individuals already on the cusp of retirement, more needs to be done to educate the public about the value of delaying the receipt of Social Security benefits. Inaction now could mean a return to the days when old age and poverty were closely linked. The negative repercussions of this would extend well beyond traditional economic measures, as physical and mental health outcomes are closely tied to financial security. (PsycINFO Database Record