Science.gov

Sample records for age education type

  1. Aging and Nutrition Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzarre, Terry L.

    1978-01-01

    Reviews nutrition education programs in relation to aging. A summary of nutritional information that constitutes different components of nutrition education programs for the elderly is discussed. A brief review of physiological changes affecting nutrient utilization and food selection and changes in dietary intake and requirements are presented.…

  2. Nuclear Age Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    The primary goal of the Oregon nuclear age education curriculum is to develop in students the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living in a nuclear age. This curriculum is developed around five general themes, each corresponding to a specific unit. The general goals for the units are: (Unit 1) to increase students' exposure to…

  3. Aging Education: A National Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…

  4. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  5. Education for an Aging Planet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…

  6. Aging and Death Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinder, Margaret M.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.

    1980-01-01

    The elderly death rate is somewhat higher than the death rate in general. Numbers of schools with gerontological curricula and frequency of death education courses are positively related to elderly death rates. The contention that elderly deaths have less social impact is not supported. (JAC)

  7. An Educational Response to Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Rosemary

    1978-01-01

    The emphasis of this article is on aging and the needs of the elderly as a basis for developing educational content in the curriculum. It includes a description of a theoretical framework developed by Abraham Maslow for a holistic approach to needs of the aged. (Editor/RK)

  8. Effects of Activity-Based Personalized Nutrition Education on Dietary Behaviors and Blood Parameters in Middle-Aged and Older Type 2 Diabetes Korean Outpatients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of activity-based personalized nutrition education (APNE) with a general instruction for diabetes (control, CTRL) in middle-aged and older Korean outpatients with type 2 diabetes. After an initial screening, 70 subjects were randomly assigned to APNE (n = 37) or CTRL (n = 33) group. APNE considered each patient’s anthropometry, blood chemistry data, and dietary habits in addition to planning meal choices with the aid of registered dietitians. After 3 months, dietary behavior, food intake, and anthropometric and blood measurement results were evaluated. Fasting blood glucose, 2-hour postprandial blood glucose, and glycated hemoglobin levels decreased in the APNE group (n = 33) but not in the CTRL group (n = 23). In the APNE group, the meal intervals and number of days of consuming high-fat food were decreased, while the number of days following a meal plan and balanced diet that entailed consuming fruits, vegetables, and healthy food was increased. A lower consumption of carbohydrates, saccharides, grains, and tuber crops and a higher protein, pulses, and fat-derived calorie intake compared with the initial values were observed in the APNE group. In contrast, only the number of days following the meal plan and balanced diet was increased in the CRTL group, without significantly changing the individual macronutrient-derived calorie intake. The APNE approach appeared to effectively educate outpatients with type 2 diabetes about changing their dietary behavior and food intake and improving the clinical parameters related to diabetic conditions. PMID:27812513

  9. Influence of socio-economic factors on street litter generation in the middle east: effects of education level, age, and type of residence.

    PubMed

    Arafat, Hassan A; Al-Khatib, Issam A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2007-08-01

    Street littering is considered an important environmental health issue in the Middle East. This problem is growing steadily and is attracting great concerns within the communities. The purpose of this paper, which focuses on Nablus district (Palestinian Territory), is to measure the perception and opinion of residents toward littering, in addition to studying prevailing attitudes and practices on littering. This was achieved using an interview survey approach. The influence of three socio-economic factors; level of education, age, and type of residence, on the littering behaviour of individuals was studied. As a result, possible remedial actions have been suggested. The data presented in this work can be considered as one piece of information, which can be compiled with other future data to design an effective litter control programrhe for Middle Eastern countries.

  10. Education in Old Age: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various…

  11. Inulin-type fructans in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Tuohy, Kieran M

    2007-11-01

    Worldwide, the population is aging, with estimates of 1 billion people aged 60 y or over within the next 20 y. With aging comes a reduction in overall health and increased morbidity and mortality due to infectious disease. Mortality due to gastrointestinal infections is up to 400 times higher in the elderly compared with younger adults. Recent studies have shown that the gut microbiota changes in old age, with an increased number of bacterial groups represented in the predominant elderly gut microbiota. This change in species "evenness" coincides with parallel changes in immune function, diet, and lifestyle and may contribute to disease susceptibility and severity in old age. The intestinal microbiota may thus be identified as an important target for improving health through reduced disease risk. Here, the application of prebiotics, especially the inulin-type fructans, and synbiotics (prebiotics combined with efficacious probiotic strains) will be discussed in terms of microbiota modulation and impact on disease risk in the aged population. Recent human intervention studies have confirmed the microbiota modulatory capability of the inulin-type fructans in the elderly and there is some evidence for reduced risk of disease. However, there is a need for more and larger human intervention studies to determine the efficacy of prebiotics in the elderly, particularly studies that take advantage of recent high resolution analytical methodologies like metabonomics, to shed light on possible prebiotic mechanisms of action.

  12. Status Report: Air Age Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cessna Aircraft Co., Wichita, KS.

    This publication offers information that may be of assistance in the development of programs or activities in aviation education. This report includes a listing of: the number of schools in each state offering high school aviation courses, state aerospace education advisory committees, high school teacher associations, full-time state personnel…

  13. Aging properties of Kodak type 101 emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohne, B.; Feldman, U.; Neupert, W.

    1984-01-01

    Aging tests for several batches of Kodak type 101 emulsion show that storage conditions significantly influence how well the film will maintain its sensitometric properties, with sensitivity and density increasing to a maximum during this period. Any further aging may result in higher fog levels and sensitivity loss. It is noted that storage in an environment free of photographically active compounds allows film property optimization, and that film batches with different sensitivities age differently. Emulsions with maximum 1700-A sensitivity are 2.5 times faster than those at the low end of the sensitivity scale. These sensitive emulsions exhibit significantly accelerated changes in aging properties. Their use in space applications requires careful consideration of time and temperature profiles, encouraging the use of less sensitive emulsions when the controllability of these factors is limited.

  14. Distance Education: An Information Age Approach to Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigerell, James

    This study provides an extensive review of the literature on distance education and of representative distance education projects and institutions in the United States and abroad, emphasizing those using telecommunications technologies. The introductory section includes a sketch of the information age and its implications for adult education and…

  15. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  16. Assessment and Age 16+ Education Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Chevalier, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises our research into the relationship between pupil assessment at age 14 (Key Stage 3) and participation in age 16+ education. We question whether a systematic gap between teacher-based assessment and externally marked tests indicates assessment bias or uncertainty, either in testing procedures or through teachers' perceptions…

  17. Futurism, Aging, and Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdman, Geral Dene M.

    1979-01-01

    This study of futurism is important to gerontology in order to bridge the gap between theory, policy statement, and actual practice in the field of aging. There is a need to prepare competent individuals for direct service, and to provide increased exposure to gerontology throughout the curriculum. (Author/LPG)

  18. Formulation of the age-education index: measuring age and education effects in neuropsychological performance.

    PubMed

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S E; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-03-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830 English-speaking ethnic Chinese. Neuropsychological measures such as Verbal Memory, Digit Sequencing, Token Motor Task, Semantic Fluency, Symbol Coding, Tower of London, Judgment of Line Orientation, and Matrix Reasoning of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale were administered. Education was measured by total years of education and adjusted years of education, as well as ratios of both measures with age. Age and education were associated with neuropsychological performance. Adjusted years of education was associated with fluency and higher cognitive processes, while the ratio between adjusted years of education and age was associated with tasks implicating working memory. Changes in education modalities implicated tasks requiring language abilities. Education and age represent key neurodevelopmental milestones. In light of our findings, special consideration should to be given when neuropsychological assessments are carried out in cross-cultural contexts and in societies where educational systems and pedagogy tend to be complex.

  19. Science education in a secular age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David E.

    2013-03-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.

  20. The Impact of Aging on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Angela

    The percentage of adults aged 65 years or older is expected to increase from 12 percent of the population in 1980 to more than 21 percent by the year 2030. Since many adults stay involved with learning activities well into their 80s and 90s, educational organizations have a great opportunity to supply learning activities to this population. To…

  1. Educational Communication in a Revolutionary Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, I. Keith, Comp.; Williams, Catharine M., Comp.

    As a tribute to Dr. Edgar Dale on his retirement from Ohio State University, the papers in this book refer to "the failures of education,""the impotence of the school,""the need for sweeping change," the existence of a "systems break," and "incipient civil war," all of which are products of an age of revolution which continues today. Educational…

  2. Differences among Preferred Methods for Furthering Aging Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods included…

  3. Aging and Adult Education: A Challenge for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Kamp, Max

    By the year 2000, at least 20 percent of Europeans will be over 60 years old. As the labor force ages, older employees will have to contribute more to the productivity of organizations. Due to rapid technological changes, more retraining will be required. Education can fulfill important functions for older adults, but their learning style must be…

  4. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  5. What Educational Opportunities Should Professionals in Aging Provide?: A Pilot Community Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Leson, Suzanne M.

    2010-01-01

    With the aging workforce and the increase of older adults, educational needs of the workforce in aging services are broadening. The pilot study used a survey to examine the types of educational opportunities and needs of professionals providing services to older adults in eastern Ohio and western Pennsylvania. Respondents (25.9%) reported learning…

  6. Breastfeeding and educational achievement at age 5.

    PubMed

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Kelly, Yvonne; Renfrew, Mary J; Sacker, Amanda; Quigley, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether the duration of breastfeeding, at all or exclusively, is associated with educational achievement at age 5. We used data from a prospective, population-based UK cohort study, the Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). 5489 children from White ethnic background born at term in 2000-2001, attending school in England in 2006, were included in our analyses. Educational achievement was measured using the Foundation Stage Profile (FSP), a statutory assessment undertaken by teachers at the end of the child's first school year. Breastfeeding duration was ascertained from interviews with the mother when the child was 9 months old. We used modified Poisson's regression to model the association of breastfeeding duration with having reached a good level of achievement overall (≥78 overall points and ≥6 in 'personal, social and emotional development' and 'communication, language and literacy' points) and in specific areas (≥6 points) of development. Children who had been breastfed for up to 2 months were more likely to have reached a good level of overall achievement [adjusted rate ratio (RR): 1.09, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.01, 1.19] than never breastfed children. This association was more marked in children breastfed for 2-4 months (adjusted RR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.29) and in those breastfed for longer than 4 months (adjusted RR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.26). The associations of exclusive breastfeeding with the educational achievement were similar. Our findings suggest that longer duration of breastfeeding, at all or exclusively, is associated with better educational achievement at age 5.

  7. Aging: Aging as a Theme in Art and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kauppinen, Heta

    1987-01-01

    Presents several central themes about aging which may prove useful in interpreting art works and increasing students' awareness of the human qualities of aging. Indicates that, when the artist represents the physical changes of aging, he or she equally characterizes cognitive, emotional, social, and spiritual levels of aging. Includes seven…

  8. Higher Education and Happiness in the Age of Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…

  9. Competency Based Vocational Education Typing I and Typing II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, G. Lee; Mahan, Louise

    Materials are provided for two competency-based educational courses in Typing I and II for the community college level. The first course covers the touch method operation of the typewriter; the second covers the extension of the touch method and develops such skills as production of business letters, manuscripts, carbon copies, tabulation, tables,…

  10. Educational career and predictors of type of education in young adults with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Barf, H A; Verhoef, M; Post, M W M; Jennekens-Schinkel, A; Gooskens, R H J M; Mullaart, R A; Prevo, A J H

    2004-03-01

    Children with spina bifida (SB) often require special education. To date, little information is available about the educational career of these children. This study focuses on educational career and predictors of attending special education of young adults with SB, using a cross-sectional study including 178 young Dutch adults with SB aged from 16-25. The main outcome was attending regular versus special education. For searching predictive power we selected age, gender, type of SB, level of lesion, hydrocephalus (HC), number of surgical interventions, ambulation, continence and cognitive functioning. Chi-square tests and binary logistic regression were used in the data analysis. Participants with HC attended special primary education more often (59%) than participants without HC (17%). For those participants with HC, the necessity of special primary education was associated with below average intelligence (75% versus 35%), wheelchair dependence (82% versus 39%) and surgical interventions (74% versus 44%). Only half of the participants with HC followed regular secondary education, whereas for participants with SB without HC, the outcome in secondary education was similar to that of the general population (92%). Intelligence was the main predictor of attending special secondary education (odds 5.1:1), but HC (odds 4.3:1) and wheelchair dependence (odds 2.6:1) were also a significant. Other variables were not significant predictors of special secondary education.

  11. The Needs of the Aging: Implications for Home Economics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Mary Louise; Whatley, Alice Elrod

    1975-01-01

    Home economics teachers sensitive to aging can be effective agents in forming healthy attitudes toward the aged and aging; they will see the need for increased concern for the influence of housing on the aged. Housing will be seen as an arrangement promoting continuous education. (Author)

  12. Effects of aging and education on false memory.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the recall and recognition of the studied word and nonstudied lures. A low education level had a negative effect on memory performance for both young and middle-aged adults. Older adults with a high level of education had a higher level of false memory than those with a lower education level. The results of this study are discussed in terms of the importance of education on false memory and mechanisms that create false memory of words in older adults.

  13. Age-related cognitive decline during normal aging: the complex effect of education.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Rosselli, M; Gómez, C

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education on cognitive decline during normal aging. An 806-subject sample was taken from five different Mexican regions. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. Subjects were grouped into four educational levels: illiterate, 1-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years of education, and four age ranges: 16-30, 31-50, 51-65, and 66-85 years. A brief neuropsychological test battery (NEUROPSI), standardized and normalized in Spanish, was administered. The NEUROPSI test battery includes assessment of orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, motor skills, and executive functions. In general, test scores were strongly associated with level of educational, and differences among age groups were smaller than differences among education groups. However, there was an interaction between age and education such as that among illiterate individuals scores of participants 31-50 years old were higher than scores of participants 16-30 years old for over 50% of the tests. Different patterns of interaction among educational groups were distinguished. It was concluded that: (a) The course of life-span changes in cognition are affected by education. Among individuals with a low level of education, best neuropsychological test performance is observed at an older age than among higher-educated subjects; and (b) there is not a single relationship between age-related cognitive decline and education, but different patterns may be found, depending upon the specific cognitive domain.

  14. Education of Social Skills among Senior High School Age Students in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akelaitis, Arturas V.; Malinauskas, Romualdas K.

    2016-01-01

    Research aim was to reveal peculiarities of the education of social skills among senior high school age students in physical education classes. We hypothesized that after the end of the educational experiment the senior high school age students will have more developed social skills in physical education classes. Participants in the study were 51…

  15. Type II Technology Applications in Teacher Education:

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen Wang, Lih-Ching; Beasley, William

    2005-01-01

    The use of the Instant Messenger (IM) environment to carry out structured online class discussions in graduate teacher education courses is described. Properties of IM are delineated, and specific procedures in using IM as a vehicle for class discussions are discussed. Attributes of Type II technology applications are addressed directly, and the…

  16. Educational Credentialing of an Aging Workforce: Uneasy Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the educational attainment of an aging workforce from the perspective of educational credentialing. The research questions are defined as follows: Why are workers over age 50 attaining university degrees? How do they narratively construct the rational for pursuing well-recognized credentials in midlife? The specific focus…

  17. Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…

  18. Coming of Age: The Department of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Kenneth A.; Putallaz, Martha; Malone, David

    2002-01-01

    Introduces special section on the history, leadership, and policies of the U.S. Department of Education based on presentations by five (four former and the current) Secretaries of Education at the Duke University Education Leadership Summit, held in Durham, North Carolina, on February 2002. (PKP)

  19. Marketing Education in the Postmodern Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; And Others

    1993-01-01

    In Australia, education is expected to serve national and international market economies and is being steered by market forces within and beyond education. Recent forms of education markets raise social-justice issues inadequately treated in literature. Markets operate according to profit motive and are not premised on equality or fairness…

  20. Nursing Education and the Nuclear Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Literature of nursing education and baccalaureate nursing education programs were surveyed to investigate the degree to which nurses' professional responsibility for preventing nuclear war is being addressed. It was found that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest within nursing education about nuclear…

  1. Neuroanatomical correlates of aging, cardiopulmonary fitness level, and education

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Brian A.; Rykhlevskaia, Elena I.; Brumback, Carrie R.; Lee, Yukyung; Elavsky, Steriani; Konopack, James F.; Mcauley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.; Colcombe, Stanley; Gratton, Gabriele; Fabiani, Monica

    2017-01-01

    Fitness and education may protect against cognitive impairments in aging. They may also counteract age-related structural changes within the brain. Here we analyzed volumetric differences in cerebrospinal fluid and gray and white matter, along with neuropsychological data, in adults differing in age, fitness, and education. Cognitive performance was correlated with fitness and education. Voxel-based morphometry was used for a whole-brain analysis of structural magnetic resonance images. We found age-related losses in gray and white matter in medial-temporal, parietal, and frontal areas. As in previous work, fitness within the old correlated with preserved gray matter in the same areas. In contrast, higher education predicted preserved white matter in inferior frontal areas. These data suggest that fitness and education may both be predictive of preserved cognitive function in aging through separable effects on brain structure. PMID:18627534

  2. Q-Type Factor Analysis of Healthy Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleban, Morton H.

    Q-type factor analysis was used to re-analyze baseline data collected in 1957, on 47 men aged 65-91. Q-type analysis is the use of factor methods to study persons rather than tests. Although 550 variables were originally studied involving psychiatry, medicine, cerebral metabolism and chemistry, personality, audiometry, dichotic and diotic memory,…

  3. Chromospheric activity and ages of solar-type stars

    SciTech Connect

    Barry, D.C.; Cromwell, R.H.; Hege, E.K.

    1987-04-01

    Observations of 15 solar-type stars in the intermediate-age open cluster NGC 752 are reported. A lower resolution analog of the Mount Wilson S index is shown to yield absolute chromospheric surface flux values for these stars with about 60 percent of the sensitivity of the Mount Wilson system. Absolute chromospheric surface fluxes of solar-type stars in eight clusters ranging from 10 million yrs to six billion or more years in age are presented. Two heuristic forms are shown to fit the data about equally well, with no indication of a discontinuity at intermediate ages. These relations can yield chromospheric ages for any G-type dwarf or subgiant with a Mount Wilson S index. The usefulness of this lower resolution approach for studies of chemical and dynamical evolution of the Galaxy as well as of the stellar birth rate is pointed out. 24 references.

  4. The Age of Information and the Future of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Eugene A.

    1980-01-01

    Argues that the function of futurism is essentially one of stimulating thinking. Discusses changes in the age of information; compulsory education; how the future looks for schools, administrators, and teachers; the role of the school; how teachers look at education; and the role of technology within education. (CT)

  5. "Healthy Aging at Older Ages: Are Income and Education Important?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Neil J.; Denton, Frank T.; Robb, A. Leslie; Spencer, Byron G.

    2004-01-01

    Being higher on the socio-economic scale is correlated with being in better health, but is there is a causal relationship? Using 3 years of longitudinal data for individuals aged 50 and older from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we study the health transitions for those who were in good health in the first year, focusing…

  6. Aging. Aging-induced type I interferon response at the choroid plexus negatively affects brain function.

    PubMed

    Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; David, Eyal; Castellano, Joseph M; Miller, Omer; Kertser, Alexander; Berkutzki, Tamara; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Bezalel, Dana; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Amit, Ido; Schwartz, Michal

    2014-10-03

    Aging-associated cognitive decline is affected by factors produced inside and outside the brain. By using multiorgan genome-wide analysis of aged mice, we found that the choroid plexus, an interface between the brain and the circulation, shows a type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent gene expression profile that was also found in aged human brains. In aged mice, this response was induced by brain-derived signals, present in the cerebrospinal fluid. Blocking IFN-I signaling within the aged brain partially restored cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis and reestablished IFN-II-dependent choroid plexus activity, which is lost in aging. Our data identify a chronic aging-induced IFN-I signature, often associated with antiviral response, at the brain's choroid plexus and demonstrate its negative influence on brain function, thereby suggesting a target for ameliorating cognitive decline in aging.

  7. Exercise and Aging: New Perspectives and Educational Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Darrell; Rosato, Frank D.

    1979-01-01

    Several factors have focused new attention on aging and the aged. A major concern emanating from these has been the role of physical fitness upon the health status of the aging. Benefits of exercise and educational and curricular modifications are identified to promote health and well-being among the elderly. (Author/BEF)

  8. Moral Education in an Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.

  9. Experiential Environmental Education for Primary Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heather

    Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.…

  10. Education for the Age of Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the changing role of university computing departments in relation to changing models of computer professionals, universities, education, research, innovation, and work. Suggestions for transforming education include broadening research, reorganizing curricula, and implementing feedback to tie research back into the curriculum. (LRW)

  11. Mature Age Students in Australian Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hore, Terry; West, Leo H. T.

    A study was undertaken, in 1976 and for the three following years, of adult students in Australian higher education. The study examined: (1) the phenomenon of adult students and the extent of their involvement in higher education; (2) the politics and practices of institutions towards these students; (3) staff attitudes in the courses; (4) adult…

  12. Maine Department of Education Regulation 180: Early Intervention and Special Education for Children Age Birth to under Age Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

    This document contains regulations governing the administration of the Childfind system for children age birth to under age 6, the provision of early intervention services to eligible children birth through two with disabilities and their families, and the provision of special education and related services to eligible children age 3 to under 6…

  13. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A.; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Evans, Alan C.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. Methods: We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. Results: The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. Conclusions: The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. PMID:27664981

  14. Education to Promote Positive Attitudes about Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Diane; Council, Kathy; Mcguire, Sandra

    2005-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined what a one-time intervention about aging does to the attitudes of high-school students toward aging. Early findings from the study support previous research that indicates ageist attitudes formed in early childhood become difficult to change as children reach adolescence. This research further supports the need for…

  15. Differences in Rates of Return by Type of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groot, Wim

    1994-01-01

    Analyzes the wage effects of different types of education in The Netherlands, using a generalized version of the dummy endogenous variable model and distinguishing among seven types of education: general, agricultural, technical, medical, teacher, economic/administrative, and other education. Findings show that technical education yields lower…

  16. Nursing education and the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.

    1989-05-01

    As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.

  17. Toward Dialogic Literacy Education for the Internet Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wegerif, Rupert

    2015-01-01

    In order to reconceptualize literacy education for the Internet Age, we first need to understand the extent to which our thinking has already been shaped by literacy practices. I begin this article with an exploration of the relationship between ways of communicating, ways of thinking, and the way in which we understand education. Face-to-face…

  18. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

  19. Teachers' Reflections on Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, Laura Kyser; Osborn, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents profiles of and reflections by teachers with international experience, including the authors, who offer insights on education in a global age. The respondents who were colleagues of the authors were interviewed to learn about their K-12 education, insights into and analysis of their experiences teaching abroad, and thoughts…

  20. Drugs Education and Prevention for School-Aged Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    Drug misuse in Northern Ireland, like many parts of the world, is becoming one of the major issues facing society today. A first stage to addressing this problem is effective drugs education and prevention strategies to school-aged young people. A survey of a range of education providers including mainstream and special needs schools, and school…

  1. The Age and Qualifications of Special Education Staff in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Tony

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on the results of a survey distributed in April 2007 to government special education schools and settings throughout Australia. The survey collected information about the age and special education qualifications of teaching staff. It followed a similar survey that was distributed in May 2006 to Victorian special schools that…

  2. Education, Schooling and Young Offenders of Secondary School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Carol

    2008-01-01

    This article outlines the evidence about education, schooling and young offenders of secondary school age. Education and experiences of schooling are shown to be potentially risk or protective factors in relation to offending behaviour by young people. The victimisation and vulnerability of more serious young offenders is highlighted in the case…

  3. Thoughts on Education for an Age of Synthesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Bom Mo

    2000-01-01

    Discusses reason-driven, dichotomized attributes of the 20th Century. Asserts that the 21st Century should be the age of synthesis. To achieve that end, proposes three major tasks of education: Educating the whole person, building progressive self-identity, and developing strategies for productive conflict solution. (PKP)

  4. Dealing with Unseen Obstacles to Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Valerie J. H.; Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zomp, Christopher; Johnson, Randall S.; Miller, Phillip; Powell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper updates the efforts to educate blind students in higher education in the digital age and describes how to support the development of mental models in learning through tactile learning and 3D-printing technology. It cites research documenting a drop in Braille literacy along with the growth in use of digital technologies by blind…

  5. Teaching and Age: Training Tutors for Pre-retirement Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallam, John

    1982-01-01

    The relatively recent emergence of a large, healthy group of adults over 65 years of age has created a social demographic situation for which there are no historical precedents. The author argues that education should play a more active role in providing preretirement educational programs for older adults. (SSH)

  6. Making Tobacco Education Relevant to the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the trend toward more smoking among the young and to the effect of smoking on human health and life, educators need to devise effective antismoking programs as part of the secondary curriculum. The real problem lies in educating youths prior to the age at which the decision to smoke is made. (JN)

  7. A Golden Age of Security and Education? Adult Education for Civil Defence in the United States 1950-1970

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preston, John

    2015-01-01

    A number of authors consider that the early period of US security and education (1950-1970) was in some way a "golden age" where there was a prevailing societal orientation towards civil defence. This is supported, to some extent, through "Duck and Cover" type activities in schools and in community preparedness efforts. This…

  8. Psychological Skills Education for School Aged Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the potential for teaching psychological skills to student athletes in school sport programs, outlining a conceptual approach to psychological skills training for athletic coaches. The paper details how to develop a psychological skills education curriculum, explaining issues of curriculum sequence and implementation strategies in the…

  9. Medical Ethics Education: Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Steven H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    A discussion of medical ethics in the medical curriculum reviews its recent history, examines areas of consensus, and describes teaching objectives and methods, course content, and program evaluation at preclinical and clinical levels. Prerequisites for successful institutionalization of medical ethics education are defined, and its future is…

  10. Gender and Age in Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajek, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities' rights have to be secured, but also majorities…

  11. Art Education in the Age of Guantanamo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistolesi, Edie

    2007-01-01

    Censorship exists in institutions where art exists, and also where art education exists. In fall 2005, a group of instructors and the author taught a group project with a political theme--peace. In this article, she examines institutionalized censorship within schools, and the ramifications of teaching the subject of peace in a time of war.…

  12. Drama Education in the Age of AIDS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This article arose out of my involvement in an undergraduate drama module at the School of Education, University of KwaZulu-Natal, where I made use of workshop theatre methodologies to explore how second-year drama students construct knowledge and develop sociocultural understandings of critical issues in society. The workshop theatre project…

  13. Higher Education in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Everette E., Ed.; LaMay, Craig L., Ed.

    This book of 16 author-contributed chapters examines issues of the media and public institutions of higher education including: the media ranking of universities and their contribution to low expectations of universities; the disjunction between massive support for college and university sports events and the intellectual and presumed academic…

  14. Science Education in a Secular Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education…

  15. Rethinking Education: The Coming Age of Enlightenment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roger J.

    The world's most serious problems involve people's inability to peacefully coexist with other people. The only antidote to prejudice, injustice, murder, and terrorism is to develop an understanding of the many different patterns of human life. However, western civilization and its educational systems have developed into fragmented forms, resulting…

  16. An Educational Experiment Comes of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raices, Emanuel; Braestrup, Angelica Hollins

    1991-01-01

    The Ventures in Education program, begun 10 years ago, includes honors-level curriculum, advanced placement courses, summer workshops, enrichment, a longer school day, and continued counseling and guidance. It has demonstrated that poor, disadvantaged high school students can learn to excel in demanding courses of study. (MSE)

  17. Flourishing Creativity: Education in an Age of Wonder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2015-01-01

    The twenty-first century is often described as an age of uncertainty and ambiguity with unprecedented challenges. Those with a creative mind-set however might call this millennium an age of wonder. New technologies and digital media are facilitating imagination and inventiveness. How are we innovating education? Are schools and classroom fostering…

  18. Changes in the Age and Education Profile of Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Zavodny, Madeline

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Displaced Workers Surveys suggests that between 1983-97, the likelihood of job loss declined among most age groups but rose for middle-aged/older workers relative to younger workers. Changes in educational attainment and industry shifts were contributing factors. Probability of displacement increased significantly for service workers.…

  19. Education for Aging. A Teacher's Sourcebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Fran

    This sourcebook contains background readings for teachers and suggests learning activities and resources for teaching about aging at the secondary level. During the lifetimes of present students, the population 65 and over will grow from 11% to 20%. Most children now in school will live well beyond their 70th birthday. There is, therefore, a…

  20. A Golden Age? Dostoevsky, Daoism and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    There is much of value for educationists in the work of the great Russian novelist and thinker, Fyodor Dostoevsky. This paper explores a key theme in Dostoevsky's later writings: the notion of a "Golden Age". It compares the ideal depicted in Dostoevsky's story "The Dream of a Ridiculous Man" with the implied utopia of the…

  1. Education and obesity at age 40 among American adults

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rehkopf, David H.; Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Although many have studied the association between educational attainment and obesity, studies to date have not fully examined prior common causes and possible interactions by race/ethnicity or gender. It is also not clear if the relationship between actual educational attainment and obesity is independent of the role of aspired educational attainment or expected educational attainment. The authors use generalized linear log link models to examine the association between educational attainment at age 25 and obesity (BMI≥30) at age 40 in the USA’s National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 cohort, adjusting for demographics, confounders, and mediators. Race/ethnicity but not gender interacted with educational attainment. In a complete case analysis, after adjusting for socioeconomic covariates from childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, among whites only, college graduates were less likely than high school graduates to be obese (RR= 0.69, 95%CI: 0.57, 0.83). The risk ratio remained similar in two sensitivity analyses when the authors adjusted for educational aspirations and educational expectations and analyzed a multiply imputed dataset to address missingness. This more nuanced understanding of the role of education after controlling for a thorough set of confounders and mediators helps advance the study of social determinants of health and risk factors for obesity. PMID:23246398

  2. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  3. THE EFFECTS OF TYPING INSTRUCTION ON THE PERSONALITY AND ACHIEVEMENT OF EDUCABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KARNES, MERLE B.; AND OTHERS

    TO STUDY WHETHER TEACHING TYPING TO EDUCABLE MENTALLY HANDICAPPED STUDENTS WOULD RESULT IN IMPROVING ACADEMIC WORK, GREATER VISUALIZATION SKILLS, AND BETTER SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL ADJUSTMENT, THE EXPERIMENTAL HALF OF THE 14 MATCHED PAIRS OF CHILDREN 10 TO 13 YEARS OF AGE WITH MEASURED IQ'S BETWEEN 50 AND 80 WERE GIVEN 2 TO 3 YEARS OF TYPING INSTRUCTION.…

  4. Types of Functional Educational Planning Modes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger; Harrell, L. Warren

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of educational planning defines three main planning modes and explains how to integrate them for educational systems planning with the organizational Elements Model (OEM). The Outcome Indicators Project (OIP) of Florida's Division of Vocational, Adult, and Community Education (DVACE) is described as an example of educational planning.…

  5. Recurrence Interval and Event Age Data for Type A Faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Timothy E.; Weldon, Ray J.; Biasi, Glenn P.

    2008-01-01

    This appendix summarizes available recurrence interval, event age, and timing of most recent event data for Type A faults considered in the Earthquake Rate Model 2 (ERM 2) and used in the ERM 2 Appendix C analysis as well as Appendix N (time-dependent probabilities). These data have been compiled into an Excel workbook named Appendix B A-fault event ages_recurrence_V5.0 (herein referred to as the Appendix B workbook). For convenience, the Appendix B workbook is attached to the end of this document as a series of tables. The tables within the Appendix B workbook include site locations, event ages, and recurrence data, and in some cases, the interval of time between earthquakes is also reported. The Appendix B workbook is organized as individual worksheets, with each worksheet named by fault and paleoseismic site. Each worksheet contains the site location in latitude and longitude, as well as information on event ages, and a summary of recurrence data. Because the data has been compiled from different sources with different presentation styles, descriptions of the contents of each worksheet within the Appendix B spreadsheet are summarized.

  6. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1974-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a framework by which educators interested in stimulating career development can choose the learning experiences most likely to have payoffs for different age youth. Eight stages of child development are described with career development themes suggested for each stage along with sample activities. (Author)

  7. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    This paper presents a career developmental model covering the ages of 5 to 18. Career development education includes experiences which facilitate self-awareness, career-awareness and career decision-making. Before choosing a model for career development, it is necessary to decide on a model for child development. The model developed here borrows…

  8. Media Arts: Arts Education for a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppler, Kylie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: New technologies have been largely absent in arts education curriculum even though they offer opportunities to address arts integration, equity, and the technological prerequisites of an increasingly digital age. This paper draws upon the emerging professional field of "media arts" and the ways in which youth use new…

  9. The New Age of Telecommunication: Setting the Context for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J.

    1986-01-01

    This overview provides a technological context for the telecommunications age by describing existing and emerging systems--telephone, broadcasting, cable television, fiber optic, satellite, optical disk, and computer technology--and services available via these systems. It is suggested that educators need to become technologically literate and…

  10. The Impact of Higher Education on Mature Age Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Leo H. T.; And Others

    Changes in the working and personal lives of adults as a result of completing a bachelor's degree as a mature-age student were studied in Australia. Also considered were students' progress through the degree, patterns of employment while enrolled, and additional formal higher education after completing (or withdrawing from) the program. The study…

  11. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  12. Learning Reconsidered: Education in the Digital Age. Communications, Convergence and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Everette E.; Meyer, Philip; Sundar, S. Shyam; Pryor, Larry; Rogers, Everett M.; Chen, Helen L.; Pavlik, John

    2003-01-01

    Includes thoughts of seven educators on the place of digital communication in journalism and mass communication education. Discusses communication scholars and the professional field's readiness for the digital age. Notes educators' attitudes towards technology and technology's applications in education. (PM)

  13. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  14. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  15. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  16. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21 Section... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  17. 20 CFR 219.21 - Types of evidence to prove age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Types of evidence to prove age. 219.21... EVIDENCE REQUIRED FOR PAYMENT Evidence of Age and Death § 219.21 Types of evidence to prove age. (a) Preferred evidence. The best type of evidence to prove a claimant's age is— (1) A birth certificate...

  18. Educational expansion and the education gradient in health: A hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Delaruelle, Katrijn; Buffel, Veerle; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have recently been investigating the temporal variation in the educational gradient in health. While there is abundant literature concerning age trajectories, theoretical knowledge about cohort differences is relatively limited. Therefore, in analogy with the life course perspective, we introduce two contrasting cohort-specific hypotheses. The diminishing health returns hypothesis predicts a decrease in educational disparities in health across cohorts. By contrast, the cohort accretion hypothesis suggests that the education-health gap will be more pronounced among younger cohorts. To shed light on this, we perform a hierarchical age-period-cohort analysis (HAPC), using data from a subsample of individuals between 25 and 85 years of age (N = 232,573) from 32 countries in the European Social Survey (six waves: 2002-2012). The analysis leads to three important conclusions. First, we observe a widening health gap between different educational levels over the life course. Second, we find that these educational differences in the age trajectories of health seem to strengthen with each successive birth cohort. However, the two age-related effects disappear when we control for employment status, household income, and family characteristics. Last, when adjusting for these mediators, we reveal evidence to support the diminishing health returns hypothesis, implying that it is primarily the direct association between education and health that decreases across cohorts. This finding raises concerns about potential barriers to education being a vehicle for empowerment and the promotion of health.

  19. Judgment of line orientation depends on gender, education, and type of error.

    PubMed

    Caparelli-Dáquer, Egas M; Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Moreira Filho, Pedro F

    2009-02-01

    Visuospatial tasks are particularly proficient at eliciting gender differences during neuropsychological performance. Here we tested the hypothesis that gender and education are related to different types of visuospatial errors on a task of line orientation that allowed the independent scoring of correct responses ("hits", or H) and one type of incorrect responses ("commission errors", or CE). We studied 343 volunteers of roughly comparable ages and with different levels of education. Education and gender were significantly associated with H scores, which were higher in men and in the groups with higher education. In contrast, the differences between men and women on CE depended on education. We concluded that (I) the ability to find the correct responses differs from the ability to avoid the wrong responses amidst an array of possible alternatives, and that (II) education interacts with gender to promote a stable performance on CE earlier in men than in women.

  20. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  1. Applications of Jungian Type Theory to Counselor Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilley, Josiah S.

    1987-01-01

    Describes Carl Jung's theory of psychological type and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), an instrument to assess Jungian type. Cites sources of information on the research and application of the theory and the MBTI. Explores how knowledge of type theory can be useful to counselor educators. (Author)

  2. Effects of post-mortem aging time and type of aging on palatability of low marbled beef loins.

    PubMed

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Buchanan, D S; Berg, P T

    2016-02-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of post-mortem aging period (14 to 49days), dry vs. wet (D vs W) type of aging on the palatability of bone-in (BI) beef short loins (n=96) and boneless (BL) strip loins (n=96) possessing United States Department of Agriculture marbling scores between Slight and Small. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) scores decreased linearly over time (P=0.0001). WBSF was not influenced by aging method or loin type. Aged flavor was higher for DBL than for DBI with WBL and WBI intermediate. Dry aging strip loins increase aged flavor yet did not improve beefy flavor compared to wet aging. Based on objective data and panelist's scores for tenderness, juiciness and aged flavor, a boneless, 28days wet aged strip steak, cooked to 71°C would provide the best combination of eating satisfaction and value.

  3. Life Style Types and Patterns of Retirement of Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Robert B.; Havighurst, Robert J.

    1977-01-01

    Administrators in higher education disclosed life style patterns for the "retirement period" from ages 65 to 75. Two contrasting patterns are described-Transformers and Maintainers. These groups reported differences in boyhood experiences, attitudes toward retirement, and choices of activity after age 65. (Author)

  4. Children's Communication and Socialization Skills by Types of Early Education Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohi; Fox, Jill

    2009-01-01

    This study is an investigation of children's communication skills and socialization by the types of their early education experiences (e.g., child care centers, private schools, public schools, home, or other). A total of 244 children (average age: 61 months) and their parents participated in this study. According to the results of this study,…

  5. Aging and memory: corrections for age, sex and education for three widely used memory tests.

    PubMed

    Zappalà, G; Measso, G; Cavarzeran, F; Grigoletto, F; Lebowitz, B; Pirozzolo, F; Amaducci, L; Massari, D; Crook, T

    1995-04-01

    The associate learning subtest from the Wechsler Memory Scale; Benton's Visual Retention test and a Controlled Word Association Task (FAS) were administered to a random sample of normal, healthy individuals whose age ranged from 20 to 79 years, recruited within the Italian peninsula. The neuropsychological examination took place on a mobile unit and the tests were given by the same team of neuropsychologists to reduce variability among examiners. The Research Project was known as Progetto Memoria. Corrections to the scores of these tests were calculated for age, sex, and education. These corrected values will allow clinicians to screen for memory impairment with greater precision among normally aging individuals, thus improving differential diagnosis between physiologic and pathologic deterioration of cognitive functions.

  6. Collaboration-Type Identification in Educational Datasets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Andrew; Studer, Christoph; Baraniuk, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Identifying collaboration between learners in a course is an important challenge in education for two reasons: First, depending on the courses rules, collaboration can be considered a form of cheating. Second, it helps one to more accurately evaluate each learners competence. While such collaboration identification is already challenging in…

  7. Relict Oceanic Lithosphere in Cuba: Types and Emplacement Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CobiellaReguera, J. L.

    2001-12-01

    According to their composition and tectonic position, three different types of relict oceanic lithosphere are present in Cuba: (1) the northern ophiolitic belt, a complex melange that extents more than 1000 km along the island, (2) the basement of the Cretaceous volcanic arc terrane: high temperature/low pressure amphibolites with some serpentinites and, (3) tectonic slices of serpentinite melanges (with eclogites and blueschists) and high pressure amphibolites, in the metamorphic Escambray massif (tectonostratigraphic terrane, microcontinent?) of southcentral Cuba. Available age constrains (paleontological and geochronological) indicate that relicts of oceanic lithosphere in Cuba are upper Mesozoic in age. Geochemical, petrological, and regional geology data suggest that such oceanic relicts probably originated in two different tectonic environments in the Proto-Caribbean basin; (1) a small oceanic basin of Upper Jurassic- Neocomian age, related to drift between North America and a southern continental mass and (2) a suprasubduction marginal basin, between the southeastern North American passive margin and an Aptian-Albian volcanic arc. Tectonic emplacement of the Cuban relict oceanic Proto-Caribbean lithosphere was likely related to several tectonic events and processes. Serpentinite melange slices and the high pressure amphibolites in the Jurassic and Cretaceous passive margin sequences of Escambray massif, characterized by low to moderate temperature and high pressure metamorphism, probably were emplaced from subduction and closure of the small oceanic depression located to the south (present geographic coordinates) of the volcanic arc in the Albian. The basement amphibolites of the volcanic arc terrane were derived from the Upper Jurassic-Neocomian oceanic crust, metamorphosed by the high temperatures and hot solutions related to the development on this crust of an Aptian-Albian volcanic arc with a north dipping subduction zone. These amphibolites were

  8. Clinically Relevant Cognitive Impairment in Middle-Aged Adults With Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nunley, Karen A.; Ryan, Christopher M.; Jennings, J. Richard; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Zgibor, Janice C.; Costacou, Tina; Boudreau, Robert M.; Miller, Rachel; Orchard, Trevor J.; Saxton, Judith A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the presence and correlates of clinically relevant cognitive impairment in middle-aged adults with childhood-onset type 1 diabetes (T1D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS During 2010–2013, 97 adults diagnosed with T1D and aged <18 years (age and duration 49 ± 7 and 41 ± 6 years, respectively; 51% female) and 138 similarly aged adults without T1D (age 49 ± 7 years; 55% female) completed extensive neuropsychological testing. Biomedical data on participants with T1D were collected periodically since 1986–1988. Cognitive impairment status was based on the number of test scores ≥1.5 SD worse than demographically appropriate published norms: none, mild (only one test), or clinically relevant (two or more tests). RESULTS The prevalence of clinically relevant cognitive impairment was five times higher among participants with than without T1D (28% vs. 5%; P < 0.0001), independent of education, age, or blood pressure. Effect sizes were large (Cohen d 0.6–0.9; P < 0.0001) for psychomotor speed and visuoconstruction tasks and were modest (d 0.3–0.6; P < 0.05) for measures of executive function. Among participants with T1D, prevalent cognitive impairment was related to 14-year average A1c >7.5% (58 mmol/mol) (odds ratio [OR] 3.0; P = 0.009), proliferative retinopathy (OR 2.8; P = 0.01), and distal symmetric polyneuropathy (OR 2.6; P = 0.03) measured 5 years earlier; higher BMI (OR 1.1; P = 0.03); and ankle-brachial index ≥1.3 (OR 4.2; P = 0.01) measured 20 years earlier, independent of education. CONCLUSIONS Clinically relevant cognitive impairment is highly prevalent among these middle-aged adults with childhood-onset T1D. In this aging cohort, chronic hyperglycemia and prevalent microvascular disease were associated with cognitive impairment, relationships shown previously in younger populations with T1D. Two additional potentially modifiable risk factors for T1D-related cognitive impairment, vascular health and BMI

  9. From GED to College: Age Trajectories of Nontraditional Educational Paths

    PubMed Central

    Maralani, Vida

    2015-01-01

    Age patterns of secondary certification and college entry differ in complex and surprising ways for traditional graduates and GED recipients. Although GED recipients are less likely to enter college in their late teens, they catch up to traditional graduates in their 20s. Results show that adjusting for differences in the age trajectories of school continuation accounts for a substantial portion of the differences observed between the two groups. Important differences remain, however, in the type of college attended and the likelihood of college entry before age 21. Nonetheless, more GED recipients enroll in college than previous studies have suggested, and this interest in college identifies a useful place for policy to intervene to encourage school continuation for this group. PMID:26120141

  10. School-Aged Children Who Are Educated at Home by Their Parents: Is There a Role for Educational Psychologists?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arora, Tiny C. M. J.

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on home education with reference to issues that may concern educational psychologists. It notes the fast growing number of families (at present, 1% of the UK school population) who have chosen to educate their school-aged children at home. The great majority of home-educated children are reported to be well…

  11. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs.

  12. The Changing Nature of Adult Education in the Age of Transnational Migration: Toward a Model of Recognitive Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2015-01-01

    This chapter examines the changing nature of adult education in the age of transnational migration and proposes recognitive adult education as an inclusive model that acknowledges and affirms cultural difference and diversity as positive and desirable assets.

  13. 20 CFR 404.716 - Type of evidence of age to be given.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.716 Type of evidence of age...; insurance policies; a marriage record; a passport; an employment record; a delayed birth certificate,...

  14. 20 CFR 404.716 - Type of evidence of age to be given.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.716 Type of evidence of age...; insurance policies; a marriage record; a passport; an employment record; a delayed birth certificate,...

  15. 20 CFR 404.716 - Type of evidence of age to be given.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.716 Type of evidence of age...; insurance policies; a marriage record; a passport; an employment record; a delayed birth certificate,...

  16. 20 CFR 404.716 - Type of evidence of age to be given.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.716 Type of evidence of age...; insurance policies; a marriage record; a passport; an employment record; a delayed birth certificate,...

  17. 20 CFR 404.716 - Type of evidence of age to be given.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Evidence Evidence of Age, Marriage, and Death § 404.716 Type of evidence of age...; insurance policies; a marriage record; a passport; an employment record; a delayed birth certificate,...

  18. Social Origins, School Type and Higher Education Destinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Alice; Parsons, Samantha; Wiggins, Richard; Heath, Anthony; Green, Francis

    2014-01-01

    To what extent and why do social origins matter for access to higher education, including access to elite universities? What is the role of private and selective schooling? This paper uses the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS70) to analyse the trajectories of a generation currently in early middle age. We find that the influence of social origins,…

  19. Effects of Age and Education on the Lexico-Semantic Content of Connected Speech in Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Dorze, Guylaine; Bedard, Christine

    1998-01-01

    Connected speech of 134 healthy, Canadian French-speaking adults, grouped according to age and education level, was analyzed using an aphasia battery. Results demonstrated that older subjects with less education produced fewer content units and were less efficient in transmitting lexico-semantic information. Effects of age and education level on…

  20. Age determination of the world's oldest movable metal types through measuring the "meog" using AMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, W.; Lee, S. C.; Park, J. H.; Park, G.; Sung, K. H.; Lee, J. G.; Nam, K. H.

    2015-10-01

    The fabrication year of a set of movable metal types that were thought to be used for printing "Jeungdoga" was investigated. Since the types were made from bronze and did not contain carbon, an organic black ink called "meog" was collected from the type surfaces to quantify their ages. The meog samples were collected from 34 metal types, and 27 ages were obtained. The youngest age was 798 ± 44 yrBP, and the oldest reasonable age was 1166 ± 43 yrBP. The weighted average after eliminating ages with poor statistics was 950 ± 28 yrBP. This age is 300 years older than that of the Jikji (AD 1377), which is a Buddhist document recognized as the world's oldest document printed using metal types, and also older than that of the Gutenberg bible (AD 1450).

  1. A Study of Elementary and Secondary Teacher Knowledge and Attitudes toward Aging and the Implementation of Aging Education in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Shan

    2012-01-01

    This study surveys elementary and secondary teachers in Taiwan and compares the findings with other studies conducted in America and Japan. The objective is to explore differences among teachers in Taiwan, Japan, and the United States in terms of their knowledge of, and attitudes toward, aging and the implementation of aging education in schools.…

  2. Effect of age, education, and bilingualism on confrontation naming in older illiterate and low-educated populations.

    PubMed

    Ashaie, Sameer; Obler, Loraine

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the effects of age as well as the linked factors of education and bilingualism on confrontation naming in rural Kashmir by creating a culturally appropriate naming test with pictures of 60 objects. We recruited 48 cognitively normal participants whose ages ranged from 18 to 28 and from 60 to 85. Participants in our study were illiterate monolinguals (N = 18) and educated Kashmiri-Urdu bilinguals (N = 30). Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that younger adults performed better than older adults (P < 0.01) and the age effect was quadratic (age(2)). It also showed Age X Education and Age X L2 Speaking interactions predicted naming performance. The Age X Education interaction indicated that the advantages of greater education increased with advancing age. Since education is in the second language (L2) in our population, this finding is no doubt linked to the Age X L2 Speaking interaction. This suggests that L2 speaking proficiency contributed more to first language (L1) naming with advancing age.

  3. Design Patterns for Digital Item Types in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draaijer, S.; Hartog, R. J. M.

    2007-01-01

    A set of design patterns for digital item types has been developed in response to challenges identified in various projects by teachers in higher education. The goal of the projects in question was to design and develop formative and summative tests, and to develop interactive learning material in the form of quizzes. The subject domains involved…

  4. Personal Educational Tools (PETs) for Type II Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Rhonda; Overall, Theresa; Knezek, Gerald

    2006-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of Personal Educational Tools (PETs) and places these tools within the context of existing rationales for using technology for teaching, learning, and instruction. An identification of the distinguishing characteristics of these devices is followed by the conjecture that these types of classifying…

  5. The Effects of College Type and Characteristics on Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristine L.

    The effects of institutional types and their structural and compositional characteristics on students entering two- or four-year academic programs were examined, with a focus on students' educational attainment. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Individual student variables were considered,…

  6. Cognitive outcomes and age of detection of severe mucopolysaccharidosis type 1.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Scott D; Lam, Wendy K K; Wiggins, Lisa D; Kemper, Alex R

    2017-01-26

    The US Secretary of Health and Human Services recommended in February 2016 that mucopolysaccharidosis type 1 (MPS I) be added to the recommended uniform screening panel for state newborn screening programs. One of the key factors in this decision was the evidence suggesting that earlier treatment with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for the most severe form, Hurler syndrome (MPS IH), would lead to improved cognitive outcomes. Consistent evidence from peer-reviewed studies suggests that transplantation in the first year of life is associated with improved developmental quotient or intelligence quotient and continued cognitive growth, with earlier age of treatment associated with improved outcomes. However, available evidence suggests that cognitive functioning and attention can still lag behind unaffected age-matched children, leading to the need for special education services. Verbal and nonverbal cognitive abilities outcomes may be affected differently by HCT. With the recent addition of MPS I to the recommended uniform screening panel, future work is needed to evaluate the impact of earlier, presymptomatic detection and treatment initiation and other supportive therapies on cognitive outcomes.Genet Med advance online publication 26 January 2017Genetics in Medicine (2017); doi:10.1038/gim.2016.223.

  7. Coming of age: the artificial pancreas for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Thabit, Hood; Hovorka, Roman

    2016-09-01

    The artificial pancreas (closed-loop system) addresses the unmet clinical need for improved glucose control whilst reducing the burden of diabetes self-care in type 1 diabetes. Glucose-responsive insulin delivery above and below a preset insulin amount informed by sensor glucose readings differentiates closed-loop systems from conventional, threshold-suspend and predictive-suspend insulin pump therapy. Insulin requirements in type 1 diabetes can vary between one-third-threefold on a daily basis. Closed-loop systems accommodate these variations and mitigate the risk of hypoglycaemia associated with tight glucose control. In this review we focus on the progress being made in the development and evaluation of closed-loop systems in outpatient settings. Randomised transitional studies have shown feasibility and efficacy of closed-loop systems under supervision or remote monitoring. Closed-loop application during free-living, unsupervised conditions by children, adolescents and adults compared with sensor-augmented pumps have shown improved glucose outcomes, reduced hypoglycaemia and positive user acceptance. Innovative approaches to enhance closed-loop performance are discussed and we also present the outlook and strategies used to ease clinical adoption of closed-loop systems.

  8. The Marble Types of Thassos Island through the Ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laskaridis, Kostas; Patronis, Michael; Papatrechas, Christos; Schouenborg, Björn

    2013-04-01

    The first references to the "white whole-grain" marble of Thassos Island, Greece, date back to the 6th century BC when stones were quarried at Alyki peninsula and at Fanari and Vathy capes. Since that time, Thassos marble was exported to Samothraki and other neighbouring islands, Asia Minor coastal cities, Southern Greece and Rome. In ancient times, there were two principal types of marble quarries in Thassos: (a) those producing material for the construction of temples and for the creation of various art pieces, i.e. ornamental stones, and (b) those for extraction of rough blocks for export. This paper aims at describing the Thassos marble, the geological setting in brief, its historic use and future supply possibilities and other reasons why it is a time-enduring ornamental stone. The aesthetical characteristics and the physical mechanical properties of its two main types (i.e. calcitic and dolomitic) are described and evaluated. The relevant results justify the wide application range and the continuous use of Thassos marble from ancient to present times and confirm the ability of this stone to survive over time. Keywords: Thassos, Marble, Ornamental Stones, Physical Mechanical Properties, Historic use

  9. Social Work Knowledge of Facts on Aging: Influence of Field and Classroom Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birkenmaier, Julie; Rowan, Noell L.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

    2009-01-01

    Palmore's Facts on Aging Quiz (FAQ) was used to measure aging knowledge outcomes of 323 practicum students engaged in aging-focused practica at pre- and posttest across 11 universities. Significant improvement in knowledge scores (p = 0.0001) was found for graduates of the enhanced field education programs. Taking aging course work was a…

  10. Education, Globalization, and the State in the Age of Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Michael A.

    2004-01-01

    Education plays an important role in challenging, combating and in understanding terrorism in its different forms, whether as counter-terrorism or as a form of human rights education. Just as education has played a significant role in the process of nation-building, so education also plays a strong role in the process of empire, globalization and…

  11. Liberal Education in the Age of the Unthinkable

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shinn, Larry D.

    2012-01-01

    Those who work in all sectors of higher education--from community and liberal arts colleges to undergraduate programs in public and research universities--often assert that a "liberal education" is precisely the kind of undergraduate education that is needed for both living and working in the challenging 21st-century world. "Liberal education" or…

  12. Changes in Support Networks in Late Middle Age: The Extension of Gender and Educational Differences

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. Methods. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Results. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women’s network advantages over men and college graduates’ network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in “talk” support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. Discussion. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. PMID:24898029

  13. Education for the Aging; Living with a Purpose as Older Adults through Education: An Overview of Current Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabowski, Stanley M., Ed.; Mason, W. Dean, Ed.

    Directed toward the practitioner, the book is a compilation by 18 knowledgeable, experienced authors of some of the recent literature and current practices in the field relating to aging. The book consists of seven parts: (1) The Older Adult as Learner, (2) The Role of Education in an Aging Society, (3) The Aging Individual and the Changing Nature…

  14. Advanced BrainAGE in older adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Franke, Katja; Gaser, Christian; Manor, Brad; Novak, Vera

    2013-01-01

    Aging alters brain structure and function and diabetes mellitus (DM) may accelerate this process. This study investigated the effects of type 2 DM on individual brain aging as well as the relationships between individual brain aging, risk factors, and functional measures. To differentiate a pattern of brain atrophy that deviates from normal brain aging, we used the novel BrainAGE approach, which determines the complex multidimensional aging pattern within the whole brain by applying established kernel regression methods to anatomical brain magnetic resonance images (MRI). The “Brain Age Gap Estimation” (BrainAGE) score was then calculated as the difference between chronological age and estimated brain age. 185 subjects (98 with type 2 DM) completed an MRI at 3Tesla, laboratory and clinical assessments. Twenty-five subjects (12 with type 2 DM) also completed a follow-up visit after 3.8 ± 1.5 years. The estimated brain age of DM subjects was 4.6 ± 7.2 years greater than their chronological age (p = 0.0001), whereas within the control group, estimated brain age was similar to chronological age. As compared to baseline, the average BrainAGE scores of DM subjects increased by 0.2 years per follow-up year (p = 0.034), whereas the BrainAGE scores of controls did not change between baseline and follow-up. At baseline, across all subjects, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with greater smoking and alcohol consumption, higher tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) levels, lower verbal fluency scores and more severe deprepession. Within the DM group, higher BrainAGE scores were associated with longer diabetes duration (r = 0.31, p = 0.019) and increased fasting blood glucose levels (r = 0.34, p = 0.025). In conclusion, type 2 DM is independently associated with structural changes in the brain that reflect advanced aging. The BrainAGE approach may thus serve as a clinically relevant biomarker for the detection of abnormal patterns of brain aging associated with type 2

  15. Decreased cord-blood phospholipids in young age-at-onset type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    La Torre, Daria; Seppänen-Laakso, Tuulikki; Larsson, Helena E; Hyötyläinen, Tuulia; Ivarsson, Sten A; Lernmark, Ake; Oresic, Matej

    2013-11-01

    Children developing type 1 diabetes may have risk markers already in their umbilical cord blood. It is hypothesized that the risk for type 1 diabetes at an early age may be increased by a pathogenic pregnancy and be reflected in altered cord-blood composition. This study used metabolomics to test if the cord-blood lipidome was affected in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 8 years of age. The present case-control study of 76 index children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 8 years of age and 76 healthy control subjects matched for HLA risk, sex, and date of birth, as well as the mother's age and gestational age, revealed that cord-blood phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines were significantly decreased in children diagnosed with type 1 diabetes before 4 years of age. Reduced levels of triglycerides correlated to gestational age in index and control children and to age at diagnosis only in the index children. Finally, gestational infection during the first trimester was associated with lower cord-blood total lysophosphatidylcholines in index and control children. In conclusion, metabolomics of umbilical cord blood may identify children at increased risk for type 1 diabetes. Low phospholipid levels at birth may represent key mediators of the immune system and contribute to early induction of islet autoimmunity.

  16. Identifying Fracture Types and Relative Ages Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Dilley, Lorie M.; Norman, David; Owens, Lara

    2008-06-30

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are designed to recover heat from the subsurface by mechanically creating fractures in subsurface rocks. Understanding the life cycle of a fracture in a geothermal system is fundamental to the development of techniques for creating fractures. Recognizing the stage of a fracture, whether it is currently open and transmitting fluids; if it recently has closed; or if it is an ancient fracture would assist in targeting areas for further fracture stimulation. Identifying dense fracture areas as well as large open fractures from small fracture systems will also assist in fracture stimulation selection. Geothermal systems are constantly generating fractures, and fluids and gases passing through rocks in these systems leave small fluid and gas samples trapped in healed microfractures. Fluid inclusions trapped in minerals as the fractures heal are characteristic of the fluids that formed them, and this signature can be seen in fluid inclusion gas analysis. Our hypothesis is that fractures over their life cycle have different chemical signatures that we can see in fluid inclusion gas analysis and by using the new method of fluid inclusion stratigraphy (FIS) the different stages of fractures, along with an estimate of fracture size can be identified during the well drilling process. We have shown with this study that it is possible to identify fracture locations using FIS and that different fractures have different chemical signatures however that signature is somewhat dependent upon rock type. Open, active fractures correlate with increase concentrations of CO2, N2, Ar, and to a lesser extent H2O. These fractures would be targets for further enhancement. The usefulness of this method is that it is low cost alternative to current well logging techniques and can be done as a well is being drilled.

  17. [Experimental evidence on the role of different types unsaturated fats in the diet on ageing].

    PubMed

    González-Alonso, Adrian; Pérez-López, Patricia; Varela-López, Alfonso; Ramírez-Tortosa, M Carmen; Battino, Maurizio; Quiles, José L

    2015-01-01

    Nutrition has been largely related to the physiological ageing process. Several nutrients, such as certain types of dietary fat and various antioxidants have been shown to have positive effects on age-related diseases. The type of dietary fat affects mitochondrial structure and function, as well as its susceptibility to oxidative stress, all factors involved in ageing. The present review aims to summarise the studies conducted by our research group in the past 10 years, using virgin olive oil, sunflower oil, or fish oil as a source of unsaturated fat diet relative to a rat model of ageing.

  18. First in the Class? Age and the Education Production Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascio, Elizabeth U.; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effects of relative age in kindergarten using data from an experiment where children of the same age were randomly assigned to different kindergarten classmates. We exploit the resulting experimental variation in relative age in conjunction with variation in expected kindergarten entry age based on birth date to account for…

  19. Protective Role of Educational Level on Episodic Memory Aging: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Lucie; Fay, Severine; Bouazzaoui, Badiaa; Baudouin, Alexia; Isingrini, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to investigate whether educational level could modulate the effect of aging on episodic memory and on the electrophysiological correlates of retrieval success. Participants were divided into four groups based on age (young vs. older) and educational level (high vs. low), with 14 participants in each group.…

  20. How Special Education Preschool Graduates Finish: Status at 19 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Dale, Philip S.; Mills, Paulette E.; Cole, Kevin N.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the academic and special education status of 129 graduates of special education preschools at 19 years of age. Participants had been randomly assigned to either direct instruction or mediated learning preschool classrooms. At age 19, their achievement was approximately one standard deviation below average. Consistent with…

  1. Proposing a Center on Aging and Well-Being: Research, Education, and Practice Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenbach, Jeannette M.; Jessup-Falcioni, Heather

    2016-01-01

    This environmental scan aimed to discover research interests and educational needs of faculty, graduate, and undergraduate students to inspire research, education, and practice in the development of a center on aging and well-being for older adults. The scan consisted of a search of university faculty and researchers regarding research on aging; a…

  2. Principles and Practices of Mature-Age Education at U3As

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siedle, Rob

    2011-01-01

    A movement known as the Universities of the Third Age (U3As) provides educational, cultural and social services for mature-age people in Australia and internationally. This paper focuses on the educational courses run by U3As and discusses two basic questions: What are the expectations of learners who enrol in these classes? and How can tutors…

  3. Graduate Training in Education and Aging: Results of a National Survey; Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumsden, D. Barry

    1977-01-01

    The graduate departments of adult education at 88 universities in the United States were surveyed for information pertinent to their programs in and about aging. Results show that 55 percent of the departments offer no courses dealing exclusively with education and aging. (Author)

  4. Age-dependent arginine phosphokinase activity changes in male vestigial and wild-type Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Baker, G T

    1975-01-01

    The activity of arginine phosphokinase, an important muscle enzyme in insects, was investigated with age in vestigial-winged and wild-type Drosophila melanogaster. Identical patterns of age-dependent activity changes were observed in the vestigial-winged flies as in the wild-type, even though vestigial-winged flies exhibit a 50% mortality approximately two thirds that of the wild-type as well as being incapable of flight. Results indicate that the age-dependent changes in arginine phosphokinase activity are intrinsically regulated within the cells of the flight muscle.

  5. A Genealogy of Grit: Education in the New Gilded Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokas, Ariana Gonzalez

    2015-01-01

    Recently, due in part to the research of Angela Duckworth, the cultivation of dispositions in education, grit in particular, has gained the attention of educational policymakers and the educational research community. While much of the research has focused on how to detect grit, there has been little discussion regarding how grit came to be valued…

  6. Moving Education and Its Administration into the Microelectronic Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Jack A.

    Education is in transition between the ascendent microelectronic and descendent industrial revolutions, with purposes ambiguously linked to both. These purposes must be clarified before educational leaders can establish priorities for adapting education to the needs of a society transformed by microelectronic technology. Accordingly, the features…

  7. The Effect of Labels Only and Labels with Instruction on the Concept Attainment of Educable Mentally Retarded and Normally Developing Boys of School Age. Technical Report No. 301.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargiulo, Richard Michael

    Examined were the effects of verbal labels alone and in combination with two types of instruction on the concept attainment of 80 educable mentally retarded and 80 normal boys of school age matched for mental age. For learning the concept "equilateral triangle" Ss were randomly assigned to one of four experimental treatment conditions: verbal…

  8. Characteristics of basal insulin requirements by age and gender in Type-1 diabetes patients using insulin pump therapy.

    PubMed

    Scheiner, Gary; Boyer, Bret A

    2005-07-01

    Establishment of appropriate basal insulin levels is an essential component of intensive insulin therapy. While the existence of a "dawn phenomenon" is widely recognized, the present study sought to establish whether diurnal basal insulin patterns exist in Type-1 diabetes, and whether these patterns vary by age and gender. Participant data was drawn from 322 Type-1 insulin pump users treated at a private diabetes education practice in suburban Philadelphia. All participants completed a battery of fasting tests designed to match basal insulin levels to endogenous glucose production and insulin sensitivity. Analysis of resultant basal patterns revealed significant differences between juvenile (age < or =20) and adult (age >20) basal insulin patterns. The younger group exhibited a more pronounced and sustained night-time peak; the older group exhibiting a briefer and less pronounced early-morning peak. Lower overall basal insulin requirements were found in the youngest (age < or =10) and oldest (age >60) groups. No noteworthy gender differences were found. Results can serve as a guide for clinicians when initiating and fine-tuning patients who utilize basal/bolus insulin therapy.

  9. Revisioning Education for All in the Age of Migration: Global Challenges and Opportunities for Lifelong Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guo, Shibao

    2014-01-01

    This paper revisits and revisions Education for All (EFA) in the age of global migration with the aim of developing more inclusive approaches towards social justice and equity in education. Drawing on cases of internal and international migration in China and Canada, this paper compares and contrasts policies and practices in the education of…

  10. Distance Education in the Digital Age: Common Misconceptions and Challenging Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses in its first part three common misconceptions related to the operation of distance education providers in the digital age: The tendency to relate to e-learning as the new generation of distance education; the confusion between ends and means of distance education; and the absence of the teachers' crucial role in the…

  11. Ability of university-level education to prevent age-related decline in emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre, José Miguel; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that educational history, as a proxy measure of active cognitive reserve, protects against age-related cognitive decline and risk of dementia. Whether educational history also protects against age-related decline in emotional intelligence (EI) is unclear. The present study examined ability EI in 310 healthy adults ranging in age from 18 to 76 years using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT). We found that older people had lower scores than younger people for total EI and for the EI branches of perceiving, facilitating, and understanding emotions, whereas age was not associated with the EI branch of managing emotions. We also found that educational history protects against this age-related EI decline by mediating the relationship between age and EI. In particular, the EI scores of older adults with a university education were higher than those of older adults with primary or secondary education, and similar to those of younger adults of any education level. These findings suggest that the cognitive reserve hypothesis, which states that individual differences in cognitive processes as a function of lifetime intellectual activities explain differential susceptibility to functional impairment in the presence of age-related changes and brain pathology, applies also to EI, and that education can help preserve cognitive-emotional structures during aging.

  12. Diverse Family Types and Out-Of-School Learning Time of Young School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    =Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological parent families. In all four cases, however, the differentials are explained by the presence of siblings age 18+, lower levels of family income, or younger maternal age. PMID:21532970

  13. Geochronology of type Santacrucian (Middle Tertiary) Land Mammal Age, Patagonia, Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, L.G.; Drake, R.E.; Curtis, G.H.; Butler, R.F.; Flanagan, K.M.; Naeser, C.W.

    1986-07-01

    Mammal-bearing lacustrine and tuffaceous sediments from three localities of the Santa Cruz Formation, type fauna of the Santacrucian Land Mammal Age, in Patagonia, southern Argentina, are calibrated by radioisotope dating with the aid of magnetostratigraphy. The strata range from about 17.6 Ma to perhaps 16.0 Ma, and are thus of late-early Miocene age. The Santacrucian Land Mammal Age ranges from about 18.0 Ma to about 15.0 Ma.

  14. Interaction of hen production type, age, and temperature on laying pattern and egg quality.

    PubMed

    Tumová, E; Gous, R M

    2012-05-01

    The effect of production type (layer vs. broiler breeder), age (onset and end of laying cycle), and temperature (20 and 28°C) on various aspects of the egg production process and quality was evaluated. Highly significant differences were detected between laying hens and broiler breeders (P ≤ 0.001) in all production parameters. Similarly, age significantly affected rate of lay (P ≤ 0.001; 75.4% for young vs. 62.6% for old), mean sequence length (P ≤ 0.001; 7.7 d for young vs. 2.6 d for old), and time of oviposition (P ≤ 0.001). However, there was no effect of temperature on rate of lay, sequence length, or feed intake. Significant interactions between hen type and age were apparent in rate of lay (P ≤ 0.001), sequence length (P ≤ 0.001), and time of oviposition (P ≤ 0.001). A significant interaction between production type and age (P ≤ 0.015) was evident in egg weight, but egg component proportions were dependent only on hen type. Egg shape index was significantly affected by age (P ≤ 0.004), by temperature (P ≤ 0.028), and an interaction between type and age (P ≤ 0.001). Specific gravity declined with age (P ≤ 0.035) and increasing temperature (P ≤ 0.013).

  15. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  16. The role of mentor type and timing in predicting educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Fruiht, Veronica M; Wray-Lake, Laura

    2013-09-01

    Having an adult mentor during adolescence has been found to predict academic success. Building on previous work, the present study examined interactions between the type of mentor (i.e., kin, teacher, friend, or community), the time that mentor became important (i.e., before, during, or after high school), and the ethnicity of the protégé in predicting educational attainment in young adulthood. Analyses used Waves III and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 2,409). Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 27 (M = 21.75, SD = 1.79). The sample was 56.7 % female and nationally representative of ethnic diversity. Analyses showed that having a teacher-mentor was more predictive of educational attainment than having other types of mentors and that overall, having a mentor after high school predicts the most educational attainment. Kin- and community-mentors appeared to be more important to educational attainment during and before high school, respectively. Findings were consistent across ethnic groups. Overall, results highlight the value of teacher-mentors throughout childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood and our study further suggests that different types of mentors may be particularly useful at specific points in development.

  17. Early Learning Left Out: An Examination of Public Investments in Education and Development by Child Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Charles; Elias, Victor; Stein, Debbie; Schaefer, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the most comprehensive picture, to date, of public investments in the education and development of children by three age groupings--the early learning years (roughly 0-5), the school-aged years (roughly 6-18), and the college-aged years (roughly 19-23). It is based upon detailed analysis of state, federal, and school district…

  18. Higher Education and the Determination of Aggregate Male Employment by Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stenberg, Anders; Wikstrom, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    This paper studies the determinants of age-specific employment rates among Swedish males, focusing on the effect of education on employment. We use cohort specific data for the time period 1984-1996 covering male cohorts aged 21-45. It is found that aggregate age-group-specific employment rates increase with the proportion of the cohort with an…

  19. The Effects of the Type of Skill Test, Choice, and Gender on the Situational Motivation of Physical Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Tyler G.; Prusak, Keven A.; Pennington, Todd; Wilkinson, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of (a) skill test type, (b) choices, and (c) gender on the situational motivation profiles of adolescents during skill testing in physical education. Participants were 507 students (53% male) aged 12-16 years (M = 13.87; SD = 0.94) attending a suburban junior high school in a western state in…

  20. Age and education in moral judgment of participants in team sports.

    PubMed

    Proios, Miltiadis; Doganis, George

    2006-02-01

    The present aim was to investigate the effect of age and education on the moral reasoning of the same 535 individuals in sports for whom nature of sport experience was reported. All 535 participants (M age = 24.9 yr., SD = 8.3) were involved in sports at the time of the study as athletes (n = 342), referees (n = 145), or coaches (n = 48), and had a wide range of education. Analysis of variance of scores on the Defining Issues Test of Rest showed moral judgment in sports differs significantly amongst different age groups (F5.510 = 5.37, p < .001) and amounts of education (F4.511 = 6.24, p < .001). Generally, with more education, higher moral judgment can be expected. It is apparent that moral development in sport is related to age and education, as also holds for a wider social setting.

  1. [Evaluation of the educational practices in promoting self-management in type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Torres, Heloísa de Carvalho; Pereira, Flávia Rodrigues Lobo; Alexandre, Luciana Rodrigues

    2011-10-01

    The objective of this is study to evaluate the educational practices in promoting the self-management of diabetes mellitus. Subjects were twenty-six individuals with type 2 diabetes, who participated in the educational program at a teaching hospital in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais. The subjects were followed for four months in 2008. The educational group practices consisted of three monthly meetings, in which recreational and interactive dynamics were performed, and individual sessions were held using dialogic education. The evaluation was performed using a specific questionnaire: self-care and clinical exams in the beginning and four months after the intervention. The mean age of the subjects was 60.9 ±8.4 years; the mean time of disease was 8.7±6.7 years; most (55.6% or 27 individuals) had incomplete primary education and a family income between 1 and 3 minimum salaries. Satisfactory results were found in the self-care test. It was also observed that HbA1c levels dropped down and the educational practices improved self-care and self-management of the disease.

  2. Building a Global Community of Policymakers, Researchers and Educators to Move Education Systems into the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voogt, J.; Knezek, G.

    2013-01-01

    The EDUsummIT 2011 aimed to develop (a) recommendations for policy, practice and research that will help educational systems move into the digital age and (b) strategies to build a global community of researchers, policymakers and teachers in the field of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Education. Thematic working groups…

  3. Media and Education in the Digital Age: Concepts, Assessments, Subversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocchetti, Matteo, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    This book is an invitation to informed and critical participation in the current debate on the role of digital technology in education and a comprehensive introduction to the most relevant issues in this debate. After an early wave of enthusiasm about the emancipative opportunities of the digital "revolution" in education, recent…

  4. The Possibility of Public Education in an Instrumentalist Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris

    2011-01-01

    In our increasingly instrumentalist culture, debates over the privatization of schooling may be beside the point. Whether we hatch some new plan for chartering or funding schools, or retain the traditional model of government-run schools, the ongoing instrumentalization of education threatens the very possibility of public education. Indeed, in…

  5. Diversity, Group Identity, and Citizenship Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Worldwide immigration and quests for rights by minority groups have caused social scientists and educators to raise serious questions about liberal assimilationist conceptions of citizenship that historically have dominated citizenship education in nation-states. The author of this article challenges liberal assimilationist conceptions of…

  6. Windows on the Future: Education in the Age of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCain, Ted; Jukes, Ian

    This book is designed to help educators cope with changes created by technology and embrace a new mindset necessary to access the burgeoning technological advances, in order to keep schools and students relevant in the 21st century. The book looks through several "windows" on the future, and asks educators to consider their own paradigms…

  7. Overflowing Every Idea of Age, Very Young Children as Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannesen, Nina

    2013-01-01

    In this article I explore if and how very young children can be the educators of their early childhood educators. I describe and discuss a story constructed from a fieldwork done in one early childhood setting in Norway. The story is read with Levinas and his concepts Said and Saying. Further I discuss if and how this might be understood as…

  8. Diagrams of Europeanization: European Education Governance in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decuypere, Mathias

    2016-01-01

    European education governance is increasingly affected by and effectuated through digital means. This article presents an analysis of the way in which Europe is increasingly deploying digital technologies, and more specifically websites, in order to shape and communicate its education policies. Drawing on the notion of the diagram as the…

  9. Differences between chronological and brain age are related to education and self-reported physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; O'Shea, Deirdre; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Bherer, Louis; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education and physical activity and the difference between a physiological prediction of age and chronological age. Cortical and subcortical grey matter regional volumes were calculated from 331 healthy adults (range: 19-79 years). Multivariate analyses identified a covariance pattern of brain volumes best predicting chronological age (CA)(R2 = 47%). Individual expression of this brain pattern served as a physiologic measure of brain age (BA). The difference between CA and BA was predicted by education and self-report measures of physical activity. Education and the daily number of flights of stairs climbed were the only two significant predictors of decreased brain age. Effect sizes demonstrated that brain age decreased by 0.95 years for each year of education and by 0.58 years for one additional daily FOSC. Effects of education and FOSC on regional brain volume were largely driven by temporal and subcortical volumes. These results demonstrate that higher levels of education and daily FOSC are related to larger brain volume than predicted by chronological age which supports the utility of regional grey matter volume as a biomarker of healthy brain aging. PMID:26973113

  10. Age, education, and the gender gap in the sense of control.

    PubMed

    Slagsvold, Britt; Sørensen, Annemette

    2008-01-01

    High sense of control is related to benefits in many aspects of life, and education is known to be strongly related to sense of control. In this article we explore why women tend to feel a lower sense of control than men, and why the sense of control tends to be lower among the elderly than among younger people. In particular we explore the role played by education in explaining age- and gender differences in sense of control. The analysis is based on data from the first wave of the Norwegian NorLAG study, with a representative sample of adults aged 40-79 in 30 municipalities. We find that education accounts for some of the age and gender differences in sense of control, but the mediating effects of education are rather modest. We find an increasing gender gap in sense of control with age, and this increasing gap is completely explained by differences in education. Gender differences in sense of control is explained completely by four factors, which are related to resources and power; physical health, education, living with a partner, and leadership experience. Age differences in sense of control are only partially explained. Education, physical health and employment status cuts the age effect on sense of control to half. The effect of education on sense of control is partly mediated through what we suggest are tangible benefits of education, namely health, employment, and leadership experience. Education also influences individuals through socialization mechanisms. We view agentive orientation as a psychological benefit of education, and measure this characteristic with Bem's (1981) sex-role scale on masculinity. Agentive orientation completely explains the remaining effect of education on sense of control.

  11. How Pervasive Are Relative Age Effects in Secondary School Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobley, Stephen; McKenna, Jim; Baker, Joeseph; Wattie, Nick

    2009-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs; R. H. Barnsley, A. H. Thompson, & P. E. Barnsley, 1985) convey school attainment (dis)advantages depending on whether one is relatively older or younger within annually age-grouped cohorts. In the present study, the authors examined the pervasiveness of RAEs by examining (a) attainment in 4 secondary school…

  12. From GED to College: Age Trajectories of Nontraditional Educational Paths

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maralani, Vida

    2011-01-01

    Age patterns of secondary certification and college entry differ in complex and surprising ways for traditional graduates and GED recipients. Although GED recipients are less likely to enter college in their late teens, they catch up to traditional graduates in their 20s. Results show that adjusting for differences in the age trajectories of…

  13. [Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE): determination of cutoff scores according to age and educational level].

    PubMed

    Solias, A; Skapinakis, P; Degleris, N; Pantoleon, M; Katirtzoglou, E; Politis, A

    2014-01-01

    For the last 38 years, Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) has been widely used as a dementia screening measure in everyday clinical practice as well as in both cohort and cross-sectional studies. Its validity and reliability for the Greek population has explicitly been documented. However, the effect of age and education on the subject's performance makes it necessary to reckon them in the estimation of the "cutoff score". The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of dementia in Greek population and determine the "cutoff score" by age and education-corrected norms. Cross sectional study of 630 patients older than 55 years, who live independently in Ilion and Helioupolis Municipalities was conducted, 27.3% of the subjects tested in the study were diagnosed with memory disorder according to their MMSE scores and the validation for the Greek population. The effect of age and education to the subjects' performance was statistically significant (p=.000). The use of standard "cutoff score" was not proved to be useful for the personalized interpretation of the results, as documented by the fact that older individuals with lower education had a poorer performance relatively to younger, highly educated subjects. Comparatively to the group age of 55-60 years, the odds ratio after the age of 75 years varies from 2.58 to 4.91. Regarding the variable factor of education, the odds ratio for the first degree education graduates decreases from 1.43 to 3.19 for the third degree education graduates in comparison with the group of illiterates. In conclusion, the use of the "cutoff score" algorithm and the simultaneous estimation of age and education effect on MMSE score may prove useful for the proper evaluation of MMSE performance. According to the age and education of examine candidates in the community and the primary care, we propose the use of the 25th percentile as a more useful cutoff score in order to decrease the false positive results.

  14. Age, education, and earnings in the course of Brazilian development: does composition matter?

    PubMed Central

    de Lima Amaral, Ernesto Friedrich; Potter, Joseph E.; Hamermesh, Daniel S.; Rios-Neto, Eduardo Luiz Goncalves

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The impacts of shifts in the age distribution of the working-age population have been studied in relation to the effect of the baby boom generation on the earnings of different cohorts in the U.S. However, this topic has received little attention in the context of the countries of Asia and Latin America, which are now experiencing substantial shifts in their age-education distributions. OBJECTIVE In this analysis, we estimate the impact of the changing relative size of the adult male population, classified by age and education groups, on the earnings of employed men living in 502 Brazilian local labor markets during four time periods between 1970 and 2000. METHODS Taking advantage of the huge variation across Brazilian local labor markets and demographic census micro-data, we used fixed effects models to demonstrate that age education group size depresses earnings. RESULTS These effects are more detrimental among age-education groups with higher education, but they are becoming less negative over time. The decrease in the share of workers with the lowest level of education has not led to gains in the earnings of these workers in recent years. CONCLUSIONS These trends might be a consequence of technological shifts and increasing demand for labor with either education or experience. Compositional shifts are influential, which suggests that this approach could prove useful in studying this central problem in economic development. PMID:26146484

  15. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History.

    PubMed

    Giordimaina, Alicia M; Sheldon, Jane P; Kiedrowski, Lesli A; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-12-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey, nondiabetic Mexican Americans (n = 385), Blacks (n = 387), and Whites (n = 396) reported family histories of T2DM. Negative binomial regressions used age and gender to predict the number of affected relatives reported. Models were examined for the gender gap, parabolic age effect, and gender-by-age interaction predicted by kinkeeping. Results demonstrated support for gender and parabolic age effects but only among Whites. Kinkeeping may have application to the study of White family medical historians, but not Black or Mexican American historians, perhaps because of differences in family structure, salience of T2DM, and/or gender roles.

  16. Age at Menopause, Reproductive Life Span, and Type 2 Diabetes Risk

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Judith S.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Sharp, Stephen J.; Ong, Ken K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Ardanaz, Eva; Amiano, Pilar; Boeing, Heiner; Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Crowe, Francesca L.; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Duell, Eric J.; Fagherazzi, Guy; Franks, Paul W.; Grioni, Sara; Groop, Leif C.; Kaaks, Rudolf; Key, Timothy J.; Nilsson, Peter M.; Overvad, Kim; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Quirós, J. Ramón; Rolandsson, Olov; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Sánchez, María-José; Slimani, Nadia; Teucher, Birgit; Tjonneland, Anne; Tumino, Rosario; van der A, Daphne L.; Feskens, Edith J.M.; Langenberg, Claudia; Forouhi, Nita G.; Riboli, Elio; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Age at menopause is an important determinant of future health outcomes, but little is known about its relationship with type 2 diabetes. We examined the associations of menopausal age and reproductive life span (menopausal age minus menarcheal age) with diabetes risk. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were obtained from the InterAct study, a prospective case-cohort study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. A total of 3,691 postmenopausal type 2 diabetic case subjects and 4,408 subcohort members were included in the analysis, with a median follow-up of 11 years. Prentice weighted Cox proportional hazards models were adjusted for age, known risk factors for diabetes, and reproductive factors, and effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, and smoking was studied. RESULTS Mean (SD) age of the subcohort was 59.2 (5.8) years. After multivariable adjustment, hazard ratios (HRs) of type 2 diabetes were 1.32 (95% CI 1.04–1.69), 1.09 (0.90–1.31), 0.97 (0.86–1.10), and 0.85 (0.70–1.03) for women with menopause at ages <40, 40–44, 45–49, and ≥55 years, respectively, relative to those with menopause at age 50–54 years. The HR per SD younger age at menopause was 1.08 (1.02–1.14). Similarly, a shorter reproductive life span was associated with a higher diabetes risk (HR per SD lower reproductive life span 1.06 [1.01–1.12]). No effect modification by BMI, waist circumference, or smoking was observed (P interaction all > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Early menopause is associated with a greater risk of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23230098

  17. Influence of age and fall type on head injuries in infants and toddlers

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nicole G.; Wood, Joanne; Margulies, Susan S.; Christian, Cindy W.

    2011-01-01

    Age-based differences in fall type and neuroanatomy in infants and toddlers may affect clinical presentations and injury patterns. Objective Our goal is to understand the influence of fall type and age on injuries to help guide clinical evaluation. Design/Setting/Participants Retrospectively, 285 children 0–48 months with accidental head injury from a fall and brain imaging between 2000–2006 were categorized by age (infant=<1 year and toddler=1–4 years) and fall type: low (≤3 ft), intermediate (>3 and <10 ft), high height falls (≥10 ft) and stair falls. Outcome Measures Clinical manifestations were noted and head injuries separated into primary (bleeding) and secondary (hypoxia, edema). The influence of age and fall type on head injuries sustained was evaluated. Results Injury patterns in children <4 yrs varied with age. Despite similar injury severity scores, infants sustained more skull fractures than toddlers (71% v. 39%). Of children with skull fractures, 11% had no evidence of scalp/facial soft tissue swelling. Of the patients with primary intracranial injury, 30% had no skull fracture and 8% had neither skull fracture nor cranial soft tissue injury. Low height falls resulted in primary intracranial injury without soft tissue or skull injury in infants (6%) and toddlers (16%). Conclusions Within a given fall type, age-related differences in injuries exist between infants and toddlers. When interpreting a fall history, clinicians must consider the fall type and influence of age on resulting injury. For young children, intracranial injury is not always accompanied by external manifestations of their injury. PMID:22079853

  18. Aging IQ Intervention with Older Korean Americans: A Comparison of Internet-Based and In-Class Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jang, Yuri; Yoon, Hyunwoo; Marti, C. Nathan; Kim, Miyong T.

    2015-01-01

    Using the translated contents of the National Institute on Aging (NIA)'s Aging IQ, an educational intervention was delivered to older Korean Americans. The educational program was delivered via two different modalities, Internet-based education (n = 12) and in-class education (n = 11), and the overall feasibility and efficacy were evaluated by the…

  19. Type-1 pericytes participate in fibrous tissue deposition in aged skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Mintz, Akiva; Delbono, Osvaldo

    2013-12-01

    In older adults, changes in skeletal muscle composition are associated with increased fibrosis, loss of mass, and decreased force, which can lead to dependency, morbidity, and mortality. Understanding the biological mechanisms responsible is essential to sustaining and improving their quality of life. Compared with young mice, aged mice take longer to recover from muscle injury; their tissue fibrosis is more extensive, and regenerated myofibers are smaller. Strong evidence indicates that cells called pericytes, embedded in the basement membrane of capillaries, contribute to the satellite-cell pool and muscle growth. In addition to their role in skeletal muscle repair, after tissue damage, they detach from capillaries and migrate to the interstitial space to participate in fibrosis formation. Here we distinguish two bona fide pericyte subtypes in the skeletal muscle interstitium, type-1 (Nestin-GFP(-)/NG2-DsRed(+)) and type-2 (Nestin-GFP(+)/NG2-DsRed(+)), and characterize their heretofore unknown specific roles in the aging environment. Our in vitro results show that type-1 and type-2 pericytes are either fibrogenic or myogenic, respectively. Transplantation studies in young animals indicate that type-2 pericytes are myogenic, while type-1 pericytes remain in the interstitial space. In older mice, however, the muscular regenerative capacity of type-2 pericytes is limited, and type-1 pericytes produce collagen, contributing to fibrous tissue deposition. We conclude that in injured muscles from aging mice, the pericytes involved in skeletal muscle repair differ from those associated with scar formation.

  20. Type-1 pericytes participate in fibrous tissue deposition in aged skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Birbrair, Alexander; Zhang, Tan; Wang, Zhong-Min; Messi, Maria Laura; Mintz, Akiva

    2013-01-01

    In older adults, changes in skeletal muscle composition are associated with increased fibrosis, loss of mass, and decreased force, which can lead to dependency, morbidity, and mortality. Understanding the biological mechanisms responsible is essential to sustaining and improving their quality of life. Compared with young mice, aged mice take longer to recover from muscle injury; their tissue fibrosis is more extensive, and regenerated myofibers are smaller. Strong evidence indicates that cells called pericytes, embedded in the basement membrane of capillaries, contribute to the satellite-cell pool and muscle growth. In addition to their role in skeletal muscle repair, after tissue damage, they detach from capillaries and migrate to the interstitial space to participate in fibrosis formation. Here we distinguish two bona fide pericyte subtypes in the skeletal muscle interstitium, type-1 (Nestin-GFP−/NG2-DsRed+) and type-2 (Nestin-GFP+/NG2-DsRed+), and characterize their heretofore unknown specific roles in the aging environment. Our in vitro results show that type-1 and type-2 pericytes are either fibrogenic or myogenic, respectively. Transplantation studies in young animals indicate that type-2 pericytes are myogenic, while type-1 pericytes remain in the interstitial space. In older mice, however, the muscular regenerative capacity of type-2 pericytes is limited, and type-1 pericytes produce collagen, contributing to fibrous tissue deposition. We conclude that in injured muscles from aging mice, the pericytes involved in skeletal muscle repair differ from those associated with scar formation. PMID:24067916

  1. Experiences in the Bilingual Education of a Child of Pre-School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zierer, Ernesto

    1977-01-01

    This article reports on experiences in the bilingual education, psychologically and pedagogically planned, of a child who died of brain cancer at age 5. Conclusions are drawn regarding order and method of language learning. (CHK)

  2. Age, education and dementia related deaths. The Norwegian Counties Study and The Cohort of Norway.

    PubMed

    Strand, Bjørn Heine; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Rosness, Tor A; Bergem, Astrid Liv Mina; Engedal, Knut; Nafstad, Per; Tell, Grethe S; Ormstad, Heidi; Tambs, Kristian; Bjertness, Espen

    2014-10-15

    An inverse relationship between educational level and dementia has been reported in several studies. In this study we investigated the relationship between educational level and dementia related deaths for cohorts of people all born during 1915-39. The cohorts were followed up from adulthood or old age, taking into account possible confounders and mediating paths. Our study population comprised participants in Norwegian health examination studies in the period 1974-2002; The Counties Study and Cohort of Norway (CONOR). Dementia related deaths were defined as deaths with a dementia diagnosis on the death certificate and linked using the Cause of Death Registry to year 2012. The study included 90,843 participants, 2.06 million person years and 2440 dementia related deaths. Cox regression was used to assess the association between education and dementia related deaths. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with lower dementia related death risk compared to those with low education when follow-up started in adulthood (35-49 years, high versus low education: HR=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.93; 50-69 years, high versus low education: HR=0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.80). However, when follow-up started at old age (70-80 years) there was no significant association between education and dementia related death. Restricting the study population to those born during a five-year period 1925-29 (the birth cohort overlapping all three age groups), gave similar main findings. The protective effects found for both high and middle educational level compared to low education were robust to adjustment for cardiovascular health and life style factors, suggesting education to be a protective factor for dementia related death. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with decreased dementia related death risk compared with low educational level when follow-up started in adulthood, but no association was observed when follow-up started at old age.

  3. A Narrative Study of the Experiences that Impact Educational Choices of Middle-Aged Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Shireese Redmond

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to answer the research questions of how middle-aged women perceive higher education and why they do or do not pursue a higher level of education. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2009 American Community Survey microdata, more than half of the women between the ages of 30-50 years in one Midwestern US…

  4. Aging research and education centers in the United States: a compendium.

    PubMed

    Steinecke, A; Ciok, A E

    1997-10-01

    U.S. centers and institutes for research and education devoted to aging are listed. These lists can serve as a starting point for building a more comprehensive reference resource. The first list, U.S. Aging Centers and Institutes, is a general guide to centers or institutes that combine research and education. Subsequent lists are of centers that share missions and funding sources: Geriatric Research, Education and Clinical Centers (GRECCs); Exploratory Centers for Research on Health Promotion in Older Minority Populations; Centers on the Demography of Aging (CDAs); Alzheimer's Disease Centers (ADCs); Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Centers (OAICs); Nathan Shock Centers of Excellence in Basic Biology of Aging; and Roybal Centers for Research on Applied Gerontology. It is hoped that those who work in geriatrics and gerontology in academic medicine will develop a comprehensive system for collecting, updating, and disseminating complete information about the work being done on aging.

  5. Anti-aging and anti-microbial effects of melleolide on various types of yeast.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Shigeru; Kobori, Hajime; Sekiya, Atsushi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Ushimaru, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    The chronological lifespan (CLS) of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a model for the aging of post-mitotic cells in higher eukaryotes. In this study, we found that the sesquiterpene aryl ester melleolide expands the CLS of budding yeast. In contrast, melleolide compromised the CLS of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This indicates that melleolide might have a potential anti-aging activity against some types of cell, and that it might be useful as a selective anti-fungal drug.

  6. Surface L-type Ca2+ channel expression levels are increased in aged hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Núñez-Santana, Félix Luis; Oh, Myongsoo Matthew; Antion, Marcia Diana; Lee, Amy; Hell, Johannes Wilhelm; Disterhoft, John Francis

    2014-01-01

    Age-related increase in L-type Ca2+ channel (LTCC) expression in hippocampal pyramidal neurons has been hypothesized to underlie the increased Ca2+ influx and subsequent reduced intrinsic neuronal excitability of these neurons that lead to age-related cognitive deficits. Here, using specific antibodies against Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 subunits of LTCCs, we systematically re-examined the expression of these proteins in the hippocampus from young (3 to 4 month old) and aged (30 to 32 month old) F344xBN rats. Western blot analysis of the total expression levels revealed significant reductions in both Cav1.2 and Cav1.3 subunits from all three major hippocampal regions of aged rats. Despite the decreases in total expression levels, surface biotinylation experiments revealed significantly higher proportion of expression on the plasma membrane of Cav1.2 in the CA1 and CA3 regions and of Cav1.3 in the CA3 region from aged rats. Furthermore, the surface biotinylation results were supported by immunohistochemical analysis that revealed significant increases in Cav1.2 immunoreactivity in the CA1 and CA3 regions of aged hippocampal pyramidal neurons. In addition, we found a significant increase in the level of phosphorylated Cav1.2 on the plasma membrane in the dentate gyrus of aged rats. Taken together, our present findings strongly suggest that age-related cognitive deficits cannot be attributed to a global change in L-type channel expression nor to the level of phosphorylation of Cav1.2 on the plasma membrane of hippocampal neurons. Rather, increased expression and density of LTCCs on the plasma membrane may underlie the age-related increase in L-type Ca2+ channel activity in CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:24033980

  7. Envisaging New Educational Provision: Innovative Organisation in the Age of New Modernism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoten, David William

    2011-01-01

    In the "age of austerity", educational institutions in many countries are under pressure from a variety of sources to work more closely, reduce costs and raise educational performance. There are a number of possible outcomes that follow on from developing closer institutional ties: sharing of professional expertise through best practice…

  8. Ethics and Retail Management Professionals: An Examination of Age, Education, and Experience Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.; Cavico, Frank J.; McCartney, Timothy O.; DiPaolo, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical maturity and behavior are of great concern to all educators, firms, and investors, and even more so in a recession. This research surveyed managers and employees in the retail environment to measure their Personal Business Ethics Scores (PBES) to see if age, education, and management experience makes a difference in making more ethical…

  9. Education and Vocationalism in the Age of the "Death of Work."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquett, Jerry

    1997-01-01

    Publicly supported education will change dramatically in the postmarket age. Rapid disappearance of mass employment and economic marginalization undermines both rationales for public mass education: economic utility and cultural/intellectual development. The technological elite and unemployed will find the common-school ideal irrelevant. Instead…

  10. Effective Game Based Citizenship Education in the Age of New Media

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chee, Yam San; Mehrotra, Swati; Liu, Qiang

    2013-01-01

    Educational systems worldwide are being challenged to respond effectively to the digital revolution and its implications for learning in the 21st century. In the present new media age, educational reforms are desperately needed to support more open and flexible structures of on-demand learning that equip students with competencies required in a…

  11. Warming the nursing education climate for traditional-age learners who are male.

    PubMed

    Bell-Scriber, Marietta J

    2008-01-01

    For nurse educators to facilitate student learning and the achievement of desired cognitive, affective, and psychomotor outcomes, they need to be competent in recognizing the influence of gender, experience, and other factors on teaching and learning. A study was conducted in one academic institution to describe how traditional-age male learners' perceptions of the nursing education climate compare to perceptions of female learners. Interviews were conducted with a sample of four male and four female learners. Additional data from interviews with nurse educators, classroom observations, and a review of textbooks provided breadth and depth to their perceptions. Findings support a nursing education climate that is cooler to traditional-age male learners and warmer to traditional-age female learners. The main cooling factor for men was caused by nurse educators' characteristics and unsupportive behaviors. Additional factors inside and outside the education environment contributed to a cooler climate for the male learners. Based on these findings, strategies for nurse educators to warm the education climate for traditional-age male learners are presented.

  12. Innovations in Student-Centered Interdisciplinary Teaching for General Education in Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Effros, Rita

    2008-01-01

    The University of California-Los Angeles (UCLA) General Education "Clusters" are innovations in student-centered undergraduate education focused on complex phenomena that require an interdisciplinary perspective. UCLA gerontology and geriatric faculty recognized the opportunity to introduce freshmen to the field of aging through this new…

  13. Solid Foundations: Health and Education Partnership for Indigenous Children Aged 0 to 8 Years. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years…

  14. Effects of age and school type on unconstrained, phonemic, and semantic verbal fluency in children.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Geise Machado; Prando, Mirella Liberatore; Moraes, André Luiz; Pureza, Janice da Rosa; Gonçalves, Hosana Alves; Siqueira, Larissa de Souza; Joanette, Yves; Fonseca, Rochele Paz

    2017-01-01

    Biological and cultural factors have been found to have a significant influence on cognitive development and performance in neuropsychological instruments such as verbal fluency tasks (VFT). Variations of traditional VFT, involving unconstrained word production and increased retrieval times, may provide further data regarding the executive, attentional, mnemonic, and linguistic abilities involved in VFT. As such, the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of age and school type on the performance of 6- to 12-year-old children in unconstrained, phonemic, and semantic VFT. The VFT were administered to 460 participants. The effects of age and school type on verbal fluency (VF) performance were analyzed using a two-way analysis of variance, followed by Bonferroni post-hoc tests (p ≤ .05). A repeated-measures analysis was also used to evaluate VF performance over time (p ≤ .05). Main effects of age and school type were identified on all measures (effect sizes ranged from .05 to .32, p ≤ .05). VF scores increased with age and were higher among private school students. The influence of age on VFT may be associated with the development of executive functions. The impact of type of school on VF performance may be explained by the greater availability of cognitive stimulation (semantic knowledge) provided by private schools and families with better socioeconomic levels.

  15. Biochemical typing of pathological prion protein in aging cattle with BSE

    PubMed Central

    Tester, Seraina; Juillerat, Valerie; Doherr, Marcus G; Haase, Bianca; Polak, Miroslaw; Ehrensperger, Felix; Leeb, Tosso; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Seuberlich, Torsten

    2009-01-01

    Background The broad enforcement of active surveillance for bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in 2000 led to the discovery of previously unnoticed, atypical BSE phenotypes in aged cattle that differed from classical BSE (C-type) in biochemical properties of the pathological prion protein. Depending on the molecular mass and the degree of glycosylation of its proteinase K resistant core fragment (PrPres), mainly determined in samples derived from the medulla oblongata, these atypical cases are currently classified into low (L)-type or high (H)-type BSE. In the present study we address the question to what extent such atypical BSE cases are part of the BSE epidemic in Switzerland. Results To this end we analyzed the biochemical PrPres type by Western blot in a total of 33 BSE cases in cattle with a minimum age of eight years, targeting up to ten different brain regions. Our work confirmed H-type BSE in a zebu but classified all other cases as C-type BSE; indicating a very low incidence of H- and L-type BSE in Switzerland. It was documented for the first time that the biochemical PrPres type was consistent across different brain regions of aging animals with C-type and H-type BSE, i.e. independent of the neuroanatomical structure investigated. Conclusion Taken together this study provides further characteristics of the BSE epidemic in Switzerland and generates new baseline data for the definition of C- and H-type BSE phenotypes, thereby underpinning the notion that they indeed represent distinct prion disease entities. PMID:19470160

  16. IUE observations of the chromospheric activity-age relation in young solar-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T.; Boesgaard, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    Ultraviolet data obtained with the IUE spacecraft are presented for a dozen solar-type stars in the field. The stars are of spectral type F6 V - G1 V; on the basis of their high Li content, they range in age from 0.1 to 2.8 Gyr. The evolution of transition regions and chromospheric emission with stellar age is studied along with the surface distribution of magnetically active regions as revealed by rotational modulation of UV emission line fluxes.

  17. Environmental and individual correlates of various types of physical activity among community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

    PubMed

    Saito, Yoshinobu; Oguma, Yuko; Inoue, Shigeru; Tanaka, Ayumi; Kobori, Yoshitaka

    2013-05-17

    Recent studies have suggested the importance of the neighborhood environment in determining the specific type of physical activity. However, few studies on this topic have been undertaken in Japan. This study examined the association of three types of physical activity and their associations with individual and neighborhood environmental factors among middle-aged and elderly Japanese. Participants were 2,449 adults aged 40-69 living in Fujisawa city who had undergone health checkups and responded to our survey by mail. Individual factors, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (long form), and its environmental module acted as inputs to the study. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of high levels of moderate-to-vigorous intensity leisure-time physical activity (LTPA), walking for active recreation, and transportation were calculated in relation to individual and neighborhood environmental factors through multiple logistic regression models. Not working and good self-rated health were significantly associated with a higher level of each physical activity outcome. According to the adjusted ORs, higher educational attainment, higher economic status, good access to exercise facilities, and owning motor vehicles were associated with longer LTPA time. However, different sets of factors were associated with longer walking times for recreation and transportation. The results suggest that diverse individual and neighborhood environmental characteristics are associated with different physical activity outcomes. Therefore, customizing environments to become activity-friendly is necessary to increase physical activity effectively among middle-aged and elderly Japanese.

  18. The Digital Age: Five Challenges for Higher Education Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spanier, Graham B.

    2000-01-01

    The president of Pennsylvania State University (PSU) identifies five areas of technology that institutions of higher education must address: connectivity, curriculum, cost, competition, and collaboration. Examples are from PSU, with additional comments from the presidents of the University of Michigan, New York University, Northern University…

  19. Inventing the Educational Subject in the "Information Age"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bojesen, Emile

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks the question of how we can situate the educational subject in what Luciano Floridi has defined as an "informational ontology" (Floridi in "The philosophy of information." Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2011a). It will suggest that Jacques Derrida and Bernard Stiegler offer paths toward rethinking the…

  20. Social Work Education and Direct Practice in the Computer Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cnaan, Ram A.

    1989-01-01

    Educators must prepare social work students to use computers in practice, develop practice-relevant software, and protect and empower those who might be victimized by information technology. Issues and tasks associated with each of these areas are discussed. (Author/MSE)

  1. User Education in the Online Age. IATUL Proceedings, Vol. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fjallbrant, Nancy, Ed.

    1982-01-01

    Papers presented at an August 1982 international seminar on online user education include "The Impact of New Technology on Libraries and Their Users," Brian C. Vickery (United Kingdom); "The Role of NORDINFO in Promoting Online Activity: NORDINFO-Origins and Control," Theodora Oker-Blom (Finland); "Librarians and the New…

  2. At Age 100, Chemical Engineering Education Faces Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krieger, James

    1988-01-01

    Stresses the need for chemical engineering education to keep abreast of current needs. Explores the need for global economics, marketing strategy, product differentiation, and patent law in the curriculum. Questions the abilities of current chemical engineering graduate students in those areas. (MVL)

  3. Age, Social Structure, and Socialization in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Talcott; Platt, Gerald M.

    1970-01-01

    Socialization of affective and moral components of the personality is usually conceived of as completed by the end of adolescence. In contrast, this paper analyzes certain aspects of undergraduate college education which constitute a new level of socialization; although to a degree previously extant, it never before involved such a mass population…

  4. Legal Education in the Age of Accountability. The President's Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jerre S.

    In a speech to the House of Representatives, the president of the Association of American Law Schools describes the intrusions upon faculty governance of law schools by deans, university administrators, lawyer alumni, law students, and the judiciary. It is suggested that law schools have never been better, yet legal education has never been under…

  5. Assessment, Technology and Democratic Education in the Age of Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrotta, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This paper contends that powerful techniques to manipulate data, enabled by technological and economic developments, can be easily co-opted to serve the restrictive frameworks of hyper-controlling, managerial accountability that characterise current cultures of summative assessment in education. In response to these challenges, research is…

  6. Political Education: National Policy Comes of Age. The Updated Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, Christopher T.

    2010-01-01

    Political insider Christopher Cross has updated his critically acclaimed book to reflect recent education policy developments, including the impact of the Obama administration and "Race to the Top" as well as the controversy over NCLB's reauthorization. Featuring a new introduction and the addition of postscripts for key chapters, this…

  7. Correctional Education: Methods and Practices in the Computer Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, Ralph

    It is suggested that correctional educational programs for adults must be designed in such a manner as to rehabilitate the many who are presently incarcerated and prevent many potential perpetrators from ever engaging in crime. The continually increasing problem of overcrowding in prisons throughout the country has made the need for relevant and…

  8. Education in an Age of Social Turbulence (A Roundtable)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russian Education and Society, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The latest scheduled Sorokin Readings on "Global Social Turbulence and Russia," a topic whose relevance has been confirmed by events of the past 10 years, were held on 6-7 December at Moscow State University. One key factor that keeps such turbulence in check is the education level as a factor of a high standard of living. The array of…

  9. Educational Assessment: Tests and Measurements in the Age of Accountability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Grounded in the real world of public schools and students, this engaging, insightful, and highly readable text introduces the inner-workings of K-12 educational assessment. It covers traditional topics in an approachable and understandable way; analyzes and interprets "hot-button" issues of today's complex measurement concerns; relates…

  10. A Golden Age for Adult Education: The Collective Disorienting Dilemma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The continuing challenge of engaging adult learners in the process of positive social change has summoned adult educators to a new understanding of their role as change agents in an increasingly complex world. Despite all obstacles presented by our contemporary culture, the nature of adult development continues to offer opportunities for adult…

  11. Creativity and Education Futures: Learning in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Anna

    2010-01-01

    What is the future of education when the possibilities that exist for children change and advance so rapidly and are so uncertain? Where learning occurs as naturally in a Web 2.0 environment as in the playground, playing field, front room or street? Where adults may still be playing and experimenting far beyond their childhood in ways we could…

  12. Is Our Aging Population a Threat to Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francese, Peter

    2014-01-01

    A great many New England institutions of higher education are about to find out if demography will determine their fate because unprecedented and substantial population change is sweeping across the region. With fewer than 15 million year-round residents, it is the nation's smallest and one of the slowest-growing of the nine census divisions. This…

  13. University Unbound! Higher Education in the Age of "Free"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harney, John O.

    2012-01-01

    Innovators and entrepreneurs are using technologies to make freely available the things for which universities charge significant money. MOOCs (massive open online courses), free online courses, lecture podcasts, low-cost off-the-shelf general education courses, online tutorials, digital collections of open learning resources, open badges--all are…

  14. Day School Israel Education in the Age of Birthright

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomson, Alex; Deitcher, Howard

    2010-01-01

    What are North American Jewish day schools doing when they engage in Israel education, what shapes their practices, and to what ends? In this article, we report on a multi-method study inspired by these questions. Our account is organized around an analytical model that helps distinguish between what we call the vehicles, intensifiers, and…

  15. Social Foundations of Education for the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Leonard J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, Leonard J. Waks re-imagines the social foundations of education (SFE) as a project within the information society. He begins with what he believes to be a reasonably non-controversial definition: SFE is a field of scholarship and teaching aiming to provide a comprehensive understanding, through description, interpretation, and…

  16. The Victorian Age: A Teacher's Guide. Heritage Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Buren, Maurie

    This teaching guide accompanies a videocassette for teaching about the Victorian Era in the United States through the study of homes from that period. The teaching unit can be adopted for students in grades 4 through 12 and can also be used in college classes and in adult education. Skills are identified to help students interpret their physical…

  17. Catholic Theological Education in a Religiously Pluralistic Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefebure, Leo D.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the transformation of Catholic theological education over the last fifty years from a highly defensive posture vis-a-vis other religions toward dialogical engagement with members of other religions and all persons of good will. Until Vatican II, most Catholic theologians and officials distrusted exploration of other…

  18. Predicting Absolute Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Using Age and Waist Circumference Values in an Aboriginal Australian Community

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To predict in an Australian Aboriginal community, the 10-year absolute risk of type 2 diabetes associated with waist circumference and age on baseline examination. Method A sample of 803 diabetes-free adults (82.3% of the age-eligible population) from baseline data of participants collected from 1992 to 1998 were followed-up for up to 20 years till 2012. The Cox-proportional hazard model was used to estimate the effects of waist circumference and other risk factors, including age, smoking and alcohol consumption status, of males and females on prediction of type 2 diabetes, identified through subsequent hospitalisation data during the follow-up period. The Weibull regression model was used to calculate the absolute risk estimates of type 2 diabetes with waist circumference and age as predictors. Results Of 803 participants, 110 were recorded as having developed type 2 diabetes, in subsequent hospitalizations over a follow-up of 12633.4 person-years. Waist circumference was strongly associated with subsequent diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with P<0.0001 for both genders and remained statistically significant after adjusting for confounding factors. Hazard ratios of type 2 diabetes associated with 1 standard deviation increase in waist circumference were 1.7 (95%CI 1.3 to 2.2) for males and 2.1 (95%CI 1.7 to 2.6) for females. At 45 years of age with baseline waist circumference of 100 cm, a male had an absolute diabetic risk of 10.9%, while a female had a 14.3% risk of the disease. Conclusions The constructed model predicts the 10-year absolute diabetes risk in an Aboriginal Australian community. It is simple and easily understood and will help identify individuals at risk of diabetes in relation to waist circumference values. Our findings on the relationship between waist circumference and diabetes on gender will be useful for clinical consultation, public health education and establishing WC cut-off points for Aboriginal Australians. PMID:25876058

  19. Different influences of field aging on nickel toxicity to Folsomia candida in two types of soil.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Rong; Li, Jing; He, Ji-Zheng; Ma, Yi-Bing; Zheng, Yuan-Ming

    2015-06-01

    Metal aging in soils has been considered an important factor influencing its availability and toxicity to organisms. In this study, we report the influence of 5 years field aging on the nickel (Ni) toxicity to collembolan Folsomia candida based on two different types of soil from Dezhou (DZ) and Qiyang (QY) counties in China. Acute and chronic toxicity of Ni to F. candida was assessed in both freshly spiked and field aging contaminated soils. We found that 5 years field aging increased the EC50 and 2d-LC50 values of Ni to F. candida in the DZ soil, while little influence on the Ni toxicity was observed in the QY soil. There was no adverse effect of the long-term field aging on the Ni toxicity to the survival of F. candida in the two tested soils. In addition, field aging of the two soils impacted differently the water-soluble Ni concentrations, which were significantly correlated to the juvenile production of F. candida based on a logistic model. Our study highlights different effects of long-term field aging on the Ni toxicity to F. candida between divergent types of soil, and this should be taken into account in future toxicity testing and risk assessment practices.

  20. Relationship of Age and Education to Halstead Test Performance in Different Patient Populations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prigatano, George P.; Parsons, Oscar A.

    1976-01-01

    The effects of age and education on Halstead test performance were examined in this cross-validation of the Vega and Parsons study. Differences between correlation in psychiatric patients and medical-surgical control subjects are discussed, as is the importance of age, and differences in reference groups when making clinical inferences about brain…

  1. My Entirely Plausible Fantasy: Early Mathematics Education in the Age of the Touchscreen Computer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper offers an account of what early mathematics education could look like in an age of young digital natives. Each "Tubby," as the tablets are called, presents Nicole (our generic little child) with stimulating mathematics microworlds, from which, beginning at age 3, she can learn basic math concepts, as well as methods of…

  2. Middle Age: A Review of the Literature and Its Implications for Educational Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merriam, Sharan

    1978-01-01

    Reviews the research and theory related to middle age. The literature survey is divided into three parts: (1) When is middle aged?; (2) What are its psychosocial dynamics?; and (3) Is there a mid-life crisis? Suggests implications for educational practice. (Author/CSS)

  3. Ages, chemistry, and type 1A supernovae: Clues to the formation of the galactic stellar halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smecker-Hane, Tammy A.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1993-01-01

    We endeavor to resolve two conflicting constraints on the duration of the formation of the Galactic stellar halo - 2-3 Gyr age differences in halo stars, and the time scale inferred from the observed constant values of chemical element abundance ratios characteristic of enrichment by Type II supernovae - by investigating the time scale for the onset of Type Ia supernovae (SNIa) in the currently favored progenitor model - mergers of carbon and oxygen white dwarfs (CO WDs).

  4. Assessment of Oro-Maxillofacial Trauma According to Gender, Age, Cause and Type of the Injury

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Marko; Sikora, Miroslav; Leović, Dinko; Mumlek, Ivan; Macan, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The occurrence and causes of maxillofacial trauma varies in different regions of the world. The aim of this study was to identify the occurrence, types and causes of maxillofacial injuries according to the age and gender differences in patients treated at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Center Osijek, between January 2011 and December 2013. Materials and methods A total of 64 patients, 41 males (64.1%) and 23 females (35.9%), aged from 18 to 86 years (mean age 42) participated in the study. Data collected and analyzed included gender, age, cause of injury and the type of maxillofacial injuries. Results The most common cause of injuries in both gender groups was falling down (39% males; 65% females). The second leading cause of injuries in males was interpersonal violence (29%) and in females traffic accident (26%) (p<0.05). The most common type of injury in both gender groups was bone injury (50%; in males zygomatic bones 55%, in females mandible 40%) (p>0.05). The most common causes of injuries in the youngest patients was violence (43%), and in others fall (50-70%; p<0.05). The most common reported type of injury in all age groups was bone injury (more than 50%; p>0.05). The majority of the falls and violence caused bone tissue injuries, and soft tissue and dentalveolar injuries were detected in traffic and sports accidents (p>0.05). Conclusion Falling down was the most common cause of oro-maxillofacial injuries in both men and women and in all three age groups. The leading type of injury was bone injury. The data obtained from this study provide important information for future prevention from injuries. PMID:27688419

  5. 34 CFR 300.712 - Payments for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Payments for education and services for Indian children..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Authorization... for education and services for Indian children with disabilities aged three through five. (a)...

  6. Expanding the Educational Horizons of Undergraduates through Cognitive Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laver, Gary D.

    2006-01-01

    Involving undergraduate students in cognitive aging research requires extra efforts not associated with graduate assistants. However, if the researcher acknowledges the limited experience of undergraduates in structuring their participation, the rewards are copious for the students and researcher alike. This paper describes undergraduate student…

  7. School-Aged Victims of Sexual Abuse: Implications for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wishon, Phillip M.

    Each year in the United States, thousands of school-aged children become involved in sexual activities arranged by adults for purposes of pleasure and profit. Nationwide, annual profits from the child pornography industry and from female and male child prostitution are in the tens of millions of dollars. Heretofore, the majority of…

  8. The Jesuit Imaginary: Higher Education in a Secular Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Daniel Scott

    2012-01-01

    The philosopher Charles Taylor argues in "A Secular Age" (2007) that people who live in secular cultures are losing the capacity to experience genuine "fullness." Described by Taylor as a philosophical-anthropological conception of human flourishing that corresponds with existential senses of meaning and purpose, fullness is…

  9. The Education of People of the "Third Age"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gergokova, Zh. Kh.

    2009-01-01

    It was acknowledged by the Second United Nations World Assembly on Aging that this process is a global social and demographic reality that has had its impact on the entire world in all aspects of its existence--the traditional national, financial economic, political, and moral-ethical aspects. At the present time every state is confronted by the…

  10. Aging Education in Elementary School Textbooks in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chin-Shan

    2011-01-01

    With the advent of an aging society, the older population is gradually increasing and people are living longer than ever before. However, older people are often portrayed in school textbooks as insignificant, unhealthy, sad, passive, and dependent. That is, ageism emerges in school textbooks in subtle ways. Under this circumstance, children may…

  11. Trends in the age at reproductive transitions in the developing world: The role of education.

    PubMed

    Bongaarts, John; Mensch, Barbara S; Blanc, Ann K

    2017-04-11

    Girls' school participation has expanded considerably in the developing world over the last few decades, a phenomenon expected to have substantial consequences for reproductive behaviour. Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 43 countries, this paper examines trends and differentials in the mean ages at three critical life-cycle events for young women: first sexual intercourse, first marriage, and first birth. We measure the extent to which trends in the timing of these events are driven either by the changing educational composition of populations or by changes in behaviour within education groups. Mean ages have risen over time in all regions for all three events, except age at first sex in Latin America and the Caribbean. Results from a decomposition exercise indicate that increases in educational attainment, rather than trends within education groups, are primarily responsible for the overall trends. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed.

  12. Relationship between Brain Age-Related Reduction in Gray Matter and Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Rzezak, Patricia; Squarzoni, Paula; Duran, Fabio L; de Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tania; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline; Bottino, Cassio M; Ribeiz, Salma; Lotufo, Paulo A; Menezes, Paulo R; Scazufca, Marcia; Busatto, Geraldo F

    2015-01-01

    Inter-subject variability in age-related brain changes may relate to educational attainment, as suggested by cognitive reserve theories. This voxel-based morphometry study investigated the impact of very low educational level on the relationship between regional gray matter (rGM) volumes and age in healthy elders. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in elders with low educational attainment (less than 4 years) (n = 122) and high educational level (n = 66), pulling together individuals examined using either of three MRI scanners/acquisition protocols. Voxelwise group comparisons showed no rGM differences (p<0.05, family-wise error corrected for multiple comparisons). When within-group voxelwise patterns of linear correlation were compared between high and low education groups, there was one cluster of greater rGM loss with aging in low versus high education elders in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected), as well as a trend in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (p<0.10). These results provide preliminary indication that education might exert subtle protective effects against age-related brain changes in healthy subjects. The anterior cingulate cortex, critical to inhibitory control processes, may be particularly sensitive to such effects, possibly given its involvement in cognitive stimulating activities at school or later throughout life.

  13. Relationship between Brain Age-Related Reduction in Gray Matter and Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Rzezak, Patricia; Squarzoni, Paula; Duran, Fabio L.; de Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tania; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline; Bottino, Cassio M.; Ribeiz, Salma; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Menezes, Paulo R.; Scazufca, Marcia; Busatto, Geraldo F.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-subject variability in age-related brain changes may relate to educational attainment, as suggested by cognitive reserve theories. This voxel-based morphometry study investigated the impact of very low educational level on the relationship between regional gray matter (rGM) volumes and age in healthy elders. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in elders with low educational attainment (less than 4 years) (n = 122) and high educational level (n = 66), pulling together individuals examined using either of three MRI scanners/acquisition protocols. Voxelwise group comparisons showed no rGM differences (p<0.05, family-wise error corrected for multiple comparisons). When within-group voxelwise patterns of linear correlation were compared between high and low education groups, there was one cluster of greater rGM loss with aging in low versus high education elders in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected), as well as a trend in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (p<0.10). These results provide preliminary indication that education might exert subtle protective effects against age-related brain changes in healthy subjects. The anterior cingulate cortex, critical to inhibitory control processes, may be particularly sensitive to such effects, possibly given its involvement in cognitive stimulating activities at school or later throughout life. PMID:26474472

  14. Long-term aging of type 308 stainless steel welds: Effects on properties and microstructure

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, D.J.; Vitek, J.M.; David, S.A.

    1994-09-01

    Multipass gas tungsten arc welds with type 308 stainless steel filler metal in type 304L base plate have been aged at 400, 475, or 550{degrees}C for times up to 5,000 h. The changes in mechanical properties as a result of these agings have been followed with tensile, impact, and fracture toughness testing, using subsize tensile, half-size Charpy, and 0.45T compact specimens, respectively. The changes in the microstructure were evaluated with optical and transmission electron microscopy. Relatively little change was observed in the tensile properties for any of the aging treatments, but significant embrittlement was observed in the impact and fracture toughness testing. The transition temperatures increased rapidly for aging at 475 or 550{degrees}C, and more slowly for aging at 400{degrees}C. The upper-shelf energies and the fracture toughness showed similar responses, with only a small decrease for 400{degrees}C aging, but much greater and rapid decreases with aging at 475 or 550{degrees}C. Aging at 400 or 475{degrees}C resulted in the spinodal decomposition of the ferrite phase in the weld metal into iron-rich alpha and chromium-enriched alpha prime. In addition, at 475{degrees}C G-phase precipitates formed homogeneously in the ferrite and also at dislocations. At 550{degrees}C carbides formed and grew at the ferrite-austenite interfaces, and some ferrite transformed to sigma phase. These changes must all be considered in determining the effect of aging on the fracture properties.

  15. Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the victoria longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-11-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging.

  16. Classroom Quality in Infant and Toddler Classrooms: Impact of Age and Programme Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth K.; Pierro, Rebekah C.; Li, Jiayao; Porterfield, Mary Lee; Rucker, Lia

    2016-01-01

    This study examined differences in classroom quality, assessed by the Infant/Toddler Environment Rating Scale-Revised (ITERS-R), in 287 infant and 479 toddler classrooms. Classroom quality was compared across classroom age group (infant compared to toddler classrooms) as well as across programme type (for-profit compared to not-for-profit…

  17. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  18. Age-associated repression of type 1 inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate receptor impairs muscle regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bora; Lee, Seung-Min; Bahn, Young Jae; Lee, Kwang-Pyo; Kang, Moonkyung; Kim, Yeon-Soo; Woo, Sun-Hee; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Eunhee; Kwon, Ki-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle mass and power decrease with age, leading to impairment of mobility and metabolism in the elderly. Ca2+ signaling is crucial for myoblast differentiation as well as muscle contraction through activation of transcription factors and Ca2+-dependent kinases and phosphatases. Ca2+ channels, such as dihydropyridine receptor (DHPR), two-pore channel (TPC) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (ITPR), function to maintain Ca2+ homeostasis in myoblasts. Here, we observed a significant decrease in expression of type 1 IP3 receptor (ITPR1), but not types 2 and 3, in aged mice skeletal muscle and isolated myoblasts, compared with those of young mice. ITPR1 knockdown using shRNA-expressing viruses in C2C12 myoblasts and tibialis anterior muscle of mice inhibited myotube formation and muscle regeneration after injury, respectively, a typical phenotype of aged muscle. This aging phenotype was associated with repression of muscle-specific genes and activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-Ras-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. ERK inhibition by U0126 not only induced recovery of myotube formation in old myoblasts but also facilitated muscle regeneration after injury in aged muscle. The conserved decline in ITPR1 expression in aged human skeletal muscle suggests utility as a potential therapeutic target for sarcopenia, which can be treated using ERK inhibition strategies. PMID:27658230

  19. Cardiovascular disease and type 1 diabetes: prevalence, prediction and management in an ageing population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Siang Ing; Patel, Mitesh; Jones, Christopher M.; Narendran, Parth

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D). However, evidence of its risks and management is often extrapolated from studies in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients or the general population. This approach is unsatisfactory given that the underlying pathology, demographics and natural history of the disease differ between T1D and T2D. Furthermore, with a rising life expectancy, a greater number of T1D patients are exposed to the cardiovascular (CV) risk factors associated with an ageing population. The aim of this review is to examine the existing literature around CVD in T1D. We pay particular attention to CVD prevalence, how well we manage risk, potential biomarkers, and whether the studies included the older aged patients (defined as aged over 65). We also discuss approaches to the management of CV risk in the older aged. The available data suggest a significant CVD burden in patients with T1D and poor management of CV risk factors. This is underpinned by a poor evidence base for therapeutic management of CV risk specifically for patients with T1D, and in the most relevant population – the older aged patients. We would suggest that important areas remain to be addressed, particularly exploring the risks and benefits of therapeutic approaches to CVD management in the older aged. PMID:26568811

  20. Black and white differences in the effect of women's educational attainment on age at first marriage.

    PubMed

    Dobson, C D; Houseknecht, S K

    1998-03-01

    "This study uses data from the June 1992 Current Population Survey to examine the effect of educational attainment on age at first marriage among Black and White women in the United States. The results both support and modify claims stemming from previous research. There is evidence for the contention that educational attainment delays age at first marriage for Black and White women. The greater impact of educational attainment on delaying marriage for White women in confirmed. An important discovery stems from using degree attained rather than years of education and our distinguishing four levels of education beyond high school. At less than a bachelor's degree, Black women marry later than White women, but among those with a bachelor's degree or higher, Black women who marry do so earlier than White women."

  1. Trajectories of Marijuana Use in Youth Ages 15–25: Implications for Postsecondary Education Experiences

    PubMed Central

    HOMEL, JACQUELINE; THOMPSON, KARA; LEADBEATER, BONNIE

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined associations between longitudinal trajectories of marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood and postsecondary education (PSE) experiences. Outcomes examined included the type of PSE undertaken, the timing of enrollment, and the likelihood of dropping out. Method Participants (N = 632; 332 females) were from the Victoria Healthy Youth Survey, a five-wave multicohort study of young people interviewed biennially between 2003 and 2011. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of the frequency of marijuana use from ages 15 to 25. Logistic regression analyses evaluated class membership as a predictor of the three PSE outcomes, with sex, maternal education, family structure, high school grades, and conduct problems controlled for. Results Three trajectory groups of marijuana use were identified: abstainers (31%), occasional users (44%), and frequent users (25%). Compared with abstainers, frequent users had the lowest high school grades and the most conduct problems and were least likely to enroll in PSE, especially in a university. Occasional users did not differ from abstainers on high school grades or conduct problems and were no less likely than abstainers to enroll in PSE. However, they delayed enrollment longer and were more likely to drop out of PSE. Conclusions Frequent marijuana use from adolescence to young adulthood may close off opportunities for entering PSE, whereas occasional use may create delays in starting and finishing PSE among less at-risk young people. The mechanisms underlying associations between marijuana use and educational difficulties during emerging adulthood as well as adolescence need to be better understood. PMID:24988266

  2. Age, sex, education, religion, and perception of tattoos.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yang

    2002-04-01

    Tattooing has become more acceptable in the mainstream American culture in recent years. Based on a survey with face-to-face interviews of 335 nontattooed adults randomly selected from a city with a population of 444,000, this study explored the relationship of individuals' demographic variables, attitudes toward religion, and their perceptions of tattoos. The hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that age and attitude toward religion were associated with individuals' perception of tattoos.

  3. Technology Use in Transition-Age Patients With Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Los, Evan; Ulrich, Jenae; Guttmann-Bauman, Ines

    2016-01-01

    Youth with chronic illnesses have the greatest risk for a decline in their health management during transition-age. Because of this demonstrated and well-known issue, research has focused on how to improve the transition of care process. Despite the increasing number of technological devices on the market and the advances in telemedicine modalities available to patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D), the utilization of technology is still suboptimal among patients of transition-age (ages 13-25). This article reviews the available resources, patterns of use in transition-age youth, and explores opportunities to advance technology use in transitioning patients with T1D from pediatric to adult care. PMID:26892506

  4. On the metallicity dependence of the [Y/Mg]-age relation for solar-type stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltzing, Sofia; Howes, Louise M.; McMillan, Paul J.; Stonkutė, Edita

    2017-02-01

    Several recent studies of solar twins in the solar neighbourhood have shown a tight correlation between various elemental abundances and age, in particular [Y/Mg]. If this relation is real and valid for other types of stars as well as elsewhere in the Galaxy, it would provide a very powerful tool to derive ages of stars without the need to resort to determining their masses (evolutionary stage) very precisely. The method would also likely work if the stellar parameters have relatively large errors. The studies presented in the recent literature span a narrow range of [Fe/H]. By studying a larger sample of solar neighbourhood dwarfs with a much larger range of [Fe/H], we find that the relation between [Y/Mg] and age depends on the [Fe/H] of the stars. Hence, it appears that the [Y/Mg]-age relation is unique to solar analogues.

  5. Age- and education-adjusted normative data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in older adults age 70-99.

    PubMed

    Malek-Ahmadi, Michael; Powell, Jessica J; Belden, Christine M; O'Connor, Kathy; Evans, Linda; Coon, David W; Nieri, Walter

    2015-01-01

    The original validation study for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) suggests a cutoff score of 26; however, this may be too stringent for older adults, particularly for those with less education. Given the rapidly increasing number of older adults and associated risk of dementia, this study aims to provide appropriate age- and education-adjusted norms for the MoCA. Data from 205 participants in an ongoing longevity study were used to derive normative data. Individuals were grouped based on age (70-79, 80-89, 90-99) and education level (≤12 Years, 13-15, ≥16 Years). There were significant differences between age and education groups with younger and more educated participants outperforming their counterparts. Forty-six percent of our sample scored below the suggested cutoff of 26. These normative data may provide a more accurate representation of MoCA performance in older adults for specific age and education stratifications.

  6. Adults' Reading Practices and Activities: Age, Educational and Occupational Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Cecil; Stahl, Norman A.

    Interest in adults' everyday reading practices has a lengthy history in the study of the psychology of reading. Several studies have examined the extent of, and variability in, adults' reading activities. Different social contexts have been shown to influence the type of reading performed. The present study examined the reading patterns and…

  7. Education for School-Age Parenting. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carta, Elizabeth

    Techniques are described which were used to develop and establish the Young Parents Program, a pilot project used to develop and expand the homebound instruction function of Norwalk Hospital by providing broadening family functioning type experiences to pregnant girls in the Norwalk, Connecticut, schools. The instructional objectives listed are…

  8. Differences between chronological and brain age are related to education and self-reported physical activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Habeck, Christian; O'Shea, Deirdre; Razlighi, Qolamreza; Bherer, Louis; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the relationship between education and physical activity and the difference between a physiological prediction of age and chronological age (CA). Cortical and subcortical gray matter regional volumes were calculated from 331 healthy adults (range: 19-79 years). Multivariate analyses identified a covariance pattern of brain volumes best predicting CA (R(2) = 47%). Individual expression of this brain pattern served as a physiologic measure of brain age (BA). The difference between CA and BA was predicted by education and self-report measures of physical activity. Education and the daily number of flights of stairs climbed (FOSC) were the only 2 significant predictors of decreased BA. Effect sizes demonstrated that BA decreased by 0.95 years for each year of education and by 0.58 years for 1 additional FOSC daily. Effects of education and FOSC on regional brain volume were largely driven by temporal and subcortical volumes. These results demonstrate that higher levels of education and daily FOSC are related to larger brain volume than predicted by CA which supports the utility of regional gray matter volume as a biomarker of healthy brain aging.

  9. Level of emotional awareness in the general French population: effects of gender, age, and education level.

    PubMed

    Nandrino, Jean-Louis; Baracca, Margaret; Antoine, Pascal; Paget, Virginie; Bydlowski, Sarah; Carton, Solange

    2013-01-01

    The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) developed by Lane et al. (1990) measures the ability of a subject to discriminate his or her own emotional state and that of others. The scale is based on a cognitive-developmental model in which emotional awareness increases in a similar fashion to intellectual functions. Because studies performed using North American and German populations have demonstrated an effect of age, gender, and level of education on the ability to differentiate emotional states, our study attempts to evaluate whether these factors have the same effects in a general French population. 750 volunteers (506 female, 244 male), who were recruited from three regions of France (Lille, Montpellier, Paris), completed the LEAS. The sample was divided into five age groups and three education levels. The results of the LEAS scores for self and others and the total score showed a difference in the level of emotional awareness for different age groups, by gender and education level. A higher emotional level was observed for younger age groups, suggesting that emotional awareness depends on the cultural context and generational societal teachings. Additionally, the level of emotional awareness was higher in women than in men and lower in individuals with less education. This result might be explained by an educational bias linked to gender and higher education whereby expressive ability is reinforced. In addition, given the high degree of variability in previously observed scores in the French population, we propose a standard based on our French sample.

  10. The effects of physical activity, education, and body mass index on the aging brain.

    PubMed

    Ho, April J; Raji, Cyrus A; Becker, James T; Lopez, Oscar L; Kuller, Lewis H; Hua, Xue; Dinov, Ivo D; Stein, Jason L; Rosano, Caterina; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M

    2011-09-01

    Normal human aging is accompanied by progressive brain tissue loss and cognitive decline; however, several factors are thought to influence brain aging. We applied tensor-based morphometry to high-resolution brain MRI scans to determine whether educational level or physical activity was associated with brain tissue volumes in the elderly, particularly in regions susceptible to age-related atrophy. We mapped the 3D profile of brain volume differences in 226 healthy elderly subjects (130F/96M; 77.9 ± 3.6 SD years) from the Cardiovascular Health Study-Cognition Study. Statistical maps revealed the 3D profile of brain regions whose volumes were associated with educational level and physical activity (based on leisure-time energy expenditure). After controlling for age, sex, and physical activity, higher educational levels were associated with ~2-3% greater tissue volumes, on average, in the temporal lobe gray matter. After controlling for age, sex, and education, greater physical activity was associated with ~2-2.5% greater average tissue volumes in the white matter of the corona radiata extending into the parietal-occipital junction. Body mass index (BMI) was highly correlated with both education and physical activity, so we examined BMI as a contributing factor by including physical activity, education, and BMI in the same model; only BMI effects remained significant. This is one of the largest MRI studies of factors influencing structural brain aging, and BMI may be a key factor explaining the observed relationship between education, physical activity, and brain structure. Independent contributions to brain structure could not be teased apart as all these factors were highly correlated with one another.

  11. e-Leadership in Higher Education: The Fifth "Age" of Educational Technology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Jill

    2013-01-01

    A discussion of the relative lack of research into e-leadership in educational technology in education is followed by an outline of selected prior literature in the field. The paper proposes that, as part of a natural evolution of educational technology research, considerably more attention needs to be focused on research and development in…

  12. Education and Research for the Age of Nanoelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Nanoelectronics has great potential for further, sustainable growth, and this growth is needed worldwide, because new chips provide the technology foundation for all those products and services that shape our lives. However, the concern is justified that this truth is not the perception of the public in the first decades of the new millennium. How can we work towards a broad, sustained commitment to an innovation ecosystem involving education, research, business, and public policy? Reminding ourselves of the 10x programs invoked in Chap. 2 to describe major milestones in advancing microelectronics towards today's nanoelectronics, we notice that all of them demanded requirements-driven, top-down research with ambitious, often disruptive targets for new products or services. Coming closer to the end of the nanometer focus, the new task of global proportion should be a femto-Joule focus on minimum-energy nanoelectronic systems research.

  13. Category fluency in a latino sample: associations with age, education, gender, and language.

    PubMed

    Mack, Wendy J; Teng, Evelyn; Zheng, Ling; Paz, Sylvia; Chui, Helena; Varma, Rohit

    2005-07-01

    The authors know of no published studies that have evaluated the effect of Spanish- versus English-language on category fluency within a sample of United States Latinos only. As part of a pilot study for the institution of a cognitive screening program in a cohort of Latinos, we assessed category fluency (fruits, vegetables, and "other" supermarket items) in a sample of 90 self-identified Latino community residents (aged 52-84, 0-18 years of education). The primary demographic correlates of category fluency were age and education. The decrement in naming of fruits with age was limited to the older old subjects (>age 70). Relatively younger old subjects (aged 61-70) did not differ from middle-aged subjects on category fluency. Gender showed little relationship to category naming. Persons naming in Spanish named significantly fewer 'other supermarket' items, but did not differ from English speakers in the more common fluency categories of fruits and vegetables. This analysis of category fluency in an ethnically homogenous sample with a wide range of formal education provided an evaluation of the effects of chosen language free of possible confounding by cultural differences, and also provided a more complete evaluation of the influence of education on category fluency.

  14. Strong genetic influence on a UK nationwide test of educational achievement at the end of compulsory education at age 16.

    PubMed

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M A; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, 'to build in'), we propose an active model of education (educare, 'to bring out') in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning.

  15. Strain aging and load relaxation behavior of type 316 stainless steel at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannula, S. P.; Korhonen, M. A.; Li, C. Y.

    1986-10-01

    The strain aging and load relaxation behavior of type 316 stainless steel (SS) at room temperature were studied. It is shown that rapid aging occurs in 316 SS at room temperature to an extent that affects the load relaxation behavior of the material. Qualitatively, the aging behavior was found to agree with those reported earlier for Fe-Ni-C-alloys, and the observed aging characteristics could be explained by using an earlier proposed vacancy-interstitial mechanism. The load relaxation behavior is analyzed in terms of Hart’s state variable model. Effects of strain aging and strain hardening on the load relaxation behavior and the scaling of the relaxation curves are determined. It is shown that aging can be accounted for by a time-dependent change in a model parameter, which is dependent on the mobile dislocation density and the dislocation mobility. In addition, a dependency on plastic state of the same parameter previously held constant was found. It is concluded that this phenomenon, which in 316 SS could be rationalized in terms of increasing forest dislocation density, is likely to be more general, and a provision for it should be made in the state variable theory.

  16. Impact of age at onset for children with renal failure on education and employment transitions.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Helen; Arber, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Previous medical research has shown that children with end-stage renal failure experience delay or underachievement of key markers of transition to adulthood. This article analyses 35 qualitative interviews with end-stage renal failure patients, aged 20-30 years, first diagnosed at 0-19 years of age, to explore how far delayed or underachievement in education and employment is related to their age at onset of end-stage renal failure. This study shows how unpredictable failures of renal replacement therapies, comorbidities and/or side effects of treatment in the early life course often coincided with critical moments for education and employment. Entering school, college, work-related training or employment, and disclosing health status or educational underachievement to an employer, were particularly critical, and those who were ill before puberty became progressively more disadvantaged in terms of successful transition into full-time employment, compared with those first diagnosed after puberty.

  17. Meeting the educational needs of an aging population: The Australian experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minichiello, Victor

    1992-07-01

    The number of older people in Australia is growing fast, and gerontology has recently become a recognised area of study in tertiary institutions. However, negative attitudes persist among health and welfare professionals, and ways in which gerontology courses can combat the myths associated with aging and the aged are discussed. It is pointed out that people do not grow old in isolation, but in a social context. Education for older people should be seen as a part of social policy, recognising the lifelong right to education. The University of the Third Age (U3A) is a response to the demand for education from older people. The origins of this movement in Europe, and its spread to North America and Australia, are outlined. To meet the needs of older people, courses offered by U3A's have to be multidisciplinary.

  18. Toward Reducing Ageism: PEACE (Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences) Model.

    PubMed

    Levy, Sheri R

    2016-08-10

    The population of older adults is growing worldwide. Negative ageism (negative attitudes and behavior toward older adults) is a serious international concern that negatively influences not only older adults but also individuals across the age continuum. This article proposes and examines the application of an integrative theoretical model across empirical evidence in the literature on ageism in psychology, medicine, social work, and sociology. The proposed Positive Education about Aging and Contact Experiences (PEACE) model focuses on 2 key contributing factors expected to reduce negative ageism: (a) education about aging including facts on aging along with positive older role models that dispel negative and inaccurate images of older adulthood; and (b) positive contact experiences with older adults that are individualized, provide or promote equal status, are cooperative, involve sharing of personal information, and are sanctioned within the setting. These 2 key contributing factors have the potential to be interconnected and work together to reduce negative stereotypes, aging anxiety, prejudice, and discrimination associated with older adults and aging. This model has implications for policies and programs that can improve the health and well-being of individuals, as well as expand the residential, educational, and career options of individuals across the age continuum.

  19. An Examination of the Perceptions of Older Americans on Successful Aging and Adult Education Programs to Meet Their Aging Needs in Southeast Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Ileeia Anjale

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the personal perceptions of older Americans in regards to the aging process and the characteristics of successful aging. In addition, the study aimed to determine individual perceptions of adult education programs and resources necessary in aging successfully. The study examined current resources, services…

  20. Integrated Geospatial Education and Technology Training for High School Age Youth (HiGETT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, J. E.

    2012-12-01

    The Landsat series of satellites provides high quality, consistent, 30 m resolution data for studies of landscape-scale change over time at no cost to the user. The availability of the Landsat data archive and the effectiveness and ease of its use to solve practical societal problems, particularly integrated with Geographic Information Systems (GIS), has been a key factor in a movement to bring remote sensing education to community colleges (as in the "iGETT" program funded by the National Science Foundation, 2007-2011) and now to younger students of high school age. "Integrated Geospatial Education and Technology Training for High School Age Youth (HiGETT)" was a two-day meeting convened April 4-5, 2011 to explore and articulate effective means of reaching teens with geospatial technology education and career awareness. Participants represented industry, government, academia, and informal education organizations such as 4-H and Girl Scouts. This poster will summarize a report on that meeting.

  1. Parental age and Neurofibromatosis Type 1: a report from the NF1 Patient Registry Initiative.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qian; Zoellner, Nancy; Gutmann, David H; Johnson, Kimberly J

    2015-06-01

    One of the potential etiologies for non-familial Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is increasing parental age. We sought to evaluate recent evidence for parental age effects in NF1 in a large study. Individuals with NF1 and a comparison group from the U.S. general population born between 1994 and 2012 were ascertained from the NF1 Patient Registry Initiative (NPRI) and the National Center for Vital Statistics, respectively. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed to identify differences between familial NF1, non-familial NF1, and U.S. population subjects in the mean parental ages at the time of the birth of offspring in each group. In addition, we also evaluated the effect of parental age on NF1 offspring with and without a pediatric brain tumor history. A total of 313 subjects from the NPRI (including 99 brain tumor cases) matched by birth year at a 1:3 ratio to U.S. general population births (n = 939) were included. Compared to the U.S. general population and familial NF1 cases, the mean paternal age for non-familial NF1 cases was 4.34 years (95% CI 3.23-5.46, p ≤ 0.0001) and 3.39 years (95% CI 1.57-5.20, p ≤ 0.0001) older, respectively, after adjusting for birth year. A similar pattern was observed for maternal age. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean maternal or paternal ages between NF1 offspring with and without a pediatric brain tumor. In conclusion, these data support a parental age effect for non-familial NF1 cases, but not for pediatric brain tumors in NF1.

  2. BDNF val66met Polymorphism Affects Aging of Multiple Types of Memory

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Kristen M.; Reese, Elizabeth D.; Horn, Marci M.; Sizemore, April N.; Unni, Asha K.; Meerbrey, Michael E.; Kalich, Allan G.; Rodrigue, Karen M.

    2014-01-01

    The BDNF val66met polymorphism (rs6265) influences activity-dependent secretion of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the synapse, which is crucial for learning and memory. Individuals homozygous or heterozygous for the met allele have lower BDNF secretion than val homozygotes and may be at risk for reduced declarative memory performance, but it remains unclear which types of declarative memory may be affected and how aging of memory across the lifespan is impacted by the BDNF val66met polymorphism. This cross-sectional study investigated the effects of BDNF polymorphism on multiple indices of memory (item, associative, prospective, subjective complaints) in a lifespan sample of 116 healthy adults aged 20-93 years. Advancing age showed a negative effect on item, associative and prospective memory, but not on subjective memory complaints. For item and prospective memory, there were significant age x BDNF group interactions, indicating the adverse effect of age on memory performance across the lifespan was much stronger in the BDNF met carriers than for the val homozygotes. BDNF met carriers also endorsed significantly greater subjective memory complaints, regardless of age, and showed a trend (p < .07) toward poorer associative memory performance compared to val homozygotes. These results suggest that genetic predisposition to the availability of brain-derived neurotrophic factor, by way of the BDNF val66met polymorphism, exerts an influence on multiple indices of episodic memory – in some cases in all individuals regardless of age (subjective memory and perhaps associative memory), in others as an exacerbation of age-related differences in memory across the lifespan (item and prospective memory). PMID:25264352

  3. [Correlation between self-reported gingival bleeding and type 2 diabetes mellitus in aged ≥18 years adults in China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Li, Z X; Yang, Y; Wang, C X; Wang, L M; Wang, L H

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To understand the correlation between self-reported gingival bleeding and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults in China. Methods: The database of China' s 2010 Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance (CCDRFS) survey among people aged ≥18 years was used to analyze the demographic characteristics of subjects with self-reporting gingival bleeding and the prevalence of major chronic diseases among adults. Correlation and interaction analyses were conducted on the relationships between frequent gingival bleeding and T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and interaction of age and gingival bleeding, age and hypertension, age and dyslipidemia, age and gender on the prevalence of T2DM. Results: Among 93 647 adults surveyed, 87.4% were in Han ethnic group. The incidence of frequent gingival bleeding was higher in females (63.6%) than in males (36.4%). The incidence of frequent gingival bleeding was highest (30.1%) in adults with middle school education level. Among the adults aged 45-60 years, 12.8%(2 839/22 179) had T2MD but no gingival bleeding, 15.6% (163/1 044) had both frequent gingival bleeding and T2DM, frequent gingival bleeding was correlated with T2DM (OR=1.29, 95%CI: 1.08-1.54) and the interaction with age had influence on T2DM (P<0.005). In males, frequent gingival bleeding was correlated with T2DM (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.08-1.56, P=0.005). In hypertension group, frequent gingival bleeding was correlated with T2DM (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.07-1.46), and interaction of hypertension and gingival bleeding had influence on T2DM (P<0.05). Conclusions: The positive correlation between frequent gingival bleeding and T2DM was observed in adults surveyed, and the interaction of age and hypertension had influence on prevalence of T2DM. Frequent gingival bleeding was correlated with T2DM in males either.

  4. [Sensorimotor reactions in students of high school age during different types of the weather].

    PubMed

    Vadziuk, S N; Ratyns'ka, O M

    2004-01-01

    The neuro-dynamical characteristics of the higher nervous activity of senior pupils in different weather types were investigated. The group of practically healthy pupils was given tests on investigation of the speed of the simple sensomotorical reaction (SSR), sigma of the simple sensomotorical reaction (Sigma), the medial speed of the choice reaction (CR), the speed of the choice reaction for the right (CRR) and the left (CRL) hand. The study was conducted on the days with favorable, conditionally favorable and unfavorable medical-meteorological conditions. The results of the study of the neuro-dynamical characteristics of the higher nervous activity of senior pupils give the possibility to make a conclusion that they decrease as the weather conditions become worse. Senior school age is characterized by the improvement of the neuro-dynamical characteristics of the higher nervous activity. The girls of the senior school age have shown higher results in different weather types than the boys.

  5. Investigations on the Maillard reaction of dextrins during aging of Pilsner type beer.

    PubMed

    Rakete, Stefan; Klaus, Alexander; Glomb, Marcus A

    2014-10-08

    Although Maillard reaction plays a pivotal role during preparation of food, only few investigations concerning the role of carbohydrate degradation in beer aging have been carried out. The formation of Maillard specific precursor structures and their follow-up products during degradation of low molecular carbohydrate dextrins in the presence of proline and lysine was studied in model incubations and in beer. Twenty-one α-dicarbonyl compounds were identified and quantitated as reactive intermediates. The oxidative formation of 3-deoxypentosone as the precursor of furfural from oligosaccharides was verified. N-Carboxymethylproline and N-formylproline were established as novel proline derived Maillard advanced glycation end products. Formation of N-carboxymethylproline and furfural responded considerably to the presence of oxygen and was positively correlated to aging of Pilsner type beer. The present study delivers an in-depth view on the mechanisms behind the formation of beer relevant aging parameters.

  6. Home-based diabetes symptom self-management education for Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    García, Alexandra A.; Brown, Sharon A.; Horner, Sharon D.; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L.

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial was conducted with 72 Mexican Americans aged 25–75 years with type 2 diabetes. Experimental condition participants received eight weekly, in-home, one-on-one educational and behavior modification sessions with a registered nurse focusing on symptom awareness, glucose self-testing and appropriate treatments, followed by eight biweekly support telephone sessions. Wait-listed control condition participants served as comparisons at three time points. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention between- and within groups on psychosocial, behavioral and clinical outcomes. Participants were predominantly female, middle-aged, moderately acculturated and in poor glycemic control. Experimental group participants (n = 39) significantly improved glycemic control, blood pressure, symptoms, knowledge, self-efficacy, empowerment and quality of life. Post intervention focus groups reported satisfaction with the symptom focus. Addressing symptoms led to clinical and psychosocial improvements. Symptoms seem to be an important motivator and a useful prompt to engage patients in diabetes self-management behaviors to relieve symptoms and prevent complications. PMID:25953971

  7. Home-based diabetes symptom self-management education for Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    García, Alexandra A; Brown, Sharon A; Horner, Sharon D; Zuñiga, Julie; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2015-06-01

    This pilot study evaluated an innovative diabetes symptom awareness and self-management educational program for Mexican Americans, a fast growing minority population experiencing a diabetes epidemic. Patients with diabetes need assistance interpreting and managing symptoms, which are often annoying and potentially life-threatening. A repeated measures randomized controlled trial was conducted with 72 Mexican Americans aged 25-75 years with type 2 diabetes. Experimental condition participants received eight weekly, in-home, one-on-one educational and behavior modification sessions with a registered nurse focusing on symptom awareness, glucose self-testing and appropriate treatments, followed by eight biweekly support telephone sessions. Wait-listed control condition participants served as comparisons at three time points. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to evaluate the effects of the intervention between- and within groups on psychosocial, behavioral and clinical outcomes. Participants were predominantly female, middle-aged, moderately acculturated and in poor glycemic control. Experimental group participants (n = 39) significantly improved glycemic control, blood pressure, symptoms, knowledge, self-efficacy, empowerment and quality of life. Post intervention focus groups reported satisfaction with the symptom focus. Addressing symptoms led to clinical and psychosocial improvements. Symptoms seem to be an important motivator and a useful prompt to engage patients in diabetes self-management behaviors to relieve symptoms and prevent complications.

  8. Maternal and neonatal outcomes by labor onset type and gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Bailit, Jennifer L.; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Reddy, Uma M.; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor H.; Hibbard, Judith U.; Ramirez, Mildred M.; Branch, D. Ware; Burkman, Ronald; Haberman, Shoshana; Hatjis, Christos G.; Hoffman, Matthew K.; Kominiarek, Michelle; Landy, Helain J.; Learman, Lee A.; Troendle, James; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Wilkins, Isabelle; Sun, Liping; Zhang, Jun

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We sought to determine maternal and neonatal outcomes by labor onset type and gestational age. STUDY DESIGN We used electronic medical records data from 10 US institutions in the Consortium on Safe Labor on 115,528 deliveries from 2002 through 2008. Deliveries were divided by labor onset type (spontaneous, elective induction, indicated induction, unlabored cesarean). Neonatal and maternal outcomes were calculated by labor onset type and gestational age. RESULTS Neonatal intensive care unit admissions and sepsis improved with each week of gestational age until 39 weeks (P < .001). After adjusting for complications, elective induction of labor was associated with a lower risk of ventilator use (odds ratio [OR], 0.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.28 – 0.53), sepsis (OR, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.26 – 0.49), and neonatal intensive care unit admissions (OR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.48 – 0.57) compared to spontaneous labor. The relative risk of hysterectomy at term was 3.21 (95% CI, 1.08 – 9.54) with elective induction, 1.16 (95% CI, 0.24 – 5.58) with indicated induction, and 6.57 (95% CI, 1.78 – 24.30) with cesarean without labor compared to spontaneous labor. CONCLUSION Some neonatal outcomes improved until 39 weeks. Babies born with elective induction are associated with better neonatal outcomes compared to spontaneous labor. Elective induction may be associated with an increased hysterectomy risk. PMID:20207242

  9. Detection of erythrocytes influenced by aging and type 2 diabetes using atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Hua; Xing, Xiaobo; Zhao, Hongxia; Chen, Yong; Huang, Xun; Ma, Shuyuan; Ye, Hongyan; Cai, Jiye

    2010-01-22

    The pathophysiological changes of erythrocytes are detected at the molecular scale, which is important to reveal the onset of diseases. Type 2 diabetes is an age-related metabolic disorder with high prevalence in elderly (or old) people. Up to now, there are no treatments to cure diabetes. Therefore, early detection and the ability to monitor the progression of type 2 diabetes are very important for developing effective therapies. Type 2 diabetes is associated with high blood glucose in the context of insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. These abnormalities may disturb the architecture and functions of erythrocytes at molecular scale. In this study, the aging- and diabetes-induced changes in morphological and biomechanical properties of erythrocytes are clearly characterized at nanometer scale using atomic force microscope (AFM). The structural information and mechanical properties of the cell surface membranes of erythrocytes are very important indicators for determining the healthy, diseased or aging status. So, AFM may potentially be developed into a powerful tool in diagnosing diseases.

  10. Linguistic Skills of Adult Native Speakers, as a Function of Age and Level of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulder, Kimberley; Hulstijn, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed, in a sample of 98 adult native speakers of Dutch, how their lexical skills and their speaking proficiency varied as a function of their age and level of education and profession (EP). Participants, categorized in terms of their age (18-35, 36-50, and 51-76 years old) and the level of their EP (low versus high), were tested on…

  11. Education Level Predicts Retrospective Metamemory Accuracy in Healthy Aging and Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Szajer, Jacquelyn; Murphy, Claire

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the effect of education on retrospective metamemory accuracy in 143 healthy older adults and 143 early to moderate AD patients, using retrospective measures of confidence in the accuracy of retrieval responses in an episodic odor recognition memory task. Relative confidence accuracy was computed as the difference between confidence judgments for correct and incorrect responses. In both AD patients and controls, individuals reporting 17 years of education or more had significantly more accurate levels of confidence than individuals with 12 years or less. Thus, education was a significant predictor of retrospective metamemory accuracy in healthy aging and AD. PMID:24131064

  12. Sarcopenia: a potential cause and consequence of type 2 diabetes in Australia's ageing population?

    PubMed

    Scott, David; de Courten, Barbora; Ebeling, Peter R

    2016-10-03

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in Australia's older adult population. Sarcopenia, the age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass, quality and function, may make a significant but under-appreciated contribution to increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes. As skeletal muscle is the largest insulin-sensitive tissue in the body, low muscle mass in sarcopenia likely results in reduced capacity for glucose disposal. Age-related declines in muscle quality, including increased mitochondrial dysfunction and fat infiltration, are also implicated in skeletal muscle inflammation and subsequent insulin resistance. Prospective studies have shown that low muscle mass and strength are associated with increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes. Prevalent type 2 diabetes also appears to exacerbate progression of sarcopenia in older adults. Recently developed operational definitions and the inclusion of sarcopenia in the International classification of diseases, 10th revision, clinical modification, provide impetus for clinicians to diagnose and treat sarcopenia in older patients. Simple assessments to diagnose sarcopenia can potentially play a role in primary and secondary prevention of type 2 diabetes in older patients. Lifestyle modification programs for older adults with type 2 diabetes, particularly for those with sarcopenia, should incorporate progressive resistance training, along with adequate intakes of protein and vitamin D, which may improve both functional and metabolic health and prevent undesirable decreases in muscle mass associated with weight loss interventions. As some older adults with type 2 diabetes have a poor response to exercise, clinicians must ensure that lifestyle modification programs are appropriately prescribed, regularly monitored and modified if necessary.

  13. Social work faculty interest in aging: impact of education, knowledge, comfort, and experience.

    PubMed

    Wang, Donna; Ihara, Emily; Chonody, Jill; Krase, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    As the need for gerontological social workers increases, it is important to assess faculty interest in strengthening and bolstering this area in the classroom and curriculum. This study sought to compare training and experience of social work faculty that identified aging as a teaching or research interest with faculty who did not, and to identify predictors of aging interest among faculty. A national sample of social work faculty members was recruited, and a total of 609 individuals participated in the study. The findings reveal that faculty with an interest in aging differed from nonaging faculty in the areas of knowledge of older adults, personal and paid experience, and graduate and continuing education. In addition, predictors of interest in aging included taking a graduate course, continuing education units, having paid and volunteer experience, level of knowledge of older adults, and comfort level of covering content on aging in the classroom. The connection between social work faculty and student interest in aging are discussed as implications for further social work research and education.

  14. Intake of melatonin increases tryptophan hydroxylase type 1 activity in aged rats: Preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Moranta, D; Barceló, P; Aparicio, S; Garau, C; Sarubbo, F; Ramis, M; Nicolau, C; Esteban, S

    2014-01-01

    Pineal melatonin is important not only for synchronization of biological rhythms, but also in the ageing process as a potential drug to relieve oxidative damage. During ageing, the nocturnal melatonin production decreases resulting in an increased incidence of disorders. Present in vivo experiments were performed to study the effects of exogenous melatonin chronically administered to old rats on the pineal biosynthesis of melatonin and the precursor serotonin (5-HT) mediated by tryptophan hydroxylase type 1 (TPH-1). Accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) after decarboxylase inhibition was used as a measure of the TPH-1 activity. 5-HT and its metabolite 5-HIAA were also quantified by HPLC-ED. As expected, ageing resulted in worsening of different neurochemical parameters. However, chronic intake of melatonin (1mg/kg/day, diluted in drinking water, 4 weeks) increased TPH-1 activity and significantly improved the age-induced deficits in nocturnal melatonin content in the pineal gland. Results suggest that melatonin intake (or melatonin rich foods) may contribute to recover the pineal function preventing the nocturnal descent of 5-HT and melatonin biosynthesis that normally occur in pineal gland as a consequence of ageing.

  15. Is Education Separate from Care?: Financing Education and Care for Children Younger than Kindergarten Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gwen

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author presents two emerging state-level public policy trends in the United States, one toward universalizing pre-school services, and one toward systems for delivering early education and care. At this point, it is not clear whether the effect of the two trends will be to unite or divide the field of early education and care.…

  16. Compensatory Education for Children Ages Two to Eight: Recent Studies of Educational Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Julian C., Ed.

    This volume of recent studies in educational intervention includes articles by noted researchers reporting on research on Sesame Street, early intervention programs, research on planned variation in Head Start and Follow Through, evaluation of research in compensatory education for handicapped and low income children, an introduction to the…

  17. Comparative Education, Border Pedagogy, and Teacher Education in an Age of Internationalisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Robert J.; Griffiths, Tom G.

    2009-01-01

    Calls to internationalise higher education have intensified in recent years, particularly as educational services have grown to become a significant export industry within the Australian economy. This measure is indicative, however, of the relatively narrow way in which internationalisation has been constructed, and its political utility in…

  18. Why Learning Not Education?--Analysis of Transnational Education Policies in the Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandal, Sayantan

    2012-01-01

    The profound influence of globalization seems helping outshine the concept of "education" with the more flexible notion of "learning" in the education policies of major transnational organizations. With considerable differences in concepts, all of them are promoting "learning", more specifically LLL (lifelong…

  19. Accelerated age-related olfactory decline among type 1 Usher patients

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Oliveiros, Bárbara; Pereira, Paulo; António, Natália; Hummel, Thomas; Paiva, António; Silva, Eduardo D.

    2016-01-01

    Usher Syndrome (USH) is a rare disease with hearing loss, retinitis pigmentosa and, sometimes, vestibular dysfunction. A phenotype heterogeneity is reported. Recent evidence indicates that USH is likely to belong to an emerging class of sensory ciliopathies. Olfaction has recently been implicated in ciliopathies, but the scarce literature about olfaction in USH show conflicting results. We aim to evaluate olfactory impairment as a possible clinical manifestation of USH. Prospective clinical study that included 65 patients with USH and 65 normal age-gender-smoking-habits pair matched subjects. A cross culturally validated version of the Sniffin’ Sticks olfaction test was used. Young patients with USH have significantly better olfactory scores than healthy controls. We observe that USH type 1 have a faster ageing olfactory decrease than what happens in healthy subjects, leading to significantly lower olfactory scores in older USH1 patients. Moreover, USH type 1 patients showed significantly higher olfactory scores than USH type 2, what can help distinguishing them. Olfaction represents an attractive tool for USH type classification and pre diagnostic screening due to the low cost and non-invasive nature of the testing. Olfactory dysfunction should be considered among the spectrum of clinical manifestations of Usher syndrome. PMID:27329700

  20. Timing Issues with Early Childhood Education Programs: How Effect Sizes Vary by Starting Age, Program Duration and Persistence of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Leak, James A.; Li, Weilin; Magnuson, Katherine; Schindler, Holly; Yoshikawa, Hiro

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper centers around timing associated with early childhood education programs and interventions using meta-analytic methods. At any given assessment age, a child's current age equals starting age, plus duration of program, plus years since program ended. Variability in assessment ages across the studies should enable everyone to…

  1. Act Smart. HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum for Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff…

  2. Elder Abuse and Neglect Content in Higher Education Programs on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Karen F.

    This study sought to: (1) investigate the degree to which course content on elder abuse and neglect is a part of higher education curriculums in aging; (2) determine which specific elder abuse and neglect course content is included in required and elective coursework; and (3) describe the attitudes of instructors toward including elder abuse and…

  3. Consumer Education for the Information Age. Practice Application Brief No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerka, Sandra

    Now that the Internet has increased the potential for deception and misinformation among larger numbers of people, consumer education has a new role to play in helping people develop the skills needed to deal with the challenges of the Information Age. In the current information environment, consumers need the blend of skills and abilities that…

  4. Elementary-Aged Students Perceptions Regarding Appropriate Instructional Practices in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barney, David; Christenson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Elementary physical educators promote their content to help students learn in the psychomotor, affective, and cognitive domains. One of the best methods to reach this is by implementing appropriate instructional practices. For this study, 2,479 elementary-aged students participated. Students were surveyed (survey of 24 statements) to ascertain…

  5. Literacy Education and Orthography in the Spanish Golden Age, 1531-1631

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez Camacho, Alejandro; Casado Rodrigo, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    During the Spanish Golden Age, language was developing fast. An important debate on orthology and orthography was taking place at the time. Many authors posed different proposals for a reform of spelling. The arguments discussed in these works also included educational considerations in favour of their proposals, which makes them an invaluable…

  6. Bridging the Gap between Academic Gerontology and the Educational Needs of the Aging Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karcher, Barbara C.; Whittlesey, Valerie

    2007-01-01

    Colleges and universities have failed to meet the long-recognized, growing need for nonacademic-credit gerontology education. With the explosive growth of the aging network, other organizations have readily responded to the fast-growing market. Results of two needs assessments over a 5-year period demonstrate employers' higher support for…

  7. Relative Age Effects on Physical Education Attainment and School Sport Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobley, Stephen; Abraham, Colin; Baker, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Background: The "Relative Age Effect" (RAE) has consistently been demonstrated to influence attainment in various contexts. In education, RAE appears to provide an advantage to those born during initial months of an academic year, compared with those born in later months. A similar effect has been noted in many sports, with those born…

  8. First births by age and education in Britain, France and Norway.

    PubMed

    Rendall, Michael; Couet, Christine; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Progressively later starting of childbearing has been a feature of cohort change in fertility across Europe and elsewhere over recent decades. Growing differences in the age patterns of childbearing between the Anglo-American and continental European countries, however, have also been found. The present study uses large linked-record databases in Britain, France and Norway to analyse these differences in more detail, focussing on age at entry to motherhood (first childbearing) by level of educational attainment among women born in the 1950s and in the 1960s. The shift between these two cohorts towards a later pattern of first childbearing in Britain was confined to women with secondary school qualifications and above. For women born in the 1960s, the peak age for risk of first childbearing among those with secondary school qualifications grew to be between seven and eleven years later than among women without secondary school qualifications. In France and Norway, the peak ages for risk of first childbearing shifted more uniformly across education levels between the two cohorts. For these 1950s and 1960s cohorts, improvements in women's educational levels also occurred more uniformly in France and Norway, moving more women into education categories characterised by later patterns of first childbearing.

  9. Public Education about Memory and Aging: Objective Findings and Subjective Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mol, Martine E. M.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Willems, Dick; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    Public education about memory was evaluated with a controlled intervention trial. Participants in group 1 (n = 273) attended a symposium covering memory-related topics and received a magazine with identical information. Group 2 (n = 141) only received the magazine. Participants were nonprofessionals and professionals aged between 29 and 88.…

  10. Does Gender Matter? An Exploratory Study of Perspectives across Genders, Age and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-01-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the…

  11. Postsecondary Educational Engagement among Formerly-Incarcerated Transition-Age Young Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Laura S.; Franke, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore correlates of engagement in postsecondary educational programs (including technical/trade schools, 2-year colleges, and 4-year colleges) among young men who served mandatory probation camp sentences as juveniles. A cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted with a sample of 75 men (average age of 20.5) who…

  12. Age and Educational Selectivity among Migration and Human Capital Flows in the West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evenson, James A.

    This paper quantifies and analyzes the total flows of human capital moving in and out of the West over time as a result of interregional migration. Particular emphasis is placed on analyzing the "age-education" interaction effect of migration on flows of human capital. Migration was highly selective of the young and/or highly educated…

  13. Acceptance of Genetic Testing in a General Population: Age, Education and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, A. R.; Hakonen, A.; Hietala, M.; Lonnqvist, J.; Niemela, P.; Peltonen, L; Aula, P.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of age, education, and gender on acceptance of genetic testing were studied. Finnish participants responded to a questionnaire presenting reasons for and against genetic testing (N=1,967). Intentions to take genetic tests, worries, and experience of genetic test or hereditary disease were also assessed. Results are presented and discussed.…

  14. Dominican Liberal Arts Education in the New Millennium: A Defense in the Age of "Homo Economicus"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eberle, Gary

    2016-01-01

    In an age when colleges and universities are being challenged to justify themselves in purely economic terms, Catholic and Dominican institutions must articulate the value-added nature of the education they provide. By calling on the rich Catholic/Dominican intellectual tradition, they can present a vision of a values-based liberal arts education…

  15. Social Skills Expression of Senior High School Age Students in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akelaitis, Arturas V.

    2015-01-01

    The main purpose of the present study is to reveal the peculiarities of social skills expression of senior high school age students in physical education classes. The independent random sample consisted of 244 (15-16 years old) students and 258 (17-18 years old) students, of which there were 224 boys and 278 girls. L. Bulotaite and V. Gudžinskiene…

  16. The Relationship between Cognitive and Metacognitive Strategies, Age, and Level of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khezrlou, Sima

    2012-01-01

    The present research investigated the use of cognitive and metacognitive strategies by 60 young and 90 adult learners of different levels of education across different fields of study. The intermediate level young participants included junior-high and senior-high school learners between the ages of 14 and 17. The high-intermediate adult…

  17. The Exceptional Student of Secondary School Age: A Bibliography for Psychology and Education 1960-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, J. G.

    The bibliography, containing references to literature from English language published periodicals circulated between 1960 and 1970, lists periodical materials pertaining to secondary school-age exceptional students. Works in medicine, sociology, and law are included, although the emphasis is upon education and psychology. The bibliography is…

  18. Roles for Technology in the Information-Age Paradigm of Education: Learning Management Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reigeluth, Charles M.; Watson, William R.; Watson, Sunkyung Lee; Dutta, Pratima; Chen, Zengguan; Powell, Nathan D. P.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a detailed description of the powerful and necessary role which technology can play in the information-age paradigm of education described in the four articles comprising this series. This article calls for a learning management system (LMS), a comprehensive and integrated application of technology to the learning process,…

  19. Adult Education and Aging: Perspectives on Research at a Private Independent Research Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene

    As part of a symposium on challenges and problems of adult education researchers in different settings, recent research activities at one private independent research organization were examined. Three projects of the American Instituties for Research (AIR) were reviewed, all relating to adult development and aging. The first examined career…

  20. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  1. Body Image Concerns in College-Aged Male Physical Education Students: A Descriptive Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Michele S.; Esco, Michael R.; Willifo, Hank

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine body image concerns in college-aged male physical education majors. Sixty volunteers completed validated body image instruments including two-dimensional figure drawings. In general, the sample reported that they preferred a larger, more muscular physique reflective of male images that currently abound the…

  2. The Game of Late Life: A Novel Education Activity for the Psychology of Ageing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinker, Jay K.; Roberts, Pamela; Radnidge, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development and evaluation of The Game of Late Life--a novel education activity for the psychology of ageing. The game was designed to provide transformational learning where students imagine themselves as older adults and move through late life via a game board, encountering various life events along the way. One of the…

  3. Educational "Anticipations" of Traditional Age Community College Students: A Prolegomena to Any Future Accountability Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Clifford

    2005-01-01

    This article offers a five-level variable that highlights the level and the consistency of a student's educational "anticipations," and tests the explanatory power of this approach to the histories of traditional age community college students using the postsecondary transcript files of the NELS:88\\2000 longitudinal study. In logistic…

  4. 20 CFR 410.426 - Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determining total disability: Age, education, and work experience criteria. 410.426 Section 410.426 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT OF 1969, TITLE IV-BLACK LUNG BENEFITS (1969- )...

  5. Attention and memory evaluation across the life span: heterogeneous effects of age and education.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Pérez, Esther; Ostrosky-Solís, Feggy

    2006-05-01

    The developmental sequences of attention and memory were studied by utilizing normative data derived from the neuropsychological battery named NEUROPSI ATTENTION AND MEMORY. A sample of 521 Spanish-speaking individuals, aged 6 to 85 years, participated in this study. In the adult sample, educational level ranged from 0 to 22 years of education. Data from subtests measuring orientation, attention and concentration, executive functions, working memory, immediate and delayed verbal memory, and immediate and delayed visual memory were included. The factor structure of the analyzed battery is presented. The effects of age and education on this structure were analyzed. Results suggested that although attention and memory are related, their developmental sequences are separated from one another. During childhood, the development of selective and sustained attention, attentional-working memory, and executive functions showed a fast improvement in performance. Development of verbal memory and place and person orientation showed a slower increment in scores. In the adult sample it was found that factors related to memory are sensitive to age, whereas those related to attention and executive functions are sensitive to education. The consideration of both the developmental sequence, as well as differential effects of education, can improve the sensitivity and specificity of neuropsychological measures, allowing early diagnosis of cognitive dysfunction and implementation of adequate rehabilitation programs.

  6. Type I collagen aging impairs discoidin domain receptor 2-mediated tumor cell growth suppression.

    PubMed

    Saby, Charles; Buache, Emilie; Brassart-Pasco, Sylvie; El Btaouri, Hassan; Courageot, Marie-Pierre; Van Gulick, Laurence; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jeannesson, Pierre; Morjani, Hamid

    2016-05-03

    Tumor cells are confronted to a type I collagen rich environment which regulates cell proliferation and invasion. Biological aging has been associated with structural changes of type I collagen. Here, we address the effect of collagen aging on cell proliferation in a three-dimensional context (3D).We provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of adult collagen, but not of the old one, on proliferation of human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. This effect involves both the activation of the tyrosine kinase Discoidin Domain Receptor 2 (DDR2) and the tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2. DDR2 and SHP-2 were less activated in old collagen. DDR2 inhibition decreased SHP-2 phosphorylation in adult collagen and increased cell proliferation to a level similar to that observed in old collagen.In the presence of old collagen, a high level of JAK2 and ERK1/2 phosphorylation was observed while expression of the cell cycle negative regulator p21CIP1 was decreased. Inhibition of DDR2 kinase function also led to an increase in ERK1/2 phosphorylation and a decrease in p21CIP1 expression. Similar signaling profile was observed when DDR2 was inhibited in adult collagen. Altogether, these data suggest that biological collagen aging could increase tumor cell proliferation by reducingthe activation of the key matrix sensor DDR2.

  7. Age Dependence of Wind Properties for Solar-type Stars: A 3D Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Réville, Victor; Folsom, Colin P.; Strugarek, Antoine; Brun, Allan Sacha

    2016-12-01

    Young and rapidly rotating stars are known for intense, dynamo-generated magnetic fields. Spectropolarimetric observations of those stars in precisely aged clusters are key input for gyrochronology and magnetochronology. We use Zeeman Doppler imaging maps of several young K-type stars of similar mass and radius but with various ages and rotational periods to perform three-dimensional (3D) numerical MHD simulations of their coronae and follow the evolution of their magnetic properties with age. Those simulations yield the coronal structure as well as the instant torque exerted by the magnetized, rotating wind on the star. As stars get older, we find that the angular momentum loss decreases with {{{Ω }}}\\star 3, which is the reason for the convergence on the Skumanich law. For the youngest stars of our sample, the angular momentum loss shows signs of saturation around 8{{{Ω }}}⊙ , which is a common value used in spin evolution models for K-type stars. We compare these results to semianalytical models and existing braking laws. We observe a complex wind-speed distribution for the youngest stars with slow, intermediate, and fast wind components, which are the result of interaction with intense and nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields. Consequently, in our simulations, the stellar wind structure in the equatorial plane of young stars varies significantly from a solar configuration, delivering insight about the past of the solar system interplanetary medium.

  8. Does Gender Matter? an Exploratory Study of Perspectives Across Genders, Age and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-11-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the social hierarchy. Analysis indicated that there were differences between male and female views on these dimensions of gender, and that age and educational levels were also influential. While younger respondents from both genders demonstrated flexibility in their definitions of gender and expressed strong support for gender equality, they were noticeably lacking in their knowledge of the historical context of gender relations and did not show the skills required to realise their ideals of gender equality, especially when compared to older respondents of both genders with higher levels of educational attainment.

  9. Education and health among U.S. working-age adults: a detailed portrait across the full educational attainment spectrum.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Anna; Hummer, Robert A; Rogers, Richard G

    2012-01-01

    This article presents detailed estimates of relative and absolute health inequalities among U.S. working-age adults by educational attainment, including six postsecondary schooling levels. We also estimate the impact of several sets of mediating variables on the education-health gradient. Data from the 1997-2009 National Health Interview Survey (N = 178,103) show remarkable health differentials. For example, high school graduates have 3.5 times the odds of reporting "worse" health than do adults with professional or doctoral degrees. The probability of fair or poor health in mid-adulthood is less than 5 percent for adults with the highest levels of education but over 20 percent for adults without a high school diploma. The probability of reporting excellent health in the mid-forties is below 25 percent among high school graduates but over 50 percent for those adults who have professional degrees. These health differences characterize all the demographic subgroups examined in this study. Our results show that economic indicators and health behaviors explain about 40 percent of the education-health relationship. In the United States, adults with the highest educational degrees enjoy a wide array of benefits, including much more favorable self-rated health, compared to their less-educated counterparts.

  10. Self–reported diabetes education among Chinese middle–aged and older adults with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hanzhang; Luo, Jianfeng; Wu, Bei

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare self–reported diabetes education among Chinese middle–aged and older adults with diabetes in three population groups: urban residents, migrants in urban settings, and rural residents. Methods We used data from the 2011 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study. The sample included 993 participants age 45 and older who reported having diabetes diagnosed from a health professional. We performed multilevel regressions performed to examine the associations between characteristics and different aspects of diabetes education received. Findings Our study shows that 20.24% of the participants received no diabetes education at all. Among those who received information, 46.82% of respondents with diabetes received weight control advice from a health care provider, 90.97% received advice on exercise, 60.37% received diet advice, 35.12% were spoken to smoking control, and only 17.89% of persons were informed of foot care. After controlling socioeconomic factors, life style, number of comorbidities and community factors, we found that compared with migrant population and rural residents, urban residents were more likely to receive diabetes education on diet. Urban residents were also more likely to obtain diabetes education and more aspects of diabetes education comparison with migrants and rural residents. Conclusions Our study suggests diabetes education is a serious concern in China, and a significant proportion of the participants did not receive advice on smoking control and foot care. Rural residents and migrants from rural areas received much less diabetes education compared with urban residents. Efforts to improve diabetes educations are urgently needed in China. PMID:27698998

  11. Links Between Education and Age at Marriage among Palestinian Women in Israel: Changes Over Time.

    PubMed

    Sabbah-Karkaby, Maha; Stier, Haya

    2017-03-01

    This study focuses on the link between education and marriage timing among Israeli-Palestinian women. Theoretical discussions on marriage timing center on the effect of the time women spend in educational institutions on their age at marriage, and on the change in the desirable traits of women in the marriage market. But most of these arguments overlook situations where significant changes in education take place alongside retention of traditional patriarchal values. Based on data from three population censuses - in 1983, 1995 and 2008-our results suggest that staying longer in schooling delays marriage, so women with less education are more likely to marry earlier than others. While young age is still considered an important characteristic in the Israeli-Palestinian marriage market, and women who delay marriage face a greater risk of remaining single, education becomes more important over the years so that postponing marriage becomes especially problematic for low-educated women. Our findings suggest that traditional norms and structural conditions together shape marriage timing.

  12. Highly Qualified Status Type and Student Achievement Scores, Special Education, and General Education: Is There a Connection?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdett, Nicole G.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to examine, through statistical analyses, the impact that the 2 different types of highly qualified teachers have on student achievement reading and math scores among fourth- and fifth-grade special education and general education students for the 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 school years. The evaluation…

  13. Mature age students access, entry and success in nurse education: an action research study.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Amanda; Kidd, Tracy; Nankervis, Katrina; Connell, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This action research study involved an 'expert group' that was convened to consider issues for mature age nursing students in the Australian context and develop recommendations that could be used to strengthen mature age entry, access and success in nursing programs. Consistent with action research, the group worked through phases of planning, action, observation, evaluation and critical reflection. In developing recommendations that could be used for future planning, the group met regularly, reviewed extensive literature, and conducted two data collection activities, a questionnaire and focus group with education providers. From the action research activities, five major recommendations were generated. These focused on the value of mature age students, the need for specific information, transparent and clear processes for students entering nurse education, study support and finally, the provision of financial assistance.

  14. Estimation of the age at onset in spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 Cuban patients by survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Almaguer-Mederos, L E; Falcón, N S; Almira, Y R; Zaldivar, Y G; Almarales, D C; Góngora, E M; Herrera, M P; Batallán, K E; Armiñán, R R; Manresa, M V; Cruz, G S; Laffita-Mesa, J; Cyuz, T M; Chang, V; Auburger, G; Gispert, S; Pérez, L V

    2010-08-01

    Previous studies have investigated the close association that exists between CAG repeat number and the age at onset in SCA2 = spinocerebellar ataxia type 2. These studies have focused on affected individuals. To further characterize this association and estimate the risk of a carrier developing SCA2 at a particular age as a function of a specific CAG repeat size, we have analyzed a large group of 924 individuals, including 394 presymptomatic and 530 affected individuals with a CAG repeat length of 32-79 units. Using a Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, we obtained cumulative probability curves for disease manifestation at a particular age for each CAG repeat length in the 34-45 range. These curves were significantly different (p < 0.001) and showed small overlap. All these information may be very valuable in predictive-testing programs, in the planning of studies for the identification of other genetic and environmental factors as modifiers of age at onset, and in the design of clinical trials for people at enlarged risk for SCA2.

  15. Neurocognition across the spectrum of mucopolysaccharidosis type I: Age, severity, and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shapiro, Elsa G.; Nestrasil, Igor; Rudser, Kyle; Delaney, Kathleen; Kovac, Victor; Ahmed, Alia; Yund, Brianna; Orchard, Paul J.; Eisengart, Julie; Niklason, Gregory R.; Raiman, Julian; Mamak, Eva; Cowan, Morton J.; Bailey-Olson, Mara; Harmatz, Paul; Shankar, Suma P.; Cagle, Stephanie; Ali, Nadia; Steiner, Robert D.; Wozniak, Jeffrey; Lim, Kelvin O.; Whitley, Chester B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Precise characterization of cognitive outcomes and factors that contribute to cognitive variability will enable better understanding of disease progression and treatment effects in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I). We examined the effects on cognition of phenotype, genotype, age at evaluation and first treatment, and somatic disease burden. Methods Sixty patients with severe MPS IH (Hurler syndrome treated with hematopoietic cell transplant and 29 with attenuated MPS I treated with enzyme replacement therapy), were studied with IQ measures, medical history, genotypes. Sixty-seven patients had volumetric MRI. Subjects were grouped by age and phenotype and MRI and compared to 96 normal controls. Results Prior to hematopoietic cell transplant, MPS IH patients were all cognitively average, but post-transplant, 59% were below average, but stable. Genotype and age at HCT were associated with cognitive ability. In attenuated MPS I, 40% were below average with genotype and somatic disease burden predicting their cognitive ability. White matter volumes were associated with IQ for controls, but not for MPS I. Gray matter volumes were positively associated with IQ in controls and attenuated MPS I patients, but negatively associated in MPS IH. Conclusions Cognitive impairment, a major difficulty for many MPS I patients, is associated with genotype, age at treatment and somatic disease burden. IQ association with white matter differed from controls. Many attenuated MPS patients have significant physical and/or cognitive problems and receive insufficient support services. Results provide direction for future clinical trials and better disease management. PMID:26095521

  16. Developing Educational Computer Animation Based on Human Personality Types

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musa, Sajid; Ziatdinov, Rushan; Sozcu, Omer Faruk; Griffiths, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Computer animation in the past decade has become one of the most noticeable features of technology-based learning environments. By its definition, it refers to simulated motion pictures showing movement of drawn objects, and is often defined as the art in movement. Its educational application known as educational computer animation is considered…

  17. Human Rights Education in Israel: Four Types of Good Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Katz-Pade, Revital

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the involvement of civil society organizations in human rights education (HRE) in Israel. Focussing on the educational programs of the Association for Civil Rights in Israel (ACRI), as a qualitative instrumental case study, this article examines the conceptions of good citizenship embedded in these programs. Specifically, the…

  18. Educational Technology and Practice: Types and Timescales of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, David

    2007-01-01

    This article identifies three uses of educational technology and evaluates their potential to change curricula and pedagogic strategies. The article is in four parts, with the first outlining a temporal model of change and discussing educators' expectations of continuities and discontinuities in practice. In order to distinguish minor…

  19. Degree of bilingualism predicts age of diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease in low-education but not in highly educated Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Tamar H; Salmon, David P; Montoya, Rosa I; Galasko, Douglas R

    2011-12-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between bilingual language proficiency and onset of probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 44 Spanish-English bilinguals at the UCSD Alzheimer's Disease Research Center. Degree of bilingualism along a continuum was measured using Boston Naming Test (BNT) scores in each language. Higher degrees of bilingualism were associated with increasingly later age-of-diagnosis (and age of onset of symptoms), but this effect was driven by participants with low education level (a significant interaction between years of education and bilingualism) most of whom (73%) were also Spanish-dominant. Additionally, only objective measures (i.e., BNT scores), not self-reported degree of bilingualism, predicted age-of-diagnosis even though objective and self-reported measures were significantly correlated. These findings establish a specific connection between knowledge of two languages and delay of AD onset, and demonstrate that bilingual effects can be obscured by interactions between education and bilingualism, and by failure to obtain objective measures of bilingualism. More generally, these data support analogies between the effects of bilingualism and "cognitive reserve" and suggest an upper limit on the extent to which reserve can function to delay dementia.

  20. Effects of subprimal type, quality grade, and aging time on display color of ground beef patties.

    PubMed

    Garner, C M; Unruh, J A; Hunt, M C; Boyle, E A E; Houser, T A

    2014-10-01

    A factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of two subprimal types (chuck roll and knuckle), two quality grades (Premium Choice and Select), and three vacuum-storage aging times before processing (7, 21, and 42d) ground beef patty display color attributes. Patties from chuck roll and Premium Choice subprimals had brighter red visual color scores, less discoloration, and higher L*, a*, b*, and chroma values than those from knuckle and Select subprimals, respectively. With an increased display time, patties became darker red, more discolored, and had decreased L*, a*, b*, and chroma values. Therefore, aging Premium Choice chuck rolls for less time (fewer than 21d) could maximize display color life.

  1. Strong Genetic Influence on a UK Nationwide Test of Educational Achievement at the End of Compulsory Education at Age 16

    PubMed Central

    Shakeshaft, Nicholas G.; Trzaskowski, Maciej; McMillan, Andrew; Rimfeld, Kaili; Krapohl, Eva; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that individual differences in educational achievement are highly heritable in the early and middle school years in the UK. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether similarly high heritability is found at the end of compulsory education (age 16) for the UK-wide examination, called the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE). In a national twin sample of 11,117 16-year-olds, heritability was substantial for overall GCSE performance for compulsory core subjects (58%) as well as for each of them individually: English (52%), mathematics (55%) and science (58%). In contrast, the overall effects of shared environment, which includes all family and school influences shared by members of twin pairs growing up in the same family and attending the same school, accounts for about 36% of the variance of mean GCSE scores. The significance of these findings is that individual differences in educational achievement at the end of compulsory education are not primarily an index of the quality of teachers or schools: much more of the variance of GCSE scores can be attributed to genetics than to school or family environment. We suggest a model of education that recognizes the important role of genetics. Rather than a passive model of schooling as instruction (instruere, ‘to build in’), we propose an active model of education (educare, ‘to bring out’) in which children create their own educational experiences in part on the basis of their genetic propensities, which supports the trend towards personalized learning. PMID:24349000

  2. Sex- and age-related differences in the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship: role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor.

    PubMed

    Mirabito, Katrina M; Hilliard, Lucinda M; Kett, Michelle M; Brown, Russell D; Booth, Sean C; Widdop, Robert E; Moritz, Karen M; Evans, Roger G; Denton, Kate M

    2014-10-15

    Sex hormones regulate the renin-angiotensin system. For example, estrogen enhances expression of the angiotensin type 2 receptor. We hypothesized that activation of the angiotensin type 2 receptor shifts the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship leftward in females compared with males and that this effect is lost with age. Mean arterial pressure was measured by radiotelemetry in adult (4 mo old) and aged (14 mo old) wild-type and angiotensin type 2 receptor knockout male and female mice. Chronic pressure-natriuresis curves were constructed while mice were maintained on a normal-salt (0.26%) diet and following 6 days of high salt (5.0%) diet. Mean arterial pressure was lower in adult wild-type females than males (88 ± 1 and 97 ± 1 mmHg, respectively), a difference that was maintained with age, but was absent in adult knockout mice. In wild-type females, the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship was shifted leftward compared with knockout females, an effect that was lost with age. In males, the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship was not influenced by angiotensin type 2 receptor deficiency. Compared with age-matched females, the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationships in male mice were shifted rightward. Renal expression of the angiotensin type 2 receptor was fourfold greater in adult wild-type females than males. With age, the angiotensin type 2 receptor-to-angiotensin type 1 receptor balance was reduced in females. Conversely, in males, angiotensin receptor expression did not vary significantly with age. In conclusion, the angiotensin type 2 receptor modulates the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship in an age- and sex-dependent manner.

  3. Effects of maternal education on diet, anemia, and iron deficiency in Korean school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We investigated the relationship among socioeconomic status factors, the risk of anemia, and iron deficiency among school-aged children in Korea. Methods The sample consisted of fourth-grade students aged 10 y recruited from nine elementary schools in Korean urban areas in 2008 (n = 717). Anthropometric and blood biochemistry data were obtained for this cross-sectional observational study. Anemia was defined as hemoglobin levels lower than 11.5 g/dl. Iron deficiency was defined as serum iron levels lower than 40 ug/dl. We also obtained data on parental education from questionnaires and on children's diets from 3-day food diaries. Parental education was categorized as low or high, with the latter representing an educational level beyond high school. Results Children with more educated mothers were less likely to develop anemia (P = 0.0324) and iron deficiency (P = 0.0577) than were those with less educated mothers. This group consumed more protein (P = 0.0004) and iron (P = 0.0012) from animal sources than did the children of less educated mothers, as reflected by their greater consumption of meat, poultry, and derivatives (P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis revealed a significant inverse relationship between maternal education and the prevalence of anemia (odds ratio: 0.52; 95% confidence interval: 0.32, 0.85). Conclusions As a contributor to socioeconomic status, maternal education is important in reducing the risk of anemia and iron deficiency and in increasing children's consumption of animal food sources. PMID:22087564

  4. Developing a Competency Framework for the Initial Training of Educational Psychologists Working with Young People Aged 16-25

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Cathy; Dunsmuir, Sandra; Lang, Jane; Wright, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    The Children and Families Act (2014) extends statutory protections for young people with special educational needs and disabilities until age 25. Consequently the core curriculum for trainee educational psychologists (TEPs) needs to be developed beyond the current focus of work with early years and school-age children. In order to define requisite…

  5. The Relevance of Media Education in Primary Schools in Hong Kong in the Age of New Media: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, C. K.

    2005-01-01

    In this age of new media, children are exposed to media messages at an early age. What can we do when the mass media exert such a great influence on children? One proposal has been for the introduction of a new school subject: media education. Though media education has not been part of the official curriculum in Hong Kong, some schools, both…

  6. NEUROPSI: a brief neuropsychological test battery in Spanish with norms by age and educational level.

    PubMed

    Ostrosky-Solís, F; Ardila, A; Rosselli, M

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop, standardize, and test the reliability of a short neuropsychological test battery in the Spanish language. This neuropsychological battery was named "NEUROPSI," and was developed to assess briefly a wide spectrum of cognitive functions, including orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, and executive functions. The NEUROPSI includes items that are relevant for Spanish-speaking communities. It can be applied to illiterates and low educational groups. Administration time is 25 to 30 min. Normative data were collected from 800 monolingual Spanish-speaking individuals, ages 16 to 85 years. Four age groups were used: (1) 16 to 30 years, (2) 31 to 50 years, (3) 51 to 65 years, and (4) 66 to 85 years. Data also are analyzed and presented within 4 different educational levels that were represented in this sample; (1) illiterates (zero years of school); (2) 1 to 4 years of school; (2) 5 to 9 years of school; and (3) 10 or more years of formal education. The effects of age and education, as well as the factor structure of the NEUROPSI are analyzed. The NEUROPSI may fulfill the need for brief, reliable, and objective evaluation of a broad range of cognitive functions in Spanish-speaking populations.

  7. Aging among Persons with Intellectual Disability in Israel in Relation to Type of Residence, Age, and Etiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshitz, Hefziba; Merrick, Joav

    2004-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare aging phenomena of persons with intellectual and developmental disability (ID) aged 40 years and older living in community residence (N=65) with those living with their families (N=43) in Jerusalem, Israel. All 108 persons and care givers were interviewed to ascertain health problems, sensory impairment,…

  8. Intensive Weight Loss Intervention in Individuals Ages 65 Years or Older: Results from the Look AHEAD Type 2 Diabetes Trial

    PubMed Central

    Espeland, Mark A.; Rejeski, W. Jack; West, Delia S.; Bray, George A.; Clark, Jeanne M.; Peters, Anne L.; Chen, Haiying; Johnson, Karen C.; Horton, Edward S.; Hazuda, Helen P.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To compare the relative effects of four years of intensive lifestyle intervention on weight, fitness, and cardiovascular disease risk factors among older versus younger individuals DESIGN A randomized controlled clinical trial SETTING 16 US clinical sites PARTICIPANTS Individuals with type 2 diabetes: 1,053 aged 65–76 years and 4,092 aged 45–64 years INTERVENTIONS An intensive behavioral intervention designed to promote and maintain weight loss through caloric restriction and increased physical activity compared to a condition of diabetes support and education. MEASUREMENTS Standardized assessments of weight, fitness (based on graded exercise testing), and cardiovascular disease risk factors RESULTS Across four years, older individuals had greater intervention-related mean weight losses than younger participants, 6.2% versus 5.1% (interaction p=0.006) and comparable relative mean increases in fitness, 0.56 versus 0.53 metabolic equivalents (interaction p=0.72). These benefits were seen consistently across subgroups of older adults formed by many demographic and health factors. Among a panel of age-related health conditions, only self-reported worsening vision was associated with poorer intervention-related weight loss in older individuals. The intensive lifestyle intervention produced mean increases in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (2.03 mg/dl; p<0.001) and decreases in glycated hemoglobin (0.21%; p<0.001) and waist girth (3.52 cc; p<0.001) across 4 years that were at least as large in older compared to younger individuals. CONCLUSION Intensive lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss and increased physical activity is effective in overweight and obese older individuals to produce sustained weight loss and improvements in fitness and cardiovascular risk factors. PMID:23668423

  9. The Stroop Color-Word Test: Influence of Age, Sex, and Education; and Normative Data for a Large Sample Across the Adult Age Range

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Elst, Wim; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Van Breukelen, Gerard J. P.; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    The Stroop Color-Word Test was administered to 1,856 cognitively screened, healthy Dutch-speaking participants aged 24 to 81 years. The effects of age, gender, and education on Stroop test performance were investigated to adequately stratify the normative data. The results showed that especially the speed-dependent Stroop scores (time to complete…

  10. Interprofessional education in practice: Evaluation of a work integrated aged care program.

    PubMed

    Lawlis, Tanya; Wicks, Alison; Jamieson, Maggie; Haughey, Amy; Grealish, Laurie

    2016-03-01

    Health professional clinical education is commonly conducted in single discipline modes, thus limiting student collaboration skills. Aged care residential facilities, due to the chronic and complex health care needs of residents, provide an ideal placement to provide a collaborative experience. Interprofessional education is widely acknowledged as the pedagogical framework through which to facilitate collaboration. The aim of the evaluation was to assess student attitudes towards collaboration after active involvement in an interprofessional education program. Students studying nursing, occupational therapy, and aged care were invited to complete a version of the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale before and after participating in a three-week pilot interprofessional program. A positive change in student attitudes towards other health professionals and the importance of working in interprofessional teams was reported with significant differences between two statements indicated: Learning with health-care students before qualifications would improve relationships after qualifications; and I learned a lot from the students from the other disciplines. The innovative pilot project was found to enhance student learning in interprofessional teams and the aged care environment. Further development of this and similar interprofessional programs is required to develop sustainable student projects that have health benefits for residents in aged care residential facilities.

  11. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  12. Syllable Type Consistency is Related to Age, Social Status, and Reproductive Success in the Tropical Mockingbird.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Rossman, Rachel J; Caro, Lina M; Stenzler, Laura M; Lovette, Irby J; De Kort, Selvino R; Vehrencamp, Sandra L

    2009-03-01

    Many animals repeat standardized displays multiple times while attracting a mate or deterring a rival. In such contexts it is possible that the ability to perform each display or signal type in a consistent fashion is under direct selection. Studies on sexual selection on song learning in birds have focused on differences in repertoire size with less attention to the potential importance of being able to perform each song/syllable type with high consistency. We present evidence that tropical mockingbirds decrease the variation between renditions of each syllable type as they grow older (i.e., become more consistent) and that more consistent males in this species tend to have higher dominance status and reproductive success. These findings stress the importance of consistency in the performance of sexual displays and suggest that this parameter may be very relevant even in species that are selected for high vocal diversity (i.e., large repertoires). In addition to signalling dominance status and age, we hypothesize that syllable type consistency may also be an indicator of the integrity of brain function in birds analogous to the tests used for neuropsychological assessment in humans.

  13. Educating the Isolated Ageing: Improving the Quality of Life of the Housebound Elderly through Educational Teleconferencing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swindell, Richard; Mayhew, Claire

    1996-01-01

    Eighteen homebound frail elderly took part in an eight-week teleconference that provided practical information (nutrition, health, social services) as well as stimulated thinking. Quality of life improvements and further interest in education resulted. Teleconferencing proved a cost-effective method of reaching homebound persons. (SK)

  14. Education, Democracy, and Cultural Pluralism: Continuing Higher Education in an Age of Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, John F.

    1990-01-01

    Commonalities between the late nineteenth- and late twentieth-century U.S. society emphasize the idea of diversity as the basis of unity. Programs to encourage minority adult participation in education must address the serious problems of immigrants and minorities while respecting cultural identity. (36 references) (SK)

  15. Student Learning in the Information Age. American Council on Education Series on Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breivik, Patricia Senn

    This book discusses resource-based learning in higher education. One premise of resource-based learning is that as students become able to select their own learning materials from information resources, they become active, independent learners, while professors become learning facilitators in cooperation with librarians and other information…

  16. Aging behavior of lithium iron phosphate based 18650-type cells studied by in situ neutron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Neelima; Wandt, Johannes; Seidlmayer, Stefan; Schebesta, Sebastian; Mühlbauer, Martin J.; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Gilles, Ralph

    2017-03-01

    The aging behavior of commercially produced 18650-type Li-ion cells consisting of a lithium iron phosphate (LFP) based cathode and a graphite anode based on either mesocarbon microbeads (MCMB) or needle coke (NC) is studied by in situ neutron diffraction and standard electrochemical techniques. While the MCMB cells showed an excellent cycle life with only 8% relative capacity loss (i.e., referenced to the capacity after formation) after 4750 cycles and showed no capacity loss on storage for two years, the needle coke cells suffered a 23% relative capacity loss after cycling and a 11% loss after storage. Based on a combination of neutron diffraction and electrochemical characterization, it is shown that the entire capacity loss for both cell types is dominated by the loss of active lithium; no other aging mechanisms like structural degradation of anode or cathode active materials or deactivation of active material could be found, highlighting the high structural stability of the active material and the excellent quality of the investigated cells.

  17. The effect of accelerated ageing on performance properties of addition type silicone biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Stathi, K; Tarantili, P A; Polyzois, G

    2010-05-01

    The UV-protection provided to addition type silicone elastomers by various colorants, such as conventional dry earth pigments, as well as the so called "functional or reactive" pigments, was investigated. Moreover, the effect of a UV light absorber and a silica filler was also explored. Under the experimental parameters of this work, the exposure of silicone to UV radiation resulted in some changes of the IR absorbance, thermal decomposition after 400 degrees C, T(g) and tensile properties, whereas the storage modulus of samples was not affected. The obtained spectroscopic data, as well as the results of TGA and storage modulus, were interpreted by assuming that chain scission takes place during aging, whereas the improvement of tensile strength allows the hypothesis of a post-curing process, initiated by UV radiation. Therefore, the increase of T(g) could partly be due to the above reason and, furthermore, to the contribution of a rearrangement of chain fragments within the free volume of the elastomeric material. Regarding the evaluation of various coloring agents used in this work, the obtained results show that dry pigments are more sensitive to accelerated ageing conditions in comparison with functional liquid pigments. Moreover, the hydrophobic character of silicone matrix is enhanced, with the addition of this type pigments because of the vinyl functional silanes groups present in their chemical structure. Finally, it should be noted that the incorporation of silica nanofiller did not seem to prevent the silicone elastomer from degradation upon UV irradiation, but showed a significant reinforcing effect.

  18. Different Perspectives on Technology Acceptance: The Role of Technology Type and Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arning, Katrin; Ziefle, Martina

    Although eHealth technologies offer an enormous potential to improve healthcare, the knowledge about key determinants of acceptance for eHealth technology is restricted. While the underlying technology of eHealth technologies and Information and Communication technology (ICT) is quite similar, utilization contexts and using motives are quite different. In order to explore the role of technology type on acceptance, we contrasted central application characteristics of both technology types using the scenario technique. A questionnaire was administered (n = 104) measuring individual variables (age, gender) and attitudes regarding an eHealth application (blood sugar meter) in contrast to an ICT device (Personal Digital Assistant, PDA). Older users basically approved the utilization of health-related technologies and perceived lower usability barriers. In addition, we identified main utilization motives of eHealth technology and technology-specific acceptance patterns, especially regarding issues of data safety in the eHealth context. Effects of age and gender in acceptance ratings suggest a differential perspective on eHealth acceptance. Finally, practical interventions were derived in order to support eHealth device design and to promote acceptance of eHealth technology.

  19. Integrating an Aging Student Population into Higher Education--Challenges for Evidence-Based Policy in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Dominic

    2010-01-01

    Both demographic developments and the need for highly skilled workers have led to renewed efforts to widen access to higher education in Europe. This means looking beyond the traditional clientele of university education in terms of routes into higher education, age, and centrality of studies. Attracting and catering to this more comprehensive…

  20. Citizenship and Education in Twenty-Eight Countries: Civic Knowledge and Engagement at Age Fourteen. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torney-Purta, Judith; Lehmann, Rainer; Oswald, Hans; Schulz, Wolfram

    This is an Executive Summary for "Citizenship and Education in Twenty-eight Countries: Civic Knowledge and Engagement at Age Fourteen," the first report of the results of the second phase of the Civic Education Study conducted by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA). The Executive Summary briefly…

  1. Development and Evaluation of Nutrition Education Competencies and a Competency-Based Resource Guide for Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherr, Rachel E.; Reed, Heather; Briggs, Marilyn; Zidenberg-Cherr, Sheri

    2011-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this research was to develop and evaluate nutrition education competencies and a competency-based resource guide, Connecting the Dots...Healthy Foods, Healthy Choices, Healthy Kids (CTD), for preschool-aged children in California. Methods: Nutrition education experts and California Department of Education staff…

  2. The Effects of Self-Management Education for School-Age Children on Asthma Morbidity: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Emily; Grimes, Deanna E.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of asthma self-management education for school-age children on number of school days missed, emergency department visits and hospital admissions were evaluated through a systematic review of the published research. A total of 9 studies on asthma education programs that were conducted in schools by school nurses and health educators and…

  3. Strengthening field education in aging through university-community agency partnership: the Practicum Partnership Program.

    PubMed

    Lawrance, Frances P; Damron-Rodriguez, Joann; Rosenfeld, Peri; Sisco, Sarah; Volland, Patricia J

    2007-01-01

    The Practicum Partnership Program (PPP), an innovative field education model developed and implemented by six demonstration sites over four years (2000-2004), uses a structured university-community partnership, or consortium, as the foundation for designing, implementing, and evaluating internships for graduate social work students specializing in aging. This paper describes the site consortia and PPP programs, presents evaluation findings, and identifies future directions for the PPP. Student learning outcomes were positive and both students and consortia agencies reported positive PPP experiences. The PPP model underscores the value of the community agencies as equal partners in educating future geriatric social workers.

  4. Age-related obesity and type 2 diabetes dysregulate neuronal associated genes and proteins in humans.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Mehran; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Daghighi, Mojtaba; Özcan, Behiye; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Amini, Marzyeh; Mazza, Tommaso; Pazienza, Valerio; Motazacker, Mahdi M; Mahmoudi, Morteza; De Rooij, Felix W M; Sijbrands, Eric; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Rezaee, Farhad

    2015-10-06

    Despite numerous developed drugs based on glucose metabolism interventions for treatment of age-related diseases such as diabetes neuropathies (DNs), DNs are still increasing in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D). We aimed to identify novel candidates in adipose tissue (AT) and pancreas with T2D for targeting to develop new drugs for DNs therapy. AT-T2D displayed 15 (e.g. SYT4 up-regulated and VGF down-regulated) and pancreas-T2D showed 10 (e.g. BAG3 up-regulated, VAV3 and APOA1 down-regulated) highly differentially expressed genes with neuronal functions as compared to control tissues. ELISA was blindly performed to measure proteins of 5 most differentially expressed genes in 41 human subjects. SYT4 protein was upregulated, VAV3 and APOA1 were down-regulated, and BAG3 remained unchanged in 1- Obese and 2- Obese-T2D without insulin, VGF protein was higher in these two groups as well as in group 3- Obese-T2D receiving insulin than 4-lean subjects. Interaction networks analysis of these 5 genes showed several metabolic pathways (e.g. lipid metabolism and insulin signaling). Pancreas is a novel site for APOA1 synthesis. VGF is synthesized in AT and could be considered as good diagnostic, and even prognostic, marker for age-induced diseases obesity and T2D. This study provides new targets for rational drugs development for the therapy of age-related DNs.

  5. Age-related obesity and type 2 diabetes dysregulate neuronal associated genes and proteins in humans

    PubMed Central

    Daghighi, Mojtaba; Özcan, Behiye; Akbarkhanzadeh, Vishtaseb; Sheedfar, Fareeba; Amini, Marzyeh; Mazza, Tommaso; Pazienza, Valerio; Motazacker, Mahdi M.; Mahmoudi, Morteza; De Rooij, Felix W. M.; Sijbrands, Eric; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Rezaee, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    Despite numerous developed drugs based on glucose metabolism interventions for treatment of age-related diseases such as diabetes neuropathies (DNs), DNs are still increasing in patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes (T1D, T2D). We aimed to identify novel candidates in adipose tissue (AT) and pancreas with T2D for targeting to develop new drugs for DNs therapy. AT-T2D displayed 15 (e.g. SYT4 up-regulated and VGF down-regulated) and pancreas-T2D showed 10 (e.g. BAG3 up-regulated, VAV3 and APOA1 down-regulated) highly differentially expressed genes with neuronal functions as compared to control tissues. ELISA was blindly performed to measure proteins of 5 most differentially expressed genes in 41 human subjects. SYT4 protein was upregulated, VAV3 and APOA1 were down-regulated, and BAG3 remained unchanged in 1- Obese and 2- Obese-T2D without insulin, VGF protein was higher in these two groups as well as in group 3- Obese-T2D receiving insulin than 4-lean subjects. Interaction networks analysis of these 5 genes showed several metabolic pathways (e.g. lipid metabolism and insulin signaling). Pancreas is a novel site for APOA1 synthesis. VGF is synthesized in AT and could be considered as good diagnostic, and even prognostic, marker for age-induced diseases obesity and T2D. This study provides new targets for rational drugs development for the therapy of age-related DNs. PMID:26337083

  6. Providing Preoperative Information for Children Undergoing Surgery: A Randomized Study Testing Different Types of Educational Material to Reduce Children's Preoperative Worries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, S. C.; Arriaga, P.; Esteves, F.

    2014-01-01

    This study developed three types of educational preoperative materials and examined their efficacy in preparing children for surgery by analysing children's preoperative worries and parental anxiety. The sample was recruited from three hospitals in Lisbon and consisted of 125 children, aged 8-12 years, scheduled to undergo outpatient surgery. The…

  7. Age at first marriage, education and divorce: the case of the U.S.A..

    PubMed

    Perreira, P T

    1991-01-01

    "This paper presents an analysis of the determinants of the age of marriage and the probability of divorce among women in the United States." The author hypothesizes that the possibility of divorce enters into women's decision to marry. "As expected, empirical results indicate that in the United States, where it is easier to obtain divorce, women tend to marry earlier. Furthermore, Catholic women tend to marry later....Results seem to indicate the age at marriage and education should not be considered to be exogenous in the study of the probability of divorce. Another important result is that women who marry earlier...show a lower probability of divorce...."

  8. An autopsy case of an aged patient with spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Chiho; Komai, Kiyonobu; Yonezawa, Kohei; Sakajiri, Ken-Ichi; Nitta, Eishun; Kawashima, Atsuhiro; Yamada, Masahito

    2011-10-01

    We report the case of a woman who developed limb clumsiness in her fifties and gait disturbance in her sixties. She was bedridden after bone fractures at age 75 and showed disorientation, slow eye movement, gaze palsy, ataxic speech, muscle atrophy and weakness, and areflexia with pathological reflex. She died of respiratory failure at age 85. This patient was diagnosed genetically as having spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2), and the number of expanded CAG repeats was 41. At autopsy, the brain weighed 965 g, and the brainstem, cerebellum, frontal convexity and spinal cord were atrophic. Neuronal loss and gliosis were severe in the pontine nucleus, inferior olivary nucleus, cerebellar cortex, gracile and cuneate nuclei and moderate in the substantia nigra, cerebellar dentate nucleus, anterior horns of the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. Axonal loss was observed in the middle and inferior cerebellar peduncles, pyramidal tract and posterior column of the spinal cord. Senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were diffusely found in the cerebrum (plaque stage C; NFT stage IV). Expanded polyglutamine-immunoreactive inclusions in the neuronal cytoplasm were widely distributed in the CNS, and neuronal intranuclear inclusions were observed in the pontine nucleus and cerebral cortex. This patient in this autopsy case is a late-onset and aged patient with SCA2, and this is the first report of SCA2 combined with Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Neuropathological findings in this patient, except for AD pathology, were consistent with those of reported SCA2 cases. However, the olivo-ponto-cerebellar system of this patient was relatively preserved and the cerebellar dentate nucleus was more involved as compared with previously reported cases. These results suggest that age at onset or the number of CAG repeat expansions could correlate with the distribution pattern of SCA2 neurodegeneration.

  9. Understanding Test-Type Assignment: Why Do Special Educators Make Unexpected Test-Type Assignments?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Hyun-Jeong; Kingston, Neal

    2014-01-01

    We interviewed special educators (a) whose students with disabilities (SWDs) were proficient on the 2008 general education assessment but were assigned to the 2009 alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards (AA-MAS), and (b) whose students with mild disabilities took the 2008 alternate assessment based on alternate achievement…

  10. The Internet and health information: differences in pet owners based on age, gender, and education

    PubMed Central

    Kogan, Lori R.; Schoenfeld-Tacher, Regina; Viera, Ann R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The research assessed the attitudes and behaviors of pet owners pertaining to online search behavior for pet health information. Methods: A survey was conducted with a random sample of pet owners drawn from two US metropolitan areas and surrounding cities. Participating clinics were chosen randomly, and each participating clinic was asked to distribute 100 surveys to their clients until all surveys were disbursed. Results: Although some perceptions and behaviors surrounding the use of the Internet for pet health information differ based on gender, age, or education level of pet owners, there are many aspects in which there are no differences based on these demographics. Conclusions: Results of the study suggest that closer examination of the common perception that gender, age, or education level has an effect on Internet behavior as it relates to veterinary medicine is required. Recommendations are made pertaining to the growing presence of the Internet and its impact on veterinary medicine. PMID:22879809

  11. Influence of height on attained level of education in males at 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Szklarska, Alicja; Kozieł, Sławomir; Bielicki, Tadeusz; Malina, Robert M

    2007-07-01

    In this study it is hypothesized that taller individuals are more likely to move up the scale of educational attainment compared with shorter individuals from the same social background. Three national cohorts of 19-year-old males were considered: 29,464 born in 1967 and surveyed in 1986, 31,062 born in 1976 and surveyed in 1995, and 30,851 born in 1982 and surveyed in 2001. Four social variables were used to describe the social background of each conscript in the three surveys: degree of urbanization, family size, and parental and maternal educational status. The educational status of each conscript was classified into two groups: (1) those who were secondary school students or graduates, or who had entered college, and (2) those who had completed their education at the primary school level or who had gone to a basic trade school. Multiple binomial logistic regressions were used to estimate the relative risk of achieving higher educational status by 19-year-old males relative to height and the four social factors. Consistently across the three cohorts the odd ratios (ORs) indicate that height exerts an independent and significant effect on the attained level of education at the age of 19 years in males (1986: OR=1.24, p<0.001; 1995: OR=1.24, p <0.001; 2001: OR=1.20, p<0.001). Two possible, not mutually exclusive, selective mechanisms are postulated and discussed: 'passive' and 'active' action.

  12. Age Dating Merger Events in Early Type Galaxies via the Detection of AGB Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothun, G.

    2005-01-01

    A thorough statistical analysis of the J-H vs. H-K color plane of all detected early type galaxies in the 2MASS catalog with velocities less than 5000 km/s has been performed. This all sky survey is not sensitive to one particular galactic environment and therefore a representative range of early type galaxy environments have been sampled. Virtually all N-body simulation so major mergers produces a central starburst due to rapid collection of gas. This central starburst is of sufficient amplitude to change the stellar population in the central regions of the galaxy. Intermediate age populations are given away by the presence of AGB stars which will drive the central colors redder in H-K relative to the J- H baseline. This color anomaly has a lifetime of 2-5 billion years depending on the amplitude of the initial starburst Employing this technique on the entire 2MASS sample (several hundred galaxies) reveals that the AGB signature occurs less than 1% of the time. This is a straightforward indication that virtually all nearby early type galaxies have not had a major merger occur within the last few billion years.

  13. On the Age, Spectral Type, Orbit, and Comparison to Evolutionary Models of AB Dor C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, L. M.; Nielsen, E. L.; Guirado, J. C.; Biller, B. A.; Lenzen, R.; Brandner, W.; Hartung, M.; Lidman, C.

    We expand upon the results of Close et al. 2005 regarding the young, low-mass object AB Dor C and its role as a calibration point for theoretical tracks. We argue for a new 70±30 Myr age estimate and present two additional detections of C with the Simultaneous Differential Imaging (SDI) camera. Our improved analysis (Nielsen et al. 2005) confirms our spectral type of M8 (±1) and mass of 0.090 ±0.003 Msun for AB Dor C. However, Luhman & Potter (2006) argue for a hotter spectral type (M6±1). Here we adopt the consistent spectral range of M7±1 in this paper as a final spectral type. Plotting AB Dor C (and all other young ({ Myr), low-mass (0.3-0.05 Msun) objects with accurate dynamical masses) on the HR diagram suggests a trend where current evolutionary models tend to over-predict the temperature (or under-predict the mass) for young low-mass stars and high-mass brown dwarfs. With our uncertainties, there is a ˜90% chance that the mass of AB Dor C is underestimated by the DUSTY tracks in the HR diagram.

  14. The vitreomacular interface in different types of age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    El-Hifnawy, Mohamed Abd ElMonaem; Ibrahim, Hisham Ali; Gomaa, Amir Ramadan; Elmasry, Mohamed A

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the vitreomacular interface in cases with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to compare them to eyes with dry AMD and normal eyes. METHODS This was a cross-sectional comparative study that included 87 eyes with wet AMD, 42 eyes with dry AMD and 40 eyes without AMD as a control group. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination was performed for all patients to assess the vitreomacular interface. RESULTS In the wet AMD group, 34.5% of cases had vitreomacular adhesion (VMA). Only 14.3% of dry AMD cases and 10% of control cases had VMA. There was a significant difference between the control group and the wet AMD group (P=0.004) as well as the dry and wet AMD group (P=0.017). There was also a significant difference between the incidence of VMA in patients with subretinal choroidal neovascularization (CNV, type 1) and intraretinal CNV (type 2 or type 3) (P=0.020). CONCLUSION There is an association between posterior vitreous attachment and AMD. There is also an increased incidence of VMA with intra-retinal CNV. PMID:28251084

  15. Migration, age, and education: a cross-sectional analysis of geographic labor mobility in Japan.

    PubMed

    Inoki, T; Suruga, T

    1981-11-01

    "This paper presents some new empirical evidence on the determinants of prefecture-to-city migration in Japan, using a model based on the human capital-search theoretic approach." Several hypotheses relating the rate of migration to age, education, distance moved, and earnings are tested, and the applicability of the theoretical framework to the analysis of labor migration in Japan is evaluated. Data are from the 1970 census and the 1968 Employment Status Survey.

  16. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school.

    PubMed

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.

  17. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  18. Our Future Selves; A Research Plan Toward Understanding Aging, of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHEW/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    This booklet presents a research plan of the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (DHEW) aimed at understanding aging in the United States. The following subjects are discussed: (1) demographic information that outlines major issues affecting aging; (2) priorities for aging research in the biomedical, behavioral and social science and…

  19. Changing Attitudes Toward Care of Aging Parents: The Influence of Education, International Travel, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Compernolle, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Population aging is a key public health issue facing many nations, and is particularly pronounced in many Asian countries. At the same time, attitudes toward filial obligation are also rapidly changing, with a decreasing sense that children are responsible for caring for elderly parents. This investigation blends the family versus nonfamily mode of social organization framework with a life course perspective to provide insight into the processes of ideational change regarding filial responsibility, highlighting the influence of education and international travel. Using data from a longitudinal study in Nepal—the Chitwan Valley Family Study—results demonstrate that education and international travel are associated with a decrease in attitudes toward filial obligation. However, findings further reveal that the impact of education and international travel vary both across the life course and by gender. PMID:25866415

  20. Survey of Different Types of Communication in Swimming Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biro, Melinda

    2007-01-01

    Study aim: To evaluate verbal and non-verbal behaviour of teachers and pupils in elementary swimming education and their impact on pupils' achievements. Material and methods: A total of 77 swimming lessons were videorecorded and coded with the modified Cheffers' Adaptation of Flanders Interaction Analysis System (CAFIAS); 46 PE teachers, swimming…

  1. Heritability of word recognition in middle-aged men varies as a function of parental education.

    PubMed

    Kremen, William S; Jacobson, Kristen C; Xian, Hong; Eisen, Seth A; Waterman, Brian; Toomey, Rosemary; Neale, Michael C; Tsuang, Ming T; Lyons, Michael J

    2005-07-01

    Although it is of lifelong importance, reading ability is studied primarily in children and adolescents. We examined variation in word recognition in 347 middle-aged male twin pairs. Overall heritability (a2) was 0.45, and shared environmental influences (c2) were 0.28. However, parental education moderated heritability such that a2 was 0.21 at the lowest parental education level and 0.69 at the highest level; c2 was 0.52 and 0.00, respectively. This constitutes a parental education x environment interaction. The higher heritability was due to a decrease in the magnitude of shared environmental factors, rather than an increase in the magnitude of genetic factors. Other cognitive studies have reported gene x environment interactions, but patterns may differ as a function of age or specific cognitive abilities. Our results suggest that shared environmental factors in families with low parental education have long-lasting effects on word recognition ability, well beyond any critical period for developing reading proficiency.

  2. Changes in hip fracture epidemiology: redistribution between ages, genders and fracture types.

    PubMed

    Löfman, O; Berglund, K; Larsson, L; Toss, G

    2002-01-01

    After several reports of increasing hip fracture incidence some studies have suggested a trend-break. In a previous study of hip fractures we forecast a 70% increase in the total number of fractures from 1985 up to year 2000. We therefore studied the incidence trend for the last 15 years and supply a new prognosis up to year 2010. We recorded all incident hip fractures treated in the county of Ostergötland, Sweden (approximately 400,000 inhabitants) 1982-96. A total of 11,517 hip fractures in men and women aged 50 years and above were included in the study after cross-validation between a computerized register of radiologic investigations and the hospital records. The projected number of fractures up to year 2010 was estimated by a Poisson regression model, considering both age and year of fracture in every single year 1982-96 for the respective fracture type and gender, and applied to the projected population. The annual number of hip fractures increased by 39% in men and 25% in women during the study period. Amongst men, the age-adjusted incidence of cervical fractures increased from 188 to 220/100,000 and of trochanteric fractures from 138 to 170/100,000. In women the incidence of cervical fractures decreased from 462/100,000 to 418/100,000 and of trochanteric fractures from 407/100,000 to 361/100,000. Cervical/trochanteric fracture incidence rate ratio leveled off, and also the female/male fracture rate ratio declined. A prognosis assuming that the incidence development will continue as during 1982-96, and a population in agreement with the forecast, predicts that the total age- and sex-adjusted number of hip fractures will decrease by 11% up to year 2010 compared with 1996. In women and men, however, a decrease of 19% and an increase of 7% respectively were projected. If the age- and sex-specific incidence remains at the same level as at the end of the study period, no significant change in the total numbers will occur. A trend-break was thus found in hip

  3. Bone Turnover Does Not Reflect Skeletal Aging in Older Hispanic Men with Type 2 Diabetes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rianon, N.; McCormick, J.; Ambrose, C.; Smith, S. M.; Fisher-Hoch, S.

    2016-01-01

    The paradox of fragility fracture in the presence of non-osteoporotic bone mineral density in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) makes it difficult to clinically predict fracture in this vulnerable group. Serum osteocalcin (OC), a marker of bone turnover, increases with normal skeletal aging indicating risk of fracture. However, OC has been reported to be lower in patients with DM2. An inverse association between higher glycated hemoglobin levels (HbA1c) and lower serum OC in older DM2 patients triggered discussions encouraging further investigation. A key question to be answered is whether changes in glucose metabolism is responsible for bone metabolic changes, ultimately leading to increased risk of fragility fractures in DM2 patients. While these studies were conducted among Caucasian and Asian populations, this has not been studied in Hispanic populations who suffer from a higher prevalence of DM2. The Cameron County Hispanic Cohort (CCHC) in Texas is a homogeneous Hispanic cohort known to have high prevalence of DM2 (30%). Our preliminary data from this cohort reported OC levels lower than the suggested threshold for fragility fracture in post-menopausal women. We further investigated whether bone turnover in older CCHC adults with DM2 show a normal pattern of skeletal aging. Samples and data were obtained from a nested cohort of 68 (21 men and 47 women) Hispanic older adults (=50 years) who had a diagnosis of DM2. Given high prevalence of uncontrolled DM2 in this cohort, we divided population into two groups: i) poor DM2 control with HbA1c level =8 (48% men and 38% women) and ii) good DM2 control with HbA1c level <8). A crosssectional analysis documented associations between serum OC and age adjusted HbA1c levels. There was no direct association between age and OC concentrations in our study. Higher HbA1c was associated with lower serum OC in men (odds ratio -6.5, 95% confidence interval -12.7 to - 0.3, p < 0.04). No significant associations

  4. Mechanical properties of types 304 and 316 stainless steel after long-term aging and exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Horak, J.A.; Sikka, V.K.; Raske, D.T.

    1983-01-01

    Because designs for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) power plants include plant lifetimes to 40 years, an understanding of the mechanical behavior of the structural alloys used is required for times of approx. 2 to 2.5 x 10/sup 5/ h. Most of the alloys used for LMFBR out-of-core structures and components are in a metastable state at the beginning of plant lifetime and evolve to a more stable state and, therefore, microstructure during plant operation. We reviewed mechanical properties and microstructures after prolonged elevated-temperature exposure of types 304 and 316 stainless steel, two alloys used extensively in fast breeder systems. Aging alters properties; in particular, it decreases toughness and tensile ductility, but the properties are still adequate for service. Because stable microstructures have been reached in long-term exposures achieved so far, properties can be expected to remain adequate for service life exposures.

  5. Elastic anomaly and aging of new type of incommensurate phase transition in ferroelectric barium sodium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christy, Yohanes; Matsumoto, Kazuya; Kojima, Seiji

    2015-07-01

    The lattice instability of the incommensurate (IC) phase transition of uniaxial ferroelectric Ba2NaNb5O15 (BNN) was investigated by micro-Brillouin scattering. Spectra of the longitudinal acoustic (LA) mode were observed from room temperature to 750 K. In the vicinity of the IC phase transition temperature TIC = 573 K, elastic anomalies in the form of a sharp peak in the sound velocity and thermal hysteresis during the heating and cooling cycle were observed. During this transition, the crystal point group changed from tetragonal 4mm to orthorhombic 2mm along with the IC modulation. In order to deepen our understanding of the thermal hysteresis, aging experiment in the IC phase was conducted. We can conclude that the appearance of thermal hysteresis related to the relaxation of ferroelastic strain is related to the feature of the new type III IC phase transition mechanism of BNN.

  6. Benthic assemblages on artificial reefs in the northwestern Adriatic Sea: does structure type and age matter?

    PubMed

    Ponti, Massimo; Fava, Federica; Perlini, Rossella Angela; Giovanardi, Otello; Abbiati, Marco

    2015-03-01

    The use of artificial reefs is on the rise worldwide. While their fish aggregating effects are well known, the epibenthic assemblages have been poorly investigated. Two types of artificial reefs (pyramids of concrete slabs and bundles of concrete tubes) have been deployed out of the Po River Delta in 2006 and 2010. The epibenthic assemblages were investigated in 2009 and 2012. Benthic assemblages on both structure typologies were dominated by species tolerating high sedimentation rates. Dissimilarities were found among assemblages with different ages, and, in less extend, between reef typologies. Colonisation by Mytilus galloprovincialis and other major space occupiers did not follow a clear succession pattern and was not affected by reef typology. Species colonisation was likely driven by variability in environmental conditions and recruitment processes rather than by reef typology. This study suggests that environmental features of the deployment sites should be carefully considered in planning and designing artificial reefs, especially in eutrophic and turbid coastal waters, exposed to high river loads.

  7. Gender and education impact on brain aging: a general cognitive factor approach.

    PubMed

    Proust-Lima, Cécile; Amieva, Hélène; Letenneur, Luc; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2008-09-01

    In cognitive aging research, the study of a general cognitive factor has been shown to have a substantial explanatory power over the study of isolated tests. The authors aimed at differentiating the impact of gender and education on global cognitive change with age from their differential impact on 4 psychometric tests using a new latent process approach, which intermediates between a single-factor longitudinal model for sum scores and an item-response theory approach for longitudinal data. The analysis was conducted on a sample of 2,228 subjects from PAQUID, a population-based cohort of older adults followed for 13 years with repeated measures of cognition. Adjusted for vascular factors, the analysis confirmed that women performed better in tests involving verbal components, while men performed better in tests involving visuospatial skills. In addition, the model suggested that women had a slightly steeper global cognitive decline with oldest age than men, even after excluding incident dementia or death. Subjects with higher education exhibited a better mean score for the 4 tests, but this difference tended to attenuate with age for tests involving a speed component.

  8. Formal Reasoning Skills of Secondary School Students as Related to Gender, Age, School Type and Learning Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shemesh, Michal; Lazarowitz, Reuven

    This study investigated: (1) whether boys and girls master formal reasoning tasks to the same degree at the same age; (2) if the variance of boys' and girls' performance in formal tasks could be predicted by the same cognitive learning abilities; and (3) what are the main and interactional effects of age, sex, and school type on the variance of…

  9. The Relationship between Psychological Type and Professional Orientation among Technology Education Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wicklein, Robert C.; Rojewski, Jay W.

    1995-01-01

    Of secondary school teachers who completed the Keirsey-Bates Temperament Sorter, 136 were in technology education, 110 in industrial arts. Two types were prevalent among industrial arts teachers: Extrovert Sensing Feeling Judging and Introvert Sensing Feeling Judging. Technology education teachers were more Extrovert Intuitive Thinking Judging,…

  10. Education Abroad in China: Literature Review of Study Abroad Program Types, Outcomes and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Brett

    2013-01-01

    While there has been an increase in students studying abroad in China, this increase has not been seen in the respective number of articles published in scholarly journals on education abroad in China. This paper summarizes articles from journals on the types of education abroad programs in China, organized by topic, and by the outcomes and…

  11. Model for Cost Per Pupil for Vocational Education Programs and Types of Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasior, Albert G.; And Others

    The study was designed to develop a model for the collection and analysis of cost data for defining the cost per pupil per program per type of school (area vocational or comprehensive). An advisory committee of New Jersey State Department of Education personnel and vocational educators was selected to provide unbiased input. The selected programs…

  12. Equal Access of Ethnic Minority Students to Different Types of Higher Education Institutions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianxin; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we focus on answering the question "Is there equal access to different types of higher education institutions (HEIs) for ethnic minority (EM) students in Yunnan Province (China), and what explanation might be found for any differences?" In order to answer this question, we rely on the education attainment theory, and a…

  13. Inhibition of Adenylyl Cyclase Type 5 Increases Longevity and Healthful Aging through Oxidative Stress Protection

    PubMed Central

    Vatner, Stephen F.; Pachon, Ronald E.; Vatner, Dorothy E.

    2015-01-01

    Mice with disruption of adenylyl cyclase type 5 (AC5 knockout, KO) live a third longer than littermates. The mechanism, in part, involves the MEK/ERK pathway, which in turn is related to protection against oxidative stress. The AC5 KO model also protects against diabetes, obesity, and the cardiomyopathy induced by aging, diabetes, and cardiac stress and also demonstrates improved exercise capacity. All of these salutary features are also mediated, in part, by oxidative stress protection. For example, chronic beta adrenergic receptor stimulation induced cardiomyopathy was rescued by AC5 KO. Conversely, in AC5 transgenic (Tg) mice, where AC5 is overexpressed in the heart, the cardiomyopathy was exacerbated and was rescued by enhancing oxidative stress resistance. Thus, the AC5 KO model, which resists oxidative stress, is uniquely designed for clinical translation, since it not only increases longevity and exercise, but also protects against diabetes, obesity, and cardiomyopathy. Importantly, inhibition of AC5's action to prolong longevity and enhance healthful aging, as well as its mechanism through resistance to oxidative stress, is unique among all of the nine AC isoforms. PMID:25945149

  14. Soil microbial communities are shaped by vegetation type and park age in cities under cold climate.

    PubMed

    Hui, Nan; Jumpponen, Ari; Francini, Gaia; Kotze, D Johan; Liu, Xinxin; Romantschuk, Martin; Strömmer, Rauni; Setälä, Heikki

    2017-03-01

    Soil microbes play a key role in controlling ecosystem functions and providing ecosystem services. Yet, microbial communities in urban green space soils remain poorly characterized. Here we compared soil microbial communities in 41 urban parks of (i) divergent plant functional types (evergreen trees, deciduous trees and lawn) and (ii) different ages (constructed 10, ∼50 and >100 years ago). These microbial communities were also compared to those in 5 control forests in southern Finland. Our results indicate that, despite frequent disturbances in urban parks, urban soil microbes still followed the classic patterns typical of plant-microbe associations in natural environments: both bacterial and fungal communities in urban parks responded to plant functional groups, but fungi were under tighter control of plants than bacteria. We show that park age shaped the composition of microbial communities, possibly because vegetation in old parks have had a longer time to modify soil properties and microbial communities than in young parks. Furthermore, control forests harboured distinct but less diverse soil microbial communities than urban parks that are under continuous anthropogenic disturbance. Our results highlight the importance of maintaining a diverse portfolio of urban green spaces and plant communities therein to facilitate complex microbial communities and functions in urban systems.

  15. Correlation of aging and thermal stability of commercial 18650-type lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börner, M.; Friesen, A.; Grützke, M.; Stenzel, Y. P.; Brunklaus, G.; Haetge, J.; Nowak, S.; Schappacher, F. M.; Winter, M.

    2017-02-01

    Established safety of lithium ion batteries is key for the vast diversity of applications. The influence of aging on the thermal stability of individual cell components and complete cells is of particular interest. Commercial 18650-type lithium ion batteries based on LiNi0.5Co0.2Mn0.3O2/C are investigated after cycling at different temperatures. The variations in the electrochemical performance are mainly attributed to aging effects on the anode side considering the formation of an effective solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) during cycling at 45 °C and a thick decomposition layer on the anode surface at 20 °C. The thermal stability of the anodes is investigated including the analysis of the evolving gases which confirmed the severe degradation of the electrolyte and active material during cycling at 20 °C. In addition, the presence of metallic lithium deposits could strongly affect the thermal stability. Thermal safety tests using quasi-adiabatic conditions show variations in the cells response to elevated temperatures according to the state-of-charge, i.e. a reduced reactivity in the discharged state. Furthermore, it is revealed that the onset of exothermic reactions correlates with the thermal stability of the SEI, while the thermal runaway is mainly attributed to the decomposition of the cathode and the subsequent reactions with the electrolyte.

  16. Pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II in female mice is enhanced with age: role of the angiotensin type 2 receptor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The pressor response to angiotensin II (AngII) is attenuated in adult females as compared to males via an angiotensin type 2 receptor (AT2R)-dependent pathway. We hypothesized that adult female mice are protected against AngII-induced hypertension via an enhanced AT2R-mediated pathway and that in reproductively senescent females this pathway is no longer operative. Methods Mean arterial pressure was measured via telemetry in 4-month-old (adult) and 16-month-old (aged) and aged ovariectomized (aged-OVX) wild-type and AT2R knockout (AT2R-KO) female mice during baseline and 14-day infusion of vehicle (saline) or AngII (600 ng/kg/min s.c.). Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to determine renal gene expression of angiotensin receptors and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in response to 14-day treatment with vehicle or AngII. Results Basal mean arterial pressure was similar between the groups. The pressor response to AngII was augmented in adult AT2R-KO compared to adult wild-type mice (29 ± 3 mmHg versus 10 ± 4 mmHg, respectively, on day 14 as compared to basal mean arterial pressure, P = 0.002). In wild-type mice, pressor responsiveness to AngII was augmented with age, such that the pressor response to AngII was similar between aged AT2R-KO and wild-type female mice (31 ± 4 mmHg versus 34 ± 3 mmHg, respectively, on day 14, P = 0.9). There were no significant differences in pressor responsiveness to AngII between aged and aged-OVX mice. Vehicle-treated aged wild-type mice had a lower renal AT2R/AT1R balance as compared to adult counterparts. In response to AngII, the renal AT2R/AT1R balance in aged wild-type females was greater than that observed in vehicle-treated aged wild-type females and adult wild-type females, yet the protective effects of AT2R activation were not restored. Conclusions The protective role of the AT2R depressor pathway is lost with age in female mice. Therefore

  17. Michelson-type Radio Interferometer for University Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koda, Jin; Barrett, J. W.; Hasegawa, T.; Hayashi, M.; Shafto, G.; Slechta, J.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of interferometry in astronomy, the lack of educational interferometers is an obstacle to training the futue generation of astronomers. Students need hands-on experiments to fully understand the basic concepts of interferometry. Professional interferometers are often too complicated for education, and it is difficult to guarantee access for classes in a university course. We have built a simple and affordable radio interferometer for education and used it for an undergraduate and graduate laboratory project. This interferometer's design is based on the Michelson & Peace's stellar optical interferometer, but operates at a radio wavelength using a commercial broadcast satellite dish and receiver. Two side mirrors are surfaced with kitchen aluminum foil and slide on a ladder, providing baseline coverage. This interferometer can resolve and measure the diameter of the Sun, a nice daytime experiment which can be carried out even under a marginal weather (i.e., partial cloud coverage). Commercial broadcast satellites provide convenient point sources. By comparing the Sun and satellites, students can learn how an interferometer works and resolves structures in the sky.

  18. Correlates of Age Onset of Type 2 Diabetes Among Relatively Young Black and White Adults in a Community

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quoc Manh; Xu, Ji-Hua; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R.; Berenson, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The risk factors for middle-age onset of type 2 diabetes are well known. However, information is scant regarding the age onset of type 2 diabetes and its correlates in community-based black and white relatively young adults. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective cohort study consisted of normoglycemic (n = 2,459) and type 2 diabetic (n = 144) adults aged 18–50 years who were followed for an average of 16 years. RESULTS The incidence rate of the onset of type 2 diabetes was 1.6, 4.3, 3.9, and 3.4 per 1,000 person-years for age-groups 18–29, 30–39, and 40–50 and total sample, respectively. Incidences of diabetes increased with age by race and sex groups (P for trend ≤0.01); higher in black females versus white females and blacks versus whites in total sample (P < 0.05). In a multivariable Cox model, baseline parental diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 5.24) and plasma insulin were significantly associated with diabetes incidence at the youngest age (18–29 years); black race, BMI, and glucose at age 30–39 years; female sex, parental diabetes (HR 2.44), BMI, ratio of triglycerides and HDL cholesterol (TG/HDL-C ratio), and glucose at age 40–50 years; and black race, parental diabetes (HR 2.44), BMI, TG/HDL-C ratio, and glucose in whole cohort. Further, patients with diabetes, regardless of age onset, displayed a significantly higher prevalence of maternal history of diabetes at baseline (P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS In relatively young adults, predictability of baseline cardiometabolic risk factors along with race, sex, and parental history of diabetes for the onset of type 2 diabetes varied by age-group. These findings have implications for early prevention and intervention in relatively young adults. PMID:22399694

  19. Multistrategy health education program to increase mammography use among women ages 65 and older.

    PubMed Central

    Rimer, B K; Resch, N; King, E; Ross, E; Lerman, C; Boyce, A; Kessler, H; Engstrom, P F

    1992-01-01

    Mammography use decreases with age although the risk of breast cancer increases with age. Medicare now provides biennial coverage for screening mammography. This study was designed to simulate the Medicare condition by subsidizing mammography among women in eight retirement communities in the metropolitan Philadelphia area. The study also measured the impact of health education interventions and the presence of a mobile mammography van on increased use of mammography. Retirement communities were assigned randomly to the control (cost subsidy alone) or experimental group (cost subsidy, mammography van, and tailored health education interventions). A total of 412 women ages 65 and older who had not had mammograms in the previous year were surveyed at baseline and 3 months later. Analytic techniques reflected the cluster nature of the randomization. Women in the experimental group were significantly more likely than the control group women to have obtained mammograms. Forty-five percent of the experimental group women compared with 12 percent of the control group women subsequently had mammograms in the 3 months after the baseline interview (P less than .001). Logistic regression analysis for mammography use indicated an odds ratio of 6.1 associated with being in the experimental group. For women in the experimental group, a separate logistic regression for mammography use showed an odds ratio of 7.8 associated with attendance at the educational presentation. The results suggest that Medicare coverage alone will not increase mammography use sufficiently to achieve year 2000 objectives. However, the addition of access enhancing and health education interventions boosts utilization dramatically. PMID:1641432

  20. DNA extraction from aged skeletal samples for STR typing by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Huel, René; Amory, Sylvain; Bilić, Ana; Vidović, Stojko; Jasaragić, Edin; Parsons, Thomas J

    2012-01-01

    STR analysis of DNA extracted from skeletal samples can play an important role in the identification of missing persons. Here we present a method for the extraction of DNA from skeletal samples involving complete demineralization and digestion of the sample, followed by purification by silica binding. This method, together with the multiplex STR typing approach also presented, has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA profiles from degraded, aged skeletal remains from a wide range of environmental contexts. The methodological steps presented include bone decontamination and grinding, DNA extraction, repurification in the case of highly inhibited samples, quantification, STR multiplex amplification, and profile reporting guidelines. However, the conditions applied for amplification and the criteria for allele calling and profile submission must be based on the results of each laboratory's internal validation experiments involving the type of samples relevant to the project at hand. The methods presented here have permitted large-scale DNA-based identification of persons missing from mass disasters and armed conflict.

  1. Understanding reliance on automation: effects of error type, error distribution, age and experience

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Julian; Rogers, Wendy A.; Fisk, Arthur D.; Rovira, Ericka

    2015-01-01

    An obstacle detection task supported by “imperfect” automation was used with the goal of understanding the effects of automation error types and age on automation reliance. Sixty younger and sixty older adults interacted with a multi-task simulation of an agricultural vehicle (i.e. a virtual harvesting combine). The simulator included an obstacle detection task and a fully manual tracking task. A micro-level analysis provided insight into the way reliance patterns change over time. The results indicated that there are distinct patterns of reliance that develop as a function of error type. A prevalence of automation false alarms led participants to under-rely on the automation during alarm states while over relying on it during non-alarms states. Conversely, a prevalence of automation misses led participants to over-rely on automated alarms and under-rely on the automation during non-alarm states. Older adults adjusted their behavior according to the characteristics of the automation similarly to younger adults, although it took them longer to do so. The results of this study suggest the relationship between automation reliability and reliance depends on the prevalence of specific errors and on the state of the system. Understanding the effects of automation detection criterion settings on human-automation interaction can help designers of automated systems make predictions about human behavior and system performance as a function of the characteristics of the automation. PMID:25642142

  2. Evaluating the Age-Dependent Potential for Protein Deposition in Naked Neck Meat Type Chicken.

    PubMed

    Khan, Daulat R; Wecke, Christian; Sharifi, Ahmad R; Liebert, Frank

    2015-01-19

    The introduction of the naked neck gene (Na) into modern meat type chicken is known to be helpful in increasing the tolerance for a high ambient temperature (AT) by reducing the feather coverage which allows for a higher level of heat dissipation compared to normally feathered (na/na) birds. In addition, reduced feather coverage could affect requirements for sulfur containing amino acids. As a prerequisite for further modeling of individual amino acid requirements, the daily N maintenance requirement (NMR) and the threshold value of daily N retention (NRmaxT) were determined. This was carried out using graded dietary protein supply and exponential modeling between N intake (NI) and N excretion (NEX) or N deposition (ND), respectively. Studies with homozygous (Na/Na) and heterozygous (Na/na) naked neck meat type chicken utilized 144 birds of average weight (50% of each genotype and sex) within two N balance experiments during both the starter (days 10-20) and the grower period (days 25-35). Birds were randomly allotted to five diets with graded dietary protein supply but constant protein quality. The observed estimates depending on genotype, sex and age varied for NMR and NRmaxT from 224 to 395 and 2881 to 4049 mg N/BWkg(0.67)/day, respectively.

  3. Ngram time series model to predict activity type and energy cost from wrist, hip and ankle accelerometers: implications of age.

    PubMed

    Strath, Scott J; Kate, Rohit J; Keenan, Kevin G; Welch, Whitney A; Swartz, Ann M

    2015-11-01

    To develop and test time series single site and multi-site placement models, we used wrist, hip and ankle processed accelerometer data to estimate energy cost and type of physical activity in adults. Ninety-nine subjects in three age groups (18-39, 40-64, 65 +  years) performed 11 activities while wearing three triaxial accelereometers: one each on the non-dominant wrist, hip, and ankle. During each activity net oxygen cost (METs) was assessed. The time series of accelerometer signals were represented in terms of uniformly discretized values called bins. Support Vector Machine was used for activity classification with bins and every pair of bins used as features. Bagged decision tree regression was used for net metabolic cost prediction. To evaluate model performance we employed the jackknife leave-one-out cross validation method. Single accelerometer and multi-accelerometer site model estimates across and within age group revealed similar accuracy, with a bias range of -0.03 to 0.01 METs, bias percent of -0.8 to 0.3%, and a rMSE range of 0.81-1.04 METs. Multi-site accelerometer location models improved activity type classification over single site location models from a low of 69.3% to a maximum of 92.8% accuracy. For each accelerometer site location model, or combined site location model, percent accuracy classification decreased as a function of age group, or when young age groups models were generalized to older age groups. Specific age group models on average performed better than when all age groups were combined. A time series computation show promising results for predicting energy cost and activity type. Differences in prediction across age group, a lack of generalizability across age groups, and that age group specific models perform better than when all ages are combined needs to be considered as analytic calibration procedures to detect energy cost and type are further developed.

  4. Ngram time series model to predict activity type and energy cost from wrist, hip and ankle accelerometers: implications of age

    PubMed Central

    Strath, Scott J; Kate, Rohit J; Keenan, Kevin G; Welch, Whitney A; Swartz, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    To develop and test time series single site and multi-site placement models, we used wrist, hip and ankle processed accelerometer data to estimate energy cost and type of physical activity in adults. Ninety-nine subjects in three age groups (18–39, 40–64, 65 + years) performed 11 activities while wearing three triaxial accelereometers: one each on the non-dominant wrist, hip, and ankle. During each activity net oxygen cost (METs) was assessed. The time series of accelerometer signals were represented in terms of uniformly discretized values called bins. Support Vector Machine was used for activity classification with bins and every pair of bins used as features. Bagged decision tree regression was used for net metabolic cost prediction. To evaluate model performance we employed the jackknife leave-one-out cross validation method. Single accelerometer and multi-accelerometer site model estimates across and within age group revealed similar accuracy, with a bias range of −0.03 to 0.01 METs, bias percent of −0.8 to 0.3%, and a rMSE range of 0.81–1.04 METs. Multi-site accelerometer location models improved activity type classification over single site location models from a low of 69.3% to a maximum of 92.8% accuracy. For each accelerometer site location model, or combined site location model, percent accuracy classification decreased as a function of age group, or when young age groups models were generalized to older age groups. Specific age group models on average performed better than when all age groups were combined. A time series computation show promising results for predicting energy cost and activity type. Differences in prediction across age group, a lack of generalizability across age groups, and that age group specific models perform better than when all ages are combined needs to be considered as analytic calibration procedures to detect energy cost and type are further developed. PMID:26449155

  5. Maltreatment, Negative Expressivity, and the Development of Type D Attachments from 12 to 24 Months of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Douglas; Ganiban, Jody; Cicchetti, Dante

    1999-01-01

    Investigated relationship between children's negative expressivity to the formation of an Insecure- Disorganized/Disoriented, Type D attachment pattern in follow-up of maltreated and nonmaltreated children at 12 and 24 months of age. Found that experiencing maltreatment in infancy was associated with Type D attachment through the toddler years,…

  6. Prevalence of type-specific HPV infection by age and grade of cervical cytology: data from the ARTISTIC trial.

    PubMed

    Sargent, A; Bailey, A; Almonte, M; Turner, A; Thomson, C; Peto, J; Desai, M; Mather, J; Moss, S; Roberts, C; Kitchener, H C

    2008-05-20

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer and premalignant dysplasia. Type-specific HPV prevalence data provide a basis for assessing the impact of HPV vaccination programmes on cervical cytology. We report high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) type-specific prevalence data in relation to cervical cytology for 24,510 women (age range: 20-64; mean age 40.2 years) recruited into the ARTISTIC trial, which is being conducted within the routine NHS Cervical Screening Programme in Greater Manchester. The most common HR-HPV types were HPV16, 18, 31, 51 and 52, which accounted for 60% of all HR-HPV types detected. There was a marked decline in the prevalence of HR-HPV infection with age, but the proportion due to each HPV type did not vary greatly with age. Multiple infections were common below the age of 30 years but less so between age 30 and 64 years. Catch-up vaccination of this sexually active cohort would be expected to reduce the number of women with moderate or worse cytology by 45%, but the number with borderline or mild cytology would fall by only 7%, giving an overall reduction of 12% in the number of women with abnormal cytology and 27% in the number with any HR-HPV infection. In the absence of broader cross-protection, the large majority of low-grade and many high-grade abnormalities may still occur in sexually active vaccinated women.

  7. A Michelson-type radio interferometer for university education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koda, Jin; Barrett, James; Shafto, Gene; Slechta, Jeff; Hasegawa, Tetsuo; Hayashi, Masahiko; Metchev, Stanimir

    2016-04-01

    We report development of a simple and affordable radio interferometer suitable as an educational laboratory experiment. The design of this interferometer is based on the Michelson and Pease stellar optical interferometer, but instead operates at the radio wavelength of ˜11 GHz (˜2.7 cm), requiring much less stringent optical accuracy in its design and use. We utilize a commercial broadcast satellite dish and feedhorn with two flat side mirrors that slide on a ladder, providing baseline coverage. This interferometer can resolve and measure the diameter of the Sun, even on a day with marginal weather. Commercial broadcast satellites provide convenient point sources for comparison to the Sun's extended disk. The mathematical background of an adding interferometer is presented, as is its design and development, including the receiver system, and sample measurements of the Sun. Results from a student laboratory report are shown. With the increasing importance of interferometry in astronomy, the lack of educational interferometers is an obstacle to training the future generation of astronomers. This interferometer provides the hands-on experience needed to fully understand the basic concepts of interferometry.

  8. The I4895T Mutation in the Type 1 Ryanodine Receptor Induces Fiber-Type Specific Alterations in Skeletal Muscle that Mimic Premature Aging

    PubMed Central

    Boncompagni, Simona; Loy, Ryan E.; Dirksen, Robert T.; Franzini-Armstrong, Clara

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The I4898T (IT) mutation in type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), the Ca2+ release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is linked to a form of central core disease (CCD) in humans and results in a non leaky channel and excitation-contraction uncoupling. We characterized age- and fiber type-dependent alterations in muscle ultrastructure, as well as the magnitude and spatiotemporal properties of evoked Ca2+ release in heterozygous Ryr1I4895T/WT (IT/+) knock-in mice on a mixed genetic background. The results indicate a classical but mild CCD phenotype that includes muscle weakness and the presence of mitochondrial-deficient areas in type I fibers. Electrically-evoked Ca2+ release is significantly reduced in single FDB fibers from young and old IT/+ mice. Structural changes are strongly fiber type-specific, affecting type I and IIB/IIX fibers in very distinct ways, and sparing type IIA fibers. Ultrastructural alterations in our IT/+ mice are also present in wild type, but at a lower frequency and older ages, suggesting that the disease mutation on the mixed background promotes an acceleration of normal age-dependent changes. The observed functional and structural alterations and their similarity to age-associated changes are entirely consistent with the known properties of the mutated channel, which result in reduced calcium release as is also observed in normal aging muscle. In strong contrast to these observations, a subset of patients with the analogous human heterozygous mutation and IT/+ mice on an inbred 129S2/SvPasCrl background exhibit a more severe disease phenotype, which is not directly consistent with the mutated channel properties. PMID:20961389

  9. Interprofessional education in aged-care facilities: Tensions and opportunities among undergraduate health student cohorts.

    PubMed

    Annear, Michael; Walker, Kim; Lucas, Peter; Lo, Amanda; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    This article examines the reflective discourses of medical, nursing, and paramedic students participating in interprofessional education (IPE) activities in the context of aged-care clinical placements. The intent of the research is to explore how students engage with their interprofessional colleagues in an IPE assessment and care planning activity and elucidate how students configure their role as learners within the context of a non-traditional aged-care training environment. Research participants included cohorts of volunteer medical (n = 61), nursing (n = 46), and paramedic (n = 20) students who were on clinical placements at two large teaching aged-care facilities in Tasmania, Australia, over a period of 18 months. A total of 39 facilitated focus group discussions were undertaken with cohorts of undergraduate student volunteers from three health professions between February 2013 and October 2014. Thematic analysis of focus group transcripts was assisted by NVIVO software and verified through secondary coding and member checking procedures. With an acceptable level of agreement across two independent coders, four themes were identified from student focus group transcripts that described the IPE relations and perceptions of the aged-care environment. Emergent themes included reinforcement of professional hierarchies, IPE in aged care perceived as mundane and extraneous, opportunities for reciprocal teaching and learning, and understanding interprofessional roles. While not all students can be engaged with IPE activities in aged care, our evidence suggests that within 1 week of clinical placements there is a possibility to develop reciprocal professional relations, affirm a positive identity within a collaborative healthcare team, and support the health of vulnerable older adults with complex care needs. These important clinical learnings support aged-care-based IPE as a potentially powerful context for undergraduate learning in the 21st Century.

  10. Clinically derived early postoperative pain trajectories differ by age, sex, and type of surgery.

    PubMed

    Tighe, Patrick J; Le-Wendling, Linda T; Patel, Ameet; Zou, Baiming; Fillingim, Roger B

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of age, sex, and type of surgery on postoperative pain trajectories derived in a clinical setting from pain assessments in the first 24 hours after surgery. This study is a retrospective cohort study using a large electronic medical records system to collect and analyze surgical case data. The sample population included adult patients undergoing nonambulatory nonobstetric surgery in a single institution over a 1-year period. Analyses of postoperative pain trajectories were performed using a linear mixed-effects model. Pain score observations (91,708) from 7293 patients were included in the statistical analysis. On average, the pain score decreased about 0.042 (95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.044 to -0.040) points on the numerical rating scale (NRS) per hour after surgery for the first 24 postoperative hours. The pain score reported by male patients was approximately 0.27 (95% CI: -0.380 to -0.168) NRS points lower than that reported by females. Pain scores significantly decreased over time in all age groups, with a slightly more rapid decrease for younger patients. Pain trajectories differed by anatomic location of surgery, ranging from -0.054 (95% CI: -0.062 to -0.046) NRS units per hour for integumentary and nervous surgery to -0.104 (95% CI: -0.110 to -0.098) NRS units per hour for digestive surgery, and a positive trajectory (0.02 [95% CI: 0.016 to 0.024] NRS units per hour) for musculoskeletal surgery. Our data support the important role of time after surgery in considering the influence of biopsychosocial and clinical factors on acute postoperative pain.

  11. Lunch eating behavior of preschool children. Effects of age, gender, and type of beverage served.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J F

    To examine the eating behavior of preschool children offered chocolate-flavored or plain milk at lunch, food consumption by 135 children, aged 18-66 months, was measured. Four different menus were served six times during a 12-week period, each menu being presented twice with each of three test beverages, plain milk (18.1 kcal/oz), sucrose-sweetened chocolate milk (29.4 kcal/oz), or aspartame-sweetened chocolate milk (18.6 kcal/oz). The type of milk beverage served had no significant effect on the consumption of other food items offered at that meal. Subjects did drink significantly more chocolate milk than plain milk during all meals and consequently consumed significantly more energy during those meals in which sucrose-sweetened chocolate milk was served. A macronutrient analysis of lunch-time food intake for each menu revealed significant differences in protein, fat, and carbohydrate content among the four menus. Older children consumed significantly more milk and more energy per lunch-time meal than did younger preschoolers, but no other consistent age-related differences were observed. No significant gender differences were detected in any of the statistical analyses conducted. These findings suggest that young children do not reduce the intake of other food items at a meal to compensate for the increased energy intake that results from excessive sucrose-sweetened milk consumption. Aspartame-sweetened milk increases milk intake in small children without providing them with the additional calories of sucrose-sweetened milk.

  12. Organizational Culture as a Function of Institutional Type in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Jason A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine whether organizational culture varies as a function of institutional type in higher education, and to identify whether there exists congruence between organizational culture type and leader behavior. Utilizing the Organizational Culture Assessment Instrument (OCAI) developed by Cameron and Quinn…

  13. Confucius on Educational Failure: Three Types of Misguided Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David W.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay David Black claims that, if one pieces together the many sketches of educational decorum found in the Confucian "Analects," one will discover three types of misguided student; that is, one will come to recognize that Confucius admonishes three types of insensitive learners who, due to the lure of personal advantage and…

  14. Types of Creativity and Visualization in Teams of Different Educational Specialization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blazhenkova, Olesya; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This research is the first to examine different types of creativity dimensions in relation to different types of visualization on a team level, by comparing adolescences' teams of different specialization (visual artist, scientists, and humanities) during a complex creative task in an ecologically valid educational setting First, the difference…

  15. Judgment of Line Orientation Depends on Gender, Education, and Type of Error

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caparelli-Daquer, Egas M.; Oliveira-Souza, Ricardo; Filho, Pedro F. Moreira

    2009-01-01

    Visuospatial tasks are particularly proficient at eliciting gender differences during neuropsychological performance. Here we tested the hypothesis that gender and education are related to different types of visuospatial errors on a task of line orientation that allowed the independent scoring of correct responses ("hits", or H) and one type of…

  16. Study Discovers Link between an Instructor's Leadership Type and Teaching Styles in the Higher Education Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacapsin, Maude; Stick, Sheldon L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between instructor leadership type and teaching style in higher education classrooms. One survey, the Kaleidoscope Profile (Haggart, 1997) sought to determine instructor leadership type and an instructor's approach to teaching curriculum in the workplace. It was administered to two groups…

  17. The Aging Society: A Challenge for Nursing Education. Papers Presented at the Fall 1981 Meeting of the Southern Council on Collegiate Education for Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    This conference report consists of the texts of nine papers presented at a conference on the need for nursing education programs to respond to the needs of the elderly for specialized nursing care. Included in the volume are the following reports: "The Aging Society and Nursing Education: A National Perspective," by Daniel J. O'Neal,…

  18. Age-Dependent Association of TNFSF15/TNFSF8 Variants and Leprosy Type 1 Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Fava, Vinicius M.; Sales-Marques, Carolinne; Alcaïs, Alexandre; Moraes, Milton O.; Schurr, Erwin

    2017-01-01

    A current major challenge in leprosy control is the prevention of permanent disabilities. Host pathological inflammatory responses termed type 1 reaction (T1R) are a leading cause of nerve damage for leprosy patients. The environmental or inherited factors that predispose leprosy cases to undergo T1R are not known. However, studies have shown an important contribution of host genetics for susceptibility to T1R. We have previously identified variants encompassing the TNFSF15/TNFSF8 genes as T1R risk factors in a Vietnamese sample and replicated this association in a Brazilian sample. However, we failed to validate in Brazilian patients the strong association of TNFSF15/TNFSF8 markers rs6478108 and rs7863183 with T1R that we had observed in Vietnamese patients. Here, we investigated if the lack of validation of these variants was due to age-dependent effects on association using four independent population samples, two from Brazil and two from Vietnam. In the combined analysis across the four samples, we observed a strong association of the TNFSF15/TNFSF8 variants rs6478108, rs7863183, and rs3181348 with T1R (pcombined = 1.5E−05, pcombined = 1.8E−05, and pcombined = 6.5E−06, respectively). However, the association of rs6478108 with T1R was more pronounced in leprosy cases under 30 years of age compared to the global sample [odds ratio (OR) = 1.95, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.54–2.46, pcombined = 2.5E−08 versus OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.23–1.73, pcombined = 1.5E−05]. A multivariable analysis indicated that the association of rs6478108 with T1R was independent of either rs7863183 or rs3181348. These three variants are known regulators of the TNFSF8 gene transcription level in multiple tissues. The age dependency of association of rs6478108 and T1R suggests that the genetic control of gene expression varies across the human life span. PMID:28261213

  19. Physical Functioning Trends among US Women and Men Age 45-64 by Education Level.

    PubMed

    Zajacova, Anna; Montez, Jennifer Karas

    2017-01-01

    Functional limitations and disability declined in the US during the 1980s and 1990s, but reports of early 21st century trends are mixed. Whether educational inequalities in functioning increased or decreased is also poorly understood. Given the importance of disability for productivity, independent living, and health care costs, these trends are critical to US social and health policies. We examine recent trends in functional limitations and disability among women and men aged 45-64. Using 2000-2015 National Health Interview Surveys data on over 155,000 respondents, semiparametric and logistic regression models visualize and test functioning trends by education. Among women and men with at least a college degree, there was no change in disability and mild increase in limitations over time. All other education levels experienced significant increases in functioning problems ranging from 18% higher odds of functional limitations in 2015 compared to 2000 among men with some college to about 80% increase in the odds of disability among women and men with less than high school education. The similar trends for both genders suggest common underlying causes, possibly including the worsening economic well-being of middle- and working-class families. The pervasive growth of functioning problems is a cause for concern that necessitates further scholarly investigation.

  20. Effectiveness of a Video-based Aging Services Technology Education Program for Health Care Professionals.

    PubMed

    Weakley, Alyssa; Tam, Joyce W; Van Son, Catherine; Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen

    2017-01-19

    Health care professionals (HCPs) are a critical source of recommendations for older adults. Aging services technologies (ASTs), which include devices to support the health-care needs of older adults, are underutilized despite evidence for improving functional outcomes and safety and reducing caregiver burden and health costs. This study evaluated a video-based educational program aimed at improving HCP awareness of ASTs. Sixty-five HCPs viewed AST videos related to medication management, daily living, and memory. Following the program, participants' objective and perceived AST knowledge improved, as did self-efficacy and anticipated AST engagement. About 95% of participants stated they were more likely to recommend ASTs post-program. Participants benefitted equally regardless of years of experience or previous AST familiarity. Furthermore, change in self-efficacy and perceived knowledge were significant predictors of engagement change. Overall, the educational program was effective in improving HCPs' awareness of ASTs and appeared to benefit all participants regardless of experience and prior knowledge.

  1. Normative perceptual estimates for 91 healthy subjects age 60-75: impact of age, education, employment, physical exercise, alcohol, and video gaming.

    PubMed

    Wilms, Inge L; Nielsen, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Visual perception serves as the basis for much of the higher level cognitive processing as well as human activity in general. Here we present normative estimates for the following components of visual perception: the visual perceptual threshold, the visual short-term memory (VSTM) capacity and the visual perceptual encoding/decoding speed (processing speed) of VSTM based on an assessment of 91 healthy subjects aged 60-75. The estimates were modeled from input from a whole-report assessment based on a theory of visual attention. In addition to the estimates themselves, we present correlational data, and multiple regression analyses between the estimates and self-reported demographic data and lifestyle variables. The regression statistics suggest that education level, video gaming activity, and employment status may significantly impact the encoding/decoding speed of VTSM but not the capacity of VSTM nor the visual perceptual threshold. The estimates will be useful for future studies into the effects of various types of intervention and training on cognition in general and visual attention in particular.

  2. Phacoemulsification without preoperative mydriasis in patients with age-related cataract associated with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Rajesh Subhash

    2016-01-01

    Aim To study the effect of intracameral injection of preservative-free lignocaine to induce pupil dilatation, without using any preoperative dilating eyedrops or intraoperative mydriatics in patients with age-related cataract associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Design This was a prospective, observational, and interventional case series conducted at a tertiary eyecare center in rural India. Materials and methods A total of 32 patients underwent phacoemulsification under topical anesthesia for visually significant cataract. Preoperative pupillary diameter was measured 3 days prior to surgical procedure under mydriatics (tropicamide 0.8%, phenylephrine hydrochloride 5%). Intraoperative pupillary dilatation was achieved by 1% intracameral lignocaine solution alone. Effective phacoemulsification time (EPT), total surgical time, and final pupillary diameter were recorded at the conclusion of surgery. Results The average duration of diabetes was 11.2 (range 5–25) years. There was no difference in dilatation by preoperative pupil-dilating drops (5.2±0.5 mm, range 3–8.3 mm) and intracameral 1% lignocaine during the surgical procedure (P=0.63). There was a negative correlation (r=−0.92) between diabetes duration and dilatation of pupils with dilating drops and intracameral lignocaine. The duration of the surgery, EPT, and phacoemulsification chop had statistically insignificant effects on mydriasis, while the grade of the nucleus had a statistically significant effect on mydriasis. Intracameral lignocaine had no significant effect on blood pressure or pulse. There were no surgical complications that could have compromised the visual outcome. None of the patients developed macular edema in a follow-up period of 3 months; 28 patients (87.5%) had best-corrected visual acuity from 20/30 to 20/20. Conclusion Intracameral lignocaine 1% provides sufficient mydriasis for the safe phacoemulsification of cataract in patients with type 2 diabetes of variable duration

  3. The evolution of angular momentum among zero-age main-sequence solar-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soderblom, David R.; Stauffer, John R.; Macgregor, Keith B.; Jones, Burton F.

    1993-01-01

    We consider a survey of rotation among F, G, and K dwarfs of the Pleiades in the context of other young clusters (Alpha Persei and the Hyades) and pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars (in Taurus-Auriga and Orion) in order to examine how the angular momentum of a star like the sun evolves during its early life on the main sequence. The rotation of PMS stars can be evolved into distributions like those seen in the young clusters if there is only modest, rotation-independent angular momentum loss prior to the ZAMS. Even then, the ultrafast rotators (UFRs, or ZAMS G and K dwarfs with v sin i equal to or greater than 30 km/s) must owe their extra angular momentum to their conditions of formation and to different angular momentum loss rates above a threshold velocity, for it is unlikely that these stars had angular momentum added as they neared the ZAMS, nor can a spread in ages within a cluster account for the range of rotation seen. Only a fraction of solar-type stars are thus capable of becoming UFRs, and it is not a phase that all stars experience. Simple scaling relations (like the Skumanich relation) applied to the observed surface rotation rates of young solar-type stars cannot reproduce the way in which the Pleiades evolve into the Hyades. We argue that invoking internal differential rotation in these ZAMS stars can explain several aspects of the observations and thus can provide a consistent picture of ZAMS angular momentum evolution.

  4. Brain aging in normal Egyptians: cognition, education, personality, genetic and immunological study.

    PubMed

    Elwan, Osamah; Madkour, Obsis; Elwan, Fadia; Mostafa, Mervat; Abbas Helmy, Azza; Abdel-Naseer, Maged; Abdel Shafy, Sanaa; El Faiuomy, Nervana

    2003-07-15

    Studying the cognitive and immunological changes that occur in old age as well as genetic function have been considered an important subject to differentiate between normal brain aging and early dementia especially Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study is to stress on age-related neuropsychological and electrophysiological (P(300)) changes in normal Egyptian subjects, to throw light on the value of genetic (Apo-E(4) genotype) and immunological markers [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) in the serum] as tools used in early detection of cognitive decline in cerebral aging. Ninety-four normal Egyptian subjects (below and above 60 years) were submitted to the following: (1) neuropsychological tests for testing memory, perception, psychomotor performance and attention, (2) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) for personality traits, (3) event-related potential study (P(300), latency and amplitude), (4) genetic test for detection of Apolipoprotein E genotype and (5) immunological studies including detection of the level of IL-6 and ICAM-1 in serum. There was a significant impairment of memory, psychomotor performance and perception in elderly subjects particularly males and subjects with low level of education. Regarding personality, significantly high scores were obtained in neuroticism scale of EPQ in elderly subjects. Apo-E(3)/E(3) was the most common genotype encountered in Egyptian subjects (49.1%). It was found that subjects with Apo-E(4) genotype did significantly worse in scores of intentional memory test (sensory memory) when compared with other genotypes. Statistically significant impairment in attention and sensory memory was found in subjects with high IL-6 level. This could not be detected in subjects with high ICAM-1 level. In conclusion, advancing age and lower levels of education are considered risk factors for cognitive decline in normal brain aging. Neuropsychological tests remain as the highly sensitive tools

  5. The association between APOE ε4 and Alzheimer-type dementia among memory clinic patients is confined to those with a higher education. The DESCRIPA Study.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Angelique P A; Bosma, Hans; Visser, Pieter-Jelle; Zeegers, Maurice P; Graff, Caroline; Ewers, Michael; Frisoni, Giovanni B; Frölich, Lutz; Hampel, Harald; Jones, Roy W; Kehoe, Patrick G; Lenoir, Hermine; Minthon, Lennart; Nobili, Flavio M; Olde Rikkert, Marcel; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie; Scheltens, Philip; Soininen, Hilkka; Spiru, Luiza; Tsolaki, Magda; Wahlund, Lars-Olof; Vellas, Bruno; Wilcock, Gordon; Elias-Sonnenschein, Lyzel S; Verhey, Frans R J

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the interaction between the APOE ε4 allele and education level in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) among memory clinic patients from the multicenter DESCRIPA study. Subjects (n = 544) were followed for 1 to 5 years. We used Cox's stratified survival modeling, adjusted for age, gender, and center. APOE ε4 predicted the onset of AD-type dementia in middle (HR 3.45 95% CI 1.79-6.65, n = 222) and high (HR 3.67 95% CI 1.36-9.89, n = 139) but not in low educated subjects (HR 0.81, 95% CI 0.38-1.72, n = 183). This suggests that mechanisms in developing Alzheimer-type dementia may differ between educational groups that raises questions related to Alzheimer-type dementia prevention.

  6. mEducator: A Best Practice Network for Repurposing and Sharing Medical Educational Multi-type Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamidis, Panagiotis D.; Kaldoudi, Eleni; Pattichis, Costas

    Although there is an abundance of medical educational content available in individual EU academic institutions, this is not widely available or easy to discover and retrieve, due to lack of standardized content sharing mechanisms. The mEducator EU project will face this lack by implementing and experimenting between two different sharing mechanisms, namely, one based one mashup technologies, and one based on semantic web services. In addition, the mEducator best practice network will critically evaluate existing standards and reference models in the field of e-learning in order to enable specialized state-of-the-art medical educational content to be discovered, retrieved, shared, repurposed and re-used across European higher academic institutions. Educational content included in mEducator covers and represents the whole range of medical educational content, from traditional instructional teaching to active learning and experiential teaching/studying approaches. It spans the whole range of types, from text to exam sheets, algorithms, teaching files, computer programs (simulators or games) and interactive objects (like virtual patients and electronically traced anatomies), while it covers a variety of topics. In this paper, apart from introducing the relevant project concepts and strategies, emphasis is also placed on the notion of (dynamic) user-generated content, its advantages and peculiarities, as well as, gaps in current research and technology practice upon its embedding into existing standards.

  7. International Guidelines on Sexuality Education and Their Relevance to a Contemporary Curriculum for Children Aged 5-8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates UNESCO's recommended sexuality educational framework for junior school students aged 5-8 years. It also compares it to an existing state-designed Health and Physical Education curriculum that includes sexual and reproductive health for the same cohort. Based on the universal values of respect and human rights, UNESCO's"…

  8. Reasoning and Self-Awareness from Adolescence to Middle Age: Organization and Development as a Function of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demetriou, Andreas; Bakracevic, Karin

    2009-01-01

    This study involved four age groups: 13-15-, 23-25-, 33-35-, and 43-45-yr-olds. All adult groups involved persons with university education and persons with low education. Participants (1) solved tasks addressed to spatial, propositional, and social reasoning, (2) evaluated their own performance and the difficulty of the tasks, and (3) answered an…

  9. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  10. How To Teach Nutrition to Kids: An Integrated, Creative Approach to Nutrition Education for Children Ages 6-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Connie Liakos

    This book presents nutrition education activities and strategies that are child-tested and teacher-endorsed. It targets educators, nutrition professionals, parents, and other caregivers, offering the tools to teach children ages 6-10 years about nutrition in a meaningful, integrated way. Divided by subject, this resource integrates nutrition into…

  11. 'Light and Wires in a Box': The Computer-Oriented Information Age in Support of Effective Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindenau, Suzanne E.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the computer-oriented information age, skills workers will need to keep pace, and how information technologies (microcomputers, communications satellites, and cable systems) can be utilized to support effective higher education. Obstacles to information technology use in education and how schools fail learners if technology is not…

  12. The Social Studies Education Discourse Community on Globalization: Exploring the Agenda of Preparing Citizens for the Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaria, Ayman K.

    2011-01-01

    The scholarship nexus between education and globalization provides limited insights into how global education has been framed and rendered. The purpose of this article is twofold. First, it seeks a better understanding of the nature of the mission of preparing citizens for the global age and what it entails in the context of learning and teaching…

  13. Prevention of Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes with Aged Citrus Peel (Chenpi) Extract.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jingjing; Tao, Hanlin; Cao, Yong; Ho, Chi-Tang; Jin, Shengkang; Huang, Qingrong

    2016-03-16

    Chenpi is the dry peel of the plant Citrus reticulata Blanco after an aging processing. It has been used as an antidigestive and anti-inflammatory traditional medicine, as well as culinary seasoning and dietary supplement, in China. However, its efficacy and underlying scientific mechanism have not been sufficiently investigated. Chenpi is uniquely enriched with a high content of 5-demethylated polymethoxyflavones (5-OH PMFs). The effect of chenpi extract on improving metabolic features was examined using high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity/diabetes mouse model. Oral administration of 0.25 and 0.5% chenpi extract in food over 15 weeks markedly prevented HFD-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and diabetic symptoms. The beneficial effect is associated with 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation in adipose tissue. Our results indicate that 5-OH PMFs-enriched chenpi extract is effective in preventing obesity and type 2 diabetes, and its effect might be related to improvement in lipid metabolism associated with activation of the AMPK pathway.

  14. Blood typing profile of a school-aged population of a North Togo township.

    PubMed

    Vovor, Ahoefa; Fétéké, Lochina; Kueviakoe, Irénée M; Kpatarou, Laye; Mawussi, Koffi; Magnang, Hézouwè; Ségbéna, Akuété Y

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was the determination of hemoglobin (Hb) variants and ABO blood groups in a school population aged 6 to 9 years in the township of Agbandé-Yaka in North Togo. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 570 children of four primary schools at Agbande-Yaka, between March and July 2010. Hemoglobin characterization was done by alkaline buffer electrophoresis and the blood types ABO-Rhesus (Rh) D by immuno-hematological methods. A Hb variant was detected in 37.0% of the schoolchildren. Among them, the AS trait accounted for 11.9% and the AC trait for 20.2%. Homozygous Hb S (HBB: c.20A>T) was not found but Hb C (HBB: c.19G>A) appeared at a frequency of 3.3%, while compound heterozygotes carrying Hb SC were seen at a frequency of 1.6%. The O, B and A blood groups accounted for 49.0, 26.8 and 21.9%, respectively. The Hb anomalies reached a high prevalence in this school population. These results are remarkable by the absence of homozygous Hb S individuals compared to homozygous Hb C individuals, which were as numerous as expected. The frequencies of the ABO blood groups are similar to what has been found in other West African populations.

  15. Long term bone alterations in aged rats suffering type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Luciana Marina; De Lucca, Romina Cármen; Lewicki, Marianela; Ubios, Ángela Matilde

    2016-12-01

    Increasing duration of type 1 diabetes mellitus alters bone metabolism. Clinical studies and experimental studies in long bones of rats with experimentally induced diabetes have reported a decrease in bone density. Few studies have explored this diabetes related alteration in the maxillae. Given that this finding could indicate the possible development of osteopenia in the maxilla in the long term, the present study sought to analyze alterations in alveolar bone in aged rats, 12, 18, and 24weeks after inducing diabetes, and compare alveolar bone response to that of tibial subchondral bone at the same experimental times. Thirty-six male Wistar rats, 130g body weight, were divided into 2 groups: an experimental group (E) receiving a single i.p. 60mg/kg dose of streptozotocin, and a control group (C). Both the control and experimental groups were divided into 3 sub-sets, according to the time of euthanasia: 12, 18 and 24weeks. The alveolar bone and tibiae were examined histologically and histomorphometrically. The results were analyzed using Student's t-test; a value of p<0.05 was considered statistically significant.

  16. Comparison of Age of Onset and Frequency of Diabetic Complications in the Very Elderly Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in elderly people has increased dramatically in the last few decades. This study was designed to clarify the clinical characteristics of type 2 diabetes in patients aged ≥80 years according to age of onset. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 289 patients aged ≥80 years with type 2 diabetes at the outpatient diabetes clinics of Kangwon National University Hospital from September 2010 to June 2014. We divided the patients into middle-age-onset diabetes (onset before 65 years of age) and elderly-onset diabetes (onset at 65+ years of age). Results There were 141 male and 148 female patients. The patients had a mean age of 83.2±2.9 years and the mean duration of diabetes was 14.3±10.4 years. One hundred and ninety-nine patients had elderly-onset diabetes. The patients with elderly-onset diabetes had a significantly lower frequency of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy, lower serum creatinine levels, lower glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, and similar coronary revascularization and cerebral infarction rates compared to those with middle-age-onset diabetes. There was no frequency difference in coronary revascularization and cerebral infarction and HbA1c levels between three subgroups (<5, 5 to 15, and ≥15 years) of diabetes duration in elderly onset diabetes. However, both in the elderly onset diabetes and middle-age-onset diabetes, the cumulative incidence of retinopathy was increasing rapidly according to the duration of diabetes. Conclusion We report that individuals with elderly-onset diabetes have a lower frequency of diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy and similar cardiovascular complications compared to those with middle-age-onset diabetes. PMID:27586451

  17. Walter Benjamin in the Age of Digital Reproduction: Aura in Education--A Rereading of "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peim, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This paper considers a key text in the field of Cultural Studies for its relevance to questions about the identity of knowledge in education. The concept of "aura" arises as being of special significance in "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction" as a way of understanding the change that occurs to art when mass reproduction becomes…

  18. Distribution of terrestrial age and petrologic type of meteorites from western Libya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jull, A. J. T.; Donahue, D. J.; Wlotzka, F.; Palme, H.

    1990-01-01

    A group of 54 meteorites have been recovered from Daraj, Western Libya. After assessment of pairing of samples, using petrologic criteria, C-14 terrestrial ages were obtained on 13 samples selected from 9 different fall events. Eleven of the ages range from 3500 to 7600 years, with only two samples having ages in excess of 10,000 years. The cutoff in ages may be related to the timing of climatic changes in the Hammadah al Hamra.

  19. Age, Ageing and Skills: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 132

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paccagnella, Marco

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the link between age and proficiency in information-processing skills, based on information drawn from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC). The data reveal significant age-related differences in proficiencies, strongly suggesting that proficiency tends to "naturally" decline with age. Age…

  20. Bullying in German Primary Schools: Gender Differences, Age Trends and Influence of Parents' Migration and Educational Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The study discussed herein assessed the prevalence of bullying and analysed possible predictors for bullying in a sample of urban primary school-age children. Factors considered were students' gender and age differences as well as parents' educational level and migration backgrounds. Using a cross-informant approach (self- and teacher-reports),…

  1. The Influence of Relative Age Effect in the Assessment of High School Students in Physical Education in the United Kingdom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon J.; Fairclough, Stuart J.

    2012-01-01

    The common practice of annually age grouping children in education, likely done under the assumption of similarly aged children sharing similar abilities and learner characteristics, may actually undermine equity and fairness in student assessments. This strategy has received criticism for (dis) advantaging those older children born closer to the…

  2. Connecting Science and Free Government in Citizenship Education: Teaching about Our Legacy from the Age of Enlightenment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    To maintain the legacy of freedom from the Age of Enlightenment, educators must effectively teach about the interrelated ideas of modern science and constitutional democracy in both social studies and science courses. The United States most directly and fully exemplifies the civic and scientific ideas which have developed as a result of the Age of…

  3. Influence of thermal aging on the intergranular corrosion resistance of types 304LN and 316LN stainless steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudali, U. Kamachi; Dayal, R. K.; Gnanamoorthy, J. B.; Rodriguez, P.

    1996-10-01

    Intergranular corrosion (IGC) resistance of types 304LN and 316LN stainless steels (SS) thermally aged at 823, 873, and 923 K for various durations was assessed by ASTM A262 practice A test (electrolytic etch test) and electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (EPR) test. The results indicated that the type 316LN SS has significantly improved IGC resistance compared to 304LN SS. Based on the results of these tests, time-temperature-sensitization (TTS) diagrams were developed for both alloys. The secondary precipitates formed during thermal aging treatments were electrochemically extracted and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the types of precipitates formed during the aging treatments. The results indicated that the precipitates were mostly of M23C6 carbides.

  4. Influence of thermal aging on the intergranular corrosion resistance of types 304LN and 316LN stainless steels

    SciTech Connect

    Mudali, U.K.; Dayal, R.K.; Gnanamoorthy, J.B.; Rodriguez, P.

    1996-10-01

    Intergranular corrosion (IGC) resistance of types 304LN and 316LN stainless steels (SS) thermally aged at 823, 873, and 923 K for various durations was assessed by ASTM A262 practice A test (electrolytic etch test) and electrochemical potentiodynamic reactivation (EPR) test. The results indicated that the type 316LN SS has significantly improved IGC resistance compared to 304LN SS. Based on the results of these tests, time-temperature-sensitization (TTS) diagrams were developed for both alloys. The secondary precipitates formed during thermal aging treatments were electrochemically extracted and analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine the types of precipitates formed during the aging treatments. The results indicated that the precipitates were mostly of M{sub 23}C{sub 6} carbides.

  5. Increasingly heterogeneous ages at first birth by education in Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes: A seven-country comparison by birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Rendall, Michael; Aracil, Encarnacion; Bagavos, Christos; Couet, Christine; Derose, Alessandra; Digiulio, Paola; Lappegard, Trude; Robert-Bobée, Isabelle; Rønsen, Marit; Smallwood, Steve; Verropoulou, Georgia

    2010-11-01

    According to the 'reproductive polarization' hypothesis, family-policy regimes unfavourable to the combination of employment with motherhood generate greater socio-economic differentials in fertility than other regimes. This hypothesis has been tested mainly for 'liberal' Anglo-American regimes. To investigate the effects elsewhere, we compared education differentials in age at first birth among native-born women of 1950s and 1960s birth cohorts in seven countries representing three regime types. Women with low educational attainment have continued to have first births early, not only in Britain and the USA but also in Greece, Italy, and Spain. Women at all other levels of education have experienced a shift towards later first births, a shift that has been largest in Southern Europe. Unlike the educationally heterogeneous changes in age pattern at first birth seen under the Southern European and Anglo-American family-policy regimes, the changes across birth cohorts in the study's two 'universalistic' countries, Norway and France, have been educationally homogeneous.

  6. [CERAD-NP battery: Age-, gender- and education-specific reference values for selected subtests. Results of the German Study on Ageing, Cognition and Dementia in Primary Care Patients (AgeCoDe)].

    PubMed

    Luck, T; Riedel-Heller, S G; Wiese, B; Stein, J; Weyerer, S; Werle, J; Kaduszkiewicz, H; Wagner, M; Mösch, E; Zimmermann, T; Maier, W; Bickel, H; van den Bussche, H; Jessen, F; Fuchs, A; Pentzek, M

    2009-10-01

    The CERAD-NP battery represents well-established tests for the neuropsychological diagnosis of characteristic cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's dementia. However, the use of neuropsychological tests requires reliable standard values for the population under consideration, taking sociodemographic characteristics like age, education and gender into account. This report presents age-, education- and gender-specific reference values for the subtests verbal fluency, word list memory, word list recall and word list recognition as well as the word list savings score of the CERAD-NP battery. The study sample consists of 2891 general practitioners' patients from Germany aged 75 years and older. The study participants had a mean age of 80.2 years (SD=3.6); thus, this report provides reliable reference values for the neuropsychological diagnosis of dementia in older age groups.

  7. Satisfaction with hospital rehabilitation: is it related to life satisfaction, functional status, age or education?

    PubMed

    Franchignoni, Franco; Ottonello, Marcella; Benevolo, Emilio; Tesio, Luigi

    2002-05-01

    Satisfaction with care, functional and cognitive status, life satisfaction, anxiety, and sociodemographic variables were correlated in 55 in-patients admitted to a rehabilitation unit after hip or knee surgery. The study aimed at investigating whether, as an index of care quality, patient satisfaction can be considered as a distinct domain or instead is subsidiary to other patient characteristics. Patient satisfaction with rehabilitation care was measured through a questionnaire, SAT-16. The SAT-16 scores were moderately correlated with a short form of the Life Satisfaction Index (LSI-11: rs = 0.41, p = 0.001), but did not correlate with either the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the STAI form X (the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), age or educational level. According to the "discrepancy model", the fair degree of correlation between SAT-16 and LSI-11 could be explained by connecting both expressions of satisfaction with personal background expectations and their perceived degree of fulfilment. The results confirm, also for rehabilitation care, that patient satisfaction should be considered as a valuable specific outcome, independent of most of the patient characteristics investigated (functional and cognitive status, anxiety, age, and education).

  8. What users want in e-commerce design: effects of age, education and income.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Nancy J

    2003-01-15

    Preferences for certain characteristics of an online shopping experience may be related to demographic data. This paper discusses the characteristics of that experience, demographic data and preferences by demographic group. The results of an online survey of 488 individuals in the United States indicate that respondents are generally satisfied with their online shopping experiences, with security, information quality and information quantity ranking first in importance overall. The sensory impact of a site ranked last overall of the seven characteristics measured. Preferences for these characteristics in e-commerce sites were differentiated by age, education and income. The sensory impact of sites became less important as respondents increased in age, income or education. As the income of respondents increased, the importance of the reputation of the vendor rose. Web site designers may incorporate these findings into the design of e-commerce sites in an attempt to increase the shopping satisfaction of their users. Results from the customer relationship management portion of the survey suggest that current push technologies and site personalization are not an effective means of achieving user satisfaction.

  9. Higher education is an age-independent predictor of white matter integrity and cognitive control in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S; Grieve, Stuart M; Brickman, Adam M

    2013-09-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect.

  10. Family Life Education Project seeks to bring down illegitimate births, teen-age pregnancies and STD.

    PubMed

    Kondo, A

    1992-01-01

    Levels of teen pregnancy, illegitimate birth, sexually transmitted disease (STD), rape, wife-bashing, abandonment and abuse, abortion, school dropout, divorce, and drug abuse are on the rise in Fiji. 13.4% of 7,093 births to 7,093 mothers over the period January 1982-June 1983 were to mothers under age 19, of which 46.7% of the babies were illegitimate. 4% of all mothers harbored STD. Talks held by the Ministry of Education eventually led to the development and implementation of the Family Life Education Project in July 1985. The project's longterm goals are to reduce the incidence of adolescent pregnancy, unwanted births, STDs, and psychological stress. To attain these goals, family life education was incorporated in the curricula of 104 of 141 of the country's secondary schools. This core course was designed to change teen attitudes and behaviors relating to family life, population issues, and family planning, and was implemented with broad parental and community support. Anecdotal evidence suggests program success.

  11. [Advanced curriculum for clinical assessment and skill in new age pharmacist education].

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Yuji; Masuda, Yutaka; Kamei, Daisuke; Kogo, Mari; Nakamura, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    In Showa University School of pharmacy, 7 competencies for outcome-based education were set up in 2011. We are now creating sequential curriculum in order to achieve these competencies. As a member of team medical treatment, pharmacist must share a patient's information with other members, assess each patient's condition, propose the best medication with evidence, and also check the effect of medication. Therefore, many active practices in a hospital and community and problem-based learning (PBL) tutorials are carried out in curriculum in School of Pharmacy. As a training for the future pharmacists who positively perform primary care with responsibility in community pharmacy, students study the method of clinical assessment (assessment of condition of disease from the patient's complain, and choice of appropriate proposal). Furthermore, the exercise and training of parenteral medication, physical assessment, and first aid, etc. are also taken in the curriculums as new clinical skill. The systematic and gradual interprofessional education curriculum for the team medical education has been carried out aiming at training of active members in medical team in a hospital and community. At this symposium, I will introduce these systematic advanced curriculums for the pharmacist of a new age, and to show the usefulness and learning effect.

  12. Age-dependent systemic DNA damage in early Type 2 Diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rogulj, Dinko; El Aklouk, Ismail; Konjevoda, Paško; Ljubić, Spomenka; Pibernik Okanović, Mirjana; Barbir, Ante; Luburić, Marijana; Radman, Maja; Budinski, Ninoslav; Vučić Lovrenčić, Marijana

    2017-03-30

    Oxidative stress, capable of eliciting damage to various biomolecules including DNA, is a recognized component of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as well as other unfavorable outcomes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of oxidative stress in the development of T2DM, by investigating association of oxidative DNA damage with metabolic parameters in subjects with MetS and early T2DM. Selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters of MetS, inflammation and oxidative DNA damage: body mass index (BMI), fatty liver index (FLI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL-cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), uric acid, C-reactive protein (CRP), total leukocyte/neutrophil count, and urinary 8-hidroxy-deoxyguanosine (u-8-OHdG) were assessed in male subjects with MetS and both younger (≤55 years) and older (>55 years) subjects with T2DM of short duration without complications. BMI, FLI, WC, total and LDL-cholesterol and uric acid were higher, while the u-8-OHdG was lower in MetS group, when compared to older T2DM subjects. None of these parameters were different neither between MetS and younger T2DM, nor between two sub-groups of subjects with T2DM. Values of CRP, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, GGT, leukocytes and neutrophils were not different between all examined groups of subjects. Higher 8-OHdG in older subjects with T2DM suggests that both aging process and diabetes could contribute to the development of DNA damage. Oxidative DNA damage cannot serve as an universal early marker of T2DM.

  13. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Sweden Among Individuals Aged 0–34 Years, 1983–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dahlquist, Gisela G.; Nyström, Lennarth; Patterson, Christopher C.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To clarify whether the increase in childhood type 1 diabetes is mirrored by a decrease in older age-groups, resulting in younger age at diagnosis. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used data from two prospective research registers, the Swedish Childhood Diabetes Register, which included case subjects aged 0–14.9 years at diagnosis, and the Diabetes in Sweden Study, which included case subjects aged 15–34.9 years at diagnosis, covering birth cohorts between 1948 and 2007. The total database included 20,249 individuals with diabetes diagnosed between 1983 and 2007. Incidence rates over time were analyzed using Poisson regression models. RESULTS The overall yearly incidence rose to a peak of 42.3 per 100,000 person-years in male subjects aged 10–14 years and to a peak of 37.1 per 100,000 person-years in female subjects aged 5–9 years and decreased thereafter. There was a significant increase by calendar year in both sexes in the three age-groups <15 years; however, there were significant decreases in the older age-groups (25- to 29-years and 30- to 34-years age-groups). Poisson regression analyses showed that a cohort effect seemed to dominate over a time-period effect. CONCLUSIONS Twenty-five years of prospective nationwide incidence registration demonstrates a clear shift to younger age at onset rather than a uniform increase in incidence rates across all age-groups. The dominance of cohort effects over period effects suggests that exposures affecting young children may be responsible for the increasing incidence in the younger age-groups. PMID:21680725

  14. Biomotor status and kinesiological education of girls aged 10 to 12 years--example: volleyball.

    PubMed

    Milić, Mirjana; Grgantov, Zoran; Katić, Ratko

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to define processes of orientation and/or selection towards sports game of volleyball in schoolgirls of Kastela, aged 10-12, by examining the relations between regular classes of physical education (PE) and extracurricular sport activities. For this purpose, two morphological measures were used (body height and body mass) and a set of 11 motor tests (6 basic motor abilities tests and 5 motor achievement tests) on a sample of 242 girls aged 10-12 was used, divided into a subsample of 42 girls participating in volleyball training (Volleyball players) and a subsample of 200 girls who do not participate in volleyball training (volleyball non-players). Based on the comparison of test results of schoolgirls from Kastela and Croatian norms, factor analysis of applied variables and discriminant analysis of these variables between volleyball players and non-players, processes and/or phases of selection in forming quality volleyball players were defined. Selection processes are preceded by orientation processes in physical education classes, i.e. choosing those sport activities which are in accordance with the biomotor status of students. Results have shown that orientation and initial selection in female volleyball needs to be executed based on the motor set of psychomotor speed, repetitive strength of the trunk and flexibility (muscle tone regulation), and body height. Volleyball training has affected the muscle mass development and the development of strength factors, so that explosive strength of jumping and/or takeoff along with body height, has predominantly differentiated female volleyball players from non-players, aged 10 to 12, and serve and spike quality will have dominant influence on the match outcome.

  15. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  16. Distribution of terrestrial age and petrologic type of meteorites from western Libya

    SciTech Connect

    Jull, A.J.T.; Donahue, D.J. ); Wlotzka, F.; Palme, H. )

    1990-10-01

    A group of 54 meteorites have been recovered from Daraj, Western Libya. After assessment of pairing of samples, using petrologic criteria, {sup 14}C terrestrial ages were obtained on 13 samples selected from 9 different fall events. Eleven of the ages range from 3,500 to 7,600 years, with only two samples having ages in excess of 10,000 years. The cut-off in ages may be related to the timing of climatic changes in the Hammadah al Hamra.

  17. Age-associated and cell-type-specific neurofibrillary pathology in transgenic mice expressing the human midsized neurofilament subunit.

    PubMed

    Vickers, J C; Morrison, J H; Friedrich, V L; Elder, G A; Perl, D P; Katz, R N; Lazzarini, R A

    1994-09-01

    Alterations in neurofilaments are a common occurrence in neurons of the human nervous system during aging and diseases associated with aging. Such pathologic changes may be attributed to species-specific properties of human neurofilaments as well as cell-type-specific regulation of this element of the cytoskeleton. The development of transgenic animals containing human neurofilament subunits offers an opportunity to study the effects of aging and other experimental conditions on the human-specific form of these proteins in a rodent model. The present study shows that mice from the transgenic line NF(M)27, which express the human midsized neurofilament subunit at low levels (2-25% of the endogenous NF-M), develop neurofilamentous accumulations in specific subgroups of neurons that are age dependent, affecting 78% of transgenic mice over 12 months of age. Similar accumulations do not occur in age-matched, wild-type littermates or in 3-month-old transgenic mice. In 12-month-old transgenic mice, somatic neurofilament accumulations resembling neurofibrillary tangles were present predominantly in layers III and V of the neocortex, as well as in select subpopulations of subcortical neurons. Intraperikaryal, spherical neurofilamentous accumulations were particularly abundant in cell bodies in layer II of the neocortex, and neurofilament-containing distentions of Purkinje cell proximal axons occurred in the cerebellum. These pathological accumulations contained mouse as well as human NF subunits, but could be distinguished by their content of phosphorylation-dependent NF epitopes. These cytoskeletal alterations closely resemble the cell-type-specific alterations in neurofilaments that occur during normal human aging and in diseases associated with aging, indicating that these transgenic animals may serve as models of some aspects of the pathologic features of human neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Special education services and school performance in a regional cohort of low-birthweight infants at age nine.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Whitaker, Agnes; Feldman, Judith; Cnaan, Avital; Zhao, Huaqing; Bloch, Joan Rosen; Rosen-Bloch, Joan; McCulloch, Dawn; Paneth, Nigel

    2004-03-01

    Previous research has shown that low birthweight is a predictor of several adverse educational outcomes, including special educational placement, by middle school age. Most low-birthweight follow-up studies that have extended to school age have focused on very small infants-- < 1500 or < 1000 g; less is known of the school age outcomes for infants with only moderately low birthweight (1500-2000 g). This study examines the prevalence of special educational placement and the relationship of such placement to grade retention, verbal and performance scores on tests of general intelligence, reading and maths achievement scores and classroom hyperactivity among low-birthweight children. In a regional birth cohort of 1105 infants born between 1984 and 1987 and weighing 500-2000 g, 868 children were available for follow-up at age nine. Information on special education placement as well as grade retention, intelligence, academic achievement and classroom behaviour was available on 645 (74% completion rate). Nearly a third of the cohort was classified as needing special education. Special education placement followed a birthweight gradient, occurring among 29.3% of children with birthweights 1500-2000 g, among 32.5% in children 1000-1500 g and 49.4% in children < 1000 g. Among children in special education, a similar birthweight gradient was found for maths achievement and hyperactivity, but not for reading achievement or IQ scores. Among children not in special education, only maths achievement showed such a decline with birthweight. A substantial proportion of low-birthweight children, including those of moderate low birthweight, receive special education services, although the need is greatest among those with the lowest birthweights. Maths achievement declined with birthweight regardless of educational placement. The medical and social risk factors that accompany low birthweight and may account for these findings, require further study.

  19. Prolificacy and Its Relationship with Age, Body Weight, Parity, Previous Litter Size and Body Linear Type Traits in Meat-type Goats

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Avijit; Pal, Prasenjit; Datta, M.; Paul, Rajesh; Pal, Saumen K.; Majumdar, Debasis; Biswas, Chanchal K.; Pan, Subhransu

    2014-01-01

    Data on age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size, days open and some descriptive body linear traits from 389 meat-type, prolific Black Bengal goats in Tripura State of India, were collected for 3 and 1/2 years (2007 to 2010) and analyzed using logistic regression model. The objectives of the study were i) to evaluate the effect of age and body weight at breeding, parity, previous litter size and days open on litter size of does; and ii) to investigate if body linear type traits influenced litter size in meat-type, prolific goats. The incidence of 68.39% multiple births with a prolificacy rate of 175.07% was recorded. Higher age (>2.69 year), higher parity order (>2.31), more body weight at breeding (>20.5 kg) and larger previous litter size (>1.65) showed an increase likelihood of multiple litter size when compared to single litter size. There was a strong, positive relationship between litter size and various body linear type traits like neck length (>22.78 cm), body length (>54.86 cm), withers height (>48.85 cm), croup height (>50.67 cm), distance between tuber coxae bones (>11.38 cm) and distance between tuber ischii bones (>4.56 cm) for discriminating the goats bearing multiple fetuses from those bearing a single fetus. PMID:25049997

  20. Computers and Young Children: Software Types, Social Contexts, Gender, Age, and Emotional Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shade, Daniel D.

    1994-01-01

    Videotaped four- to eight-year olds as they interacted with computer software at different levels of developmental appropriateness. Facial expressions and other affective behaviors were analyzed as a function of age, presence of a peer, and appropriateness of software. Found that responses were mediated more by age, gender, and social condition…

  1. Type 3 Adenylyl Cyclase and Somatostatin Receptor 3 Expression Persists in Aged Rat Neocortical and Hippocampal Neuronal Cilia

    PubMed Central

    Guadiana, Sarah M.; Parker, Alexander K.; Filho, Gileno F.; Sequeira, Ashton; Semple-Rowland, Susan; Shaw, Gerry; Mandel, Ronald J.; Foster, Thomas C.; Kumar, Ashok; Sarkisian, Matthew R.

    2016-01-01

    The primary cilia of forebrain neurons assemble around birth and become enriched with neuromodulatory receptors. Our understanding of the permanence of these structures and their associated signaling pathways in the aging brain is poor, but they are worthy of investigation because disruptions in neuronal cilia signaling have been implicated in changes in learning and memory, depression-like symptoms, and sleep anomalies. Here, we asked whether neurons in aged forebrain retain primary cilia and whether the staining characteristics of aged cilia for type 3 adenylyl cyclase (ACIII), somatostatin receptor 3 (SSTR3), and pericentrin resemble those of cilia in younger forebrain. To test this, we analyzed immunostained sections of forebrain tissues taken from young and aged male Fischer 344 (F344) and F344 × Brown Norway (F344 × BN) rats. Analyses of ACIII and SSTR3 in young and aged cortices of both strains of rats revealed that the staining patterns in the neocortex and hippocampus were comparable. Virtually every NeuN positive cell examined possessed an ACIII positive cilium. The lengths of ACIII positive cilia in neocortex were similar between young and aged for both strains, whereas in F344 × BN hippocampus, the cilia lengths increased with age in CA1 and CA3, but not in dentate gyrus (DG). Additionally, the percentages of ACIII positive cilia that were also SSTR3 positive did not differ between young and aged tissues in either strain. We also found that pericentrin, a protein that localizes to the basal bodies of neuronal cilia and functions in primary cilia assembly, persisted in aged cortical neurons of both rat strains. Collectively, our data show that neurons in aged rat forebrain possess primary cilia and that these cilia, like those present in younger brain, continue to localize ACIII, SSTR3, and pericentrin. Further studies will be required to determine if the function and signaling pathways regulated by cilia are similar in aged compared to young brain

  2. Creative Thinking of University Teachers in the Age of Intellectual Capital: Is It Affected by Personality Types and Traits?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AlFuqaha, Isam Najib; Tobasi, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This article attempts to probe the level of creative thinking of teachers at Philadelphia University in Jordan, and to define its relation with several independent demographic variables, namely age, gender, duration of experience, specialization, and personality types and traits. To accomplish this purpose, three questionnaires are administered on…

  3. Investigation of Music Student Efficacy as Influenced by Age, Experience, Gender, Ethnicity, and Type of Instrument Played in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to quantitatively examine South Carolina high school instrumental music students' self-efficacy as measured by the Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE) instrument (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1993). The independent variables of age, experience, gender, ethnicity, and type of instrument played) were correlated with…

  4. The Impact of Gender, Family Type and Age on Undergraduate Parents' Perception of Causes of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoyase, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Impact of Gender, Family type and Age on undergraduate parents' perception of causes of child Sexual Abuse. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. There was a review of relevant literature. The population for the study were 2014 sandwich contact students of Delta State University, Abraka who…

  5. ERP Responses of Elementary-Age Children to Video Game Simulations of Two Stimuli Types: Study 1 and 2 Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergen, Doris; Schroer, Joseph E.; Thomas, Robin; Zhang, Xinge; Chou, Michael; Chou, Tricia

    2017-01-01

    The hypothesis that brain activity may differ during varied types of video game play was investigated in two studies of event-related potentials exhibited by children age 7 to 12 when processing game-based stimuli requiring correct/incorrect responses or choices between two imaginative alternative responses. The first study had 22 children of…

  6. A clinical correlation of anti-DNA-AGE autoantibodies in type 2 diabetes mellitus with disease duration.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Jalaluddin M; Arfat, Mir Yasir; Arif, Zarina; Ahmad, Jamal; Moinuddin; Alam, Khursheed

    2015-02-01

    Nonenzymatic glycation of amino groups of DNA bases by reducing sugars can generate advanced glycation end products (AGEs). Cellular formation of AGEs under normal physiology is continuously scanned and removed by efficient system in the cells. However, excess formation and accumulation of AGEs may be cause or consequence of some human diseases. Mammalian DNA incubated with d-glucose for 28 days at 37°C showed structural changes in DNA as confirmed by UV, fluorescence, CD, melting temperature, S1 nuclease sensitivity and gel electrophoresis. Formation of DNA-AGE was confirmed by HPLC and LC-MS. Enzyme immunoassay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay of autoantibodies in type 2 diabetes patients' sera with disease duration of 5-15 years exhibited significantly high binding with DNA-AGE as compared to patients with 1-5 years of disease duration. Autoantibodies against aberrant DNA-AGE may be important in the assessment of initiation/progression of secondary complications in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

  7. Preterm Birth, Age at School Entry and Long Term Educational Achievement

    PubMed Central

    Odd, David; Evans, David; Emond, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate if the detrimental impact of year of entering education in preterm infants persists into adolescence. Background Preterm infants are often enrolled in school a year earlier than would be expected if this decision is based on their actual date of birth rather than their due date. Initially these infants appear to do disproportionately worse than those who do not ‘skip’ a year. However, it is unclear if this effect remains as the infants grow, to have an important effect on long term achievements in education. Design A cohort study, drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The exposure measurement was gestational age (defined as preterm (<37 weeks gestation) or term (37–42 weeks)). The primary outcome was a low score at the Key Stage 4 (KS4) educational assessment or receiving special educational needs support (both at age 16). We derived conditional regression models matching preterm to term infants on their date of birth (DOB), their expected date of delivery (EDD), or their expected date of delivery and year of school entry. Results After matching for DOB, preterm infants had an increased odds of SEN (OR 1.57 (1.33–1.86)) and the association remained after adjusting for potential confounders (OR 1.39 (1.14–1.68)). The association remained in the analysis matching for EDD (fully adjusted OR 1.43 (1.17–1.74)) but attenuated after restricting to those infants who were enrolled in school in the same year as the control infants (fully adjusted OR 1.21 (0.97–1.52)). There was less evidence for an impact of prematurity on the KS4 score (Matched for DOB; OR 1.10 (0.91 to 1.34), matched for EDD OR 1.17 (0.96 to 1.42) and EDD and same year of schooling, OR 1.00 (0.80 to 1.26)). Conclusions This modifiable effect of going to school a year earlier than predicted by their due date appears to have measurable consequences for ex-preterm infants in adolescence and is likely to limit adulthood opportunities

  8. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans With and Without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or ethnicity, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51 and older from the 1998 to 2006 Health and Retirement Study. Multilevel models and a cohort-sequential design were applied to quantitatively depict the age norm of physical disability after age 50. Results: Adults with diabetes not only experience greater levels of physical disability but also faster rates of deterioration over time. This pattern is net of attrition, time-invariant sociodemographic factors, and time-varying chronic disease conditions. Differences in physical disability between adults with and without diabetes were more pronounced in women, non-White, and those of lower education. The moderating effects of gender and education remained robust even after controlling for selected covariates in the model. Implications: This study highlighted the consistently greater development of disability over time in adults with diabetes and particularly in those who are women, non-White, or adults of lower education. Future studies are recommended to examine the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of diabetes on physical disability by gender and education. PMID:20713455

  9. Age at first introduction to complementary foods is associated with sociodemographic factors in children with increased genetic risk of developing type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Andrén Aronsson, Carin; Uusitalo, Ulla; Vehik, Kendra; Yang, Jimin; Silvis, Katherine; Hummel, Sandra; Virtanen, Suvi M; Norris, Jill M

    2015-10-01

    Infant's age at introduction to certain complementary foods (CF) has in previous studies been associated with islet autoimmunity, which is an early marker for type 1 diabetes (T1D). Various maternal sociodemographic factors have been found to be associated with early introduction to CF. The aims of this study were to describe early infant feeding and identify sociodemographic factors associated with early introduction to CF in a multinational cohort of infants with an increased genetic risk for T1D. The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young study is a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study. Infants (N = 6404) screened for T1D high risk human leucocyte antigen-DQ genotypes (DR3/4, DR4/4, DR4/8, DR3/3, DR4/4, DR4/1, DR4/13, DR4/9 and DR3/9) were followed for 2 years at six clinical research centres: three in the United States (Colorado, Georgia/Florida, Washington) and three in Europe (Sweden, Finland, Germany). Age at first introduction to any food was reported at clinical visits every third month from the age of 3 months. Maternal sociodemographic data were self-reported through questionnaires. Age at first introduction to CF was primarily associated with country of residence. Root vegetables and fruits were usually the first CF introduced in Finland and Sweden and cereals were usually the first CF introduced in the United States. Between 15% and 20% of the infants were introduced to solid foods before the age of 4 months. Young maternal age (<25 years), low educational level (<12 years) and smoking during pregnancy were significant predictors of early introduction to CF in this cohort. Infants with a relative with T1D were more likely to be introduced to CF later.

  10. Journey to Healthy Aging: Impact of Community Based Education Programs on Knowledge and Health Behavior in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLarry, Sue

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if community based health education programs increased knowledge and health behavior in older adults. The study was a pretest-posttest design with a convenience sample of 111 independent community dwelling older adults. Participants received two disease prevention education presentations: type 2…

  11. Effect of public health nurses’ educational intervention on self-care of the patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Zandiyeh, Zahra; Hedayati, Batool; Zare, Elahe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is the most common metabolic disease and the sixth cause of mortality in the world. Most of the conducted studies show that the only way to control this disease and prevent its disabling complications is constant administration of self-care. Aim: This study was conducted with the goal of determining the effect of public health nurses’ educational intervention on the self-care of the patients with type 2 diabetes who referred to Hazrat Ali clinic in Isfahan. Materials and Methods: This is a two-group two-step clinical trial with a before–after intervention design in which 50 patients with type 2 diabetes and with a mean age of 40–70 years were selected and assigned to study (n = 25) and control (n = 25) groups by allotting them even and add numbers. Educational intervention was conducted in the study group through seven educational sessions. Mean scores of self-care before and after interventions were compared by Toobert and Glasgow brief self-care activities questionnaire. Results: Results showed no significant difference in the self-care scores before intervention in the two groups (P = 0.67, z = 0.43), but the mean score of self-care showed a significant increase after intervention in the study group, compared to the control group (P = 0.002, z = 3.14). Conclusion: Based on the obtained results, it is suggested to provide constant education of self-care for diabetic patients in health care centers, with more emphasis on a change in self-care skills and behavior. PMID:27462630

  12. Early-type Galaxy Archeology: Ages, Abundance Ratios, and Effective Temperatures from Full-spectrum Fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Charlie; Graves, Genevieve J.; van Dokkum, Pieter G.

    2014-01-01

    The stellar populations of galaxies hold vital clues to their formation histories. In this paper we present results based on modeling stacked spectra of early-type galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey as a function of velocity dispersion, σ, from 90 km s-1 to 300 km s-1. The spectra are of extremely high quality, with typical signal-to-noise ratio of 1000 Å-1, and a wavelength coverage of 4000 Å -8800 Å. Our population synthesis model includes variation in 16 elements from C to Ba, a two-component star formation history, the shift in effective temperature, Δ T eff, of the stars with respect to a solar metallicity isochrone, and the stellar initial mass function, among other parameters. In our approach we fit the full optical spectra rather than a select number of spectral indices and are able to, for the first time, measure the abundances of the elements V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni from the integrated light of distant galaxies. Our main results are as follows: (1) light-weighted stellar ages range from 6-12 Gyr from low to high σ (2) [Fe/H] varies by less than 0.1 dex across the entire sample; (3) Mg closely tracks O, and both increase from ≈0.0 at low σ to ~0.25 at high σ Si and Ti show a shallower rise with σ, and Ca tracks Fe rather than O; (4) the iron peak elements V, Cr, Mn, and Ni track Fe, while Co tracks O, suggesting that Co forms primarily in massive stars; (5) C and N track O over the full sample and [C/Fe] and [N/Fe] exceed 0.2 at high σ and (6) the variation in Δ T eff with total metallicity closely follows theoretical predictions based on stellar evolution theory. This last result is significant because it implies that we are robustly solving not only for the detailed abundance patterns but also the detailed temperature distributions (i.e., isochrones) of the stars in these galaxies. A variety of tests reveal that the systematic uncertainties in our measurements are probably 0.05 dex or less. Our derived [Mg/Fe] and [O

  13. Blood-type and age affect human plasma levels of histidine-rich glycoprotein in a large population.

    PubMed

    Drasin, T; Sahud, M

    1996-11-01

    Histidine-rich glycoprotein (HRG) is an alpha2-glycoprotein that was first described by Heimberger, et al, in 1972. Today, HRG is generally regarded as a mild prothrombotic protein. Blood samples of 585 individuals were collected with the aid of the Alameda-Contra Costa Medical Association (ACCMA) Blood Bank, Oakland, CA. Sex, age, ethnic origin, and blood-type information were available for each sample. The blood was processed to isolate the cell free plasma, and plasma HRG concentration was measured relative to that of a normal pool through a modified Laurell technique. Among Caucasian individuals, the mean HRG level of blood-type AB subjects, 125 +/- 28%, was found to be significantly greater than the means for subjects with A and O blood-types, 103 +/- 35% and 105 +/- 30% respectively (P = .0246). In addition, the average HRG level appears to increase linearly with age. The mean plasma level of HRG in subjects 50-59 years old was significantly greater than the level in subjects 30-39 years old (P = .0020). The correlation observed between blood-type and plasma HRG level in this study supports previously reported results that indicate significant genetic control over the plasma level of this protein. The age and blood-type based correlations observed in this study raise the question of whether these variables need be addressed if HRG level were to be employed in a clinical setting as a diagnostic tool.

  14. A-type lamins and cardiovascular disease in premature aging syndromes.

    PubMed

    Dorado, Beatriz; Andrés, Vicente

    2017-01-10

    Lamin A is a nuclear intermediate filament protein with important structural and regulatory roles in most differentiated mammalian cells. Excessive accumulation of its precursor prelamin A or the mutant form called 'progerin' causes premature aging syndromes. Progeroid 'laminopathies' are characterized by severe cardiovascular problems (cardiac electrical defects, vascular calcification and stiffening, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, and stroke) and premature death. Here, we review studies in cell and mouse models and patients that are unraveling how abnormal prelamin A and progerin accumulation accelerates cardiovascular disease and aging. This knowledge is essential for developing effective therapies to treat progeria and may help identify new mechanisms underlying normal aging.

  15. [Colombia: effects of a structured educational program on the attitude of the elderly to old age].

    PubMed

    Becerra Moncayo, E; Cerna Barba, M; Lerma González, J; Barona de Infante, N

    1991-01-01

    Twenty-nine elderly were assessed on the attitudes toward aging before and after attending to an Estructural Educational Program (EEP), with a participative methodology. The program's objective was to strength and reorient the attitudes of aceptation, integration and communication. Subjects have been part of an urban sector of low social economical status from Cali, Colombia. A quasiexperimental research design, with a convenient sample was used. It was applied a questionnaire to each subject to collect biopsychosocial data, a Lickert scale before and after the EEP to measure attitudes, as well as an observational guide to measure individual and group behavior before and after each class. A statistical significative growth was observed on the attitudes toward integration, aceptation and communication (t22 = 2.46 p less than 0.05). Data indicated that elderly attitudes can be strengthened and reoriented through a EEP adjusted to the biopsychosocial characteristics of the group.

  16. An Investigation of Five Types of Personality Trait Continuity: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study of Spanish Adolescents from Age 12 to Age 15.

    PubMed

    Ibáñez, Manuel I; Viruela, Ana M; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness.

  17. An Investigation of Five Types of Personality Trait Continuity: A Two-Wave Longitudinal Study of Spanish Adolescents from Age 12 to Age 15

    PubMed Central

    Ibáñez, Manuel I.; Viruela, Ana M.; Mezquita, Laura; Moya, Jorge; Villa, Helena; Camacho, Laura; Ortet, Generós

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated five types of personality trait continuity using two measurement waves of Spanish adolescents (N = 234). Personality traits were measured with the short form of the Junior Spanish NEO-PI-R (JS NEO-S) at ages 12 and 15. The results showed stability in the personality trait structure, as well as decreases in the mean levels of agreeableness and conscientiousness. The results also showed moderate rank-order consistency. Individual-level changes were more pronounced for neuroticism and conscientiousness. Approximately 90% of the participants showed ipsative consistency. The findings showed some personality trait changes occurred from age 12 to 15, but the changes were less marked than expected during this period of biological and social development. Our results also support the disruption hypothesis, as we found dips in conscientiousness and, to a lesser degree, agreeableness. PMID:27148121

  18. Type and Degree of Co-Occurrence of the Educational Communication in a Community of Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutiérrez-Santiuste, Elba; Gallego-Arrufat, María-Jesús

    2017-01-01

    The study analyzes the type and quantity of co-occurrence of social, cognitive, and teaching presence in a Community of Inquiry (CoI). Content analysis of the virtual educational communication shows units of analysis that must be assigned to more than one category. By crossing the categories of the CoI model, we observe that Social Presence is…

  19. Student Satisfaction with Portuguese Higher Education Institutions: The View of Different Types of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarrico, Cláudia S.; Rosa, Maria J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss student satisfaction with Portuguese higher education institutions, and to analyse how this varies for different types of students. A survey instrument was used to collect data on students' perceptions and expectations regarding different aspects of service provision. Based on the gap model of satisfaction,…

  20. Education and Advance Care Planning in Nursing Homes: The Impact of Ownership Type.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Leslie C.; Bradley, Elizabeth H.

    1998-01-01

    A study of 25 nonprofit and 87 for-profit nursing homes showed both types likely to offer education on advance care planning. However, nonprofits were more likely to have ongoing discussions that covered more than life support decisions and to have ethics committees to support advance care planning. (SK)

  1. The Impacts of Type 1 Diabetes on the K-12 Educational Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKerns-O'Donnell, Monica A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to uncover the impacts that type 1 diabetes have on a child's or adolescent's school educational experience. The study used a phenomenological approach based upon the work of Moustakas (1994). Purposeful sampling was used to identify participants. The participant group was comprised of 10…

  2. Overweight in Adolescents: Differences per Type of Education. Does One Size Fit All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vissers, Dirk; Devoogdt, Nele; Gebruers, Nick; Mertens, Ilse; Truijen, Steven; Van Gaal, Luc

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the lifestyle and prevalence of overweight among 16- to 18-year-old adolescents attending 4 different types of secondary education (SE). Design: Cross-sectional school-based survey. Participants: A community sample of 994 adolescents (body mass index [BMI]: 15-43 kg/m[superscript 2]). Variables Measured: Overweight and obesity…

  3. Diminished Vision in Healthy Aging Is Associated with Increased Retinal L-Type Voltage Gated Calcium Channel Ion Influx

    PubMed Central

    Bissig, David; Goebel, Dennis; Berkowitz, Bruce A.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence implicates an increase in hippocampal L-type voltage-gated calcium channel (L-VGCC) expression, and ion influx through these channels, in age-related cognitive declines. Here, we ask if this “calcium hypothesis" applies to the neuroretina: Is increased influx via L-VGCCs related to the well-documented but poorly-understood vision declines in healthy aging? In Long-Evans rats we find a significant age-related increase in ion flux through retinal L-VGCCs in vivo (manganese-enhanced MRI (MEMRI)) that are longitudinally linked with progressive vision declines (optokinetic tracking). Importantly, the degree of retinal Mn2+ uptake early in adulthood significantly predicted later visual contrast sensitivity declines. Furthermore, as in the aging hippocampus, retinal expression of a drug-insensitive L-VGCC isoform (α1D) increased – a pattern confirmed in vivo by an age-related decline in sensitivity to L-VGCC blockade. These data highlight mechanistic similarities between retinal and hippocampal aging, and raise the possibility of new treatment targets for minimizing vision loss during healthy aging. PMID:23457553

  4. Thyroid function and anti-thyroid antibodies in Iranian patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus: influences of age and sex.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Faranak; Ghasemi, Leila; Mousavinasab, Nouraddin

    2008-03-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus is frequently associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (ATD).Genetic susceptibility for autoantibody formation in association with ATD and type 1 diabetes mellitus has been described with varying frequencies, but there is still debate about its prevailing situation in Iran. We have therefore investigated the prevalence of anti-thyroid peroxidase (anti-TPO) and anti thyroglubolin (Anti TG) antibodies in type 1 diabetic patients, and compared the effect of age and sex on the thyroid autoimmunity in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus in Iran.Ninety one subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus and one hundred and sixty three unrelated normal controls under the age of thirty years were recruited for the detection of anti-TPO and anti-TG. Radio Immuno Assay and chemiluminescence methods were used for anti-TPO and anti-TG detection respectively.Among 91 type 1 diabetic patients, 36 (39.6%) were positive for anti-TPO and 27(30%) were positive for antiTG. Anti-TPO antibodies were detected only in 6.7% of control group. Comparing with those without thyroid autoimmunity, there was a female preponderance for the type 1 diabetic patients with thyroid autoimmunity (female: male, 28:14 vs. 28:20 respectively). Among the type 1 diabetic patients those with thyroid autoimmunity, tended to be older (p: 0.04) and to have higher TSH concentration (p: 0.03). Patients with high anti-TPO levels had longer duration of diabetes (P: 0.02).The presence of anti-TPO in 39.6% of our type 1 diabetic patients comparing with 8.5% of normal subjects confirmed the strong association of ATD and type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  5. Teachers' perceptions of value and effects of outdoor education during an age of accountability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Thomas R.

    The purpose of this study was to gain an understanding of teachers' perceptions of the value and effects of a residential Outdoor Education experience during an age of accountability, which was defined as the era which commenced with the passage of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001. Focus group interviews were conducted with four groups of teachers who participated in a residential Outdoor Education experience with their students during the 2004-2005 school year. The major findings of this study were: (1) Teachers perceive value in the OE experience because of the multi-faceted effects upon their students and classes; (2) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' learning through providing hands-on and authentic experiences, development of thinking skills, and enhancing the school's curriculum; (3) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' social and emotional development as evidenced by an increase in self esteem, independence, maturity, personal responsibility, and an expanded worldview; (4) Teachers perceived the OE experience positively affected their students' sense of community as evidenced by an increase in team building and cohesiveness, more productive staff-student relationships, the emergence of different "star" students, and greater inclusion of special needs students; (5) Teachers perceived students' appreciation of the environment increased; and (6) Teachers did not perceive any imminent changes to their school's Outdoor Education programming due to the accountability provisions of No Child Left behind (2001). This study's findings suggested implications for school administrators, which were that they should: articulate desired effects to stakeholders; communicate connections to learning standards; and expand the OE experience to foster greater environmental issue focus.

  6. Age and 'type' of domain specific entry qualifications as predictors of student nurses' performance in biological, social and behavioural sciences in nursing assessments.

    PubMed

    Ofori, R

    2000-05-01

    The present study explored the effects of age and 'type' of entry qualifications in psychology, sociology and biology on student performance in 'the psychological, sociological and biological perspectives in nursing' module assessments, respectively. Data from 222 students undertaking 'the pre-registration diploma in nursing' programme at a university in the north West of England were analysed. The study found no significant differences in performance among those students with GCSE 'O' level, those with access and those without any type of domain specific qualifications. However, student age significantly predicted performance, with such performances found to be highly consistent across the three modules. The 'non-mature' students (aged < 20 years) were identified in the study as being at risk in terms of academic performance whilst the 'very mature' students (aged > 34 years) were found to predict better overall performance. The findings suggest that, paper qualifications such as GCSE O.level, GNVQ or BTEC in psychology, sociology or biology should not be relied upon as predictors of academic performance in their related nursing modules when selecting potential nurses. On the basis of the findings and their probable explanations, it seems possible that the entry gate to nursing can further be widened by giving more credit to the older applicant who has, for example, achieved NVQ at level 2 or 3. However, such flexibility in nurse selection will have to be matched with equal flexibility in the pre-registration diploma in nursing curriculum which at present fails to recognize 'at risk' groups. The findings and the implications for nurse education and recruitment and discussed with support from a growing number of studies investigating student approaches to studying and learning.

  7. Race- and sex-specific associations of parental education with insulin resistance in middle-aged participants: the CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Tamayo, Teresa; Jacobs, David R; Strassburger, Klaus; Giani, Guido; Seeman, Teresa E; Matthews, Karen; Roseman, Jeffrey M; Rathmann, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    Low childhood socioeconomic status (SES) has been linked with insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in adulthood. Our aim was to examine if maternal and paternal education, as indicators of childhood SES, equally contributed to increased HOMA-IR in later life. Of 5,115 adults from the Coronary Artery Disease Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study aged 18-30 years in 1985-1986, data on 1,370 females and 1,060 males with baseline and 20 year follow-up data were used to estimate associations of maternal and paternal education with HOMA-IR, adjusting for personal education, BMI, lipids, blood pressure, and lifestyle factors. Parental education was determined as high with ≥ 12 years of schooling and classified as both high, only mother high, only father high, both low education. Distinct combinations of maternal and paternal education were associated with HOMA-IR across race and sex groups. Lowest year 20 HOMA-IR in European American (EA) females occurred when both parents were better educated, but was highest when only the father had better education. HOMA-IR was lowest in African American (AA) participants when the mother was better educated but the father had less education, but was highest when both parents were better educated. Parental education was unrelated to HOMA-IR in EA males. Associations of parental education with HOMA-IR are seen in AA females, AA males, and EA females but not in EA males. The distinct combinations of parental education and their associations with HOMA-IR especially in AA participants need to be addressed in further research on health disparities.

  8. Acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in mice: Effect of age, frailty and exposure type.

    PubMed

    Kane, Alice E; Mitchell, Sarah J; Mach, John; Huizer-Pajkos, Aniko; McKenzie, Catriona; Jones, Brett; Cogger, Victoria; Le Couteur, David G; de Cabo, Rafael; Hilmer, Sarah N

    2016-01-01

    Acetaminophen is a commonly used analgesic that can cause severe hepatotoxicity in overdose. Despite old age and frailty being associated with extensive and long-term utilization of acetaminophen and a high prevalence of adverse drug reactions, there is limited information on the risks of toxicity from acetaminophen in old age and frailty. This study aimed to assess changes in the risk and mechanisms of hepatotoxicity from acute, chronic and sub-acute acetaminophen exposure with old age and frailty in mice. Young and old male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to either acute (300 mg/kg via oral gavage), chronic (100 mg/kg/day in diet for six weeks) or sub-acute (250 mg/kg, t.i.d., for three days) acetaminophen, or saline control. Pre-dosing mice were scored for the mouse clinical frailty index, and after dosing serum and liver tissue were collected for assessment of toxicity and mechanisms. There were no differences with old age or frailty in the degree of hepatotoxicity induced by acute, chronic or subacute acetaminophen exposure as assessed by serum liver enzymes and histology. Age-related changes in the acetaminophen toxicity pathways included increased liver GSH concentrations, increased NQO1 activity and an increased pro- and anti-inflammatory response to acetaminophen in old age. Frailty-related changes included a negative correlation between frailty index and serum protein, albumin and ALP concentrations for some mouse groups. In conclusion, although there were changes in some pathways that would be expected to influence susceptibility to acetaminophen toxicity, there was no overall increase in acetaminophen hepatotoxicity with old age or frailty in mice.

  9. Influence of Educational Level, Stage, and Histological Type on Survival of Oral Cancer in a Brazilian Population

    PubMed Central

    Dantas, Thinali Sousa; de Barros Silva, Paulo Goberlânio; Sousa, Eric Fernandes; da Cunha, Maria do PSS; de Aguiar, Andréa Silvia Walter; Costa, Fábio Wildson Gurgel; Mota, Mário Rogério Lima; Alves, Ana Paula Negreiros Nunes; Sousa, Fabrício Bitu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The mortality rate associated with oral cancer is estimated at approximately 12,300 deaths per year, and the survival rate is only 40% to 50% for diagnosed patients and is closely related to the duration of time between disease perception and its diagnosis and treatment. Socioeconomic risk factors are determinants of the incidence and mortality related to oral cancer. We conducted a retrospective, cross-sectional study of 573 records of patients with oral cancer at Haroldo Juaçaba Hospital – Cancer Institute of Ceará from 2000 to 2009 to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic factors on survival and epidemiological behavior of this neoplasia in a Brazilian population. In this study, patients with oral cancer were males greater than 60 years of age, presented squamous cell carcinoma in the floor of mouth and were characterized by low education levels. A total of 573 lesions were found in oral cavities. Cox proportional hazards regression model showed that the histological type, tumor stage, and low degree of education significantly influenced survival. A lower patient survival rate was correlated with a more advanced stage of disease and a worse prognosis. Squamous cell carcinoma is associated with a higher mortality when compared with other histological types of malign neoplasia. PMID:26817864

  10. Valsartan ameliorates ageing-induced aorta degeneration via angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated ERK activity.

    PubMed

    Shan, HaiYan; Zhang, Siyang; Li, Xuelian; Yu, Kai; Zhao, Xin; Chen, Xinyue; Jin, Bo; Bai, XiaoJuan

    2014-06-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) plays important roles in ageing-related disorders through its type 1 receptor (AT1 R). However, the role and underlying mechanisms of AT1R in ageing-related vascular degeneration are not well understood. In this study, 40 ageing rats were randomly divided into two groups: ageing group which received no treatment (ageing control), and valsartan group which took valsartan (selective AT1R blocker) daily for 6 months. 20 young rats were used as adult control. The aorta structure were analysed by histological staining and electron microscopy. Bcl-2/Bax expression in aorta was analysed by immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR and Western blotting. The expressions of AT1 R, AT2 R and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) were detected. Significant structural degeneration of aorta in the ageing rats was observed, and the degeneration was remarkably ameliorated by long-term administration of valsartan. With ageing, the expression of AT1R was elevated, the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax was decreased and meanwhile, an important subgroup of MAPKs, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity was elevated. However, these changes in ageing rats could be reversed to some extent by valsartan. In vitro experiments observed consistent results as in vivo study. Furthermore, ERK inhibitor could also acquire partial effects as valsartan without affecting AT1R expression. The results indicated that AT1R involved in the ageing-related degeneration of aorta and AT1R-mediated ERK activity was an important mechanism underlying the process.

  11. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns.

  12. Not Everything Is Proportional: Effects of Age and Problem Type on Propensities for Overgeneralization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dooren, Wim; De Bock, Dirk; Hessels, An; Janssens, Dirk; Verschaffel, Lieven

    2005-01-01

    Previous research (e.g., De Bock, 2002) has shown that--due to the extensive attention paid to proportional reasoning in elementary and secondary mathematics education--many students tend to overrely on proportional methods in diverse domains of mathematics (e.g., geometry, probability). We investigated the development of misapplication of…

  13. Mechanical properties improvement of silica aerogel through aging: Role of solvent type, time and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omranpour, H.; Dourbash, A.; Motahari, S.

    2014-05-01

    Effective parameters that enhance mechanical properties during aging were investigated in the present study. Silica aerogels were made from tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), water, methanol and NH4F in molar ratio 1:4:8:2×10-3 using a one-step method. Different time, temperature and aging solvents in aging stage were studied. Subsequently, solvent exchange with n-hexane, modification under TMCS solution and ambient pressure drying (APD) were performed for all samples. The aerogels had densities within the range of 0.1 and 0.6 g/cm3. The FTIR, mechanical properties, density and BET results, porosity, pore volume, pore diameter and surface area of the samples, were discussed. The compression properties of the gel increased with the increase in the time and temperature of aging. It was observed that solvents with more polarity improved polymerization, which enhanced the mechanical properties of the related samples. However, the stresses and capillary forces of water during drying were so large that inhibited "spring-back effect" during APD, and consequently a collapsed silica network with higher density was fabricated. In other words, the specific compression strength and modulus declined drastically. For methanol, alcohols inhibit the reactions inconveniently causing more shrinkage. In aging by n-hexane, capillary pressure declined significantly and thereby shrinkage was eliminated and silica aerogels with low bulk densities (0.095 g/cm3), high specific surface areas (600 m2/g), and large pore volumes (2.6 cm3/g) were synthesized.

  14. Influences of sex, age, and education on attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M.; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age, and education to inform programming. Methods Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age, and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e. early marriage, forced marriage, and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p<0.03) except for forced marriage (p=0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and age. Conclusion The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household, but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices. PMID:25026024

  15. Influences of sex, age and education on attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age and education to inform programming. Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age and education. Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e., early marriage, forced marriage and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p < 0.03) except for forced marriage (p = 0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and by age. The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices.

  16. Diverse Family Types and Out-of-School Learning Time of Young School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James

    2010-01-01

    Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological…

  17. Age and education corrected older adult normative data for a short form version of the Financial Capacity Instrument.

    PubMed

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C; Marson, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Because of its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument-Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within 4 empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: (a) compare an individual's performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, (b) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and (c) make comparisons between these aspects. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. Age and Education Corrected Older Adult Normative Data for a Short Form Version of the Financial Capacity Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Gerstenecker, Adam; Eakin, Amanda; Triebel, Kristen; Martin, Roy; Swenson-Dravis, Dana; Petersen, Ronald C.; Marson, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Financial capacity is an instrumental activity of daily living (IADL) that comprises multiple abilities and is critical to independence and autonomy in older adults. Due to its cognitive complexity, financial capacity is often the first IADL to show decline in prodromal and clinical Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. Despite its importance, few standardized assessment measures of financial capacity exist and there is little, if any, normative data available to evaluate financial skills in the elderly. The Financial Capacity Instrument – Short Form (FCI-SF) is a brief measure of financial skills designed to evaluate financial skills in older adults with cognitive impairment. In the current study, we present age- and education-adjusted normative data for FCI-SF variables in a sample of 1344 cognitively normal, community-dwelling older adults participating in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging (MCSA) in Olmsted County, Minnesota. Individual FCI-SF raw scores were first converted to age-corrected scaled scores based on position within a cumulative frequency distribution and then grouped within four empirically supported and overlapping age ranges. These age-corrected scaled scores were then converted to age- and education-corrected scaled scores using the same methodology. This study has the potential to substantially enhance financial capacity evaluations of older adults through the introduction of age- and education-corrected normative data for the FCI-SF by allowing clinicians to: 1) compare an individual’s performance to that of a sample of similar age and education peers, 2) interpret various aspects of financial capacity relative to a normative sample, and 3) make comparisons between these aspects. PMID:26168311

  19. Age Hardening Kinetics in 7xxx Type (Al-Mg-Zn) Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Vevecka-Priftaj, A.; Lamani, E.; Fjerdingen, J.; Langsrud, Y.; Gjoennes, J.; Hansen, V.

    2007-04-23

    Age hardening in industrial 7xxx alloys at the temperature 100 deg. and 150 deg. C up to 144 hrs, after solid solution treatments at 450 deg. and 550 deg. C, has been followed by measurements of Vickers hardness, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The influence of silicon on phase and kinetic of age hardening zones and precipitates has been studied. High iron and silicon content increase the number of primary particle in the alloy. Size distribution of {eta}'-precipitates has been determined.

  20. The aging behavior of types 308 and 308CRE stainless steels and its effect on mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Vitek, J.M.; David, S.A.

    1987-01-01

    Aging of 308 and 308CRE SS was studied at 475 to 850/sup 0/C for aging times up to 10,000 hours. Above 550/sup 0/C, aging of 308 steel resulted in precipitation of carbides and the transformation of ferrite to sigma phase or the formation of sigma phase in initially ferrite-free material. The elevated-temperature aging of 308CRE steel resulted in the precipitation of titanium-rich carbides, nitrides, and sulfides, and the transformation of ferrite to sigma phase. The distribution of precipitates was affected by the initial condition of the materials. The elevated-temperature creep properties, and in particular the improved properties of 308CRE, were related to the precipitate distribution. Below 550/sup 0/C, aging of welded type 308 steel, precipitation of G-phase within the ferrite was observed, as well as the decomposition of ferrite into alpha and alpha prime. With the help of a novel mechanical properties microprobe, which was capable of determining the hardness of the minor constituent ferrite phase, the hardness behavior as a function of aging could be related to the microstructures. These results are interpreted in terms of the potential susceptibility of these alloys to 475/sup 0/C embrittlement.

  1. Continuity in sex-typed behavior from preschool to adolescence: a longitudinal population study of boys and girls aged 3-13 years.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Rust, John; Zervoulis, Karyofyllis; Golding, Jean; Hines, Melissa

    2012-06-01

    Sex-typed behavior was assessed at age 3 using the Pre-School Activities Inventory, and at age 13 using the Multidimensional Gender Identity Scale, in 54 masculine boys, 57 masculine girls, 75 feminine boys, 65 feminine girls, 61 control boys, and 65 control girls. At age 13, girls who had been masculine at age 3 felt less similar to other girls, were less content being a girl, and had greater self-efficacy for male-typed activities than control girls, and girls who had been feminine at age 3 had greater self-efficacy for female-typed activities. Boys who had been feminine at age 3 felt less similar to other boys and had lower self-efficacy for male-typed activities than control boys at age 13, and boys who had been masculine at age 3 felt more competent in agentic roles. Thus, sex-typed behavior at age 3 predicted sex-typed behavior at age 13. It was concluded that the degree of sex-typed behavior shown by preschool children is a good indicator of their degree of sex-typed behavior following the transition to adolescence.

  2. Relationships between net primary productivity and stand age for several forest types and their influence on China's carbon balance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaoqiang; Zhou, Lei; Chen, Jingming; Ju, Weimin; Feng, Xianfeng; Wu, Weixing

    2011-06-01

    Affected by natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as forest fires, insect-induced mortality and harvesting, forest stand age plays an important role in determining the distribution of carbon pools and fluxes in a variety of forest ecosystems. An improved understanding of the relationship between net primary productivity (NPP) and stand age (i.e., age-related increase and decline in forest productivity) is essential for the simulation and prediction of the global carbon cycle at annual, decadal, centurial, or even longer temporal scales. In this paper, we developed functions describing the relationship between national mean NPP and stand age using stand age information derived from forest inventory data and NPP simulated by the BEPS (Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator) model in 2001. Due to differences in ecobiophysical characteristics of different forest types, NPP-age equations were developed for five typical forest ecosystems in China (deciduous needleleaf forest (DNF), evergreen needleleaf forest in tropic and subtropical zones (ENF-S), deciduous broadleaf forest (DBF), evergreen broadleaf forest (EBF), and mixed broadleaf forest (MBF)). For DNF, ENF-S, EBF, and MBF, changes in NPP with age were well fitted with a common non-linear function, with R(2) values equal to 0.90, 0.75, 0.66, and 0.67, respectively. In contrast, a second order polynomial was best suitable for simulating the change of NPP for DBF, with an R(2) value of 0.79. The timing and magnitude of the maximum NPP varied with forest types. DNF, EBF, and MBF reached the peak NPP at the age of 54, 40, and 32 years, respectively, while the NPP of ENF-S maximizes at the age of 13 years. The highest NPP of DBF appeared at 122 years. NPP was generally lower in older stands with the exception of DBF, and this particular finding runs counter to the paradigm of age-related decline in forest growth. Evaluation based on measurements of NPP and stand age at the plot-level demonstrates the reliability

  3. [Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents].

    PubMed

    Vio, Fernando; Lera, Lydia; Fuentes-García, Alejandra; Salinas, Judith

    2012-09-01

    Delphi method to identify education material on healthy food for teachers, school-age children and their parents. Delphi method applied to get expert consensus about healthy food topics to include in educational materials for preschool and school-age children, their parents and teachers is described. The questionnaire was developed with the results of surveys and focus groups in children, parents and teachers made previously. The questionnaire was mailed to 54 experts in nutrition, education and communication in a first round. The results were analyzed and forwarded in a second round with the subjects without consensus. The cycle was completed by a validation conducted with teachers and parents and were prioritized by audiovisual educational materials on the writings, favoring participatory activities such as cooking workshops, games, activities over the passive (information at parent meetings, delivery of educational materials and conferences of experts). There was consensus on education in health behaviors such as not giving them money to carry to school, make healthy food choices on family outings and recreational activities associated with healthy eating during weekends; prefer healthy food prepared at home instead of the processed food; restrict eating out candy and prefer family meals without watching TV and food instead of taking a snack in the evening. These results are critical to design educational materials on healthy eating plans to change current eating habits that are contributing significantly to increase the childhood obesity.

  4. The Generation and Maintenance of Visual Mental Images: Evidence from Image Type and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Beni, Rossana; Pazzaglia, Francesca; Gardini, Simona

    2007-01-01

    Imagery is a multi-componential process involving different mental operations. This paper addresses whether separate processes underlie the generation, maintenance and transformation of mental images or whether these cognitive processes rely on the same mental functions. We also examine the influence of age on these mental operations for…

  5. BUSINESS EDUCATION CURRICULUM IMPLICATIONS OF THE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON THE TYPES OF OFFICE MACHINES USED BY SELECTED CONNECTICUT BUSINESSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLOW, CLETUS A.

    WITH THE ULTIMATE OBJECTIVE OF UPGRADING VOCATIONAL PROGRAMS OF OFFICE EDUCATION, A STUDY WAS MADE TO DETERMINE THE TYPES OF OFFICE MACHINES USED IN SELECTED BUSINESSES OF CONNECTICUT, THE NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES USING THEM, AND THE BUSINESS EDUCATION CURRICULUM IMPLICATIONS OF THE INCREASING OR DECREASING USE OF ANY TYPE OF OFFICE MACHINES.…

  6. Hip Fracture Types in Canadian Men and Women Change Differently with Age: A Population-Level Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Crilly, Richard G.; Kloseck, Marita; Mequanint, Selam

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND We have previously reported a gender difference in the occurrence of hip fracture type with age in our local population. In the current report, we have explored this phenomenon in a Canadian population using five years of data from a national administrative database. We have compared community-dwelling and institutionalized individuals to determine if frailty is important and has a differential effect on the type of hip fracture experienced. METHODS Hospitalization records from 2005 to 2009, in which the most responsible diagnosis, that is the diagnosis causing the admission to hospital, was a hip fracture, were obtained from the Discharge Abstract Database of the Canadian Institute for Health Information. Hip fracture type was identified using the Canadian Classification of Health Interventions and the International Classification of Diseases 10th Revision, Canada (ICD-10-CA). Hip fracture proportions were calculated for the study period and stratified by age group and sex. RESULTS The relative proportion of intertrochanteric fractures in women rose from 35% in the youngest group (55–59 years) to 51% in the oldest group (84+ years; P < 0.0001). In men, the proportions remain relatively stable (47% and 44%, respectively). Community and institutionalized patients showed the same pattern. CONCLUSIONS The change in the proportion of the two hip fracture types that occur in women but not men may point to differences in the etiology and consequently the approaches to prevention for the two fracture types. Level of frailty did not seem to be important. PMID:27158225

  7. Designing Playful Learning by Using Educational Board Game for Children in the Age Range of 7-12: (A Case Study: Recycling and Waste Separation Education Board Game)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostowfi, Sara; Mamaghani, Nasser Koleini; Khorramar, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Due to a progressive deterioration of our planet and its resources, environmental education has become important and children are required to understand environmental issues at an early ages. So, they can cultivate the positive changes in the future. Over the past decade, many new evaluation methods have developed for evaluating user experience…

  8. Effects of CRP field age and cover type on ring-necked pheasants in eastern South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eggebo, S.L.; Higgins, K.F.; Naugle, D.E.; Quamen, F.R.

    2003-01-01

    Loss of native grasslands to tillage has increased the importance of Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) grasslands to maintain ring-necked pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) populations. Despite the importance of CRP to pheasants, little is known about the effects of CRP field age and cover type on pheasant abundance and productivity in the northern Great Plains. Therefore, we assessed effects of these characteristics on pheasant use of CRP fields. We stratified CRP grasslands (n=42) by CRP stand age (old [10-13 yrs] vs. new [1-3 yrs] grasslands) and cover type (CP1 [cool-season grasslands] vs. CP2 [warm-season grasslands]) in eastern South Dakota and used crowing counts and roadside brood counts to index ring-necked pheasant abundance and productivity. Field-age and cover-type effects on pheasant abundance and productivity were largely the result of differences in vegetation structure among fields. More crowing pheasants were recorded in old cool-season CRP fields than any other age or cover type, and more broods were recorded in cool- than warm-season CRP fields. Extending existing CRP contracts another 5-10 years would provide the time necessary for new fields to acquire the vegetative structure used most by pheasants without a gap in habitat availability. Cool-season grass-legume mixtures (CP1) that support higher pheasant productivity should be given equal or higher ratings than warm-season (CP2) grass stands. We also recommend that United States Department of Agriculture administrators and field staff provide broader and more flexible guidelines on what seed mixtures can be used in CRP grassland plantings in the northern Great Plains. This would allow landowners and natural resource professionals who manage pheasant habitat to plant a mosaic of cool- and warm-season CRP grassland habitats.

  9. Cardiac and renal function are progressively impaired with aging in Zucker diabetic fatty type II diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Baynes, John; Murray, David B

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the temporal relationship between cardiomyopathy and renal pathology in the type II diabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat. We hypothesized that changes in renal function will precede the development of cardiac dysfunction in the ZDF rat. Animals (10 weeks old) were divided into four experimental groups: Lean Control (fa/?) LC(n = 7), untreated ZDF rats (n = 7) sacrificed at 16 weeks of age, and LC (n = 7) untreated ZDF rats (n = 9) sacrificed at 36 weeks of age. LV structural/functional parameters were assessed via Millar conductance catheter. Renal function was evaluated via markers of proteinuria and evidence of hydronephrosis. LV mass was significantly less in the ZDF groups at both time points compared to age-matched LC. End diastolic volume was increased by 16% at 16 weeks and by 37% at 36 weeks of age (p < 0.05 vs. LC). End diastolic pressure and end systolic volume were significantly increased (42% and 27%respectively) at 36 weeks of age in the ZDF compared to LC. Kidney weights were significantly increased at both 16 and 36 week in ZDF animals (p < 0.05 vs. LC). Increased urinary albumin and decreased urinary creatinine were paralleled by a marked progression in the severity of hydronephrosis from 16 to 36 weeks of age in the ZDF group. In summary, there is evidence of progressive structural and functional changes in both the heart and kidney, starting as early as 16 weeks,without evidence that one pathology precedes or causes the other in the ZDF model of type II diabetes.

  10. Coarsening behavior of MX carbonitrides in type 347H heat-resistant austenitic steel during thermal aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying-hui; Liu, Chen-xi; Liu, Yong-chang; Guo, Qian-ying; Li, Hui-jun

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the growth kinetics of MX (M = metal, X = C/N) nanoprecipitates in type 347H austenitic steel was systematically studied. To investigate the coarsening behavior and the growth mechanism of MX carbonitrides during long-term aging, experiments were performed at 700, 800, 850, and 900°C for different periods (1, 24, 70, and 100 h). The precipitation behavior of carbonitrides in specimens subjected to various aging conditions was explored using carbon replicas and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations. The corresponding sizes of MX carbonitrides were measured. The results demonstrates that MX carbonitrides precipitate in type 347H austenitic steel as Nb(C,N). The coarsening rate constant is time-independent; however, an increase in aging temperature results in an increase in coarsening rate of Nb(C,N). The coarsening process was analyzed according to the calculated diffusion activation energy of Nb(C,N). When the aging temperature was 800-900°C, the mean activation energy was 294 kJ·mol-1, and the coarsening behavior was controlled primarily by the diffusion of Nb atoms.

  11. Experimental induction of type 2 diabetes in aging-accelerated mice triggered Alzheimer-like pathology and memory deficits.

    PubMed

    Mehla, Jogender; Chauhan, Balwantsinh C; Chauhan, Neelima B

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-dependent neurodegenerative disease constituting ~95% of late-onset non-familial/sporadic AD, and only ~5% accounting for early-onset familial AD. Availability of a pertinent model representing sporadic AD is essential for testing candidate therapies. Emerging evidence indicates a causal link between diabetes and AD. People with diabetes are >1.5-fold more likely to develop AD. Senescence-accelerated mouse model (SAMP8) of accelerated aging displays many features occurring early in AD. Given the role played by diabetes in the pre-disposition of AD, and the utility of SAMP8 non-transgenic mouse model of accelerated aging, we examined if high fat diet-induced experimental type 2 diabetes in SAMP8 mice will trigger pathological aging of the brain. Results showed that compared to non-diabetic SAMP8 mice, diabetic SAMP8 mice exhibited increased cerebral amyloid-β, dysregulated tau-phosphorylating glycogen synthase kinase 3β, reduced synaptophysin immunoreactivity, and displayed memory deficits, indicating Alzheimer-like changes. High fat diet-induced type 2 diabetic SAMP8 mice may represent the metabolic model of AD.

  12. Quality of life in patients suffering from seborrheic dermatitis: influence of age, gender and education level.

    PubMed

    Szepietowski, Jacek C; Reich, Adam; Wesołowska-Szepietowska, Ewa; Baran, Eugeniusz

    2009-07-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin condition occurring mostly on the face, scalp and chest. Despite its high frequency, the impact of seborrheic dermatitis on patients' quality of life (QoL) has not been studied well so far. The objectives of this study were to analyse how seborrheic dermatitis affects the patients' QoL and which socio-economic factors could modulate QoL in these patients. A total of 3000 patients with seborrheic dermatitis and/or dandruff were enrolled into the study. All participants were divided into subgroups according to gender, age and education level. A specially designed questionnaire with demographic and clinical details of patients as well as Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was completed during a patient visit in an outpatient clinic. Data were collected by local dermatologists who were instructed regarding the inclusion and exclusion criteria and the questionnaires were sent back to us upon completion. The mean DLQI score for all patients was 6.92±5.34 points. Patients with dandruff had significantly better QoL than subjects with seborrheic dermatitis (5.34±4.67 points vs. 7.73±5.3 points, respectively; P<0.001) or individuals with dandruff plus seborrheic dermatitis (7.54±5.6 points, P<0.001). In addition, women, younger patients and subjects with higher educational level were more affected than the rest of the patients. Seborrheic dermatitis had significant, negative influence on patients' QoL. Observed discrepancies between subgroups could be explained by different roles played by different patient subgroups in the society. DLQI can be successfully used for the assessment of QoL in large populational studies.

  13. Rotation-Activity-Age Relations For Solar-Type And Cooler Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basri, Gibor

    2016-08-01

    The fact that stellar rotation and chromospheric emission are correlated with age was explicitly noted by Wilson (1963) and reinforced by Kraft (1967). Wilson knew that Ca II emission was correlated with surface magnetic field in the Sun. Skumanich (1972) suggested a simple functional for the age-activity relation, and suggested that magnetic braking was the likely reason for the decline in activity. A theory for the rotation-activity connection was elucidated by Noyes et al. (1984), who invoked the Rossby number as important to the stellar dynamo. This calibrated the relation by convection zone depth and turnover time, although it was noted early and recently confirmed that it is not clear whether Rossby number is empirically superior to the rotation period itself in producing a clear rotation-activity relation. In fact, turnover times are hard to properly define, and the Rossby number is itself calibrated to tighten the relations. The number of stars in samples used to study this has increased dramatically, as have the diagnostics available to assess magnetic activity. It remains clear is that there is a strong relationship between magnetic activity and stellar rotation, and that magnetic braking forces both activity and rotation to decrease with age. These relations are also subject to modification as a function of stellar mass. There has recently been a great increase in the number of measured stellar rotation periods, and in the calibration of these relations using star clusters (whose ages can be independently assessed). I will summarize some of the ongoing progress on this topic.

  14. Associations of Student Temperament and Educational Competence with Academic Achievement: The Role of Teacher Age and Teacher and Student Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullola, Sari; Jokela, Markus; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Alatupa, Saija; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations of teacher-perceived student temperament and educational competence with school achievement, and how these associations were modified by students' gender and teachers' gender and age. Participants were 1063 Finnish ninth-graders (534 boys) and their 29 Mother Language teachers (all female) and 43 Mathematics teachers (17…

  15. Age and education effects on relationships of cognitive test scores with brain structure in demographically diverse older persons.

    PubMed

    Mungas, Dan; Reed, Bruce R; Farias, Sarah Tomaszewski; Decarli, Charles

    2009-03-01

    This study examined how age and education influence the relationship between neuropsychological test scores and brain structure in demographically diverse older adults spanning the range from normal cognition to dementia. A sample of 351 African Americans, 410 Hispanics, and 458 Whites underwent neuropsychological testing. Volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of total brain, white matter hyperintensity, and hippocampus were available for 79 African Americans, 102 Hispanics, and 134 Whites. The authors used latent variable modeling to examine effects of age, education, and brain volumes on test scores and determine how much variance brain volumes explained in unadjusted and age- and education-adjusted scores. Age adjustment resulted in weaker relationships of test scores with MRI variables; adjustment for ethnicity yielded stronger relationships. Education adjustment increased relationships with MRI variables in the combined sample and Hispanics, made no difference in Whites, but decreased some associations in African Americans. Results suggest that demographic adjustment is beneficial when demographic variables are strongly related to test scores independent of measures of brain structure, but adjustment has negative consequences when effects of demographic characteristics are mediated by brain structure.

  16. Preparing for Asia in the New Age of Globalisation: University Language Centres in Face of Changes in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, George X.

    2014-01-01

    British higher education is becoming more and more market-driven following the increase in tuition fees in 2012. As a result, universities need to respond more readily to the market, and student demand and the high employability of graduates are now a priority for most universities. With the growing importance of Asian economies in the new age of…

  17. Special Issue: Intellectual Property in the Information Age: Knowledge as Commodity and its Legal Implications for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sun, Jeffrey C., Ed.; Baez, Benjamin, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This monograph examines in great detail two kinds of intellectual property: copyrights and patents. Though the authors recognize the significance of trademarks and trade secrets, they focus primarily on copyrights and patents in this monograph because they represent the most significant issues in higher education in the information age.…

  18. Age-Related Differences in the Relation between Motivation to Learn and Transfer of Training in Adult Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gegenfurtner, Andreas; Vauras, Marja

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis (k = 38, N = 6977) examined age-related differences in the relation between motivation to learn and transfer of training, using data derived from the literature on adult continuing education of the past 25 years. Based on socioemotional selectivity theory, a lifespan approach to expectancy theory, and research on interest and…

  19. An Educational Intervention for Reducing the Intake of Dietary Fats and Cholesterol among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Charlotte

    2001-01-01

    Middle aged and older women (n=14) attended a seminar on reducing saturated fat and cholesterol intake. Their 4-month follow-up reflections showed they adopted an average of 14.5 of 34 dietary practices. Those with higher adoption scores tended to be older and had less education and lower income. (SK)

  20. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume V. Lifelong Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 20 papers on lifelong education presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (students and learners, teachers and mentors) and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.…