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  1. Women Who Work: Part I, the Relative Importance of Age, Education and Marital Status for Participation in the Labour Force. Special Labour Force Studies No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allingham, John D.

    This paper is intended to provide a systematic treatment of some hypotheses relating to labor force participation determinants, and an illustration of the relative importance of age, education, and marital status for female participation. Marital status, education, and age have all been shown to affect participation rates. On an impressionistic…

  2. Age, Marital Processes, and Depressed Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookwala, Jamila; Jacobs, Jamie

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: We examined age-cohort differences in the interrelationships among marital processes and depressed affect. Design and Methods: We used data from individuals in first marriages that participated in the National Survey of Families and Households (NSFH). The NSFH interviewed one adult per household of a nationally representative sample.…

  3. Marital, reproductive, and educational behaviors covary with life expectancy.

    PubMed

    Krupp, Daniel Brian

    2012-12-01

    Theories of "life history evolution" suggest that individuals might adjust the timing of marriage and reproduction, as well as their propensity to terminate a marriage or pregnancy and invest in skill development, in response to indicators of the locally prevailing level of life expectancy. In particular, such theories generate the hypothesis that foreshortened time horizons lead to hastened reproduction and marriage whereas lengthier time horizons increase the likelihood of reproductive and marital termination and lead to greater investment in education. Here, I show that the scheduling and occurrence of marital and reproductive behavior (including both initiation and termination), as well as levels of educational attainment and investment, covary with life expectancy, even after controlling for the effects of affluence. In analyses of variation in marital, reproductive, and educational behaviors at two jurisdictional levels in Canada, life expectancy was positively correlated with patterns of age-specific fertility, age at first marriage, divorce, abortion, conferral of high school and higher education degrees (with the exception of the trades) and mean number of years of schooling. The large and highly consistent relationships observed between life expectancy and the behaviors under investigation suggest that these associations may be mediated by individual "perceptions" of life expectancy, though more research is needed before conclusions can be firmly reached. PMID:22484517

  4. Economic Pressure and Marital Conflict in Retirement-Aged Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Jeffrey; Yorgason, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    Tests of the relationship between economic difficulties and marital distress have generally excluded retirement-aged couples. Given the aging U.S. population and the upcoming retirement of the baby boom cohort, this research gap is problematic. To rectify this omission, this study uses longitudinal data from the National Survey of Families and…

  5. An Examination of the Relationship of Gender, Marital Status, and Prior Educational Attainment and Learner Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, M. G.; Rovai, A. P.; Ponton, M.; Confessore, G. J.; Carr, P. B.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a conceptual model that provides a theoretical framework for understanding the conative factors of desire, resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in autonomous learning considered the related variables of gender, education level, age, and marital status. The relevance of these demographic variables is based on prior…

  6. Women's Education, Marital Violence, and Divorce: A Social Exchange Perspective.

    PubMed

    Kreager, Derek A; Felson, Richard B; Warner, Cody; Wenger, Marin R

    2013-06-01

    Drawing on social exchange theories, the authors hypothesized that educated women are more likely than uneducated women to leave violent marriages and suggested that this pattern offsets the negative education - divorce association commonly found in the United States. They tested these hypotheses using 2 waves of young adult data on 914 married women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The evidence suggests that the negative relationship between women's education and divorce is weaker when marriages involve abuse than when they do not. The authors observed a similar pattern when they examined the association of women's proportional earnings and divorce, controlling for education. Supplementary analyses suggested that marital satisfaction explains some of the association among women's resources, victimization, and divorce but that marital violence continues to be a significant moderator of the education - divorce association. In sum, education appears to benefit women by both maintaining stable marriages and dissolving violent ones. PMID:24357879

  7. Educational and Marital Attitudes: Directionality and Mutual Dependence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirklin, Sharon K.; Cosby, Arthur G.

    The objective of this paper was to investigate, within a path analytic framework, the form and degree of the relationship between young women's marital plans and their educational expectations. The data for analysis were obtained from a 3 wave, 6 year panel of non-metropolitan southern youths in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Georgia, Alabama, and…

  8. Comment: Distinguishing Cohort Effects from Age*Period Effects on Non-Marital Fertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Steve

    2009-01-01

    In the article "Cohort Effects on Non-marital Fertility," in this issue of "Social Forces," Jean Stockard employs a novel strategy for disentangling cohort, period, and age effects on the non-marital fertility ratio. In a model with fixed-effect controls for age and for time period, the author documents evidence for three cohort-specific factors…

  9. Overt and Relational Aggression in Russian Nursery-School-Age Children: Parenting Style and Marital Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Craig H.; Nelson, David A.; Robinson, Clyde C.; Olsen, Susanne Frost; McNeilly-Choque, Mary Kay

    1998-01-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior in Western psychological literature were measured in 207 ethnic Russian families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Greater marital conflict (for boys only), greater maternal…

  10. Marital age homogamy in China: A reversal of trend in the reform era?*

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Zheng; Xie, Yu

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of trends in marital age homogamy in China from 1960 to 2005 that uses data from the China 2005 1% Population Inter-census Survey. Instead of a consistent increase in age homogamy, as expected, results show an inverted U-shaped trend. One plausible explanation is that intensified economic pressure, rising consumerism, and a shrinking gender gap in education during the post-1990s reform era have acted to increase women's desire to marry men who are more economically established, and thus usually older, than less financially secure men. We argue that age hypergamy maintains status hypergamy, a deeply rooted norm for couples in China. An auxiliary analysis based on the human capital model for earnings supports this interpretation. A continued trend in age hypergamy implies a future “marriage squeeze” for men of low socioeconomic status. PMID:24468440

  11. Marital age homogamy in China: a reversal of trend in the reform era?

    PubMed

    Mu, Zheng; Xie, Yu

    2014-03-01

    This paper reports on a study of trends in marital age homogamy in China from 1960 to 2005 that uses data from the China 2005 1% Population Inter-census Survey. Instead of a consistent increase in age homogamy, results show an inverted U-shaped trend. One plausible explanation is that intensified economic pressure, rising consumerism, and a shrinking gender gap in education during the post-1990s reform era have acted to increase women's desire to marry men who are more economically established, and thus usually older, than less financially secure men. We argue that age hypergamy maintains status hypergamy, a deeply rooted norm for couples in China. An auxiliary analysis based on the human capital model for earnings supports this interpretation. A continued trend in age hypergamy implies a future "marriage squeeze" for men of low socioeconomic status. PMID:24468440

  12. Relationship Education for Modern Orthodox Jewish Adolescents as a Factor of Marital Satisfaction: A Quantitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maybruch, Chana

    2012-01-01

    Research on the influence of relationship education on marital satisfaction over the last decade has demonstrated positive outcomes for both high school and premarital programs within the general American population. Yet few studies have examined relationship education as a factor of marital satisfaction specifically within the North American…

  13. Marital status integration, suicide disapproval, and societal integration as explanations of marital status differences in female age-specific suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Cutright, Phillips; Stack, Steven; Fernquist, Robert

    2007-12-01

    Sociological analyses of suicide have often neglected female suicide rates. Three competing explanations are tested to determine why the suicide rates of married women are, typically, lower than the suicide rates of women who are not married: (1) marital status integration, (2) societal integration, and (3) a nation's normative order about disapproval of suicide. Data refer to age and marital status-specific female suicide rates from 12 developed countries. The results provide the strongest support for the marital status integration theory and consistent support for the social integration perspective. There is also mixed support for the cultural disapproval of suicide hypothesis. PMID:18275377

  14. Relationship of Age, Marital Status, and Work Experience of Community College Nursing Students to Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerichs, Marian L.

    To investigate differences in academic success due to age (younger or older than age 23), marital status, and nursing experience, a three-way analysis of variance was performed on the grade point averages of 1,435 female nursing students enrolled in 22 Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs in Illinois. The sample, representing over 90 percent of…

  15. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  16. Age, Marital Status, and Risk of Sexual Victimization: Similarities and Differences Across Victim-Offender Relationships.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    By now, age and marital status are well-established correlates of criminal victimization, including adult women's sexual victimization. National crime statistics, as well as a large body of scholarly literature, have specified that younger women and unmarried women are at comparatively higher risk of sexual victimization than older women and married women. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of victimization across diverse situational contexts of sexual victimization. The current study used data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine whether the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of sexual victimization varied across victimization experiences involving three victim-offender relationships: stranger, acquaintance, and intimate partner. Results indicate both similarities and differences in the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of victimization across these three situational contexts of victimization. As expected, age was a significant predictor of victimization in all models; however, younger women's increased risk of victimization was far more pronounced for acquaintance and intimate partner victimization experiences as compared with stranger experiences. Also, consistent with prior research, unmarried women were at higher risk of victimization in all models; however, within unmarried status categories, separated women were at highest risk of both intimate partner and acquaintance victimization experiences as compared with never married or divorced women. PMID:25846759

  17. Determinants of Marital Quality in an Arranged Marriage Society

    PubMed Central

    Allendorf, Keera

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on a uniquely large number of items on marital quality, this study explores the determinants of marital quality in Chitwan Valley, Nepal. Marital quality is measured with five dimensions identified through exploratory factor analysis, including satisfaction, communication, togetherness, problems, and disagreements. Gender, education, and spouse choice emerge as the most important determinants of these dimensions of marital quality. Specifically, men, those with more schooling, and those who participated in the choice of their spouse have higher levels of marital quality. By contrast, caste, occupation, age at marriage, marital duration, and number of children have little to no association with marital quality. While gender, education, and spouse choice emerge as key determinants of marital quality in this context, the majority of variation in marital quality remains unexplained. PMID:23146598

  18. College Students' Chronological Age Predicts Marital Happiness Regardless of Length of Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Powers, Justina; Laverghetta, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A revised version of the Quality Marriage Index (QMI) was used to examine demographic correlates of marital satisfaction. We administered the revised QMI to a sample of college students and found a significant positive correlation between age and relationship satisfaction. We suggest that this increase in relationship satisfaction could be due to…

  19. The Relationship of Age and Marital Status to Women's Needs for Interdependence-Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ruth Bernstein; Woog, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    Examined the prominence of intimacy concerns, i.e., connectedness and independent needs in a sample of women in the health professions, analyzing for age and marital status. Used the Life Priorities Q-Sort. Older and single women were found to be significantly more independent than younger and married women. (Author/KS)

  20. Overt and relational aggression in Russian nursery-school-age children: parenting style and marital linkages.

    PubMed

    Hart, C H; Nelson, D A; Robinson, C C; Olsen, S F; McNeilly-Choque, M K

    1998-07-01

    Maternal and paternal parenting styles and marital interactions linked to childhood aggressive behavior as described in Western psychological literature were measured in an ethnic Russian sample of 207 families of nursery-school-age children. Results corroborated and extended findings from Western samples. Maternal and paternal coercion, lack of responsiveness, and psychological control (for mothers only) were significantly correlated with children's overt aggression with peers. Less responsiveness (for mothers and fathers) and maternal coercion positively correlated with relational aggression. Some of these associations differed for boys versus girls. Marital conflict was also linked to more overt and relational aggression for boys. When entered into the same statistical model, more marital conflict (for boys only), more maternal coercion, and less paternal responsiveness were found to be the most important contributors to overt and relational aggression in younger Russian children. PMID:9681260

  1. Marriage, remarriage, marital disruption and age at first birth.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, J; Menken, J

    1979-01-01

    Out-of-wedlock pregnancy, especially for a teenager, and even more for a black teenager, hastens early marriage. The younger the age at first birth, the likelier that the first marriage will dissolve. White women are more likely than black women to remarry. Women under 20 at first birth are more likely to have their second marriage dissolve. PMID:421874

  2. Women’s Education, Marital Violence, and Divorce: A Social Exchange Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kreager, Derek A.; Felson, Richard B.; Warner, Cody; Wenger, Marin R.

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on social exchange theories, the authors hypothesized that educated women are more likely than uneducated women to leave violent marriages and suggested that this pattern offsets the negative education – divorce association commonly found in the United States. They tested these hypotheses using 2 waves of young adult data on 914 married women from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. The evidence suggests that the negative relationship between women’s education and divorce is weaker when marriages involve abuse than when they do not. The authors observed a similar pattern when they examined the association of women’s proportional earnings and divorce, controlling for education. Supplementary analyses suggested that marital satisfaction explains some of the association among women’s resources, victimization, and divorce but that marital violence continues to be a significant moderator of the education – divorce association. In sum, education appears to benefit women by both maintaining stable marriages and dissolving violent ones. PMID:24357879

  3. Marital Satisfaction and Marital Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenthall, Gerald

    1977-01-01

    Marital satisfaction is viewed as a function of the comparison between one's marital expectations and one's marital outcome. Marital stability is viewed as a function of the comparison between one's best available marital alternative and one's marital outcome. Hence, marital satisfaction and marital stability can differ. (Author)

  4. A Survey of Marital Success and Failure Among Sampled Educated Nigerians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odebunmi, Akin

    In Nigeria, various forms of polygamy and monogamy are practiced; however, monogamy is more or less practiced by many Christians and a greater percentage of younger men. A survey of marital success and failure was conducted with samples of Nigerian Diploma students and selected educated community members. Subjects completed two instruments, the…

  5. The educational gradient in marital disruption: a meta-analysis of European research findings.

    PubMed

    Matysiak, Anna; Styrc, Marta; Vignoli, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    A large number of empirical studies have investigated the effects of women's education on union dissolution in Europe, but results have varied substantially. This paper seeks to assess the relationship between educational attainment and the incidence of marital disruption by systematizing the existing empirical evidence. A quantitative literature review (a meta-analysis) was conducted to investigate the temporal change in the relationship, net of inter-study differences. The results point to a weakening of the positive educational gradient in marital disruption over time and even to a reversal in the direction of this gradient in some countries. The findings also show that the change in the educational gradient can be linked to an increase in access to divorce. Finally, the results suggest that women's empowerment has played an important role in changing the educational gradient, while the liberalization of divorce laws has not. PMID:24279466

  6. Bad Marriage, Broken Heart? Age and Gender Differences in the Link between Marital Quality and Cardiovascular Risks among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57–85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts; and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

  7. Conflict and Collaboration in Middle-Aged and Older Couples: I: Age Differences in Agency and Communion during Marital Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Timothy W.; Berg, Cynthia A.; Florsheim, Paul; Uchino, Bert N.; Pearce, Gale; Hawkins, Melissa; Henry, Nancy J.M.; Beveridge, Ryan M.; Skinner, Michelle A.; Olsen-Cerny, Chrisanna

    2011-01-01

    Prior theory and research regarding age differences in marital interaction suggest that older couples display and experience more positivity and less negativity than middle-aged couples. However, studies of overt behavior in older couples are relatively rare and have emphasized disagreement, neglecting other important contexts for older couples such as collaboration during everyday problem solving. Further, the affiliation or communion dimension of social interaction (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) is commonly assessed, but not the control or agency dimension (e.g., dominance vs. submissiveness). The present study examined affect, cognitive appraisals, and overt behavior during disagreement (i.e., discussing a current conflict) and collaboration (i.e., planning errands) in 300 middle-aged and older married couples. Older couples reported less negative affect during disagreement and rated spouses as warmer than did middle-aged couples. However, these effects were eliminated when older couples’ greater marital satisfaction was controlled. For observed behavior, older couples displayed little evidence of greater positivity and reduced negativity – especially women. During collaboration, older couples displayed a unique blend of warmth and control, suggesting a greater focus on emotional and social concerns during problem solving. PMID:19485646

  8. Resources for Aging Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Lorraine A.

    Following a short paper on the rationale for aging education at all levels, several resource lists cite curriculum materials and general references on aging. Aging education is defined to encompass educational programs at all levels aimed at helping students learn more about the nature and problems of growing old. Focus is on the elementary and…

  9. Air Age Education Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes a three-day program aimed at public school educators and community leaders. The goal was to encourage these people to include air age education in their programs. Activities included hands-on projects. (MA)

  10. Meta-analysis of Marital Dissolution and Mortality: Reevaluating the Intersection of Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Shor, Eran; Roelfs, David J.; Bugyi, Paul; Schwartz, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    The study of marital dissolution (i.e. divorce and separation) and mortality has long been a major topic of interest for social scientists. We conducted meta-analyses and meta-regressions on 625 mortality risk estimates from 104 studies, published between 1955 and 2011, covering 24 countries, and providing data on more than 600 million persons. The mean hazard ratio (HR) for mortality in our meta-analysis was 1.30 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.37) among HRs adjusted for age and additional covariates. The mean HR was higher for men (HR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.27-1.49) than for women (HR, 1.22; 95% CI: 1.13-1.32), but the difference between men and women decreases as the mean age increases. Other significant moderators of HR magnitude included sample size; being from Western Europe, Israel, the United Kingdom and former Commonwealth nations; and statistical adjustment for general health status. PMID:22534377

  11. Marital status, gender, and depression: analysis of the baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA).

    PubMed

    Jang, Soong-Nang; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chang, Jiyeun; Boo, Kachung; Shin, Hyun-Gu; Lee, Hyejung; Cho, Sung-il

    2009-12-01

    Marital status is a robust predictor of health outcomes in Western populations. However, data from Asian cultures remain sparse, and some studies suggest marked gender differences in the health benefits of marriage among Asian populations. We investigated the influence of marital status on depressive symptoms in older adult Koreans. Data were obtained from a sample of adults aged 45 to 85 years (4016 men, 5003 women) who participated in the 2006 cross-sectional baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. A multiple regression model was used to examine the association between marital status and depressive symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status, living arrangement, disability, and number of chronic diseases. In women aged 75 to 85 years, no significant differences were found between women who were married versus those who were widowed, divorced, or separated with regard to depressive symptoms. These findings were driven by increasing depressive symptoms among married women with age. Whereas divorced and widowed men in the sample reported higher rates of depressive symptoms than did married men, the difference between married vs. widowed/divorced women converged as they aged. This pattern of depressive symptoms by gender and life stage may reflect the distinctive influence of the Asian context on relations between men and women, such as traditional gender roles and patriarchal norms for older generation. PMID:19819601

  12. Induced abortion. Effects of marital status, age and parity on choice of pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Skjeldestad, F E; Borgan, J K; Daltveit, A K; Nymoen, E H

    1994-03-01

    Data from the Abortion File of the Central Bureau of Statistics in Norway for 1979-90 were used to examine the relative risks of induced abortion among groups varying by marital status, age, and parity for four 3-year time periods. Between January 1979 and December 1990, 639,551 births were registered and 174,590 pregnancies were terminated by abortion. The mean number of induced abortions in three-year periods increased from 12,800 to 14,600 (14%), and births increased from 50,700 to 58,800 (16%). The two prominent groups having abortions were unmarried women without children aged less than 30 years (40%) and married women with 2 or more children. Declines in abortion occurred among married women with two or more children, from 24% of all abortions in 1979-81 to 15% in 1988-90. Unmarried, pregnant women aged more than 20 years of age experienced a decline in abortion terminations. Unmarried teenage abortions remained stable. Pregnancy terminations increased primarily for married women aged 10-24 years without children. The lowest group with abortions comprised married childless women aged 25-29 years: the reference group. Unmarried women, regardless of age and parity, ended their pregnancies 40-50 times more often than the reference group. Registration of data affected the data by overestimation of abortions among single teenagers by 4% for all time periods. Although abortions increased among unmarried women aged over 20 years, there was still a decline in the proportion of pregnancies terminated by abortion among unmarried women aged over 20 years. Births among cohabiting or unmarried women increased more than the relative number of abortions among unmarried women. Cohabitation increased from 12% in 1977 to 30% in 1988. The suggestion was that the decreasing trend in abortion among pregnant unmarried women might be related to the changes in consensual unions. Data from the 1988 Norway Fertility Survey found that 40% of births were to childless married couples not

  13. Aging: Health Education's Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Bill C.

    The elderly have recently become a target of national concern. There are currently more than 22 million people 65 years of age or older in the United States, and this number is continually increasing. Health education must respond to the need for better understanding of the aging process and the aged by including information and materials designed…

  14. Marital Attitude Trajectories across Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    The current study seeks to address the implicit assumption in the developmental literature that marital attitudes are static by investigating how various marital attitudes might change across adolescence. Longitudinal change for three marital attitudes in relation to family structure, educational aspirations, race and gender are examined.…

  15. Marital happiness and sleep disturbances in a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Wendy M; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N = 2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4 items from the Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women. PMID:19116797

  16. Wellness, Perceived Stress, Mattering, and Marital Satisfaction among Medical Residents and Their Spouses: Implications for Education and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Anne S.; Myers, Jane E.; Tingle, Lynne R.; Powers, John C.

    2004-01-01

    Numerous studies document that medical education is demanding and stressful, yet few studies have examined the effects of medical training on spouses and medical marriages. Eighty-three individuals (42 couples) living in medical marriages completed questionnaires measuring marital satisfaction, perceived stress, general mattering, and wellness.…

  17. Marital Quality and Mother-Child and Father-Child Interactions With School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Gene H.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    To ascertain whether marital quality influences parental teaching strategies in different instructional contexts, mother-child and father-child interactions were observed during a book-reading and a direct instruction task. While few differences in teaching styles were detected between nondistressed husbands and wives, teaching styles of mothers…

  18. The Reversal of the Gender Gap in Education and Trends in Marital Dissolution

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Christine R.; Han, Hongyun

    2014-01-01

    The reversal of the gender gap in education has potentially far-reaching consequences for marriage markets, family formation, and relationship outcomes. One possible consequence of this is the growing number of marriages in which wives have more education than their husbands. Previous studies have found this type of union to be at higher risk of dissolution. Using data on marriages formed between 1950 and 2004 in the United States, we evaluate whether this association has persisted as the prevalence of this relationship type has increased. Our results show a large shift in the association between spouses’ relative education and marital dissolution. In particular, we confirm that marriages in which wives have the educational advantage were once more likely to dissolve, but we show that this association has disappeared in more recent marriage cohorts. Another key finding is that the relative stability of marriages between educational equals has increased. These results are consistent with a shift away from rigid gender specialization toward more flexible, egalitarian partnerships and provide an important counterpoint to claims that progress toward gender equality in heterosexual relationships has stalled. PMID:25364012

  19. Some social aspects of Turkish marital unions and their relationship with early age mortality.

    PubMed

    Hancioglu, A; Akadli Ergocmen, B

    1992-01-01

    "In this study, data from the 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey are used to describe some social aspects of Turkish marital unions. The social attributes in [the] questionnaire [include] the legal standing of the union, consanguinity, decision making in the formation of the union and payment of bridesmoney." In the second part of the study, the authors look at the relationship between aspects of marriage in Turkey and mortality among children of those marriages. (SUMMARY IN TUR) PMID:12159422

  20. Women and stroke knowledge: influence of age, race, residence location, and marital status.

    PubMed

    Ennen, Kathleen A; Beamon, Emily R

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, stroke is the second leading cause of death and leading cause of disability. Women experience over half of all strokes, 60% of stroke-related deaths, and a death rate of 11% versus 8.4% for men. To understand the delay in stroke recognition and treatment, a convenience sample of 97 midlife women living in southeast North Carolina completed the Stroke Recognition Questionnaire. Rural women, younger women (<49 years old), and participants with incomes under $35,601 had higher stroke symptom and risk factor knowledge scores. Educational interventions should target women over the age of 50, and should distinguish between symptoms of stroke versus heart attack. PMID:22946594

  1. Aging Education: A National Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…

  2. The Impact of Child Support Enforcement on Nonmarital and Marital Births: Does It Differ by Racial and Age Groups? JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chien-Chung

    Using data from the 1979-98 waves of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, this paper investigated the effect of child support enforcement on marital and nonmarital births, noting differences by age and race. The study examined 4,715 women who were followed from 1979 to their first birth or to 1998. Data also came from various years of the…

  3. Marital Status, Happiness, and Anomia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, John

    1981-01-01

    Survey data indicates that neither marital status nor marital happiness is related to anomia. Suggests a moderately strong negative relationship exists between education and anomia with a weak negative relationship between overall life satisfaction and anomia. Results indicate socioeconomic status remains the primary determinant of anomia for most…

  4. Marital Transference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araoz, Daniel L.

    1974-01-01

    The author focuses on the needs that married couples try to satisfy at the level of nonconsciousness and which, as a rule, produce problems at the cognitive and behavioral levels. Suggestions for the marital therapist are included. (Author)

  5. Work-Related Health Limitations, Education, and the Risk of Marital Disruption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Despite progress in identifying the covariates of divorce, there remain substantial gaps in the knowledge. One of these gaps is the relationship between health and risk of marital dissolution. I extend prior research by examining the linkages between work-related health limitations and divorce using 25 years of data (N = 7919) taken from the 1979…

  6. Age at first marital union and fertility: evidence from some Asian and Pacific countries.

    PubMed

    Kanjanapan, W

    1986-06-01

    This paper assesses the relationship between age at 1st union (legal marriages, religious marriages, consensual unions, common law unions) and fertility by cross-country comparisons. Hypothesis tested is that a later age at 1st entry into marriage is associated with a lower level of completed fertility. Fertility measure is based on number of children ever born; duration of 1st union and age of woman are kept constant. Data, obtained from the World Fertility Survey, were compared for Thailand, Sri Lanka, Korea, Philippines, Pakistan, Malaysia, Indonesia, Fiji, and Bangladesh. Results show that for all countries investigated, age at union has a strong negative association with completed fertility, due to its effect on duration or longer exposure to risk of childbearing. Age at union also affects timing of fertility, as women entering marriage at older ages have closer spacing. Differences remain in fertility by age-at-union groups across countries, therefore distribution of age at union alone cannot fully account for variations in fertility among countries. Based upon these findings, it is clear that in a non-contracepting population, later age at marriage will result in lower completed fertility, and in countries with low levels of contraceptive use, an increase in legal age at marriage can be expected to have a negative impact upon childbearing. PMID:12222504

  7. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  8. Urban nuptiality patterns and marital fertility in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Isiugo-Abanihe, U C; Ebigbola, J A; Adewuyi, A A

    1993-10-01

    This study indicates that urban marital patterns in nine Nigerian cities influence fertility. Fertility is also influenced by age at marriage, region of residence, ethnicity and religion; education and employment lead to marriage delay and tend to conflict with childbearing by enhancing the status of women. PMID:8227097

  9. Satisfaction with Life and Hope: A Look at Age and Marital Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Thomas C.; Snyder, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    The Adult Trait Hope Scale (Snyder et al., 1991) typically has been administered to samples of college students, and previous researchers have not explored key demographic variables. In a large sample of community persons who were not in college (N = 215), significant differences were detected in Hope Scale scores across differing age groups and…

  10. Deviations from Desired Age at Marriage: Mental Health Differences across Marital Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    Although several factors condition mental health differences between married and never-married adults, given recent increases in marriage delay and permanent singlehood, one modifying factor--deviation from desired age at marriage--has yet to be examined. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (N = 7,277), the author tested…

  11. Marital Homophily on Illicit Drug Use among Young Adults: Assortative Mating or Marital Influence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaguchi, Kazuo; Kandel, Denise

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of longitudinal and current survey data on 545 married/cohabiting couples found highest marital homophily for ethnicity, fertility expectations, religion, educational attainment, marital satisfaction, and illicit drug use. On drug use, data best supported a model of marital selection and assortative mating but was inconclusive concerning…

  12. The Relationship between Marital and Sexual Satisfaction among Married Women Employees at Golestan University of Medical Sciences, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ziaee, Tayebe; Jannati, Yadollah; Mobasheri, Elham; Taghavi, Taraneh; Abdollahi, Habib; Modanloo, Mahnaz; Behnampour, Naser

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There are various elements affecting the healthy family such as marital satisfaction. Various factors such as sexual satisfaction have an important impact on satisfaction of marital relationship. The present study aimed to determine the association of marital satisfaction with sexual satisfaction among sexually active employee women. Methods: This analytical descriptive study was carried on 140 married women employed at educational and medical centers of Golestan University of Medical Sciences. Questionnaires for data collection included Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire and self-constructed questionnaire (demographic characteristic and sexual satisfaction). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, χ2 and Spearman statistical test. Statistical significant level was set as 0.05. Results: The findings showed that in marital satisfaction scale, the majority of the participants (63.6%) were very satisfied and none of them were very unsatisfied. In sexual satisfaction scale, most of the participants (56.4%) expressed extremely satisfaction rate and only 0.7% were not satisfied with their sexual relationship. Marital satisfaction was significantly associated with sexual satisfaction (p ≤ 0.001). So with the increase of sexual satisfaction, there was an increase in marital satisfaction accordingly. The findings indicated that there was a significant association between sexual satisfaction and age (p = 0.086). Level of education was associated significantly with the marital satisfaction (p = 0.038). The effects of sexual satisfaction on marital satisfaction were moderated by number of children and the level of education. Conclusion: The findings have implications for improving of couples' marital satisfaction by highlighting the need for awareness of sexual quality. According to the findings, it seems that development of educational programs and pre-marriage counseling is necessary. Continuous education would be helpful after marriage in

  13. Education for an Aging Planet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…

  14. An Exploration of How Marital Expectations and Socio-Economic Status Impact Post-Secondary Educational and Professional Goals of Northern California Asian Indian Immigrant Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatia, Aparna

    2013-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the impact of marital expectations and socio-economic status on post-secondary educational and professional goals of Northern California Asian Indian immigrant women both before and after marriage. For the purposes of this study, 15 Southeast Asian Indian immigrant women from the Sacramento metropolitan region…

  15. An Educational Response to Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Rosemary

    1978-01-01

    The emphasis of this article is on aging and the needs of the elderly as a basis for developing educational content in the curriculum. It includes a description of a theoretical framework developed by Abraham Maslow for a holistic approach to needs of the aged. (Editor/RK)

  16. Space Age Driver Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Walter W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

  17. Factors Related to Marital Satisfaction in Women with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Khousheh, Mohsen; Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Fakhari, Ali; Mohagheghi, Arash; Farnam, Alireza; Abdi, Salman; Alizadeh, Amineh

    2012-01-01

    Objective Major depressive disorder (MDD) is one of the most common psychiatric disorders which affects married couples frequently.The present study aims to explain the role of family processes, social support and demographic factors in marital satisfaction of women with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Method In this cross-sectional study, 188 women with MDD were randomly selected among the patients who visited Bozorgmehr Clinic of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The sample selection was carried out through structured psychiatric interviews based on DSM-TV-TR criteria. Data were collected using Index of Marital Satisfaction (IMS), Family Process Scale (FPS) and Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire (NSSQ).The Mann Whitney U, Multivariate and ANOVA tests were used to analyze the data. Results No relationship was observed between age, educational level, age difference of couples and number of children with family processes and marital satisfaction (p ≥ 0.05). The patients with low educational level reported less social support (p ≥ 0.05).Marital satisfaction and family coherence were lower when the husband had a psychiatric disorder (P ≤ 0.01). The family processes (family coherence, problem-solving skills, communication skills and religious beliefs) and social support positively predicted marital satisfaction, while the husband's psychiatric disorders negatively predicted marital satisfaction. Conclusion The findings highlight the significance of family processes, social support and husband's psychiatric disorders in marital satisfaction of women with MDD. PMID:23408655

  18. Does Child Maltreatment Predict Adult Crime? Reexamining the Question in a Prospective Study of Gender Differences, Education, and Marital Status.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyunzee; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Klika, J Bart; Lee, Jungeun Olivia; Brown, Eric C

    2015-08-01

    Bivariate analyses of adult crime and child maltreatment showed that individuals who had been maltreated as children, according to child welfare reports, subsequently committed more crime than others who had not been maltreated. Analyses of crimes by category-property, person, and society-provided further evidence of a link between child maltreatment and crime at the bivariate level. Tests of gender differences showed that crime generally is more prevalent among males, although females with a history of maltreatment were more likely than those in a no-maltreatment (comparison) group to report having had some prior involvement in crime. Surprisingly, multivariate analyses controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, gender, minority racial status, marital status, and education level showed that, with one exception (crimes against society), the significant association between child maltreatment and crime observed in bivariate tests was not maintained. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:25287414

  19. Marital Satisfaction and Life Circumstances of Grown Children With Autism Across 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sigan L.; Barker, Erin T.; Baker, Jason K.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2013-01-01

    We examined the extent to which marital satisfaction across 7 years in 199 mothers was associated with the characteristics (gender, age, and intellectual disability status) of their adolescent or adult child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and whether fluctuations in marital satisfaction covaried with the child’s autism symptoms, health, behavior problems, and closeness in the parent–child relationship. We also examined the impact of the departure of the adult child out of the family home on mothers’ marital satisfaction. The effect of family context variables including the presence of an additional child with a disability, maternal education, and household income on marital satisfaction were also examined. We found that closeness in the mother–child relationship and household income had a significant effect on level of marital satisfaction, and that variability in the slope of mothers’ marital satisfaction was significantly predicted by fluctuations in the behavior problems of the adolescent or adult child with an ASD. The grown child’s departure out of the family home was not related to change in marital satisfaction. Interventions aimed at managing the behavior problems of adolescents and adults with ASDs may help strengthen parents’ marital relationship. PMID:22866933

  20. Marital Satisfaction Trends in Hong Kong Between 2002 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul

    2016-07-01

    Macrosocial changes may generate influences on marital quality. This study used data from the 2002-2012 Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice surveys conducted by the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong to track the trends of marital satisfaction of both husbands and wives over a 10-year period in Hong Kong, with associated factors. Results indicated that 85% of the husbands and around 80% of the wives reported that they were satisfied with their marital relationships, and no significant changes in general were observed for them between 2002 and 2012 except for some subgroups. Husbands aged 45-49 years, in employment and whose monthly household income between 25,000 HKD and 39,999 HKD, reported marital satisfaction decreased over the past 10 years and wives with primary education or below also reported a decreasing trend during this period. Education and family income had positive influences on the husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction, and husbands were more likely to be sensitive to the unemployment. Less than one-third of couples needed professional counseling on family-related issues, and couple conflicts and work-family conflicts were the urgent needs that should be given priority in delivering services. The implications of this study are discussed in the Chinese context of Hong Kong. PMID:26035714

  1. Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierstein, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Education is moving into the digital age. Pedagogies have changed to engage the latest digital technologies. The methods of distribution are now a blend between face-to-face and some other combination of virtual interfaces. The content is moving from traditional text-based learning to text-plus-multimedia. The community is now involved in the…

  2. Does similarity breed marital and sexual satisfaction?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Ho, Petula S Y; Yip, Paul S F

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of socioeconomic-cultural homogamy on the marital and sexual satisfaction of Hong Kong Chinese couples. Using a representative, territory-wide sample of 1,083 first-time married heterosexual couples, this study found that wives were generally less satisfied than their husbands with their marital and sexual relationships. Husbands were more likely to be satisfied with their marriages when they were two to four years older than their wives than when they were of similar age to their wives (i.e., within one year of each other), but they were less likely to be satisfied with their marriages when only their wives were employed than when both partners were employed. In addition, they were less likely to be satisfied with both their marital and sexual relationships when their wives were five or more years older. Wives with an older husband were more likely to be sexually satisfied than wives of the same age as their husband, but they were less likely to be satisfied with their marriages when they were better educated than their husbands. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:21614722

  3. Effect of birth weight, maternal education and prenatal smoking on offspring intelligence at school age.

    PubMed

    Rahu, Kaja; Rahu, Mati; Pullmann, Helle; Allik, Jüri

    2010-08-01

    To examine the combined effect of birth weight, mothers' education and prenatal smoking on psychometrically measured intelligence at school age 1,822 children born in 1992-1999 and attending the first six grades from 45 schools representing all of the fifteen Estonian counties with information on birth weight, gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, parity and smoking in pregnancy, and intelligence tests were studied. The scores of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were related to the birth weight: in the normal range of birth weight (>or=2500 g) every 500 g increase in birth weight was accompanied by around 0.7-point increase in IQ scores. A strong association between birth weight and IQ remained even if gestational age and mother's age, marital status, education, place of residence, parity and smoking during pregnancy have been taken into account. Maternal prenatal smoking was accompanied by a 3.3-point deficit in children's intellectual abilities. Marriage and mother's education had an independent positive correlation with offspring intelligence. We concluded that the statistical effect of birth weight, maternal education and smoking in pregnancy on offspring's IQ scores was remarkable and remained even if other factors have been taken into account. PMID:20634008

  4. Early marriage, premarital fertility, and marital dissolution: results for Blacks and Whites.

    PubMed

    Teachman, J D

    1983-03-01

    Based on data from the marital histories contained in the 1973 National Survey of Family Growth, this research investigates the impact of age at 1st marriage and premarital fertility status on subsequent marital dissolution for both black women and white women 1st married between 1950 and 1970. Results, using multivariate proportional hazards models, indicate that 1) premarital births, but not premarital pregnancies, increase the risk of marital dissolution; 2) an increasing age at the 1st marriage reduces the risk of marital separation and divorce, but not monotonically; 3) blacks differ from whites in that they are less responsive to the effects of a premarital birth or a young age at 1st marriage in increasing the likelihood of marital instability; and 4) an older age at 1st marriage offsets somewhat the destabilizing effects of a premarital birth. Variables used in the analysis include husband/wife age difference at marriage, education at marriage, farm versus nonfarm background, stability of parental marriage, religion, religiosity, work before marriage, number of siblings, urban or rural residence, western versus nonwestern region, 1st marriage cohort, premarital fertility status and age at 1st marriage. Policy implications include reducing the level of premarital births, and establishing support programs for those having a premarital birth without a legitimating marriage which will delay subsequent marriage, especially if the birth occurred at a young age. PMID:12312028

  5. The Social Construction of Marital Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Stephanie Ellen

    2009-01-01

    This paper articulates a theoretical framework for understanding how individuals orient themselves toward marital commitment. Using a life history interview methodology and interpretive framework, it examines the orientations toward marital commitment for a sample of women and men, single and married, between the ages of 28 and 35 (N = 75).…

  6. Testosterone, Marital Quality, and Role Overload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Alan; Johnson, David R.; Granger, Douglas A.

    2005-01-01

    In a sample of established working- and middle-class families with school-aged children (N= 307 wives and 307 husbands), neither husbands nor wives testosterone showed a direct connection with marital quality. In contrast, the association between husbands' testosterone and positive and negative marital quality (as evaluated by both spouses) was…

  7. Education in Old Age: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various educational and…

  8. Courtship Contract In Marital Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Carl

    1975-01-01

    The courtship contracts serve as conceptual frames of reference to understand the normative structure and the psychodynamic components in distress. The contract established during courtship is explored in order to develop, during the time of marital crisis, explicitly negotiated standards. The goal is to re-educate the spouses to meet each others'…

  9. Leisure Activity Patterns and Marital Conflict in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Saadat, Hassan; Noushad, Siena

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past few decades, the association between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict or satisfaction has been studied extensively. However, most studies to date have been limited to middle-class families of developed societies, and an investigation of the issue, from a developing country perspective like Iran, is non-existent. Objectives: In an observational, analytical, cross-sectional study we aimed to investigate the relationship between leisure activity patterns and marital conflict in a nationally representative sample of Iranian married males. Patients and Methods: Using the cluster sampling method, a representative sample of 400 Iranian married individuals from seven provinces of Iran was surveyed. Self-administered surveys included a checklist collecting demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the enrolled participants, leisure time questionnaire, and marital conflict questionnaire. The main patterns of leisure activity were derived from principal component analysis. For each pattern, factor scores were calculated. The relationship between factor scores and marital conflict were assessed using multivariate linear regression models accounting for the potential confounding effects of age, education, socioeconomic status, job status, number of children, duration of marriage, and time spent for leisure. Results: Two hundred and ninety-nine respondents completed the leisure time and marital conflict questionnaires. Five major leisure patterns were identified accounting for 60.3% of the variance in data. The most dominant pattern was family-oriented activities (e.g. spending time with family outdoors and spending time with family indoors) and was negatively linked to marital conflict (standardized beta= −0.154, P = 0.013). Of the four remaining patterns, three only included individual activities and one was a family-individual composite. Individual patterns exhibited discrepant behavior; while the pattern involving activities

  10. Rural Youth Plan Ahead: A Study of the Occupational, Educational, Residential and Marital Expectations of Rural Youth in Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Pedro F.; Picou, J. Steven

    The study was an attempt to discern what rural youth in Louisiana expect to achieve in the future. Objectives of the study were to determine, with reference to race and sex differences, (1) future occupational plans, (2) educational plans, (3) type of community rural youth expected to settle in, and (4) desired age for marriage and number of…

  11. American Education: Implications from the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William E.

    This paper considers the needs of future educational systems in an age of information. Characteristics of such systems are described and analyzed. An information age educational system would stress the big picture, be experimental, emphasize skills and tools of thought and action and extend throughout life. It would have alternative delivery…

  12. The Special Educator in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.

    The author cites the arrival of the information age and considers its implications for special education. He suggests that special educators must build their information management skills. Four specific applications of microcomputers in special education are addressed: tool applications (in which students use microcomputer technology as personal…

  13. Dark Age Education: Our Latest Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Joel

    1981-01-01

    Relates the history of ideas to the history of education during the middle ages. Topics discussed include cultural life, economic factors, the political economy of medieval education, and the difficulty of writing about educational trends during a time for which there are few authoritative sources. (DB)

  14. 43 CFR 41.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.445 Marital or parental status... parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy...

  15. 45 CFR 86.40 - Marital or parental status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.40 Marital or parental status... parental, family, or marital status which treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b)...

  16. 45 CFR 618.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 618.445 Marital or parental... potential parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex....

  17. 45 CFR 86.40 - Marital or parental status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.40 Marital or parental status... parental, family, or marital status which treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b)...

  18. 28 CFR 54.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 54.445 Marital or parental status. (a... parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy...

  19. 40 CFR 5.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.445 Marital or parental status... parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy...

  20. 45 CFR 86.40 - Marital or parental status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.40 Marital or parental status... parental, family, or marital status which treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b)...

  1. 43 CFR 41.445 - Marital or parental status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 41.445 Marital or parental status... parental, family, or marital status that treats students differently on the basis of sex. (b) Pregnancy...

  2. Education for a New Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Leonard

    Most would agree that education is a social good and necessity, yet serious inequities and inequalities remain in our educational system. The largest sources of support for public schools are the local school district and the state. The revenues they contribute come from property and sales taxes, both of which are regressive and inequitable. Our…

  3. Marital Trajectories and Mortality Among US Adults

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Audrey N.; Meadows, Sarah O.

    2009-01-01

    More than a century of empirical evidence links marital status to mortality. However, the hazards of dying associated with long-term marital trajectories and contributing risk factors are largely unknown. The authors used 1992–2006 prospective data from a cohort of US adults to investigate the impact of current marital status, marriage timing, divorce and widow transitions, and marital durations on mortality. Multivariate hazard ratios were significantly higher for adults currently divorced and widowed, married at young ages (≤18 years), who accumulated divorce and widow transitions (among women), and who were divorced for 1–4 years. Results also showed significantly lower risks of mortality for men married after age 25 years compared with on time (ages 19–25 years) and among women experiencing ≥10 years of divorce and ≥5 years of widowhood relative to those without exposure to these statuses. For both sexes, accumulation of marriage duration was the most robust predictor of survival. Results from risk-adjusted models indicated that socioeconomic resources, health behaviors, and health status attenuated the associations in different ways for men and women. The study demonstrates that traditional measures oversimplify the relation between marital status and mortality and that sex differences are related to a nexus of marital experiences and associated health risks. PMID:19584130

  4. Wealth and the marital divide.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Daniel

    2011-09-01

    Marriage patterns differ dramatically in the United States by race and education. The author identifies a novel explanation for these marital divides, namely, the important role of personal wealth in marriage entry. Using event-history models and data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, the author shows that wealth is an important predictor of first marriage and that differences in asset ownership by race and education help to explain a significant portion of the race and education gaps in first marriage. The article also tests possible explanations for why wealth plays an important role in first marriage entry. PMID:22268248

  5. Work Identity and Marital Adjustment in Blue-Collar Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaesser, David L.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    1985-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between work-identity and satisfaction and marital adjustment in 40 married male blue-collar workers, ages 25 to 41 years. Satisfaction with extrinsic work factors related to marital adjustment, while satisfaction with intrinsic work factors negatively related to secondary role salience. Age negatively related to…

  6. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  7. Type T Marital Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farley, Frank; Carlson, Jon

    1991-01-01

    Briefly reviews Farley's Type T theory of personality and then considers a range of issues in marital therapy from the perspective of Type T. Suggests that Type T theory may be relevant in dealing with infidelity, sexual problems, love, marital abuse, child rearing, drug and alcohol use, money, division of household labor, recreation, and…

  8. Women Who Work, Part 2: Married Women in the Labour Force: The Influence of Age, Education, Child-Bearing Status and Residence. Special Labour Force Studies Series B, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allingham, John D.; Spencer, Byron G.

    To followup an earlier study of the relative importance of age, education, and marital status as variables influencing female participation in the labor force, this research attempts to measure the relative importance of similar factors in determining whether or not a woman works or wishes to work. Particular emphasis was given to such…

  9. [Age, marital status, fecundity and mortality of the population of Colombia: demographic results of the National Household Survey, June 1978].

    PubMed

    1980-06-01

    This paper presents the results of the National Household Survey conducted in Colombia in June 1978, which covered about 0.2% of the total population, and which interviewed 60,000 people in rural and in urban areas. Main findings were: 1) a decrease in the percentage of the population aged 0-4, and 5-9, as compared to the population aged 10-14; 2) a decrease in the number of live births, especially in young women; and, 3) average parity per woman was 3.7, a decrease of 12% since 1976. Crude birth rate was measured to be 27.4/1000, while it was 31.1/1000 in 1976. Life expectancy was estimated to be 65.1 for women, and 55.1 for men, much too low to be acceptable, and possibly caused by wrong information given to interviewers. Total mortality was 6.7/1000, too low to be acceptable, while infant mortality was 69/1000. PMID:12262301

  10. Marital Status and Gender Similarity in Marital Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, James L.; Johnson, Mark E.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of therapist marital status and therapist and participant sex on participants' perceptions of therapist and expectations for therapy. Each partner of 20 couples presenting for marital therapy completed protocols differing only on therapist's marital status and sex. Neither therapist marital status nor therapist sex had effect on…

  11. Science education in a secular age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David E.

    2013-03-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.

  12. Marital conflict and adjustment: speech nonfluencies in intimate disclosure.

    PubMed

    Paul, E L; White, K M; Speisman, J C; Costos, D

    1988-06-01

    Speech nonfluency in response to questions about the marital relationship was used to assess anxiety. Subjects were 31 husbands and 31 wives, all white, college educated, from middle- to lower-middle-class families, and ranging from 20 to 30 years of age. Three types of nonfluencies were coded: filled pauses, unfilled pauses, and repetitions. Speech-disturbance ratios were computed by dividing the sum of speech nonfluencies by the total words spoken. The results support the notion that some issues within marriage are more sensitive and/or problematic than others, and that, in an interview situation, gender interacts with question content in the production of nonfluencies. PMID:3404129

  13. Irrational Beliefs and Marital Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Norman; Eidelson, Roy J.

    Although interest has increased in applying cognitive behavior therapies to conjoint treatment of marital problems, the role of cognitive processes in marital maladjustment and in couples' orientations toward marital therapy has not been sufficiently investigated. The association between couples' levels of marital distress and their goals for…

  14. Marital Conflict and Conduct Problems in Children of Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2007-01-01

    The Children-of-Twins design was used to test whether associations between marital conflict frequency and conduct problems can be replicated within the children of discordant twin pairs. A sample of 2,051 children (age 14-39 years) of 1,045 twins was used to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on marital conflict and determine…

  15. Marital Noncohabitation: Separation Does Not Make the Heart Grow Fonder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rindfuss, Ronald R.; Stephen, Elizabeth Hervey

    1990-01-01

    Examined marital noncohabitation for reasons other than marital discord. Percentage of currently married persons living apart was highest for ages 18-24 and for Blacks. Two most common reasons for living apart were military service and incarceration. Spouses living apart in 1976 were nearly twice as likely as cohabiting spouses to experience…

  16. Marital Separation: Understanding and Meeting the Needs of Children--A Seminar Hosted by the Maltese Institute for Medical Education, November 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyton, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    In her welcome and opening remarks, Lynne Peyton--a consultant specialising in children's services in Northern Ireland--set the scene for the proceedings of this seminar on marital separation. She confirmed that the escalating extent of marital separation is a worldwide phenomenon and certainly one that represents an increasing challenge for…

  17. Just the Two of Us? How Parents Influence Adult Children's Marital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reczek, Corinne; Liu, Hui; Umberson, Debra

    2010-01-01

    We work from a life-course perspective to explore how relationships with parents affect adult children's marital quality. We further ask whether the effects of parents on adult children's marital quality depend on the adult child's gender, age, marital duration, and childhood family experiences. Growth-curve analysis of national, longitudinal data…

  18. Knowledge Building: Reinventing Education for the Knowledge Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Donald N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Knowledge Age and how economic factors are causing educators to rethink and reinvent education. Two key factors in education in the Knowledge Age will be education for an economy of innovation, and the increasing virtualization of education. We present knowledge building pedagogy as a model for education in the Knowledge…

  19. Educational Communication in a Revolutionary Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, I. Keith, Comp.; Williams, Catharine M., Comp.

    As a tribute to Dr. Edgar Dale on his retirement from Ohio State University, the papers in this book refer to "the failures of education,""the impotence of the school,""the need for sweeping change," the existence of a "systems break," and "incipient civil war," all of which are products of an age of revolution which continues today. Educational…

  20. The Impact of Aging on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Angela

    The percentage of adults aged 65 years or older is expected to increase from 12 percent of the population in 1980 to more than 21 percent by the year 2030. Since many adults stay involved with learning activities well into their 80s and 90s, educational organizations have a great opportunity to supply learning activities to this population. To…

  1. An Activity for Exploring Marital Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, William G.

    1976-01-01

    The learning activity, designed for the use of high school students in a family life education course, is designed to explore attitudes towards mate qualities in order to increase the students' awareness of marital expectations. The activity utilizes the format of an auction game and a group discussion. (EC)

  2. Motivation and Maturity Patterns in Marital Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, David C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Married couples rated their marital satisfaction and played interpersonal competitive games which revealed the success with which they interacted. Younger husbands who scored more maturely on the Stewart measure of psychosocial maturity belonged to more successful marriages, as did college-educated wives who showed less immaturity and more phallic…

  3. Differences among Preferred Methods for Furthering Aging Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods…

  4. Marital Status and Living Arrangements: March 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saluter, Arlene F.

    1986-01-01

    This report presents detailed information on the marital status and living arrangements of the noninstitutional population of the United States by age, sex, race, and Spanish origin. The text of this report compares the mid-decade census estimates based on the March, 1985 "Current Population Survey" with the survey data from 1980, 1970, and 1960.…

  5. The Association Between Pre-Diabetes With Body Mass Index and Marital Status in an Iranian Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Rahmanian, Karamatollah; Shojaei, Mohammad; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Madani, Abdolhossein

    2016-01-01

    Pre-diabetes increased the development of diabetes mellitus (type 2). The aim of study was to determine the association of body weight, education and marital status with pre-diabetes in an Iranian urban population. A sample of 788 subjects (360 men and 428 women) between the ages 30–85 years participated in our study and anthropometric measurements, educational level and fasting blood sugar of participants were recorded. The t and Chi square tests were used for continuous and categorical variables. The association of age, BMI categories, educational level and marital status to pre-diabetes was assessed by estimating the odds ratio. A p-value ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. The analysis was done using SPSS version 11.5. Our study showed that pre-diabetic subjects were older and low educated than normoglycemic subjects. Mean BMI and educational level were associated to pre-diabetes only in women. The odds of being pre-diabetes also were higher in obese women than in normal BMI women. No relationship was found between education and marital status with pre-diabetes in both men and women. Based on our finding, it is possible that advancing age and obesity has increased in pre-diabetes. This highlights the importance of population based survey to monitor blood glucose for effective prevention and control. PMID:26573038

  6. The Association Between Pre-Diabetes With Body Mass Index and Marital Status in an Iranian Urban Population.

    PubMed

    Rahmanian, Karamatollah; Shojaei, Mohammad; Sotoodeh Jahromi, Abdolreza; Madani, Abdoulhossein

    2016-01-01

    Pre-diabetes increased the development of diabetes mellitus (type 2). The aim of study was to determine the association of body weight, education and marital status with pre-diabetes in an Iranian urban population.A sample of 788 subjects (360 men and 428 women) between the ages 30-85 years participated in our study and anthropometric measurements, educational level and fasting blood sugar of participants were recorded. The t and Chi square tests were used for continuous and categorical variables. The association of age, BMI categories, educational level and marital status to pre-diabetes was assessed by estimating the odds ratio. A p-value ≤ 0.05 were considered significant. The analysis was done using SPSS version 11.5. Our study showed that pre-diabetic subjects were older and low educated than normoglycemic subjects. Mean BMI and educational level were associated to pre-diabetes only in women. The odds of being pre-diabetes also were higher in obese women than in normal BMI women. No relationship was found between education and marital status with pre-diabetes in both men and women. Based on our finding, it is possible that advancing age and obesity has increased in pre-diabetes. This highlights the importance of population based survey to monitor blood glucose for effective prevention and control. PMID:26573038

  7. Religion as a determinant of marital stability.

    PubMed

    Lehrer, E L; Chiswick, C U

    1993-08-01

    Using data from the 1987-1988 National Survey of Families and Households, this paper studies the role of the religious composition of unions as a determinant of marital stability. With the exceptions of Mormons and individuals with no religious identification, stability is found to be remarkably similar across the various types of homogamous unions. Consistent with the notion that religion is a complementary marital trait, interfaith unions have generally higher rates of dissolution than intrafaith unions. The destabilizing effect of out-marriage varies inversely with the similarity in beliefs and practices of the two religions as well as with the mutual tolerance embodied in their respective doctrines. The results also suggest that religious compatibility between spouses at the time of marriage has a large influence on marital stability, rivaling in magnitude that of age at marriage and, at least for Protestants and Catholics, dominating any adverse effects of differences in religious background. PMID:8405605

  8. Determinants of Spousal Interaction: Marital Structure or Marital Happiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Lynn K.

    1983-01-01

    Examined factors associated with marital interaction, particularly women's employment and marital happiness, in a nationwide sample of 2,034 men and women. Results suggested interaction is reduced by both men's and women's job involvement, children, and a traditional division of household labor. Marital quality was the most important predictor.…

  9. Marital Quality and Marital Stability: Resolving a Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumm, Walter R.; Bugaighis, Margaret A.

    1985-01-01

    Clarifies the models of marital quality and marital stability proposed by Spanier and Lewis (1979, 1980) and by Thomas and Kleber (1981). Explains how both models are valid under different conditions but do not represent irreconcilable views of the marital relationship. (Author/NRB)

  10. Marital Conflict in Older Couples: Positivity, Personality, and Health

    PubMed Central

    Iveniuk, James; Waite, Linda J.; McClintock, Martha K.; Teidt, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the implications of health and personality characteristics for late-life marital conflict, using data from the 2010–11 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), a nationally representative study with data on both partners in 955 marital and cohabitational dyads. Using these data, we relate characteristics of husbands to characteristics of their wives, and vice versa. Wives with husbands in fair or poor physical health are more likely to report high levels of marital conflict, but the reverse is not true. Similarly, wives report more conflict when their husbands are high on Neuroticism, high on Extraversion, and low on a new measure we call Positivity. Our findings point to noteworthy gender differences between men and women in the associations between individual characteristics and levels of marital conflict. We point to differences between husbands’ and wives’ marital roles as a contributor to these differences. PMID:27274569

  11. Marital Conflict and Conduct Problems in Children of Twins

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Turkheimer, Eric; Emery, Robert E.; D’Onofrio, Brian M.; Slutske, Wendy S.; Heath, Andrew C.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2010-01-01

    The Children-of-Twins design was used to test whether associations between marital conflict frequency and conduct problems can be replicated within the children of discordant twin pairs. A sample of 2,051 children (age 14–39 years) of 1,045 twins was used to estimate the genetic and environmental influences on marital conflict and determine whether genetic or environmental selection processes underlie the observed association between marital conflict and conduct problems. Results indicate that genetic and nonshared environmental factors influence the risk of marital conflict. Furthermore, genetic influences mediated the association between marital conflict frequency and conduct problems. These results highlight the need for quasiexperimental designs in investigations of intergenerational associations. PMID:17328690

  12. Marital Status, Lifestyle and Dementia: A Nationwide Survey in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ling-Yun; Sun, Yu; Lee, Huey-Jane; Yang, Shu-Chien; Chen, Ta-Fu; Lin, Ker-Neng; Lin, Chung-Chi; Wang, Pei-Ning; Tang, Li-Yu; Chiu, Ming-Jang

    2015-01-01

    Background Evidence of an association between lifestyle and marital status and risk of dementia is limited in Asia. Methods In this nationwide population-based cross-sectional survey, participants were selected by computerized random sampling from all 19 counties in Taiwan. A total of 10432 residents were assessed by a door-to-door in-person survey, among whom 7035 were normal and 929 were diagnosed with dementia using the criteria recommended by National Institute on Aging-Alzheimer’s Association. Premorbid lifestyle habits and demographic data including marital status were compared between normal subjects and participants with dementia. Results After adjustment for age, gender, education, body mass index, smoking, drinking, marital status, sleep habits, exercise, social engagement and co-morbidities including hypertension, diabetes and cerebrovascular diseases, an increased risk for dementia was found in people with widow or widower status (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.15–1.77) and people who used to take a nap in the afternoon (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.02–1.72). Decreased risk was found in people with the habit of regular exercise (OR 0.12, 95% CI 0.09–0.16), adequate night sleep (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.39–0.76) and regular social engagement (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.36–0.77). Conclusions Our results provide preliminary evidence of possible risk-reduction effects for dementia, including regular exercise even in modest amounts, social engagement and adequate night sleep, whereas people with the widow/widower status or who used to take an afternoon nap might have increased risk of dementia. PMID:26413719

  13. Marital murders -- the Indian reality.

    PubMed

    Agnes, F

    1993-02-01

    The Dowry Prohibition Act in India was passed in 1961 and amended in 1984 and 1986. The law was enacted in order to prevent "dowry deaths" or the murder of a wife by her husband. The law is considered ineffective because it does not account for the parents of the girl who deprive her of education and opportunity, cloister her, and then marry her off at an early age. Wife murder in India is said to take place for economic reasons, i.e., to remarry and get more dowry. That Hindu men abandon or divorce wives, or commit bigamy belies that economics are the sole reason. The amendments to the Dowry Act are assessed separately in order to examine their impact on domestic violence. Section 498 (known as Sec.498A) of the Indian Penal Code prohibited cruelty to wives, and was enforced only when it was related to dowry; the code was narrowly constructed to omit general violence faced by women. Complaints of wife beating had to be accompanied by complaints related to dowry to be taken seriously by the police. The result was usually husband acquittal. Another problem is that wives place and then drop charges. The law is not without impact, because usually 1 or 2 days in prison is sufficient for the husband to understand that his wife means to stop the abuse. Section 304B is directed to marital murder, or death under unnatural circumstances, within 7 years of her marriage and dowry harassment by the husband or his relatives. The husband must prove he is not responsible for her death. The law is ineffective because complaints about unreasonable dowry demand are rarely made, and the assumption is that death would occur within 7 years. Murder is also dealt with in the Section 302, punishment for murder; Section 306, abetment to suicide; and Section 498A. Examples of 3 cases are provided, which show how even in seemingly clear-cut cases, the husband is acquitted by the highest courts. The most recent judgment in the Bombay High Court, where the husband filed criminal charges against

  14. The Relationship between Marital Characteristics, Marital Interaction Processes, and Marital Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen-Grandon, Jane R.; Myers, Jane E.; Hattie, John A.

    2004-01-01

    Structural Equation Modeling techniques were used to clarify the relationship between marital characteristics, marital processes, and the dependent variable--marital satisfaction--in a sample of 201 participants who were in 1st marriages. The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS; G. B. Spanier, 1976) and the Enriching and Nurturing Relationship Issues,…

  15. Gender and Marital Intimacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Joshua M.

    1997-01-01

    Explores the hypothesis that spouses involved in couples counseling will present similar intimacy complaints. Couples (N=100) described their expectations and perceptions of current marital intimacy. Results show that husbands and wives came to counseling with different intimacy complaints. Discusses implications of these results for case…

  16. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  17. Marital status, intergenerational co-residence and cardiovascular and all-cause mortality among middle-aged and older men and women during wartime in Beirut: gains and liabilities.

    PubMed

    Sibai, Abla M; Yount, Kathryn M; Fletcher, Astrid

    2007-01-01

    Studies from the West have shown an increased risk of mortality with various indicators of social isolation. In this study, we examine associations of marital status and intergenerational co-residence with mortality in Lebanon, a country that suffered wars and atrocities for almost 16 years. Using data from a retrospective 10-year follow-up study (1984-1994) among 1567 adults aged 50 years and older in Beirut, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality rates (per 1000 person-years) were computed for men and women separately. Age-adjusted Mantel-Haenszel rate ratios (RR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated, and associations were examined using multivariate Poisson regression analysis. Most men (91.3%) were married at baseline, in contrast to only 55.4% of women. Compared to men, women were more likely to be living in one- and three-generation households and with a married child at baseline. While widowhood was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality among men only, being never married was associated with a higher CVD mortality risk among men and women. The presence of an adult married child was associated with a significantly higher mortality risk for men and women, even after adjusting for household socioeconomic indicators, marital status, lifestyle variables or pre-existing health-related conditions (hypertension, cholesterol, and diabetes) at baseline. The popular belief that co-residence with adult children reflects greater support networks and an avenue for old age security may not be a valid presumption in the Lebanese context during times of war. PMID:17030373

  18. An Assessment of Educational Interests of Women over 60.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Shirley

    Educational interests of women aged 60 and over were studied, and a correlation between the respondents' ages, educational levels, marital status, as well as the number and types of educational topics they chose was investigated. The subjects' preferences as to selected program design questions were also identified. One hundred current members of…

  19. Higher Education and Happiness in the Age of Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…

  20. Early Marriage, Premarital Fertility, and Marital Dissolution: Results for Blacks and Whites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachman, Jay D.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated the impact of age and premarital fertility status on subsequent marital dissolution for Black and White women (N=6,374). Results using multivariate proportional hazards models indicate that premarital births, but not premarital pregnancies, increase risk of marital dissolution, and an increasing age reduces the risk of divorce.…

  1. The Interactive Effects of Marital Conflict and Divorce on Parent-Adult Children's Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tianyi; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines main effect and interactive models of the relations between marital conflict, divorce, and parent-adult child relationships and gender differences in these relations. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of a community sample (N = 585). Parental marital conflict and divorce were measured from age 5 through age 17 years.…

  2. Consequences of teen-age parenting.

    PubMed

    Nord, C W; Moore, K A; Morrison, D R; Brown, B; Myers, D E

    1992-09-01

    The changing context of teen-age childbearing and current related controversies are reviewed. Recent research about the consequences of teen-age childbearing for the teen-age mother, the father, and for the children born is examined. The article also summarizes current knowledge about the consequences of teen-age childbearing with regard to the mother's educational attainment, marital experience, subsequent fertility behavior, labor force experience and occupational attainment, and experience with poverty and welfare. PMID:1434559

  3. Marital Histories and Heavy Alcohol Use among Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Reczek, Corinne; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; Thomeer, Mieke Beth; Umberson, Debra

    2016-03-01

    We develop a gendered marital biography approach-which emphasizes the accumulating gendered experiences of singlehood, marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage-to examine the relationship between marital statuses and transitions and heavy alcohol use. We test this approach using individual-level (n = 10,457) and couple-level (n = 2,170) longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study, and individual-level (n = 46) and couple-level (n = 42) in-depth interview data. Quantitative results show that marriage, including remarriage, reduces men's but increases women's drinking relative to being never married and previously married, whereas divorce increases men's but decrease women's drinking, with some variation by age. Our qualitative findings reveal that social control and convergence processes underlie quantitative results. We call attention to how men's and women's heavy drinking trajectories stop, start, and change direction as individuals move through their distinctive marital biography. PMID:26957135

  4. Explaining Marital Patterns and Trends in Namibia: A Regression Analysis of 1992, 2000 and 2006 Demographic and Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Pazvakawambwa, Lillian; Indongo, Nelago; Kazembe, Lawrence N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Marriage is a significant event in life-course of individuals, and creates a system that characterizes societal and economic structures. Marital patterns and dynamics over the years have changed a lot, with decreasing proportions of marriage, increased levels of divorce and co-habitation in developing countries. Although, such changes have been reported in African societies including Namibia, they have largely remained unexplained. Objectives and Methods In this paper, we examined trends and patterns of marital status of women of marriageable age: 15 to 49 years, in Namibia using the 1992, 2000 and 2006 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data. Trends were established for selected demographic variables. Two binary logistic regression models for ever-married versus never married, and cohabitation versus married were fitted to establish factors associated with such nuptial systems. Further a multinomial logistic regression models, adjusted for bio-demographic and socio-economic variables, were fitted separately for each year, to establish determinants of type of union (never married, married and cohabitation). Results and Conclusions Findings indicate a general change away from marriage, with a shift in singulate mean age at marriage. Cohabitation was prevalent among those less than 30 years of age, the odds were higher in urban areas and increased since 1992. Be as it may marriage remained a persistent nuptiality pattern, and common among the less educated and employed, but lower odds in urban areas. Results from multinomial model suggest that marital status was associated with age at marriage, total children born, region, place of residence, education level and religion. We conclude that marital patterns have undergone significant transformation over the past two decades in Namibia, with a coexistence of traditional marriage framework with co-habitation, and sizeable proportion remaining unmarried to the late 30s. A shift in the singulate mean age is

  5. Premarital Pregnancy and Marital Instability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furstenberg, Frank F., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The marital histories of 203 young women who became premaritally pregnant in their early teens and 90 of their classmates most of whom married before pregnancy show that disruption in the courtship process and limited economic resources are the most important factors in marital dissolution. (Author/AM)

  6. Non-Sexist "Marital" Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, David G.; Rice, Joy K.

    1977-01-01

    Certain factors limit marital therapists in dealing with individuals conflicted over and disenchanted about "traditional" marriage: 1) the therapist's gender; 2) the presence of sex-role stereotyped behaviors and expectations; and 3) the therapist's own marital experience. Specific helpful experiences and therapeutic techniques are discussed.…

  7. PRAYER AND MARITAL INTERVENTION: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    PubMed Central

    BEACH, STEVEN R. H.; FINCHAM, FRANK D.; HURT, TERA R.; MCNAIR, LILY M.; STANLEY, SCOTT M.

    2009-01-01

    Discomfort with the integration of spiritual activities into marital interventions may be a response by practitioners to the weakness of available conceptual frameworks. We offer a framework that allows for integration of prayer into marital interventions (educational or therapeutic), and argue that when culturally appropriate, prayer can serve multiple functions in interventions that are consistent with traditional goals of skill-based approaches. Several specific ways in which prayer can be either an alternative or an addition to existing intervention strategies are outlined. The potential negative effects of prayer for couples and the dangers of integrating prayer into programs are also discussed. We conclude that effective skill-based family intervention and prevention with some traditionally underserved groups may require increased attention to integration of spiritual practices that are common in those groups. PMID:20054450

  8. Age-related cognitive decline during normal aging: the complex effect of education.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Rosselli, M; Gómez, C

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education on cognitive decline during normal aging. An 806-subject sample was taken from five different Mexican regions. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. Subjects were grouped into four educational levels: illiterate, 1-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years of education, and four age ranges: 16-30, 31-50, 51-65, and 66-85 years. A brief neuropsychological test battery (NEUROPSI), standardized and normalized in Spanish, was administered. The NEUROPSI test battery includes assessment of orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, motor skills, and executive functions. In general, test scores were strongly associated with level of educational, and differences among age groups were smaller than differences among education groups. However, there was an interaction between age and education such as that among illiterate individuals scores of participants 31-50 years old were higher than scores of participants 16-30 years old for over 50% of the tests. Different patterns of interaction among educational groups were distinguished. It was concluded that: (a) The course of life-span changes in cognition are affected by education. Among individuals with a low level of education, best neuropsychological test performance is observed at an older age than among higher-educated subjects; and (b) there is not a single relationship between age-related cognitive decline and education, but different patterns may be found, depending upon the specific cognitive domain. PMID:14590204

  9. 40 CFR 5.530 - Marital or parental status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.530 Marital or... treats persons differently on the basis of sex; or (2) Which is based upon whether an employee...

  10. Educational Credentialing of an Aging Workforce: Uneasy Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the educational attainment of an aging workforce from the perspective of educational credentialing. The research questions are defined as follows: Why are workers over age 50 attaining university degrees? How do they narratively construct the rational for pursuing well-recognized credentials in midlife? The specific focus…

  11. The Earnings Impact of Age, Education, Race, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, William R.; Linke, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    Statistics prove that being middle-aged, well educated, white, and male enhances earnings. This paper uses data from the March 1991 Current Population Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census along with some common statistical techniques to chart the specific impact of age, education, race, and gender on earnings. It is shown that earnings…

  12. Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…

  13. Marital Quality Trajectory among Iranian Married Individuals: A Collectivist Perspective

    PubMed Central

    AHMADI, Khodabakhsh; SAADAT, Hassan

    2015-01-01

    Background: The trajectory of marital quality over the life course assumes a curvilinear pattern and declines over time. However, most studies to date have been conducted in developed societies, leaving the generalizability of their findings open to skepticism. In this study, we aimed to delineate the trajectory of marital satisfaction in Iran. Methods: Using cluster-sampling method, representative sample of 800 Iranian married individuals from urban areas of seven provinces of Iran, between February and May 2011 was surveyed. Each cluster included 50 households. Sealed packages containing survey material were delivered to households. Self-administered surveys included a checklist collecting demographic and socioeconomic data, and the Comprehensive Marital Satisfaction Scale. Generalized additive models (GAM) were used to explicate the trajectory of marital satisfaction over marital duration. Results: A total of 644 complete questionnaires were returned (response rate: 80.5%). Average age of the participants was 40yr and average duration of marriage 17yr. The fitted GAM showed that marital satisfaction is highest at the beginning but drastically declines over the first 10yr. After arriving a nadir, the downward progression is reversed in the next 10–15yr, reaching a level comparable to the beginning. At 23–25yr, a second declining wave initiates and marital satisfaction steadily declines thereafter. The overall shape remains the same after adjustment for number of children, economic status, and retirement. Conclusion: Marital trajectory assumes a curvilinear pattern and has three periods of decline, stagnation, and decline. The shape of trajectory bears similarities to the observed patterns in the US but is distinct, nevertheless. PMID:26576354

  14. Moral Education of Youths in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Leslie N. K; Wang, Fang

    2006-01-01

    In Chinese societies, moral education has always been considered the most essential component of education because the nurturing of moral persons is the prime function of schooling. The implementation of moral education has relied on the inculcation of values that reflect moral ideals. The emergence of the Information Age, with a plethora of…

  15. Marital Satisfaction in Pregnancy: Stability and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowden, Lonnie R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Studied marital satisfaction in 106 women, evaluating satisfaction both early and late in their pregnancy. Found that coping resource and pregnancy decision-making were related to marital satisfaction at both stages. Marital satisfaction remained consistent, both for individuals and for group. Marital satisfaction late in pregnancy was related to…

  16. Neighborhood Collective Efficacy Moderates the Association between Maternal Adverse Childhood Experiences and Marital Conflict.

    PubMed

    Madigan, Sheri; Wade, Mark; Plamondon, André; Jenkins, Jennifer M

    2016-06-01

    In a socio-demographically diverse sample of 501 caregivers participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study during the childbearing years, we examined whether neighborhood collective efficacy moderated the association between maternal adverse childhood experience (ACEs) and marital conflict. Maternal ACEs were assessed via retrospective reports. Neighborhood collective efficacy was measured via maternal and paternal reports at 2 months, and maternal reports of marital conflict were collected at infant age 2 and 18 months. Multiple linear regression analyses revealed that maternal ACEs were associated with increased marital conflict. Neighborhood collective efficacy moderated the association between early maternal ACEs and marital conflict, such that mothers experiencing ACEs had lower levels of marital conflict when exposed to high levels of neighborhood collective efficacy. Results suggest that extra-familial sources of social support and control, such as feelings of security, trust, order, and connectedness with others, may buffer the effects of early adversity on marital discord. PMID:27250904

  17. Alcoholism, associated risk factors, and harsh parenting among fathers: Examining the role of marital aggression

    PubMed Central

    Finger, Brent; Kachadourian, Lorig K.; Molnar, Danielle S.; Eiden, Rina D.; Edwards, Ellen P.; Leonard, Kenneth E.

    2013-01-01

    This study utilized a longitudinal design to examine relations between paternal alcoholism, paternal psychopathology, marital aggression and fathers’ harsh parenting behavior in a sample of children with alcoholic (n=89) and non-alcoholic (n=94) fathers. Structural Equation Modeling revealed that paternal alcoholism, depression, and antisocial behavior at 12 months of child age each predicted higher levels of marital aggression at 36 months. Moreover, after controlling for prior parenting, marital aggression was predictive of harsher parenting at kindergarten. Alcoholism and psychopathology were not directly predictive of harsh parenting with marital aggression included in the model, thus indicating that marital aggression is mediating the relation between paternal risk factors and parenting outcome. Results of this study suggest that one pathway linking fathers’ alcohol diagnosis to harsh parenting is via marital aggression. PMID:20153586

  18. "Healthy Aging at Older Ages: Are Income and Education Important?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Neil J.; Denton, Frank T.; Robb, A. Leslie; Spencer, Byron G.

    2004-01-01

    Being higher on the socio-economic scale is correlated with being in better health, but is there is a causal relationship? Using 3 years of longitudinal data for individuals aged 50 and older from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we study the health transitions for those who were in good health in the first year, focusing…

  19. Marital Plans of Women and the Formation of Mobility-Linked Attitudes in the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirklin, Sharon Kay

    The relationship between the marital plans and mobility-linked attitudes (those pertaining to variables subject to upward or downward mobility) of young women in the South were investigated. Specific goals were to determine by race, the relationship between marital plans and (1) level of educational aspirations (LEA) and (2) level of occupational…

  20. Dimensions of Marital Well-Being among White and Black Newlyweds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crohan, Susan E.; Veroff, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Four dimensions of marital well-being--happiness, equity, competence, and control--emerged in a factor analysis of 12 items asking 199 Black and 174 White newlywed couples to evaluate their overall marital quality. Dimensions were related to respondents' gender, cohabitation history, education, and income, differentially for Blacks and Whites. (TE)

  1. Men's extramarital sex, marital relationships and sexual risk in urban poor communities in India.

    PubMed

    Schensul, Stephen L; Mekki-Berrada, Abdelwahed; Nastasi, Bonnie K; Singh, Rajendra; Burleson, Joseph A; Bojko, Martha

    2006-07-01

    The objectives of this paper are to (1) understand the nature of men's extramarital sexuality in three low income communities in Mumbai, India; (2) explore the associations between marital relationships and extramarital sex; and (3) assess the implications of the research results for intervention. Results are based on survey data collected from 2,408 randomly selected men from the three study communities and a matched subset of 260 randomly selected men and their wives who responded to a female version of the men's survey. These surveys produced a unique data set, which allows sociodemographic, attitudinal and behavioral variables from husband and wife and variables that are the product of husband and wife interaction to be utilized to predict men's extramarital sex through multiple sequential logistic regression analysis. Results indicate that men's extramarital sex is significantly associated with husband's and wife's age, wife's perception of domestic violence, husband's education and place of birth, husband's alcohol use, wife's willingness to engage in marital sex, and types of marital sexual acts. These results confirm the need to move from the individual to the couple as the unit of research and the need for intervention to reduce the risk of HIV/STI transmission within marriage both in India and internationally. PMID:16755388

  2. Exercise and Aging: New Perspectives and Educational Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Darrell; Rosato, Frank D.

    1979-01-01

    Several factors have focused new attention on aging and the aged. A major concern emanating from these has been the role of physical fitness upon the health status of the aging. Benefits of exercise and educational and curricular modifications are identified to promote health and well-being among the elderly. (Author/BEF)

  3. Linking marital conflict and children's adjustment: the role of young children's perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ablow, Jennifer C; Measelle, Jeffrey R; Cowan, Philip A; Cowan, Carolyn P

    2009-08-01

    Young children's (n = 96) perceptions and appraisals of their parents' marital conflict were evaluated at age 5 and again at age 6. Concurrent reports of marital conflict by each parent and teachers' reports of children's classroom adjustment served as criteria against which to evaluate the validity of young children's perceptions. Children's perceptions of their parents' marital relationship were significantly correlated with spouses' reports at ages 5 and 6, as well as correlated with teacher reports of internalizing and externalizing problems. Consistent with the cognitive-contextual theory, children's tendency to blame themselves for their parents' conflict partially mediated the link between marital conflict and children's internalizing symptoms. In contrast, children's reports that they become involved in their parents' conflict partially mediated the effect of marital conflict on externalizing problems. PMID:19685984

  4. Predictors of Extra-Marital Partnerships among Women Married to Fishermen along Lake Victoria in Kisumu County, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Kwena, Zachary; Mwanzo, Isaac; Shisanya, Chris; Camlin, Carol; Turan, Janet; Achiro, Lilian; Bukusi, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background The vulnerability of women to HIV infection makes establishing predictors of women's involvement in extra-marital partnerships critical. We investigated the predictors of extra-marital partnerships among women married to fishermen. Methods The current analyses are part of a mixed methods cross-sectional survey of 1090 gender-matched interviews with 545 couples and 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) with 59 couples. Using a proportional to size simple random sample of fishermen as our index participants, we asked them to enrol in the study with their spouses. The consenting couples were interviewed simultaneously in separate private rooms. In addition to socio-economic and demographic data, we collected information on sexual behaviour including extra-marital sexual partnerships. We analysed these data using descriptive statistics and multivariate logistic regression. For FGDs, couples willing to participate were invited, consented and separated for simultaneous FGDs by gender-matched moderators. The resultant audiofiles were transcribed verbatim and translated into English for coding and thematic content analysis using NVivo 9. Results The prevalence of extra-marital partnerships among women was 6.2% within a reference time of six months. Factors that were independently associated with increased likelihood of extra-marital partnerships were domestic violence (aOR, 1.45; 95% CI 1.09–1.92), women reporting being denied a preferred sex position (aOR, 3.34; 95% CI 1.26–8.84) and spouse longer erect penis (aOR, 1.34; 95% CI 1.00–1.78). Conversely, women's age – more than 24years (aOR, 0.33; 95% CI 0.14–0.78) and women's increased sexual satisfaction (aOR, 0.92; 95% CI 0.87–0.96) were associated with reduced likelihood of extra-marital partnerships. Conclusion Domestic violence, denial of a preferred sex positions, longer erect penis, younger age and increased sexual satisfaction were the main predictors of women's involvement in extra-marital

  5. The Effects of Marital Conflict on Korean Children's Appraisal of Conflict and Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Kyung Ja; Lee, Soojin; Park, Soo Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of marital conflict on Korean children's psychological adjustment and appraisal of hypothetical marital conflict situations. Children between the ages of 10 and 12 were divided into "high-conflict" (n = 58) and "low-conflict" (n = 58) groups based on their self-reported degree of perceived interparental conflict in…

  6. Marital Satisfaction, Family Emotional Expressiveness, Home Learning Environments, and Children's Emergent Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froyen, Laura C.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Blow, Adrian J.; Gerde, Hope K.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigates associations among marital satisfaction, family emotional expressiveness, the home learning environment, and preschool-aged children's emergent literacy skills among 385 Midwestern mothers and their children. Path analyses examined how marital satisfaction related to emotional expressiveness in the home and whether…

  7. Gender, the Marital Life Course, and Cardiovascular Disease in Late Midlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhenmei; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on 5 waves of the Health and Retirement Study, we examine the influence of the marital life course on the prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular disease among 9,434 middle-aged individuals. Results show that compared to continuously married persons, both men and women with a marital loss have significantly higher prevalence of…

  8. Marital and Family Role Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chadwick, Bruce A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This paper reports the satisfaction between several independent variables and marital satisfaction. Adequacy of role performance of both self and spouse and spouse's conformity to expectations emerged as the strongest predictors of satisfaction derived from playing family roles. (Author)

  9. Experiential Environmental Education for Primary Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heather

    Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.…

  10. Aging and Higher Education: Prospects for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebok, George W.

    1981-01-01

    An understanding of adulthood educational participation should be developed according to a criterion of environmental and situationally dependent factors rather than solely to one of inexorable and cross-situational biophysical decline. Environmental and organismic factors that may relate to chronically low rates of educational participation by…

  11. Moral Education in an Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.

  12. Maine Department of Education Regulation 180: Early Intervention and Special Education for Children Age Birth to under Age Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

    This document contains regulations governing the administration of the Childfind system for children age birth to under age 6, the provision of early intervention services to eligible children birth through two with disabilities and their families, and the provision of special education and related services to eligible children age 3 to under 6…

  13. Teaching about Aging. Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary R.

    This teaching guide on aging contains 18 activities for students. A major cognitive objective is for students to examine and evaluate personal and societal attitudes and behavior toward aging in the United States and in other societies. When students make cross-cultural comparisons of these attitudes and behaviors they become aware that their own…

  14. Cultural differences in family, marital, and gender-role values among immigrants and majority members in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Arends-Tóth, Judit; van de Vijver, Fons J R

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the size of differences in self-reported family, marital, and gender-role values in five cultural groups in the Netherlands (6338 Dutch mainstreamers and 422 Turkish, 369 Moroccan, 429 Surinamese, and 394 Antillean first- and second-generation immigrants). It was found that the three value scales were neither completely independent, nor could they be merged into a single value scale. The factor structures of all scales were identical for the five cultural groups, implying that the concepts can be compared. Age, sex, and notably education accounted for a substantial part of the cultural differences in all values. Cultural differences were larger for marital and family values than for gender-role values. Family and marital values yielded the same rank order of mean scores in the five cultural groups: Turks and Moroccans scored the lowest (having the most traditional values), followed by Surinamers, Antilleans, and Dutch mainstreamers. This rank order corresponds with the ethnic hierarchy of cultural groups that is based on the evaluation of ethnic groups by mainstreamers according to their liking of and likeness to ethnic groups. Generational differences were not found for family and gender-role values but first-generation immigrants in all groups had more traditional marital values than had second-generation immigrants. It was concluded that the theoretical framework based on a combination of three Hofstede dimensions (individualism-collectivism, power-distance, and femininity-masculinity), a model of the hierarchy of the ethnic groups in the Dutch society, and acculturation theory provided an adequate way to address family, marital, and gender-role value differences in the five cultural groups. PMID:22029491

  15. The Golden Age of Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The state of education in Saudi Arabia is reviewed in this brief analysis of the country's growth. Considered are the single-sex institutions, enrollment trends at the university level, faculty shortages, campus expansion, and religious influences. (LBH)

  16. Relationships between Selected Personal Characteristics of Special Education Teacher Educators and Their Job Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Robert H.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Over 600 special education teacher educators completed questionnaires about conditions and satisfaction with various aspects of their work. Five discrete job satisfaction factors were identified, with statistically significant differences according to age, marital status, sex, academic rank, tenure status, salary, and number of years in higher…

  17. A Review of Empirically Supported Marital Enrichment Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubowski, Scott F.; Milne, Eric P.; Brunner, Heidi; Miller, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Considering the popularity of marriage enrichment programs, it is important for clinicians and marriage educators to know which programs have received empirical support. Using criteria established for determining empirically supported treatments (ESTs), we provide a comprehensive review of the outcome research on 13 specific marital enrichment…

  18. Improving Marital Prediction: A Model and a Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Dwight G.; Lucas, Wayne L.

    A model for the prediction of marital adjustment is proposed which presents selected social background factors (e.g., education) and interactive factors (e.g., Bienvenu's Communication scale, Hurvitz' Role Inventory, Dean's Emotional Maturity and Commitment scales, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem scale) in order to account for as much of the variance in…

  19. Combining Marriage and Career: The Marital Adjustment of Professional Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseknecht, Sharon K.; Macke, Anne S.

    1981-01-01

    Studied highly educated women and found it is not employment status per se that is important in determining marital adjustment but rather the extent to which family experiences accommodate the wife's employment. Having a supportive husband seems to be a major factor. Freedom from childbearing responsibilities is also important. (Author)

  20. Nursing education and the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.

    1989-05-01

    As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.

  1. Dealing with Unseen Obstacles to Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Valerie J. H.; Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zomp, Christopher; Johnson, Randall S.; Miller, Phillip; Powell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper updates the efforts to educate blind students in higher education in the digital age and describes how to support the development of mental models in learning through tactile learning and 3D-printing technology. It cites research documenting a drop in Braille literacy along with the growth in use of digital technologies by blind…

  2. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

  3. Making Tobacco Education Relevant to the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the trend toward more smoking among the young and to the effect of smoking on human health and life, educators need to devise effective antismoking programs as part of the secondary curriculum. The real problem lies in educating youths prior to the age at which the decision to smoke is made. (JN)

  4. Teachers' Reflections on Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, Laura Kyser; Osborn, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents profiles of and reflections by teachers with international experience, including the authors, who offer insights on education in a global age. The respondents who were colleagues of the authors were interviewed to learn about their K-12 education, insights into and analysis of their experiences teaching abroad, and thoughts…

  5. Educational Outcomes and Indicators for Early Childhood (Age 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; And Others

    The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been working with federal and state agencies to facilitate and enhance the collection and use of data on educational outcomes for students with disabilities. The purpose of this document is to present a model of: (1) early childhood outcomes at age 3, where outcomes are defined as the results…

  6. Beliefs about Aging: Implications for Future Educational Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Debra M.; Bolender, Benjamin C.; Crocker, Andrew B.

    2010-01-01

    The specific aim of this research study was to gain knowledge regarding beliefs about aging, in order to develop future, priority, educational, and aging-related opportunities in Kansas. The study included six focus groups with a self-selected sample of Kansans born during the years 1946-1964 (N = 39). The main themes that surfaced included the…

  7. Flourishing Creativity: Education in an Age of Wonder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2015-01-01

    The twenty-first century is often described as an age of uncertainty and ambiguity with unprecedented challenges. Those with a creative mind-set however might call this millennium an age of wonder. New technologies and digital media are facilitating imagination and inventiveness. How are we innovating education? Are schools and classroom fostering…

  8. Changes in the Age and Education Profile of Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Zavodny, Madeline

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Displaced Workers Surveys suggests that between 1983-97, the likelihood of job loss declined among most age groups but rose for middle-aged/older workers relative to younger workers. Changes in educational attainment and industry shifts were contributing factors. Probability of displacement increased significantly for service workers.…

  9. Higher Education in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Everette E., Ed.; LaMay, Craig L., Ed.

    This book of 16 author-contributed chapters examines issues of the media and public institutions of higher education including: the media ranking of universities and their contribution to low expectations of universities; the disjunction between massive support for college and university sports events and the intellectual and presumed academic…

  10. Science Education in a Secular Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education…

  11. Gender and Age in Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajek, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities' rights have to be secured, but also majorities…

  12. Art Education in the Age of Guantanamo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistolesi, Edie

    2007-01-01

    Censorship exists in institutions where art exists, and also where art education exists. In fall 2005, a group of instructors and the author taught a group project with a political theme--peace. In this article, she examines institutionalized censorship within schools, and the ramifications of teaching the subject of peace in a time of war.…

  13. Psychological Skills Education for School Aged Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the potential for teaching psychological skills to student athletes in school sport programs, outlining a conceptual approach to psychological skills training for athletic coaches. The paper details how to develop a psychological skills education curriculum, explaining issues of curriculum sequence and implementation strategies in the…

  14. Teenage Childbearing, Marital Status, and Depressive Symptoms in Later Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Kunz, James

    2002-01-01

    This longitudinal study tested the contribution of age and marital status at first birth to depressive symptomatology in early adulthood. Findings indicated that unmarried teenage childbearers displayed higher levels of depressive symptoms than women who first gave birth as married adults. The psychological health of married teenage mothers in…

  15. Marital Values and Factors Associated With Marriage Stability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rambo, Brenda Clanton; And Others

    The breakdown of marriage within American society is a serious problem as evidenced by high divorce rates and numerous separations and family problems. A Marriage Values Questionnaire, developed to determine reasons for marrying and staying married and the impact of religion on marital stability, was completed by 305 subjects, ranging in age from…

  16. A Golden Age? Dostoevsky, Daoism and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    There is much of value for educationists in the work of the great Russian novelist and thinker, Fyodor Dostoevsky. This paper explores a key theme in Dostoevsky's later writings: the notion of a "Golden Age". It compares the ideal depicted in Dostoevsky's story "The Dream of a Ridiculous Man" with the implied utopia of the…

  17. Emotion regulation predicts marital satisfaction: More than a wives’ tale

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Lian; Haase, Claudia M.; Levenson, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Emotion regulation is generally thought to be a critical ingredient for successful interpersonal relationships. Ironically, few studies have investigated the link between how well spouses regulate emotion and how satisfied they are with their marriages. We utilized data from a 13-year, 3-wave longitudinal study of middle-aged (40–50 years old) and older (60–70 years old) long-term married couples, focusing on the associations between downregulation of negative emotion (measured during discussions of an area of marital conflict at Wave 1) and marital satisfaction (measured at all three waves). Downregulation of negative emotion was assessed by determining how quickly spouses reduced signs of negative emotion (in emotional experience, emotional behavior, and physiological arousal) after negative emotion events. Data were analyzed using actor-partner interdependence modeling. Findings showed that (a) greater downregulation of wives’ negative experience and behavior predicted greater marital satisfaction for wives and husbands concurrently and (b) greater downregulation of wives’ negative behavior predicted increases in wives’ marital satisfaction longitudinally. Wives’ use of constructive communication (measured between Waves 1 and 2) mediated the longitudinal associations. These results show the benefits of wives’ downregulation of negative emotion during conflict for marital satisfaction and point to wives’ constructive communication as a mediating pathway. PMID:24188061

  18. Successful Aging: An Elaboration of Social and Psychological Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Wilbert M., II

    1981-01-01

    Assessed the relationships between a life satisfaction index and social/demographic/psychological factors in older adults. Results showed marital status, occupational prestige, years of formal education, race, annual income, and a variety of specific satisfaction with life measures were related to successful aging. (Author)

  19. Relationships among Young Adults' Marital Messages Received, Marital Attitudes, and Relationship Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shurts, W. Matthew; Myers, Jane E.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined relationships among university students' marital messages received (MMR), marital attitudes, and romantic relationship self-efficacy (RSE). Results indicated that students' marital attitudes and romantic relationship status predicted their level of RSE. The authors found differences in MMR, marital attitudes, and RSE on the…

  20. "When Are You Getting Married?" The Intergenerational Transmission of Attitudes regarding Marital Timing and Marital Importance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willoughby, Brian J.; Carroll, Jason S.; Vitas, Jennifer M.; Hill, Lauren M.

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 335 young adults and their parents, this study investigated the intergenerational transmission of marital attitudes from parents to their children and how parental marital quality moderates that relationship. Results suggested that the marital attitudes of both mothers and fathers are related to the marital attitudes of their…

  1. Does Premarital Cohabitation Predict Subsequent Marital Stability and Marital Quality? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Anita; O'Leary, K. Daniel; Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Cohabitation with a romantic partner has become common in recent decades. This meta-analysis examined the link between premarital cohabitation and marital stability (k = 16) and marital quality (k = 12). Cohabitation had a significant negative association with both marital stability and marital quality. The negative predictive effect on marital…

  2. Early Family Ties and Marital Stability Over 16 Years: The Context of Race and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Orbuch, Terri L.; Bauermeister, José A.; Brown, Edna; McKinley, Brandyn-Dior

    2016-01-01

    Spouses’ emotional ties to family early in marriage are linked to marital outcomes, but little is known about how these ties affect marital stability and whether these effects vary by race and gender. The present study examines the links between emotional ties to family of origin and in-laws in the first year of marriage and marital stability over the first 16 years of marriage. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study following Black American (n=199) and White American (n=174) married couples. Analyses revealed that perceptions of closeness to in-laws early in marriage were associated with odds of divorce over time, but the results varied by race and gender. Findings are discussed in terms of couples’ ties to family early in marriage and the role that in-law bonds play for marital stability. We also offer insights for practitioners who provide premarital and marital education and counseling services to couples.

  3. Educational Change Takes Ages: Life, Career and Generational Factors in Teachers' Emotional Responses to Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of the emotions of teaching to teachers' age and career stages based on experiences of educational change. Drawing on an analysis of interviews with 50 Canadian elementary, middle and high school teachers it analyzes how teachers respond emotionally to educational change at different ages and stages of career,…

  4. Irrational beliefs and marital conflict.

    PubMed

    Möller, A T; de Beer, Z C

    1998-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that the major irrational evaluative beliefs postulated by Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy are related to marital conflict, 15 married couples participated in a thought-listing procedure. During this procedure, three idiosyncratic scenes portraying marital conflict and three control scenes free of conflict were identified for and presented to each member of the dyad. Analysis indicated that the conflict-portraying scenes were associated with significantly more irrational evaluative beliefs and significantly fewer rational cognitions than the control scenes. PMID:9520547

  5. Constructive and destructive marital conflict, emotional security and children's prosocial behavior

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Kathleen; Cummings, E. Mark; Davies, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01

    Background This study addresses the gaps in understanding the relationship between constructive and destructive marital conflict and children's prosocial behavior from a process-oriented perspective. Method Data were drawn from a three-wave study of 235 families with children ages 5–7 at wave 1. Relations between constructive and destructive marital conflict, children's emotional security, warm parenting and children's prosocial behavior were examined through the use of structural equation modeling. Results Even after controlling for prior levels of children's prosocial behavior at wave 1, children's emotional security acted as an intervening variable between both constructive and destructive marital conflict and children's prosocial behavior over time. Conclusions These findings advance the relationship between marital conflict and children's adjustment by focusing on children's prosocial behavior and highlight the need to further investigate the impact of positive dimensions of marital conflict on dimensions of children's positive social functioning. PMID:18673403

  6. Longitudinal Associations Between Marital Instability and Child Sleep Problems across Infancy and Toddlerhood in Adoptive Families

    PubMed Central

    Mannering, Anne M.; Harold, Gordon T.; Leve, Leslie D.; Shelton, Katherine H.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Conger, Rand D.; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Reiss, David

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between marital instability and child sleep problems at ages 9 and 18 months in 357 families with a genetically unrelated infant adopted at birth. This design eliminates shared genes as an explanation for similarities between parent and child. Structural equation modeling indicated that T1 marital instability predicted T2 child sleep problems, but T1 child sleep problems did not predict T2 marital instability. This pattern of results was replicated when models were estimated separately for mothers and children and for fathers and children. Thus, even after controlling for stability in sleep problems and marital instability and eliminating shared genetic influences on associations using a longitudinal adoption design, marital instability prospectively predicts early childhood sleep patterns. PMID:21557740

  7. Stress, Communication, and Marital Quality in Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ledermann, Thomas; Bodenmann, Guy; Rudaz, Myriam; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    The association between daily stress outside and inside of the relationship and marital functioning in the form of communication in conflict situations and marital quality was examined. We hypothesized that relationship stress mediates the association between external stress and marital functioning at the individual level, and that the association…

  8. Marital and Family Therapy for Alcohol Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.

    Following a brief review of literature on marital and family treatment for alcohol problems, this paper describes two types of marital therapy frequently used with alcoholics and presents a brief overview of results from a study in progress comparing the two modalities. Behavioral marital therapy uses communication skills training, contracting,…

  9. Locus of Control Differences and Marital Dissatisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doherty, William J.

    1981-01-01

    Studied the relationship between spouses' individual expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcements (locus of control), and their level of marital dissatisfaction. Results indicated that only a marital pattern in which the wife was more external and the husband more internal was associated with marital dissatisfaction. (Author)

  10. Variation in trajectories of women's marital quality.

    PubMed

    James, Spencer L

    2015-01-01

    I examine variation in trajectories of women's marital quality across the life course. The analysis improves upon earlier research in three ways: (1) the analysis uses a sequential cohort design and data from the first 35years of marriage; (2) I analyze rich data from a national sample; (3) I examine multiple dimensions of marital quality. Latent class growth analyses estimated on data from women in the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (N=2604) suggest multiple trajectories for each of three dimensions of marital quality, including two trajectories of marital happiness, two trajectories of marital communication, and three trajectories of marital conflict. Socioeconomic and demographic covariates are then used to illustrate how factors such as income, cohabitation, and race-ethnicity set individuals at risk of poor marital quality throughout the life course by differentiating between high and low trajectories of marital quality. Women on low marital quality trajectories are, as expected, at much greater risk of divorce. Taken together, these findings show how fundamental socioeconomic and demographic characteristics contribute to subsequent marital outcomes via their influence on trajectories of marital quality as well as providing a better picture of the complexity in contemporary patterns of marital quality. PMID:25432600

  11. Marital and Family Counseling in Prisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Showalter, David; Jones, Charlotte Williams

    1980-01-01

    Describes series of successful marital workshops conducted at Kansas State Penitentiary, involving problems of inmates, their wives and children. Marital and family counseling seen as effective in implementing changes in inmates' attitudes and behaviors. Recommends marital counseling in all penitentiaries; suggests social workers work to make…

  12. Assessing the Process of Marital Adaptation: The Marital Coping Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zborowski, Lydia L.; Berman, William H.

    Studies on coping with life events identify marriage as a distinct situational stressor, in which a wide range of coping strategies specific to the marital relationship are employed. This study examined the process of martial adaptation, identified as a style of coping, in 116 married volunteers. Subjects completed a demographic questionnaire, the…

  13. Educational Attainment in the United States: March 1991 and 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kominski, Robert; Adams, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    This report contains data on the educational attainment of persons in the United States from the Current Population Surveys of the Census in March 1990 and 1991. Summary data on years of school completed by: (1) age; (2) sex; (3) race; (4) Hispanic origin; (5) marital status; (6) household relationship; (7) education of spouse; (8) labor force…

  14. Consumer Education in an Age of Adaptation. Educator Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sally R.

    Designed to serve as a reference and resource, this publication contains ideas and information to help teachers modify content and teaching methods to assist students in coping with the changing marketplace. Part 1 of the guide lists educational objectives for these major content areas: (1) The Consumer and the Economy, (2) Values and Goals, (3)…

  15. Marital Therapy and Changing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoi-Hoshmand, Lisa

    1976-01-01

    Implications of Feminist and Humanistic values for marriage are conceptualized. Their effects on therapist orientation and definitions of the viable marriage are discussed, together with proposed alternatives in marital intervention. It is concluded that value orientations and standards of positive mental health could provide therapists and…

  16. Smallest Coins of Marital Happiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyan-Masih, V.; And Others

    People tend to have such lofty conceptions of love and marital happiness that little day-to-day simple acts of kindness are seldom considered. This study investigated specific, repetitive, small daily acts that strengthen marriage, and little acts that disturb a stable relationship. Participants (N=57) were individuals who had been happily married…

  17. Cognitive Processes Influencing Marital Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias, Ileana

    This paper reviews the literature on the role of mediating cognitive factors in marital functioning and satisfaction. Types and patterns of causal attributions of distressed and nondistressed couples are compared and the effectiveness of various intervention models is discussed. The materials also discuss the role of unfulfilled expectations as a…

  18. Attitudes about sex and marital sexual behavior in Hai Duong Province, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Ghuman, Sharon

    2005-06-01

    This study examines attitudes concerning sexual relations outside marriage and levels of marital sexual activity using data from married individuals from Hai Duong Province collected in 2001. Among individuals who live in urban areas, have more schooling, and were married after the late 1980s, acceptance is growing concerning intimate behavior without marital commitment and having sex with a future spouse. Schooling, urban residence, and recent marriage have stronger associations with less conservative attitudes among men than among women. Even among younger and better-educated respondents, acceptance of premarital and extramarital sex generally remains below a majority. The reported level of premarital sex is higher among men than among women, and lower than available estimates from other parts of Asia and the developing world. The reported level of sexual activity within marriage in Hai Duong Province is similar to that observed elsewhere, including Thailand and the United States. The incidence of sexual activity declines with age, and at all ages men are more likely than women to report having sex with their spouse. The implications of these gender differences in sexual attitudes and behavior are considered. PMID:15991647

  19. The Interactive Effects of Marital Conflict and Divorce on Parent-Adult Children’s Relationships

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tianyi; Pettit, Gregory S.; Lansford, Jennifer E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines main effect and interactive models of the relations between marital conflict, divorce, and parent-adult child relationships, and gender differences in these relations. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of a community sample (N = 585). Parental marital conflict and divorce were measured from age 5 through age 17. Mother-child and father-child relationship quality at age 22 was assessed in terms of Closeness-Support and Conflict-Control. Results indicate that both marital conflict and divorce were associated with poorer quality of parent-adult child relationships. Divorce moderated the link between marital conflict and subsequent negativity in mother-child relationships, with the estimated effects being stronger in continuously married families than in divorced families, especially for women. PMID:20544009

  20. Using Education Technology as a Proactive Approach to Healthy Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Daragh; Spencer, Anne; Hussey, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Bone Health in the Park was created in Ireland and is an online health promotion education resource focussing on bone health, healthy ageing and falls prevention. The programme was designed by an Advanced Nurse Practitioner in collaboration with an Education Technologist and primarily uses storytelling to promote education specifically on bone health and falls risk prevention for health care professionals, clients, families and informal carers. This paper reports on core deliverables from this programme from 2010 to 2015, and provides insight into their development, in addition to details on its clinical effectiveness by using technology enhanced learning to underpin health promotion initiatives. PMID:27332189

  1. Australian Family Research Conference Proceedings (Canberra, Australia, November 23-25, 1983). Volume III: Marital Adjustment and Breakdown.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).

    Third in a series of seven volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with marital adjustment and breakdown. Papers are organized into four major sections: education for family tasks, marital satisfaction, adjustment to separation, and construction of family image. Papers and…

  2. Marital Discord and Subsequent Marital Dissolution: Perceptions of Nepalese Wives and Husbands

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Elyse

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the influence of marital discord on separation and divorce in a rural South Asian setting. We know little about how marital discord influences marital outcomes in settings with low personal freedom and limited access to independence. Using a sample of 674 couples from the Chitwan Valley Family Study in Nepal, this paper investigates the impact of marital discord on the rate of marital dissolution, and the extent to which wives’ and husbands’ perceptions of discord influence dissolution. Results reveal that (a) spouses’ perceptions of marital discord increase the rate of marital dissolution, (b) both husbands’ and wives’ perceptions of discord have an important influence, and (c) the influence of wives’ perceptions of discord is independent of their husbands’ perceptions. Overall, these findings suggest that both spouses’ perceptions of discord are important for marital outcomes, even in settings where the costs of marital dissolution are relatively high. PMID:25484450

  3. Media Arts: Arts Education for a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppler, Kylie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: New technologies have been largely absent in arts education curriculum even though they offer opportunities to address arts integration, equity, and the technological prerequisites of an increasingly digital age. This paper draws upon the emerging professional field of "media arts" and the ways in which youth use new…

  4. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    This paper presents a career developmental model covering the ages of 5 to 18. Career development education includes experiences which facilitate self-awareness, career-awareness and career decision-making. Before choosing a model for career development, it is necessary to decide on a model for child development. The model developed here borrows…

  5. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1974-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a framework by which educators interested in stimulating career development can choose the learning experiences most likely to have payoffs for different age youth. Eight stages of child development are described with career development themes suggested for each stage along with sample activities. (Author)

  6. Age and educational track influence adolescent discounting of delayed rewards

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nikki C.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Boschloo, Annemarie; Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in a specific aspect of adolescent decision-making, namely the preference for future versus immediate outcomes. A sample of 622 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 years completed a temporal discounting task. Participants were asked to choose between a delayed reward of €50 or an immediate reward of lower value. The delay interval was varied in three blocks (1 week, 1 month, 6 months). Results showed that preferences for large delayed rewards over smaller immediate rewards increased with age: late adolescents made more long-term decisions than early adolescents. This change was related to educational track. In the lower educational track, an age-related decrease in discounting was found for all three delay intervals. In the higher educational track this decrease only occurred for the 6 month delay interval. However, across all delay intervals enrolment in a higher level educational track was associated with an increased preference for long-term rewards. These results suggest that late adolescents are less susceptible than early adolescents to the competing presence of an immediate reward when making long-term decisions, a skill which becomes increasingly important as they transition into adulthood. PMID:24421778

  7. The Impact of Higher Education on Mature Age Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Leo H. T.; And Others

    Changes in the working and personal lives of adults as a result of completing a bachelor's degree as a mature-age student were studied in Australia. Also considered were students' progress through the degree, patterns of employment while enrolled, and additional formal higher education after completing (or withdrawing from) the program. The study…

  8. Effective Parenting Education through Age-Paced Newsletters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Nelson, Pat Tanner

    2004-01-01

    For more than 20 years, Cooperative Extension University and county faculty throughout the nation have made available an unusually parent-friendly series of educational newsletters. Monthly issues of the newsletters address information by age groups. Through local and state collaborations that often feature the county Extension office, hospitals,…

  9. Another Challenge. Age 70 Retirement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans H.; And Others

    Changes in higher education employee benefit plans brought about by the extension of the mandatory retirement age to 70 are the focus of the monograph. Chapter one summarizes the volume and presents some major recommendations that institutions may find helpful in benefit and personnel planning. Chapter two sketches the meaning of the new law (1978…

  10. Special Education Forms. Volume 1: School-Age Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Sandra; And Others

    This document comprises forms (and directions for their use) used in Oregon in conjunction with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) for school-aged children. Forms are identified as either required or optional and are presented in a two-page format, with one page identifying the form, explaining its purposes, and providing…

  11. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  12. The New Age of Telecommunication: Setting the Context for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J.

    1986-01-01

    This overview provides a technological context for the telecommunications age by describing existing and emerging systems--telephone, broadcasting, cable television, fiber optic, satellite, optical disk, and computer technology--and services available via these systems. It is suggested that educators need to become technologically literate and…

  13. Mothers and Sons: A Look at the Relationship between Child Behavior Problems, Marital Satisfaction, Maternal Depression, and Family Cohesion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, A. Davis; Sayger, Thomas V.; Horne, Arthur M.

    2003-01-01

    Assesses the interacting relationship between child behavior problems, marital satisfaction, maternal depression, and family cohesion in 43 mothers and school-aged boys. Results suggest that mothers with depressive symptoms report lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of child behavior problems. Findings also suggest that maternal…

  14. Criterion-related validity of the Marital Disaffection Scale as a measure of marital estrangement.

    PubMed

    Flowers, C; Robinson, B E; Carroll, J J

    2000-06-01

    The Marital Disaffection Scale was administered, along with measures of positive feelings towards spouse, problem-drinking behavior of spouse, workaholic behavior of spouse, and marital status, to 323 female members of the American Counseling Association. Scores on the Marital Disaffection Scale showed significant inverse correlations (r = -.94) with positive feelings towards spouse and (rpb = -.63) with marital status. Scores on the Marital Disaffection Scale showed significant positive relationships (r = .36) with spouse's problem drinking behavior and (r = .48) with workaholic behavior of spouse. The results support the use of the Marital Disaffection Scale as a measure of emotional estrangement in marriage. PMID:10932563

  15. Educating an Aging Society: The University of the Third Age in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenerall, Joseph D.

    2003-01-01

    The University of the Third Age in Finland has evolved from English and French models to include lectures, discussion groups, and research groups. A survey of 165 adult learners found their primary reason for participating was to acquire general education and self-knowledge. Socializing and meeting people were among the lowest ranked motivations.…

  16. Learning Reconsidered: Education in the Digital Age. Communications, Convergence and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Everette E.; Meyer, Philip; Sundar, S. Shyam; Pryor, Larry; Rogers, Everett M.; Chen, Helen L.; Pavlik, John

    2003-01-01

    Includes thoughts of seven educators on the place of digital communication in journalism and mass communication education. Discusses communication scholars and the professional field's readiness for the digital age. Notes educators' attitudes towards technology and technology's applications in education. (PM)

  17. Domestic violence, marital control, and family planning, maternal, and birth outcomes in Timor-Leste.

    PubMed

    Meiksin, Rebecca; Meekers, Dominique; Thompson, Susan; Hagopian, Amy; Mercer, Mary Anne

    2015-06-01

    Patriarchal traditions and a history of armed conflict in Timor-Leste provide a context that facilitates violence against women. More than a third of ever-married Timorese women report physical and/or sexual domestic violence (DV) perpetrated by their most recent partner. DV violates women's rights and may threaten their reproductive health. Marital control may also limit women's reproductive control and healthcare access. Our study investigated relationships between DV and marital control and subsequent family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes in Timor-Leste. Using logistic regression, we examined 2009-2010 Demographic and Health Survey data from a nationally representative sample of 2,951 women in Timor-Leste. We controlled for age, education, and wealth. We limited our analyses of pregnancy- and birth-related outcomes to those from the 6 months preceding the survey. Rural women with controlling husbands were less likely than other rural women to have an unmet need for family planning (Adj. OR 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9). Rural women who experienced DV were more likely than other rural women to have an unplanned pregnancy (Adj. OR 2.6; 95 % CI 1.4-4.8), fewer than four antenatal visits (Adj. OR 2.3; 95 % CI 1.1-4.9), or a baby born smaller than average (Adj. OR 3.1; 95 % CI 1.4-6.7). DV and marital control were not associated with the tested outcomes among urban women. Given high rates of DV internationally, our findings have important implications. Preventing DV may benefit both women and future generations. Furthermore, rural women who experience DV may benefit from targeted interventions that mediate associated risks of negative family planning, maternal healthcare, and birth outcomes. PMID:25480470

  18. Household and neighborhood conditions partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in the National Health and Aging Trends Study.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Laura J; Glass, Thomas A; Thorpe, Roland J; Szanton, Sarah L; Roth, David L

    2015-03-01

    Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (educational effects into direct effects and indirect effects via household and neighborhood conditions, using sample weights and adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, household size, BMI, self-reported health, and number of medical conditions in 6874 community-dwelling participants. Education was directly associated with SPPB scores (β = 0.055, p < 0.05) and peak flow (β = 0.095, p < 0.05), but not grip strength. Also, indirect effects were found for household disorder with SPPB scores (β = 0.013, p < 0.05), grip strength (β = 0.007, p < 0.05), and peak flow (β = 0.010, p < 0.05). Indirect effects were also found for street disorder with SPPB scores (β = 0.012, p < 0.05). Indirect effects of household and neighborhood conditions accounted for approximately 35%, 27% and 14% of the total association between education and SPPB scores, grip strength level, and peak expiratory flow level, respectively. Household disorder and street disorder partially accounted for educational disparities in physical capacity. However, educational disparities in SPPB scores and peak expiratory flow persisted after accounting for household and neighborhood conditions and chronic conditions, suggesting additional pathways. Interventions and policies aiming to

  19. Household and neighborhood conditions partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in the National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Laura J.; Glass, Thomas A.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Szanton, Sarah L.; Roth, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Socioeconomic resources, such as education, prevent disability but are not readily modifiable. We tested the hypothesis that household and neighborhood conditions, which may be modifiable, partially account for associations between education and physical capacity in a population-based sample of older adults. The National Health and Aging Trends Study measured education (educational effects into direct effects and indirect effects via household and neighborhood conditions, using sample weights and adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, marital status, household size, BMI, self-reported health, and number of medical conditions in 6874 community-dwelling participants. Education was directly associated with SPPB scores (β=0.055, p<0.05) and peak flow (β=0.095, p<0.05), but not grip strength. Also, indirect effects were found for household disorder with SPPB scores (β=0.013, p<0.05), grip strength (β=0.007, p<0.05), and peak flow (β=0.010, p<0.05). Indirect effects were also found for street disorder with SPPB scores (β=0.012, p<0.05). Indirect effects of household and neighborhood conditions accounted for approximately 35%, 27% and 14% of the total association between education and SPPB scores, grip strength level, and peak expiratory flow level, respectively. Household disorder and street disorder partially accounted for educational disparities in physical capacity. However, educational disparities in SPPB scores and peak expiratory flow persisted after accounting for household and neighborhood conditions and chronic conditions, suggesting additional pathways. Interventions and policies aiming to support aging in place

  20. I’ve Got You Under My Skin: Marital Biography and Biological Risk

    PubMed Central

    McFarland, Michael J.; Hayward, Mark D.; Brown, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Social relationships shape adult health in profound ways. This study informs our understanding of this association by investigating how the transitions, timing, and exposures to marriage are associated with types of biological risk presumed to serve as pathways to disease and disability. Drawing on the 2005 – 2006 National Social Health and Aging Project (N = 1,062), the authors evaluated how marital biography was associated with cardiovascular, metabolic, and chronic inflammation risk. The results showed that the effects of marital biography were highly sensitive to gender, the dimension of marital biography, and type of biological risk. For example, marital exposure was protective of cardiovascular risk for women, but not men, whereas an earlier age at first marriage had a pernicious effect on chronic inflammation among men, but not women. Health behaviors did not explain these associations. The implications of these findings are discussed as they pertain to under-the-skin risk processes and chronic morbidity. PMID:26078480

  1. Marital conflict and adolescent distress: the role of adolescent awareness.

    PubMed

    Harold, G T; Conger, R D

    1997-04-01

    The present longitudinal study (1989-1991) of seventh-grade adolescents (173 boys, 197 girls; M age = 12.7 in 1989) living in the rural Midwest examined the influence of children's awareness of marital conflict and reported level of parental hostility on symptoms of adolescent distress. The theoretical model guiding the research indirectly linked marital conflict to adolescent perceptions of parents' hostility through the mediating effects of parents' and observers' report of hostility toward the adolescent and through adolescent awareness of the frequency of interparental conflict. Controlling for earlier levels of psychological distress, we hypothesized a direct path between adolescent report of parent hostility and adolescent maladjustment. Maximum likelihood estimation of the proposed model showed that marital conflict was significantly related to parents' and observers' reports of parent hostility toward the adolescent and to adolescent awareness of conflict frequency. Both parent hostility and adolescent awareness of the frequency of marital conflicts were significantly related to adolescent perceptions of parent hostility. When controlled for earlier distress, adolescent report of parent hostility significantly predicted the later internalizing and externalizing symptoms of these teenagers. The model predicted externalizing problems for boys but not girls. Otherwise, there were no gender differences in the postulated causal processes. PMID:9180005

  2. Marital Histories and Heavy Alcohol Use Among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Reczek, Corinne; Pudrovska, Tetyana; Carr, Deborah; Umberson, Debra; Thomeer, Mieke Beth

    2015-01-01

    We develop a gendered marital biography approach—which emphasizes the accumulating gendered experiences of singlehood, marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage—to examine the relationship between marital statuses and transitions and heavy alcohol use. We test this approach using individual-level (N=10,457) and couple-level (N=2,170) longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), and individual-level (N=46) and couple-level (N=42) in-depth interview data. Quantitative results show that marriage, including remarriage, reduces men’s but increases women’s drinking relative to being never-married and previously married, whereas divorce increases men’s but decrease women’s drinking, with some variation by age. Our qualitative findings reveal that social control and convergence processes underlie quantitative results. We call attention to how men’s and women’s heavy drinking trajectories stop, start, and change direction as individuals move through their distinctive marital biography. PMID:26957135

  3. Marital Satisfaction: The Differential Impact of Social Support Dependent on Situation and Gender in Medical Staff in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Rostami, Arian; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Stress is unavoidable in everyday life and it can effect on marital relationship. Social support especially from emotionally closed persons as a protective factor can help individuals to deal with stress and buffers the negative effects of life stress on marital satisfaction. In the present cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between social and spousal support and marital satisfaction in medical staff in Iran. Data collection was performed in 653 medical staff using socio-demographic questions, the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Inventory, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Women and men did not differ in total social support satisfaction and the total number of supporting people; but, women were more often support providers for their husbands than men were for their wives. Spouse support was a more important indicator of marital satisfaction for women than for men. Also results revealed that spouse support is more important than social support from other resources to explain marital satisfaction. Job satisfaction had an explanatory effect on marital satisfaction especially in men. Furthermore, the findings showed that social support could decrease the explanatory impact of job satisfaction on scales of marital satisfaction. Therefore, focusing on social support, especially spouse support could be an effective approach in family counseling or family education programs to improve marital satisfaction in medical staff. PMID:23777731

  4. Marital satisfaction: the differential impact of social support dependent on situation and gender in medical staff in Iran.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Arian; Ghazinour, Mehdi; Richter, Jörg

    2013-07-01

    Stress is unavoidable in everyday life and it can effect on marital relationship. Social support especially from emotionally closed persons as a protective factor can help individuals to deal with stress and buffers the negative effects of life stress on marital satisfaction. In the present cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between social and spousal support and marital satisfaction in medical staff in Iran. Data collection was performed in 653 medical staff using socio-demographic questions, the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Inventory, and the Social Support Questionnaire. Women and men did not differ in total social support satisfaction and the total number of supporting people; but, women were more often support providers for their husbands than men were for their wives. Spouse support was a more important indicator of marital satisfaction for women than for men. Also results revealed that spouse support is more important than social support from other resources to explain marital satisfaction. Job satisfaction had an explanatory effect on marital satisfaction especially in men. Furthermore, the findings showed that social support could decrease the explanatory impact of job satisfaction on scales of marital satisfaction. Therefore, focusing on social support, especially spouse support could be an effective approach in family counseling or family education programs to improve marital satisfaction in medical staff. PMID:23777731

  5. The Second Educational Revolution: Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, A.; Halverson, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper drew upon a recent book ("Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology") to summarize a number of prospects and challenges arising from the appropriation of digital technology into learning and educational practice. Tensions between traditional models of schooling and the affordances of digital media were noted, while the promise of…

  6. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  7. Marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms in China.

    PubMed

    Miller, Richard B; Mason, Tiffany M; Canlas, Jerevie M; Wang, Dahua; Nelson, David A; Hart, Craig H

    2013-08-01

    Although there is substantial evidence that low marital satisfaction is a significant risk factor for depression, little research has examined this relationship in cultures outside of the U.S. and Europe. The validity of the marital discord model of depression in Chinese culture was tested by studying 391 couples living in Beijing and Hangzhou, China. Results of structural equation modeling using an actor-partner interdependence model strategy indicated that husbands' and wives' marital satisfaction was significantly predictive of their own depressive symptoms. In addition, wives' marital satisfaction significantly predicted husbands' depressive symptoms. These results provide evidence that the marital discord model of depression is useful in understanding the role of marital dissatisfaction as a risk factor for depressive symptoms in collectivistic societies, such as China. PMID:23834363

  8. Public Education on a Minnesota Chippewa Reservation. Volumes 1-6. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harkins, Arthur M.

    The 6 volumes contain the results of the Blue Pine Chippewa study, including historical, cultural, social, and educational aspects of the region. Analyses and comparisons are made on bases of age, residential area, marital status, degree of Indian blood, income, education, available transportation, religious choice, veteran status, and race.…

  9. AN EXPLORATORY EDUCATIONAL SURVEY OF THE PANCHAYATI RAJ (DEVELOPMENT) OFFICERS IN THE STATE OF RAJASTHAN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DRAPER, JAMES A.; SHRIVASTAVA, O. P.

    THIS REPORT SUMMARIZES QUESTIONNAIRE DATA ON PERSONAL CHARACTERISTICS (AGE RANGE AND MARITAL AND FAMILY STATUS), SERVICE AND TRAINING (INCLUDING EDUCATIONAL ASPIRATIONS), LIVING AND WORKING CONDITIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS FOR IMPROVING CONTINUING EDUCATION, REPORTED BY 65 PANCHAYATI RAJ (BLOCK DEVELOPMENT) OFFICERS, 55 COOPERATIVE EXTENSION OFFICERS,…

  10. Sub-ethnic variations in breastfeeding, marital sexuality, and fertility in Yorubaland.

    PubMed

    Adeokun, L A

    1988-09-01

    The research note capsules an examination of 500 women of reproductive age in each of the 5 largest subgroups of Yoruba in Nigeria by means of self-administered questionnaires and in-depth interviews with selected families between 1963 and 1986. The research objective was to ascertain marital sexual strategies, cultural practices, child rearing beliefs and attitudes in order to explain similarities and differences in fertility levels. It was hoped that the information would suggest alternatives which would encourage smaller family size and simultaneously show sensitivity to prevailing beliefs and behaviors. The findings were that urban and rural populations showed the greatest differences in attitudes and behavior. An example is given of the Ekiti-Yoruba who reflect modernization, education, and urban influences of reduced breastfeeding and limited post-partum abstinence, while rural populations maintain the practice of observing lactational taboos of postpartum abstinence. Between ethnic groups, there were also wide differences in breastfeeding patterns and postpartum abstinence. Marital sexuality and child spacing practices also were different. The consequences of sexual taboos are perceived differently by spouses, particularly when the female is involved in independent economic activity. One implication is that cultural practices still determine the limits to sexual activity within marriage and family planning, rather than just the promotion of another pregnancy. Consequently, an approach to fertility reduction would be more effective if family size reduction is stressed initially rather than offers of contraceptives, which can be offered later. PMID:12283512

  11. A Study of Expectations and the Marital Quality of Participants of a Marital Enrichment Seminar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Lee J.; Gordon, Kristina Coop; Frousakis, Nikki N.; Schumm, Jeremiah A.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the effects of expectations of effort of self and spouse on the marital quality of marital enrichment seminar participants. Self-report measures of marital quality, expectations regarding effort put into implementing what was learned during the seminar, amount of perceived effort, and satisfaction with effort…

  12. Incremental validity of spouse ratings versus self-reports of personality as predictors of marital quality and behavior during marital conflict.

    PubMed

    Cundiff, Jenny M; Smith, Timothy W; Frandsen, Clay A

    2012-09-01

    The personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness are consistently related to marital quality, influencing the individual's own (i.e., actor effect) and the spouse's marital quality (i.e., partner effect). However, this research has almost exclusively relied on self-reports of personality, despite the fact that spouse ratings have been found to have incremental validity over self-reports for a variety of other important outcomes. In a study of 300 middle-aged and older married couples, we examined the incremental validity of spouse ratings of neuroticism and agreeableness in predicting concurrent levels of self-reported marital quality, observations of behavior during a marital disagreement task, and depressive symptoms. Neuroticism and agreeableness had expected actor and partner effects on each of these outcomes. Spouse ratings of these traits demonstrated incremental validity in estimates of actor and partner effects on marital quality, marital behavior, and depressive symptoms. Results suggest that spouse ratings of personality may be important additions to the typical reliance on self-reports for research and clinical assessment in marriage. PMID:22149325

  13. Marital conflict and parental responses to infant negative emotions: Relations with toddler emotional regulation.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Leslie A; Umemura, Tomo; Jacobvitz, Deborah; Hazen, Nancy

    2015-08-01

    According to family systems theory, children's emotional development is likely to be influenced by family interactions at multiple levels, including marital, mother-child, and father-child interactions, as well as by interrelations between these levels. The purpose of the present study was to examine parents' marital conflict and mothers' and fathers' distressed responses to their infant's negative emotions, assessed when their child was 8 and 24 months old, in addition to interactions between parents' marital conflict and their distressed responses, as predictors of their toddler's negative and flat/withdrawn affect at 24 months. Higher marital conflict during infancy and toddlerhood predicted both increased negative and increased flat/withdrawn affect during toddlerhood. In addition, toddlers' negative (but not flat) affect was related to mothers' distressed responses, but was only related to father's distressed responses when martial conflict was high. Implications of this study for parent education and family intervention were discussed. PMID:26047678

  14. The influence of marital quality and attachment styles on traumatic grief and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    van Doorn, C; Kasl, S V; Beery, L C; Jacobs, S C; Prigerson, H G

    1998-09-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between marital quality and adjustment to the impending loss of a terminally ill spouse. Most studies of marital quality and grief have been based on retrospective reports of the marriage rather than pre-loss assessments. Here, we tested the pre-loss cross-sectional effects of having a security-enhancing marriage on traumatic grief and depressive symptoms among 59 caregivers aged 50 and over of terminally ill spouses. We also examined whether insecure attachment styles were associated with traumatic grief and depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that security-increasing marriages and insecure attachment styles put spouses at risk for elevated traumatic grief symptoms. Results also indicate that marital quality and attachment style did not interact and that neither was significantly associated with depressive symptoms. The differences in the relationship of marital quality and attachment styles to the two outcomes suggest that the etiology of traumatic grief and depressive symptoms may be distinct. PMID:9741563

  15. Parental dysphoria and children's internalizing symptoms: marital conflict styles as mediators of risk.

    PubMed

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D; Cummings, E Mark

    2003-01-01

    Parents' marital conflict styles were investigated as mediators in the associations between parental dysphoria and children's internalizing symptoms. A community sample of 267 children, ages 8 to 16, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' interactions during marital conflict resolution tasks. Questionnaires assessed parents' dysphoria and children's internalizing problems. Structural equation modeling indicated that marital discord, in particular, depressive conflict styles, mediated the relationship between parental dysphoria and children's internalizing problems. Furthermore, whereas for dysphoric mothers, depressive conflict styles partially mediated the links with children's internalizing, for fathers, depressive conflict styles fully mediated the links. Destructive and constructive marital conflict were associated with parental dysphoria (positively and negatively, respectively) but did not mediate the relations with children's internalizing. PMID:14669888

  16. [Marital satisfaction in neurotic patients].

    PubMed

    Plháková, A; Osecká, L

    1994-06-01

    The authors compared marital satisfaction of men and women in the neurotic and the control group. The examined persons also evaluated satisfaction of their partners and in their parents' marriages. The results of the work suggest, that the neurotic patients were less satisfied in the marriage than the members of the control group. Further, it was found that men were more satisfied than women. Neurotic individuals evaluated their parents' marriages as less satisfactory than persons who had not been treated for neurosis. The results of the research provided evidence that there are some differences in an estimation of the partners' satisfaction between the neurotic and the control group. PMID:8055599

  17. Indian Metis Project for Careers in Teacher Education (I.M.P.A.C.T.E.). An Internal Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughton, A. John

    Individual profiles (age, sex, marital status, number of dependents, type of withdrawal, academic success, center attended, educational background, and date of enrollment) were established for 87% of the 138 students enrolled in the Indian Metis Project for Careers in Teacher Education (IMPACTE) at Brandon University (Canada) between 1970 and…

  18. Marriage work in older couples: Disclosure of marital problems to spouses and friends over time.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Jakob F; Rauer, Amy J

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the frequency and impact of "marriage work" (MW), or the act of discussing marital problems with spouses and friends, among a sample of older married couples (N = 64). Using actor-partner interdependence models, we examined how turning to one's spouse and one's friend was linked to changes in both spouses' marital satisfaction and conflict 1 year later. We also investigated whether satisfaction and conflict predicted change in MW for older spouses. Both wives and husbands engaged in more MW with spouses than with friends, and only husbands' MW with spouses decreased over time. Wives' MW with spouses was associated with decreased marital satisfaction for husbands, whereas husbands' MW with spouses was linked with increased satisfaction for husbands. Furthermore, wives' MW with spouses predicted increases in wives' marital conflict over time. When examining effects in the opposite direction, wives' marital satisfaction predicted decreases in wives' MW with spouse. Husbands' satisfaction was linked with increases in wives' MW with spouses, increases in wives' MW with friends, and decreases in husbands' MW with friends. Finally, husbands' conflict predicted increases in husbands' MW with friends. Findings suggest that openly engaging in discussions of marital problems may not be as uniformly helpful for aging couples as it is for their younger counterparts. Given that many older adults tend to actively avoid conflictual interactions in an attempt to maximize emotional rewards, researchers and clinicians should note that traditional approaches to working through romantic conflict may not be ideal for aging couples. PMID:26030028

  19. Marital status and risk of dementia: a nationwide population-based prospective study from Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Sundström, Anna; Westerlund, Olle; Kotyrlo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between marital status and dementia in a cohort of young-old (50–64) and middle-old (65–74) adults, and also whether this may differ by gender. Design Prospective population-based study with follow-up time of up to 10 years. Setting Swedish national register-based study. Participants 2 288 489 individuals, aged 50–74 years, without prior dementia diagnosis at baseline. Dementia was identified using the Swedish National Patient Register and the Cause of Death Register. Outcome measures The influence of marital status on dementia was analysed using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted stepwise for multiple covariates (model 1: adjusted for age and gender; and model 2: additionally adjusted for having adult children, education, income and prior cardiovascular disease). Results During follow-up, 31 572 individuals in the study were identified as demented. Cox regression showed each non-married subcategory to be associated with a significantly higher risk of dementia than the married group, with the highest risk observed among people in the young-old age group, especially among those who were divorced or single (HRs 1.79 vs 1.71, fully adjusted model). Analyses stratified by gender showed gender differences in the young-old group, with indications of divorced men having a higher relative risk compared with divorced women (HRs 2.1 vs 1.7, only-age adjusted model). However, in the fully adjusted model, these differences were attenuated and there was no longer any significant difference between male and female participants. Conclusions Our results suggest that those living alone as non-marrieds may be at risk for early-onset and late-onset dementia. Although more research is needed to understand the underlying mechanism by which marital status is associated with dementia, this suggests that social relationships should be taken seriously as a risk factor for dementia and that social-based interventions may provide

  20. The Intergenerational Transmission of Marital Instability Reconsidered.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Ellen F.; Nay, W. Robert

    1982-01-01

    Investigated whether marriage-related attitudes which are antagonistic to successful marital adjustment, or maladaptive styles of marital interaction, contribute to the higher divorce rate of children from disrupted marriages. Findings indicated that children from separated/divorced homes espouse the most favorable attitude toward divorce. (Author)

  1. The Marital Relationship in Remarried Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, James E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared the marital relationship in families with remarried mothers and families whose mothers had never divorced on dimensions of spouses' depression, marital satisfaction, sharing of housekeeping and child-rearing roles, and positive and negative affect spouses directed to one another. (BC)

  2. Marital Conflict and Disruption of Children's Sleep

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Buckhalt, Joseph, A.; Mize, Jacquelyn; Acebo, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Marital conflict was examined as a predictor of the quality and quantity of sleep in a sample of healthy 8 to 9 year-olds. Parents and children reported on marital conflict, the quantity and quality of children's sleep were examined through an actigraph worn for 7 consecutive nights, and child sleepiness was derived from child and mother reports.…

  3. Psychological Reactance in Marital Enrichment Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Ronald; And Others

    This investigation was the second in a series of empirical studies on marital enrichment training using the Training in Marital Enrichment (TIME) model. In addition to further study of the TIME model, interest was also directed in the current study to more fully clarifying the nature of change in the model by including a measure of the construct…

  4. Conflict in Maritally Distressed Military Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, William A.; Morgan, Allison R.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated whether 30 maritally distressed military couples differed from 30 distressed civilian couples using marital satisfaction questionnaires. Found same-sex differences across groups, and cross-sex differences within groups. Found military wives were more likely to be physically abused than were civilian wives, and more often requested…

  5. Marital and Life Satisfaction among Gifted Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone-McGovern, Kristin M.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Vannatter, Aarika

    2012-01-01

    Spousal giftedness, dual-career status, and gender were studied in relation to marital and life satisfaction among gifted adults. The data for the present study were collected twice over a 5-year period in order to examine the stability of the findings over time. Results indicated that marital satisfaction was significantly related to life…

  6. Marital Adjustment Correlates in Young Couples.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskell, Samuel D.

    The Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Scale was administered to 35 Caucasian, Protestant couples who were married an average of nine years, largely middle class, and lived in Knoxville, Tennessee. Significant correlates of marital adjustment were organized into groups of similar variables. Correlate groups that were the same for the husband and…

  7. Public Attitude toward Optician Education as Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerardi, Steven J.; Woods, Thomas A.; White, Debra R.; Hill, Roger S.

    A study sought to identify what the public thinks about the appropriate level of education and training for opticians. A 10% random sample of 1,510 New York State customers (n=151) of a large multinational opticianry corporation was surveyed. Two categories of data were social background (combined annual family income, age, marital status, race,…

  8. Charismatic Behaviors and Traits of Future Educational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Ana Gil

    This paper examines the charismatic behaviors and traits entering graduate students bring to their training as future educational leaders and explores the differences in gender, age, marital status, position held, and sibling ranks of entering graduate students regarding charismatic behaviors and traits. The exploratory descriptive study examined…

  9. Marital Conflict, Depressive Symptoms, and Functional Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Heejeong; Marks, Nadine F.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by a stress process perspective, we investigated (a) whether marital conflict might directly lead to changes in depression and functional impairment, (b) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in functional impairment via depression, and (c) whether marital conflict might indirectly lead to changes in depression via functional impairment. We estimated a latent variable causal model using 3 waves of data from the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,832). Results indicated that marital conflict directly led to increases in depression and functional impairment and indirectly led to a rise in depression via functional impairment. Overall, findings suggest marital conflict is a significant risk factor for psychological and physical health among midlife and older adults. PMID:18698378

  10. Transactional Relations Between Marital Functioning and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kouros, Chrystyna D.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated dynamic, longitudinal associations between depressive symptoms and marital processes. Two hundred ninety-six couples reported on marital satisfaction, marital conflict, and depressive symptoms yearly for three years. Observational measures of marital conflict were also collected. Results suggested that different domains of marital functioning related to husbands’ versus wives’ symptoms. For husbands, transactional relations between marital satisfaction and depressive symptoms were identified: high levels of depressive symptoms predicted subsequent decreases in marital satisfaction, and decreased marital satisfaction predicted subsequent elevations in symptoms over time. For wives, high levels of marital conflict predicted subsequent elevations in symptoms over time. Cross-partner results indicated that husbands’ depressive symptoms were also related to subsequent declines in wives’ marital satisfaction. Results are discussed with regard to theoretical perspectives on the marital functioning-depression link and directions for future research are outlined. PMID:21219284

  11. Accountability and a Systems Approach to Marital Counseling in the University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Donald L., Jr.

    The purpose of this paper was to bring together the concept of educational accountability and a systems approach to delivering marital counseling services to a university community. In so doing a heavy emphasis was placed on outliving the basic assumptions underlying the current movement for educational accountability and presenting one, very…

  12. SPOUSAL INTRUSION AS A PREDICTOR OF WIVES' MARITAL SATISFACTION IN THEIR SPOUSES' RETIREMENT.

    PubMed

    Bozoglan, Bahadir

    2015-06-01

    Retirement of men changes their roles and participation and affects their spouses' daily routines, roles, and participation. This study assessed the effects of spousal intrusion on marital satisfaction in retirement. Questionnaires assessing demographics, spousal intrusion, shared couple activities, feelings, and marital satisfaction were administered to a group of 151 volunteer women whose husbands were retired in two cities in Turkey. The women were recruited among those who were willing to share their feelings and thoughts about their husbands' retirement process as a result of one-on-one interviews. Hierarchical regression analysis indicated that the perception of spousal intrusion, education status, frequency of shared activities, and dyadic adjustment predicted women's marital satisfaction in retirement. However, spousal intrusion did not significantly predict women's marital satisfaction when dyadic adjustment was entered in the second model. In the third model, final variables together predicted 19% of women's marital satisfaction in their spouse's retirement. These findings are important as they underline the factors affecting women's marital satisfaction in their spouses' retirement period. PMID:25933047

  13. Re-Searching Secondary Teacher Trainees in Distance Education and Face-to-Face Mode: Study of Their Background Variables, Personal Characteristics and Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garg, Mamta; Gakhar, Sudesh

    2011-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to describe and compare the background variables, personal characteristics and academic performance of secondary teacher trainees in distance education and face-to-face mode. The results indicated that teacher trainees in distance education differed from their counterparts in age, marital status, sex and…

  14. Mother's marital satisfaction associated with the quality of mother-father-child triadic interaction.

    PubMed

    Korja, Riikka; Piha, Jorma; Otava, Riia; Lavanchy-Scaiola, Chloe; Ahlqvist-Björkroth, Sari; Aromaa, Minna; Räihä, Hannele

    2016-08-01

    Low marital satisfaction has been shown to be a risk factor for early parenthood and parent-child relationship problems (Erel & Burman, ; McHale, ). The aim of this study was to assess how parental reports of marital satisfaction related to family alliance and coordination in the observed triadic interaction. The study group included 120 families. Marital satisfaction was evaluated during pregnancy, at 4 months, and at 18 months using the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale (RDAS; Busby, Christensen, Crane & Larsson, ) for both parents. Mother-father-child interaction was analyzed in the Lausanne Triadic Play setting and coded using the Family Alliance Assessment Scale (Favez, Lavanchy Scaiola, Tissot, Darwiche & Frascarolo, ) when the child reached 18 months of age. The mother's higher marital satisfaction at every measuring point was associated with a cooperative family alliance and/or higher family coordination at 18 months. The father's experience of marital satisfaction was not related to family interaction at any assessment point. Our study suggests that a mother's experience of lower marital satisfaction during pregnancy may be an early sign of later problems in family relationships. PMID:27197718

  15. Determinants of Zambian men's extra-marital sex: a multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Benefo, Kofi D

    2008-08-01

    Research interest in extra-marital sex has increased as scholars have become aware of its role in sustaining epidemics of STDs in sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere. While most research has used the socioeconomic and demographic features of individuals as determinants of extra-marital sexual behavior, this study examined the role played by community characteristics. Using data from the 2003 Zambian Sexual Behavior Survey for a sample of 1,118 men aged 15-59 and multilevel logistic regression techniques, the study analyzed the effects of community social and demographic characteristics on involvement in extra-marital sex while controlling for the men's individual-level characteristics. Men's involvement in extra-marital sex was found to vary with the characteristics of communities. The chances of men's involvement in extra-marital sex increased with community-level ethnic heterogeneity and urbanization, decreased in commercial centers, and in communities with a demographic surplus of males, health workers active in AIDS prevention, and access to the mass media. These results show that scholars trying to understand the motivations for extra-marital sex must pay attention to the characteristics of both individuals and communities. PMID:17999170

  16. Marital Satisfaction amongst Parents of Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Normal Children

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Ahmad; Rostami, Reza; Dehestani, Mehdi; Salmanian, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare marital satisfaction between parents of children with attention deficit hyper activity disorder (ADHD) and parents of normal children. Method In this study we have selected 400 parents (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), whose children age range was 6-18 years. Data were collected using Enrich marital satisfaction Questionnaire, Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia Present and Lifetime Version (K-SADS-PL) and Conner's Questionnaire (parent and self-report forms). For data analysis, SPSS software17, bivariate Χ2- test, and independent t- test were used. Results The mean of marital satisfaction in parents of normal children was higher than parents of ADHD children. In the bivariate Χ2- test, the p value was less than 0.05, and the obtained t was more than the table-t (1.96), so it can be assumed that there is a significant difference between parents of normal children and those with ADHD children in their marital satisfaction. The level of marital satisfaction (strongly agree level) was 2.8% lower among parents of ADHD children compared to parents of normal children. Conclusion Findings indicate that parents with ADHD children have lower level of marital satisfaction than parents with normal children. PMID:23139693

  17. Self-disclosure and marital satisfaction in mid-life and late-life remarriages.

    PubMed

    Bograd, R; Spilka, B

    1996-01-01

    Self-disclosure and marital satisfaction were studied among 125 males and females who were in their first remarriage. Essentially equal numbers had remarried in mid-life (ages 30-45) and late-life (ages 60-75). The multidimensional Wheeless self-disclosure scales and Locke-Wallace measure of marital satisfaction were employed. Mid-life versus late-life differences were evident for the amount, and depth of disclosure, but not for intentionality, valence or honesty of disclosure. No gender differences were manifested in self-disclosure. Marital satisfaction was greatest for late-life remarriages, and this was due to the high level of male satisfaction in this age group. PMID:8805081

  18. A Pilot Study in Marital Group Therapy: Process and Outcome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sells, James N.; Giordano, Francesca G.; King, Leslie

    2002-01-01

    A marital group intervention was developed to address communication, conflict, forgiveness, and reconciliation. This article reviews the history of marital group intervention and presents a description of an 8-week marital group intervention. Results indicated improvement in forgiveness skills, anger expression, and marital satisfaction at…

  19. Multidimensional Aspects of Marital Relationships: Factor Structure of the MSI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendler, Cathy L. W.; Zachary, Robert A.

    Because marriage and family counselors need to examine all areas of a marital relationship, a study was undertaken to investigate several parts of a marital relationship using the Marital Satisfaction Inventory (MSI). Participants (N=495) who were engaged in conjoint marital counseling, completed the MSI, a self-reporting measure with 280…

  20. Race Differences in Cohort Effects on Non-Marital Fertility in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockard, Jean; Gray, Jo Anna; O'Brien, Robert; Stone, Joe

    2009-01-01

    We employ newly developed methods to disentangle age, period and cohort effects on non-marital fertility ratios from 1972 through 2002 for black and white women ages 20-44 in the United States. We focus on three cohort factors: family structure, school enrollment and the sex ratio. For both blacks and whites, cohorts with less traditional family…

  1. Premarital precursors of marital infidelity.

    PubMed

    Allen, Elizabeth S; Rhoades, Galena Kline; Stanley, Scott M; Markman, Howard J; Williams, Tamara; Melton, Jessica; Clements, Mari L

    2008-06-01

    Premarital precursors of infidelity were evaluated in a sample of 72 couples (N = 144) who were taking part in a longitudinal study of marriage. Premarital self-report and observational data were compared for couples who experienced infidelity and those who did not experience infidelity in the first years of marriage. Couples in which the male engaged in marital infidelity were characterized, premaritally, by significantly lower male sexual satisfaction, lower male positive communication, and higher female invalidation, whereas couples in which the female went on to engage in infidelity were characterized, premaritally, by significantly lower levels of female positive communication, higher levels of male and female negative communication, and higher levels of male and female invalidation. Implications of the findings for future research on the prediction and prevention of infidelity are discussed. PMID:18605124

  2. A cross-sectional study of anxiety and marital quality among women with breast cancer at a university clinic in western Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zaben, Faten N.; Sehlo, Mohammad G.; Koenig, Harold G.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To examine relationship between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety among women with breast cancer (BC) in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited a consecutive series of 49 married women with BC seen in the Al-Amoudi Breast Cancer Center of Excellence at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, KSA in early 2013. Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Spouse Perception Scale, and Quality of Marriage Index forms, and answered questions on demographic and cancer characteristics. Results: Anxiety symptoms indicating “possible” anxiety disorder were present in 10.4% and “probable” anxiety disorder in 14.6% (25% total). No significant relationship was found between the quality of marital relationship and anxiety symptoms (B=-0.04, standard error=0.05, t=-0.81, p=0.42). Anxiety was primarily driven by low education, poor socioeconomic status, and young age. Conclusion: Anxiety symptoms are prevalent among married women with BC seen in a university-based clinic in the KSA. Further research is needed to determine whether a diagnosis of BC adversely affects marital relationship, and whether this is the cause for anxiety in these women. PMID:26446326

  3. The Changing Nature of Adult Education in the Age of Transnational Migration: Toward a Model of Recognitive Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.

  4. Type A personality and marital intimacy in amputees.

    PubMed

    Monforton, M; Helmes, E; Deathe, A B

    1993-09-01

    The specific characteristics of the Type A personality have generated a great deal of recent attention due to the prevalence of these characteristics in persons suffering from coronary heart disease. Type A individuals are more likely to be involved in serious accidents and experience more secondary complications when faced with serious illness. They are also less apt to incorporate appropriate coping strategies to help deal with pain and discomfort, or to enlist the help of others for such purposes. These studies are particularly interesting for those involved in health care, as such personality characteristics may influence health and healing. The present study examines the Type A personality construct and marital intimacy in a sample of 34 lower extremity amputees. The Survey of Work Styles (SWS) was used to measure Type A behaviour patterns, and the Waring Intimacy Questionnaire (WIQ) to assess the marital relationship. When compared to a group of age- and sex-matched controls, lower extremity amputees showed higher prevalence of some Type A behaviour patterns, and, in males, lower levels of marital intimacy. The low return rate of questionnaires in this study limits its generalizability, but results remain consistent with predictions for Type A behaviour patterns. PMID:8217918

  5. Marital quality and health: A meta-analytic review

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Theodore F.; Slatcher, Richard B.; Trombello, Joseph M.; McGinn, Meghan M.

    2013-01-01

    This meta-analysis reviewed 126 published empirical articles over the past 50 years describing associations between marital relationship quality and physical health in over 72,000 individuals. Health outcomes included clinical endpoints (objective assessments of function, disease severity, and mortality; subjective health assessments) and surrogate endpoints (biological markers that substitute for clinical endpoints, such as blood pressure). Biological mediators included cardiovascular reactivity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Greater marital quality was related to better health, with mean effect sizes from r = .07 to .21, including lower risk of mortality, r = .11, and lower cardiovascular reactivity during marital conflict, r = −.13, but not daily cortisol slopes or cortisol reactivity during conflict. The small effect sizes were similar in magnitude to previously found associations between health behaviors (e.g., diet) and health outcomes. Effect sizes for a small subset of clinical outcomes were susceptible to publication bias. In some studies, effect sizes remained significant after accounting for confounds such as age and socioeconomic status. Studies with a higher proportion of women in the sample demonstrated larger effect sizes, but we found little evidence for gender differences in studies that explicitly tested gender moderation, with the exception of surrogate endpoint studies. Our conclusions are limited by small numbers of studies for specific health outcomes, unexplained heterogeneity, and designs that limit causal inferences. These findings highlight the need to explicitly test affective, health behavior, and biological mechanisms in future research, and focus on moderating factors that may alter the relationship between marital quality and health. PMID:23527470

  6. Spirituality on Campus: The Emergence of a Postsecular Age in American Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subbiondo, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the emergence of a "postsecular age" in American higher education: an age in which the academic study and practice of spirituality is alive and well. This emerging age stands in contrast to the centuries-old secular age with its origins in the empirical revolution of seventeenth-century Europe. In the secular age, objective…

  7. Conflict management style and marital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Greeff, A P; de Bruyne, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is one conflict management style that correlated more significantly with marital satisfaction than any other. In addition, spousal satisfaction with how marital conflict is managed was also examined, as were gender differences. Fifty-seven couples who had been married for at least 10 years took part in the study. Results showed that the collaborative conflict management style has the highest correlation with both marital satisfaction and spousal satisfaction with conflict management in the marriage. In contrast, where one or both of the spouses used the competitive conflict management style, the lowest marital satisfaction was reported. The results were also interpreted in terms of cultural and gender differences. PMID:11056896

  8. Cognitive Diversity in Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults: The Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereiro-Rozas, Arturo X.; Juncos-Rabadán, Onésimo; Facal, David; Pérez-Fernández, Aurora

    2014-01-01

    This study examines cognitive diversity through performance of four attentional tasks and a vocabulary measure in relation to age and level of education. Tasks were performed by 168 participants (aged between 45 and 91 years) who were grouped according to age and level of education. Multivariate analyses of variance were applied to Z scores…

  9. [Self concept, sex and marital status].

    PubMed

    Tamayo, A

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the influence of sex and marital status on the self-concept. The Factorial Selfconcept Scale was administered to a sample of 855 university students. The 2 X 2 ANOVAS revealed a significant main effect of the two independent variables on several factors of the Scale, as well as an interaction sex X marital status. Results are consistent with a coherent body of previous research. PMID:3591396

  10. Relation of attachment style with marital conflict.

    PubMed

    Besharat, Mohammad Ali

    2003-06-01

    During the last decade attachment theory has been used as a framework for understanding how adult relationships function. Attachment theory should focus exploration of whether attachment history might be related to later marital conflicts. The aim of this paper was to examine the relationship of attachment styles with marital conflicts. Subjects were 20 couples who entered couples therapy for their marital conflict and a sample of 20 university student couples. All answered the Adult Attachment Inventory and the Golombok-Rust Inventory of Marital State. The university couples described themselves as more securely attached to their partners than the married couples. The Anxious and Avoidant styles were associated with greater problems in the marital relationship. Secure, Anxious, and Avoidant attachment styles seemed to be associated with the quality of marital relationships. Couples who exhibited a Secure attachment style tended to be involved in relationships characterized by greater interdependence, trust, commitment, and satisfaction whereas those with insecure styles tended to be characterized by more problems. PMID:12931932

  11. Marital disruption: determinants and consequences on the lives of women in a rural area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bhuiya, Abbas; Mushtaque, A; Chowdhury, R; Momen, Mehnaaz; Khatun, Mohsina

    2005-03-01

    This study, carried out during the second half of 1995, investigated the predisposing factors leading to marital disruption and its consequences on the lives of women in Matlab, a rural area of Bangladesh. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used. Data were generated from detailed case studies and quantitative surveys of a small number of maritally-disrupted women. Additional data were used from the ongoing demographic surveillance system of ICDDR,B: Centre for Health and Population Research. The findings revealed that divorced and abandoned women and their children were extremely vulnerable, both socially and economically. Various factors that influence marital disruption were identified, the most important ones being: aspects determining the process of marriage, various family problems due to non-fulfillment of demand for dowry, mutual distrust, extramarital relationships, quality of sexual life, education of women, and other behavioural characteristics of individuals. Level of education of the wife showed an inverse relationship with the risk of divorce. Women who did not have livebirths from their first pregnancy had a higher risk of divorce. The effect of pregnancy outcome was dependent on the level of education of women. Illiterate women with unsuccessful pregnancy outcomes were at the highest risk of being divorced, with the lowest risk for women with some education and a livebirth. The findings clearly indicate the need for broad-based social development programmes for women, especially to enhance their education to reduce their vulnerability to marital instability and its consequences. PMID:15884756

  12. Constructive and Destructive Marital Conflict, Parenting, and Children’s School and Social Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, K. P.; George, M. R. W.; Cummings, E. M.; Davies, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    This study addresses the links between destructive and constructive marital conflict and mothers’ and fathers’ parenting to understand associations with children’s social and school adjustment. Multi-method, longitudinal assessments of 235 mothers, fathers, and children (129 girls) were collected across kindergarten, first, and second grades (ages 5-7 at Time 1; ages 7-9 at Time 3). Whereas constructive marital conflict was related to both mothers’ and fathers’ warm parenting, destructive marital conflict was only linked to fathers’ use of inconsistent discipline. In turn, both mothers’ and fathers’ use of psychological control was related to children’s school adjustment, and mothers’ warmth was related to children’s social adjustment. Reciprocal links between constructs were also explored, supporting associations between destructive marital conflict and mothers’ and fathers’ inconsistent discipline. The merit of examining marital conflict and parenting as multidimensional constructs is discussed in relation to understanding the processes and pathways within families that affect children’s functioning. PMID:24249973

  13. Exploring urban male non-marital sexual behaviours in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Pakistan, sexual practices outside marriage are proscribed by law. We aimed to assess the range and magnitude of non-marital sexual behaviours of urban men, focusing on men having sex with men. Methods In this cross sectional survey undertaken in six cities of Pakistan, we interviewed 2400 men aged 16–45 years selected through a multistage systematic sampling design. Sexual behaviours were assessed through a structured questionnaire. Multivariable analysis was used to identify association between various individual level characteristics and probability of engaging in sexual activities involving men. Results Nearly one-third (29 percent) reported having had non-marital sex in their lifetime. Of these men 16 percent reported premarital sex, while 11 percent reported engaging in both pre- and extramarital sex. Only two percent reported exclusive extramarital sex. In total 211 respondents, 9 percent reported ever having had sexual relations with men. While 62 respondents, 2.6 percent reported exclusive sex with males. Factors that were significantly associated with MSM behaviours were being less than 27 years (adjusted OR 5.4, 95% CI 3.8–7.7, p < 0.000), less than 10 years of schooling (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.4–3.2, p < 0.000), being unemployed (adjusted OR 2.7, 95% CI 1.6–4.3, p < 0.000), being exposed to pornographic materials (adjusted OR 4.8, 95% CI 3.0–7.7, p < 0.000) and being a migrant (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.3–3.4, p < 0.002). Factors significantly associated with exclusive homosexual behaviour were having sexual debut at a younger age i.e. 16–22 years (adjusted OR 12.5, 95% CI: 3.8–40.7, p < 0.000), being unemployed (adjusted OR 8.8, 95% CI: 3.0–26.0, p = 0.000), having had exposure to pornographic materials (adjusted OR 3.3, 95% CI: 1.5–7.2, p = 0.002). Conclusions To prevent the spread of STI’s in Pakistan, preventive interventions should focus on reaching out to young uneducated

  14. The Construction of "Age Difference" and the Impact of Age-Mixing within UK Further Education Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    "Age" is an important social category used to define individuals and groups within our society and, often, to structure access to power, prestige and status. However, within educational research, age has been relatively neglected when compared with other social categories such as gender, class and ethnicity. In an attempt to begin to explore the…

  15. A Study of Elementary and Secondary Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes toward Aging and the Implementation of Aging Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Shan

    2012-01-01

    This study surveys elementary and secondary teachers in Taiwan and compares the findings with other studies conducted in America and Japan. The objective is to explore differences among teachers in Taiwan, Japan, and the United States in terms of their knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging and the implementation of aging education in schools.…

  16. Marital Stability and Marital Satisfaction in Families of Children with Disabilities: Chicken or Egg?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobsey, Dick

    2004-01-01

    Although much has been written suggesting that stress, grief, and other factors associated with parenting a child with disabilities results in high rates of marital discord, marital dissatisfaction, and divorce, this notion is poorly supported by research. Research demonstrates that parents of children with disabilities have marriages that exhibit…

  17. Trajectories of Marital Conflict across the Life Course: Predictors and Interactions with Marital Happiness Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp Dush, Claire M.; Taylor, Miles G.

    2012-01-01

    Using typologies outlined by Gottman and Fitzpatrick as well as institutional and companionate models of marriage, the authors conducted a latent class analysis of marital conflict trajectories using 20 years of data from the Marital Instability Over the Life Course study. Respondents were in one of three groups: high, medium (around the mean), or…

  18. Marital Satisfaction and Marital Aggrandizement among Older Adults: Analysis of Gender Invariance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Rourke, Norm; Cappeliez, Philippe

    2001-01-01

    The Marital Aggrandizement Scale (MAS) was developed as a couples measure of biased responding. Results of the current study suggest that responses to the MAS are gender invariant. Differences emerge, however, for psychological well being and self deception. These results may explain differences in marital satisfaction between older men and women.…

  19. Marital Sex Role Incongruence and Marital Adjustment: A Comment on Li and Caldwell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    Provides methodological critique of Jason T. Li and Robert A. Caldwell's article "Magnitude and Directional Effects of Marital Sex Role Incongruence and Marital Adjustment" (Journal of Family Issues 8:97-110). Cites Li and Caldwells' failure to first consider simpler first-order effects of husband/wife sex role preferences and outlines additional…

  20. Dysphoria and Marital Discord: Are Dysphoric Individuals at Risk for Marital Maladjustment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Steven R. H.; O'Leary, K. Daniel

    1993-01-01

    Examined effects of dysphoria on husbands' and wives' later marital adjustment among 264 couples about to marry. Assessed relationship satisfaction and level of dysphoria in both spouses prior to marriage, 6 months after marriage, and 18 months after marriage. Premarital dysphoria was associated with later marital dissatisfaction. Gender…

  1. Age as a Diversity Issue in Grades K-12 and in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wircenski, Michelle; Walker, Michelle; Allen, Jeff; West, Lynda

    1999-01-01

    Aging and ageism are diversity issues and should be addressed in diversity training. A balanced understanding of aging can be developed using appropriate techniques at all levels of education. Instructors should vary teaching approaches to accommodate older adult students. (SK)

  2. Sexual Patterns at Different Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Helen S.; Sager, Clifford J.

    1971-01-01

    When not understood as normal consequences of growth and aging, sexual fluctuations can be the source of personal and marital distress. Discussed are sexual behavior norms as they change from infancy to old age. (Author/CJ)

  3. Caregivers' Experience during Their Children's Transition Process from Early Childhood Special Education Services to School-Aged Special Education Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Linda Yvonne

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates caregivers' perceptions of the transition process for children transitioning from Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) to School Age Special Education services (SA). Interest in this topic developed during the researcher's 18 years of experience as an Itinerant Early Childhood Special Education Teacher during which she…

  4. Parents' Well-Being and Parent-Child Relationships Following Marital Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buehler, Cheryl

    The well-being of parents and children and the quality of the parent-child relationship during divorce deserve attention. This study examined the relationship between aspects of parent-child relationships and the well-being of parents during marital separation and investigated the effects of a 5-week community-based educational intervention for…

  5. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Experiencing Parents' Marital Disruption during Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Yongmin; Li, Yuanzhang

    2007-01-01

    Using panel data from 9,252 adolescents in the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study finds that among children who experience parents' marital disruption during late adolescence, European, Asian, and African American adolescents exhibit wider and greater maladjustment both before and after the disruption than their Hispanic American…

  6. Learning the Single-Parent Role: Overcoming Traditional Marital-Role Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Nancy Voigt; Johnson, Jill M.

    1982-01-01

    Explored data from previous research and new interviews with 30 divorced custodial parents to develop a model explaining traditional marital role influence on adjustment to single parenthood. Results reemphasized applicability of Hill's (1958) ABCX model of adapting to family crisis. Applications in educational and counseling settings are…

  7. Social Work Knowledge of Facts on Aging: Influence of Field and Classroom Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenmaier, Julie; Rowan, Noell L.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

    2009-01-01

    Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) was used to measure aging knowledge outcomes of 323 practicum students engaged in aging-focused practica at pre- and posttest across 11 universities. Significant improvement in knowledge scores (p = 0.0001) was found for graduates of the enhanced field education programs. Taking aging course work was a…

  8. Liberal Education in the Age of the Unthinkable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinn, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    Those who work in all sectors of higher education--from community and liberal arts colleges to undergraduate programs in public and research universities--often assert that a "liberal education" is precisely the kind of undergraduate education that is needed for both living and working in the challenging 21st-century world. "Liberal education" or…

  9. Education, Globalization, and the State in the Age of Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Education plays an important role in challenging, combating and in understanding terrorism in its different forms, whether as counter-terrorism or as a form of human rights education. Just as education has played a significant role in the process of nation-building, so education also plays a strong role in the process of empire, globalization and…

  10. Marital history at midlife as a predictor of longevity: alternative explanations to the protective effect of marriage.

    PubMed

    Tucker, J S; Friedman, H S; Wingard, D L; Schwartz, J E

    1996-03-01

    The association between marital history at midlife (in 1950) and mortality (as of 1991) was studied in a group of intelligent, educated men and women (N = 1,077) who participated in the Terman Life-Cycle Study initiated by Lewis Terman in 1921. Results confirm that consistently married people live longer than those who have experienced marital breakup but suggest that this is not necessarily due to the protective effects of marriage itself. Individuals who were currently married, but had previously experienced a divorce, were at significantly higher mortality risk compared with consistently married individuals. Furthermore, individuals who had not married by midlife were not at higher mortality risk compared with consistently married individuals. Part of the relationship between marital history and mortality risk may be explained by childhood psychosocial variables, which were associated with both future marital history and mortality risk. PMID:8681925

  11. Using Marital Attitudes in Late Adolescence to Predict Later Union Transitions.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Brian J

    2014-05-01

    Using a sample of 982 late adolescents and tracking them throughout young adulthood, this study investigated if marital attitudes held during the last year of high school were predictive of union transitions to both cohabitation and marriage during young adulthood. Results using both logistic regression and discrete event history models found that marital attitudes did not have significant associations with the transition to cohabitation but did significantly predict the probability of transitioning to marriage during young adulthood. Specifically, having a younger expected age of marriage and placing more importance on marriage at the end of adolescence was associated with an increased likelihood of transitioning to marriage earlier than other young adults. PMID:24748692

  12. Marital Satisfaction Across the Transition to Parenthood

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Erika; Cobb, Rebecca J.; Rothman, Alexia D.; Rothman, Michael T.; Bradbury, Thomas N.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to discriminate between the 2 dominant perspectives governing research on the nature of marital change over the transition to parenthood. Progress can be made in understanding this transition by recognizing the role of uncontrolled sources of variability in research designs, defining and using control groups, and timing of data collection around the child’s arrival, and the authors conducted a study incorporating these methodological refinements. Growth curve analyses were conducted on marital satisfaction data collected twice before and twice after the birth of the 1st child and at corresponding points for voluntarily childless couples (N = 156 couples). Spouses who were more satisfied prior to pregnancy had children relatively early in marriage, and parents experienced greater declines in marital satisfaction compared to nonparents. Couples with planned pregnancies had higher prepregnancy satisfaction scores, and planning slowed husbands’ (but not wives’) postpartum declines. In sum, parenthood hastens marital decline—even among relatively satisfied couples who select themselves into this transition—but planning status and prepregnancy marital satisfaction generally protect marriages from these declines. PMID:18266531

  13. Economic Independence, Economic Status, and Empty Nest in Midlife Marital Disruption.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiedemann, Bridget; Suhomlinova, Olga; O'Rand, Angela M.

    1998-01-01

    The risk of separation or divorce late in the marital career is examined from a family development perspective. A hazards framework is used to estimate the effects of women's economic independence, couples' economic status, and family life course factors on the risk of middle-age separation or divorce. (Author/EMK)

  14. A Unified Model Exploring Parenting Practices as Mediators of Marital Conflict and Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coln, Kristen L.; Jordan, Sara S.; Mercer, Sterett H.

    2013-01-01

    We examined positive and negative parenting practices and psychological control as mediators of the relations between constructive and destructive marital conflict and children's internalizing and externalizing problems in a unified model. Married mothers of 121 children between the ages of 6 and 12 completed questionnaires measuring marital…

  15. Understanding Children's Emotional Processes and Behavioral Strategies in the Context of Marital Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koss, Kalsea J.; George, Melissa R. W.; Bergman, Kathleen N.; Cummings, E. M.; Davies, Patrick T.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Marital conflict is a distressing context in which children must regulate their emotion and behavior; however, the associations between the multidimensionality of conflict and children's regulatory processes need to be examined. The current study examined differences in children's (N=207, mean age=8.02 years) emotions (mad, sad, scared, and happy)…

  16. Children's Coping with Marital Conflict: The Role of Conflict Expression and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelton, Katherine H.; Harold, Gordon T.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2006-01-01

    This study compared boys' and girls' coping responses to videotaped representations of marital conflict that varied in conflict content, tactic, and the gender of the parent engaging in conflict behaviour. Participants were 398 children (208 boys, 190 girls) aged 12-13 years old living in the United Kingdom. Child-related conflict exchanges…

  17. Interparental Incongruence in Differential Treatment of Adolescent Siblings: Links with Marital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Marni L.; McHale, Susan M.; Crouter, Ann C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal links between incongruence in mothers' versus fathers' differential treatment of adolescent-age siblings and parents' marital quality. Multilevel models including 200 families, over four waves, spaced across 6 years tested whether youth perceptions of incongruence in differential intimacy and conflict predicted…

  18. Toward Evidence-Based Treatment: Child-Parent Psychotherapy with Preschoolers Exposed to Marital Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman, Alicia F.; Van Horn, Patricia; Ippen, Chandra Ghosh

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Treatment outcome for preschool-age children exposed to marital violence was assessed, comparing the efficacy of Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) with case management plus treatment as usual in the community. Method: Seventy-five multiethnic preschool mother dyads from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds were randomly assigned to (1) CPP…

  19. Marital Conflict, Children's Representations of Family Relationships, and Children's Dispositions towards Peer Conflict Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D.; Shamir, Haya; Cummings, E. Mark

    2004-01-01

    The links among marital relations and children's representations were examined. Forty-seven children between the ages of 5 and 8 completed the Family Stories Task (FAST) to obtain their narrative representations of family relations and performed a variation of a puppet procedure (Mize & Ladd, 1988) to assess children's dispositions towards peer…

  20. Marital and Parental Status and Quality of Life of Female Clerical Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Sharon E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined marital and parental status in relation to perceptions of quality of work and family roles (psychological well-being, job satisfaction, work involvement, non-occupational environment, and role demands) in female clerical workers (N=148). Found income differentiated married and unmarried women and presence of school-age children related to…

  1. Subsidizing "Stayers"? Effects of a Norwegian Child Care Reform on Marital Stability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardoy, Ines; Schone, Pal

    2008-01-01

    Since January 1999, all parents in Norway with children aged 1 to 3 years who do not attend publicly subsidized day care are eligible for "cash-for-care" (CFC). One important purpose of the reform is to enable parents to spend more time with their children. We analyze whether the CFC reform has affected marital stability, using individual register…

  2. Longitudinal transmission of conflict resolution styles from marital relationships to adolescent-parent relationships.

    PubMed

    Van Doorn, Muriel D; Branje, Susan J T; Meeus, Wim H J

    2007-09-01

    This study longitudinally investigated transmission: Can the way adolescents resolve conflicts with their parents be explained by the way parents resolve conflicts with each other? Questionnaires about conflict resolution styles were completed by 282 young adolescents (mean age = 13.2) and their parents. Path analyses with cross-lagged effects indicated that transmission of conflict resolution styles from marital relationships to adolescent-parent relationships occurs: Conflict engagement and positive problem solving in marital relationships were significantly related to, respectively, conflict engagement and positive problem solving in adolescent-parent relationships 2 years later. No significant longitudinal effects emerged with regard to withdrawal. Thus, the study shows that the way marital conflicts are handled affects how adolescents deal with conflicts. PMID:17874928

  3. Changes in Marital Conflict and Youths’ Responses Across Childhood and Adolescence: A Test of Sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Papp, Lauren M.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2013-01-01

    Although the sensitization hypothesis is fundamental to process-oriented explanations of the effects of marital conflict on children, few longitudinal tests of the theory’s propositions have been conducted. This prospective, longitudinal study (n = 297 families) used HLM to assess changes in dimensions of responding to conflict (i.e., emotional, cognitive, behavioral) for three consecutive years in youth between the ages of 8 and 19 years. Moreover, to test the notion of sensitization, analyses examined whether change in marital conflict predicted change in children’s responding across middle childhood and adolescence. Supporting the sensitization hypothesis, increases in exposure to hostile marital conflict were associated with increases in children’s negative emotionality, threat, self blame, and skepticism about resolution. With a few exceptions, effects were largely consistent for boys and girls, and for younger and older children. PMID:23398762

  4. First in the Class? Age and the Education Production Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascio, Elizabeth U.; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effects of relative age in kindergarten using data from an experiment where children of the same age were randomly assigned to different kindergarten classmates. We exploit the resulting experimental variation in relative age in conjunction with variation in expected kindergarten entry age based on birth date to account for…

  5. Associations among Healthy Habits, Age, Gender, and Education in a Sample of Retirees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, J. Paul; Fries, James F.

    1993-01-01

    Examined data from 1,864 Bank of America retirees to investigate correlations among healthy habits, age, gender, and education. Health habits were strongly and positively associated with each other and negatively associated with unhealthy habits. Age and gender differences were found. Education was significantly associated only with fiber in diet…

  6. Protective Role of Educational Level on Episodic Memory Aging: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group.…

  7. What Educational Opportunities Should Professionals in Aging Provide?: A Pilot Community Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Leson, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    With the aging workforce and the increase of older adults, educational needs of the workforce in aging services are broadening. The pilot study used a survey to examine the types of educational opportunities and needs of professionals providing services to older adults in eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. Respondents (25.9%) reported learning…

  8. Principles and Practices of Mature-Age Education at U3As

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siedle, Rob

    2011-01-01

    A movement known as the Universities of the Third Age (U3As) provides educational, cultural and social services for mature-age people in Australia and internationally. This paper focuses on the educational courses run by U3As and discusses two basic questions: What are the expectations of learners who enrol in these classes? and How can tutors…

  9. Effects of Gender, Age, and Education on Assertiveness in a Nigerian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeizugbo, Eucharia U.

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred fourteen (214) married persons, 101 men and 113 women aged 20-60, with at least high school education, participated in the study which investigated the effects of gender, age, and educational attainment on assertiveness among married persons in Nigeria. The Assertive Behavior Assessment scale (ABAS; Onyeizugbo, 1998) was used to…

  10. Challenges and Opportunities for Vocational Education and Training in the Light of Raising the Participation Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acquah, Daniel K.; Huddleston, Prue

    2014-01-01

    By 2015, all young people must participate in some form of education and training until they are aged 18. This review discusses the challenges and opportunities involved if vocational education and training is to contribute to this raising of the participation age. We argue that as well as ensuring that young people who have made a full-time…

  11. The Statewide Training Model for a Continuing Education Certificate in Gerontology in Religion and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Barbara, Ed.; Payne, Barbara, Ed.

    This training model is a guide for developing statewide training for a continuing education certificate in gerontology in religion and aging. It is designed for use by gerontology educators, state office of aging executives, and leaders of religious judicatories. Section I begins with a description of the training model and covers where and how to…

  12. Health and Marital Experience in an Urban Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renne, Karen S.

    1971-01-01

    the findings indicated that (1) physical and psychlogical health are associated with marital happiness regardless of marital history, and (2) at the same time, divorce and remarriage tend to "select" the healthier members of the unhappy married population. (Author)

  13. Treating Inhibited Sexual Desire: A Marital Therapy Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fish, Linda Stone; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Defines inhibited sexual desire (ISD) as a relational phenomenon best treated in the marital context. Discusses ISD as it relates to the central marital issues of power, intimacy, and boundaries. (JAC)

  14. The association of marital relationship and perceived social support with mental health of women in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Marital circumstances have been indicated to be a salient risk factor for disproportionately high prevalence of depression and anxiety among Pakistani women. Although social support is a known buffer of psychological distress, there is no clear evidence as to how different aspects of marital relations interact and associate with depression and anxiety in the lives of Pakistani married women and the role of social supports in the context of their marriage. Methods Two hundred seventy seven married women were recruited from Rawalpindi district of Pakistan using a door knocking approach to psychometrically evaluate five scales for use in the Pakistani context. A confirmatory factor analysis approach was used to investigate the underlying factor structure of Couple satisfaction Index (CSI-4), Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Test (LWMAT), Relationship Dynamic Scale (RDS), Multidimensional Scale for Perceived Social Support (MSPSS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The interplay of the constructs underlying the three aspects of marital relations, and the role of social support on the mental health of married Pakistani women were examined using the Structural Equation Model. Results The factor structures of MSPSS, CSI-4, LWMAT, RDS and HADS were similar to the findings reported in the developed and developing countries. Perceived higher social support reduces the likelihood of depression and anxiety by enhancing positive relationship as reflected by a low score on the relationship dynamics scale which decreases CMD symptoms. Moreover, perceived higher social support is positively associated with marital adjustment directly and indirectly through relationship dynamics which is associated with the reduced risk of depression through the increased level of reported marital satisfaction. Nuclear family structure, low level of education and higher socio-economic status were significantly associated with increased risk of mental illness among

  15. Integrative self-knowledge and marital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Nima; Watson, P J; Fayyaz, Fatemeh; Chen, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Married Iranian couples (N = 210) responded to the Integrative Self-Knowledge Scale along with a measure of marital satisfaction, the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) Big Five, and an index of interpersonal problems. Integrative self-knowledge correlated positively with marital satisfaction, positively with all but the extraversion Big Five traits, and negatively with three indices of interpersonal problems. Integrative self-knowledge also mediated a number of personality relationships with marital satisfaction. Spouse-ratings of personality confirmed the adaptive implications of integrative self-knowledge for marriage. Linkages with questionnaire response styles supported the description of integrative self-knowledge as a measure of both self-insight and self-development. Results confirmed the potential of integrative self-knowledge for studying self-regulatory processes and suggested that the enhancement of self-knowledge may be a useful goal in efforts to strengthen marriages. PMID:25495159

  16. The coming of age for interprofessional education and practice.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Madeline H; Gilbert, John H V; Brandt, Barbara F; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2013-04-01

    Interprofessional education for collaborative practice is an important innovation globally and in US health professions education. The recent spotlight on interprofessional education in the United States was launched by a series of reports in the US Institute of Medicine's Quality Chasm series. They raised concerns over medical errors and health care quality as significant sources of morbidity and mortality in the United States and proposed health professions' education for patient-centered, team-based care as one means to address these concerns. Starting in 2007, binational, biennial conferences on interprofessional education have been held to synergize interprofessional education developments in the United States and Canada. In 2011, Collaborating Across Borders III, in Tucson, Arizona, drew 750 participants from 11 countries. The conference focused on interprofessional competency frameworks; strategies for preparing students for interprofessional practice; tailoring of learning environments for interprofessional education; and developing policy, infrastructure, culture, and faculty leadership for interprofessional education. PMID:23415053

  17. Moving Education and Its Administration into the Microelectronic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    Education is in transition between the ascendent microelectronic and descendent industrial revolutions, with purposes ambiguously linked to both. These purposes must be clarified before educational leaders can establish priorities for adapting education to the needs of a society transformed by microelectronic technology. Accordingly, the features…

  18. Rethinking Education Reform in the Age of George Bush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1989-01-01

    In the current educational reform movement, schools have become the new scapegoat for the American economy's increasing failure to compete in the world market. The Bush Administration needs to articulate a vision linking public education to democratic imperatives, rather than the marketplace's narrow demands. Education for empowerment should be a…

  19. A Genealogy of Grit: Education in the New Gilded Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokas, Ariana Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Recently, due in part to the research of Angela Duckworth, the cultivation of dispositions in education, grit in particular, has gained the attention of educational policymakers and the educational research community. While much of the research has focused on how to detect grit, there has been little discussion regarding how grit came to be valued…

  20. Toward a Typology of Business Education in the Internet Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rungtusanatham, Manus; Ellram, Lisa M.; Siferd, Sue P.; Salik, Steven

    2004-01-01

    Many diverse forces are motivating institutions of higher education, particularly business schools, to develop and deliver education via the Internet. As higher education institutions explore this opportunity, the question of how courses and degree programs should be designed for effective online delivery via the Internet is a nontrivial concern…

  1. Educational Outcomes and Indicators for Early Childhood (Age 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; And Others

    As part of its response to the current emphasis on educational reform and accountability, the National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been working with federal and state agencies to facilitate and enhance the collection and use of data on educational outcomes for students with disabilities. In doing so, it has taken an inclusive…

  2. The Condition of Education 2009: Indicator 1--Enrollment Trends by Age. NCES 2009-081

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planty, Michael; Hussar, William; Snyder, Thomas; Kena, Grace; KewalRamani, Angelina; Kemp, Jana; Bianco, Kevin; Dinkes, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    "The Condition of Education" is a congressionally mandated report that provides an annual portrait of education in the United States. This document includes information from "The Condition of Education 2009" for data enrollment trends by age. Changes in enrollment patterns may reflect changes in attendance requirements, the perceived value or cost…

  3. Revisioning Education for All in the Age of Migration: Global Challenges and Opportunities for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2014-01-01

    This paper revisits and revisions Education for All (EFA) in the age of global migration with the aim of developing more inclusive approaches towards social justice and equity in education. Drawing on cases of internal and international migration in China and Canada, this paper compares and contrasts policies and practices in the education of…

  4. How Does Premarital Cohabitation Affect Trajectories of Marital Quality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tach, Laura; Halpern-Meekin, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the link between premarital cohabitation and trajectories of subsequent marital quality using random effects growth curve models and repeated measures of marital quality from married women in the NLSY-79 (N = 3,598). We find that premarital cohabitors experience lower quality marital relationships on average, but this is driven by…

  5. The Psychobiology of Children Exposed to Marital Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holden, George W.; Holahan, Charles J.

    2005-01-01

    We examined the psychological and physiological functioning of a community sample of children exposed to marital violence, comparing them to a clinical comparison group without marital violence exposure. Results replicated past findings of elevated levels of trauma symptomatology in this population. Further, children exposed to marital violence…

  6. Dyadic Processes in Early Marriage: Attributions, Behavior, and Marital Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durtschi, Jared A.; Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.

    2011-01-01

    Marital processes in early marriage are important for understanding couples' future marital quality. Spouses' attributions about a partner's behavior have been linked to marital quality, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. When we used couple data from the Family Transitions Project (N = 280 couples) across the…

  7. Power, Sex, and Violence: The Case of Marital Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Richard J.

    1977-01-01

    The available evidence on marital violence indicates that a number of women are forced into having sexual relations with their husbands through intimidation or physical force. Although marital rape is not possible in a strict legal sense, some women are talking about and reporting incidents of marital rape. (Author)

  8. Marital Aggression Predicts Infant Orienting toward Mother at Six Months

    PubMed Central

    Parade, Stephanie H.; Leerkes, Esther M.

    2011-01-01

    Links between marital aggression and infant orienting toward mother in fearful and frustrating contexts were examined in 92 mother-infant dyads when infants were 6 months. Results demonstrated that marital aggression was linked with less orienting toward mothers in frustrating situations, in fearful situations marital aggression was linked with less orienting among infants who were high on fear reactivity only. PMID:21440304

  9. Development of a Content Coding System for Marital Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winemiller, David R.; Mitchell, M. Ellen

    While much research has focused on the processes of marital problem solving, the content of marital problem solving has received considerably less attention. This study examined the initial efforts to develop a method for assessing marital problem solving content. Married individuals (N=36) completed a demographic information sheet, the Dyadic…

  10. Marital Satisfaction as Perceived by the Medical Student's Spouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlow, Arlinda Dishman; Mullins, Stella Churchill

    1976-01-01

    Medical student marriages were examined in order to identify areas of stress, evaluate the congruence between expectations and actualities in the marital partner's role performance as perceived by the spouse, investigate the spouse's attitudes toward marital counseling, and determine whether a marital counseling service should be made available.…

  11. The Interface of Adolescent and Parent Marital Expectation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Shmuel; Rosenheim, Eliyahu; Knafo, Danielle

    1999-01-01

    Investigates the extent to which adolescents' marital expectations are related to the marital expectations of their parents. Examines the extent to which the nature of attachment to the parent and the level of adolescent individuation moderate the carryover of marital expectations model from parents to children. Sex differences are discussed.…

  12. The Impact of Marital Conflict and Disruption on Children's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houseknecht, Sharon K.; Hango, Darcy W.

    2006-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of inconsistency between parental marital conflict and disruption on children's health. Inconsistent situations arise when minimal marital conflict precedes disruption or when marital conflict is high but there is no disruption. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, two alternative…

  13. Higher Education and the Determination of Aggregate Male Employment by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenberg, Anders; Wikstrom, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of age-specific employment rates among Swedish males, focusing on the effect of education on employment. We use cohort specific data for the time period 1984-1996 covering male cohorts aged 21-45. It is found that aggregate age-group-specific employment rates increase with the proportion of the cohort with an…

  14. Early Learning Left Out: An Examination of Public Investments in Education and Development by Child Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Charles; Elias, Victor; Stein, Debbie; Schaefer, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the most comprehensive picture, to date, of public investments in the education and development of children by three age groupings--the early learning years (roughly 0-5), the school-aged years (roughly 6-18), and the college-aged years (roughly 19-23). It is based upon detailed analysis of state, federal, and school district…

  15. Aging Education for High School Students: Effectiveness According to the Mode of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Janice Marie

    This paper discusses a study undertaken to analyze pre-and posttest scores of junior high and high school students involved in an aging education unit. Objectives were to determine whether a unit on aging helped students relate to aging as part of the life cycle and to assess the success of different modes of instruction (i.e. independent study,…

  16. Profiles of higher earning wives in Hong Kong and the implications for marital satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huiping; Law, Frances Yik Wa; Hu, Debao; Fan, Susan; Yip, Paul Siu Fai

    2015-01-01

    Higher earning wives are emerging as a global phenomenon; however, the profiles of higher earning wives and the implications for marital satisfaction remain unknown in Hong Kong. On the basis of a representative household survey of 689 Hong Kong Chinese couples in 2012, this study aimed to explore the profiles of higher earning wives in Hong Kong and examine the effect of wives' income advantage on the couples' marital satisfaction. Results indicated that higher earning wives were clustered into 2 groups. One group of higher earning wives was older, was better educated, held managerial and professional jobs, and lived in high-income families compared with lower earning wives. The other group of higher earning wives was not well educated, held nonprofessional jobs, and lived in low-income families. Higher earning wives reported similar marital satisfaction with lower earning wives as well as their husbands. However, higher earning wives with nonprofessional jobs and from low-income families reported lower life and marital satisfaction than did those with better socioeconomic status. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:24836412

  17. Marital Adjustment among Housestaff and New Attorneys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spendlove, David C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study, involving 116 housestaff physicians, 106 new attorneys, and the spouses of both groups, identified the factors that significantly affected their marital adjustments. No differences were found. The most important factor associated with adjustment was perceived level of emotional support from one's spouse. (Author/MLW)

  18. Relating Process to Outcome in Marital Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Susan M.; Greenberg, L. S.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzed process of change in "best" sessions of Emotionally Focused Marital Therapy (EFT). Rated client performance in therapy on depth of experiencing and quality of interpersonal interactions. Noted occurrences of particular change events arising from theoretical principles of EFT. Confirmed that higher levels of experiencing and more…

  19. Relief and Distress after Marital Separation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.; Thompson, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Examined relief and distress as responses to the termination of marriage in a study of 205 individuals soon after their final separation. Results showed that relief is a frequent response to marital separation. Group differences in response were associated with the rewards and costs of ending a marriage. (JAC)

  20. Marital Satisfaction and Cherokee Language Fluency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rockey; Stoltenberg, Cal; Robbins, Sharla; Ross, J. Mike

    2002-01-01

    The Marital Satisfaction Inventory-Revised (MSI-R; D.K. Snyder, 1997) norms were compared with scores for 162 volunteer Cherokee participants. Differences were found on the Inconsistency, Conventionalization, Global Distress, and Aggression subscales. Participants classified as fluent or nonfluent in the Cherokee language differed on the…

  1. Marital Role Strain and Sexual Satisfaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Ellen; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Responses to a questionnaire pertaining to discrepancies between an individual's ideal and actual marital role behaviors and level of sexual satisfaction indicated lower levels of role strain in nonpatient couples. A higher level of role strain correlated with increased sexual dissatisfaction. (Author)

  2. Affect and Status Dimensions of Marital Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Beth L.; Joseph Lowman

    1975-01-01

    The interactions of 10 maritally adjusted and 10 maladjusted couples were compared using a coding system based on the Leary circumplex. Major findings are (1) adjusted couples communicated more affection and submission than did maladjusted ones, (2) all couples were more likely to show complementary sequencing patterns with some interesting…

  3. Operant-Interpersonal Treatment for Marital Discord

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Richard B.

    1969-01-01

    Clarifies behavior change objectives of marital partners, suggesting a four step treatment approach culminating in an exchange of positive responses on a reciprocal basis. Summarizes treatment of four couples complaining of low rate conversational and sexual behavior, stressing use of a token system as prosthesis facilitating transition to…

  4. Marital Conflict Management: Gender and Ethnic Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Richard A.; O'Brien, Bernard A.

    1998-01-01

    Explores how couples cope with marital conflict from the early years of their relationships to the present time. Focuses on conflict management styles from face-to-face confrontation to avoidance, as well as gender and ethnicity influences on styles of coping with conflict. Implications for social work practice are discussed. (Author/MKA)

  5. Rational Suggestions for Pre-Marital Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, J.D.; Henning, Lawrence H.

    1981-01-01

    To demonstrate the utility of Rational Emotive Therapy in pre-marital counseling, examples of specific irrational beliefs which clinicians can use to help couples are presented. Mental health practitioners are encouraged to apply these principles to other specific irrationalities they may discover in their own work experience. (Author)

  6. Building a Global Community of Policymakers, Researchers and Educators to Move Education Systems into the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.

    2013-01-01

    The EDUsummIT 2011 aimed to develop (a) recommendations for policy, practice and research that will help educational systems move into the digital age and (b) strategies to build a global community of researchers, policymakers and teachers in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education. Thematic working groups…

  7. Rethinking Civic Education in the Age of Biotechnology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Huey-li

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, I first examine the three justifications most often provided for differentiating, discounting, or even disclaiming the present generation's moral responsibility to future generations. I then discuss ideological critiques of, and educational solutions to, the complicity of formal educational institutions in propagating these…

  8. Windows on the Future: Education in the Age of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Ted; Jukes, Ian

    This book is designed to help educators cope with changes created by technology and embrace a new mindset necessary to access the burgeoning technological advances, in order to keep schools and students relevant in the 21st century. The book looks through several "windows" on the future, and asks educators to consider their own paradigms and the…

  9. Media and Education in the Digital Age: Concepts, Assessments, Subversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocchetti, Matteo, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This book is an invitation to informed and critical participation in the current debate on the role of digital technology in education and a comprehensive introduction to the most relevant issues in this debate. After an early wave of enthusiasm about the emancipative opportunities of the digital "revolution" in education, recent…

  10. The Responsibility of Adult Educators in the Nuclear Age. TECHNIQUES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblum, Sandra; Goldberg, Joan Carol

    1984-01-01

    The task of adult educators is to provide students with information as well as opportunities to explore alternatives to the arms race. As a starting point to raising nuclear issues in the classroom and incorporating them into the curriculum, the adult educator can administer a survey or questionnaire to students about nuclear weapons and the…

  11. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are both proactive and aggressive. Taking this approach will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age…

  12. The Possibility of Public Education in an Instrumentalist Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In our increasingly instrumentalist culture, debates over the privatization of schooling may be beside the point. Whether we hatch some new plan for chartering or funding schools, or retain the traditional model of government-run schools, the ongoing instrumentalization of education threatens the very possibility of public education. Indeed, in…

  13. Overflowing Every Idea of Age, Very Young Children as Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesen, Nina

    2013-01-01

    In this article I explore if and how very young children can be the educators of their early childhood educators. I describe and discuss a story constructed from a fieldwork done in one early childhood setting in Norway. The story is read with Levinas and his concepts Said and Saying. Further I discuss if and how this might be understood as…

  14. Post-Secondary Education: Entering the Age of the Consumer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lencyk, John A.

    The traditional sellers' market in higher education has become a buyers' market, with both the nature of the student body and the services offered being changed. Marketing, as a comprehensive tool for planning and delivery of educational services, offers an integrated method for meeting the disparate demands growing from the shift to a longer…

  15. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  16. Early Childhood Education for Handicapped Children (Ages 3 through 5). Special Education in North Dakota. Guide VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niebergall, Shelby; Oas, Brenda

    This guide is designed primarily for use by personnel involved in North Dakota public school programs for preschool-age handicapped children (ages 3-5). It is also intended to provide parents and personnel in health, human services, and other child service agencies with an understanding of the scope and purpose of educational services for young…

  17. The first sight of love: Relationship-defining memories and marital satisfaction across adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alea, Nicole; Vick, Stephanie C

    2010-10-01

    The current study begins the exploration of relationship-defining memories (i.e., the first time someone met their spouse) across adulthood. Men and women ranging from 20 to 85 years old (N=267; M age=47.19) completed a measure of marital satisfaction, wrote a relationship-defining memory, and answered questions about the quality of their memory (i.e., vividness, valence, emotional intensity, and rehearsal). Data were collected online. Results indicate that individuals over 70 and those younger than 30 rehearsed relationship-defining memories most often. Women in midlife also reported more vivid memories. The quality of relationship-defining memories also predicted marital satisfaction. Relationship-defining memories that were more vivid, positive, emotionally intense, and rehearsed related to higher marital satisfaction. Age and gender differences were minimal. Results are discussed in the context of the adaptive social function of autobiographical memories, such that these memories might have a role in influencing marital satisfaction across adulthood. PMID:20721804

  18. Age, education, and earnings in the course of Brazilian development: does composition matter?

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Amaral, Ernesto Friedrich; Potter, Joseph E.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The impacts of shifts in the age distribution of the working-age population have been studied in relation to the effect of the baby boom generation on the earnings of different cohorts in the U.S. However, this topic has received little attention in the context of the countries of Asia and Latin America, which are now experiencing substantial shifts in their age-education distributions. OBJECTIVE In this analysis, we estimate the impact of the changing relative size of the adult male population, classified by age and education groups, on the earnings of employed men living in 502 Brazilian local labor markets during four time periods between 1970 and 2000. METHODS Taking advantage of the huge variation across Brazilian local labor markets and demographic census micro-data, we used fixed effects models to demonstrate that age education group size depresses earnings. RESULTS These effects are more detrimental among age-education groups with higher education, but they are becoming less negative over time. The decrease in the share of workers with the lowest level of education has not led to gains in the earnings of these workers in recent years. CONCLUSIONS These trends might be a consequence of technological shifts and increasing demand for labor with either education or experience. Compositional shifts are influential, which suggests that this approach could prove useful in studying this central problem in economic development. PMID:26146484

  19. From GED to College: Age Trajectories of Nontraditional Educational Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maralani, Vida

    2011-01-01

    Age patterns of secondary certification and college entry differ in complex and surprising ways for traditional graduates and GED recipients. Although GED recipients are less likely to enter college in their late teens, they catch up to traditional graduates in their 20s. Results show that adjusting for differences in the age trajectories of…

  20. Images of Aging in Selected Religious Education Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cram, Ronald H.

    Images of aging that appear in popular child/teen curricular materials used in church-related contexts were examined to determine how older adults are portrayed in words and pictures in these materials and what images of aging emerge. Materials from the following sources, randomly selected from those that had been checked out of the Ecumenical…

  1. The Condition of Education 2009: Indicator 8--Language Minority School-Age Children. NCES 2009-081

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planty, Michael; Hussar, William; Snyder, Thomas; Kena, Grace; KewalRamani, Angelina; Kemp, Jana; Bianco, Kevin; Dinkes, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    "The Condition of Education" is a congressionally mandated report that provides an annual portrait of education in the United States. This document includes information from "The Condition of Education 2009" about language minority school-age children. Between 1979 and 2007, the number of school-age children (children ages 5-17) who spoke a…

  2. Aging IQ Intervention with Older Korean Americans: A Comparison of Internet-Based and In-Class Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…

  3. Developmental and Psycho-Social Effects of HIV in School-Aged Population: Educational Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beverly, Cheryl L.; Thomas, Suzanne B.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the developmental and psychosocial characteristics of the increasing number of school-aged persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Educational ramifications of these characteristics and strategies for providing safe teaching and learning environments are presented. (DB)

  4. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  5. The Educational Affinities of Old Age and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Sandra J.

    1992-01-01

    An unnecessary bias toward separate programing for younger and older adults precludes intergenerational learning and reinforces age stereotypes. Recent gerontological research supports common learning themes for young and old: self-sufficiency, adaptation, and class and gender concerns. (SK)

  6. The effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle: Focusing on middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Mahdipour, Nosaybeh; Shahnazi, Hossein; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Sharifirad, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lifestyle affects people's health and life length, however, no sufficient studies have been done on the effect of lifestyle on middle-ageing, as the transitional period from adulthood to old-ageing, this study has been conducted to study the effect of educational intervention on health promoting lifestyle of middle-aged women in Lenjan city of Isfahan Province, Iran. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted on 88 middle-aged women were selected through randomized sampling from two health centers in Lenjan, and then were categorized into experimental and control groups. To collect data, a researcher-made demographic and life style questionnaire was used. The educational intervention was performed in five sessions. Data were collected from both groups in two stages: Before the intervention and 3 months after the education. Data were analyzed with using SPSS-20 and P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The results showed that educational program had a positive significant effect on increasing the mean scores in the intervention group, considering the physical activity, mental health, and interpersonal relationship, P < 0.001. However, regarding the nutrition, the mean increase was not significant (P = 0.113). Conclusion: According to the findings, it is evident that educational intervention is beneficial for various aspects of middle-aged women's lifestyle. Therefore, applying a healthy lifestyle seems essential for having a healthy aging period, and educational intervention can be effective. PMID:26430678

  7. A Review of Marital Intimacy-Enhancing Interventions among Married Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Kardan-Souraki, Maryam; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Asadpour, Ismail; Mohammadpour, Reza Ali; Khani, Soghra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lack of intimacy is currently the main concern rather than main concern of the experts in psychology and counseling. It is considered as one of the most important causes for divorce and as such to improve marital intimacy a great number of interventions have been proposed in the literature. Intimacy training and counseling make the couples take effective and successful steps to increase marital intimacy. No study has reviewed the interventions promoting marital intimacy after marriage. Thus, this review study aimed to classify the articles investigating the impact of interventional programs on marital intimacy after marriage. Search Methods: In April 2015, we performed a general search in Google Scholar search engines, and then we did an advanced search the databases of Science Direct, ProQuest, SID, Magiran, Irandoc, Pubmed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Psych info; Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL). Also, lists of the references of the relevant articles were reviewed for additional citations. Using Medical Subject Headings (MESH) keywords: Intervention (Clinical Trials, Non-Randomized Controlled Trials, Randomized Controlled Trials, Education), intimacy, marital (Marriage) and selected related articles to the study objective were from 1995 to April 2015. Clinical trials that evaluated one or more behavioral interventions to improve marital intimacy were reviewed in the study. Main Results: 39 trials met the inclusion criteria. Eleven interventions had follow-up, and 28 interventions lacked follow-up. The quality evidence for 22 interventions was low, for 15 interventions moderate, and for one intervention was considered high. Findings from studies were categorized in 11 categories as the intimacy promoting interventions in dimensions of emotional, psychological, physical, sexual, temporal, communicational, social and recreational, aesthetic, spiritual, intellectual intimacy, and total intimacy. Authors’ Conclusions

  8. Effective Game Based Citizenship Education in the Age of New Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Yam San; Mehrotra, Swati; Liu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems worldwide are being challenged to respond effectively to the digital revolution and its implications for learning in the 21st century. In the present new media age, educational reforms are desperately needed to support more open and flexible structures of on-demand learning that equip students with competencies required in a…

  9. Effects of Maternal Education, Age, and Parity of Fatal Infant Accidents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicklund, Kristine; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Analysis of computerized linked birth and death record information found that maternal age and education are inversely related to infant mortality, while mother's parity is directly related. Accident mortality rate differentials by educational level were more evident for certain categories of accident (suffocation, death by fire). (Author/GC)

  10. Ethics and Retail Management Professionals: An Examination of Age, Education, and Experience Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.; Cavico, Frank J.; McCartney, Timothy O.; DiPaolo, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical maturity and behavior are of great concern to all educators, firms, and investors, and even more so in a recession. This research surveyed managers and employees in the retail environment to measure their Personal Business Ethics Scores (PBES) to see if age, education, and management experience makes a difference in making more ethical…

  11. Envisaging New Educational Provision: Innovative Organisation in the Age of New Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoten, David William

    2011-01-01

    In the "age of austerity", educational institutions in many countries are under pressure from a variety of sources to work more closely, reduce costs and raise educational performance. There are a number of possible outcomes that follow on from developing closer institutional ties: sharing of professional expertise through best practice networks,…

  12. The Influence of Education and Age on Neurocognitive Test Performance in Alzheimer's Disease and Vascular Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DenBesten, Nicholas P.

    2009-01-01

    This research involves an examination of the relationship between education and age on a wide array of neuropsychological test measures among patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's and vascular dementia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of education as an attenuating factor to neurocognitive decline in dementia. Although numerous…

  13. Solid Foundations: Health and Education Partnership for Indigenous Children Aged 0 to 8 Years. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years…

  14. The Employment and Postsecondary Educational Status of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnall, Michele Capella

    2010-01-01

    A limited amount of information is available about the employment and postsecondary educational status of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Reports on the employment and postsecondary education tend to focus on overall results and usually do not provide detailed analyses by disability groups. In this article, the author presents the…

  15. Distance Education in the Digital Age: College Students in Virtual Academic Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Wilma P. L

    2009-01-01

    Distance education in the digital age has experienced a dramatic increase in student enrollment, especially in virtual programs. Using a mixed-method approach, this study explores how students exclusively enrolled in virtual programs in invest their time and energy in activities related to desired educational pursuits and outcomes, i.e.…

  16. Distance Learning: An Alternative Approach to Education in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever-Duffy, Judy C.

    Distance education makes use of the technologies of the Information Age to address the needs of a broader and more complex educational market than traditional methods. Because distance delivery does not follow the rigid structure of the traditional course, it can provide instruction to individuals whose location, personal circumstances, or family…

  17. Innovations in Student-Centered Interdisciplinary Teaching for General Education in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Effros, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) General Education "Clusters" are innovations in student-centered undergraduate education focused on complex phenomena that require an interdisciplinary perspective. UCLA gerontology and geriatric faculty recognized the opportunity to introduce freshmen to the field of aging through this new…

  18. Adult Learning, Generativity and "Successful" Aging in Multicultural Perspective: A Hmong American Educational Biography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hones, Donald F.

    This document examines the themes of adult learning, generativity, and successful aging against the backdrop of the biography of a Hmong refugee who immigrated to the United States in 1988 at the age of 35, began studying English as a second language (ESL), and continues to study ESL in adult education classes while six of his seven children…

  19. My Entirely Plausible Fantasy: Early Mathematics Education in the Age of the Touchscreen Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers an account of what early mathematics education could look like in an age of young digital natives. Each "Tubby," as the tablets are called, presents Nicole (our generic little child) with stimulating mathematics microworlds, from which, beginning at age 3, she can learn basic math concepts, as well as methods of…

  20. Middle Age: A Review of the Literature and Its Implications for Educational Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the research and theory related to middle age. The literature survey is divided into three parts: (1) When is middle aged?; (2) What are its psychosocial dynamics?; and (3) Is there a mid-life crisis? Suggests implications for educational practice. (Author/CSS)

  1. The Education and Wages of Immigrant Children: The Impact of Age at Arrival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Arturo

    2003-01-01

    Examines whether age of arrival of immigrant children affects their educational attainment in American schools and their subsequent wages. Finds that in certain cases, immigrants who arrive at younger ages complete more years of school, and as a consequence earn higher wages. (Contains 23 references.) (PKP)

  2. Education in an Age of Social Turbulence (A Roundtable)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The latest scheduled Sorokin Readings on "Global Social Turbulence and Russia," a topic whose relevance has been confirmed by events of the past 10 years, were held on 6-7 December at Moscow State University. One key factor that keeps such turbulence in check is the education level as a factor of a high standard of living. The array of problems in…

  3. Education on the Aging: A Selected Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Betty Arnett

    This bibliography lists selected titles bearing directly or indirectly upon educational programs and activities designed for the primary purpose of developing skills, knowledge, habits, or attitudes appropriate and necessary for vital, purposeful living during the years of later maturity. The references are arranged in sections reflecting the…

  4. Creativity and Education Futures: Learning in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Anna

    2010-01-01

    What is the future of education when the possibilities that exist for children change and advance so rapidly and are so uncertain? Where learning occurs as naturally in a Web 2.0 environment as in the playground, playing field, front room or street? Where adults may still be playing and experimenting far beyond their childhood in ways we could…

  5. Is Our Aging Population a Threat to Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francese, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A great many New England institutions of higher education are about to find out if demography will determine their fate because unprecedented and substantial population change is sweeping across the region. With fewer than 15 million year-round residents, it is the nation's smallest and one of the slowest-growing of the nine census divisions.…

  6. EDUCATIONAL AND MEDICAL SERVICES TO SCHOOL-AGE EXPECTANT MOTHERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Los Angeles City Schools, CA.

    AN INTERAGENCY PROGRAM FOR UNWED PREGNANT TEENAGERS IN THE LOS ANGELES PUBLIC SCHOOL DISTRICT IS EVALUATED IN THIS REPORT. FUNDED UNDER TITLE I OF THE ELEMENTARY AND SECONDARY EDUCATION ACT, THE PROGRAM IS CONDUCTED IN OR ADJACENT TO SIX LOS ANGELES DISTRICT HEALTH CENTERS. IN ADDITION TO REGULAR MEDICAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL PERSONNEL, THE PROGRAM'S…

  7. SuperSchools: Education in the Information Age and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ameritech Foundation, Chicago, IL.

    This document discusses how improvements in the capabilities of the intelligent communications network are making new enhancements and advances available to educators, administrators, students, parents, and the community, focusing on the role of Ameritech. Modern technologies can create dynamic and appropriate learning environments for children…

  8. Day School Israel Education in the Age of Birthright

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomson, Alex; Deitcher, Howard

    2010-01-01

    What are North American Jewish day schools doing when they engage in Israel education, what shapes their practices, and to what ends? In this article, we report on a multi-method study inspired by these questions. Our account is organized around an analytical model that helps distinguish between what we call the vehicles, intensifiers, and…

  9. A Golden Age for Adult Education: The Collective Disorienting Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The continuing challenge of engaging adult learners in the process of positive social change has summoned adult educators to a new understanding of their role as change agents in an increasingly complex world. Despite all obstacles presented by our contemporary culture, the nature of adult development continues to offer opportunities for adult…

  10. Coming of Age: The Future of Business Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Robert; Turner, Virginia

    1999-01-01

    Business education is changing. In May 1998, 200 people attended Canada's first Spirituality in the Workplace Conference. If traditional business schools fade away, there will be a need for institutions able to train and mentor future leaders to a standard that is in touch with cultural dynamics and expects appropriate spiritual, moral, and…

  11. At Age 100, Chemical Engineering Education Faces Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, James

    1988-01-01

    Stresses the need for chemical engineering education to keep abreast of current needs. Explores the need for global economics, marketing strategy, product differentiation, and patent law in the curriculum. Questions the abilities of current chemical engineering graduate students in those areas. (MVL)

  12. Political Education: National Policy Comes of Age. The Updated Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Political insider Christopher Cross has updated his critically acclaimed book to reflect recent education policy developments, including the impact of the Obama administration and "Race to the Top" as well as the controversy over NCLB's reauthorization. Featuring a new introduction and the addition of postscripts for key chapters, this important…

  13. University Unbound! Higher Education in the Age of "Free"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2012-01-01

    Innovators and entrepreneurs are using technologies to make freely available the things for which universities charge significant money. MOOCs (massive open online courses), free online courses, lecture podcasts, low-cost off-the-shelf general education courses, online tutorials, digital collections of open learning resources, open badges--all are…

  14. Catholic Theological Education in a Religiously Pluralistic Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebure, Leo D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the transformation of Catholic theological education over the last fifty years from a highly defensive posture vis-a-vis other religions toward dialogical engagement with members of other religions and all persons of good will. Until Vatican II, most Catholic theologians and officials distrusted exploration of other…

  15. Delivering Technical Education in Wisconsin in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brumm, Loren

    Educational services are now, and will be in the future, delivered via many alternative technologies. In Wisconsin, a variety of video-based alternative delivery systems are being used, such as broadcast television, instructional television fixed service, cable television, interactive computer video, and satellite earth stations. The primary need…

  16. Counseling the Aged: A Training Syllabus for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganikos, Mary L., Ed.; And Others

    This training syllabus on counseling older adults is written for educators and counselors, and can be used as a single course syllabus, for inservice training, or to supplement existing courses. The book is divided into 11 training modules, each of which includes counseling implications and strategies, concrete classroom activities, suggested…

  17. Rethinking Education Reform in the Age of George Bush.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1989-01-01

    School reformers must reclaim schools in the interest of extending democracy, combating domestic tyranny, and preventing assaults on human dignity, rather than myopically pursuing competitive test scores. The role of the teacher must be socially redefined, and learning for empowerment advanced. Techniques for financing education must also be…

  18. Medication Compliance and the Aged: An Educational Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolnick, Bruce D.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses physiological changes and multiple prescription regimens, which, coupled with an increased incidence of chronic disease, increase the likelihood of adverse drug reactions in the elderly. Outlines some of the research related to noncompliance of prescription medication and identifies some educational interventions guidelines for health…

  19. Social Foundations of Education for the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Leonard J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Leonard J. Waks re-imagines the social foundations of education (SFE) as a project within the information society. He begins with what he believes to be a reasonably non-controversial definition: SFE is a field of scholarship and teaching aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding, through description, interpretation, and…

  20. Inventing the Educational Subject in the "Information Age"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojesen, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks the question of how we can situate the educational subject in what Luciano Floridi has defined as an "informational ontology" (Floridi in "The philosophy of information." Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011a). It will suggest that Jacques Derrida and Bernard Stiegler offer paths toward rethinking the…

  1. Assessment, Technology and Democratic Education in the Age of Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrotta, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This paper contends that powerful techniques to manipulate data, enabled by technological and economic developments, can be easily co-opted to serve the restrictive frameworks of hyper-controlling, managerial accountability that characterise current cultures of summative assessment in education. In response to these challenges, research is…

  2. Information Literacy: Liberal Education for the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breivik, Patricia Senn; Jones, Dan L.

    1993-01-01

    The challenge for higher education today is to develop better ways to guide individuals through rapidly expanding old and new resources in their search for knowledge. This means helping undergraduates develop skills in information literacy, the effective seeking and packaging of information. (MSE)

  3. From GED to College: Age Trajectories of Nontraditional Educational Paths

    PubMed Central

    Maralani, Vida

    2015-01-01

    Age patterns of secondary certification and college entry differ in complex and surprising ways for traditional graduates and GED recipients. Although GED recipients are less likely to enter college in their late teens, they catch up to traditional graduates in their 20s. Results show that adjusting for differences in the age trajectories of school continuation accounts for a substantial portion of the differences observed between the two groups. Important differences remain, however, in the type of college attended and the likelihood of college entry before age 21. Nonetheless, more GED recipients enroll in college than previous studies have suggested, and this interest in college identifies a useful place for policy to intervene to encourage school continuation for this group. PMID:26120141

  4. Hope-Focused and Forgiveness-Based Group Interventions To Promote Marital Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripley, Jennifer S.; Worthington, Everett L., Jr.

    2002-01-01

    Reports on a clinical trial (N = 43 couples) that compares a hope-focused marital enrichment with empathy-centered forgiveness-based marital enrichment Hope-focused marital enrichment produced clinically relevant changes in marital communication. The forgiveness-based marital enrichment psychoeducational group is one of the first studies of…

  5. [Differential mortality in women of reproductive age].

    PubMed

    Morelos, J B; Ehrenfeld, N

    1994-01-01

    "This paper begins by reviewing some conceptual frameworks for the study of female mortality and indicates some of its application problems. Next it presents results of mortality of women in reproductive-age classified by age, causes of death, and socio-demographic traits (marital status, schooling, and occupation) for ten states [in Mexico] differentiated according to level of development and well-being. The data suggests differences according to age, marital status, and schooling. Finally, testing of the mutual independence and partial independence hypotheses indicates that age, marital status, and schooling correlate to the degree of development of each state." (SUMMARY IN ENG) PMID:12291772

  6. [Caring for healthy aging: building an educational process with rural women].

    PubMed

    Portella, M R

    1999-01-01

    This study analyses a proposal of nursing assistance. The project proposed has as its goal the construction of an educational process aiming a healthy aging among rural women. It is important to emphasize that these women's cultural health practices were taken into consideration in this research. The conceptual milestones adopted were drawn from Madeleine Leninger's concept of "cultural care" and Paulo Freire's pedagogical ideas. The educational process being proposed is based on the idea of caring/educating in which the nursing professional and the group share experiences through reflective dialog, and seek cultural health practices that can contribute on a healthy aging. PMID:12138632

  7. Aging Education in Elementary School Textbooks in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Shan

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of an aging society, the older population is gradually increasing and people are living longer than ever before. However, older people are often portrayed in school textbooks as insignificant, unhealthy, sad, passive, and dependent. That is, ageism emerges in school textbooks in subtle ways. Under this circumstance, children may…

  8. The Education of People of the "Third Age"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergokova, Zh. Kh.

    2009-01-01

    It was acknowledged by the Second United Nations World Assembly on Aging that this process is a global social and demographic reality that has had its impact on the entire world in all aspects of its existence--the traditional national, financial economic, political, and moral-ethical aspects. At the present time every state is confronted by the…

  9. School-Aged Victims of Sexual Abuse: Implications for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishon, Phillip M.

    Each year in the United States, thousands of school-aged children become involved in sexual activities arranged by adults for purposes of pleasure and profit. Nationwide, annual profits from the child pornography industry and from female and male child prostitution are in the tens of millions of dollars. Heretofore, the majority of…

  10. Transforming Higher Education in the Information Age: Presidents Respond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Richard D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    College presidents respond to an article by Richard Nolan challenging college and university presidents and chancellors to transform their campuses for survival and competitive advantage in the information age. Respondents include Richard D. Breslin, David M. Clarke, Joseph Cronin, Thomas Ehrlich, Donald N. Langenberg, Harold McAninch, and Donald…

  11. The Jesuit Imaginary: Higher Education in a Secular Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Daniel Scott

    2012-01-01

    The philosopher Charles Taylor argues in "A Secular Age" (2007) that people who live in secular cultures are losing the capacity to experience genuine "fullness." Described by Taylor as a philosophical-anthropological conception of human flourishing that corresponds with existential senses of meaning and purpose, fullness is…

  12. The association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with Rorschach scores.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gregory J; Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Reese, Jennifer B; Mihura, Joni L

    2015-02-01

    We examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice. PMID:25059682

  13. Relationship between Brain Age-Related Reduction in Gray Matter and Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Rzezak, Patricia; Squarzoni, Paula; Duran, Fabio L.; de Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tania; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline; Bottino, Cassio M.; Ribeiz, Salma; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Menezes, Paulo R.; Scazufca, Marcia; Busatto, Geraldo F.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-subject variability in age-related brain changes may relate to educational attainment, as suggested by cognitive reserve theories. This voxel-based morphometry study investigated the impact of very low educational level on the relationship between regional gray matter (rGM) volumes and age in healthy elders. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in elders with low educational attainment (less than 4 years) (n = 122) and high educational level (n = 66), pulling together individuals examined using either of three MRI scanners/acquisition protocols. Voxelwise group comparisons showed no rGM differences (p<0.05, family-wise error corrected for multiple comparisons). When within-group voxelwise patterns of linear correlation were compared between high and low education groups, there was one cluster of greater rGM loss with aging in low versus high education elders in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected), as well as a trend in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (p<0.10). These results provide preliminary indication that education might exert subtle protective effects against age-related brain changes in healthy subjects. The anterior cingulate cortex, critical to inhibitory control processes, may be particularly sensitive to such effects, possibly given its involvement in cognitive stimulating activities at school or later throughout life. PMID:26474472

  14. Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the victoria longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-11-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging. PMID:21923980

  15. Education Does Not Slow Cognitive Decline with Aging: 12-Year Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, L.B.; Glymour, M.M.; Sparks, C.; Bontempo, D.; Dixon, R.A.; MacDonald, S.W.S.; Manly, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Few studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1,023 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range: 55–94) and gender, we found that years of education (range: 6–20) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging. PMID:21923980

  16. Education and Training in Aging: A Practical Guide for Professionals. Proceedings and Final Report of the Region VIII Symposia for Trainers in Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Ginger M., Ed.

    These proceedings are intended for use by educators, trainers, and others with responsibility for developing short-term educational programs in the field of aging. The articles are practical tools containing a wealth of concepts and suggestions for designing conferences, workshops, and short courses on aging. The articles were developed or…

  17. Enhancing Astronomy Education Through Cross-Age Student Tutoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundstrom, Erika; Taylor, R. S.

    2009-01-01

    Vast distances, such as those that pervade astronomy, are difficult concepts to grasp. We are all a part of the Earth-Moon system, however most people do not comprehend the sizes and distances involved. In a pilot study, the authors found that an intervention using both discussion and kinesthetic modeling resulted in students of all ages (children up through adults) acquiring a more accurate mental representation of the Earth-Moon system. We have extended this research and are currently conducting a new study in which undergraduate students serve as "tutors" in a public observatory setting. One of our conjectures is that tutors' mental representations of the Earth-Moon system will be enhanced through their active participation in the cross-age peer tutoring activity. This work is supported in part by grants from the Center for the Integration of Research, Teaching, and Learning (CIRTL), the Vanderbilt University Learning Sciences Institute, and NSF Career grant AST-0349075.

  18. Testing the Long-Term Efficacy of a Prevention Program for Improving Marital Conflict in Community Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faircloth, W. Brad; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Mitchell, Patricia M.; Cummings, Jennifer S.; Cummings, E. Mark

    2011-01-01

    Family-focused prevention programs for community samples have potentially broad, clinically relevant implications but few studies have examined whether any program benefits continue to be observed over the long term. Although benefits of a marital conflict focused parent education program, the Happy Couples and Happy Kids (i.e., HCHK) program,…

  19. Prospective prediction of husband marital aggression within newlywed couples.

    PubMed

    Leonard, K E; Senchak, M

    1996-08-01

    This study prospectively examined a social interactional model of husband marital aggression. Young couples were assessed at the time of their 1st marriage with respect to marital conflict styles, alcohol consumption, hostility, gender identity, perceived power inequity, and history of family violence. Couples were reassessed at their 1-year anniversary, and information concerning marital aggression was collected. Most of the constructs were prospectively related to husband aggression, but these relationships were largely mediated through marital conflict styles and husband alcohol consumption, which in turn were influenced by husband's hostility, gender identity, and perceived power inequity. PMID:8772007

  20. Marital Quality Spillover and Young Children's Adjustment: Evidence for Dyadic and Triadic Parenting as Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stroud, Catherine B; Meyers, Kathryn M; Wilson, Sylia; Durbin, C Emily

    2015-01-01

    Research has evidenced support for the spillover model, which posits that parents' marital functioning influences child adjustment by eroding parenting and coparenting in dyadic (mother-child and father-child) and triadic (mother-father-child) contexts. However, prior work has not simultaneously investigated dyadic and triadic parenting as mechanisms of spillover. Furthermore, although evidence indicates that the marital system affects child adjustment by influencing parents' behavior, research has not explored whether child behaviors in parent-child interactions also serve as mechanisms. To address these gaps, we examined the spillover model using observational measures of parent and child behavior in parent-child dyadic interactions as well as coparenting in triadic interactions. We also explored parent and child gender differences in spillover effects. Participants were families with children 3 to 6 years of age (n=149; 62% Caucasian). Findings indicated that marital functioning influences child adjustment by disrupting parent-child interactions in dyadic and triadic contexts, although results differed by child/parent gender and outcome examined. First, children's responsiveness to their mothers emerged as a significant mechanism of spillover effects for boys' internalizing and girls' externalizing behavior. Second, for girls and boys, marital functioning was indirectly related to children's internalizing and externalizing behavior through reductions in coparenting warmth. Finally, there was little evidence that parent gender moderated the indirect effect of dyadic parenting, except that child responsiveness to mothers (vs. to fathers) was more strongly related to child adjustment. These findings underscore the need for interventions targeting dyadic and triadic parent-child interactions in the face of marital distress. PMID:24819587

  1. Marital status composition and fertility: a comparative analysis of World Fertility Survey data.

    PubMed

    Kanjanapan, W

    1985-07-01

    The marital status composition of a population is an often neglected variable in research on fertility determinants in developing countries. Research is needed on the extent to which fertility is affected by factors governing exposure to sexual intercourse within, after, and between unions. Davis and Blake maintain that the relationship between fertility and time spent in marriage is a function of the level of sexual activity and childbearing outside legal marital unions, contraceptive usage, and the incidence and timing of 1st marriage as well as marital dissolution and remarriage. This hypothesis was explored through data derived from World Fertility Surveys in Bangladesh, Fiji, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The percentage of currently married women in these countries was 86-94%, but considerable proportions of ever-married females have had a marriage broken through death of spouse, divorce, or legal separation. Although there were striking differences in proportions remarried among the countries under investigation (i.e., 4% in Pakistan, Korea, and Sri Lanka but 32% in Indonesia), the data support the assumption that high rates of remarriage accompany high rates of marital dissolution. The percentage remarried increases steadily with age. Also noted was an inverse association between the extent of broken marriage and the amount of time spent in the married state. In all 10 countries, completed fertility among married women 40-49 years was much higher than that of women whose marriages were disrupted. Women who experience marital dissolution are presumed to lose a period of exposure to risk of childbearing during the period between marriages, although this fertility deficit is often made up in subsequent marriage. In general, however, fertility decreases as reproductive time lost increases. PMID:12222499

  2. Differences between chronological and brain age are related to education and self-reported physical activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; O'Shea, Deirdre; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Bherer, Louis; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education and physical activity and the difference between a physiological prediction of age and chronological age (CA). Cortical and subcortical gray matter regional volumes were calculated from 331 healthy adults (range: 19-79 years). Multivariate analyses identified a covariance pattern of brain volumes best predicting CA (R(2) = 47%). Individual expression of this brain pattern served as a physiologic measure of brain age (BA). The difference between CA and BA was predicted by education and self-report measures of physical activity. Education and the daily number of flights of stairs climbed (FOSC) were the only 2 significant predictors of decreased BA. Effect sizes demonstrated that BA decreased by 0.95 years for each year of education and by 0.58 years for 1 additional FOSC daily. Effects of education and FOSC on regional brain volume were largely driven by temporal and subcortical volumes. These results demonstrate that higher levels of education and daily FOSC are related to larger brain volume than predicted by CA which supports the utility of regional gray matter volume as a biomarker of healthy brain aging. PMID:26973113

  3. Changing patterns of tobacco use in a middle-aged population – the role of snus, gender, age, and education

    PubMed Central

    Norberg, Margareta; Lundqvist, Gunnar; Nilsson, Maria; Gilljam, Hans; Weinehall, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Background In Sweden, the smoking prevalence has declined. In 2007, it was among the lowest in the industrialized world. A steady increase in the use of Swedish oral moist snuff, snus, has occurred in parallel. This development is neither solicited by authorities nor the medical establishment, but rather has occurred along with increased awareness of the dangers of smoking, and has been promoted by product development and marketing of snus. Objective To evaluate time trends in patterns of tobacco use in northern Sweden during 1990–2007. Design Cross-sectional (99,381 subjects) and longitudinal (26,867 subjects) data from the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) 1990–2007 were analyzed. All adults in Västerbotten County are invited to a VIP health examination at ages 40, 50, and 60 years, and until 1995 also 30 years. Smoking and use of snus were evaluated by gender, age and educational groups. Intermittent smoking was categorized as smoking. Results From the period 1990–1995 to the period 2002–2007, smoking prevalence decreased from 26 to 16% among men and from 27 to 18% among women. The differences in prevalence increased between educational groups. The decline in smoking was less and the increase of snus use was greater among those with basic education. The use of snus among basic-educated 40-year-olds reached 35% among men and 14% among women during 2002–2007. Dual smoking and snus use increased among men and women with basic education. Smoking without snus use was more prevalent among women. Gender differences in total smoking prevalence (smoking only plus dual use) were small in all age groups, but increased among those with basic education reaching 7.3% during 2002–2007, with women being more frequent smokers. Smoking prevalences were similar among never, former and current snus users. Among the 30,000 former smokers, 38% of men and 64% of women had never used snus. Longitudinal data showed a decline in total tobacco use from baseline until

  4. ERIC/EECE Digests Related to the Education and Care of Children from Birth through 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Early Childhood Education, Champaign, IL.

    The ERIC/EECE Digests in this compilation focus on different aspects of the education and care of children from birth through 12 years of age. The four digests produced in 1989 concern the escalating kindergarten curriculum, involvement of parents in the education of their children, mixed-age groups in early childhood education, and praise in the…

  5. Aspects of Media Education: Strategic Imperatives in the Information Age. Media Education Publication 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tella, Seppo, Ed.

    This volume examines current trends in media education, modern information and communication technologies (MICT), open and distance learning (ODL), and science and technology education. Papers include: "Towards a Communal Curriculum: Strategic Planning and the Emerging Knowledge of Media Education" (Seppo Tella, Marja Mononen-Aaltonen, & Heikki…

  6. e-Leadership in Higher Education: The Fifth "Age" of Educational Technology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Jill

    2013-01-01

    A discussion of the relative lack of research into e-leadership in educational technology in education is followed by an outline of selected prior literature in the field. The paper proposes that, as part of a natural evolution of educational technology research, considerably more attention needs to be focused on research and development in…

  7. 200 Years of Vocational Education, 1776-1976; The Vocational Education Age Emerges, 1876-1926

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Melvin L.

    1976-01-01

    The beginnings of vocational education are more readily seen during the period 1876-1926. They are characterized by the rise of manual training, trade schools, home economics movements, and agricultural education. The Smith-Hughes Act was passed in response to the demands of the National Society for the Promotion of Industrial Education. (EC)

  8. A Golden Age of Security and Education? Adult Education for Civil Defence in the United States 1950-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2015-01-01

    A number of authors consider that the early period of US security and education (1950-1970) was in some way a "golden age" where there was a prevailing societal orientation towards civil defence. This is supported, to some extent, through "Duck and Cover" type activities in schools and in community preparedness efforts. This…

  9. Have OSCEs come of age in nursing education?

    PubMed

    Traynor, Marian; Galanouli, Despina

    This article is intended to contribute to the current debate as to whether the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) should become a standard assessment tool for undergraduate nursing education as they currently are for medicine. The authors describe how one UK university developed an OSCE for a nursing undergraduate programme with the aim of emphasising the need for nursing students to be competent in clinical skills and offering a means of standardising the assessment of these skills. There has been an increasing number of research studies carried out in this area at international level and this article's main contribution to the literature is the description of the Angoff standard-setting procedure that was used to calibrate the OSCE at this University and which makes it the first nursing OSCE in the UK to incorporate a scientific standard-setting procedure. PMID:25849236

  10. Education and Research for the Age of Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Nanoelectronics has great potential for further, sustainable growth, and this growth is needed worldwide, because new chips provide the technology foundation for all those products and services that shape our lives. However, the concern is justified that this truth is not the perception of the public in the first decades of the new millennium. How can we work towards a broad, sustained commitment to an innovation ecosystem involving education, research, business, and public policy? Reminding ourselves of the 10x programs invoked in Chap. 2 to describe major milestones in advancing microelectronics towards today's nanoelectronics, we notice that all of them demanded requirements-driven, top-down research with ambitious, often disruptive targets for new products or services. Coming closer to the end of the nanometer focus, the new task of global proportion should be a femto-Joule focus on minimum-energy nanoelectronic systems research.

  11. Race Differences in Cohort Effects on Non-Marital Fertility in the United States: Reply to Martin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockard, Jean; Gray, Jo Anna; O'Brien, Robert; Stone, Joe

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors clarify and provide additional tests of the key elements of their age-period-cohort analysis of non-marital birth rates in this March 2009 issue of "Social Forces." Where Steve Martin, in his commentary, has suggested specific alternative specifications or interpretations of their findings, the authors have…

  12. Marital Conflict and Risk for Child Maladjustment over Time: Skin Conductance Level Reactivity as a Vulnerability Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy S.; Erath, Stephen A.

    2007-01-01

    Skin conductance level reactivity (SCLR) was examined as a longitudinal mediator and moderator of relations between parental marital conflict and psychopathology among children and young adolescents. Participants were 157 boys and girls (M age at T1 = 9.31 years; SD = 1.97); there was a 2-year lag between T1 and T2 assessments. At T1,…

  13. An Examination of the Perceptions of Older Americans on Successful Aging and Adult Education Programs to Meet Their Aging Needs in Southeast Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Ileeia Anjale

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the personal perceptions of older Americans in regards to the aging process and the characteristics of successful aging. In addition, the study aimed to determine individual perceptions of adult education programs and resources necessary in aging successfully. The study examined current resources, services…

  14. Venereal factors in human cervical cancer: evidence from marital clusters.

    PubMed

    Kessler, I I

    1977-04-01

    All Caucasian women in a large Eastern city who developed pathologically confirmed cervical cancer between 1950 and 1969 are being prospectively followed in an epidemiological test of the venereal hypothesis of cervical carcinogenesis. We are attempting to identify all men who were married to these probands at any time prior to the date of their cancer diagnosis. The ultimate objective is the identification of all the other wives of the proband husbands in order that their risk of cervical cancer be assessed. A random sample of control wives similar to the other wives in age, race, date and place of marriage as well as prior marital status is also being followed. To date, a total of 1,087 other wives and 659 control wives has been fully traced. Cervical cancer or carcinoma in situ was detected in 29 (2.7%) of the other wives and in seven (1.1%) of the control wives. A total of 14.0% of the other wives had either cervical cancer or a cervical cytological specimen which was other than normal. The corresponding statistic for the control wives was 8.0%. These differences in the prevalence of cervical cancer and of non-normal cervical cytology are statistically significant. In the course of this investigation so far, we have identified 29 "marital clusters" of cervical cancer in which two women married to the same man have all developed cervical neoplasms. The observed number of 29 clusters may be compared with an expected number of 11.6. This investigation, as yet incomplete, offers confirmatory evidence of the possible role of venereal factors in the pathogenesis of human cervical neoplasia. While the genital herpesvirus is the likeliest candidate, other venereal elements might also be involved. PMID:192439

  15. Marital Interaction and Marital Conflict: A Critical Evaluation of Current Research Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Bruce R.; Gross, Steven Jay

    1975-01-01

    Methods currently used to investigate interaction during marital conflict limit the validity and generalizability of findings concerning the determinants and consequences of couples' interaction styles. The respective advantages and limitations of two research strategies--questionnaires and simulation strategies--are critically evaluated. Several…

  16. Meeting the educational needs of an aging population: The Australian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minichiello, Victor

    1992-07-01

    The number of older people in Australia is growing fast, and gerontology has recently become a recognised area of study in tertiary institutions. However, negative attitudes persist among health and welfare professionals, and ways in which gerontology courses can combat the myths associated with aging and the aged are discussed. It is pointed out that people do not grow old in isolation, but in a social context. Education for older people should be seen as a part of social policy, recognising the lifelong right to education. The University of the Third Age (U3A) is a response to the demand for education from older people. The origins of this movement in Europe, and its spread to North America and Australia, are outlined. To meet the needs of older people, courses offered by U3A's have to be multidisciplinary.

  17. Parental dysphoria and children's adjustment: marital conflict styles, children's emotional security, and parenting as mediators of risk.

    PubMed

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina D; Cummings, E Mark

    2007-08-01

    Dimensions of martial conflict, children's emotional security regarding interparental conflict, and parenting style were examined as mediators between parental dysphoria and child adjustment. A community sample of 262 children, ages 8-16, participated with their parents. Behavioral observations were made of parents' interactions during marital conflict resolution tasks, which children later observed to assess their emotional security. Questionnaires assessed parents' dysphoria, parenting, and children's adjustment. Structural equation modeling indicated that parental dysphoria was linked with child adjustment through specific and distinct mediating family processes, including marital conflict and parenting. Children's emotional security in the context of particular marital conflict styles also mediated relations between parental dysphoria and child adjustment problems, with similar pathways found for mothers and fathers. These pathways remained significant even after significant parenting contributions were considered. PMID:17390219

  18. Physical activity among working age residents of Wroclaw in the light of their educational attainment

    PubMed Central

    Puciato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This article attempts to define the relationship between physical activity and educational attainment of working-age adults from Wroclaw. [Subjects and Methods] The study surveyed 2,174 participants aged 18–64 years, 984 men and 1,190 women. To evaluate their physical activity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. [Results] Most of the participants performed low-intensity levels of physical activity. Men were characterized by generally higher physical activity than women, but the difference was not significant. The level of educational attainment differentiated physical activity only in women with secondary or higher education, who performed significantly more physical activities than those with primary and vocational education. [Conclusion] Further research in this subject area should be performed. It should be continuous and consider other methods and techniques. PMID:27065518

  19. Integrated Geospatial Education and Technology Training for High School Age Youth (HiGETT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Landsat series of satellites provides high quality, consistent, 30 m resolution data for studies of landscape-scale change over time at no cost to the user. The availability of the Landsat data archive and the effectiveness and ease of its use to solve practical societal problems, particularly integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS), has been a key factor in a movement to bring remote sensing education to community colleges (as in the "iGETT" program funded by the National Science Foundation, 2007-2011) and now to younger students of high school age. "Integrated Geospatial Education and Technology Training for High School Age Youth (HiGETT)" was a two-day meeting convened April 4-5, 2011 to explore and articulate effective means of reaching teens with geospatial technology education and career awareness. Participants represented industry, government, academia, and informal education organizations such as 4-H and Girl Scouts. This poster will summarize a report on that meeting.

  20. Factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut among unmarried high school female students in bahir Dar town, Ethiopia: cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pre-marital sexual debut increase the risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including HIV/AIDS and unwanted pregnancy. It may also affect their school performance and completion rate. In spite of this fact, number of unmarried female students who started sexual debut is increasing from time to time. However, information on the extent of pre-marital sexual debut and associated factors were not well studied and documented in the study area where pre-marital sexual debut is largely condemned. Therefore this study was conducted to assess the magnitude and associated factors of pre-marital sexual debut. Methods School based cross-sectional survey was conducted from May 10-13/2012. A total of 1123 unmarried high school female students were selected by multi- stage sampling technique. Data were collected using structured, self administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with pre-marital sexual debut. Results Among unmarried high school female students 30.8% reported pre-marital sexual debut. The major associated factors were frequent watching of pornographic video [AOR = 10.15, 95% CI: (6.63, 15.53)], peer pressure [AOR = 2.98, 95% CI: (1.57, 5.67)] and chewing khat [AOR = 8.99, 95% CI: (3.84, 21.06)]. Conclusion Significant proportion of unmarried high school female students have started pre-marital sexual debut. The finding suggests the need for communicating and supporting school students to help them make informed and safer decisions on their sexual behavior. Therefore, Bahir dar city administration health and education bureau should design persistent and effective health education to decrease pre-marital sexual debut in unmarried female students. PMID:24885739

  1. Long Run Returns to Education: Does Schooling Lead to an Extended Old Age?

    PubMed Central

    van Kippersluis, Hans; O’Donnell, Owen; van Doorslaer, Eddy

    2011-01-01

    While there is no doubt that health is strongly correlated with education, whether schooling exerts a causal impact on health is not firmly established. We exploit a Dutch compulsory schooling law to estimate the causal effect of education on mortality. The reform provides a powerful instrument, significantly raising years of schooling, which, in turn, has a significant and robust negative effect on mortality. For men surviving to age 81, an extra year of schooling is estimated to reduce the probability of dying before the age of 89 by almost 3 percentage points relative to a baseline of 50 percent. PMID:21874068

  2. Management of non-marital fertility in two South African communities

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Sangeetha; Harrison, Abigail; Sennott, Christie

    2013-01-01

    In this analysis, we draw on qualitative data to examine the management of non-marital fertility among young women in two rural, Black communities situated in different provinces of South Africa: KwaZulu–Natal and Mpumalanga. While the two communities share a history of economic and social disadvantage and limited access to the labour market, there are, nonetheless, distinctive features that are evident in the management of non-marital fertility. We show that young women in both communities aspire to an ideal ordering of events that places finishing education before getting married and having children but this is not easily attained. However, there are important differences in the ways young women and their families respond to union formation and childbearing that often occurs outside of a recognized union. In Hlabisa, formal processes for legitimising non-marital pregnancies through union recognition are still in place whereas, in Agincourt, more emphasis is placed on securing support and paternal recognition for the child rather than on cementing the union between the young woman and her partner. We also find that the older generation in Agincourt at times views education as a threat to marriage while this is not common in Hlabisa. Our findings have important implications for intervention programmes that often treat Black communities as homogeneous wholes. PMID:23600721

  3. A Study of Marital Satisfaction Among Non-Depressed and Depressed Mothers After Childbirth in Jahrom, Iran, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Jahromi, Marzieh Kargar; Zare, Azam; Taghizadeganzadeh, Mahboobeh; Koshkaki, Afifeh Rahmanian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Birth is one of the most wonderful events in nature and pregnancy and delivery are major developments for most married women. Similar to the pregnancy period, the period of time following delivery is accompanied by certain mental and physical changes in women. During this time, mothers experience a full range of mental disorders, varying from minor to psychotic. The objective of this study was to examine marital satisfaction among non-depressed and depressed mothers who visited primary health centers in Jahrom after childbirth in 2014. Method and Material: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study population consisted of 80 mothers, who were in the 6 to 12 weeks of delivery and had visited primary health centers in Jahrom from April to July, 2014.To select the participants, the researcher looked thorough the files at each center and chose the mothers who were qualified for the study based on convenience sampling. The criteria for participation were: being aged from 20 to 40; being in the 6-12 weeks since delivery; having a healthy newborn; willingness to participate in the study. The participants were divided into the two groups of mothers suffering from postpartum depression (40 women) and mothers not affected by postpartum depression (40 women) on basis of questionnaire. The study follows the ethics in a scientific study. The researcher personally visited the primary health centers and explained the objectives of the study to the participants. Subsequently, the participants were asked to complete a demographic questionnaire, Enrich Marital Satisfaction Scale, and Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Scale. The participants were allowed one hour to complete the questionnaires. Result: The results showed that the average age of depressed and non-depressed women was respectively 28.1±5 and 29.4±5.5. Regarding the sex of the newborns, 53% of the depressed women had a son and 46.7% had a daughter. In the non-depressed group, 43.3% of the

  4. Marital Instability: A Study of Its Transmission Between Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Charles W.; Pope, Hallowell

    1977-01-01

    A 1970 national sample of white ever-married females is used to explore the process of the intergenerational transmission of marital instability. The research examines the possibility that mate-selection outcomes operate as intervening variables between parent and child generation marital instability. Partial support is found for this. (Author)

  5. The Effect of the First Child on the Marital Relationship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldron, Holly; Routh, Donald K.

    1981-01-01

    Couples (N=46) expecting their first child completed the Locke-Wallace Marital Adjustment Scale and the Bem Sex Role Inventory during the last trimester of the wife's pregnancy and again after the birth of the baby. Results indicated that wives' marital adjustment scores were significantly lower following the birth. (Author)

  6. Reasons for Alcohol Use in Maritally Violent Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Ronald W.; And Others

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with aggressive behaviors. This study compared the contexts and reasons for drinking of maritally violent men (N=44) and three maritally nonviolent comparison groups: happily married men (N=54), unhappily married men (N=41), and men who had been convicted of a violent offense, but who did not beat their…

  7. Marital Distress and Mental Health Care Service Utilization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbrun, Yael Chatav; Whisman, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study was designed to evaluate the association between marital distress and mental health service utilization in a population-based sample of men and women (N = 1,601). Method: The association between marital distress and mental health care service utilization was evaluated for overall mental health service utilization and for…

  8. Perceptions of Attachment Style and Marital Quality in Midlife Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollist, Cody S.; Miller, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory, Emotionally Focused Therapy (EFT) theorizes that attachment styles influence marital quality. Although research supports this relationship among young couples, no research has examined attachment styles and marital quality in midlife marriages. We examined this issue using data from 429 married people between the ages…

  9. The Development of the Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canel, Azize Nilgun

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the process of developing the Marital Satisfaction Scale (MSS) aiming to support studies in the field of marital satisfaction and to obtain information about couples in a short time through psychological counseling is discussed. The scale including 101 yes-no items aiming to reveal couples' opinions about their marriages was…

  10. Treatment Acceptability of Alternative Marital Therapies: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Philip H.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined the acceptability of four therapeutic models (i.e., behavioral, psychoanalytic, systems, and eclectic) used in treatment of marital discord. Subjects (N=88) evaluated four treatment sequences as they applied to a marital case history. Results showed that, among varying treatments, behavioral and systems approaches were rated more…

  11. The Impact of Job Insecurity on Marital and Family Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jeffry H.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between perceived stress resulting from job insecurity and marital and family functioning. Data from 111 married couples in which at least 1 spouse was working in insecure job environment showed that job insecurity stress was related in systematic way to marital and family dysfunction and number of family problems reported.…

  12. Parental Marital Discord and Treatment Response in Depressed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaya, Meredith M.; Reinecke, Mark A.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Evidence suggests that parental marital discord contributes to the development of internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children and adolescents. Few studies, however, have examined the association between parental marital discord and youth's response to treatment. The present study examined the impact of interparental discord on treatment…

  13. Bases of Marital Satisfaction among Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhyne, Darla

    1981-01-01

    Investigated possible gender differences in bases of marital satisfaction. Data indicated that marital quality of men and women differ in degree rather than in kind. Suggests men may be more satisfied with their marriages than women but the same factors are important in their assessments. (Author/RC)

  14. Marital Stability and Spouses' Shared Time: A Multidisciplinary Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Martha S.

    1988-01-01

    Tested hypothesis that spouses' shared leisure time is form of pleasurable interaction that strengthens attachment between them and helps prevent marital dissolution. Empirical tests supported attachment hypothesis and suggest that, because couples with children have less shared leisure time, children can contribute to marital dissolution as well…

  15. The Relationship between Marital Adjustment and Sibling Constellation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloser, Edward Charles

    The conflict in research that exists between the relationship of marital adjustment and sibling constellation is examined here. The belief that the combination of birth order and gender (sibling constellation) is important, is not only a part of folk wisdom but it is a continuing point of view in the literature of marital and family therapy. Data…

  16. Debt Change and Marital Satisfaction Change in Recently Married Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dew, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Although recently married couples report debt as one of their top concerns, research has not measured how debt changes relate to changes in their marital satisfaction. Further, the mechanisms that link debt and marital satisfaction are unknown. Findings using the National Survey of Families and Households (N = 1,078 couples) demonstrated that…

  17. Depression and Marital Adjustment During Pregnancy and After Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Michael W.

    1985-01-01

    Depressive symptomatology and marital satisfaction during pregnancy and after delivery were studied in 51 couples. Depression symptom severity decreased over pregnancy and the postpartum period for both men and women. Husbands' marital satisfaction at 6 weeks postpartum was significantly correlated with their wives' satisfaction with the social…

  18. Coping with Marital Transitions: A Family Systems Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetherington, E. Mavis

    1992-01-01

    Summarizes research on single-parent households and families whose mothers have remarried. This research concentrates on the effect of marital transitions on family functioning and children's adjustment. Introduces a longitudinal study that examined transformations in marital, parent-child, and sibling relationships following the remarriage of a…

  19. Marital History and the Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Midlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Zhenmei

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the effects of marital history on the burden of cardiovascular disease in midlife. With use of data from the 1992 Health and Retirement Study, a series of nested logistic regression models was used to estimate the association between marital history and the likelihood of cardiovascular disease. Results suggest that, in midlife,…

  20. Coordinated Analysis of Age, Sex, and Education Effects on Change in MMSE Scores

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Method. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Results. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. Conclusion. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ. PMID:23033357

  1. Reassessing the Link Between Premarital Cohabitation and Marital Instability

    PubMed Central

    REINHOLD, STEFFEN

    2010-01-01

    Premarital cohabitation has been found to be positively correlated with the likelihood of marital dissolution in the United States. To reassess this link, I estimate proportional hazard models of marital dissolution for first marriages by using pooled data from the 1988, 1995, and 2002 surveys of the National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG). These results suggest that the positive relationship between premarital cohabitation and marital instability has weakened for more recent birth and marriage cohorts. Using multiple marital outcomes for a person to account for one source of unobserved heterogeneity, panel models suggest that cohabitation is not selective of individuals with higher risk of marital dissolution and may be a stabilizing factor for higher-order marriages. Further research with more recent data is needed to assess whether these results are statistical artifacts caused by data weaknesses in the NSFG. PMID:20879685

  2. Interpersonal mediators in the intergenerational transmission of marital dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Story, Lisa B; Karney, Benjamin R; Lawrence, Erika; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2004-09-01

    Intergenerational transmission of marital functioning was examined in a sample of 60 newlywed couples by collecting (a) retrospective reports of conflict and divorce in spouses' families of origin, (b) data on demographic variables and interactional processes likely to increase risk for adverse marital outcomes, and (c) couples' actual 4-year marital outcomes. The association between wives' parental divorce and marital outcome was mediated by their verbal and physical aggression. The association between negativity in husbands' family of origin and marital outcome was mediated by dyadic expressions of negative affect. Demographic variables did not operate as mediators. Negative interpersonal processes appear to be a vehicle by which experiences in the family of origin are carried forward into the next generation of relationships. PMID:15382977

  3. Marital Quality from a Rural Indian Context in Comparative Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Allendorf, Keera

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the conception of marital quality held by respondents living in one Indian village, as identified through an analysis of semi-structured interviews (n=46). Their conception of marital quality is summed up in the overarching ideal of the life partner and characterized by the dimensions of love, peace, understanding, communication, trust, and balance. This conception is then compared to the conception of marital quality found in the literature, which was developed in reference to Western contexts. The comparison suggests that the villagers’ conception of marital quality intersects in many ways with that found in the literature, but there are also important differences. These results point to the importance of greater examination of marital quality in non-Western contexts without unthinkingly applying Western measures. PMID:27152057

  4. Trajectories of Conflict over Raising Adolescent Children and Marital Satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Ming; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined trajectories of marital satisfaction among couples with adolescent children and evaluated how changes in parents’ conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with changes in marital satisfaction over four years. Using a prospective, longitudinal research design and controlling for family socioeconomic status, dyadic growth curve analysis from a sample of 431 couples with adolescent children indicated that marital satisfaction decreased over time for parents with adolescent children, and that the trajectories for mothers and fathers were substantially linked. More importantly, the study demonstrated that increases or decreases in parents’ marital conflict over raising adolescent children were associated with corresponding decreases or increases in marital satisfaction for both mothers and fathers. PMID:20161030

  5. Education Level Predicts Retrospective Metamemory Accuracy in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064

  6. A Process Model of Adolescents' Triangulation into Parents' Marital Conflict: The Role of Emotional Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Buehler, Cheryl; Welsh, Deborah P.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined adolescents' emotional reactivity to parents' marital conflict as a mediator of the association between triangulation and adolescents' internalizing problems in a sample of 416 two-parent families. Four waves of annual, multiple-informant data were analyzed (youth aged 11 – 15). Using structural equation modeling, triangulation was associated with increases in adolescents' internalizing problems, controlling for marital hostility and adolescent externalizing problems. There also was an indirect pathway from triangulation to internalizing problems across time through youths' emotional reactivity. Moderating analyses indicated that the second half of the pathway, the association between emotional reactivity and increased internalizing problems, characterized youth with lower levels of hopefulness and attachment to parents. The findings help detail why triangulation is a risk factor for adolescents' development and which youth will profit most from interventions focused on emotional regulation. PMID:19364211

  7. Direct and indirect effects of unilateral divorce law on marital stability.

    PubMed

    Kneip, Thorsten; Bauer, Gerrit; Reinhold, Steffen

    2014-12-01

    Previous research examining the impact of unilateral divorce law (UDL) on the prevalence of divorce has provided mixed results. Studies based on cross-sectional cross-country/cross-state survey data have received criticism for disregarding unobserved heterogeneity across countries, as have studies using country-level panel data for failing to account for possible mediating mechanisms at the micro level. We seek to overcome both shortcomings by using individual-level event-history data from 11 European countries (SHARELIFE) and controlling for unobserved heterogeneity over countries and cohorts. We find that UDL in total increased the incidence of marital breakdown by about 20 %. This finding, however, neglects potential selection effects into marriage. Accordingly, the estimated effect of unilateral divorce laws becomes much larger when we control for age at marriage, which is used as indicator for match quality. Moreover, we find that UDL particularly affects marital stability in the presence of children. PMID:25354572

  8. Parents’ Marital Status, Conflict, and Role Modeling: Links With Adult Romantic Relationship Quality

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Galena K.; Stanley, Scott M.; Markman, Howard J.; Ragan, Erica P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated three parental marital statuses and relationship quality among unmarried, but dating adults ages 18 to 35 (N = 1153). Those whose parents never married one another tended to report the lowest relationship quality (in terms of relationship adjustment, negative communication, commitment, and physical aggression) compared to those with divorced or married biological parents. In addition, those with divorced parents reported lower relationship adjustment and more negative communication than those with married parents. Parental conflict and the degree to which participants rated their parents’ relationship as a healthy model for their own relationships partially explained the associations between parental marital status and relationship outcomes. We suggest that this particular family type (i.e., having parents who never marry one another) needs greater attention in this field in terms of research and intervention. PMID:22822295

  9. Correlation of patient's mental attitude with age, sex, and educational level: A survey

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shweta; Kumar, Ajit; Arora, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine any relationship, if exists, between the patient's mental attitude with age, sex, or educational qualification. Methods: A total of 200 patients who attended the outpatient department during a span of 1 year, for the fabrication of new complete dentures, were chosen for the study. After completing a routine case history and examination, a questionnaire was filled by the clinician as answered by the patient. Participants were evaluated and categorized based on the questionnaire and clinical experience during treatment according to a predefined classification of determining mental attitudes. Outcomes from the survey were correlated with participant gender, age, and educational status. Results: The male to female ratio was 83:117, out of the 200 enrolled participants. The results from the questionnaire showed that females were found to be more exacting (P = 0.007) in nature, while males, on the other hand, revealed more indifferent attitude (P = 0.02); both differences being statistically significant. Of the three age group categories: Participants in the age group of 45–54 years revealed a significant inclination toward an exacting attitude when compared with other age groups (P < 0.001). In regards to educational status, an illiterate or minimally educated group significantly outnumbered the college graduates in the indifferent attitude group (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, it could be said that the mental attitudes of patients could vary according to gender, age, and educational status, which could affect patient cooperation and satisfaction with oral rehabilitation, eventually manipulating the overall success of the treatment rendered. PMID:27011735

  10. "It's about Us": Marital Adjustment and Marital Adaptation in Couples Who Adopt Children from the Child Welfare System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooradian, John K.; Timm, Tina M.; Hock, Robert M.; Jackson, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This article examines, using grounded theory methodology, the marital relationships of couples who adopted children from the child welfare system. Twenty-two spouses in four focus groups reported initial marital adjustment that featured husbands' support of their wives' initiation of adoption and management of child needs. About one half of these…

  11. Why Learning Not Education?--Analysis of Transnational Education Policies in the Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandal, Sayantan

    2012-01-01

    The profound influence of globalization seems helping outshine the concept of "education" with the more flexible notion of "learning" in the education policies of major transnational organizations. With considerable differences in concepts, all of them are promoting "learning", more specifically LLL (lifelong learning) through their policies.…

  12. Comparative Education, Border Pedagogy, and Teacher Education in an Age of Internationalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Robert J.; Griffiths, Tom G.

    2009-01-01

    Calls to internationalise higher education have intensified in recent years, particularly as educational services have grown to become a significant export industry within the Australian economy. This measure is indicative, however, of the relatively narrow way in which internationalisation has been constructed, and its political utility in…

  13. Special Education Forms. Volume 2: Early Childhood Special Education for Children Three to School Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Sandra; Allen, Diana

    This document comprises forms (and directions for their use) used in Oregon which meet the state regulations for Early Childhood Special Education (ECSE) as well as the federal Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). Forms are identified as either required or optional and are presented in a two-page format, with one page identifying…

  14. Timing Issues with Early Childhood Education Programs: How Effect Sizes Vary by Starting Age, Program Duration and Persistence of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Leak, James A.; Li, Weilin; Magnuson, Katherine; Schindler, Holly; Yoshikawa, Hiro

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to…

  15. Social Skills Expression of Senior High School Age Students in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akelaitis, Arturas V.

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to reveal the peculiarities of social skills expression of senior high school age students in physical education classes. The independent random sample consisted of 244 (15-16 years old) students and 258 (17-18 years old) students, of which there were 224 boys and 278 girls. L. Bulotaite and V. Gudžinskiene…

  16. Family Life Education: A Problem-Solving Curriculum for Adolescents (Ages 15-19).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feibelman, Barbara; Hamrick, Michael

    The rising incidence of teenage sexual activity and the subsequent growth in numbers of teenage parents provide the rationale for this problem-solving curriculum guide on family life education. This model curriculum for adolescents aged 15-19 is designed to promote problem-solving skills, self-confidence, self-awareness, self-control, and…

  17. Building Knowledge Cultures: Education and Development in the Age of Knowledge Capitalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.; Besley, A.C.

    2006-01-01

    This book develops the notion of "knowledge cultures" as a basis for understanding the possibilities of education and development in the age of knowledge Capitalism. "Knowledge cultures" point to the significance of cultural preconditions in the new production of knowledge and how they are based on shared practices, embodying culturally preferred…

  18. The MAGEC Fellowship Experience: A Model for Personalized Adult Education in Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyllo, Carole J.; Kane, Robert L.

    1996-01-01

    A yearlong training program involved 77 faculty from multiple disciplines in improving aging-related knowledge and appreciation for other disciplines' treatment of the topic. Evaluation showed good results for passive cognitive learning, slightly less for active cognitive learning, and mixed for affective. Four regional geriatric education centers…

  19. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  20. Early Childhood Intervention and Educational Attainment: Age 22 Findings from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether participation in the Chicago Child-Parent Center (CPC) Preschool Program associated with higher educational attainment (high school completion, highest grade completed, and college attendance) at age 22. The study sample included 1,334 youth (869 in the preschool group and 465 in the comparison group) from the…

  1. Resolving Issues Relevant to the Education of Secondary School Aged Youth with Behavior Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Robert G.

    The article provides a format for a workshop in which three issues which must be resolved by educators of secondary aged students with behavior disorders are discussed. The three issues to be addressed are: (1) determination of appropriate curriculum emphasis, (2) parent training/involvement in intervention strategies, and (3) criteria for…

  2. The Game of Late Life: A Novel Education Activity for the Psychology of Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinker, Jay K.; Roberts, Pamela; Radnidge, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of The Game of Late Life--a novel education activity for the psychology of ageing. The game was designed to provide transformational learning where students imagine themselves as older adults and move through late life via a game board, encountering various life events along the way. One of the…

  3. Acceptance of Genetic Testing in a General Population: Age, Education and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, A. R.; Hakonen, A.; Hietala, M.; Lonnqvist, J.; Niemela, P.; Peltonen, L; Aula, P.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of age, education, and gender on acceptance of genetic testing were studied. Finnish participants responded to a questionnaire presenting reasons for and against genetic testing (N=1,967). Intentions to take genetic tests, worries, and experience of genetic test or hereditary disease were also assessed. Results are presented and discussed.…

  4. Bridging the Gap between Academic Gerontology and the Educational Needs of the Aging Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karcher, Barbara C.; Whittlesey, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    Colleges and universities have failed to meet the long-recognized, growing need for nonacademic-credit gerontology education. With the explosive growth of the aging network, other organizations have readily responded to the fast-growing market. Results of two needs assessments over a 5-year period demonstrate employers' higher support for…

  5. Postsecondary Educational Engagement among Formerly-Incarcerated Transition-Age Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Franke, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore correlates of engagement in postsecondary educational programs (including technical/trade schools, 2-year colleges, and 4-year colleges) among young men who served mandatory probation camp sentences as juveniles. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with a sample of 75 men (average age of 20.5) who…

  6. Dominican Liberal Arts Education in the New Millennium: A Defense in the Age of "Homo Economicus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In an age when colleges and universities are being challenged to justify themselves in purely economic terms, Catholic and Dominican institutions must articulate the value-added nature of the education they provide. By calling on the rich Catholic/Dominican intellectual tradition, they can present a vision of a values-based liberal arts education…

  7. Relative Age Effects on Physical Education Attainment and School Sport Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobley, Stephen; Abraham, Colin; Baker, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Background: The "Relative Age Effect" (RAE) has consistently been demonstrated to influence attainment in various contexts. In education, RAE appears to provide an advantage to those born during initial months of an academic year, compared with those born in later months. A similar effect has been noted in many sports, with those born shortly…

  8. Does Gender Matter? An Exploratory Study of Perspectives across Genders, Age and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-01-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the…

  9. Public Education about Memory and Aging: Objective Findings and Subjective Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mol, Martine E. M.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Willems, Dick; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    Public education about memory was evaluated with a controlled intervention trial. Participants in group 1 (n = 273) attended a symposium covering memory-related topics and received a magazine with identical information. Group 2 (n = 141) only received the magazine. Participants were nonprofessionals and professionals aged between 29 and 88.…

  10. New Directions for the Administration on Aging Education and Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Sean M.

    1980-01-01

    Describes the Administration on Aging (AoA) plans and initiatives. Education and training program efforts of AoA include the development and implementation of comprehensive and coordinated community-based services systems, with special emphasis on providing services to vulnerable elderly, and advocacy of AoA aimed at advancing the well-being of…

  11. The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT): Norms for Age, Education, and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehr, Michael C.; Heaton, Robert K.; Miller, Walden; Grant, Igor

    1998-01-01

    Demographic influences on performance on a modified version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (D. Gronwall and H. Sampson, 1974), a measure of some cognitive functions, were studied with 566 healthy North-American adults. Age, education, and ethnicity were significant predictors. A formula and tables are presented for computing T scores…

  12. Act Smart. HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum for Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff facilitator…

  13. Age and Sex Enrollment Patterns in Kentucky Institutions of Higher Education, 1978-79.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Roger D.; Walker, Kenneth

    Age and enrollment patterns of students attending Kentucky colleges and universities in 1978-79 were studied. Information was obtained from the Council on Higher Education for state-supported institutions belonging to KACRAO (Kentucky Association of Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers) and from a survey of independent institutions…

  14. Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

  15. The Impact of Medical and Dental Education on Student's Attitudes Toward the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Joseph M.; Beck, James D.

    The need for the incorporation of training in geriatrics and gerontology into basic medical and dental education has recently been recognized. Existing studies which attempt to measure the attitudes of medical and dental students toward the aged are extremely limited. As part of a larger study of attitudes and knowledge among 500 health workers,…

  16. Roles for Technology in the Information-Age Paradigm of Education: Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunkyung Lee; Dutta, Pratima; Chen, Zengguan; Powell, Nathan D. P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a detailed description of the powerful and necessary role which technology can play in the information-age paradigm of education described in the four articles comprising this series. This article calls for a learning management system (LMS), a comprehensive and integrated application of technology to the learning process,…

  17. Democratic Citizenship Education in the Information Age: A Comparative Study of South Korea and Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roh, Young-Ran

    2004-01-01

    Democratic citizenship education in the information age must concern itself with the goal of nurturing future generations with the capacity to make appropriate use of the changes driven by the advances of ICTs so as to activate political and social democracy. Using Australia and South Korea as case studies, this paper discusses the role that…

  18. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  19. Adult Education and Aging: Perspectives on Research at a Private Independent Research Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene

    As part of a symposium on challenges and problems of adult education researchers in different settings, recent research activities at one private independent research organization were examined. Three projects of the American Instituties for Research (AIR) were reviewed, all relating to adult development and aging. The first examined career…

  20. Body image and its relationship with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women

    PubMed Central

    Karamidehkordi, Akram; Roudsari, Robab Latifnejad

    2014-01-01

    Background: Body image is related to cognitive, emotional, and physical aspects of women's life. Therefore, it is expected to have an important role in women's sexual health and marital adjustment too. This issue seems to be salient in infertile women who suffer from psychological consequences of infertility. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship of body image with sexual function and marital adjustment in infertile women in 2011 in Mashhad, Iran. Materials and Methods: This correlational study was performed on 130 infertile women who referred to Montaserieh Infertility Research Centre in Mashhad, Iran. Subjects were selected using convenient sampling method. To collect data, valid and reliable questionnaires including demographic and infertility-related data tool, modified Younesi Body Image Questionnaire, Rosen Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and Spanier Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) were used. Data analysis was performed by SPSS software using Student's t-test, correlation, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Tukey post-hoc test. Results: The mean scores of body image, sexual function, and marital adjustment in women were 308.1 ± 45.8, 27.23 ± 3.80, and 113.8 ± 19.73, respectively. There was a direct correlation between overall body image and subscales of sexual function including sexual arousal (P = 0.003), sexual desire (P = 0.024), vaginal moisture (P = 0.001), orgasm (P < 0.001), sexual satisfaction (P < 0.001), and dyspareunia (P = 0.007). A direct correlation was also observed between overall body image and subscales of marital adjustment including agreement and consent (P < 0.001), satisfaction with life (P < 0.001), continuity of life (P = 0.007), and expressing emotions within the family environment (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Improved sexual function and marital adjustment in cases with higher body image provides evidence that one of the solutions to reduce sexual dysfunction and marital dispute in infertile women could be