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Sample records for age educational attainment

  1. Early Childhood Intervention and Educational Attainment: Age 22 Findings from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether participation in the Chicago Child-Parent Center (CPC) Preschool Program associated with higher educational attainment (high school completion, highest grade completed, and college attendance) at age 22. The study sample included 1,334 youth (869 in the preschool group and 465 in the comparison group) from the…

  2. Relative Age Effects on Physical Education Attainment and School Sport Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobley, Stephen; Abraham, Colin; Baker, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    Background: The "Relative Age Effect" (RAE) has consistently been demonstrated to influence attainment in various contexts. In education, RAE appears to provide an advantage to those born during initial months of an academic year, compared with those born in later months. A similar effect has been noted in many sports, with those born shortly…

  3. Physical activity among working age residents of Wroclaw in the light of their educational attainment

    PubMed Central

    Puciato, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This article attempts to define the relationship between physical activity and educational attainment of working-age adults from Wroclaw. [Subjects and Methods] The study surveyed 2,174 participants aged 18–64 years, 984 men and 1,190 women. To evaluate their physical activity, the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used. [Results] Most of the participants performed low-intensity levels of physical activity. Men were characterized by generally higher physical activity than women, but the difference was not significant. The level of educational attainment differentiated physical activity only in women with secondary or higher education, who performed significantly more physical activities than those with primary and vocational education. [Conclusion] Further research in this subject area should be performed. It should be continuous and consider other methods and techniques. PMID:27065518

  4. The Transition to Adulthood: Sex Differences in Educational Attainment and Age at Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney

    1978-01-01

    Educational attainment is the most important variable mediating the transition to adulthood for both sexes. However, the relationship between educational attainment and the timing of entry into family roles differs for the two sexes. (Author/AM)

  5. Relationship between Brain Age-Related Reduction in Gray Matter and Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Rzezak, Patricia; Squarzoni, Paula; Duran, Fabio L.; de Toledo Ferraz Alves, Tania; Tamashiro-Duran, Jaqueline; Bottino, Cassio M.; Ribeiz, Salma; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Menezes, Paulo R.; Scazufca, Marcia; Busatto, Geraldo F.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-subject variability in age-related brain changes may relate to educational attainment, as suggested by cognitive reserve theories. This voxel-based morphometry study investigated the impact of very low educational level on the relationship between regional gray matter (rGM) volumes and age in healthy elders. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired in elders with low educational attainment (less than 4 years) (n = 122) and high educational level (n = 66), pulling together individuals examined using either of three MRI scanners/acquisition protocols. Voxelwise group comparisons showed no rGM differences (p<0.05, family-wise error corrected for multiple comparisons). When within-group voxelwise patterns of linear correlation were compared between high and low education groups, there was one cluster of greater rGM loss with aging in low versus high education elders in the left anterior cingulate cortex (p<0.05, FWE-corrected), as well as a trend in the left dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (p<0.10). These results provide preliminary indication that education might exert subtle protective effects against age-related brain changes in healthy subjects. The anterior cingulate cortex, critical to inhibitory control processes, may be particularly sensitive to such effects, possibly given its involvement in cognitive stimulating activities at school or later throughout life. PMID:26474472

  6. Education across Borders: The Relationship between Age at Migration and Educational Attainment for Mexico-U.S. Child Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Karyn

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: The flow of people, including children, across international borders is a growing trend. While research has emphasized the relationship between parental migration and children's educational outcomes, little is known about how child migration itself influences educational attainment. Purpose: To examine the relationship between…

  7. Stuttering Severity and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Sue; Jones, Mark; Packman, Ann; Menzies, Ross; Onslow, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the relationship between self-reported stuttering severity ratings and educational attainment. Method: Participants were 147 adults seeking treatment for stuttering. At pretreatment assessment, each participant reported the highest educational level they had attained and rated their typical and worst stuttering…

  8. Education Leaders Applaud ATTAIN Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article talks about Achievement Through Technology and Innovation (ATTAIN) Act, a bill introduced by Senators Bingaman (D-NM), Burr (R-NC), and Murray (D-WA) and applauded by a coalition of education and industry groups. The proposed ATTAIN Act is similar to its companion in the House (HR 2449), and builds upon the Enhancing Education Through…

  9. Income Sustainability through Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Ronald H.; McChesney, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the sustainability of income, as it relates to educational attainment, from the two recent decades, which includes three significant economic downturns. The data was analyzed to determine trends in the wealth gap, parsed by educational attainment and gender. Utilizing the data from 1991 through 2010, predictions in changes in…

  10. The Effect of Labels Only and Labels with Instruction on the Concept Attainment of Educable Mentally Retarded and Normally Developing Boys of School Age. Technical Report No. 301.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gargiulo, Richard Michael

    Examined were the effects of verbal labels alone and in combination with two types of instruction on the concept attainment of 80 educable mentally retarded and 80 normal boys of school age matched for mental age. For learning the concept "equilateral triangle" Ss were randomly assigned to one of four experimental treatment conditions: verbal…

  11. Does Extending Foster Care beyond Age 18 Promote Postsecondary Educational Attainment? Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworsky, Amy; Courtney, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Although foster youth approaching the transition to adulthood have postsecondary educational aspirations similar to those of young people in the general population, for too many foster youth with these aspirations, a college education remains an unfulfilled dream. Previous analyses of data from the Midwest Evaluation of the Adult Functioning of…

  12. Teenage Alcohol Use and Educational Attainment*

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Patrick, Megan E.; Loken, Eric; Maggs, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Using data from the National Child Development Study, an ongoing longitudinal birth cohort study of British youth born in 1958 (N = 9,107), we investigated the long-term impact of heavy alcohol use at age 16 years on educational qualifications in adulthood. Method: We used a propensity score matching approach to examine whether and for whom heavy alcohol use predicted reduced adult educational attainment. Because of gender differences in both heavy drinking and adult socioeconomic attainment, we examined the effects of heavy drinking on educational outcomes separately for females and males. Results: Heavy drinking in adolescence (measured in 1974) had a direct negative effect on the receipt of postsecondary educational credentials by age 42 years among males but not females, independent of child and adolescent risk factors correlated with both heavy drinking and educational attainment. In particular, males from working-class backgrounds were most affected by heavy drinking. Conclusions: Drawing on a life span developmental contextual approach, we find that heavy teenage alcohol use and disadvantaged social origins combined to diminish male educational attainment. In contrast, heavy alcohol use had little effect on female educational attainment. PMID:18925343

  13. Mexican American Teen-Age School Dropouts: Reasons for Leaving School and Orientations Toward Subsequent Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wages, Sherry; And Others

    In an effort to determine variables related to Mexican American school dropouts' decisions to quit school and their orientations toward further educational attainment, personal interviews were conducted in 1967 with 74 Mexican American high school dropouts residing in 4 rural south Texas counties. The variables examined included (1) decision to…

  14. The Fiscal Consequences of Adult Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatiwada, Ishwar; McLaughlin, Joseph; Sum, Andrew; Palma, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    This research monograph prepared for the National Commission on Adult Literacy is primarily designed to describe and analyze the net annual fiscal contributions (tax payments minus cash and in-kind transfers and institutionalization costs) of U.S. adults (ages 16-64) by their educational attainment in recent years. The report begins with an…

  15. Regional Disparities in Adult Height, Educational Attainment and Gender Difference in Late- Life Cognition: Findings from the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinkook; Smith, James P.

    2014-01-01

    State policies over time in India may have led to significant differences by sex in population health and cognition. In this paper, we use data from the pilot wave of the Longitudinal Aging Study in India, conducted in Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, and Rajasthan, to examine state variations in health, educational attainment, and male preference, and how these variations contribute to gender differences in late-life cognition in India. We find men and women born in Punjab are taller than those elsewhere, but do not find any gender differences in height across states with differential male preference. We do find a significant gap in educational attainment that correlates with male preference. We find paternal education benefits both sons and daughters, while maternal education contributes to daughters’ educational attainment. Finally, we find that paternal education benefits daughters’ late-life cognition, while maternal education benefits sons’ late-life cognition, and that children’s education has positive association with older adults’ cognitive functioning as well. PMID:25530941

  16. Educational Attainment: Understanding the Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Sandy; Cunningham, Alisa; Tanenbaum, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    The level of educational attainment in the United States is a central focus of public policy. The Obama administration, some states, large national foundations, and other organizations have set near-term goals to increase the number of Americans with college degrees. Achieving these goals is likely to involve a combination of increasing…

  17. Adolescent Family Experiences and Educational Attainment during Early Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from two-parent families. Parents’ educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989 each had a statistically significant direct relationship with youths’ educational attainment in 2002. Consistent with the theoretical model guiding the study, parents’ educational level and family income also demonstrated statistically significant indirect effects on later educational attainment through their associations with growth trajectories for supportive parenting, sibling relations, and adolescent academic engagement. Supportive parenting and sibling relations were linked to later educational attainment through their association with adolescent academic engagement. Academic engagement during adolescence was associated with educational attainment in young adulthood. These basic processes operated similarly regardless of youths’ gender, target youths’ age relative to a near-age sibling, gender composition of the sibling dyad, or gender of parent. PMID:18999319

  18. Educational Attainment of Adult Residents of Tennessee Counties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Higher Education Commission, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report presents data on the educational attainment of Tennessee residents by county, postsecondary degree level, age group, and ethnicity. The report is made available through interactive maps which allow the user to view county-level educational attainment data for different populations. Data for this analysis were drawn from the U.S. Census…

  19. Educational attainment and differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among middle-aged adults in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seo Ah; Kim, Kirang

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether socioeconomic differences affect fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption with respect to total intake and intake of various FV subgroups. Our study included 6667 adults aged 40-64 years who completed a dietary survey in the fourth Korean NHANES (2007-2009). FV intake was estimated from 24-hour recalls and food frequency questionnaires. Differences in FV consumption related to educational attainment were analyzed according to different nutritional categories of FV. Both men and women in the low-education group had the lowest intake of total FV and total fruits, and women also had the lowest intake of total vegetables. Also lowest in this group was consumption of mushrooms and vegetables (excluding kimchi) among men, and cruciferous and allium vegetables (excluding Chinese cabbage and radish) among women, while kimchi consumption was the highest in this group. Additionally, an association between educational level and intake of citrus fruits was evident among men. Adults in the low-education group consumed less carotene-rich FV, red fruit and/or vegetables, and dark-green leafy vegetables, fewer total vegetable dishes, and fewer types of fruit than in other groups. Men in this group had the lowest intake of yellow/orange fruit and/or vegetables, and women consumed the least folate-rich FV. There is a clear association between educational attainment and FV intake with regard to total intake, and to specific nutrients, bioactive compounds, colors, and variety. PMID:22808352

  20. Association between breastfeeding and intelligence, educational attainment, and income at 30 years of age: a prospective birth cohort study from Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Victora, Cesar G; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; de Mola, Christian Loret; Quevedo, Luciana; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares; Gigante, Denise P; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Breastfeeding has clear short-term benefits, but its long-term consequences on human capital are yet to be established. We aimed to assess whether breastfeeding duration was associated with intelligence quotient (IQ), years of schooling, and income at the age of 30 years, in a setting where no strong social patterning of breastfeeding exists. Methods A prospective, population-based birth cohort study of neonates was launched in 1982 in Pelotas, Brazil. Information about breastfeeding was recorded in early childhood. At 30 years of age, we studied the IQ (Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd version), educational attainment, and income of the participants. For the analyses, we used multiple linear regression with adjustment for ten confounding variables and the G-formula. Findings From June 4, 2012, to Feb 28, 2013, of the 5914 neonates enrolled, information about IQ and breastfeeding duration was available for 3493 participants. In the crude and adjusted analyses, the durations of total breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding (breastfeeding as the main form of nutrition with some other foods) were positively associated with IQ, educational attainment, and income. We identified dose-response associations with breastfeeding duration for IQ and educational attainment. In the confounder-adjusted analysis, participants who were breastfed for 12 months or more had higher IQ scores (difference of 3·76 points, 95% CI 2·20–5·33), more years of education (0·91 years, 0·42–1·40), and higher monthly incomes (341·0 Brazilian reals, 93·8–588·3) than did those who were breastfed for less than 1 month. The results of our mediation analysis suggested that IQ was responsible for 72% of the effect on income. Interpretation Breastfeeding is associated with improved performance in intelligence tests 30 years later, and might have an important effect in real life, by increasing educational attainment and income in adulthood. Funding Wellcome Trust

  1. Inequality and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papay, John P.; Murnane, Richard J.; Willett, John B.

    2013-01-01

    In the past thirty years educational attainments in the United States have stagnated, particularly for low-income Americans. As a result, income-related gaps in educational attainments have grown. These gaps are important because education has historically been the key mechanism for intergenerational socio-economic mobility in the U.S. While the…

  2. Educational Attainment: Analysis by Immigrant Generation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; DebBurman, Noyna

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the largely ignored issue of the determinants of the educational attainment of adults by immigrant generation. Using current population survey (CPS) data, differences in educational attainment are analyzed by immigrant generation (first, second, and higher order generations), and among…

  3. Does Alcohol Use during High School Affect Educational Attainment?: Evidence from the National Education Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatterji, Pinka

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses data from the National Education Longitudinal Study to estimate the association between high school alcohol use and educational attainment measured around age 26. Initially, the effect of alcohol use on educational attainment is estimated using baseline probit models, which ignore the possibility that unmeasured determinants of…

  4. How Economic Segregation Affects Children's Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan E.

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics combined with census data found that an increase in income inequality among census tracts in the same state had little effect on overall educational attainment but exacerbated inequality of attainment between high-income and low-income children. Within-tract inequality had little effect on…

  5. Adolescent Family Experiences and Educational Attainment during Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melby, Janet N.; Conger, Rand D.; Fang, Shu-Ann; Wickrama, K. A. S.; Conger, Katherine J.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the degree to which a family investment model would help account for the association between family of origin socioeconomic characteristics and the later educational attainment of 451 young adults (age 26) from 2-parent families. Parents' educational level, occupational prestige, and family income in 1989…

  6. Educational Attainment in the United States: March 1991 and 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kominski, Robert; Adams, Andrea

    1992-01-01

    This report contains data on the educational attainment of persons in the United States from the Current Population Surveys of the Census in March 1990 and 1991. Summary data on years of school completed by: (1) age; (2) sex; (3) race; (4) Hispanic origin; (5) marital status; (6) household relationship; (7) education of spouse; (8) labor force…

  7. Attaining Success for Beginning Special Education Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCabe, Marjorie; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Three case studies are presented that highlight problem scenarios relating to beginning special education intern teachers and explain how the teachers attained success. The cases focus on classroom management, adaptation of the core curriculum, and knowledge of instructional practices. (JDD)

  8. Influence of Educational Attainment on Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xuemin; He, Youning

    2007-01-01

    In market economy, man is both the essential productive factor and the consuming subject. Education promotes the two aspects. As shown by investigations on the influence of educational attainment on consumption, education has great influences on people's consumption level, consumption structure, consumption modes and consumption concepts. The…

  9. Ethnic Inequalities and Educational Attainment in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jao, Jui-Chang; McKeever, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors examine educational stratification in Taiwan against the background of an ethnically based political economy. They investigate how educational attainment is related to ethnicity and other background factors, such as parental class and education, and if these relationships changed over time as Taiwan became a more…

  10. Attainment of the Number Concept by Children Aged between 4-7

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramazan, Oya; Omercikoglu, Hande

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this research is to determine whether the attainment of the number concept by children aged between 4-7 differs depending on age variant as well as receiving preschool education or not. Attainment of the number concept has been examined by means of One-to-One Matching Test consisting of Piaget's experiments. The test was…

  11. Analyzing the correlation between educational attainment and fertility.

    PubMed

    Zhan, J

    1995-01-01

    An analysis of the correlation between educational attainment and fertility in China yields the conclusion that policy is a deciding factor in the decline of fertility. Education is negatively correlated with fertility. The average educational level is 5.5 years. Education's effect on fertility occurs around the junior high school level. Rural women generally marry later than urban women. Increased educational attainment is nonetheless still related to later age at marriage. Urban women with an elementary education get married 2.2 years later than illiterate women, and rural women with an elementary education get married 0.6 years later than illiterate women. Urban women tend to be better educated. The average age among all women with a high school education or higher level is 23.5 years. Contraceptive use is unrelated to educational attainment. As educational level rises, method use shows a decline among sterilization acceptors and an increase among IUD or other devices acceptors. Average educational attainment does not vary much between regions. The average number of years for all regions is no more than 7 years, with the exception of three municipalities. Nationally, the correlation coefficient between women's illiteracy and fertility is 0.462. The correlation coefficient between women's average educational attainment and fertility is 0.575. Women's educational attainment and level of illiteracy are found to have a weak and negative impact in regions where attainment is higher than the national average and illiteracy lower than the national average. When fertility is high and population control policies are in effect, fertility declines at about the same rate among women of all educational levels, for except college-educated women where decline is faster. Trends show illiterate and elementary educated women have fertility rates higher than the national average, and fertility among the remaining women is lower than the national average. Family planning policy and

  12. Genetic and Environmental Transactions Underlying Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Deary, Ian J.; Iacono, William G.

    2009-01-01

    This report used a population-representative longitudinal twin study with two birth cohorts to explore the association between intelligence and education by understanding how genetic and environmental influences on intelligence moderate genetic and environmental influences on school grades and educational attainment. Nonshared environmental…

  13. The Implications of Adult Identity for Educational and Work Attainment in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Janel E.; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relation of young adult identities (ages 18-22 years), reflecting subjective age and psychosocial maturity, to educational and career attainment in young adulthood (ages 25-29 years). Add Health data show that having an older subjective age alone does not curtail attainment; the critical issue is the level of…

  14. Early School Adjustment and Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Magnuson, Katherine; Duncan, Greg; Lee, Kenneth T.H.; Metzger, Molly

    2016-01-01

    Although school attainment is a cumulative process combining mastery of both academic and behavioral skills, most studies have offered only a piecemeal view of the associations between middle childhood capacities and subsequent schooling outcomes. Using a 20-year longitudinal dataset, this study estimates the association between children’s academic skills, anti-social behaviors and attention problems, all averaged across middle childhood, and their long-term educational outcomes. After adjusting for family and individual background measures, we find that high average levels of math and reading achievement, and low average levels of anti-social behavior problems, are positively associated with later attainment. Associations between attention problems and attainment are small. Associations are attenuated somewhat when sibling differences in these skills and behaviors are related to sibling differences in attainment outcomes. PMID:27563151

  15. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crissey, Sarah R.

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected in the 2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and data collected in 2008 and earlier in the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS). Previous U.S. Census Bureau reports on this topic were based on…

  16. Does Parental Employment Affect Children's Educational Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schildberg-Hoerisch, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether there exists a causal relationship between parental employment and children's educational attainment. We address potential endogeneity problems due to (i) selection of parents in the labor market by estimating a model on sibling differences and (ii) reverse causality by focusing on parents' employment when children are…

  17. Birth Order, Family Size and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Monique

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of family size and birth order on educational attainment. An instrumental variables approach is used to identify the effect of family size. Instruments for the number of children are twins at last birth and the sex mix of the first two children. The effect of birth order is identified, by examining the relation…

  18. Geography Education for "An Attainable Global Perspective"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Phil; Pawson, Eric; Solem, Michael; Ray, Waverly

    2014-01-01

    This article considers approaches to promoting global perspectives as both cognitive and affective learning outcomes within geography education. Particular attention is paid to the work of Robert Hanvey, who proposed "An Attainable Global Perspective" in the 1970s, which explicitly ties to the content and perspectives embedded in…

  19. Redshirting, Compulsory Schooling Laws, and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aliprantis, Dionissi

    2012-01-01

    A wide literature uses date of birth as an instrument to study the causal effects of educational attainment. This paper shows how parents delaying their children's initial enrollment in kindergarten, a practice known as redshirting, can make estimates obtained through this identification framework all but impossible to interpret. A latent index…

  20. Educational Attainment in Southeast Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Million, Laura; Henken, Rob; Dickman, Anneliese

    2010-01-01

    In metro Milwaukee, as a part of the WIRED Initiative, the Regional Workforce Alliance (RWA)--a collaboration of organizations representing workforce development, economic development and education across southeast Wisconsin--has established the framework for pursuing the local talent dividend goal and a regional strategy for increasing…

  1. Orbitofrontal Function and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spinella, Marcello; Miley, William M.

    2004-01-01

    Orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays important roles in processes of reward and self-regulation. Lesions of OFC induce changes in personality and social conduct characterized by behavioral disinhibition, impulsivity, reduced autonomy, lack of concern with negative consequences, and mood lability. Many of these processes relate to aspects of education,…

  2. 38 CFR 3.208 - Claims based on attained age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Claims based on attained age. 3.208 Section 3.208 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.208 Claims based on attained age. In claims...

  3. 38 CFR 3.208 - Claims based on attained age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Claims based on attained age. 3.208 Section 3.208 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.208 Claims based on attained age. In claims...

  4. 38 CFR 3.208 - Claims based on attained age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims based on attained age. 3.208 Section 3.208 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.208 Claims based on attained age. In claims...

  5. 38 CFR 3.208 - Claims based on attained age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Claims based on attained age. 3.208 Section 3.208 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS ADJUDICATION Pension, Compensation, and Dependency and Indemnity Compensation Evidence Requirements § 3.208 Claims based on attained age. In claims...

  6. Educational attainment and obesity: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Alison K.; Rai, Manisha; Rehkopf, David H.; Abrams, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Background Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. Methods The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish were included. Results This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables, and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Conclusions Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851

  7. Educational attainment and obesity: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A K; Rai, M; Rehkopf, D H; Abrams, B

    2013-12-01

    Although previous systematic reviews considered the relationship between socioeconomic status and obesity, almost 200 peer-reviewed articles have been published since the last review on that topic, and this paper focuses specifically on education, which has different implications. The authors systematically review the peer-reviewed literature from around the world considering the association between educational attainment and obesity. Databases from public health and medicine, education, psychology, economics, and other social sciences were searched, and articles published in English, French, Portuguese and Spanish were included. This paper includes 289 articles that report on 410 populations in 91 countries. The relationship between educational attainment and obesity was modified by both gender and the country's economic development level: an inverse association was more common in studies of higher-income countries and a positive association was more common in lower-income countries, with stronger social patterning among women. Relatively few studies reported on lower-income countries, controlled for a comprehensive set of potential confounding variables and/or attempted to assess causality through the use of quasi-experimental designs. Future research should address these gaps to understand if the relationship between educational attainment and obesity may be causal, thus supporting education policy as a tool for obesity prevention. PMID:23889851

  8. Assessment of Adolescents’ Motivation for Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N.; West, Stephen G.; Im, Myung Hee

    2015-01-01

    The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents’ motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students’ basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students’ gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students’ school belonging, student–teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed. PMID:24588748

  9. Assessment of adolescents' motivation for educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Cham, Heining; Hughes, Jan N; West, Stephen G; Im, Myung Hee

    2014-06-01

    The Adolescent Motivation for Educational Attainment Questionnaire is a 32-item questionnaire (we drew 20 items from 3 subscales of the Educational Motivation Questionnaire; Murdock, 1999) that was developed to measure multiple potential dimensions of adolescents' motivation to complete high school and enroll in post-secondary education, including competence and effort beliefs; perceived value of education; and peer, teacher, and parent support for educational attainment. We assessed a multiethnic sample (N = 569) of low-achieving students who started 1st grade together in 1 urban and 2 small city school districts. Participants were assessed over 2 consecutive years (Grades 8 and 9 given prior grade retention, or Grades 9 and 10 if not retained). Exploratory factor analyses identified 4 correlated dimensions underlying the questionnaire responses. Subsequent confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a bifactor model, which includes a general factor of students' basic educational motivation, and specific factors of (a) teacher educational expectations, (b) peer aspirations, and (c) value of education. Measurement invariance of the bifactor model was established across students' gender and ethnicity (Caucasian, African American, and Hispanic) and year of testing. Criterion-related validity of the general and specific factors with students' school belonging, student-teacher warmth and conflict, disciplinary practices, letter grade, conduct problems, and behavioral engagement was examined. Practical implications of the measure are discussed. PMID:24588748

  10. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Hiatt Racer, Kristina; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents' effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age…

  11. The implications of adult identity for educational and work attainment in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Benson, Janel E; Johnson, Monica Kirkpatrick; Elder, Glen H

    2012-11-01

    This study investigates the relation of young adult identities (ages 18-22 years), reflecting subjective age and psychosocial maturity, to educational and career attainment in young adulthood (ages 25-29 years). Add Health data show that having an older subjective age alone does not curtail attainment; the critical issue is the level of psychosocial maturity that accompanies subjective age. Those with older subjective ages and low psychosocial maturation have the lowest attainment at ages 25-29 years, while those with older subjective ages and high psychosocial maturation show considerable progress toward work-related attainment. For those with younger subjective ages, a lower level of psychosocial maturity is not as detrimental to attainment. PMID:22103305

  12. Education in Time: Cohort Differences in Educational Attainment in African-American Twins

    PubMed Central

    Szanton, Sarah L.; Johnson, Brandon; Thorpe, Roland J.; Whitfield, Keith

    2009-01-01

    Objectives Educational opportunities for African-Americans expanded throughout the 20th century. Twin pairs are an informative population in which to examine changes in educational attainment because each twin has the same parents and childhood socioeconomic status. We hypothesized that correlation in educational attainment of older twin pairs would be higher compared to younger twin pairs reflecting changes in educational access over time and potentially reflecting a “ceiling effect” associated with Jim Crow laws and discrimination. Methodology and Principal Findings We used data from 211 same-sex twin pairs (98 identical, 113 fraternal) in the Carolina African-American Twin Study of Aging who were identified through birth records. Participants completed an in-person interview. The twins were predominantly female (61%), with a mean age of 50 years (SD = 0.5). We found that older age groups had a stronger intra-twin correlation of attained educational level. Further analysis across strata revealed a trend across zygosity, with identical twins demonstrating more similar educational attainment levels than did their fraternal twin counterparts, suggesting a genetic influence. Discussion These findings suggest that as educational opportunities broadened in the 20th century, African-Americans gained access to educational opportunities that better matched their individual abilities. PMID:19888338

  13. Equality in Educational Policy and the Heritability of Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Colodro-Conde, Lucía; Rijsdijk, Frühling; Tornero-Gómez, María J.; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F.; Ordoñana, Juan R.

    2015-01-01

    Secular variation in the heritability of educational attainment are proposed to be due to the implementation of more egalitarian educational policies leading to increased equality in educational opportunities in the second part of the 20th century. The action of effect is hypothesized to be a decrease of shared environmental (e.g., family socioeconomic status or parents’ education) influences on educational attainment, giving more room for genetic differences between individuals to impact on the variation of the trait. However, this hypothesis has not yet found consistent evidence. Support for this effect relies mainly on comparisons between countries adopting different educational systems or between different time periods within a country reflecting changes in general policy. Using a population-based sample of 1271 pairs of adult twins, we analyzed the effect of the introduction of a specific educational policy in Spain in 1970. The shared-environmental variance decreased, leading to an increase in heritability in the post-reform cohort (44 vs. 67%) for males. Unstandardized estimates of genetic variance were of a similar magnitude (.56 vs. .57) between cohorts, while shared environmental variance decreased from .56 to .04. Heritability remained in the same range for women (40 vs. 34%). Our results support the role of educational policy in affecting the relative weight of genetic and environmental factors on educational attainment, such that increasing equality in educational opportunities increases heritability estimates by reducing variation of non-genetic familial origin. PMID:26618539

  14. Economic Attainment of Secondary Marketing and Distributive Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III

    This study was conducted to explore the relationship between participation in secondary marketing and distributive education (MDE) and economic attainment after high school. Specifically, the study sought to develop a model of economic attainment, i.e., job status attainment, unemployment, and wages for secondary MDE students. The study used the…

  15. Educational Attainment and Child Abuse Potential: Implications for Adult Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Sandy; Seibel, Donnie

    1990-01-01

    Analysis of data from 138 women, infants, children participants who completed Child Abuse Potential Inventory showed mothers with higher educational attainment appeared less likely to be abusive regardless of such factors as low income, single parenthood, or large family size. Mothers who did not complete high school were at greater risk for…

  16. Students with Reading and Spelling Disabilities: Peer Groups and Educational Attainment in Secondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Haverinen, Kaisa; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik; Savolainen, Hannu; Holopainen, Leena

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the members of adolescents' peer groups are similar in reading and spelling disabilities and whether this similarity contributes to subsequent school achievement and educational attainment. The sample consisted of 375 Finnish adolescents whose reading and spelling disabilities were assessed at age 16 with the…

  17. Sibling Resemblance and Intersibling Effects in Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Robert M.; Wong, Raymond Sin-Kwok

    1989-01-01

    Analyzes M. H. Benin and D. R. Johnson's data concerning reciprocal influence between siblings' educational attainment. Finds unusually low similarity between older sisters and younger brothers. Uses Michael R. Olneck's data to model reciprocal effects between brothers' educational attainments. Finds evidence of reciprocal influence on brothers'…

  18. Emergy Evaluation of Educational Attainment in the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergy of educational attainment in the United States was quantified over the period for which the necessary data were available, i.e., 1948 to 2006. We propose that the portion of the knowledge in educational attainment delivered by the active workforce be considered as part...

  19. Adolescent Sexuality, Masculinity-Femininity, and Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Joseph

    The role of adolescent sexual behavior in educational attainment has been overlooked. Homosexual and heterosexual men were interviewed to test for a correlation between adolescent sexual activeness and educational attainment, as well as any link between childhood masculine sex roles and early sexual activity. Approximately 1,000 volunteers,…

  20. Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: Influences of the Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensah, Fiona K.; Kiernan, Kathleen E.

    2010-01-01

    There are gender differences in educational attainment amongst British children and there is evidence that these differences emerge early in life. In this study we investigate whether boys' and girls' early educational attainment levels are similarly related to disadvantage in the family environment. This study uses survey data from the Millennium…

  1. Women's Educational Attainment and the Timing of Entry into Parenthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney

    1984-01-01

    Reviews research on the relationship between women's educational attainment and timing of their entry into parenthood. Presents data from a 15-year follow-up of high school students originally surveyed in 1957-58 (and resurveyed in 1973-74). Concludes that educational attainment has a strong delaying effect on timing parenthood, but that their…

  2. Educational Attainment: Analysis by Immigrant Generation. IZA Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.; DebBurman, Noyna

    This paper presents a theoretical and empirical analysis of the largely ignored issue of the determinants of the educational attainment of adults by immigrant generation. Using Current Population Survey (CPS) data, differences in educational attainment are analyzed by immigrant generation (first, second, and higher order generations), and among…

  3. How Economic Segregation Affects Childrens' Educational Attainment. JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Susan

    Economic segregation increased in the United States between 1970 and 1990. Three hypotheses suggest that this would affect low-income children's educational attainment. The political economy of school funding predicts that economically segregated school districts reduce the educational attainment of low-income children. Two other hypotheses…

  4. Literacy Gaps by Educational Attainment: A Cross-National Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyunjoon; Kyei, Pearl

    2011-01-01

    Existing cross-national research on educational attainment does not fully address whether the same level of educational attainment generates the same level of literacy skills in different countries. We analyze literacy skills data for young adults from 19 countries in the 1994-1998 International Adult Literacy Survey and find that in all…

  5. Three Essays on the Economics of Higher Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Daniel C.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines issues regarding the educational attainment of the U.S. workforce. Specifically, I investigate the impact of various factors on the growth of postsecondary educational attainment. This includes issues pertaining to improving the skill-level of the workforce at the regional or state level, as well as for the domestic…

  6. Mental Health Problems and Educational Attainment in Adolescence: 9-Year Follow-Up of the TRAILS Study

    PubMed Central

    Veldman, Karin; Bültmann, Ute; Stewart, Roy E.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examines if mental health problems at age 11 and changes in mental health problems between age 11 and 16 predict educational attainment of adolescents at age 19, overall and stratified by gender. Methods Data from 1711 adolescents (76.8% from initial cohort) of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS), a Dutch prospective cohort study with 9year follow-up, were used. Mental health problems (externalizing, internalizing and attention problems) were measured by the Youth Self Report and the Child Behavior Checklist at ages 11 and 16. Difference scores for mental health problems between age 11 and 16 were calculated. Educational attainment was assessed at age 19. Results Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 were significantly associated with low educational attainment at age 19 (crude model). When adjusted for demographic variables and the other mental health problems, only the association for attention problems remained significant (odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval: 3.19, 2.11–4.83). Increasing externalizing problems between age 11 and 16 also predicted low educational attainment at age 19 (OR 3.12, 1.83–5.32). Among girls, increasing internalizing problems between age 11 and 16 predicted low educational attainment (OR 2.21, 1.25–3.94). For boys, no significant association was found for increasing internalizing problems and low educational attainment. For increasing attention problems between age 11 and 16 no significant association with low educational attainment was found. Conclusions Externalizing, internalizing and attention problems at age 11 and an increase of these problems during adolescence predicted low educational attainment at age 19. Early treatment of these mental health problems may improve educational attainment, and reduce socioeconomic health differences in adulthood. PMID:25047692

  7. The role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and income: evidence from the National Child Development Study

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Neil M.; Hemani, Gibran; Timpson, Nic J.; Windmeijer, Frank; Davey Smith, George

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the role of common genetic variation in educational attainment and household income. We used data from 5,458 participants of the National Child Development Study to estimate: 1) the associations of rs9320913, rs11584700 and rs4851266 and socioeconomic position and educational phenotypes; and 2) the univariate chip-heritability of each phenotype, and the genetic correlation between each phenotype and educational attainment at age 16. The three SNPs were associated with most measures of educational attainment. Common genetic variation contributed to 6 of 14 socioeconomic background phenotypes, and 17 of 29 educational phenotypes. We found evidence of genetic correlations between educational attainment at age 16 and 4 of 14 social background and 8 of 28 educational phenotypes. This suggests common genetic variation contributes both to differences in educational attainment and its relationship with other phenotypes. However, we remain cautious that cryptic population structure, assortative mating, and dynastic effects may influence these associations. PMID:26561353

  8. Rural-Nonrural Disparities in Postsecondary Educational Attainment Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Irvin, Matthew J.

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study, this study revisited rural-nonrural disparities in educational attainment by considering a comprehensive set of factors that constrain and support youth's college enrollment and degree completion. Results showed that rural students were more advantaged in community social resources compared to nonrural students, and these resources were associated with a significant increase in the likelihood of bachelor's degree attainment. Yet results confirmed that rural students lagged behind nonrural students in attaining a bachelor's degree largely due to their lower socioeconomic background. The findings present a more comprehensive picture of the complexity of geographic residence in shaping college enrollment and degree attainment. PMID:24285873

  9. Personal Income and Educational Attainment of Male War Veterans and Nonveterans, March 1983. Monograph 70-84-7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Robert E.

    A study compared the personal income and educational attainment of male war veterans and nonveterans as of March 1983. Using data from the March supplement of the 1983 Current Population Survey, the researchers compared the educational attainment and income of 9 separate age groups of a sample of 22,823 veterans and 47,792 nonveterans. For the…

  10. Do School Entry Laws Affect Educational Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes? NBER Working Paper No. 14945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobkin, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Age based school entry laws force parents and educators to consider an important tradeoff: Though students who are the youngest in their school cohort typically have poorer academic performance, on average, they have slightly higher educational attainment. In this paper we document that for a large cohort of California and Texas natives the school…

  11. Do School Entry Laws Affect Educational Attainment and Labor Market Outcomes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobkin, Carlos; Ferreira, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Age based school entry laws force parents and educators to consider an important tradeoff: though students who are the youngest in their school cohort typically have poorer academic performance, on average, they have slightly higher educational attainment. In this paper we document that for a large cohort of California and Texas natives the school…

  12. Educational Attainment of Foster Youth: Achievement and Graduation Outcomes for Children in State Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burley, Mason; Halpern, Mina

    This report summarizes findings from a statewide analysis of the educational attainment of foster youth in Washington's public school system. It analyzes various factors related to educational success, comparing the outcomes of youth in long-term foster care with the state's school-age population. The report merges data from the child welfare…

  13. Models of Educational Attainment: A Theoretical and Methodological Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, D. S.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Uses cluster analysis techniques to show that egalitarian policies in secondary education coupled with high financial inputs have measurable payoffs in higher attainment rates, based on Max Weber's notion of power'' within a community. (Author/JM)

  14. Longitudinal Pathways from Math Intrinsic Motivation and Achievement to Math Course Accomplishments and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Adele Eskeles; Marcoulides, George A.; Gottfried, Allen W.; Oliver, Pamella H.

    2013-01-01

    Across 20 years, pathways from math intrinsic motivation and achievement (ages 9-17) to high school math course accomplishments and educational attainment (age 29) were analyzed. Academic intrinsic motivation was the theoretical foundation. To determine how initial status and change in motivation and achievement related to course accomplishments…

  15. The Effects of Early Bilateral Otitis Media with Effusion on Educational Attainment: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Sylvia A. F.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examination of the relationship between educational attainment and long-lasting, bilateral otitis media with effusion (OME) in 270 Dutch children (ages 2 to 4) found that, at age 7, early bilateral OME affected spelling ability but not reading ability. Effects of treatment with ventilation tubes were not found. (DB)

  16. Educational Expectations and Attainment. NBER Working Paper No. 15683

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Brian A.; Wilder, Tamara

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the role of educational expectations in the educational attainment process. We utilize data from a variety of datasets to document and analyze the trends in educational expectations between the mid-1970s and the early 2000s. We focus on differences across racial/ethnic and socioeconomic groups and examine how young people…

  17. Understanding links between adolescent health and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margot I

    2009-11-01

    The educational and economic consequences of poor health during childhood and adolescence have become increasingly clear, with a resurgence of evidence leading researchers to reconsider the potentially significant contribution of early-life health to population welfare both within and across generations. Meaningful relationships between early-life health and educational attainment raise important questions about how health may influence educational success in young adulthood and beyond, as well as for whom its influence is strongest. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I examine how adolescents'health and social status act together to create educational disparities in young adulthood, focusing on two questions in particular. First, does the link between adolescent health and educational attainment vary across socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups? Second, what academic factors explain the connection between adolescent health and educational attainment? The findings suggest that poorer health in adolescence is strongly negatively related to educational attainment, net of both observed confounders and unobserved, time-invariant characteristics within households. The reduction in attainment is particularly large for non-Hispanic white adolescents, suggesting that the negative educational consequences of poor health are not limited to only the most socially disadvantaged adolescents. Finally, I find that the link between adolescent health and educational attainment is explained by academic factors related to educational participation and, most importantly, academic performance, rather than by reduced educational expectations. These findings add complexity to our understanding of how the educational consequences of poor health apply across the social hierarchy, as well as why poor health may lead adolescents to complete less schooling. PMID:20084824

  18. Understanding Links Between Adolescent Health and Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    JACKSON, MARGOT I.

    2009-01-01

    The educational and economic consequences of poor health during childhood and adolescence have become increasingly clear, with a resurgence of evidence leading researchers to reconsider the potentially significant contribution of early-life health to population welfare both within and across generations. Meaningful relationships between early-life health and educational attainment raise important questions about how health may influence educational success in young adulthood and beyond, as well as for whom its influence is strongest. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997, I examine how adolescents’ health and social status act together to create educational disparities in young adulthood, focusing on two questions in particular. First, does the link between adolescent health and educational attainment vary across socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups? Second, what academic factors explain the connection between adolescent health and educational attainment? The findings suggest that poorer health in adolescence is strongly negatively related to educational attainment, net of both observed confounders and unobserved, time-invariant characteristics within households. The reduction in attainment is particularly large for non-Hispanic white adolescents, suggesting that the negative educational consequences of poor health are not limited to only the most socially disadvantaged adolescents. Finally, I find that the link between adolescent health and educational attainment is explained by academic factors related to educational participation and, most importantly, academic performance, rather than by reduced educational expectations. These findings add complexity to our understanding of how the educational consequences of poor health apply across the social hierarchy, as well as why poor health may lead adolescents to complete less schooling. PMID:20084824

  19. Educational Credentialing of an Aging Workforce: Uneasy Conclusions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isopahkala-Bouret, Ulpukka

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the educational attainment of an aging workforce from the perspective of educational credentialing. The research questions are defined as follows: Why are workers over age 50 attaining university degrees? How do they narratively construct the rational for pursuing well-recognized credentials in midlife? The specific focus…

  20. 26 CFR 1.7702-2 - Attained age of the insured under a life insurance contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Attained age of the insured under a life...-2 Attained age of the insured under a life insurance contract. (a) In general. This section provides guidance on determining the attained age of an insured under a contract that is a life insurance...

  1. Investigating the Relationship between the Quality of Education and Level of Educational Attainment in Turkish Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gumus, Sedat

    2012-01-01

    Research in comparative and international education indicates that the quality of education, as measured by standardized tests, and the level of educational attainment have a significant impact on individual earning and national economic growth. However, the relationship between the quality of education and the level of educational attainment has…

  2. Education and Status Attainment in Chile: A Comparative Challenge to the Wisconsin Model of Status Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farrell, Joseph P.; Schiefelbein, Ernesto

    1985-01-01

    Major intergenerational changes in occupational structure, common in many countries, can invalidate conclusions drawn from correlation/path analysis studies of status attainment (Wisconsin model). Longitudinal data on Chilean youth of different social strata and the Chilean occupational structure are used to explain education's role in…

  3. Differences among Preferred Methods for Furthering Aging Education in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leson, Suzanne M.; Van Dussen, Daniel J.; Ewen, Heidi H.; Emerick, Eric S.

    2014-01-01

    Workers serving Ohio's aging population will require increased levels of gerontological education. Using data from 55 Ohio counties, this project investigated the educational needs and reasons for seeking education from professionals in aging. Respondents reported interest in attaining aging related education. Preferred delivery methods…

  4. The Sports Participation Effect on Educational Attainment of Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the direct, indirect, and total effects of high school sports participation on educational attainment for Black males using the Educational Longitudinal Study (2002/2006), a large, nationally representative, database. A path analysis procedure for determining underlying causal relationships between variables…

  5. Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attainment: The Role of Household Assets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Jin

    2013-01-01

    High intergenerational persistence of educational attainment is an indicator of educational inequality and a barrier to equal opportunities in the labor market and beyond. This study uses data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to generate a sample of two cohorts of children ('84 and '94 cohorts), and it examines whether intergenerational…

  6. Socioeconomic Attainment of Secondary Marketing and Distributive Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, James R., III

    1983-01-01

    This research examined the causal relationships between students' background characteristics, participation in secondary marketing and distributive education (MDE), and socioeconomic attainment seven years after graduation. The results suggest that participation in secondary MDE and in cooperative education are positively associated with higher…

  7. The Relative Impact of Educational Attainment and Fatherlessness on Criminality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koski, Douglas D.

    1996-01-01

    Regression analysis of 40 years of data on median income, education, divorce rate, and female-headed households was conducted to determine their influence on crime rates, especially homicide. Educational attainment had a significant bearing on criminality. Single parenting was less significant than low income. (SK)

  8. Immigration and Hispanic Educational Attainment: Challenges for the 1990s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tienda, Marta

    This paper documents the trend in the educational attainments of U.S.-born and immigrant Hispanics from 1960 to 1980, using data from the decennial censuses, in an effort to pinpoint sources of convergence and divergence in schooling outcomes. A major question addressed is whether and to what extent persisting educational differentials between…

  9. Predictors of Educational Attainment in the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2008-01-01

    The authors investigated a comprehensive set of predictors of high school completion and years of completed education for youth in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an ongoing investigation of over 1500 low-income, minority children who grew up on high-poverty neighborhoods. The study sample included 1286 youth for whom educational attainment could…

  10. Resources for Aging Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliere, Lorraine A.

    Following a short paper on the rationale for aging education at all levels, several resource lists cite curriculum materials and general references on aging. Aging education is defined to encompass educational programs at all levels aimed at helping students learn more about the nature and problems of growing old. Focus is on the elementary and…

  11. Natural Mentors, Racial Identity, and Educational Attainment among African American Adolescents: Exploring Pathways to Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurd, Noelle M.; Sanchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at…

  12. Assessing Educational Outcomes in Middle Childhood: Validation of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Assessing educational outcomes in high-risk populations is crucial for defining long-term outcomes. As standardized tests are costly and time-consuming, we assessed the use of the Teacher Academic Attainment Scale (TAAS) as an outcome measure. Method: Three hundred and forty three children in mainstream schools aged 10 to 11 years (144 males,…

  13. Ability Grouping's Effects on Grades and the Attainment of Higher Education: A Natural Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygren, Magnus

    2016-01-01

    To test the effect of ability grouping on grades and the attainment of higher education, this study examines a naturally occurring experiment--an admission reform that dramatically increased ability sorting between schools in the municipality of Stockholm. Following six cohorts of students (N = 79,020) from the age of 16 to 26, I find a mean…

  14. The Indirect Influence of Educational Attainment on Loneliness among Unmarried Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Alex J.; Martin, Peter

    2007-01-01

    This investigation examined the indirect influence of past educational attainment on current feelings of loneliness across a sample of unmarried older adults. Participants in this study included 227 community-dwelling individuals, age 65 to 94, who were never-married, divorced, or widowed. The developmental adaptation model (Martin & Martin, 2002)…

  15. Educational Attainment of 25 Year Old Norwegians According to Birth Order and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Petter; Bjerkedal, Tor

    2010-01-01

    This register-based longitudinal study of 392 969 Norwegians examined associations between birth order, gender and educational attainment at age 25 years within families (fixed effects regression) and between families (ordinary OLS regression). Data were retrieved from national registers for births of mothers with single births only and a first…

  16. Post-Secondary Expectations and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sciarra, Daniel T.; Ambrosino, Katherine E.

    2011-01-01

    This study utilized student, teacher, and parent expectations during high school to analyze their predictive effect on post-secondary education status two years after scheduled graduation. The sample included 5,353 students, parents and teachers who participated in the Educational Longitudinal Study (ELS; 2002-2006). The researchers analyzed data…

  17. Reading Disability and Adult Attained Education and Income: Evidence from a 30-Year Longitudinal Study of a Population-Based Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Margaret J.; Speirs, Katherine E.; Shenassa, Edmond D.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the impact of childhood reading disability (RD) on adult educational attainment and income. Participants' (N = 1,344) RD was assessed at age 7, and adult educational attainment and income were assessed in midlife using categorical variables. Participants with RD at age 7 were 74% (95% CI: 0.18, 0.37) less likely to attain…

  18. Classroom Carbon Dioxide Concentration, School Attendance, and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaihre, Santosh; Semple, Sean; Miller, Janice; Fielding, Shona; Turner, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Background: We tested the hypothesis that classroom carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) concentration is inversely related to child school attendance and educational attainment. Methods: Concentrations of CO[subscript 2] were measured over a 3-5?day period in 60 naturally ventilated classrooms of primary school children in Scotland. Concentrations of…

  19. The Effects of College Type and Characteristics on Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristine L.

    The effects of institutional types and their structural and compositional characteristics on students entering two- or four-year academic programs were examined, with a focus on students' educational attainment. Data were obtained from the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972. Individual student variables were considered,…

  20. Education Policy and Schooling Attainment in Malaysia and the Phillipines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth M.; Lillard, Lee A.

    1987-01-01

    Aggregate schooling levels have risen greatly since the 1960's in Malaysia and the Philippines. This paper examines the extent to which indivduals' family background and government educational policies together influence schooling levels. Results suggest that policies have significantly affected attainment and distribution levels in both…

  1. Do ICT Competences Support Educational Attainment at University?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wit, Kurt; Heerwegh, Dirk; Verhoeven, Jef C.

    2012-01-01

    Taking into account that universities assume students will have at least some basic knowledge of the use of computers and the Internet, we hypothesize that the command of ICT skills by freshmen could have an influence on their educational attainment. To test this hypothesis an online questionnaire was used, which was answered by a representative…

  2. The Effect of Migraine Headache on Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Daniel I.; Sabia, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the fact that migraine headaches are common and debilitating, little is known about their effect on educational attainment. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the relationship between migraine headache and three outcomes: high school grade point average, the probability of graduating…

  3. Penalized or Privileged? Sexual Identity, Gender, and Postsecondary Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fine, Leigh E.

    2015-01-01

    Prior literature on educational attainment indicates that there is both a female advantage and an LGB bonus: women are more likely to have earned bachelor's degrees than men, and lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) persons are more likely to have earned a bachelor's degree than heterosexuals. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey…

  4. The Impact of Repealing Sunday Closing Laws on Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dara N.

    2013-01-01

    Adolescents face daily tradeoffs between human capital investment, labor, and leisure. This paper exploits state variation in the repeal of Sunday closing laws to examine the impact of a distinct and plausibly exogenous rise in the quantity of competing diversions available to youth on their educational attainment. The results suggest that the…

  5. Changing Roles of Parental Economic Resources in Children's Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nam, Yunju; Huang, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated whether the relationship between parents' economic resources and children's educational attainment had changed over time by comparing two cohorts from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Using probit regressions and Chow tests, they examined multiple measures of economic resources, including income, net worth, liquid…

  6. Doubling Up: Intensive Math Instruction and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cortes, Kalena; Goodman, Joshua; Nomi, Takako

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study the long-run impacts (i.e. on educational attainment) of a freshman math intervention called "double-dose algebra". The intervention was conducted in 2003 and 2004 within the Chicago Public Schools (CPS), a large, poor urban school district. In response to low passing rates in 9th grade algebra,…

  7. Does Grading Affect Educational Attainment? A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klapp, Alli

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate how grading in primary school affected students' achievement measured by grades in 7th, 8th and 9th Grade and educational attainment in upper secondary school (12th Grade), and how the effect varied as a function of students' cognitive ability, gender and socio-economic status. The data derived from the…

  8. Understanding the Educational Attainment of Sexual Minority Women and Men*

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Everett, Bethany

    2015-01-01

    National studies have not analyzed sexual identity disparities in high school completion, college enrollment, or college completion in the United States. Using Add Health data, we document the relationship between adult sexual orientation and each of these outcomes. Many sexual minority respondents experienced disadvantages in adolescent academic achievement, school experiences, and social environments. This translates into educational attainment in complex, gendered ways. We find that the socially privileged completely heterosexual identity predicts higher educational attainment for women, while for men it is often a liability. Mostly heterosexual and gay identities are educationally beneficial for men but not women. There are college completion disparities between gay and mostly heterosexual women and their completely heterosexual counterparts. Bisexual respondents, especially women, have particularly problematic outcomes. Adolescent experiences, attitudes, and social contexts explain some of these differences. From adolescence through college, sexual minority groups, but especially females, need intervention to reduce substantial educational disparities. PMID:26257457

  9. Religious Background and Educational Attainment: The Effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, William

    2010-01-01

    The effects of Buddhism, Islam, and Judaism on educational attainment in the United States are examined. OLS estimates of educational attainment and Probit estimates of college attainment are undertaken. It is shown that Islam and Judaism have similar positive effects on attainment relative to Protestants and Catholics. The effect of Buddhism is…

  10. Air Age Education Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Describes a three-day program aimed at public school educators and community leaders. The goal was to encourage these people to include air age education in their programs. Activities included hands-on projects. (MA)

  11. The relationship between educational attainment and waiting time among the elderly in Norway.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, Fredrik; Kaarboe, Oddvar Martin

    2015-11-01

    We investigate whether educational attainment affects waiting time of elderly patients in somatic hospitals. We consider three distinct pathways; that patients with different educational attainment have different disease patterns, that patients with different levels of education receive treatments at different hospitals, and that patient choice and supply of local health services within hospital catchment areas explain unequal waiting time of different educational groups. We find evidence of an educational gradient in waiting time for male patients, but not for female patients. Conditional on age, male patients with tertiary education wait 45% shorter than male patients with secondary or primary education. The first pathway is not quantitatively important as controlling for disease patters has little effect on relative waiting times. The second pathway is important. Relative to patients with primary education, variation in waiting time and education level across local hospitals contributes to higher waiting time for male patients with secondary education and female patients with secondary or tertiary education and lower waiting time for male patients with tertiary education. These effects are in the order of 15-20%. The third pathway is also quantitatively important. The educational gradients within catchment areas disappear when we control for travel distance and supply of private specialists. PMID:26477666

  12. 26 CFR 1.7702-2 - Attained age of the insured under a life insurance contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Attained age of the insured under a life insurance contract. 1.7702-2 Section 1.7702-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.7702-2 Attained age of the insured under a...

  13. 20 CFR 416.987 - Disability redeterminations for individuals who attain age 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Disability Redeterminations for Individuals Who Attain Age 18 § 416.987 Disability redeterminations for individuals who attain... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Disability redeterminations for...

  14. 20 CFR 416.987 - Disability redeterminations for individuals who attain age 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Disability Redeterminations for Individuals Who Attain Age 18 § 416.987 Disability redeterminations for individuals who attain... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Disability redeterminations for...

  15. 20 CFR 416.987 - Disability redeterminations for individuals who attain age 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Disability Redeterminations for Individuals Who Attain Age 18 § 416.987 Disability redeterminations for individuals who attain... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disability redeterminations for...

  16. 20 CFR 416.987 - Disability redeterminations for individuals who attain age 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Disability Redeterminations for Individuals Who Attain Age 18 § 416.987 Disability redeterminations for individuals who attain... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Disability redeterminations for...

  17. 20 CFR 416.987 - Disability redeterminations for individuals who attain age 18.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Disability Redeterminations for Individuals Who Attain Age 18 § 416.987 Disability redeterminations for individuals who attain... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Disability redeterminations for...

  18. Aging: Health Education's Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Bill C.

    The elderly have recently become a target of national concern. There are currently more than 22 million people 65 years of age or older in the United States, and this number is continually increasing. Health education must respond to the need for better understanding of the aging process and the aged by including information and materials designed…

  19. Gender, Educational Attainment, and the Impact of Parental Migration on Children Left Behind*

    PubMed Central

    Antman, Francisca M.

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of the causal effect of parental migration on children’s educational attainment is complicated by the fact that migrants and non-migrants are likely to differ in unobservable ways that also affect children’s educational outcomes. This paper suggests a novel way of addressing this selection problem by looking within the family to exploit variation in siblings’ ages at the time of parental migration. The basic assumption underlying the analysis is that parental migration will have no effect on the educational outcomes of children who are at least 20 because they have already completed their educations. Their younger siblings, in contrast, may still be in school, and thus will be affected by the parental migration experience. The results point to a statistically significant positive effect of paternal U.S. migration on education for girls, suggesting that pushing a father’s U.S. migration earlier in his daughter’s life can lead to an increase in her educational attainment of up to 1 year relative to delaying migration until after she has turned 20. In contrast, paternal domestic migration has no statistically significant effect on educational attainment for girls or boys, suggesting that father absence does not play a major role in determining children’s educational outcomes. Instead, these results suggest that the marginal dollars from U.S. migrant remittances appear to enable families to further educate their daughters. Thus, policymakers should view international migration as a potential pathway by which families raise educational attainments of girls in particular. JEL: O15; J12; J13; J16; J24; F22

  20. The Risk for Impaired Learning-related Abilities in Childhood and Educational Attainment Among Adults Born Near-term

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Davey, Charles; Fifer, William P.; Savitz, David A.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine whether near-term births (NTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants are at high risk for childhood learning-related problems and poor adult educational attainment, and whether poverty amplifies the adverse effects of NTB and SGA on those outcomes. Methods A randomly selected birth cohort (n = 1,619) was followed into adulthood. IQ and learning abilities were measured in childhood and educational attainment was measured in adulthood. Results NTB (n = 226) and SGA (n = 154) were associated with lower educational attainment mediated through learning-related abilities at age 7. Childhood poverty moderated the impact of NTB on educational attainment both directly and mediated through lower learning-related abilities. Poverty did not moderate the effect of SGA. Conclusions Poorer learning-related outcomes and educational attainment were not limited to children born very (<32 weeks) or extremely (<28 weeks) preterm, especially among those living in poverty. Targeted interventions such as remedial learning during childhood among NTB in poor families may yield higher educational attainment. PMID:18794190

  1. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Racer, Kristina Hiatt; Fosco, Gregory M; Dishion, Thomas J

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents' effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age 23-25), after controlling for other established predictors (family factors, problem behavior, grade point average, and substance use). Participants were 997 students recruited in 6th grade from 3 urban public middle schools (53% males; 42.4% European American; 29.2% African American). Consistent with the hypothesis, the unique association of effortful control with future educational attainment was comparable in strength to that of parental education and students' past grade point average, suggesting that effortful control contributes to this outcome above and beyond well-established predictors. Path coefficients were equivalent across gender and ethnicity (European Americans and African Americans). Effortful control appears to be a core feature of the self-regulatory competencies associated with achievement of educational success in early adulthood. These findings suggest that the promotion of self-regulation in general and effortful control in particular may be an important focus not only for resilience to stress and avoidance of problem behavior, but also for growth in academic competence. PMID:25308996

  2. The Contribution of Adolescent Effortful Control to Early Adult Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Véronneau, Marie-Hélène; Racer, Kristina Hiatt; Fosco, Gregory M.; Dishion, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Effortful control has been proposed as a set of neurocognitive competencies that is relevant to self-regulation and educational attainment (Posner & Rothbart, 2007). This study tested the hypothesis that a multiagent report of adolescents’ effortful control (age 17) would be predictive of academic persistence and educational attainment (age 23–25), after controlling for other established predictors (family factors, problem behavior, grade point average, and substance use). Participants were 997 students recruited in 6th grade from 3 urban public middle schools (53% males; 42.4% European American; 29.2% African American). Consistent with the hypothesis, the unique association of effortful control with future educational attainment was comparable in strength to that of parental education and students’ past grade point average, suggesting that effortful control contributes to this outcome above and beyond well-established predictors. Path coefficients were equivalent across gender and ethnicity (European Americans and African Americans). Effortful control appears to be a core feature of the self-regulatory competencies associated with achievement of educational success in early adulthood. These findings suggest that the promotion of self-regulation in general and effortful control in particular may be an important focus not only for resilience to stress and avoidance of problem behavior, but also for growth in academic competence. PMID:25308996

  3. Reducing Risk for Substance Use by Economically Disadvantaged Young Men: Positive Family Environments and Pathways to Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Monica J.; Conger, Rand D.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Masarik, April S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Shaw, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Using prospective, longitudinal data spanning 10 years (age = 10-20) from a study of 295 economically disadvantaged males, the current investigation evaluated a developmental model that links early family environment and later educational aspirations, extracurricular activities, and educational attainment to substance use in early adulthood. The…

  4. Trades-Related Post-Secondary Educational Attainment among Immigrant and Canadian-Born Young Adults in Alberta

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hira-Friesen, Parvinder Kaur; Haan, Michael; Krahn, Harvey

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines trades-related and university educational attainment (by age 25) of immigrant and Canadian-born Alberta youth while controlling for gender, family socio-economic status, high school grades, and parental encouragement regarding higher education. Data from the longitudinal Alberta School-Work Transitions Study (1996-2003) reveal…

  5. Associations of Educational Attainment, Occupation, Social Class and Major Depressive Disorder among Han Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feihu; Li, Yajuan; Wang, Junhui; Flint, Jonathan; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Shenxun; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.

    2014-01-01

    Background The prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) is higher in those with low levels of educational attainment, the unemployed and those with low social status. However the extent to which these factors cause MDD is unclear. Most of the available data comes from studies in developed countries, and these findings may not extrapolate to developing countries. Examining the relationship between MDD and socio economic status in China is likely to add to the debate because of the radical economic and social changes occurring in China over the last 30 years. Principal findings We report results from 3,639 Chinese women with recurrent MDD and 3,800 controls. Highly significant odds ratios (ORs) were observed between MDD and full time employment (OR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.25–0.46, logP = 78), social status (OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.77–0.87, logP = 13.3) and education attainment (OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.86–0.90, logP = 6.8). We found a monotonic relationship between increasing age and increasing levels of educational attainment. Those with only primary school education have significantly more episodes of MDD (mean 6.5, P-value = 0.009) and have a clinically more severe disorder, while those with higher educational attainment are likely to manifest more comorbid anxiety disorders. Conclusions In China lower socioeconomic position is associated with increased rates of MDD, as it is elsewhere in the world. Significantly more episodes of MDD occur among those with lower educational attainment (rather than longer episodes of disease), consistent with the hypothesis that the lower socioeconomic position increases the likelihood of developing MDD. The phenomenology of MDD varies according to the degree of educational attainment: higher educational attainment not only appears to protect against MDD but alters its presentation, to a more anxious phenotype. PMID:24497966

  6. A New Data Set of Educational Attainment in the World, 1950-2010. NBER Working Paper No. 15902

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barro, Robert J.; Lee, Jong-Wha

    2010-01-01

    Our panel data set on educational attainment has been updated for 146 countries from 1950 to 2010. The data are disaggregated by sex and by 5-year age intervals. We have improved the accuracy of estimation by using information from consistent census data, disaggregated by age group, along with new estimates of mortality rates and completion rates…

  7. A Developmental Process Analysis of Cross-Generational Continuity in Educational Attainment.

    PubMed

    Pettit, Gregory S; Yu, Tianyi; Dodge, Kenneth A; Bates, John E

    2009-07-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study (N = 585) we examined intergenerational links in level of educational attainment. Of particular interest was whether family background characteristics, parenting in early childhood and early adolescence, and school adjustment and performance in middle childhood accounted for (i.e., mediated) continuity and amplified or attenuated (i.e., moderated) continuity. Family background data, including mother education level, were collected when the children were age 5 years; parenting was assessed at ages 5 and 12; and school adjustment data (behavior problems, peer acceptance, academic performance) were collected in the first four years of elementary school. Cross-generational continuity in educational attainment was moderate (r = .38) and largely indirect via children's academic performance in elementary school and mothers' academic involvement in early adolescence. Moderator analyses indicated greater cross-generational continuity in single-parent families; in families low in proactive teaching, monitoring, and academic involvement; and in families with lower-IQ children who performed poorly in school and were disliked by peers, These findings suggest that distal and proximal family and child characteristics may serve as crucial processes in the intergenerational transmission of low educational attainment. PMID:22822286

  8. Implications of Educational Attainment Trends for Labor Market Outcomes. ACT Research Report Series, 2012 (7)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Well-educated workers have higher wages, higher wage growth, and lower unemployment rates than workers with lower levels of educational attainment. While earnings have traditionally grown with educational attainment, the gaps have become more pronounced in recent years. While returns to education have increased, this research shows that…

  9. Natural mentors, racial identity, and educational attainment among african american adolescents: exploring pathways to success.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Noelle M; Sánchez, Bernadette; Zimmerman, Marc A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H

    2012-01-01

    The present study explored how relationships with natural mentors may contribute to African American adolescents' long-term educational attainment by influencing adolescents' racial identity and academic beliefs. This study included 541 academically at-risk African American adolescents transitioning into adulthood. The mean age of participants at Time 1 was 17.8 (SD = .64) and slightly over half (54%) of study participants were female. Results of the current study indicated that relationships with natural mentors promoted more positive long-term educational attainment among participants through increased private regard (a dimension of racial identity) and stronger beliefs in the importance of doing well in school for future success. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22537308

  10. 26 CFR 1.7702-2 - Attained age of the insured under a life insurance contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... Because X is younger than Y, the attained age of X must be used for purposes of sections 7702(c)(4), 7702... (the younger of the two insureds) dies in 2012. After X's death, both the cash value and...

  11. English Language Learners' Access to and Attainment in Postsecondary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanno, Yasuko; Cromley, Jennifer G.

    2013-01-01

    Although English language learners (ELLs) are currently the fastest-growing group among the school-age population in the United States, there is surprisingly little information on their participation in postsecondary education. Using the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988 (NELS:88), a nationally representative sample of eighth graders…

  12. Educational Attainment of the Public Health Workforce and Its Implications for Workforce Development

    PubMed Central

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Harper, Elizabeth; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Castrucci, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Educational attainment is a critical issue in public health workforce development. However, relatively little is known about the actual attainment of staff in state health agencies (SHAs). Objective: Ascertain the levels of educational attainment among SHA employees, as well as the correlates of attainment. Design: Using a stratified sampling approaching, staff from SHAs were surveyed using the Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) instrument in late 2014. A nationally representative sample was drawn across 5 geographic (paired adjacent HHS) regions. Descriptive and inferential statistics were analyzed using balanced repeated replication weights to account for complex sampling. A logistic regression was conducted with attainment of a bachelor's degree as the dependent variable and age, region, supervisory status, race/ethnicity, gender, and staff type as independent variables. Setting and Participants: Web-based survey of SHA central office employees. Main Outcome Measure: Educational attainment overall, as well as receipt of a degree with a major in public health. Results: A total of 10 246 permanently-employed SHA central office staff participated in the survey (response rate 46%). Seventy-five percent (95% confidence interval [CI], 74-77) had a bachelor's degree, 38% (95% CI, 37-40) had a master's degree, and 9% (95% CI, 8%-10%) had a doctoral degree. A logistic regression showed Asian staff had the highest odds of having a bachelor's degree (odds ratio [OR] = 2.8; 95% CI, 2.2-3.7) compared with non-Hispanic whites, and Hispanic/Latino staff had lower odds (OR = 0.6; 95% CI, 0.4-0.8). Women had lower odds of having a bachelor's degree than men (OR = 0.5; 95% CI, 0.4-0.6). About 17% of the workforce (95% CI, 16-18) had a degree in public health at any level. Conclusions: Educational attainment among SHA central office staff is high, but relatively few have formal training of any sort in public health. This makes efforts to increase

  13. Associations between CAMCOG-R subscale performance and formal education attainment in South African older adults.

    PubMed

    James, Katharine A; Grace, Laurian K; Thomas, Kevin G F; Combrinck, Marc I

    2014-11-10

    ABSTRACT Background: The Cambridge Cognitive Examination-Revised (CAMCOG-R) is a sensitive screening tool for the early diagnosis of dementia in older adults. Overall performance on the CAMCOG-R is influenced by educational attainment. Few studies have, however, examined the association between educational attainment and performance on the individual CAMCOG subscales. We aimed to address this question in a sample from a low-and middle-income country (LAMIC), where resource constraints may have compromised access to, and quality of, education for many older adults. Methods: Participants, all over 60 years of age, were 51 cognitively healthy community-dwelling volunteers and 47 individuals diagnosed with mild-moderate stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Most participants had some high school education. They were administered the CAMCOG-R under standardized conditions. Results: Within both the control and AD patient groups, there were significant associations between years of completed education and CAMCOG-R total score, MMSE score, and CAMCOG-R Language subscale score. In both groups, level of education was not associated with scores on these subscales: in controls, recent memory, R 2 = .21, p = .055, learning memory, R 2 = .16, p = .398, attention/calculation, R 2 = .19, p = .467, and perception, R 2 = .18, p = .984; in AD patients, recent memory, R 2 = .14, p = .340, learning memory, R 2 = .03, p = .680, perception, R 2 = .09, p = .723, and attention/calculation, R 2 = .19, p = .097. Conclusions: Some CAMCOG-R subscale scores were more strongly associated with educational attainment than others. Importantly, however, performance on the recent memory and learning memory subscales was not affected by education. These subscales are sensitive indicators of amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early AD. These subscales may therefore remain valid for use as an AD screening tool in resource-poor healthcare settings. PMID:25382591

  14. Teenage Childbearing and Educational Attainment in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Timaeus, Ian M; Moultrie, Tom A

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between teenage childbearing and school attainment is investigated using nationally representative longitudinal data drawn from South Africa's National Income Dynamics Study. The analysis focuses on the outcomes by 2010 of a panel of 673 young women who were aged 15-18 and childless in 2008. Controlling for other factors, girls who went on to give birth had twice the odds of dropping out of school by 2010 and nearly five times the odds of failing to matriculate. Few girls from households in the highest-income quintile gave birth. Girls who attended schools in higher-income areas and were behind at school were much more likely to give birth than those who were in the appropriate grade for their age or were in no-fee schools. New mothers were much more likely to have re-enrolled in school by 2010 if they were rural residents, they belonged to relatively well-off households, or their own mother had attended secondary school. These findings suggest that, in South Africa, interventions that address poor school attainment would also reduce teenage childbearing. PMID:26059987

  15. The Nexus of Place and Finance in the Analysis of Educational Attainment: A Spatial Econometric Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Farah

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the spatial distribution of educational attainment and then builds upon current predictive frameworks for understanding patterns of educational attainment by applying a spatial econometric method of analysis. The research from this study enables a new approach to the policy discussion on how to improve educational attainment…

  16. Educational Attainment in 30 Selected Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas: 1970. Current Population Reports, Population Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Jerry T.; Johnson, Charles E., Jr.

    Adults who lived in 30 of the nation's large standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSA's) in 1970 had completed a relatively high educational attainment; about 61 percent had completed at least a high school education, including 26 percent who had completed one or more years of college. The data in this report on the educational attainment of…

  17. School Context, Precollege Educational Opportunities, and College Degree Attainment among High-Achieving Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Valija C.

    2013-01-01

    Access to high-quality educational opportunities is central to growing postsecondary degree attainment. This study employs secondary data analysis of the public-use National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS:88/00) to examine how school context and precollege educational opportunities influence college degree attainment among high-achieving Black…

  18. Analysis of the Postsecondary Educational Attainment of Agricultural Education Graduates of the High School Class of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.

    1985-01-01

    Agricultural education graduates' postsecondary educational attainment was investigated through a secondary analysis of data in the National Longitudinal Study, High School Class of 1971. Although participation in agricultural education had no substantive effect on postsecondary educational attainment, the effect of background variables should be…

  19. Impacts of the Universal Primary Education Policy on Educational Attainment and Private Costs in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nishimura, Mikiko; Yamano, Takashi; Sasaoka, Yuichi

    2008-01-01

    While some governments in Sub-Saharan Africa have abolished tuition to achieve universal primary education (UPE), few studies have examined the impacts of the UPE policy beyond school enrolment. This study estimates the impact of the UPE policy in Uganda on overall primary education attainments by using data including 940 rural households. We find…

  20. Subnational Variations in Educational Attainment and Labour Market Outcomes. Education Indicators in Focus. No. 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Significant variations in educational attainment and labour market outcomes exist not only across OECD countries but also within them. Some regions concentrate the human capital of a country. In particular, many countries' capital regions stand out for their high share of tertiary-educated people. However, overall employment prospects are often…

  1. The Big Payoff: Educational Attainment and Synthetic Estimates of Work-Life Earnings. Special Studies. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Jennifer Cheeseman; Newburger, Eric C.

    Changes in the relationship between educational attainment and work-life earnings over the past 25 years were examined by using data from the Current Population Survey (CPS) to construct synthetic work-life earnings. CPS data collected in March 1998, 1999, and 2000 were analyzed by age, sex, full- or part-time work experience, race, Hispanic…

  2. The Intergenerational Effects of Fatherlessness on Educational Attainment and Entry-Level Wages. National Longitudinal Surveys Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grogger, Jeff; Ronan, Nick

    The effects of fatherlessness on children's educational attainment and entry-level wages were examined through a method-of-moments analysis of data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY), a national panel study of 12,686 youths who were aged 14-22 in 1979. Two special features of the NLSY were used: its subsample of siblings and its…

  3. Rural Student Voices to Improve Educational Attainment Oriented Programs

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Reagan; Smith, Megan; Moore, Lucas; Georgieva, Zornitsa; Mathew, Sera; Chester, Ann; McKendall, Sherron

    2015-01-01

    The Health Sciences and Technology Academy (HSTA) strives to increase college-going and completion rates for students in West Virginia (USA), a state with low educational attainment and the second most rural state in the country. The positive impact of HSTA on student academic trajectories has been documented, but student voices have not been represented. This qualitative study using Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective explores student experiences through HSTA, with an eye toward how similar programs serving rural populations might improve while understanding student participant perspectives. Participants were 706 incoming 9th -12th graders from rural West Virginia who provided survey responses across two years. We address the organizational and individual considerations that were instrumental in creating a supportive learning environment for rural youth. PMID:26640820

  4. Trends in Life Expectancy and Lifespan Variation by Educational Attainment: United States, 1990-2010.

    PubMed

    Sasson, Isaac

    2016-04-01

    The educational gradient in life expectancy is well documented in the United States and in other low-mortality countries. Highly educated Americans, on average, live longer than their low-educated counterparts, who have recently seen declines in adult life expectancy. However, limiting the discussion on lifespan inequality to mean differences alone overlooks other dimensions of inequality and particularly disparities in lifespan variation. The latter represents a unique form of inequality, with higher variation translating into greater uncertainty in the time of death from an individual standpoint, and higher group heterogeneity from a population perspective. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System from 1990 to 2010, this is the first study to document trends in both life expectancy and S25-the standard deviation of age at death above 25-by educational attainment. Among low-educated whites, adult life expectancy declined by 3.1 years for women and by 0.6 years for men. At the same time, S25 increased by about 1.5 years among high school-educated whites of both genders, becoming an increasingly important component of total lifespan inequality. By contrast, college-educated whites benefited from rising life expectancy and record low variation in age at death, consistent with the shifting mortality scenario. Among blacks, adult life expectancy increased, and S25 plateaued or declined in nearly all educational attainment groups, although blacks generally lagged behind whites of the same gender on both measures. Documenting trends in lifespan variation can therefore improve our understanding of lifespan inequality and point to diverging trajectories in adult mortality across socioeconomic strata. PMID:26813781

  5. Historicizing Educational Disparity: Colonial Policy and Fijian Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carmen M.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses multiracial issues in Fiji's educational system since its independence from Great Britain. Racial issues have caused disparity and controversy. States two major factors: (1) rural Fijian migrants have difficulties completing secondary up to Form 6; and (2) the 1987 Form 7 expansion of secondary school curriculum changed university entry…

  6. Educational Attainment and Women’s Environmental Mastery in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    Deeg, Dorly; Kuh, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Using data from 1,184 women in the MRC National Survey of Health and Development, we estimated associations between education and Ryff’s environmental mastery scale scores at age 52. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated two subscales, here termed mastery skills and mastery accomplishments. Low education was associated with higher mastery skills. This was partly explained by childhood socioeconomic position, as mastery was lower among those with fathers in the most and least advantaged occupational classes. Education was not associated with mastery accomplishments in unadjusted models. Lower ambitions for family/home were associated with higher mastery accomplishments and may have partly suppressed as an association between education and mastery accomplishments. This study highlights childhood as well as adult correlates of mastery and adds to mounting evidence that higher mastery is not universally found among those who are more educated. PMID:27048696

  7. Parental job loss and children's educational attainment in black and white middle-class families.

    PubMed

    Kalil, Ariel; Wightman, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We aim to understand why blacks are significantly less likely than whites to perpetuate their middle-class status across generations. To do so, we focus on the potentially different associations between parental job loss and youth's educational attainment in black and white middle-class families.Methods. We use data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), following those children “born” into the survey between 1968 and 1979 and followed through age 21. We conduct multivariate regression analyses to test the association between parental job loss during childhood and youth's educational attainment by age 21.Results. We find that parental job loss is associated with a lesser likelihood of obtaining any postsecondary education for all offspring, but that the association for blacks is almost three times as strong. A substantial share of the differential impact of job loss on black and white middle-class youth is explained by race differences in household wealth, long-run measures of family income, and, especially, parental experience of long-term unemployment.Conclusions. These findings highlight the fragile economic foundation of the black middle class and suggest that intergenerational persistence of class status in this population may be highly dependent on the avoidance of common economic shocks. PMID:21523947

  8. Changes in the Age and Education Profile of Displaced Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Daniel; Zavodny, Madeline

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of Displaced Workers Surveys suggests that between 1983-97, the likelihood of job loss declined among most age groups but rose for middle-aged/older workers relative to younger workers. Changes in educational attainment and industry shifts were contributing factors. Probability of displacement increased significantly for service workers.…

  9. The influence of age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on career attainment outcomes in rugby league.

    PubMed

    Till, Kevin; Cobley, Steve; Morley, David; O'hara, John; Chapman, Chris; Cooke, Carlton

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the influence of annual-age category, relative age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness on the career attainment outcomes of junior rugby league players originally selected for a talent identification and development (TID) programme. Junior rugby league players (N = 580) were grouped retrospectively according to their career attainment level (i.e., amateur, academy and professional). Anthropometric (height, sitting height, body mass, sum of four skinfolds), maturational (age at peak height velocity; PHV) and fitness (power, speed, change of direction speed, estimated[Formula: see text]) characteristics were assessed at the Under 13s, 14s and 15s annual-age categories. Relative age (Q2 = 8.5% vs. Q4 = 25.5%) and playing position (Pivots = 19.5% vs. Props = 5.8%) influenced the percentage of players attaining professional status. Anthropometry and fitness had a significant effect on career attainment at the Under 14 (P = 0.002, η(2) = 0.16) and 15 (P = 0.01, η(2) = 0.12) annual-age categories. Findings at the Under 14s showed future professional players were significantly later maturing compared to academy and amateur players. Findings suggest that relative age, playing position, anthropometry and fitness can influence the career attainment of junior rugby league players. TID programmes within rugby league, and other related team sports, should be aware and acknowledge the factors influencing long-term career attainment, and not delimit development opportunities during early adolescence. PMID:26512761

  10. Diagnostic Accuracy and Reliability as a Function of Educational Attainment in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennessey, Stephen M.

    A study was conducted to investigate the relationship between educational attainment in psychology and diagnostic competence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) II and III systems. Five subject groups served to define the variable of educational attainment in psychology: (1) 33 introductory undergraduate psychology…

  11. Sibling Composition and Child Educational Attainment: Evidence from Native Amazonians in Bolivia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeng, Wu; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Eisenberg, Dan T. A.; Rubio-Jovel, Karla; Reyes-Garcia; Victoria; Godoy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Evidence from industrial nations suggests that sibling composition is associated with children's educational attainment, particularly if parents face resource constraints. If sibling composition is associated with educational attainment, then those associations should be stronger in poor societies of developing nations. We use data from a…

  12. Educational Attainment: A Model for Maximizing Earnings of the Nontraditional Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Andrew S.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents a model for forecasting earnings of the nontraditional student based on macrolevel changes in educational attainment within the workforce using data from the U.S. Census Bureau. It also presents a theoretical case that illustrates the value of improving one's educational attainment level in order to sustain an annualized…

  13. Educational Attainment and HIV/AIDS Prevalence: A Cross-Country Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakhanpal, Manisha; Ram, Rati

    2008-01-01

    Using data for a large cross-country sample, a reasonable model is estimated to judge the effect of adult educational attainment on prevalence of HIV. Three main points are noted. First, there is an indication of a significantly negative effect of educational attainment on HIV prevalence. Second, magnitude of the impact appears sizable. Third, a…

  14. The Relationship between General Population Suicide Rates and Educational Attainment: A Cross-National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2009-01-01

    Suicides are associated with both high and low levels of intelligence and educational attainment in both individual-level and aggregate-level studies. A cross-national study examining the relationship between general population suicide rates ("y") and educational attainment ("x") was undertaken with the "a priori" hypothesis that the relationship…

  15. Reversal of Gender Differences in Educational Attainment: An Historical Analysis of the West German Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background information: During the late 1970s and the early 1980s, West Germany witnessed a reversal of gender differences in educational attainment, as females began to outperform males. Purpose: The main objective was to analyse which processes were behind the reversal of gender differences in educational attainment after 1945. The theoretical…

  16. How Taxpayers Benefit when Students Attain Higher Levels of Education. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    RAND researchers examined how taxpayers benefit from increases in students' educational attainment. Using statistical modeling and national data, they analyzed how increases in educational attainment are associated with tax revenues, funds for social support and insurance programs, and spending on incarceration. The researchers found that, for all…

  17. Educational Attainment and the Gender Wage Gap: Evidence from the 1986 and 1991 Canadian Censuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Pamela; Shannon, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Uses Canadian census data to examine effects of gender differences in educational attainment on the gender earnings gap for full-time, full-year Canadian workers. These educational attainment differences account for virtually none of the gender earnings gap in 1985 and 1990. Gender differences in field of study matter somewhat more. (Contains 17…

  18. Biological and Sociocultural Factors during the School Years Predicting Women's Lifetime Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrick, C. Emily; Cohen, Alison K.; Deardorff, Julianna; Cance, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Lifetime educational attainment is an important predictor of health and well-being for women in the United States. In this study, we examine the roles of sociocultural factors in youth and an understudied biological life event, pubertal timing, in predicting women's lifetime educational attainment. Methods: Using data from the National…

  19. Healthier and Wealthier: Decreasing Health Care Costs by Increasing Educational Attainment. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alliance for Excellent Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brief argues that higher educational attainment improves a student's future income, occupational status, and social prestige, all of which contributes to improved individual health. The brief cites several reasons why, including the fact that Americans with higher educational attainment have more insurance coverage, individuals who lack…

  20. Secondary Principals' Educational Attainment, Experience, and Professional Development in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Campos, Liliana; Rincones-Gomez, Rigoberto; Shen, Jianping

    2005-01-01

    Drawing from data collected by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) for the years 1987-88, 1990-91, 1993-94, and 1999-2000, we investigated secondary principals' educational attainment, teaching experience, and professional development. We found that throughout the years, secondary principals have been active in attaining advanced…

  1. The Impact of Grading Standards on Student Achievement, Educational Attainment, and Entry-Level Earnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betts, Julian R.; Grogger, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Using data from the High School and Beyond survey, estimates the effects of grading standards on student achievement, educational attainment, and entry-level earnings. Finds that higher standards raise test scores throughout the distribution of achievement, but have no positive effect on educational attainment--in fact have negative effects on…

  2. The role of partners’ educational attainment in the association between HIV and education amongst women in seven sub-Saharan African countries

    PubMed Central

    Harling, Guy; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals’ educational attainment has long been considered as a risk factor for HIV. However, little attention has been paid to the association between partner educational attainment and HIV infection. Methods We conducted cross-sectional analysis of young women (aged 15–34) in 14 Demographic and Health Surveys from seven sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries with generalized HIV epidemics. We measured the degree of similarity in educational attainment (partner homophily) in 75,373 partnerships and evaluated the correlation between homophily and female HIV prevalence at the survey cluster level. We then used logistic regression to assess whether own and partner educational attainment was associated with HIV serostatus amongst 38,791 women. Results Educational attainment was positively correlated within partnerships in both urban and rural areas of every survey (Newman assortativity coefficients between 0.09 and 0.44), but this correlation was not ecologically associated with HIV prevalence. At the individual level, larger absolute differences between own and partner educational attainment were associated with significantly higher HIV prevalence amongst women. This association was heterogeneous across countries, but not between survey waves. In contrast to other women, for those aged 25–34 who had secondary or higher education, a more-educated partner was associated with lower HIV prevalence. Conclusions HIV prevalence amongst women in SSA is associated not only with one's own education but also with that of one's partner. These findings highlight the importance of understanding how partners place individuals at risk of infection and suggest that HIV prevention efforts may benefit from considering partner characteristics. PMID:26902392

  3. EDUCATIONAL AND WORK STRATEGIES FROM ADOLESCENCE TO EARLY ADULTHOOD: CONSEQUENCES FOR EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Mortimer, Jeylan T.

    2006-01-01

    Whereas sociologists have long recognized that adolescence marks the start of the socioeconomic career, the importance of this period has been attributed to school performance, aspirations, and significant others’ influence that support educational attainment to a greater or lesser degree. The underlying premise of this study is that adolescent work is an expression of instrumental action with consequences for socioeconomic attainment. Using data from the Youth Development Study, we find that part-time work during high school is linked with patterns of schooling and working that persist during the succeeding years and are more or less conducive to the receipt of a BA/BS degree. Moderate work coupled with school appears to especially facilitate the educational attainment of low promise youth. PMID:17468782

  4. Aging Education: A National Imperative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire, Sandra L.; Klein, Diane A.; Couper, Donna

    2005-01-01

    Americans are living longer than ever before. However, many are not prepared for the long life ahead of them. Although lifespan-aging education has been endorsed since the first White House Conference on Aging in 1961, little is happening with aging education in our homes, schools and communities. Americans often reach old age with little or no…

  5. Academic and Social Attainments of Children with Mental Retardation in General Education and Special Education Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Stephanny F. N.; Alkin, Marvin C.

    2000-01-01

    A review of 36 studies on school-age children with mental retardation indicated children in general classes do not attain social acceptance ratings at as high a level as do their typical peers. Integrated students perform better than segregated students on measures of academic achievement and social competence. (Contains extensive references.)…

  6. Mental Disorders and Subsequent Educational Attainment in a US National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Breslau, Joshua; Lane, Michael; Sampson, Nancy; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    As part of a larger investigation of the adverse effects of mental disorders on role functioning, we examined the associations of early-onset mental disorders with subsequent educational attainment in a large nationally representative survey of the US adult population. Diagnoses and age of onset for each of 17 DSM-IV disorders were assessed through retrospective self-report with the fully-structured WHO Composite International Diagnostic Instrument (CIDI). Survival analysis was used to examine the associations between early-onset DSM-IV/CIDI disorders and subsequent termination of schooling with controls for socio-demographic characteristics and childhood adversities (i.e. childhood traumatic events, childhood neglect, parental mental illness, family disruption, and low parental educational attainment). Mental disorders were found to be significantly associated with termination of schooling prior to completion of each of four educational milestones (primary school graduation, high school graduation, college entry, college graduation), with odds ratios in the range of 1.3 to 7.0. The proportion of school terminations attributable to mental disorders was largest for high school graduation (10.2%) but also meaningful for primary school graduation (3.8%), college entry (4.4%) and college graduation (2.6%). These results add to a growing body of evidence documenting a wide variety of adverse life course effects of mental disorders. PMID:18331741

  7. Understanding the influence of educational attainment on kidney health and opportunities for improved care.

    PubMed

    Green, Jamie A; Cavanaugh, Kerri L

    2015-01-01

    Educational attainment is an important but often overlooked contributor to health outcomes in patients with kidney disease. Those with lower levels of education have an increased risk of ESRD, complications of peritoneal dialysis, worse transplant outcomes, and mortality. Mediators of these associations are poorly understood but involve a complex interplay between health knowledge, behaviors, and socioeconomic and psychosocial factors. Interventions targeting these aspects of care have the potential to reduce disparities related to educational attainment; however, few programs have been described that specifically address this issue. Future research efforts should not only systematically assess level of educational attainment but also report the differential impact of interventions across educational strata. In addition, routine measurement of health literacy may be useful to identify high-risk patients independent of years of schooling. A better understanding of the influence of educational attainment on kidney health provides an opportunity to improve the care and outcomes of vulnerable patients with kidney disease. PMID:25573509

  8. Unpacking acculturation: cultural orientations and educational attainment among Mexican-origin youth.

    PubMed

    Roche, Kathleen M; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia

    2012-07-01

    Given educational risks facing Mexican-origin children of immigrant parents, it is important to understand how aspects of the acculturation process influence Mexican-origin youth's educational success. Drawing from selective assimilation theory, this study examined how cultural orientations across myriad facets of acculturation were associated with the educational attainment of second-generation Mexican immigrant youth. The sample included 755 Mexican-origin youth (50% female) in the "Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Study." Results from structural equation models indicated that youth reporting greater facility in the English language and a stronger value on familism attained higher levels of education in young adulthood than did other youth. Parents' U.S. social ties and youth's value on early paid work were associated with less educational attainment. Innovative findings from this study indicate the importance of considering both Mexican and American cultural orientations across myriad facets of acculturation for understanding second-generation immigrant Mexican youth's educational attainment. PMID:22033726

  9. The Role of Age of Acquisition in Late Second Language Oral Proficiency Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Kazuya

    2015-01-01

    The current project examined whether and to what degree age of acquisition (AOA), defined as the first intensive exposure to a second language (L2) environment, can be predictive of the end state of postpubertal L2 oral proficiency attainment. Data were collected from 88 experienced Japanese learners of English and two groups of 20 baseline…

  10. Specific psychological variables predict quality of diet in women of lower, but not higher, educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary

    2011-02-01

    Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children's Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. PMID:21078352

  11. Specific psychological variables predict quality of diet in women of lower, but not higher, educational attainment

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Wendy; Schlotz, Wolff; Crozier, Sarah; Skinner, Timothy C; Haslam, Cheryl; Robinson, Sian; Inskip, Hazel; Cooper, Cyrus; Barker, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Our previous work found that perceived control over life was a significant predictor of the quality of diet of women of lower educational attainment. In this paper, we explore the influence on quality of diet of a range of psychological and social factors identified during focus group discussions, and specify the way this differs in women of lower and higher educational attainment. We assessed educational attainment, quality of diet, and psycho-social factors in 378 women attending Sure Start Children’s Centres and baby clinics in Southampton, UK. Multiple-group path analysis showed that in women of lower educational attainment, the effect of general self-efficacy on quality of diet was mediated through perceptions of control and through food involvement, but that there were also direct effects of social support for healthy eating and having positive outcome expectancies. There was no effect of self-efficacy, perceived control or outcome expectancies on the quality of diet of women of higher educational attainment, though having more social support and food involvement were associated with improved quality of diet in these women. Our analysis confirms our hypothesis that control-related factors are more important in determining dietary quality in women of lower educational attainment than in women of higher educational attainment. PMID:21078352

  12. Genetic Variation Associated with Differential Educational Attainment in Adults Has Anticipated Associations with School Performance in Children

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Mary E.; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Koellinger, Philipp D.; Cesarini, David; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10−10) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10−04 and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life

  13. Genetic variation associated with differential educational attainment in adults has anticipated associations with school performance in children.

    PubMed

    Ward, Mary E; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Benjamin, Daniel J; Koellinger, Philipp D; Cesarini, David; Davey Smith, George; Timpson, Nicholas J

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association study results have yielded evidence for the association of common genetic variants with crude measures of completed educational attainment in adults. Whilst informative, these results do not inform as to the mechanism of these effects or their presence at earlier ages and where educational performance is more routinely and more precisely assessed. Single nucleotide polymorphisms exhibiting genome-wide significant associations with adult educational attainment were combined to derive an unweighted allele score in 5,979 and 6,145 young participants from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children with key stage 3 national curriculum test results (SATS results) available at age 13 to 14 years in English and mathematics respectively. Standardised (z-scored) results for English and mathematics showed an expected relationship with sex, with girls exhibiting an advantage over boys in English (0.433 SD (95%CI 0.395, 0.470), p<10(-10)) with more similar results (though in the opposite direction) in mathematics (0.042 SD (95%CI 0.004, 0.080), p = 0.030). Each additional adult educational attainment increasing allele was associated with 0.041 SD (95%CI 0.020, 0.063), p = 1.79×10(-04) and 0.028 SD (95%CI 0.007, 0.050), p = 0.01 increases in standardised SATS score for English and mathematics respectively. Educational attainment is a complex multifactorial behavioural trait which has not had heritable contributions to it fully characterised. We were able to apply the results from a large study of adult educational attainment to a study of child exam performance marking events in the process of learning rather than realised adult end product. Our results support evidence for common, small genetic contributions to educational attainment, but also emphasise the likely lifecourse nature of this genetic effect. Results here also, by an alternative route, suggest that existing methods for child examination are able to recognise early life

  14. Toward an Equal Level of Educational Attainment between Deaf and Hearing People in Sweden?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydberg, Emelie; Gellerstedt, Lotta C.; Danermark, Berth

    2009-01-01

    Various educational reforms in Sweden have resulted in a formally equivalent educational system for deaf and hearing pupils. Has this resulted in equal levels of educational attainment? This article compares 2,144 people born between 1941 and 1980 who attended a special education program for the deaf and 100,000 randomly chosen individuals from…

  15. Pathways to Boosting the Earnings of Low-Income Students by Increasing Their Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Louis; Mokher, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Attaining a post-secondary credential has become increasingly important for securing opportunities to get high-return jobs in the United States in the 21st century. Students from low-income families are underrepresented at every milestone in the educational pipeline, limiting their ability to attain post-secondary credentials and break the…

  16. Can Migration Reduce Educational Attainment? Evidence from Mexico. Policy Research Working Paper Series. WPS3952

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, David; Rapoport, Hillel

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of migration on educational attainment in rural Mexico. Using historical migration rates by state to instrument for current migration, we find evidence of a significant negative effect of migration on schooling attendance and attainment of 12 to 18 year-old boys and 16 to 18 year-old girls. IV-Censored Ordered Probit…

  17. Rurality and Capital: Educational Expectations and Attainments of Rural, Urban/Rural and Metropolitan Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley; Looker, E. Dianne

    2001-01-01

    Used data from two longitudinal surveys of Canadian youth (in British Columbia and Nova Scotia) to examine the effects of rural versus urban/rural and metropolitan residence on young people's educational expectations and attainments. Findings showed that students in rural areas have lower expectations and attainments compared to other students,…

  18. Achievement and Ascription in Educational Attainment: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Adolescent Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Francois

    2006-01-01

    The classic ("status attainment") model of educational and occupational attainment suffers from three related shortcomings when used as a tool for comparative or policy-oriented research on social mobility: (1) ambiguity of model parameters as measures of opportunity for achievement vs. ascription; (2) vulnerability to incomplete specification of…

  19. Attractiveness Compensates for Low Status Background in the Prediction of Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Bauldry, Shawn; Shanahan, Michael J.; Russo, Rosemary; Roberts, Brent W.; Damian, Rodica

    2016-01-01

    Background People who are perceived as good looking or as having a pleasant personality enjoy many advantages, including higher educational attainment. This study examines (1) whether associations between physical/personality attractiveness and educational attainment vary by parental socioeconomic resources and (2) whether parental socioeconomic resources predict these forms of attractiveness. Based on the theory of resource substitution with structural amplification, we hypothesized that both types of attractiveness would have a stronger association with educational attainment for people from disadvantaged backgrounds (resource substitution), but also that people from disadvantaged backgrounds would be less likely to be perceived as attractive (amplification). Methods This study draws on data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health—including repeated interviewer ratings of respondents’ attractiveness—and trait-state structural equation models to examine the moderation (substitution) and mediation (amplification) of physical and personality attractiveness in the link between parental socioeconomic resources and educational attainment. Results Both perceived personality and physical attractiveness have stronger associations with educational attainment for people from families with lower levels of parental education (substitution). Further, parental education and income are associated with both dimensions of perceived attractiveness, and personality attractiveness is positively associated with educational attainment (amplification). Results do not differ by sex and race/ethnicity. Further, associations between perceived attractiveness and educational attainment remain after accounting for unmeasured family-level confounders using a sibling fixed-effects model. Conclusions Perceived attractiveness, particularly personality attractiveness, is a more important psychosocial resource for educational attainment for people from disadvantaged

  20. Exploring Variation in Teenage Mothers’ and Fathers’ Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Mollborn, Stefanie

    2011-01-01

    CONTEXT A substantial body of research has compared educational outcomes of teenage parents with those of their childless peers, but less attention has gone to variations among teenage parents. Additionally, gender differences in teenage parents’ educational outcomes have rarely been studied. METHODS Characteristics associated with high school graduation by age 26 were assessed among 317 teenage mothers and fathers who participated in the 1988–2000 National Education Longitudinal Study. Logistic regression models included socioeconomic and educational characteristics, gender, parenting responsibilities and resources, and gender interactions. RESULTS Married or cohabiting teenage parents living with no or one parent had 73% lower odds of graduation than single respondents living with two parents. Gender moderated the relationships between two parenting responsibilities and the likelihood of graduation: Fathers working at least half-time were less likely than nonworking fathers to graduate (odds ratio, 0.2), and fathers who were primary caregivers had substantially elevated odds of graduating (7.4), but no similar relationships were seen among mothers. Sixty-one percent of fathers who worked but were not primary care-givers were predicted to graduate by age 26, compared with 97% of those who were nonworking primary caregivers. CONCLUSIONS Traditional parenting norms, according to which mothers are primary caregivers and fathers are breadwinners, do not appear to be associated with improved odds of graduating. Policies and interventions aimed at helping teenage parents graduate may be most effective if they target both genders, but some are likely to be more beneficial for one gender than the other. PMID:20887284

  1. The Attainment of Conservation of Mass, Weight, and Volume in Minimally Educated Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Avis J. Ruthven

    The purpose was to determine whether different levels of education, race, and sex affect the degree of conservation of mass, weight, and volume attained by minimally educated adults. Subjects were 30 white and 30 black females and 30 white and 30 black males enrolled in Adult Basic Education classes, with 40 subjects each at grade levels 0-3, 4-6,…

  2. Funding and the Attainment of Transformation Goals in South Africa's Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangenge-Ouma, Gerald

    2010-01-01

    The link between the funding of higher education and the attainment of higher education transformation goals in South Africa, especially access by students from previously under-represented communities, is the main focus of this paper. Specifically, the paper examines three questions: (a) How does public funding of higher education encourage (or…

  3. The relationship between STEM educational attainment and utility patent conferrals: A state-level analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Yuqi

    The utility patent, as a legal record of invention, is widely believed to be a close proxy for innovation among firms, industries, and economies as a whole. One of the critical drivers of patenting -- and ultimately, innovation -- is education. The science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) fields in education are of special importance. There is, however, little empirical research to substantiate a connection between STEM education and innovation outcomes. Seeking to fill this gap, this paper finds that, in general, there is no evidence of a meaningful relationship between STEM educational attainment and utility patent conferrals. The relationship of interest, though generally not statistically significant, is stronger for temporary US visa holders than for US citizens or permanent US residents. However, I find a large and statistically significant association between STEM educational attainment and utility patent conferrals for states that have above-average college educational attainment or above-average advanced industries workforce concentration.

  4. Pursuing Post-Secondary Education in the Host Country and the Occupational Attainment of Highly Educated Immigrants to Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamuti-Trache, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the occupational attainment of highly educated adult immigrants by employing a secondary analysis of three waves of the Longitudinal Survey of Immigrants to Canada that provide data on immigrant arrivals in 2000-2001. Occupational attainment is described in terms of matching immigrants' pre-migration occupation with the main…

  5. Academic Attainment of Students with Disabilities in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation compared attainment in 196,405 students with and without disabilities who were taking courses by distance learning with the Open University in the United Kingdom in 2009. When the effects of demographic variables were statistically controlled, students with mental health difficulties showed poorer course completion than…

  6. The Attainment and Experiences of Disabled Students in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2009-01-01

    In an earlier study of disabled graduates from campus-based institutions in the UK, students who had previously declared that they had an unseen disability were less likely to obtain good degrees (with first-class or upper second-class honours). The present study investigated the role of disability as a factor in the attainment and experiences of…

  7. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  8. Sex, Class, and Physical Science Educational Attainment: Portions due to Achievement Versus Recruitment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Richard M.; Farkas, George

    Nationally representative data from the National Education Longitudinal Study are used to investigate why males (rather than females) and children of parents with advanced degrees (rather than those from less-educated parents) are more highly represented among physical science bachelor's degrees and graduate students. Parental education is measured by three categories: neither parent has a bachelor's degree, at least one parent has a bachelor's degree, or at least one parent has a degree beyond the bachelor's. Physical science is defined as students majoring in physics, engineering, mathematics, or computer science. The effects of mathematics achievement and effects not accounted for by mathematics achievement (what the authors call "recruitment" effects) are isolated for parental education categories and for sex, allowing inequality in physical science degree attainment to be decomposed into portions due to achievement and portions due to recruitment. Additionally, the results from logistic regressions predicting the attainment of a bachelor's degree in physical science as well as the pursuit of a graduate degree in physical science are presented. It is found that for parental education categories, the gaps in physical science educational attainment are nearly entirely accounted for by differences in mathematics achievement, suggesting that if achievement could be equalized, physical science educational attainment differences among parental education categories would disappear. However, the sex gap in physical science educational attainment operates almost entirely independent of achievement effects, suggesting that if the mathematics achievement distributions of males and females were identical, the sex gap in physical science educational attainment would be unchanged from what it is today.

  9. Female Executives in Higher Education: Their Strategies for Success in Attaining the Presidency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chavez, Jocelyn Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify and describe the strategies female college presidents/chancellors use to attain their executive positions in higher education. A second purpose of this study was to identify the barriers females in executive positions in higher education experienced and how they overcame the barriers. The final…

  10. Access to Democracy Project: Community Report on Attitudes Regarding Educational Attainment. Grand Rapids (Michigan) Surrounding Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daun-Barnett, Nathan J.; Bowman, Nicholas A.

    2005-01-01

    The "Access to Democracy" project has two broad goals. It is an effort to understand community beliefs, attitudes and conditions that shape educational outcomes for community youth, and it is a way to focus community discussions on efforts that support higher educational attainment for residents. This report focuses on the lessons learned in the…

  11. Intergenerational Correlations in Educational Attainment: Birth Order and Family Size Effects Using Canadian Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Anindya; Clemente, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    We exploit the 1986, 1994, and 2001 waves of the Canadian general social surveys in order to estimate intergenerational correlations in education. The use of these specific data is important because of available information on the final educational attainment of survey respondents and both parents, as well as family size and birth order. OLS…

  12. Exploring the Wealth Returns to Latino Higher Educational Attainment: Estimates of Work-Life Earnings Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robles, Barbara J.

    2009-01-01

    A significant research gap exists in our knowledge of how educational attainment affects wealth building and intergenerational wealth transfers among Latinos. Wealth includes earnings but is a much wider and more fundamental measure of economic mobility. The education-earnings-wealth relationship is explored by constructing estimates of social…

  13. The Influence of Closing Poor Performing Primary Schools on the Educational Attainment of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, Kristof; Van Klaveren, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines whether the closure of poor performing primary schools improved students' educational attainment. It is believed that school closure affects children's educational outcomes positively because children switch to better primary schools. At the same time, school closure creates a social disturbance such that educational…

  14. The Impact of Participation in Sports on Educational Attainment--New Evidence from Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfeifer, Christian; Corneliszen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the impact of exercising sports during childhood and adolescence on educational attainment. The theoretical framework is based on models of allocation of time and educational productivity. Using the rich information from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP), we apply generalized ordered probit models to estimate the effect of…

  15. Well "and" Well-Off: Decreasing Medicaid and Health-Care Costs by Increasing Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBaun, Bill; Roc, Martens

    2013-01-01

    Cutting the number of high school dropouts in half nationally would save $7.3 billion in annual Medicaid spending, according to a new report from the Alliance for Excellent Education. "Well 'and' Well-Off: Decreasing Medicaid and Health-Care Costs by Increasing Educational Attainment" examines Medicaid spending for all fifty states and…

  16. Childhood (Mis)Fortune, Educational Attainment, and Adult Health: Contingent Benefits of a College Degree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, Markus H.; Wilkinson, Lindsay R.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.

    2013-01-01

    College-educated adults are healthier than other people in the United States, but selection bias complicates our understanding of how education influences health. This article focuses on the possibility that the health benefits of college may vary according to childhood (mis)fortune and people's propensity to attain a college degree in the first…

  17. Modeling the Role of Community Colleges in Increasing Educational Attainment and Workforce Preparedness. BHEF Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    In light of recent data showing that educational attainment rates in the United States have stagnated, the Obama administration and others have called for renewed efforts to bolster higher education outcomes. Strengthening the role of community colleges is undoubtedly an important component of any plan to dramatically increase the number of…

  18. Staff Helping Attain Relevant Education (Project SHARE): Final Evaluation Report, 1992-93. OREA Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranadive, Jyoti

    Project SHARE (Staff Helping Attain Relevant Education), a project funded by Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, was in its third and final year of operation in 1992-93, in eight primary schools in the Bronx, Brooklyn, and Manhattan (New York). The project served 141 limited English proficient students from low-income families…

  19. Level of Educational Attainment Among Deaf Adults Who Attended Bilingual-Bicultural Programs.

    PubMed

    Dammeyer, Jesper; Marschark, Marc

    2016-10-01

    In Scandinavia and some other countries, a bilingual-bicultural approach to deaf education was celebrated in national programs from the mid-1980s until the broad popularity of cochlear implantation in middle 2000s created a shift back to an emphasis on spoken language for many deaf children. At the same time, only a few studies evaluated the long-term outcomes of bilingual-bicultural education, and several of their findings have raised questions about benefits of the approach. This study examined the level of educational attainment of 408 deaf individuals who attended primary school either before or during the period of bilingual-bicultural education in Denmark, both relative to a comparable hearing cohort. Beyond group comparisons, three logistic regression models were created to evaluate the prediction of educational attainment by a number of relevant variables. Compared to the hearing population, the deaf population had a significantly lower level of educational attainment both before and after the introduction of bilingual-bicultural education. Signed language and spoken language abilities, the kind of school attended, degree of hearing loss, parental hearing loss, and gender were found significantly to explain levels of educational attainment in the deaf population. PMID:27235699

  20. Children of Mexican Immigrants' Aspiration-Attainment Gap and Educational Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paat, Yok-Fong

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the aspiration-attainment gap and educational resilience among children of Mexican immigrants in the midst of the post-1965 U.S. demographic transformation. Two widespread theoretical explanations are used to understand the educational disparities faced by this subpopulation: the cultural argument, which emphasizes their…

  1. The Challenges of Attaining Millennium Development Goals in Education in Africa by 2015

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojogwu, C. N.

    2009-01-01

    Millennium Development Goals were established by the United Nations to help underdeveloped countries to overcome problems of illiteracy, poverty, low health status and quality of life. Much emphasis was placed on the attainment of MDG targets in education because of its pivotal role in national development. The targets include education for all…

  2. Education for an Aging Planet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingman, Stan; Amin, Iftekhar; Clarke, Egerton; Brune, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    As low income societies experience rapid aging of their populations, they face major challenges in developing educational policies to prepare their workforce for the future. We review modest efforts undertaken to assist colleagues in three societies: Mexico, China, and Jamaica. Graduate education in gerontology has an important opportunity to…

  3. An Educational Response to Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLain, Rosemary

    1978-01-01

    The emphasis of this article is on aging and the needs of the elderly as a basis for developing educational content in the curriculum. It includes a description of a theoretical framework developed by Abraham Maslow for a holistic approach to needs of the aged. (Editor/RK)

  4. Space Age Driver Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Walter W.

    1970-01-01

    Describes experimental Driver and Traffic Safety Education Center--a project involving a five-phase instructional program, a variety of teaching innovations, and a specially-constructed facility which includes a classroom building, multiple car driving range, simulators, communications equipment, and the most recent electronic teaching devices.…

  5. Household Structure and Children's Educational Attainment: A Perspective on Coresidence with Grandparents.

    PubMed

    Monserud, Maria A; Elder, Glen H

    2011-10-01

    Children from alternative households complete fewer years of schooling. Yet little is known about the implications of coresidence with grandparents for educational attainment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10,083), this study found that extended households with two biological parents were not detrimental to high school completion or college enrollment. Although coresidence with grandparents did not compensate for not living with two biological parents, it seemed to be beneficial for the educational attainment of youth from single-mother households. In contrast, skipped-generation households were associated with a persistent disadvantage for educational attainment. Limited socioeconomic resources partially accounted for the adverse effects of alternative households, whereas parenting quality did not explain these effects. Interactions of gender by household structure suggested that stepfather households could have negative consequences for high school completion and college enrollment only for girls. PMID:24415799

  6. Labor Market Advancement for Young Men: How It Differs by Educational Attainment and Race/Ethnicity during the Initial Transition to Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoll, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Using data from the 1990 U.S. Census and the 2006-2007 American Community Survey (ACS) and a synthetic cohort method, this article examines the labor market performance of young men during their initial transition to work and how it differs by educational attainment and race. The article looks at young men between the ages of 16 to 26 in 1990 who…

  7. Occupational Choice, Socio-Economic Status and Educational Attainment: A Study of the Occupational Choices and Destinations of Young People in the British Household Panel Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croll, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The article considers young people's occupational choices at the age of 15 in relation to their educational attainment, the occupations of their parents and their actual occupations when they are in their early 20s. It uses data from the British Household Panel Survey over periods of between five and ten years. The young people in the survey are…

  8. Effects of Gender, Age, and Education on Assertiveness in a Nigerian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeizugbo, Eucharia U.

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred fourteen (214) married persons, 101 men and 113 women aged 20-60, with at least high school education, participated in the study which investigated the effects of gender, age, and educational attainment on assertiveness among married persons in Nigeria. The Assertive Behavior Assessment scale (ABAS; Onyeizugbo, 1998) was used to…

  9. Is educational attainment related to end-of-life decision-making? A large post-mortem survey in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Educational attainment has been shown to influence access to and quality of health care. However, the influence of educational attainment on decision-making at the end of life with possible or certain life-shortening effect (ELDs ie intensified pain and symptom alleviation, non-treatment decisions, euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide, and life-ending acts without explicit request) is scarcely studied. This paper examines differences between educational groups pertaining to prevalence of ELDs, the decision-making process and end-of-life treatment characteristics. Method We performed a retrospective survey among physicians certifying a large representative sample of Belgian deaths in 2007. Differences between educational groups were adjusted for relevant confounders (age, sex, cause of death and marital status). Results Intensified pain and symptom alleviation and non-treatment decisions are more likely to occur in higher educated than in lower educated patients. These decisions were less likely to be discussed with either patient or family, or with colleague physicians, in lower educated patients. A positive association between education and prevalence of euthanasia/assisted suicide (acts as well as requests) disappeared when adjusting for cause of death. No differences between educational groups were found in the treatment goal in the last week, but higher educated patients were more likely to receive opioids in the last day of life. Conclusion There are some important differences and possible inequities between educational groups in end-of-life decision-making in Belgium. Future research should investigate whether the found differences reflect differences in knowledge of and adherence to patient preferences, and indicate a discrepancy in quality of the end of life. PMID:24207110

  10. Malaria Eradication and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Paraguay and Sri Lanka†

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Adrienne M.

    2013-01-01

    Mid-twentieth century malaria eradication campaigns largely eliminated malaria from Paraguay and Sri Lanka. Using these interventions as quasi-experiments, I estimate malaria’s effect on lifetime female educational attainment through the combination of pre-existing geographic variation in malarial intensity and cohort exposure based on the timing of the national anti-malaria campaigns. The estimates from Sri Lanka and Paraguay are similar and indicate that malaria eradication increased years of educational attainment and literacy. The similarity of the estimates across the countries reinforces our confidence in the validity of the identification strategy. PMID:23946866

  11. Academic Attainment in Students with Dyslexia in Distance Education.

    PubMed

    Richardson, John T E

    2015-11-01

    This investigation studied attainment in students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who were taking modules by distance learning with the Open University in 2012. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had no additional disabilities were just as likely as nondisabled students to complete their modules, but they were less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed. Students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties who had additional disabilities were less likely to complete their modules, less likely to pass the modules that they had completed and less likely to obtain good grades on the modules that they had passed than were nondisabled students. Nevertheless, around 40% of students with dyslexia or other specific learning difficulties obtained good grades (i.e. those that would lead to a bachelor's degree with first-class or upper second-class honours). PMID:26059744

  12. An Assessment of Civic Engagement and Educational Attainment. Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davila, Alberto; Mora, Marie T.

    2007-01-01

    It is well documented that individuals with higher levels of education tend to be more civically engaged. In a two-part study conducted for the Center for Information and Research on Civic Learning and Engagement (CIRCLE), the authors provided empirical evidence using 1988-2000 panel data from the National Education Longitudinal Study of 1988…

  13. Assessing the Independent Contribution of Maternal Educational Expectations to Children’s Educational Attainment in Early Adulthood: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pingault, Jean Baptiste; Côté, Sylvana M.; Petitclerc, Amélie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Parental educational expectations have been associated with children’s educational attainment in a number of long-term longitudinal studies, but whether this relationship is causal has long been debated. The aims of this prospective study were twofold: 1) test whether low maternal educational expectations contributed to failure to graduate from high school; and 2) compare the results obtained using different strategies for accounting for confounding variables (i.e. multivariate regression and propensity score matching). Methodology/Principal Findings The study sample included 1,279 participants from the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children. Maternal educational expectations were assessed when the participants were aged 12 years. High school graduation – measuring educational attainment – was determined through the Quebec Ministry of Education when the participants were aged 22–23 years. Findings show that when using the most common statistical approach (i.e. multivariate regressions to adjust for a restricted set of potential confounders) the contribution of low maternal educational expectations to failure to graduate from high school was statistically significant. However, when using propensity score matching, the contribution of maternal expectations was reduced and remained statistically significant only for males. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study are consistent with the possibility that the contribution of parental expectations to educational attainment is overestimated in the available literature. This may be explained by the use of a restricted range of potential confounding variables as well as the dearth of studies using appropriate statistical techniques and study designs in order to minimize confounding. Each of these techniques and designs, including propensity score matching, has its strengths and limitations: A more comprehensive understanding of the causal role of parental expectations will stem from

  14. The causal effect of childhood measles vaccination on educational attainment: A mother fixed-effects study in rural South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Anekwe, Tobenna D.; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-01-01

    Background Because measles vaccination prevents acute measles disease and morbidities secondary to measles, such as undernutrition, blindness, and brain damage, the vaccination may also lead to higher educational attainment. However, there has been little evidence to support this hypothesis at the population level. In this study, we estimate the causal effect of childhood measles vaccination on educational attainment among children born between 1995 and 2000 in South Africa. Methods and findings We use longitudinal data on measles vaccination status and school grade attainment among 4783 children. The data were collected by the Wellcome Trust Africa Centre Demographic Information System (ACDIS), which is one of Africa's largest health and demographic surveillance systems. ACDIS is located in a poor, predominantly rural, Zulu-speaking community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using mother fixed-effects regression, we compare the school grade attainment of siblings who are discordant in their measles vaccination status but share the same mother and household. This fixed-effects approach controls for confounding due to both observed and unobserved factors that do not vary between siblings, including sibling-invariant mother and household characteristics such as attitudes toward risk, conscientiousness, and aspirations for children. We further control for a range of potential confounders that vary between siblings, such as sex of the child, year of birth, mother's age at child's birth, and birth order. We find that measles vaccination on average increases school grade attainment by 0.188 grades (95% confidence interval, 0.0424–0.334; p = 0.011). Conclusions Measles vaccination increased educational attainment in this poor, largely rural community in South Africa. For every five to seven children vaccinated against measles, one additional school grade was gained. The presence of a measles vaccination effect in this community is plausible because (i) measles

  15. A New Factor in UK Students' University Attainment: The Relative Age Effect Reversal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Simon J.; Stott, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to study relative age effects (RAEs) in a selected sample of university students. The majority of education systems across the globe adopt age-related cut-off points for eligibility. This strategy has received criticism for (dis)advantaging those older children born closer to the "cut-off" date for…

  16. INTERGENERATIONAL EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT, FAMILY CHARACTERISTICS AND CHILD OBESITY.

    PubMed

    Jones, Antwan

    2016-08-01

    This study used US National Longitudinal Study of Youth data to explore how exposure to different socioeconomic conditions (proxied by maternal education) before birth can shape child weight. Using endogenous selection regression models, the findings suggest that educational selectivity affects weight gain. Mothers whose mothers graduated from high school were more likely to complete high school, and mothers reared in an intact family had higher levels of education. However, mothers who had given birth as a teenager had the same educational outcomes as mothers who gave birth in their post-teenage years. Based on this intergenerational educational selectivity, caretaking (e.g. breast-feeding) was found to be associated with a lower child body mass index (BMI), while negative maternal characteristics (e.g. mothers with high BMIs) were associated with higher child BMIs. Thus, educational selectivity influences child health through values passed on to the child and the lifestyle in which the child is reared. Maternal education may be tied to parenting, which relates to child obesity risk. PMID:26314353

  17. Unemployment and substance use in young adults: does educational attainment modify the association?

    PubMed

    Melchior, Maria; Chollet, Aude; Elidemir, Gulizar; Galéra, Cédric; Younès, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    We studied whether patterns of substance use in relation to unemployment vary depending on educational level. Data come from 1,126 community-based young adults in France (18-35 years of age in 2011) and their parents (TEMPO and GAZEL studies). Tobacco use (≥1 cigarette/day, 22.5% prevalence), nicotine dependence (Fagerström test ≥2, 7.1% prevalence), alcohol use (≥2 units/week, 25.3% prevalence), alcohol abuse (WHO AUDIT ≥7 in women and ≥8 in men, 10.8% prevalence), cannabis use (≥1 time, 16.5% prevalence), and cannabis abuse (CAST ≥2, 5.0% prevalence) were assessed by interview. We conducted logistic regression analyses controlled for inverse probability weights of unemployment, calculated based on demographics, negative life events, health, and juvenile and parental characteristics. Compared to participants who were always employed, those who were unemployed and had no higher education were more likely to smoke tobacco (OR: 2.76, 95% CI: 1.86-4.10), to be nicotine dependent (OR: 5.70, 95% CI: 3.03-10.73), to use cannabis (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.42-3.64), and to abuse cannabis (OR: 3.38, 95% CI: 1.63-7.04). Those who were unemployed and had higher education were especially likely to abuse alcohol (OR: 1.89, 95% CI: 1.16-3.09). Increases in unemployment may impact population levels of substance use, particularly in young adults with low educational attainment. PMID:25472491

  18. Civic Education as a Collaborative Dimension of Social Studies Education in Attainment of Political Ethics in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dania, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The paper investigated Civic Education as a collaborative dimension of Social Studies Education in attainment of political ethics in Nigeria. The study adopted the survey research design. The sample for the study consisted of 580 Social Studies teachers selected from thirty secondary schools in the three senatorial districts of Delta State. The…

  19. Youth Education Attainment and Participation in Europe: The Role of Contextual Factors and the Scope of Education Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alegre, Miquel Àngel; Benito, Ricard

    2014-01-01

    This article examines how certain contextual factors explain levels of education attainment and participation amongst youths in 30 European countries, whilst also exploring the scope for action of education policy when dealing with these issues. Through simple OLS regressions, we first evaluate the impact of a group of contextual indicators on the…

  20. Maintaining Inequality Despite Expansion: Evidence of the Link between Parents' Education and Qualitative Differences in Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesters, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    The restructuring of the Australian labour market decreased demand for low-skilled workers and increased demand for highly skilled workers and professionals further strengthening the relationship between educational and occupational attainment. To satisfy the demand for highly educated workers, the government reorganised the higher education…

  1. Children at Risk from Domestic Violence and Their Educational Attainment: Perspectives of Education Welfare Officers, Social Workers and Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Dorothy; Taylor, Brian

    2007-01-01

    Children who witness domestic violence may have impaired educational attainment as well as facing other challenges such as struggles with self-esteem and forming relationships. This qualitative study set in Northern Ireland explored the perceptions of Education Welfare Officers, child protection social workers and teachers in post-primary schools…

  2. Educational attainment and cigarette smoking: a causal association?†

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Stephen E; Martin, Laurie T; Abrams, David B; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kubzansky, Laura; Loucks, Eric B; Rende, Richard; Rudd, Rima; Buka, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite abundant evidence that lower education is associated with a higher risk of smoking, whether the association is causal has not been convincingly established. Methods We investigated the association between education and lifetime smoking patterns in a birth cohort established in 1959 and followed through adulthood (n = 1311). We controlled for a wide range of potential confounders that were measured prior to school entry, and also estimated sibling fixed effects models to control for unmeasured familial vulnerability to smoking. Results In the full sample of participants, regression analyses adjusting for multiple childhood factors (including socioeconomic status, IQ, behavioural problems, and medical conditions) indicated that the number of pack-years smoked was higher among individuals with less than high school education [rate ratio (RR) = 1.58, confidence interval (CI) = 1.31, 1.91]. However, in the sibling fixed effects analysis the RR was 1.23 (CI = 0.80, 1.93). Similarly, adjusted models estimated in the full sample showed that individuals with less than high school education had fewer short-term (RR = 0.40; CI = 0.23, 0.69) and long-term (RR = 0.59; CI = 0.42, 0.83) quit attempts, and were less likely to quit smoking (odds ratio = 0.34; CI = 0.19, 0.62). The effects of education on quitting smoking were attenuated in the sibling fixed effects models that controlled for familial vulnerability to smoking. Conclusions A substantial portion of the education differential in smoking that has been repeatedly observed is attributable to factors shared by siblings that contribute to shortened educational careers and to lifetime smoking trajectories. Reducing disparities in cigarette smoking, including educational disparities, may therefore require approaches that focus on factors early in life that influence smoking risk over the adult life span. PMID:18180240

  3. Adolescents' Cognitive "Habitus", Learning Environments, Affective Outcomes of Schooling, and Young Adults' Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marjoribanks, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A moderation-mediation model was constructed to examine relationships among adolescents' cognitive "habitus" (their cognitive dispositions), learning environments, affective outcomes of schooling, and young adults' educational attainment. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal survey of Australian youth (4,171 females, 3,718 males). The…

  4. Convergence of Educational Attainment Levels in the OECD: More Data, More Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crespo Cuaresma, Jesus

    2006-01-01

    This note shows that the dynamics of the dispersion of educational attainment across OECD countries in the period 1960-1990 differ enormously depending on the dataset used, as do the results of the test of significance in the change of the cross-country standard deviation of schooling years between subperiods. The three datasets studied (the…

  5. The Effects of Military Service on Early Occupational and Educational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert Alan

    Data derived from the Southern Youth Study (a randomly stratified sample of 250 black and 409 white males from Southern rural counties with lower than average annual incomes) were utilized to analyze veteran status as a determinant of occupational and educational attainment via the interaction effects between race, veteran status, and residential…

  6. Individual Heterogeneity and Reverse Causality in the Relationship between Migraine Headache and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabia, Joseph J.; Rees, Daniel I.

    2011-01-01

    A recent study by Rees and Sabia (2011) found migraine headache was negatively related to educational attainment even after accounting for the influence of family-level unobservables. The current study explores whether this relationship is attributable to unmeasured individual heterogeneity in the form of personality by using non-migraine headache…

  7. Parental Values, Educational Attainment, and Occupational Mobility Among Rural Youth in the Ozarks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Wayne H.; Campbell, Rex R.

    This 1966 study of 1,413 household heads residing in the rural Ozarks has shown at least partial support for the hypothesis that parental values mitigate the limitations of low socioeconomic status (SES) for the educational attainment and intergenerational occupational mobility of the migrant children of the male heads. Major findings were that…

  8. Basic Concept Attainment of Educable Mentally Handicapped Children: Implications for Teaching Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, R. Brett; Cummings, Jack A.

    1981-01-01

    The study investigated the basic concept attainment of 45 primary-level educable mentally handicapped (EMH) children who had been exposed to two to three years of classroom instruction. The study documented that primary-level EMH children have significant deficits in their understanding of the Boehm basic concepts. (SB)

  9. Phi Delta Kappa Needs Assessment: The Application of Educational Goal Attainment Test Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.; Montare, Alberto P. S.

    The Educational Goal-Attainment Tests, in particular, were used in four large-scale undertakings that led to subsequent planning and development efforts. The first was a statewide study of Puerto Rican students in comparison to their black and white counterparts. Both urban and suburban samples were used with the emphasis on urban. These results,…

  10. Protective Connections and Educational Attainment among Young Adults with Childhood-Onset Chronic Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Gary; Haydon, Abigail A.; McRee, Annie-Laurie; Halpern, Carolyn T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Youth with childhood-onset chronic illness (COCI) are at risk of poor educational attainment. Specific protective factors that promote college graduation in this population have not been studied previously. In this study, we examine the role protective factors during adolescence play in promoting college graduation among young adults…

  11. Can "Philosophy for Children" Improve Teaching and Learning within Attainment Target 2 of Religious Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thwaites, Helen

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of the research was to find out whether the use of Philosophy for Children (P4C) could improve learning within Attainment Target 2 (AT2) of Religious Education. A variety of techniques were used to investigate the effects of using a P4C methodology on children's learning in AT2 and children's perceptions of RE over the course…

  12. General Education Development (GED®) Credential Attainment, Externalizing Disorders, and Substance Use Disorders in Disconnected Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Andrea; Kong, Grace; Pope, Alice

    2014-01-01

    There are many benefits for emerging adults, both financial and personal, in obtaining a General Education Development (GED®) credential (Ou, 2008). However, little is known about the correlates of GED® credential attainment in "disconnected" emerging adults attending GED® programs. Our goal was to examine whether externalizing…

  13. Beliefs and Values among Rural Citizens: Shared Expectations for Educational Attainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deggs, David M.; Miller, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Discussions at the local, state, and national level have been focused on the importance of providing access and opportunity for college attendance. While these discussions are important to raising public interest in higher education attainment, they often negate how community values influence the college attendance decision process. This study…

  14. Five Years Beyond High School: Causes and Consequences of Educational Attainment. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Patrick M.; And Others

    The Youth in Transition project, a longitudinal study (which began in 1966) of a national sample of young men is described in this report. (Major objectives of the project were (1) to explore Lhe effects of dropping out of high school, (2) to assess the degree to which educational and occupational attainments are predictable from tenth grade…

  15. Amotivation in Physical Education: Relationships with Physical Self-Concept and Teacher Ratings of Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson-Kersey, Rachel; Spray, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability and validity of the Amotivation Inventory in Physical Education (AI-PE). In addition, the study sought to identify the relationships between students' amotivation, physical self-concept, and teacher ratings of National Curriculum attainment levels in PE. Students ("N" = 510) from a…

  16. The Effect on Recidivism of Attaining the General Education Development Diploma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Reid D.

    1986-01-01

    Compared recidivism in prisoners who were General Educational Development (GED) graduates (N=723) and those (N=3,642) who did not have GED or high school diplomas. Results suggest that inmates with GED diplomas have a significantly better chance of staying out of prison than do nongraduates. GED diploma attainment seemed to be affected by race,…

  17. The Psychology of Working: A Case Study of Mexican American Women with Low Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero, Laura; Singh, Satvir

    2013-01-01

    Using Blustein's (2006) psychology of working and Hackman and Oldham's (1975) job characteristics theory, the authors investigated the job attribute preferences of Mexican American women with low educational attainment. They used content analysis to code and analyze the interview transcripts of 27 women. The most valued job attributes were not…

  18. The Impact of Private Schools on Educational Attainment in the State of São Paulo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2015-01-01

    This study uses a comprehensive dataset on secondary school students in Brazil to examine the impact of private school enrollment on educational attainment in São Paulo. The results show that private school students (across all levels of tuition) perform better than their public school counterparts on Brazil's high school exit exam, even after…

  19. Examining the Impact Parental Educational Attainment Has on Students' Perceptions of Residence Hall Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrie, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    The current study sought to examine the impact parental educational attainment had on how students perceived their residence hall environment. This multi-campus study utilized the University Residence Environment Scale, along with a demographic form to gather data. The study occurred on three campuses during the Spring 2012 semester and had 347…

  20. Parenting with Mild Intellectual Deficits: Parental Expectations and the Educational Attainment of Their Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Hurd, Heather Doescher; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.; Floyd, Frank J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined how the educational expectations that parents with mild intellectual deficits had for their children shaped their children's attainment, and how parents' own intellectual limitations affected this process. We identified 612 parents with mild intellectual deficits and 2,712 comparison parents from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a…

  1. Framing the Future: Revisiting the Place of Educational Expectations in Status Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozick, Robert; Alexander, Karl; Entwisle, Doris; Dauber, Susan; Kerr, Kerri

    2010-01-01

    This study revisits the Wisconsin model of status attainment from a life course developmental perspective. Fixed-effects regression analyses lend strong support to the Wisconsin framework's core proposition that academic performance and significant others' influence shape educational expectations. However, investigating the process of expectation…

  2. The Influence of Personal Networks and Social Support on Study Attainment of Students in University Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggens, Lilian; van der Werf, M. P. C.; Bosker, R. J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of personal networks and social support on study attainment of students in university education is examined. Furthermore, the paper aimed at clarifying the possible mediating role of achievement motivation, time spent on studying and working, procrastination and self-esteem. The study is a follow-up of the '89 cohort…

  3. Only Fools? Reconsidering the Relationship between Commitment to the Work Ethic and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that work ethic research has suffered from a tendency to conflate preference and morality, and that this has been particularly detrimental to our understanding of the relationship between commitment to the work ethic and educational attainment. The work ethic is almost always measured quantitatively, yet in-depth research…

  4. A Developmental Process Analysis of Cross-Generational Continuity in Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettit, Gregory S.; Yu, Tianyi; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    In this prospective longitudinal study (N = 585) we examined intergenerational links in level of educational attainment. Of particular interest was whether family background characteristics, parenting in early childhood and early adolescence, and school adjustment and performance in middle childhood accounted for (i.e., mediated) continuity and…

  5. Household Structure and Children's Educational Attainment: A Perspective on Coresidence with Grandparents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monserud, Maria A.; Elder, Glen H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Children from alternative households complete fewer years of schooling. Yet little is known about the implications of coresidence with grandparents for educational attainment. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 10,083), this study found that extended households with two biological parents were not detrimental…

  6. Educational Attainment in the United States: 2009. Population Characteristics. Current Population Reports. P20-566

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Camille L.; Siebens, Julie

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a portrait of educational attainment in the United States based on data collected in the 2009 American Community Survey (ACS) and the 2005-2009 ACS 5-year estimates. It also uses data from the Annual Social and Economic Supplement (ASEC) to the Current Population Survey (CPS) collected in 2009 and earlier, as well as monthly…

  7. Educational Attainment in South Africa: A View from the Census 1865-2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christopher, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    Population censuses record considerable volumes of personal information, which when aggregated and tabulated provide significant insights into national societies. South African censuses have recorded levels of educational attainment since their inception in the mid-nineteenth century, initially measuring literacy and later the level of education…

  8. Education and Work: Differential Patterns of Occupational Status Attainment through Schooling. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinto, Vincent

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of the college attended on the occupational attainments of students. Data were obtained from the National Opinion Research Center on the occupational and educational activities of the college class of 1961 and analyzed by path regression techniques. (Analyses were limited to the activities of male…

  9. Acting with Attainment Technologies in Deaf Education: Reinventing Monitoring as an Intervention Collaboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoutenhoofd, Ernst D.

    2010-01-01

    In this article I consider that attainment research is a knowledge-producing practice that co-creates the realities it studies. Studies aimed at monitoring pupils' educational progress tend to collect those data that are needed to develop research claims, thereby producing an expert catalogue of understanding that is variable and has limited…

  10. Genome-wide association study identifies 74 loci associated with educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Okbay, Aysu; Beauchamp, Jonathan P; Fontana, Mark Alan; Lee, James J; Pers, Tune H; Rietveld, Cornelius A; Turley, Patrick; Chen, Guo-Bo; Emilsson, Valur; Meddens, S Fleur W; Oskarsson, Sven; Pickrell, Joseph K; Thom, Kevin; Timshel, Pascal; de Vlaming, Ronald; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Ahluwalia, Tarunveer S; Bacelis, Jonas; Baumbach, Clemens; Bjornsdottir, Gyda; Brandsma, Johannes H; Pina Concas, Maria; Derringer, Jaime; Furlotte, Nicholas A; Galesloot, Tessel E; Girotto, Giorgia; Gupta, Richa; Hall, Leanne M; Harris, Sarah E; Hofer, Edith; Horikoshi, Momoko; Huffman, Jennifer E; Kaasik, Kadri; Kalafati, Ioanna P; Karlsson, Robert; Kong, Augustine; Lahti, Jari; van der Lee, Sven J; deLeeuw, Christiaan; Lind, Penelope A; Lindgren, Karl-Oskar; Liu, Tian; Mangino, Massimo; Marten, Jonathan; Mihailov, Evelin; Miller, Michael B; van der Most, Peter J; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Payton, Antony; Pervjakova, Natalia; Peyrot, Wouter J; Qian, Yong; Raitakari, Olli; Rueedi, Rico; Salvi, Erika; Schmidt, Börge; Schraut, Katharina E; Shi, Jianxin; Smith, Albert V; Poot, Raymond A; St Pourcain, Beate; Teumer, Alexander; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Verweij, Niek; Vuckovic, Dragana; Wellmann, Juergen; Westra, Harm-Jan; Yang, Jingyun; Zhao, Wei; Zhu, Zhihong; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Amin, Najaf; Bakshi, Andrew; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Biino, Ginevra; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Boyle, Patricia A; Campbell, Harry; Cappuccio, Francesco P; Davies, Gail; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deloukas, Panos; Demuth, Ilja; Ding, Jun; Eibich, Peter; Eisele, Lewin; Eklund, Niina; Evans, David M; Faul, Jessica D; Feitosa, Mary F; Forstner, Andreas J; Gandin, Ilaria; Gunnarsson, Bjarni; Halldórsson, Bjarni V; Harris, Tamara B; Heath, Andrew C; Hocking, Lynne J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Homuth, Georg; Horan, Michael A; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; de Jager, Philip L; Joshi, Peter K; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika A; Kähönen, Mika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Keltigangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Kiemeney, Lambertus A L M; Kolcic, Ivana; Koskinen, Seppo; Kraja, Aldi T; Kroh, Martin; Kutalik, Zoltan; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J; Lebreton, Maël P; Levinson, Douglas F; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C M; Loukola, Anu; Madden, Pamela A; Mägi, Reedik; Mäki-Opas, Tomi; Marioni, Riccardo E; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Meddens, Gerardus A; McMahon, George; Meisinger, Christa; Meitinger, Thomas; Milaneschi, Yusplitri; Milani, Lili; Montgomery, Grant W; Myhre, Ronny; Nelson, Christopher P; Nyholt, Dale R; Ollier, William E R; Palotie, Aarno; Paternoster, Lavinia; Pedersen, Nancy L; Petrovic, Katja E; Porteous, David J; Räikkönen, Katri; Ring, Susan M; Robino, Antonietta; Rostapshova, Olga; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanders, Alan R; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schmidt, Helena; Scott, Rodney J; Smith, Blair H; Smith, Jennifer A; Staessen, Jan A; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Strauch, Konstantin; Terracciano, Antonio; Tobin, Martin D; Ulivi, Sheila; Vaccargiu, Simona; Quaye, Lydia; van Rooij, Frank J A; Venturini, Cristina; Vinkhuyzen, Anna A E; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Vonk, Judith M; Vozzi, Diego; Waage, Johannes; Ware, Erin B; Willemsen, Gonneke; Attia, John R; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bertram, Lars; Bisgaard, Hans; Boomsma, Dorret I; Borecki, Ingrid B; Bültmann, Ute; Chabris, Christopher F; Cucca, Francesco; Cusi, Daniele; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George V; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eriksson, Johan G; Franke, Barbara; Franke, Lude; Gasparini, Paolo; Gejman, Pablo V; Gieger, Christian; Grabe, Hans-Jörgen; Gratten, Jacob; Groenen, Patrick J F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; van der Harst, Pim; Hayward, Caroline; Hinds, David A; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hyppönen, Elina; Iacono, William G; Jacobsson, Bo; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kardia, Sharon L R; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lehrer, Steven F; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Martin, Nicholas G; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Pendleton, Neil; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Pirastu, Nicola; Pirastu, Mario; Polasek, Ozren; Posthuma, Danielle; Power, Christine; Province, Michael A; Samani, Nilesh J; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Reinhold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Stefansson, Kari; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tiemeier, Henning; Tung, Joyce Y; Uitterlinden, André G; Vitart, Veronique; Vollenweider, Peter; Weir, David R; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Conley, Dalton C; Krueger, Robert F; Davey Smith, George; Hofman, Albert; Laibson, David I; Medland, Sarah E; Meyer, Michelle N; Yang, Jian; Johannesson, Magnus; Visscher, Peter M; Esko, Tõnu

    2016-05-26

    Educational attainment is strongly influenced by social and other environmental factors, but genetic factors are estimated to account for at least 20% of the variation across individuals. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for educational attainment that extends our earlier discovery sample of 101,069 individuals to 293,723 individuals, and a replication study in an independent sample of 111,349 individuals from the UK Biobank. We identify 74 genome-wide significant loci associated with the number of years of schooling completed. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with educational attainment are disproportionately found in genomic regions regulating gene expression in the fetal brain. Candidate genes are preferentially expressed in neural tissue, especially during the prenatal period, and enriched for biological pathways involved in neural development. Our findings demonstrate that, even for a behavioural phenotype that is mostly environmentally determined, a well-powered GWAS identifies replicable associated genetic variants that suggest biologically relevant pathways. Because educational attainment is measured in large numbers of individuals, it will continue to be useful as a proxy phenotype in efforts to characterize the genetic influences of related phenotypes, including cognition and neuropsychiatric diseases. PMID:27225129

  11. Health and the Educational Attainment of Adolescents: Evidence from the NLSY97

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Steven A.; Fosse, Nathan Edward

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the mechanisms linking health to the educational attainment of adolescents. In particular, it investigates the role of cognitive/academic achievement and a variety of psychosocial adjustment factors in explaining this relationship. Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 cohort (NLSY97), we estimate…

  12. Poverty, Delinquency, and Educational Attainment: Cumulative Disadvantage or Disadvantage Saturation? JCPR Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Lance

    Data from the NLSY (National Longitudinal Survey of Youth) were analyzed to test two competing hypotheses regarding how poverty affects the relationship between delinquency and educational attainment. The cumulative disadvantage perspective argues that poor youth suffer greater consequences for their involvement in delinquency than middle and…

  13. Educational Expectations, Parental Social Class, Gender, and Postsecondary Attainment: A 10-Year Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andres, Lesley; Adamuti-Trache, Maria; Yoon, Ee-Seul; Pidgeon, Michelle; Thomsen, Jens Peter

    2007-01-01

    The authors employ a unique longitudinal data set of British Columbia high school graduates that followed respondents 1, 5, and 10 years after graduation to examine the extent to which educational expectations change over time in relation to parental socioeconomic status and eventual postsecondary attainment. Using the method of correspondence…

  14. Rethinking Assessment and Inequality: The Production of Disparities in Attainment in Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradbury, Alice

    2011-01-01

    Despite decades of research and debate, the issue of unequal outcomes continues to be a concern in educational systems worldwide. In England, published data relating to pupils' attainment across ethnic groups and by class indicators has been used to demonstrate continued inequalities in schools. This article attempts to deconstruct the…

  15. Analysis of the Occupational Attainment of Agricultural Education Graduates of the High School Class of 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Howard R. D.; Camp, William G.

    A study examined the effects of participation in a high school agricultural education program on occupational attainment. Using data collected in the National Longitudinal Study of the High School Class of 1972, researchers compared the employment patterns and income of 6,585 individuals who had taken at least one semester of agricultural…

  16. Estimating Employer Demand for County Level Educational Attainment: A Case Study of Taylor County, West Virginia. Research Paper 2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiadi

    An on-going study is examining a method proposed by S. Goetz and D. Debertin for estimating demand for educational attainment at the county level by using secondary data. The method produces compact information showing the relationship between employment, occupation, and educational attainment, information not available at the county level. The…

  17. The Pivotal Role of Education in the Association between Ability and Social Class Attainment: A Look across Three Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Wendy; Brett, Caroline E.; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have established that family social background and individual mental ability and educational attainment contribute to adult social class attainment. We propose that social class of origin acts as ballast, restraining otherwise meritocratic social class movement, and that education is the primary means through which social class…

  18. What Does the Decline in the International Ranking of the United States in Educational Attainment Mean for Community Colleges?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skolnik, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This article was written in response to concerns that have been expressed about the possible consequences of an increasing number of countries overtaking the United States in educational attainment. International statistics on educational attainment were analyzed, questions about comparability of data were discussed, and the impact of different…

  19. Educational Attainment and Attitudes towards War in Muslim Countries Contemplating War: The Cases of Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb; Ross, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This study addresses the little understood relationship between educational attainment and public attitudes towards war in four predominantly Muslim countries contemplating war: Jordan, Lebanon, Pakistan, and Turkey. The multivariate analysis using public opinion data suggests that the educational attainment of respondents has no statistically…

  20. Should Mom go back to school? Post-natal educational attainment and parenting practices.

    PubMed

    Domina, Thurston; Roksa, Josipa

    2012-05-01

    Although the relationship between educational attainment and parenting practices is well documented, it is typically examined at only one point in time. What happens if mothers acquire more education after the birth of their children: do they alter their parenting practices? Panel data models based on longitudinal data from ECLS-K indicate that changes in mother's educational attainment are positively associated with increases in parental school involvement, having books in the home, and participating in non-academic family activities, but not with attitudes toward discipline. Although post-natal maternal education does not change all aspects of parenting, our findings are broadly consistent with the theory of cultural mobility and provide insights into the extent of socio-cultural mobility in contemporary American society. PMID:23017803

  1. Self-Verification as a Mediator of Mothers’ Self-Fulfilling Effects on Adolescents’ Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Scherr, Kyle C.; Madon, Stephanie; Guyll, Max; Willard, Jennifer; Spoth, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This research examined whether self-verification acts as a general mediational process of self-fulfilling prophecies. The authors tested this hypothesis by examining whether self-verification processes mediated self-fulfilling prophecy effects within a different context and with a different belief and a different outcome than has been used in prior research. Results of longitudinal data obtained from mothers and their adolescents (N = 332) indicated that mothers’ beliefs about their adolescents’ educational outcomes had a significant indirect effect on adolescents’ academic attainment through adolescents’ educational aspirations. This effect, observed over a six year span, provided evidence that mothers’ self-fulfilling effects occurred, in part, because mothers’ false beliefs influenced their adolescents’ own educational aspirations which adolescents then self-verified through their educational attainment. The theoretical and applied implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21357755

  2. Parental Education, Grade Attainment and Earnings Expectations among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Liam; Harmon, Colm; Redmond, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    While there is an extensive literature on intergenerational transmission of economic outcomes (education, health and income for example), many of the pathways through which these outcomes are transmitted are not as well understood. We address this deficit by analysing the relationship between socio-economic status and child outcomes in university,…

  3. Career Academies: Impacts on Labor Market Outcomes and Educational Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemple, James J.

    2004-01-01

    Career Academies offer high schools--particularly those in urban communities that struggle to keep students in school and to prepare them for post-secondary education and employment opportunities--a systematic approach to addressing a range of challenges. Typically serving between 150 and 200 students from grades 9 or 10 through grade 12, Career…

  4. Does High Educational Attainment Limit the Availability of Romantic Partners?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Isaac; Lewis, Sally V.; Beverly, Monifa G.; Patel, Samir H.

    2010-01-01

    Research indicates that highly educated individuals endure hardships in finding suitable romantic partners. Romantic hardships affect social and emotional adjustment levels, leading to low self-efficacy in relationship decision making. To address the need for research pertaining to this topic, the authors explored the experiences of eight…

  5. Educational Attainment across the UK Nations: Performance, Inequality and Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; McNally, Sandra; Wyness, Gill

    2013-01-01

    Background: Political devolution occurred in the UK in 1998-99, following many years in which some degree of policy administration had been devolved to the four nations. Since devolution, all four countries of the UK have pursued increasingly divergent education policies. This is true in England in particular, where diversity, choice and…

  6. Early Childbearing and Educational Attainment among Mainland Puerto Rican Teens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diez, Virginia; Mistry, Jayanthi

    2010-01-01

    We report the results of a study about how early childbearing affected the educational trajectories of nine Puerto Rican teenage mothers living in New England. Raised largely on the mainland, participants chose to carry pregnancies to term and to participate in a parenting program for young mothers. Upon examination of shared meaning-making around…

  7. Cost, Commitment, and Attainment in Higher Education: An International Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauptman, Arthur M.; Kim, Young

    2009-01-01

    Jobs for the Future commissioned this report to provide an international perspective on the productivity agenda of "Making Opportunity Affordable," a multi-year initiative focused on increasing productivity within U.S. higher education, particularly at two-year and four-year public colleges and universities. The report also has implications for…

  8. Gender Gap in Educational Attainment: Evidence from Rural India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaudhuri, Kausik; Roy, Susmita

    2009-01-01

    Using a probit and censored ordered probit model of school completion we identify some state-specific factors influencing primary and middle school graduation probabilities of male and female children in two north-Indian states: Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. We find that education of the parents, economic and social status of the household and the…

  9. Mothers' Depression and Educational Attainment and Their Children's Academic Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Jennifer March; Crosnoe, Robert

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we take a dynamic approach to studying the connections among mothers' education, their depression, and their children's academic trajectories during elementary school. Applying latent growth curve modeling to longitudinal data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development's Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

  10. Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thierstein, Joel

    2009-01-01

    Education is moving into the digital age. Pedagogies have changed to engage the latest digital technologies. The methods of distribution are now a blend between face-to-face and some other combination of virtual interfaces. The content is moving from traditional text-based learning to text-plus-multimedia. The community is now involved in the…

  11. Birth Order, Educational Attainment, and Earnings: An Investigation Using the PSID

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantarevic, Jasmin; Mechoulan, Stephane

    2006-01-01

    We examine the implications of being early in the birth order, and whether a pattern exists within large families of falling then rising attainment with respect to birth order. Unlike other studies using U.S. data, we go beyond grade for age and look at racial differences. Drawing from OLS and fixed effects estimations, we find that being…

  12. Language Usage and the Status Attainment of Chicano Males. Bilingual Education Paper Series, Vol. No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Steve B.

    The implications of an ethnicity variable, language usage patterns, on the status attainment of 1,777 Mexican American males, ages 18 to 64 years, in the civilian labor force were studied. Language was viewed as a background variable that influences the relative positioning of Chicanos in the stratification system. It was hypothesized that, in…

  13. Post-Secondary Educational Attainment of Immigrant and Native Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Ursula; Tillman, Kathryn Harker

    2008-01-01

    We examine immigrant generation differences in college attendance and college type among youth ages 18 through 26 who have graduated from a U.S. high school. Results indicate that first- and second-generation immigrants are significantly more likely to attend college than their third-plus generation counterparts of similar race/ethnicity,…

  14. Educational attainment influences levels of homozygosity through migration and assortative mating.

    PubMed

    Abdellaoui, Abdel; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Ehli, Erik A; Davies, Gareth E; Brooks, Andrew; Sullivan, Patrick F; Penninx, Brenda W J H; de Geus, Eco J; Boomsma, Dorret I

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a higher education are more likely to migrate, increasing the chance of meeting a spouse with a different ancestral background. In this context, the presence of strong educational assortment can result in greater ancestry differences within more educated spouse pairs, while less educated individuals are more likely to mate with someone with whom they share more ancestry. We examined the association between educational attainment and F roh (= the proportion of the genome consisting of runs of homozygosity [ROHs]) in ~2,000 subjects of Dutch ancestry. The subjects' own educational attainment showed a nominally significant negative association with F roh (p = .045), while the contribution of parental education to offspring F roh was highly significant (father: p < 10(-5); mother: p = 9 × 10(-5)), with more educated parents having offspring with fewer ROHs. This association was significantly and fully mediated by the physical distance between parental birthplaces (paternal education: pmediation = 2.4 × 10(-4); maternal education: pmediation = 2.3 × 10(-4)), which itself was also significantly associated with F roh (p = 9 × 10(-5)). Ancestry-informative principal components from the offspring showed a significantly decreasing association with geography as parental education increased, consistent with the significantly higher migration rates among more educated parents. Parental education also showed a high spouse correlation (Spearman's ρ = .66, p = 3 × 10(-262)). We show that less educated parents are less likely to mate with the more mobile parents with a higher education, creating systematic differences in homozygosity due to ancestry differences not directly captured by ancestry-informative principal components (PCs). Understanding how behaviors influence the genomic structure of a population is highly valuable for studies on the genetic etiology of behavioral, cognitive, and social traits. PMID:25734509

  15. Educational Attainment Influences Levels of Homozygosity through Migration and Assortative Mating

    PubMed Central

    Abdellaoui, Abdel; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Willemsen, Gonneke; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos; Ehli, Erik A.; Davies, Gareth E.; Brooks, Andrew; Sullivan, Patrick F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; de Geus, Eco J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with a higher education are more likely to migrate, increasing the chance of meeting a spouse with a different ancestral background. In this context, the presence of strong educational assortment can result in greater ancestry differences within more educated spouse pairs, while less educated individuals are more likely to mate with someone with whom they share more ancestry. We examined the association between educational attainment and Froh (= the proportion of the genome consisting of runs of homozygosity [ROHs]) in ~2,000 subjects of Dutch ancestry. The subjects’ own educational attainment showed a nominally significant negative association with Froh (p = .045), while the contribution of parental education to offspring Froh was highly significant (father: p < 10-5; mother: p = 9×10-5), with more educated parents having offspring with fewer ROHs. This association was significantly and fully mediated by the physical distance between parental birthplaces (paternal education: pmediation = 2.4 × 10-4; maternal education: pmediation = 2.3 × 10-4), which itself was also significantly associated with Froh (p = 9 × 10-5). Ancestry-informative principal components from the offspring showed a significantly decreasing association with geography as parental education increased, consistent with the significantly higher migration rates among more educated parents. Parental education also showed a high spouse correlation (Spearman’s ρ = .66, p = 3 × 10-262). We show that less educated parents are less likely to mate with the more mobile parents with a higher education, creating systematic differences in homozygosity due to ancestry differences not directly captured by ancestry-informative principal components (PCs). Understanding how behaviors influence the genomic structure of a population is highly valuable for studies on the genetic etiology of behavioral, cognitive, and social traits. PMID:25734509

  16. Educational Attainment by Life Course Sexual Attraction: Prevalence and Correlates in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Walsemann, Katrina M.; Lindley, Lisa L.; Gentile, Danielle; Welihindha, Shehan V.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers know relatively little about the educational attainment of sexual minorities, despite the fact that educational attainment is consistently associated with a range of social, economic, and health outcomes. We examined whether sexual attraction in adolescence and early adulthood was associated with educational attainment in early adulthood among a nationally representative sample of US young adults. We analyzed Waves I and IV restricted data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=14,111). Sexual orientation was assessed using self-reports of romantic attraction in Waves I (adolescence) and IV (adulthood). Multinomial regression models were estimated and all analyses were stratified by gender. Women attracted to the same-sex in adulthood only had lower educational attainment compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Men attracted to the same-sex in adolescence only had lower educational attainment compared to men attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Adolescent experiences and academic performance attenuated educational disparities among men and women. Adjustment for adolescent experiences also revealed a suppression effect; women attracted to the same-sex in adolescence and adulthood had lower predicted probabilities of having a high school diploma or less compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Our findings challenge previous research documenting higher educational attainment among sexual minorities in the US. Additional population-based studies documenting the educational attainment of sexual minority adults are needed. PMID:25382888

  17. Educational Attainment by Life Course Sexual Attraction: Prevalence and Correlates in a Nationally Representative Sample of Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Walsemann, Katrina M; Lindley, Lisa L; Gentile, Danielle; Welihindha, Shehan V

    2014-08-01

    Researchers know relatively little about the educational attainment of sexual minorities, despite the fact that educational attainment is consistently associated with a range of social, economic, and health outcomes. We examined whether sexual attraction in adolescence and early adulthood was associated with educational attainment in early adulthood among a nationally representative sample of US young adults. We analyzed Waves I and IV restricted data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=14,111). Sexual orientation was assessed using self-reports of romantic attraction in Waves I (adolescence) and IV (adulthood). Multinomial regression models were estimated and all analyses were stratified by gender. Women attracted to the same-sex in adulthood only had lower educational attainment compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Men attracted to the same-sex in adolescence only had lower educational attainment compared to men attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Adolescent experiences and academic performance attenuated educational disparities among men and women. Adjustment for adolescent experiences also revealed a suppression effect; women attracted to the same-sex in adolescence and adulthood had lower predicted probabilities of having a high school diploma or less compared to women attracted only to the opposite-sex in adolescence and adulthood. Our findings challenge previous research documenting higher educational attainment among sexual minorities in the US. Additional population-based studies documenting the educational attainment of sexual minority adults are needed. PMID:25382888

  18. Sexual orientation disparities in mental health: the moderating role of educational attainment

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, David M.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Hamilton, Ava D.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Mental health disparities between sexual minorities and heterosexuals remain inadequately understood, especially across levels of educational attainment. The purpose of the present study was to test whether education modifies the association between sexual orientation and mental disorder. Methods. We compared the odds of past 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorder prevalence (any Axis-I, any mood, any anxiety, any substance use, and comorbidity) between lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) and heterosexual individuals by educational attainment (those with and without a bachelor’s degree), adjusting for covariates, and tested for interaction between sexual orientation and educational attainment. Data are drawn from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a nationally representative survey of non-institutionalized US adults (N= 34 653; 577 LGB). Results. Sexual orientation disparities in mental health are smaller among those with a college education. Specifically, the disparity in those with versus those without a bachelor’s degree was attenuated by 100% for any current mood disorder, 82% for any current Axis-I disorder, 76% for any current anxiety disorder, and 67% for both any current substance use disorder and any current comorbidity. Further, the interaction between sexual orientation and education was statistically significant for any current Axis-I disorder, any current mood disorder, and any current anxiety disorder. Our findings for lifetime outcomes were similar. Conclusions. The attenuated mental health disparity at higher education levels underscores the particular risk for disorder among LGBs with less education. Future studies should consider selection versus causal factors to explain the attenuated disparity we found at higher education levels. PMID:24570204

  19. Impact of Educational Attainment on Health Outcomes in Moderate to Severe CKD

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Rachael L.; Schlackow, Iryna; Staplin, Natalie; Gray, Alastair; Cass, Alan; Haynes, Richard; Emberson, Jonathan; Herrington, William; Landray, Martin J.; Baigent, Colin; Mihaylova, Borislava

    2016-01-01

    Background The inverse association between educational attainment and mortality is well established, but its relevance to vascular events and renal progression in a population with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is less clear. This study aims to determine the association between highest educational attainment and risk of vascular events, cause-specific mortality, and CKD progression. Study Design Prospective epidemiologic analysis among participants in the Study of Heart and Renal Protection (SHARP), a randomized controlled trial. Setting & Participants 9,270 adults with moderate to severe CKD (6,245 not receiving dialysis at baseline) and no history of myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization recruited in Europe, North America, Asia, Australia, and New Zealand. Predictor Highest educational attainment measured at study entry using 6 levels that ranged from “no formal education” to “tertiary education.” Outcomes Any vascular event (any fatal or nonfatal cardiac, cerebrovascular, or peripheral vascular event), cause-specific mortality, and CKD progression during 4.9 years’ median follow-up. Results There was a significant trend (P < 0.001) toward increased vascular risk with decreasing levels of education. Participants with no formal education were at a 46% higher risk of vascular events (relative risk [RR], 1.46; 95% CI, 1.14-1.86) compared with participants with tertiary education. The trend for mortality across education levels was also significant (P < 0.001): all-cause mortality was twice as high among those with no formal education compared with tertiary-educated individuals (RR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.62-2.58), and significant increases were seen for both vascular (RR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.21-2.81) and nonvascular (RR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.60-2.89) deaths. Lifestyle factors and prior disease explain most of the excess mortality risk. Among 6,245 participants not receiving dialysis at baseline, education level was not significantly associated with

  20. Benefits of educational attainment on adult fluid cognition: international evidence from three birth cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, Sean AP; Kuh, Diana; Herd, Pamela; Elliott, Jane; Richards, Marcus; Hofer, Scott M

    2012-01-01

    Background Educational attainment is highly correlated with social inequalities in adult cognitive health; however, the nature of this correlation is in dispute. Recently, researchers have argued that educational inequalities are an artefact of selection by individual differences in prior cognitive ability, which both drives educational attainment and tracks across the rest of the life course. Although few would deny that educational attainment is at least partly determined by prior cognitive ability, a complementary, yet controversial, view is that education has a direct causal and lasting benefit on cognitive development. Methods We use observational data from three birth cohorts, with cognition measured in adolescence and adulthood. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model the relationship between adolescent cognition and adult fluid cognition and to test the sensitivity of our analyses to sample selection, projection and backdoor biases using propensity score matching. Results We find that having a university education is correlated with higher fluid cognition in adulthood, after adjustment for adolescent cognition. We do not find that adolescent cognition, gender or parental social class consistently modify this effect; however, women benefited more in the 1946 sample from Great Britain. Conclusions In all three birth cohorts, substantial educational benefit remained after adjustment for adolescent cognition and parental social class, offsetting an effect equivalent of 0.5 to 1.5 standard deviations lower adolescent cognition. We also find that the likelihood of earning a university degree depends in part on adolescent cognition, gender and parental social class. We conclude that inequalities in adult cognition derive in part from educational experiences after adolescence. PMID:23108707

  1. GWAS of 126,559 individuals identifies genetic variants associated with educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Medland, Sarah E; Derringer, Jaime; Yang, Jian; Esko, Tõnu; Martin, Nicolas W; Westra, Harm-Jan; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Amin, Najaf; Barnard, John; Baumeister, Sebastian E; Benke, Kelly S; Bielak, Lawrence F; Boatman, Jeffrey A; Boyle, Patricia A; Davies, Gail; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Eklund, Niina; Evans, Daniel S; Ferhmann, Rudolf; Fischer, Krista; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Håkon K; Hägg, Sara; Harris, Jennifer R; Hayward, Caroline; Holzapfel, Christina; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Joshi, Peter K; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karjalainen, Juha; Kolcic, Ivana; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Sang H; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; McMahon, George; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Meirelles, Osorio; Milani, Lili; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Oldmeadow, Christopher J; Petrovic, Katja E; Peyrot, Wouter J; Polasek, Ozren; Quaye, Lydia; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P; Rizzi, Thais S; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Smith, Albert V; Smith, Jennifer A; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; van der Loos, Matthijs J H M; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wellmann, Jürgen; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Allik, Jüri; Attia, John R; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Bennett, David A; Berger, Klaus; Bierut, Laura J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Chabris, Christopher F; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K; Cucca, Francesco; de Andrade, Mariza; De Jager, Philip L; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J; Dedoussis, George V; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiríksdóttir, Guðny; Elderson, Martin F; Eriksson, Johan G; Evans, David M; Faul, Jessica D; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garcia, Melissa E; Grönberg, Henrik; Guðnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Harris, Juliette M; Harris, Tamara B; Hastie, Nicholas D; Heath, Andrew C; Hernandez, Dena G; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Iacono, William G; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kirkpatrick, Robert M; Kowgier, Matthew; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J; Lawlor, Debbie A; Lehtimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C; Madden, Pamela A; Magnusson, Patrik K E; Mäkinen, Tomi E; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mielck, Andreas; Miller, Michael B; Montgomery, Grant W; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Nyholt, Dale R; Oostra, Ben A; Palmer, Lyle J; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A; Preisig, Martin; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T; Realo, Anu; Ring, Susan M; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Rodney J; Snieder, Harold; St Pourcain, Beate; Starr, John M; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Teumer, Alexander; Tiemeier, Henning; van Rooij, Frank J A; Van Wagoner, David R; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Vonk, Judith M; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R; Wichmann, H-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F; Wright, Alan F; Conley, Dalton; Davey-Smith, George; Franke, Lude; Groenen, Patrick J F; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Kardia, Sharon L R; Krueger, Robert F; Laibson, David; Martin, Nicholas G; Meyer, Michelle N; Posthuma, Danielle; Thurik, A Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Visscher, Peter M; Benjamin, Daniel J; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D

    2013-06-21

    A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (coefficient of determination R(2) ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics. PMID:23722424

  2. GWAS of 126,559 Individuals Identifies Genetic Variants Associated with Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Rietveld, Cornelius A.; Medland, Sarah E.; Derringer, Jaime; Yang, Jian; Esko, Tõnu; Martin, Nicolas W.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Shakhbazov, Konstantin; Abdellaoui, Abdel; Agrawal, Arpana; Albrecht, Eva; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Amin, Najaf; Barnard, John; Baumeister, Sebastian E.; Benke, Kelly S.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Boatman, Jeffrey A.; Boyle, Patricia A.; Davies, Gail; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Eklund, Niina; Evans, Daniel S.; Ferhmann, Rudolf; Fischer, Krista; Gieger, Christian; Gjessing, Håkon K.; Hägg, Sara; Harris, Jennifer R.; Hayward, Caroline; Holzapfel, Christina; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A.; Ingelsson, Erik; Jacobsson, Bo; Joshi, Peter K.; Jugessur, Astanand; Kaakinen, Marika; Kanoni, Stavroula; Karjalainen, Juha; Kolcic, Ivana; Kristiansson, Kati; Kutalik, Zoltán; Lahti, Jari; Lee, Sang H.; Lin, Peng; Lind, Penelope A.; Liu, Yongmei; Lohman, Kurt; Loitfelder, Marisa; McMahon, George; Vidal, Pedro Marques; Meirelles, Osorio; Milani, Lili; Myhre, Ronny; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Oldmeadow, Christopher J.; Petrovic, Katja E.; Peyrot, Wouter J.; Polašek, Ozren; Quaye, Lydia; Reinmaa, Eva; Rice, John P.; Rizzi, Thais S.; Schmidt, Helena; Schmidt, Reinhold; Smith, Albert V.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Terracciano, Antonio; van der Loos, Matthijs J.H.M.; Vitart, Veronique; Völzke, Henry; Wellmann, Jürgen; Yu, Lei; Zhao, Wei; Allik, Jüri; Attia, John R.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Bastardot, François; Beauchamp, Jonathan; Bennett, David A.; Berger, Klaus; Bierut, Laura J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Bültmann, Ute; Campbell, Harry; Chabris, Christopher F.; Cherkas, Lynn; Chung, Mina K.; Cucca, Francesco; de Andrade, Mariza; De Jager, Philip L.; De Neve, Jan-Emmanuel; Deary, Ian J.; Dedoussis, George V.; Deloukas, Panos; Dimitriou, Maria; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Elderson, Martin F.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Evans, David M.; Faul, Jessica D.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Garcia, Melissa E.; Grönberg, Henrik; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Hall, Per; Harris, Juliette M.; Harris, Tamara B.; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Hernandez, Dena G.; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Hofman, Adriaan; Holle, Rolf; Holliday, Elizabeth G.; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Iacono, William G.; Illig, Thomas; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kähönen, Mika; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kirkpatrick, Robert M.; Kowgier, Matthew; Latvala, Antti; Launer, Lenore J.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Lehtimäki, Terho; Li, Jingmei; Lichtenstein, Paul; Lichtner, Peter; Liewald, David C.; Madden, Pamela A.; Magnusson, Patrik K. E.; Mäkinen, Tomi E.; Masala, Marco; McGue, Matt; Metspalu, Andres; Mielck, Andreas; Miller, Michael B.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Nyholt, Dale R.; Oostra, Ben A.; Palmer, Lyle J.; Palotie, Aarno; Penninx, Brenda; Perola, Markus; Peyser, Patricia A.; Preisig, Martin; Räikkönen, Katri; Raitakari, Olli T.; Realo, Anu; Ring, Susan M.; Ripatti, Samuli; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rudan, Igor; Rustichini, Aldo; Salomaa, Veikko; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Schlessinger, David; Scott, Rodney J.; Snieder, Harold; Pourcain, Beate St; Starr, John M.; Sul, Jae Hoon; Surakka, Ida; Svento, Rauli; Teumer, Alexander; Tiemeier, Henning; Rooij, Frank JAan; Van Wagoner, David R.; Vartiainen, Erkki; Viikari, Jorma; Vollenweider, Peter; Vonk, Judith M.; Waeber, Gérard; Weir, David R.; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Widen, Elisabeth; Willemsen, Gonneke; Wilson, James F.; Wright, Alan F.; Conley, Dalton; Davey-Smith, George; Franke, Lude; Groenen, Patrick J. F.; Hofman, Albert; Johannesson, Magnus; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Krueger, Robert F.; Laibson, David; Martin, Nicholas G.; Meyer, Michelle N.; Posthuma, Danielle; Thurik, A. Roy; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Visscher, Peter M.; Benjamin, Daniel J.; Cesarini, David; Koellinger, Philipp D.

    2013-01-01

    A genome-wide association study of educational attainment was conducted in a discovery sample of 101,069 individuals and a replication sample of 25,490. Three independent SNPs are genome-wide significant (rs9320913, rs11584700, rs4851266), and all three replicate. Estimated effects sizes are small (R2 ≈ 0.02%), approximately 1 month of schooling per allele. A linear polygenic score from all measured SNPs accounts for ≈ 2% of the variance in both educational attainment and cognitive function. Genes in the region of the loci have previously been associated with health, cognitive, and central nervous system phenotypes, and bioinformatics analyses suggest the involvement of the anterior caudate nucleus. These findings provide promising candidate SNPs for follow-up work, and our effect size estimates can anchor power analyses in social-science genetics. PMID:23722424

  3. The Education and Wages of Immigrant Children: The Impact of Age at Arrival.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Arturo

    2003-01-01

    Examines whether age of arrival of immigrant children affects their educational attainment in American schools and their subsequent wages. Finds that in certain cases, immigrants who arrive at younger ages complete more years of school, and as a consequence earn higher wages. (Contains 23 references.) (PKP)

  4. Sex, Urban/Rural and Minority Differences in Educational Attainment in Soviet and Post-Soviet Tajikistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyses the educational attainment of Tajikistani adults born between 1947 and 1989. Adults in the oldest cohorts completed school during the educational expansion of the Soviet period and the youngest cohorts completed their education in the post-Soviet period, which was marked by educational contraction. To date, there is not a clear…

  5. The influence of ethnicity and adverse life experiences during adolescence on young adult socioeconomic attainment: the moderating role of education.

    PubMed

    Wickrama, K A S; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-11-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the extent to which community disadvantage, family factors and race/ethnicity each exert an independent influence on young adult socioeconomic attainment. Second, we examine whether youths' educational attainment mediates these independent influences on socioeconomic attainment. Third, we test whether educational attainment ameliorates the negative influences of disadvantaged community and family conditions and race/ethnicity on socioeconomic attainment. We address these questions using multilevel modeling with longitudinal, prospective data from Waves 1 and 4 of National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which has a nationally representative sample of adolescents (N = 13, 450; 53 % females). Regarding our first research question, our results indicated that African Americans, youth from disadvantaged communities, lower SES families achieve significantly lower levels of earnings, assets, and job quality during young adulthood. Second, we found that young adults' educational level only partially mediate the influences of family and race/ethnicity influences on young adults' socioeconomic attainment. Third, we found that young adults' educational level buffered the influence of early socioeconomic adversities and accentuated the positive influences of family resources. Findings highlight the importance of social context as well as educational opportunities during childhood and adolescence for economic stability in early adulthood. PMID:22528370

  6. A Longitudinal Investigation of African American and Hispanic Adolescents' Educational and Occupational Expectations and Corresponding Attainment in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Anton-Stang, Hilary M.; Monaghan, Patricia L.; Roberts, Kimberly J.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    Adolescents' expectations about school and work may be key antecedents of adult attainment and this relationship may vary by specific racial, ethnic, and gender groups. This article examines how educational and occupational expectations change in adolescence and how expectations predict corresponding attainment in adulthood. Participants included…

  7. Relationships of Causal Attributions and Academic Attainment among Colleges of Education Students in North-Western Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sambo, Aminu; Mohammed, Aisha I.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of causal attributions and academic attainment of Colleges of Education students in north-west geo-political zone of Nigeria. The study was based on the hypothesis that there is no significant relationship between causal attributions academic attainment of students. The questionnaire on Academic Causal…

  8. Education in Old Age: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luppi, Elena

    2009-01-01

    The following work outlines an analysis of education initiatives aimed at the elderly. It examines the characteristics of the old aged learner, his/her "educability" and the foundations for an educational approach for this age group. These theoretical assumptions form the basis of this research: an exploratory study into various educational and…

  9. The Educational Attainment Process Among Adolescents with Disabilities And Children of Parents with Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Shandra, Carrie L.; Hogan, Dennis P.

    2014-01-01

    This article uses data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (NLSY97) to examine the relationship between disability, parental and youth university expectations in 1997, and youth high school completion and university enrolment by 2003. Results indicate that educational attainment is not equal for young adults with and without disabilities in the United States. Parents—but not adolescents—are likely to reduce their educational expectations when adolescents have a mild or serious disability, net of school performance. These parental—but not adolescent—expectations are significantly associated with high school completion. Finally, even after controlling for educational expectations and school performance, youth with serious disabilities are much less likely to graduate from high school than youth without disabilities. Despite the considerable strides made in the implementation of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, students with disabilities are not achieving educational parity in graded schooling. PMID:25589823

  10. Exploring the relationship between time preference, body fatness, and educational attainment.

    PubMed

    Brown, Heather; Biosca, Olga

    2016-06-01

    Obesity is a global health concern. This is the first study to explore if the relationship between body fatness and time preference is consistent across different ways of objectively measuring body fatness. Our second aim is to explore if there are differential associations between educational attainment and being a saver to determine if education can be used to change saving behaviour and subsequently body fatness. This paper uses data on 15,591 individuals from 2010/2011 of the Understanding Society Survey (UK) to explore the relationship between time preference, measured as being a saver and three objective measures of body fatness: BMI, percent body fatness (PBF), and waist circumference (WC). Our findings show that there is a negative relationship between the three measures of body fatness and being a saver. The strongest relationship is found for WC and being a saver for both genders. Overall, a stronger association is found for women than men. Our results suggest that differential effects by educational attainment can be found in the relationship between being a saver and body fatness. Educational interventions to improve savings behaviour and subsequently obesity may be more effective for women with lower levels of education. PMID:27111437

  11. The impact of attaining the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma on academic performance in bioscience higher education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yhnell, Emma; Wood, Heather; Baker, Mathew; Amici-Dargan, Sheila; Taylor, Chris; Randerson, Peter; Shore, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma Qualification (WBQ) in 2003, an increasing number of students are applying to higher education institutions (HEIs) with this qualification. The advanced-level WBQ is regarded as equivalent to one General Certificate of Education A-Level (GCE A-Level). This study assesses the impact of attaining the WBQ in addition to three GCE A-Levels on overall university degree performance in comparison to attaining four GCE A-Levels, in three cohorts of undergraduate students (Year 1 = 318, Year 2 = 280, Year 3 = 236) studying Biosciences from 2005 to 2011 at a UK HEI. Binary logistic regression was used to compare the academic attainment of students who had achieved four GCE A-Levels to those who had achieved three GCE A-Levels in addition to the WBQ. Comparisons were also made between students who had achieved three GCE A-Levels and those who had achieved three GCE A-Levels in addition to the WBQ. The results suggest that students who achieved the WBQ qualification in its current form, in addition to three GCE A-Levels, performed less well academically in undergraduate studies than those who achieved four GCE A-Levels. Furthermore, this effect was still present when the balance between coursework and examination was considered, and when students who had achieved the WBQ in addition to three GCE A-Levels were compared to students who had achieved three GCE A-Levels.

  12. Educational attainment, time preference, and health-related behaviors: A mediation analysis from the J-SHINE survey.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Daisuke; Kondo, Naoki; Takada, Misato; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2016-03-01

    Evidence consistently shows that low education is associated with unhealthy behaviors. A recent study in behavioral economics argued that high time preferences - the tendency to prefer immediate gain to later reward - explain the limited self-control of individuals in making preventive health-related choices. The aim of this study was to examine the mediating effect of time preference on the associations between education and smoking, binge drinking and overweight in young and middle-aged adults living in a Japanese metropolitan area, using a quantitatively measured time discount rate. A population-based probabilistic sample of residents of 25-50 years of age living in four municipalities within Japanese metropolitan areas where economic disparity is relatively large was obtained from the Japanese Study on Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (J-SHINE). Respondents answered the questionnaire items using a computer-aided personal instrument (CAPI). Data from 3457 respondents were used in this study. Time preferences measured as categorical responses were converted into a continuous number of time discount rates by using the maximum likelihood method. Smoking habit, binge drinking, and body mass index were regressed on educational attainment with demographics and other confounders. The mediating effects of the time discount rate were examined with the bootstrapping method. Results showed that the time discount rate did not mediate the association between education and binge drinking and BMI. Even for smoking, the mediating effect of time discount rate was quite limited, indicating that the proportion of total effect of education mediated was only 4.3% for men and 3.0% for women. The results suggest that modifying time preferences through educational intervention has only limited efficacy in closing disparities in health-related behaviors, and that other mediators fostered by schooling, such as knowledge/skills, group norms and supportive peers

  13. You can't always get what you want: educational attainment, agency, and choice.

    PubMed

    Snibbe, Alana Conner; Markus, Hazel Rose

    2005-04-01

    Using educational attainment to indicate socioeconomic status, the authors examined models of agency and effects of choice among European American adults of different educational backgrounds in 3 studies. Whereas college-educated (BA) participants and their preferred cultural products (i.e., rock music lyrics) emphasized expressing uniqueness, controlling environments, and influencing others, less educated (HS) participants and their preferred cultural products (i.e., country music lyrics) emphasized maintaining integrity, adjusting selves, and resisting influence. Reflecting these models of agency, HS and BA participants differently responded to choice in dissonance and reactance paradigms: BA participants liked chosen objects more than unchosen objects, but choice did not affect HS participants' preferences. Results suggest that HS and BA models of agency qualitatively differ, despite overlap between HS and BA worlds. PMID:15796669

  14. Educational attainment of children and young people in the looked--after care system.

    PubMed

    Harland, Lynette

    2014-11-01

    Over the last five years there has been a significant increase in the number of children in care. Despite service provision, the outcomes for these children differ significantly from their counterparts, particularly in relation to educational attainment. While 68% of children in care have special needs, this does not explain the difference in attainment for 32% of children in care. Research indicates that stereotyping, lower expectations and the experience of care are significant factors. Although positive work is being done, the differences in outcomes for children in care suggest further emphasis is needed. Experiences in early life impact on outcomes across the lifespan and it is here where as school nurses and health visitors, we can make a positive contribution for children in care. PMID:25612411

  15. ESTIMATING THE INFLUENCE OF INDIVIDUAL POVERTY-ADJUSTED EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT ON TERM BIRTH WEIGHT USING CONDITIONAL MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Reported maternal education is an important predictor of pregnancy outcomes. Like income, it is believed to allow women to locate in more favorable conditions than less educated or affluent peers. We examine the effect of reported educational attainment on term birth weight (birt...

  16. The black gender gap in educational attainment: historical trends and racial comparisons.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Anne; DiPrete, Thomas A; Buchmann, Claudia; Shwed, Uri

    2011-08-01

    It is often asserted that the gender gap in educational attainment is larger for blacks than whites, but historical trends comparing the black and white gender gap have received surprisingly little attention. Analysis of historical data from the U.S. census IPUMS samples shows that the gender gap in college completion has evolved differently for whites and blacks. Historically, the female advantage in educational attainment among blacks is linked to more favorable labor market opportunities and stronger incentives for employment for educated black women. Blacks, particularly black males, still lag far behind whites in their rates of college completion, but the striking educational gains of white women have caused the racial patterns of gender differences in college completion rates to grow more similar over time. While some have linked the disadvantaged position of black males to their high risk of incarceration, our estimates suggest that incarceration has a relatively small impact on the black gender gap and the racial gap in college completion rates for males in the United States. PMID:21638226

  17. An analysis of the educational attainment and occupational composition of immigrants into Beijing.

    PubMed

    Ji, P; Zhang, K; Liu, D

    1986-01-01

    This paper examines the educational attainment and occupational status of migrants in Beijing, China. Data come from a sample survey of 5598 migrants and nonmigrants conducted in 1982. Migrants are further subdivided into return migrants, direct migrants, and round-about migrants. The proportion of illiterates is greater for migrants than for nonmigrants; the proportion of university graduates is 4 times greater for migrants than for nonmigrants. In order of their university graduate rates from high to low, these groups are listed as follows: round-about migrants, return migrants, direct migrants, and nonmigrants. Round-about migrants make up 30.2% of the total migrants; the educational attainment of these migrants plays an important role in the relatively large proportion of university graduates among migrants. In general, the greater the distance of migration, the greater the proportion of university graduates is. Of the total professionals and cadres, over 75% are migrants while less than 25% are nonmigrants. 50% of the workers and attendants are migrants. The proportion of professionals and cadres of round-about migrants is greater than that of direct migrants. The educational level of migrants is higher than that of nonmigrants. The educational level of migrants who migrate more often is higher than that of migrants who move less often. The educational level is higher among long distance than short distance migrants. Migrants account for 80% of the population with a university education. The proportion of workers and attendants in migrants is smaller than that in nonmigrants. In those years when planned migration took place, migrants had a higher population quality as shown by a high percentage of population working, a low dependency ratio, a high educational level, a large number of people engaged in complicated labor, and a road source of migrants. PMID:12280651

  18. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989-2005.

    PubMed

    Everett, Bethany G; Rogers, Richard G; Hummer, Robert A; Krueger, Patrick M

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals' life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  19. Succeeding against the Odds. The Outcomes Attained by Indigenous Students in Aboriginal Community-Controlled Adult Education Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durnan, Deborah; Boughton, Bob

    A study examined the outcomes attained by 389 indigenous students who completed programs at the 4 largest Aboriginal community-controlled adult education colleges in the 9-member Federation of Independent Aboriginal Education Providers (FIAEP). The survey, which elicited a 57% response rate, established that, although a very large percentage of…

  20. The Effects of Immigrant Generation and Ethnicity on Educational Attainment among Young African and Caribbean Blacks in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rong, Xue Lan; Brown, Frank

    2001-01-01

    Analysis of census data shows how educational attainment varies with race, nationality (African blacks, Caribbean blacks, European whites), and generation of U.S. residence. Educators should move beyond the notation that race equates with culture and ethnicity and learn about the effect of assimilation on schooling. (Contains 82 references.) (SK)

  1. Schooling, Skills, and Self-Rated Health: A Test of Conventional Wisdom on the Relationship between Educational Attainment and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duke, Naomi; Macmillan, Ross

    2016-01-01

    Education is a key sociological variable in the explanation of health and health disparities. Conventional wisdom emphasizes a life course--human capital perspective with expectations of causal effects that are quasi-linear, large in magnitude for high levels of educational attainment, and reasonably robust in the face of measured and unmeasured…

  2. The Educational Attainments of the "Second Generation": A Comparative Study of Britain, Canada, and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothon, Catherine; Heath, Anthony; Lessard-Phillips, Laurence

    2009-01-01

    Background: This analysis compares the educational attainments of the "new" second generation in Britain, Canada, and the United States using three nationally representative datasets. Objective: To assess how the second generation has fared within Western educational systems. The study examines the achievements of seven minority ethnic groups:…

  3. Trends in Educational Attainment by Race/Ethnicity, Nativity, and Sex in the United States, 1989–2005

    PubMed Central

    EVERETT, BETHANY G.; ROGERS, RICHARD G.; HUMMER, ROBERT A.; KRUEGER, PATRICK M.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the importance of education for shaping individuals’ life chances, little research has examined trends and differences in educational attainment for detailed demographic subpopulations in the United States. We use labor market segmentation and cohort replacement theories, linear regression methods, and data from the National Health Interview Survey to understand educational attainment by race/ethnicity, nativity, birth cohort, and sex between 1989 and 2005 in the United States. There have been significant changes in educational attainment over time. In support of the cohort replacement theory, we find that across cohorts, females have enjoyed greater gains in education than men, and for some race/ethnic groups, recent cohorts of women average more years of education than comparable men. And in support of labor market segmentation theories, foreign-born Mexican Americans continue to possess relatively low levels of educational attainment. Our results can aid policymakers in identifying vulnerable populations, and form the base from which to better understand changing disparities in education. PMID:22649275

  4. Education, the Process of Attainment and the Structure of Inequality. Discussion Papers #393-77.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Aage B.

    This paper analyzes the properties of the process of social and economic attainments in two contrasting situations: (1) when the process of attainment generates the distribution of attainments, and (2) when the structure of attainments is seen as exogenously determined. It is argued that the neoclassical economic theory of earnings determination…

  5. Childhood Cognitive Ability, Education, and Personality Traits Predict Attainment in Adult Occupational Prestige over 17 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-01-01

    This study explored a longitudinal data set of nearly 5000 adults examining the effects of childhood cognitive ability (measured at age 11), parental social class (measured at birth), and personality on current occupational prestige (all measured at age 50), taking account the effects of education and the previous occupational levels (both…

  6. American Education: Implications from the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, William E.

    This paper considers the needs of future educational systems in an age of information. Characteristics of such systems are described and analyzed. An information age educational system would stress the big picture, be experimental, emphasize skills and tools of thought and action and extend throughout life. It would have alternative delivery…

  7. Matching Job Education Requirements with Candidates' Educational Attainments--A Pilot Methodological Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, William J.; Goody, Kenneth

    The traditional methods for documenting educational achievements have limited application for prescribing desirable and mandatory educational prerequisites for service in the various officer utilization fields of the Air Force. The document describes an educational profile that was developed to display a candidate's educational achievements in a…

  8. The Special Educator in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofmeister, Alan M.

    The author cites the arrival of the information age and considers its implications for special education. He suggests that special educators must build their information management skills. Four specific applications of microcomputers in special education are addressed: tool applications (in which students use microcomputer technology as personal…

  9. Dark Age Education: Our Latest Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Joel

    1981-01-01

    Relates the history of ideas to the history of education during the middle ages. Topics discussed include cultural life, economic factors, the political economy of medieval education, and the difficulty of writing about educational trends during a time for which there are few authoritative sources. (DB)

  10. Parental Aspirations for Their Children's Educational Attainment and the Realisation of Universal Primary Education (UPE) in Kenya: Evidence from Slum and Non-Slum Residences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oketch, Moses; Mutisya, Maurice; Sagwe, Jackline

    2012-01-01

    There is a sound research base attesting to the importance of parental involvement and to the many potential benefits it can offer for children's education. This study sought to examine differences in parental aspirations (as a mechanism of parental involvement in their children's education) for their children's educational attainment between slum…

  11. The Relation Between Adolescent Social Competence and Young Adult Delinquency and Educational Attainment Among At-Risk Youth: The Mediating Role of Peer Delinquency

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Pardini, Dustin A; Loeber, Rolf; Morris, Nancy A

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined trajectories of adolescent social competence as a resilience factor among at-risk youth. To examine potential mechanisms of this resilience process, we investigated the putative mediating effect of peer delinquency on the relation between adolescent social competence and young adult delinquency seriousness and educational attainment. Method Participants (n = 257) were screened to be at risk for antisocial behaviour at age 13 years. Data were derived from an ongoing longitudinal study of the development of antisocial and delinquent behaviour among inner-city boys, the Pittsburgh Youth Study. We used data collected from participants when aged 13 years until they were aged 25.5 years for our study. Results Results indicated that boys with high levels of social competence decreased their involvement with deviant peers throughout adolescence, which, in turn, predicted less serious forms of delinquency in early adulthood. Social competence had a direct effect on educational attainment in early adulthood, as boys who developed social competencies in adolescence went further in school irrespective of their involvement with delinquent peers. Conclusions Results suggest that promoting the development of social competencies and reducing involvement with delinquent peers will protect at-risk youth from engaging in serious delinquency in early adulthood while increasing their educational success. PMID:21878156

  12. Child maltreatment and educational attainment in young adulthood: results from the Ontario Child Health Study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note

  13. Season of birth is associated with birth weight, pubertal timing, adult body size and educational attainment: a UK Biobank study

    PubMed Central

    Day, Felix R.; Forouhi, Nita G.; Ong, Ken K.; Perry, John R.B.

    2015-01-01

    Season of birth, a marker of in utero vitamin D exposure, has been associated with a wide range of health outcomes. Using a dataset of ∼450,000 participants from the UK Biobank study, we aimed to assess the impact of this seasonality on birth weight, age at menarche, adult height and body mass index (BMI). Birth weight, age at menarche and height, but not BMI, were highly significantly associated with season of birth. Individuals born in summer (June–July–August) had higher mean birth weight (P = 8 × 10−10), later pubertal development (P = 1.1 × 10−45) and taller adult height (P = 6.5 × 10−9) compared to those born in all other seasons. Concordantly, those born in winter (December–January–February) showed directionally opposite differences in these outcomes. A secondary comparison of the extreme differences between months revealed higher odds ratios [95% confidence intervals (CI)] for low birth weight in February vs. September (1.23 [1.15–1.32], P = 4.4 × 10−10), for early puberty in September vs. July (1.22 [1.16–1.28], P = 7.3 × 10−15) and for short stature in December vs. June (1.09 [1.03–1.17], P = 0.006). The above associations were also seen with total hours of sunshine during the second trimester, but not during the first three months after birth. Additional associations were observed with educational attainment; individuals born in autumn vs. summer were more likely to continue in education post age 16 years (P = 1.1 × 10−91) or attain a degree-level qualification (P = 4 × 10−7). However, unlike other outcomes, an abrupt difference was seen between those born in August vs. September, which flank the start of the school year. Our findings provide support for the ‘fetal programming’ hypothesis, refining and extending the impact that season of birth has on childhood growth and development. Whilst other mechanisms may contribute to these associations, these findings are consistent with a possible role of in utero vitamin

  14. Education for a New Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodcock, Leonard

    Most would agree that education is a social good and necessity, yet serious inequities and inequalities remain in our educational system. The largest sources of support for public schools are the local school district and the state. The revenues they contribute come from property and sales taxes, both of which are regressive and inequitable. Our…

  15. Coordinated Analysis of Age, Sex, and Education Effects on Change in MMSE Scores

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We describe and compare the expected performance trajectories of older adults on the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) across six independent studies from four countries in the context of a collaborative network of longitudinal studies of aging. A coordinated analysis approach is used to compare patterns of change conditional on sample composition differences related to age, sex, and education. Such coordination accelerates evaluation of particular hypotheses. In particular, we focus on the effect of educational attainment on cognitive decline. Method. Regular and Tobit mixed models were fit to MMSE scores from each study separately. The effects of age, sex, and education were examined based on more than one centering point. Results. Findings were relatively consistent across studies. On average, MMSE scores were lower for older individuals and declined over time. Education predicted MMSE score, but, with two exceptions, was not associated with decline in MMSE over time. Conclusion. A straightforward association between educational attainment and rate of cognitive decline was not supported. Thoughtful consideration is needed when synthesizing evidence across studies, as methodologies adopted and sample characteristics, such as educational attainment, invariably differ. PMID:23033357

  16. Is the relationship between early-onset cannabis use and educational attainment causal or due to common liability?

    PubMed Central

    Verweij, Karin J.H.; Huizink, Anja C.; Agrawal, Arpana; Martin, Nicholas G.; Lynskey, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies have shown that early cannabis use is correlated with poor educational performance including high school drop-out. The predominant explanation for this relationship is that cannabis use causes disengagement from education. Another explanation is that the association between early cannabis use and educational attainment is not causal, but the result of overlapping risk factors that increase the likelihood of both early cannabis use and disengagement from education. These confounding factors could be of genetic and/or environmental origin. Methods Here we use data from a large community-based sample of adult twins (N=3337) who completed a comprehensive semi-structured telephone interview. We first apply the classical twin-design to determine whether genetic and/or environmental influences underlie the relationship between early-onset cannabis use (prior to age 18) and early school leaving. Next, with a co-twin control design we investigate whether the relationship between the two variables is more likely due to direct causality or overlapping risk factors. Results We find a significant phenotypic correlation between early-onset cannabis use and early school leaving (r=0.26), which could be explained by familial influences (of genetic and/or shared environmental origin). The pattern of odds ratios found in the co-twin control design is not consistent with direct causation, but rather suggests that the association is due to shared environmental factors influencing both variables. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the relationship between early-onset cannabis use and school leaving is due to shared environmental risk factors influencing both the risk of early-onset cannabis use and early school leaving. PMID:23972999

  17. Formulation of the Age-Education Index: Measuring Age and Education Effects in Neuropsychological Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Max; Eng, Goi Khia; Rapisarda, Attilio; Subramaniam, Mythily; Kraus, Michael; Keefe, Richard S. E.; Collinson, Simon Lowes

    2013-01-01

    The complex interplay of education, age, and cognitive performance on various neuropsychological tests is examined in the current study. New education indices were formulated and further investigated to reveal how age and education variances work together to account for performance on neuropsychological tests. Participants were 830…

  18. Higher Education is an Age-Independent Predictor of White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Control in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is ongoing. During late adolescence it is possible to disambiguate age- and education-related effects on the development of these processes. Here we assessed the degree to which higher educational attainment was related to performance on a cognitive control task, controlling for age. We then used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to assess the degree to which white matter microstructure might mediate this relationship. When covarying age, significant associations were found between educational attainment and fractional anisotropy (FA) in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) and cingulum bundle (CB). Further, when covarying age, FA in these regions was associated with cognitive control. Finally, mediation analyses revealed that the age-independent association between educational attainment and cognitive control was completely accounted for by FA in these regions. The uncinate fasciculus, a late-myelinated control region not implicated in cognitive control, did not mediate this effect. PMID:24033571

  19. Class, Family, Education and the Process of Status Attainment: A Comparison of American and British Women College Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Therese L.

    This study of women college graduates in the United States and Great Britain analyzes the effect of social origins and familial factors on educational attainment. The sample consisted of 1,435 American and 1,805 British females who graduated in 1961 and 1960 respectively. Longitudinal data were drawn from the National Opinion Research Center and a…

  20. Pathways of Long-Term Effects of an Early Intervention Program on Educational Attainment: Findings from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ru

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated pathways that might explain the observed linkage between participation in early intervention programs and later educational attainment using a sample from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, an on-going investigation of low-income minority children growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. A review of…

  1. From Early Aspirations to Actual Attainment: The Effects of Economic Status and Educational Expectations on University Pursuit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Ching-Ling; Bai, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of economic status and the educational expectations of significant others on early university aspirations and actual university attainment. The study analyzed two-wave longitudinal data collected from 1,595 Taiwanese students in their 9th grade in middle school and in their freshman year at universities. The…

  2. Family and Child Influences on Educational Attainment: A Secondary Analysis of the High/Scope Perry Preschool Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom; McAdoo, Harriette

    1996-01-01

    Examined factors contributing to individual differences in the educational attainment of African American young adults from families of low socioeconomic status. Subjects were 123 participants and their families. Found that characteristics of the participants at the time of school entry were predictive of the participants' achievement and…

  3. Twelfth-Grade Student Work Intensity Linked to Later Educational Attainment and Substance Use: New Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Jerald G.; Staff, Jeremy; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John E.; Freedman-Doan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Long hours of paid employment during high school have been linked to a variety of problem behaviors, but questions remain about whether and to what extent work intensity makes any causal contribution. This study addresses those questions by focusing on how 12th-grade work intensity is associated with substance use and educational attainment in the…

  4. A Stronger Nation through Higher Education: Closing the Gaps in College Attainment. An Annual Report from Lumina Foundation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dewayne

    2014-01-01

    As Lumina Foundation releases a new edition of the signature report, "A Stronger Nation Through Higher Education," the central message is the same one conveyed since the first of this series of reports in 2009. Lumina remains convinced that significantly increasing college attainment is the key to ensuring a brighter future for our…

  5. Early Family Environments May Moderate Prediction of Low Educational Attainment in Adulthood: The Cases of Childhood Hyperactivity and Authoritarian Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini

    2007-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the 1970 British Cohort Study, this study explored conditions under which the effects of risk factors for low educational attainment might be moderated. Two different risk factors, hyperactivity and maternal authoritarian parenting attitudes, were studied. The results showed that on the whole these two risk factors…

  6. Educational Attainment as a Proxy for Cognitive Ability in Selection: Effects on Levels of Cognitive Ability and Adverse Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Christopher M.; Gruys, Melissa L.; Sackett, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the differences in mean level of cognitive ability and adverse impact that can be expected when selecting employees solely on educational attainment as a proxy for cognitive ability versus selecting employees directly on cognitive ability. Selection using cognitive ability worked as a more efficient cognitive screen. Imposing…

  7. The Influence of Ethnicity and Adverse Life Experiences during Adolescence on Young Adult Socioeconomic Attainment: The Moderating Role of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Baltimore, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has documented that adverse life experiences during adolescence, particularly for ethnic minorities, have a long-term influence on income and asset attainment and that this relationship is largely mediated by educational achievement. We extend prior research by investigating three research questions. First, we investigate the…

  8. Educational Goal Attainment: A Three-Year Follow-Up Study of Nonreturning 1986-87 Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson County Community Coll., Overland Park, KS. Office of Institutional Research.

    A study was conducted in summer 1990 to measure the educational goal attainment of students who were enrolled at Johnson County Community College (JCCC) during 1986-87, and who had not re-enrolled at the college since that time. Questionnaires requesting information on JCCC experiences and outcomes, level of satisfaction with JCCC, current…

  9. Developing 20/20 Vision on the 2020 Degree Attainment Goal: The Threat of Income-Based Inequality in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Andrew Howard

    2011-01-01

    Improving college degree attainment is essential as the United States seeks to remain economically competitive in a globalized marketplace. As the economy continues to evolve and become increasingly more complex, it is critical that our education system provides our youth with the skills, ingenuity, and critical thinking abilities that can…

  10. An Examination of the Relationship of Gender, Marital Status, and Prior Educational Attainment and Learner Autonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derrick, M. G.; Rovai, A. P.; Ponton, M.; Confessore, G. J.; Carr, P. B.

    2007-01-01

    The development of a conceptual model that provides a theoretical framework for understanding the conative factors of desire, resourcefulness, initiative, and persistence in autonomous learning considered the related variables of gender, education level, age, and marital status. The relevance of these demographic variables is based on prior…

  11. Is There an Impact of Household Computer Ownership on Children's Educational Attainment in Britain?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, John; Wadsworth, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    If personal computers (PCs) are used to facilitate learning, then a home computer might be considered a potential input in an educational production function. Using data on British youths from the British Household Panel Survey between 1991 and 2001, this paper explores the link between ownership of a home computer at ages 15 and 17 and subsequent…

  12. A Stronger Nation through Higher Education: How and Why Americans Must Meet a "Big Goal" for College Attainment. A Special Report from Lumina Foundation for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dewayne

    2009-01-01

    College attainment is increasingly important to the U.S. economy as the workforce demands education and training that properly prepare citizens for success in the global, knowledge economy. Lumina Foundation for Education has embraced a single, specific goal that will help address the economic and social trends that cloud this nation's future. Its…

  13. Parental Aspirations for Their Children's Educational Attainment: Relations to Ethnicity, Parental Education, Children's Academic Performance, and Parental Perceptions of School Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spera, Christopher; Wentzel, Kathryn R.; Matto, Holly C.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined parental aspirations for their children's educational attainment in relation to ethnicity (African American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic), parental education, children's academic performance, and parental perceptions of the quality and climate of their children's school with a sample of 13,577 middle and high school parents. All…

  14. Educational attainment, perception of workplace support and its influence on timing of childbearing for Canadian women: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Amy; Vekved, Monica; Tough, Suzanne C

    2014-09-01

    Under Canada's Employment Insurance system, parents are entitled to receive up to 50 weeks of parental leave at 55 % of salary. Despite this national policy, women with higher education are more likely to delay childbearing. This analysis aimed to assess the association between workplace support, educational attainment and the timing of first births. Women who had recently given birth to their first live-born infant and lived in Alberta, Canada, were randomly selected to participate in a telephone survey. Logistic regression was used to assess the relationship between workplace support, educational attainment and timing of first pregnancy. Among 835 women with a planned pregnancy, 26 % agreed that support or lack of support for pregnant women at their workplace affected their decision about when to begin their family. After controlling for age and income, women who had completed a post-graduate degree were three times (OR 3.39, 95 % CI 1.69-6.81) more likely to indicate that support or lack of support for pregnant women in their workplace affected their childbearing decisions. In spite of national policies, and the potential risks associated with delayed childbearing, workplace support impacts timing of pregnancy, particularly for highly educated women. PMID:24414865

  15. Neighbourhood effects on educational attainment of adolescents, buffered by personality and educational commitment.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; Hooimeijer, Pieter; Meeus, Wim

    2015-03-01

    Research has repeatedly shown that neighbourhood disadvantage negatively influences individual educational outcomes. However, the great variation in outcomes indicates substantial unobserved heterogeneity. Looking at the rates of obtaining a basic educational qualification, the hypothesis is that individual traits of adolescents can buffer neighbourhood effects. First, adolescents with a more resilient personality may be better able to cope with neighbourhood adversity. And second, educational commitments might buffer adolescents from negative neighbourhood influences. These hypotheses are tested employing survival analysis, using six wave panel data, containing information on ten years of adolescents' lives. The results show that resilients experience no negative influence of neighbourhood disadvantage, while both undercontrollers and overcontrollers do. And, the stronger adolescents' educational commitments, the less they experience the negative effect of neighbourhood adversity. In sum, neighbourhood effects are found, but not for everybody. PMID:25592923

  16. Science education in a secular age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, David E.

    2013-03-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education in a secular age. Enjoining Raia within the framework of Charles Taylor's A Secular Age, I task the science education community to consider the broad strokes of science, religious faith, and the complexity of modernity in its evolving, hybridized forms. Building upon anthropological approaches to science education research, I articulate a framework to more fully account for who, globally, is a Creationist, and what this means for our views of ethically responsive science education.

  17. Impact of Community-Based Dental Education on Attainment of ADEA Competencies: Students' Self-Ratings.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Kimberly K; Nayar, Preethy; Ojha, Diptee; Chandak, Aastha; Gupta, Niodita; Lange, Brian

    2016-06-01

    Fourth-year dental students at the College of Dentistry, University of Nebraska Medical Center participate in a community-based dental education (CBDE) program that includes a four-week rotation in rural dental practices and community health clinics across Nebraska and nearby states. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of participation in the CBDE program on the self-rated competencies of these students. A retrospective survey was administered to students who participated in extramural rotations in two academic years. The survey collected demographic data and asked students to rate themselves on a scale from 1=not competent at all to 5=very competent on attainment of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Competencies for the New General Dentist for before and after the rotations. A total of 92 responses were obtained: 43 students for 2011-12 and 49 students for 2012-13 (95% response rate for each cohort). The results showed that the students' mean pre-program self-ratings ranged from 3.28 for the competency domain of Practice Management and Informatics to 3.93 for Professionalism. Their mean post-program self-ratings ranged from 3.76 for Practice Management and Informatics to 4.31 for Professionalism. The students showed a statistically significant increase in self-ratings for all six competency domains. The increase was greatest in the domain of Critical Thinking and least in Communication and Interpersonal Skills. Overall, these results suggest that the CBDE program was effective in improving the students' self-perceptions of competence in all six domains and support the idea that a competency-based evaluation of CBDE programs can provide valuable information to dental educators about program effectiveness. PMID:27251348

  18. In normal aging ventricular system never attains pathological values of Evans' index

    PubMed Central

    Missori, Paolo; Rughetti, Aurelia; Peschillo, Simone; Gualdi, Gianfranco; Di Biasi, Claudio; Nofroni, Italo; Marinelli, Lucio; Fattapposta, Francesco; Currà, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Ventricular enlargement in normal aging frequently forces the radiological diagnosis of hydrocephalus, but the reliability of Evans' index as a radiological marker of abnormal ventricular enlargement (values > 0.30) during aging is not assessed. Here we analyze ventricular size during aging and the reliability of Evans' index as a radiological marker of abnormal ventricular enlargement. We calculated Evans' index in the axial Computed Tomography scans of 1221 consecutive individuals (aged 45-101 years) from an emergency department. Stratified analysis of one-year cohorts showed that the mean Evans' index value per class was invariably < 0.30. Roughly one out five Computed Tomography scans was associated with Evans' index values > 0.30 and Evans' index values increased with age. The risk of having an Evans' index value > 0.30 increased by 7.8% per year of age (p < 0.001) and males were at 83.9% greater risk than females (p < 0.001). Overall, this study shows that normal aging enlarges the ventricular system, but never causes abnormal ventricular enlargement. Evans' index values > 0.30 should reflect an underlying neurological condition in every individual. PMID:26919252

  19. In normal aging ventricular system never attains pathological values of Evans' index.

    PubMed

    Missori, Paolo; Rughetti, Aurelia; Peschillo, Simone; Gualdi, Gianfranco; Di Biasi, Claudio; Nofroni, Italo; Marinelli, Lucio; Fattapposta, Francesco; Currà, Antonio

    2016-03-15

    Ventricular enlargement in normal aging frequently forces the radiological diagnosis of hydrocephalus, but the reliability of Evans' index as a radiological marker of abnormal ventricular enlargement (values > 0.30) during aging is not assessed. Here we analyze ventricular size during aging and the reliability of Evans' index as a radiological marker of abnormal ventricular enlargement. We calculated Evans' index in the axial Computed Tomography scans of 1221 consecutive individuals (aged 45-101 years) from an emergency department. Stratified analysis of one-year cohorts showed that the mean Evans' index value per class was invariably < 0.30. Roughly one out five Computed Tomography scans was associated with Evans' index values > 0.30 and Evans' index values increased with age. The risk of having an Evans' index value > 0.30 increased by 7.8% per year of age (p < 0.001) and males were at 83.9% greater risk than females (p < 0.001). Overall, this study shows that normal aging enlarges the ventricular system, but never causes abnormal ventricular enlargement. Evans' index values > 0.30 should reflect an underlying neurological condition in every individual. PMID:26919252

  20. Does Being Overweight Impede Academic Attainment? A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caird, Jennifer; Kavanagh, Josephine; O'Mara-Eves, Alison; Oliver, Kathryn; Oliver, Sandy; Stansfield, Claire; Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To examine evidence from studies exploring the relationship between childhood obesity and educational attainment. Design: A systematic review of secondary analyses and observational studies published in English after 1997 examining attainment as measured by grade point average or other validated measure, in children aged 6 to 16 years,…

  1. Genome-wide association study of cognitive functions and educational attainment in UK Biobank (N=112 151)

    PubMed Central

    Davies, G; Marioni, R E; Liewald, D C; Hill, W D; Hagenaars, S P; Harris, S E; Ritchie, S J; Luciano, M; Fawns-Ritchie, C; Lyall, D; Cullen, B; Cox, S R; Hayward, C; Porteous, D J; Evans, J; McIntosh, A M; Gallacher, J; Craddock, N; Pell, J P; Smith, D J; Gale, C R; Deary, I J

    2016-01-01

    People's differences in cognitive functions are partly heritable and are associated with important life outcomes. Previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies of cognitive functions have found evidence for polygenic effects yet, to date, there are few replicated genetic associations. Here we use data from the UK Biobank sample to investigate the genetic contributions to variation in tests of three cognitive functions and in educational attainment. GWA analyses were performed for verbal–numerical reasoning (N=36 035), memory (N=112 067), reaction time (N=111 483) and for the attainment of a college or a university degree (N=111 114). We report genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based associations in 20 genomic regions, and significant gene-based findings in 46 regions. These include findings in the ATXN2, CYP2DG, APBA1 and CADM2 genes. We report replication of these hits in published GWA studies of cognitive function, educational attainment and childhood intelligence. There is also replication, in UK Biobank, of SNP hits reported previously in GWA studies of educational attainment and cognitive function. GCTA-GREML analyses, using common SNPs (minor allele frequency>0.01), indicated significant SNP-based heritabilities of 31% (s.e.m.=1.8%) for verbal–numerical reasoning, 5% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for memory, 11% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for reaction time and 21% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for educational attainment. Polygenic score analyses indicate that up to 5% of the variance in cognitive test scores can be predicted in an independent cohort. The genomic regions identified include several novel loci, some of which have been associated with intracranial volume, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27046643

  2. Genome-wide association study of cognitive functions and educational attainment in UK Biobank (N=112 151).

    PubMed

    Davies, G; Marioni, R E; Liewald, D C; Hill, W D; Hagenaars, S P; Harris, S E; Ritchie, S J; Luciano, M; Fawns-Ritchie, C; Lyall, D; Cullen, B; Cox, S R; Hayward, C; Porteous, D J; Evans, J; McIntosh, A M; Gallacher, J; Craddock, N; Pell, J P; Smith, D J; Gale, C R; Deary, I J

    2016-06-01

    People's differences in cognitive functions are partly heritable and are associated with important life outcomes. Previous genome-wide association (GWA) studies of cognitive functions have found evidence for polygenic effects yet, to date, there are few replicated genetic associations. Here we use data from the UK Biobank sample to investigate the genetic contributions to variation in tests of three cognitive functions and in educational attainment. GWA analyses were performed for verbal-numerical reasoning (N=36 035), memory (N=112 067), reaction time (N=111 483) and for the attainment of a college or a university degree (N=111 114). We report genome-wide significant single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based associations in 20 genomic regions, and significant gene-based findings in 46 regions. These include findings in the ATXN2, CYP2DG, APBA1 and CADM2 genes. We report replication of these hits in published GWA studies of cognitive function, educational attainment and childhood intelligence. There is also replication, in UK Biobank, of SNP hits reported previously in GWA studies of educational attainment and cognitive function. GCTA-GREML analyses, using common SNPs (minor allele frequency>0.01), indicated significant SNP-based heritabilities of 31% (s.e.m.=1.8%) for verbal-numerical reasoning, 5% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for memory, 11% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for reaction time and 21% (s.e.m.=0.6%) for educational attainment. Polygenic score analyses indicate that up to 5% of the variance in cognitive test scores can be predicted in an independent cohort. The genomic regions identified include several novel loci, some of which have been associated with intracranial volume, neurodegeneration, Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. PMID:27046643

  3. College Education and the Poor in China: Documenting the Hurdles to Educational Attainment and College Matriculation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Xiaobing; Liu, Chengfang; Zhang, Linxiu; Luo, Renfu; Glauben, Thomas; Shi, Yaojiang; Rozelle, Scott; Sharbono, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Although universities have expanded in size, it is unclear whether the poor have benefited. If there are high returns to college education, then increasing access of the poor to college has important welfare implications. The objective of this paper is to document the rates of enrollment into college of the poor and to identify the hurdles to…

  4. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review of the Report "School-Based Early Childhood Education and Age-28 Well-Being: Effects by Timing, Dosage, and Subgroups"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the effect of an early childhood education program on educational attainment by age 28. The study analyzed data from 900 individuals who completed the Child-Parent Center Education Program for preschool and kindergarten and 486 individuals from similar backgrounds who completed alternative kindergarten programs through the…

  5. Cognitive reserve and preinjury educational attainment: effects on outcome of community-based rehabilitation for longer-term individuals with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Dónal G; Walsh, R Stephen; Richards, Helen L

    2016-09-01

    The cognitive reserve hypothesis has been proposed to account for the mismatch between brain pathology and its clinical expression. The aim of the current research was to explore, in a longitudinal data set, the effects of level of educational attainment before brain injury (cognitive reserve) and clinical factors on the level of rehabilitation-induced changes in disability and community integration. Participants in receipt of postacute rehabilitation were assessed at induction to the service and again at between 14 and 18 months of follow-up while still in service on changes in aspects of their abilities, adjustment and participation (Mayo Portland Adaptability Indices) and community integration (Community Integration Questionnaire). Controlling for type and severity of injury, age at onset of injury and duration of time since injury, participants with higher previous educational attainment showed significantly greater changes over the course of rehabilitation on adjustment to their injury and participation, but not on abilities, or community integration following postacute rehabilitation. Level of education would appear to be an important element of cognitive reserve in brain injury that serves to aid responses to postacute rehabilitation in terms of an individual's adjustment to disability and participation. PMID:27171606

  6. The association between parent's health and the educational attainment of their children.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Jason D; Alexander, Kari B; Miech, Richard A; Macmillan, Ross; Shanahan, Michael J

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we compare the educational attainment of adults who had relatively unhealthy parents when they were adolescents to those whose parents were relatively healthy during this time of their lives. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,556) to show that U.S. adolescents whose parents described their health as "fair" or "poor" at Wave 1 of the study were more likely to drop out of high school compared to those whose parents reported better levels of health. We do not observe any association between parental health and the likelihood of attending college among those who graduated from high school, however we do show that completing college (among college attendees) is more likely among those whose parents reported better health when they were adolescents. This association persists despite a wide range of statistical controls including socioeconomic status of the household, the physical and mental health status of the respondent, the grade point average of the respondent, the health behaviors of parents, as well as parental time investment. These findings add an important intergenerational component to research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and health. PMID:22682661

  7. The association between parent’s health and the educational attainment of their children

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Jason D.; Alexander, Kari B.; Miech, Richard; MacMillan, Ross; Shanahan, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we compare the educational attainment of adults who had relatively unhealthy parents when they were adolescents to those whose parents were relatively healthy during this time of their lives. We use data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n=13,556) to show that U.S. adolescents whose parents described their health as “fair” or “poor” at Wave 1 of the study were more likely to drop out of high school compared to those whose parents reported better levels of health. We do not observe any association between parental health and the likelihood of attending college among those who graduated from high school, however we do show that completing college (among college attendees) is more likely among those whose parents reported better health when they were adolescents. This association persists despite a wide range of statistical controls including socioeconomic status of the household, the physical and mental health status of the respondent, the grade point average of the respondent, the health behaviors of parents, as well as parental time investment. These findings add an important intergenerational component to research on the relationship between socioeconomic status and health. PMID:22682661

  8. Inequality in Attainment at Age 16: A "Home International" Comparison. CES Briefing No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croxford, Linda

    The United Kingdom (UK) has four separate education systems, each with different traditions. In Scotland and Wales all state-funded secondary schooling is comprehensive, whereas in Northern Ireland it is selective, and in England there are regional differences in the extent of selection. This briefing considers whether differences among the four…

  9. 26 CFR 1.7702-2 - Attained age of the insured under a life insurance contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... age of the insured is determined by applying paragraph (b) of this section as if the youngest... insureds, the youngest surviving insured shall thereafter be treated as the only insured under the contract... determined by applying § 1.7702-2(b) as if the youngest individual were the only insured under the...

  10. 26 CFR 1.7702-2 - Attained age of the insured under a life insurance contract.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... age of the insured is determined by applying paragraph (b) of this section as if the youngest... insureds, the youngest surviving insured shall thereafter be treated as the only insured under the contract... determined by applying § 1.7702-2(b) as if the youngest individual were the only insured under the...

  11. International Thematic Probe: The Influence of Relative Age on Learner Attainment and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, Caroline; George, Nalia; Sargent, Claire; O'Donnell, Sharon; Heron, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This rapid review of research evidence was commissioned by the Qualifications and Curriculum Authority (QCA) to investigate the issue of relative age in the international context. The review findings are drawn from 18 research studies published from 2000 to 2008 and carried out in Australia, Chile, the United Kingdom and the USA together with…

  12. Knowledge Building: Reinventing Education for the Knowledge Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philip, Donald N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the Knowledge Age and how economic factors are causing educators to rethink and reinvent education. Two key factors in education in the Knowledge Age will be education for an economy of innovation, and the increasing virtualization of education. We present knowledge building pedagogy as a model for education in the Knowledge…

  13. Longitudinal predictors of adult socioeconomic attainment: the roles of socioeconomic status, academic competence, and mental health.

    PubMed

    Slominski, Lisa; Sameroff, Arnold; Rosenblum, Katherine; Kasser, Tim

    2011-02-01

    Educational attainment and occupational status are key markers of success in adulthood. We expand upon previous research that focused primarily on the contributions of academic competence and family socioeconomic status (SES) by investigating the role of mental health in predicting adult SES. In a longitudinal study spanning 30 years, we used structural equation modeling to examine how parental mental health in early childhood and family SES, offspring academic competence, and offspring mental health in adolescence relate to occupational and educational attainment at age 30. Results were that adolescent academic competence predicted adult educational attainment, and that educational attainment then predicted occupational attainment. The pathways between academic competence and occupational attainment, family SES and educational attainment, and family SES and occupational attainment were not significant. In contrast, adolescent mental health not only predicted educational attainment, but was also directly related to adult occupational attainment. Finally, early maternal mental health was associated with offspring's adult socioeconomic attainment through its relations with adolescent academic competence and mental health. These results highlight the importance of mental health to adult socioeconomic attainment. PMID:21262057

  14. Educational Communication in a Revolutionary Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tyler, I. Keith, Comp.; Williams, Catharine M., Comp.

    As a tribute to Dr. Edgar Dale on his retirement from Ohio State University, the papers in this book refer to "the failures of education,""the impotence of the school,""the need for sweeping change," the existence of a "systems break," and "incipient civil war," all of which are products of an age of revolution which continues today. Educational…

  15. The Impact of Aging on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Angela

    The percentage of adults aged 65 years or older is expected to increase from 12 percent of the population in 1980 to more than 21 percent by the year 2030. Since many adults stay involved with learning activities well into their 80s and 90s, educational organizations have a great opportunity to supply learning activities to this population. To…

  16. Higher Education Is an Age-Independent Predictor of White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Control in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Kimberly G.; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh S.; Grieve, Stuart M.; Brickman, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status is an important predictor of cognitive development and academic achievement. Late adolescence provides a unique opportunity to study how the attainment of socioeconomic status (in the form of years of education) relates to cognitive and neural development, during a time when age-related cognitive and neural development is…

  17. "Girls Have More of an Educational Brain": A Qualitative Exploration of the Gender Gap in Educational Attainment among Black Bermudian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jethwani, Monique M.

    2015-01-01

    Although Black boys throughout the African diaspora are dropping out of high school in alarming rates, little is known about how educational identity and attainment is shaped by the intersection of race and gender in the high school environment. Utilizing an ecological and intersectionality theoretical lens, this study draws on data gleaned from…

  18. Early determinants of postsecondary education participation and degree attainment: Findings from an inner-city minority cohort.

    PubMed

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2014-06-01

    Early determinants of college attendance and degree attainment for economically disadvantaged minority youth were examined in the present study. The study sample (n=1,379) was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an on-going investigation of a panel of low-income minority children born at 1980, growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. Regression findings indicated that three factors in elementary grades can potentially improve both college attendance and BA degree completion for economically disadvantaged minority students: better classroom adjustment, high parent expectation in child's education, and better academic performance. Findings have implications for schools, educators, and policy makers. PMID:25061234

  19. Collateral damage: the German food crisis, educational attainment and labor market outcomes of German post-war cohorts.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik

    2013-01-01

    Using the German 1970 census to study educational and labor market outcomes of cohorts born during the German food crisis after World War II, I document that those born between November 1945 and May 1946 have significantly lower educational attainment and occupational status than cohorts born shortly before or after. Several alternative explanations for this finding are tested. Most likely, a short spell of severe undernutrition around the end of the war has impaired intrauterine conditions in early pregnancies and resulted in long-term detriments among the affected cohorts. This conjecture is corroborated by evidence from Austria. PMID:23237792

  20. Early determinants of postsecondary education participation and degree attainment: Findings from an inner-city minority cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    Early determinants of college attendance and degree attainment for economically disadvantaged minority youth were examined in the present study. The study sample (n=1,379) was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an on-going investigation of a panel of low-income minority children born at 1980, growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods in Chicago. Regression findings indicated that three factors in elementary grades can potentially improve both college attendance and BA degree completion for economically disadvantaged minority students: better classroom adjustment, high parent expectation in child’s education, and better academic performance. Findings have implications for schools, educators, and policy makers PMID:25061234

  1. The Modifying Influence of Country Development on the Effect of Individual Educational Attainment on Self-Rated Health

    PubMed Central

    van der Kooi, Anne L. F.; Stronks, Karien; Thompson, Caroline A.; DerSarkissian, Maral

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how much the Human Development Index (HDI), a global measure of development, modifies the effect of education on self-reported health. Methods. We analyzed cross-sectional World Health Survey data on 217 642 individuals from 49 countries, collected in 2002 to 2005, with random-intercept multilevel linear regression models. Results. We observed greater positive associations between educational levels and self-reported good health with increasing HDI. The magnitude of this effect modification of the education–health relation tended to increase with educational attainment. For example, before adjustment for effect modification, at comparable HDI, on average, finishing primary school was associated with better general health (b = 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.18, 1.80). With adjustment for effect modification by HDI, the impact became 4.63 (95% CI = 3.63, 5.62) for every 0.1 increase in HDI. Among those who completed high school, these associations were, respectively, 5.59 (95% CI = 5.20, 5.98) and 9.95 (95% CI = 8.89, 11.00). Conclusions. The health benefits of educational attainment are greater in countries with greater human development. Health inequalities attributable to education are, therefore, larger in more developed countries. PMID:24028233

  2. Using linked educational attainment data to reduce bias due to missing outcome data in estimates of the association between the duration of breastfeeding and IQ at 15 years

    PubMed Central

    Cornish, Rosie P; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Davies, Amy; Macleod, John

    2015-01-01

    Background: Most epidemiological studies have missing information, leading to reduced power and potential bias. Estimates of exposure-outcome associations will generally be biased if the outcome variable is missing not at random (MNAR). Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the missing study outcome allows assessment of whether this outcome is MNAR and the evaluation of bias. We examined this in relation to the association between infant breastfeeding and IQ at 15 years, where a proxy for IQ was available through linkage to school attainment data. Methods: Subjects were those who enrolled in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in 1990–91 (n = 13 795), of whom 5023 had IQ measured at age 15. For those with missing IQ, 7030 (79%) had information on educational attainment at age 16 obtained through linkage to the National Pupil Database. The association between duration of breastfeeding and IQ was estimated using a complete case analysis, multiple imputation and inverse probability-of-missingness weighting; these estimates were then compared with those derived from analyses informed by the linkage. Results: IQ at 15 was MNAR—individuals with higher attainment were less likely to have missing IQ data, even after adjusting for socio-demographic factors. All the approaches underestimated the association between breastfeeding and IQ compared with analyses informed by linkage. Conclusions: Linkage to administrative data containing a proxy for the outcome variable allows the MNAR assumption to be tested and more efficient analyses to be performed. Under certain circumstances, this may produce unbiased results. PMID:25855709

  3. Towards the Education Nation: Revisiting the Impact of Financial Aid, College Experience, and Institutional Context on Baccalaureate Degree Attainment Using a Propensity Score Matching, Multilevel Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franke, Ray

    2012-01-01

    To compete in the global marketplace, the U.S. economy heavily relies on higher education institutions to educate the college graduates and knowledge workers needed to create the innovative products and services of tomorrow. And yet, where once America led the world in educational attainment, recent data from the Organization for Economic…

  4. The Effects of Professional Development on Tennessee Career & Technical Education Competency Attainment Rubric Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Kae

    2012-01-01

    The primary purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore relationships between Tennessee Competency Attainment Rubric (CAR) professional development and teachers' perceptions of changes in instruction, expectations for student performance, and understanding of proficiency. The study is the result of a collaborative effort with the Tennessee…

  5. Educational Attainment and Financial Satisfaction: The Changing Economic Value of a College Degree

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menard, Lauren Ann

    2014-01-01

    Dwindling American financial satisfaction and growing college degree attainment were revealed in national social survey data spanning more than four decades (N = 57,061). Against these backdrops, associations between being financially satisfied and having a college degree grew stronger in each decade, with the strongest association between…

  6. The Role of Ethnicity in the Attainment and Experiences of Graduates in Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, the attainment of White graduates (as measured by the class of honours that they have been awarded) tends to be higher than that of graduates from other ethnic groups. This is apparent, in particular, in graduates who have taken courses by distance learning with the Open University. Analysis of data from Open University graduates over…

  7. Is History Destiny? Resources, Transitions and Child Education Attainments in Canada. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoddinott, John; Lethbridge, Lynn; Phipps, Shelley

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines three inter-related issues: whether past levels of resources, context and opportunity structures carry long-term consequences for subsequent child attainments and behaviours; whether shocks, or transition events, alter the path of these outcomes in a positive or negative fashion; and what role can be played by policy…

  8. A Qualitative Study of Educator and Counselor Interdisciplinary Collaboration Regarding Adolescent Substance Abusers' Academic Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henegar, LaTrica Y.

    2013-01-01

    This descriptive qualitative study explored the lived perceptions and views of middle school teachers, school counselors, and Licensed Professional Counselors (LPCs) within central Alabama's middle school system. The problem explored is adolescent substance abuse students whose academic attainment may be affected by their drug abuse.…

  9. Class analysis and the reorientation of class theory: the case of persisting differentials in educational attainment. 1996.

    PubMed

    Goldthorpe, John H

    2010-01-01

    In class analysis the main regularities that have been established by empirical research are not ones of long-term class formation or decomposition, as envisaged in Marxist or liberal theory, but rather ones that exhibit the powerful resistance to change of class relations and associated life-chances and patterns of social action. If these regularities are to be explained, theory needs to be correspondingly reoriented, and must abandon functionalist and teleological assumptions in favour of providing more secure micro-foundations. This argument is developed and illustrated in the course of an attempt to apply rational action theory to the explanation of persisting class differentials in educational attainment. PMID:20092500

  10. Effects of Aging and Education on False Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yuh-Shiow; Lee, Chia-Lin; Yang, Hua-Te

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of aging and education on participants' false memory for words that were not presented. Three age groups of participants with either a high or low education level were asked to study lists of semantically related words. Both age and education were found to affect veridical and false memory, as indicated in the…

  11. Education does not slow cognitive decline with aging: 12-year evidence from the victoria longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Glymour, M Maria; Sparks, Catharine; Bontempo, Daniel; Dixon, Roger A; MacDonald, Stuart W S; Manly, Jennifer J

    2011-11-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Fewer studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1014 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range, 54-95 years) and gender, we found that years of education (range, 6-20 years) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging. PMID:21923980

  12. Education Does Not Slow Cognitive Decline with Aging: 12-Year Evidence from the Victoria Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, L.B.; Glymour, M.M.; Sparks, C.; Bontempo, D.; Dixon, R.A.; MacDonald, S.W.S.; Manly, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Although the relationship between education and cognitive status is well-known, evidence regarding whether education moderates the trajectory of cognitive change in late life is conflicting. Early studies suggested that higher levels of education attenuate cognitive decline. More recent studies using improved longitudinal methods have not found that education moderates decline. Few studies have explored whether education exerts different effects on longitudinal changes within different cognitive domains. In the present study, we analyzed data from 1,023 participants in the Victoria Longitudinal Study to examine the effects of education on composite scores reflecting verbal processing speed, working memory, verbal fluency, and verbal episodic memory. Using linear growth models adjusted for age at enrollment (range: 55–94) and gender, we found that years of education (range: 6–20) was strongly related to cognitive level in all domains, particularly verbal fluency. However, education was not related to rates of change over time for any cognitive domain. Results were similar in individuals older or younger than 70 at baseline, and when education was dichotomized to reflect high or low attainment. In this large longitudinal cohort, education was related to cognitive performance but unrelated to cognitive decline, supporting the hypothesis of passive cognitive reserve with aging. PMID:21923980

  13. Does Gender Matter? an Exploratory Study of Perspectives Across Genders, Age and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-11-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the social hierarchy. Analysis indicated that there were differences between male and female views on these dimensions of gender, and that age and educational levels were also influential. While younger respondents from both genders demonstrated flexibility in their definitions of gender and expressed strong support for gender equality, they were noticeably lacking in their knowledge of the historical context of gender relations and did not show the skills required to realise their ideals of gender equality, especially when compared to older respondents of both genders with higher levels of educational attainment.

  14. The Genetics of Success: How Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms Associated With Educational Attainment Relate to Life-Course Development.

    PubMed

    Belsky, Daniel W; Moffitt, Terrie E; Corcoran, David L; Domingue, Benjamin; Harrington, HonaLee; Hogan, Sean; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin S; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-07-01

    A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of more than 100,000 individuals identified molecular-genetic predictors of educational attainment. We undertook in-depth life-course investigation of the polygenic score derived from this GWAS using the four-decade Dunedin Study (N = 918). There were five main findings. First, polygenic scores predicted adult economic outcomes even after accounting for educational attainments. Second, genes and environments were correlated: Children with higher polygenic scores were born into better-off homes. Third, children's polygenic scores predicted their adult outcomes even when analyses accounted for their social-class origins; social-mobility analysis showed that children with higher polygenic scores were more upwardly mobile than children with lower scores. Fourth, polygenic scores predicted behavior across the life course, from early acquisition of speech and reading skills through geographic mobility and mate choice and on to financial planning for retirement. Fifth, polygenic-score associations were mediated by psychological characteristics, including intelligence, self-control, and interpersonal skill. Effect sizes were small. Factors connecting DNA sequence with life outcomes may provide targets for interventions to promote population-wide positive development. PMID:27251486

  15. Evaluation of actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities and associations with caregivers’ educational attainment: results from a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoli; Velez, Juan Carlos; Barbosa, Clarita; Pepper, Micah; Gelaye, Bizu; Redline, Susan; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To use wrist-actrigrphy to collect objective measures of sleep and to characterise actigraphy-measured sleep patterns among children with disabilities. We also assessed the extent to which, if at all, caregivers’ education is associated with children's sleep disturbances. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting A rehabilitation centre in the Patagonia region, Chile. Methods This study was conducted among 125 children aged 6–12 years with disabilities (boys: 55.2%) and their primary caregivers in Chile. Children wore ActiSleep monitors for 7 days. A general linear model was fitted to generate least-square means and SEs of sleep efficiency (proportion of the sleep period spent asleep) across caregivers’ education levels adjusting for children's age, sex, disability type, caregiver–child relationship and caregivers’ age. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate ORs and 95% CIs of longer sleep latency (≥30 min) and longer wake after sleep onset (WASO) (≥90 min) (a measure of sleep fragmentation) in relation to caregivers’ educational attainment. Results Median sleep latency was 27.3 min, WASO 88.1 min and sleep duration 8.0 h. Mean sleep efficiency was 80.0%. Caregivers’ education was positively and significantly associated with children's sleep efficiency (p trend<0.001). Adjusted mean sleep efficiency was 75.7% (SE=1.4) among children of caregivers education, and 81.9% (SE=1.0) among children of caregivers >high school education. Compared to children whose caregivers had >high school, children of caregivers with

  16. The Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child Model: A New Approach for Improving Educational Attainment and Healthy Development for Students*

    PubMed Central

    Lewallen, Theresa C; Hunt, Holly; Potts-Datema, William; Zaza, Stephanie; Giles, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Whole Child approach and the coordinated school health (CSH) approach both address the physical and emotional needs of students. However, a unified approach acceptable to both the health and education communities is needed to assure that students are healthy and ready to learn. METHODS During spring 2013, the ASCD (formerly known as the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) convened experts from the field of education and health to discuss lessons learned from implementation of the CSH and Whole Child approaches and to explore the development of a new model that would incorporate the knowledge gained through implementation to date. RESULTS As a result of multiple discussions and review, the Whole School, Whole Community, Whole Child (WSCC) approach was developed. The WSCC approach builds upon the traditional CSH model and ASCD's Whole Child approach to learning and promotes greater alignment between health and educational outcomes. CONCLUSION By focusing on children and youth as students, addressing critical education and health outcomes, organizing collaborative actions and initiatives that support students, and strongly engaging community resources, the WSCC approach offers important opportunities that will improve educational attainment and healthy development for students. PMID:26440815

  17. Persistent Inequality: Changing Educational Attainment in Thirteen Countries. Social Inequality Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shavit, Yossi, Ed.; Blossfeld, Hans-Peter, Ed.

    This book encompasses a systematic, comparative study of change in educational stratification in 13 industrialized countries, exploring which societal conditions help reduce existing inequalities in educational opportunity. The contributors show that in most industrialized countries inequalities in educational opportunity among students from…

  18. New Directions for Higher Education: Q&A with ACE's Molly Corbett Broad on Attainment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSalvio, Philip

    2013-01-01

    In April 2013, the "New England Journal of Higher Education" ("NEJHE") launched its "New Directions for Higher Education" series to examine emerging issues, trends, and ideas that have an impact on higher education policies, programs and practices. In this installment of the series, DiSalvio speaks with American…

  19. The Impact of Educational Attainment on Observed Race/Ethnic Disparities in Inflammatory Risk in the 2001–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Dinwiddie, Gniesha Y.; Zambrana, Ruth E.; Doamekpor, Lauren A.; Lopez, Lenny

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has shown to be an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and growing evidence suggests Non-Hispanic Blacks (NHBs) and certain Hispanic subgroups have higher inflammation burden compared to Non-Hispanic Whites (NHWs). Socioeconomic status (SES) is a hypothesized pathway that may account for the higher inflammation burden for race/ethnic groups yet little is known about the biological processes by which SES “gets under the skin” to affect health and whether income and education have similar or distinct influences on elevated inflammation levels. The current study examines SES (income and education) associations with multiple levels of C-Reactive Protein (CRP), an important biomarker of inflammation, in a sample of 13,362 NHWs, 7696 NHBs and 4545 Mexican Americans (MAs) in the United States from the 2001 to 2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. After adjusting for age, sex, and statin use, NHBs and MAs had higher intermediate and high CRP levels compared to NHWs. Income lessened the magnitude of the association for both race/ethnic groups. The greater intermediate and high CRP burden for NHBs and MAs was strongly explained by educational attainment. MAs were more vulnerable to high CRP levels for the lowest (i.e., less than nine years) and post high school (i.e., associates degree) educational levels. After additional adjustment for smoking, heavy drinking, high waist circumference, high blood pressure, diabetes and statin use, the strength of the association between race/ethnicity and inflammation was reduced for NHBs with elevated intermediate (RR = 1.31; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 1.14; p ≤ 0.001) compared to NHWs but the effect attenuated for MAs for both intermediate (RR = 0.74; p ≤ 0.001) and high CRP levels (RR = 0.38; p ≤ 0.001). These findings suggest educational attainment is a powerful predictor of elevated CRP levels in race/ethnic populations and challenges studies to move beyond

  20. Higher Education and Happiness in the Age of Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses relations between happiness and higher education in the age of information, focusing on the need for the university to pursue happiness. Three questions are addressed. First, why should higher education pursue happiness? Second, what are the shapes and characteristics of higher education in the information age? Third, what…

  1. Pupil Mobility, Attainment, and Progress during Key Stage 1: A Study in Cautious Interpretation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2002-01-01

    Explores association between pupil mobility and attainment in national end of Key Stage 1 tests for 6000+ pupils in an English urban education authority. Indicates pupil mobility during the early years is associated with significantly lower levels of pupil attainment in reading, writing, and mathematics tests at age seven. (BT)

  2. Effects of Motivation on Educational Attainment: Ethnic and Developmental Differences among First-Generation Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propero, Moises; Russell, Amy Catherine; Vohra-Gupta, Shetal

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated differences in educational motivation among Hispanic and non-Hispanic first-generation students (FGS). Participants were 315 high school and college students who completed a revised academic motivation survey that measured participants' educational motivation (intrinsic motivation, extrinsic motivation, and amotivation).…

  3. Between Academic Theory and Folk Wisdom: Local Discourse on Differential Educational Attainment in Fiji.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carmen M.

    2001-01-01

    In the multiethnic South Pacific nation of Fiji--a former British colony--the impact of Western theoretical hegemony on educational discourse is evident. Results of extensive fieldwork show how themes of achievement motivation, differential valuation of education, and cultural deficit theory combine with surviving colonial discourse and…

  4. Trends in Participation and Attainment of Chinese Students in UK Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iannelli, Cristina; Huang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    The UK higher education system receives the second largest number of Chinese overseas students in the world. The Higher Education Statistics Agency (HESA) data used in this study show that the total number of Chinese graduates (at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels) increased from around 6000 at the beginning of the twenty-first century to…

  5. The Impact of Attaining the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma on Academic Performance in Bioscience Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yhnell, Emma; Wood, Heather; Baker, Mathew; Amici-Dargan, Sheila; Taylor, Chris; Randerson, Peter; Shore, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Since the introduction of the Welsh Baccalaureate Advanced Diploma Qualification (WBQ) in 2003, an increasing number of students are applying to higher education institutions (HEIs) with this qualification. The advanced-level WBQ is regarded as equivalent to one General Certificate of Education A-Level (GCE A-Level). This study assesses the impact…

  6. Compulsory Policy Change and Divergence in Educational Attainment in Four Former Soviet Republics of Central Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitsel, Christopher M.

    2011-01-01

    For approximately seventy years, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan were part of a single educational system under the Soviet Union. Within only a few years of independence, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan decreased their compulsory education level to grade 9, but Kazakhstan continued to require attendance to grade 11. Data…

  7. Mental Toughness in Education: Exploring Relationships with Attainment, Attendance, Behaviour and Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St Clair-Thompson, Helen; Bugler, Myfanwy; Robinson, Jamey; Clough, Peter; McGeown, Sarah P.; Perry, John

    2015-01-01

    Mental toughness has frequently been associated with successful performance in sport; however, recent research suggests that it may also be related to academic performance in Higher Education. In a series of three exploratory studies, we examined the relationship between mental toughness and different aspects of educational performance in…

  8. The Educational Aspirations/Attainment Gap among Rural Alaska Native Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Aaron; Kleinfeld, Judith; Reyes, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous students in rural Alaska hold high educational aspirations and yet few students realize their educational goals (Hamilton & Seyfrit, 1993; Kleinfeld & McDiarmid, 1986; McDiarmid & Kleinfeld, 1981). Our purpose in this study was to understand why so many Alaska Native students from small, isolated communities "drift" after high school,…

  9. Association of Educational Attainment and Adolescent Substance Use Disorder in a Clinical Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apantaku-Olajide, Tunde; James, Philip D.; Smyth, Bobby P.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores substance use, psychosocial problems, and the relationships to educational status in 193 adolescents (school dropouts, 63; alternative education, 46; mainstream students, 84) who attended a substance abuse treatment facility in Dublin, Ireland, within a 42-month period. For each adolescent, data on demographics, family…

  10. The Educational Attainment of Children with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. Recommendations and Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gessner, Bradford; Bischoff, Herbert; Perham-Hester, Kathy; Chandler, Bruce; Middaugh, John

    This study examined the educational records of 36 children who met all or most of the criteria for fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and who were referred to special education in Anchorage, Fairbanks, or Juneau (Alaska) school districts. Thirty of the children were found to have medical comorbidities independent of the findings generally associated…

  11. Valuing Student Competencies: Which Ones Predict Postsecondary Educational Attainment and Earnings, and for Whom? Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deke, John; Haimson, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    This report examines how indicators of academic and nonacademic competencies are related to postsecondary educational and labor market outcomes. Drawing on the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS) surveys of students and teachers, the authors analyze how postsecondary earnings and the likelihood of attending and completing a postsecondary…

  12. Unpacking Acculturation: Cultural Orientations and Educational Attainment among Mexican-Origin Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roche, Kathleen M.; Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Fernandez-Esquer, Maria Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Given educational risks facing Mexican-origin children of immigrant parents, it is important to understand how aspects of the acculturation process influence Mexican-origin youth's educational success. Drawing from selective assimilation theory, this study examined how cultural orientations across myriad facets of acculturation were associated…

  13. Human Capital Background and the Educational Attainment of Second-Generation Immigrants in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dos Santos, Manon Domingues; Wolff, Francois-Charles

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we study the impact of parental human capital background on ethnic educational gaps between second-generation immigrants using a large data set conducted in France in 2003. Estimates from censored random effect ordered Probit regressions show that the skills of immigrants explain in the most part, the ethnic educational gap between…

  14. PolarTREC: Successful Methods and Tools for Attaining Broad Educational Impacts with Interdisciplinary Polar Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warburton, J.; Timm, K. M.; Owens, R.; Warnick, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded International Polar Year (IPY) project in which K-12 educators participate in hands-on field experiences in the polar regions, working closely with IPY scientists as a pathway to improving science education. Developing long-term teacher- researcher collaborations through PolarTREC ensures up-to-date climate change science content will permeate the K-12 education system long after the IPY. By infusing education with the cutting edge science from the polar regions, PolarTREC has already shown an increase in student and public knowledge of and interest in the polar regions and global climate change. Preliminary evaluations have shown that PolarTREC's program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes regarding the importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today's world. Researchers have been overwhelmingly satisfied with PolarTREC and cited several specific strengths, including the program's crucial link between the teachers' field research experiences and their classroom and the extensive training provided to teachers prior to their expedition. This poster will focus on other successful components of the PolarTREC program and how researchers and organizations might use these tools to reach out to the public for long-term impacts. Best practices include strategies for working with educators and the development of an internet-based platform for teachers and researchers to interact with the public, combining several communication tools such as online journals and forums, real-time Internet seminars, lesson plans, activities, audio, and other educational resources that address a broad range of scientific topics

  15. PolarTREC: Successful Methods and Tools for Attaining Broad Educational Impacts with Interdisciplinary Polar Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timm, K. M.; Warburton, J.; Owens, R.; Warnick, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    PolarTREC--Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating, a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS), is a National Science Foundation (NSF)-funded International Polar Year (IPY) project in which K-12 educators participate in hands-on field experiences in the polar regions, working closely with IPY scientists as a pathway to improving science education. Developing long-term teacher- researcher collaborations through PolarTREC ensures up-to-date climate change science content will permeate the K-12 education system long after the IPY. By infusing education with the cutting edge science from the polar regions, PolarTREC has already shown an increase in student and public knowledge of and interest in the polar regions and global climate change. Preliminary evaluations have shown that PolarTREC's program activities have many positive impacts on educators and their ability to teach science concepts and improve their teaching methods. Additionally, K-12 students polled in interest surveys showed significant changes regarding the importance of understanding the polar regions as a person in today's world. Researchers have been overwhelmingly satisfied with PolarTREC and cited several specific strengths, including the program's crucial link between the teachers' field research experiences and their classroom and the extensive training provided to teachers prior to their expedition. This presentation will focus on other successful components of the PolarTREC program and how researchers and organizations might use these tools to reach out to the public for long-term impacts. Best practices include strategies for working with educators and the development of an internet-based platform for teachers and researchers to interact with the public, combining several communication tools such as online journals and forums, real-time Internet seminars, lesson plans, activities, audio, and other educational resources that address a broad range of scientific

  16. Age-related cognitive decline during normal aging: the complex effect of education.

    PubMed

    Ardila, A; Ostrosky-Solis, F; Rosselli, M; Gómez, C

    2000-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to further analyze the effects of education on cognitive decline during normal aging. An 806-subject sample was taken from five different Mexican regions. Participants ranged in age from 16 to 85 years. Subjects were grouped into four educational levels: illiterate, 1-4, 5-9, and 10 or more years of education, and four age ranges: 16-30, 31-50, 51-65, and 66-85 years. A brief neuropsychological test battery (NEUROPSI), standardized and normalized in Spanish, was administered. The NEUROPSI test battery includes assessment of orientation, attention, memory, language, visuoperceptual abilities, motor skills, and executive functions. In general, test scores were strongly associated with level of educational, and differences among age groups were smaller than differences among education groups. However, there was an interaction between age and education such as that among illiterate individuals scores of participants 31-50 years old were higher than scores of participants 16-30 years old for over 50% of the tests. Different patterns of interaction among educational groups were distinguished. It was concluded that: (a) The course of life-span changes in cognition are affected by education. Among individuals with a low level of education, best neuropsychological test performance is observed at an older age than among higher-educated subjects; and (b) there is not a single relationship between age-related cognitive decline and education, but different patterns may be found, depending upon the specific cognitive domain. PMID:14590204

  17. Adolescent obesity and future college degree attainment.

    PubMed

    Fowler-Brown, Angela G; Ngo, Long H; Phillips, Russell S; Wee, Christina C

    2010-06-01

    The current impact of adolescent obesity on educational attainment is not clear. The objectives of our study were to determine whether adolescent obesity is associated with college degree attainment and how this association may have changed over time. We used data from a contemporary national cohort of over 4,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 14-18) in 1997 to assess the relationship between adolescent obesity and education. To assess for changes in this relationship over time, we also analyzed an older, similarly structured cohort of over 3,000 persons who were adolescents (aged 16-18) in 1981. Our primary outcome was college degree completion. We found that in the older cohort (adolescents in 1979), there were no differences in college degree attainment by adolescent weight status before and after adjustment. However, unadjusted analysis of the contemporary cohort (adolescents in 1997) demonstrated that those who were normal weight as adolescents had a higher prevalence of college degree attainment at follow-up compared to obese adolescents (24% vs. 10%). After adjustment for socio-demographic variables (age, sex, race, height, parental income-to-poverty ratio, parental education, aptitude test scores), obese adolescents were less likely to have attained a college degree compared to normal weight peers (adjusted risk ratio 0.61 95% confidence interval 0.38-0.83). Expectations for a future college degree did not vary by weight status and did not explain this observation. In conclusion, adolescent obesity is associated with lower likelihood of college completion. This relationship was not observed in an older cohort of adolescents. PMID:20035280

  18. "Who Do You Think You Are?": A Multidimensional Analysis of the Impact of Disparities in Higher Educational Attainment within Families of First-Generation College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, April

    2013-01-01

    This project explores the impact of disparate educational attainment between first-generation college graduates and their family members. This is a conscious shifting of the unit of analysis, from the changing social position and power of an individual student/graduate, to the relational capacity, tensions, and strategies of the family unit that…

  19. The Role of School and Individual Differences in the Academic Attainment of Learners with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities: A Multi-Level Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Neil; Wigelsworth, Michael; Barlow, Alexandra; Squires, Garry

    2013-01-01

    Students with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) are at a greatly increased risk of poor academic outcomes. Understanding the factors that influence their attainment is a crucial first step towards developing more effective provision. In the current study we present a multi-level, natural variation analysis which highlights…

  20. The Under-Attainment of Ethnic Minority Students in UK Higher Education: What We Know and What We Don't Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John T. E.

    2015-01-01

    In UK higher education, ethnic differences in academic attainment are ubiquitous and have persisted for many years. They are only partly explained by ethnic differences in entry qualifications. They vary from one institution to another and from one subject area to another. This suggests that they result in part from teaching and assessment…

  1. The impact of goal attainment on behavioral and mediating variables among low income women participating in an Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program intervention study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined the relationships between participant goal attainment, and changes in mediating variables, and food choice outcomes from a modified curriculum for the Texas Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP), promoting healthy home food environments and parenting skills relate...

  2. Parental Job Loss and Children's Educational Attainment in Black and White Middle-Class Families. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #10-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalil, Ariel; Wightman, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: We aim to understand why blacks are significantly less likely than whites to perpetuate their middle class status across generations. To do so, we focus on the potentially different associations between parental job loss and youth's educational attainment in black and white middle class families. Methods: We use data from the Panel…

  3. Intelligence, Social Class of Origin, Childhood Behavior Disturbance and Education as Predictors of Status Attainment in Midlife in Men: The Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stumm, Sophie; Macintyre, Sally; Batty, David G.; Clark, Heather; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    In a birth cohort of 6281 men from Aberdeen, Scotland, social class of origin, childhood intelligence, childhood behavior disturbance and education were examined as predictors of status attainment in midlife (46 to 51 years). Social class of origin, intelligence and behavior disturbance were conceptualized as correlated predictors, whose effects…

  4. New Research on the Relationships between Philadelphians' Educational Attainment and Their Employment, Earnings and Contributions to Government and Society. Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Youth Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Three recently-released research reports commissioned through Project U-Turn and funded by the William Penn Foundation and the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry offer analyses that shed new light on the relationships between Philadelphians' educational attainment and their earnings, employment and contributions to government and…

  5. Multi-Group Covariance and Mean Structure Modeling of the Relationship between the WAIS-III Common Factors and Sex and Educational Attainment in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolan, Conor V.; Colom, Roberto; Abad, Francisco J.; Wicherts, Jelte M.; Hessen, David J.; van de Sluis, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    We investigated sex effects and the effects of educational attainment (EA) on the covariance structure of the WAIS-III in a subsample of the Spanish standardization data. We fitted both first order common factor models and second order common factor models. The latter include general intelligence ("g") as a second order common factor. The results…

  6. Women as Chief Information Officers in Higher Education: A Mixed Methods Study of Women Executive Role Attainment in Information Technology Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Elizabeth Ann

    2013-01-01

    The dearth of women in executive positions within the field of information technology (IT) has been studied extensively in the corporate sector. That is not the case within higher education, despite the data collected showing that women attain the top executive role--that of the Chief Information Officer (CIO)--at much better rates than their…

  7. Paths of Effects of Early Childhood Intervention on Educational Attainment and Delinquency: A Confirmatory Analysis of the Chicago Child-Parent Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Topitzes, James W.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the contributions of 5 mechanisms to the effects of preschool participation in the Child-Parent Centers for 1,404 low-income children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Based on a matched-group design, preschool participation was associated with significantly higher rates of educational attainment and lower rates of…

  8. Family- and School-Related Factors in 9- to 15-Year-Olds Predicting Educational Attainment in Adulthood: A Prospective 27-Year Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hintsanen, Mirka; Hintsa, Taina; Merjonen, Paivi; Leino, Mare; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: This prospective longitudinal study examined several selected family- and school-related factors simultaneously in order to investigate the importance of well known and less examined predictors of educational attainment. Method: The participants were 844 (486 girls) nine-, 12-, and 15-years old comprehensive school students. Family-…

  9. Union Formation Implications of Race and Gender Gaps in Educational Attainment: The Case of Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Esteve, Albert; López, Luis Ángel

    2012-01-01

    We use census microdata to assess the levels of educational homogamy in six Latin American countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, Ecuador and Mexico. This paper contributes to the literature on homogamy in three ways. First, by conducting a comparative analysis between countries belonging to the still little-studied region of Latin America, which is still undergoing intense and varied processes of demographic, economic, social, and political modernization. Second, by simultaneously including variables of structural and individual nature. Finally, by making progress with respect to the interactions between educational homogamy and other important variables associated with high levels of social inequality in the region: race, ethnicity and birthplace. PMID:23172982

  10. Ethnic Environment during Childhood and the Educational Attainment of Immigrant Children in Sweden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bygren, Magnus; Szulkin, Ryszard

    2010-01-01

    We ask whether ethnic residential segregation influences the future educational careers of children of immigrants in Sweden. We use a dataset comprising a cohort of children who finished compulsory school in 1995 (n = 6,560). We follow these children retrospectively to 1990 to measure neighborhood characteristics during late childhood, and…

  11. Attaining Development Goals of Children with Disabilities: Implications for Inclusive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abosi, Okey; Koay, Teng Leong

    2008-01-01

    Education has three main roles: it is developmental because it develops the unique qualities of a child; it differentiates between learners because it treats every child as an individual, appreciating individual differences; and it is integrative because it accommodates people of varying backgrounds (culture, beliefs and values) thereby allowing…

  12. Job Growth: Why Increasing Educational Attainment Is so Important for Creating Jobs. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, John

    2010-01-01

    A key to Washington's economic prosperity over the past 20 years has been a thriving employment sector for workers who have high levels of education in fields related to biological, physical, computer and health sciences, engineering, and mathematics. Washington has met the demands of its knowledge-driven economy by producing and attracting one of…

  13. Increasing Educational Attainment and Aspiration in an Underserved Community: The Perspective of Urban-Community Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Person, Dawn; Garcia, Yvonne; Fujimoto, Eugene; Nguyen, Kayla; Saunders, Katherine; Hoffman, John

    2014-01-01

    Latino students are significantly underrepresented in higher education. As the largest and fastest growing racial/ethnic population in the US, this is cause for national concern. Additionally, this rapid population growth is a call for community and school leaders from underserved communities to assess their service areas and focus on…

  14. The Impact of Education on Vietnam-Era Veterans' Occupational Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jere; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigates why Vietnam-era veterans tend to have lower status occupations than contemporaries who did not serve in the military. Explores the possibilities that (1) veterans were victims of discrimination; (2) military service interrupted occupational advancement; or (3) veterans were less educated than their peers. Concludes that lower…

  15. The Educational Attainment of Minority Learners Who Attended 2-Year Colleges Compared to Caucasian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Angel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this educational study, Caucasian and minority learners' grade point averages and overall academic success were examined at learning institutions. Several minorities experienced problems with completing college courses at universities and community colleges. Individuals from various racial backgrounds had school enrollment issues compared…

  16. Credentialism, National Targets, and the Learning Society: Perspectives on Educational Attainment in the UK Steel Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Alison; Unwin, Lorna

    1999-01-01

    The UK's National Learning Targets for Education and Training, embracing 11- to 21-year-olds, adults, and employers, promote a credentialist approach to economic and social development. This article shows how the steel industry measures up. Using qualifications-based targets as a proxy for adult workforce capability is misguided. (Contains 40…

  17. Boosting Educational Attainment and Adult Earnings: Does School Spending Matter after All?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, C. Kirabo; Johnson, Rucker C.; Persico, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    This study addresses limitations in a study conducted by James Coleman in 1966, which analyzed aspects of educational equality in the United States--including the relationship between school spending and student outcomes--as well as other studies covering the same topic that stemmed from Coleman's Report. Coleman found that variation in school…

  18. Improving Education Achievement and Attainment in Luxembourg. OECD Economics Department Working Papers, No. 508

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, David; Ernst, Ekkehard

    2006-01-01

    Improving education achievement in Luxembourg is a priority for strengthening productivity growth and enhancing residents' employment prospects in the private sector, where employers mainly hire cross-border workers. Student achievement in Luxembourg is below the OECD average according to the 2003 OECD PISA study, with the performance gap between…

  19. African American Women in Higher Education Attainment: A Qualitative Narrative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Inga D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative narrative study was to look at how African American women who are learners or who have been learners in higher education settings have internalized and interpreted the issues that have occurred in their teaching-learning environments and what coping mechanisms they have used to resolve or deflect negative…

  20. Exploring Ecopedagogy for the Attainment of Education for All in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omiyefa, Muraina Olugbenga; Ajayi, Ayo; Adeyanju, Lawrence Olugbade

    2015-01-01

    Despite the progress so far recorded on the Education For All (EFA) programme in Nigeria, vulnerable children such as students with disabilities, street children referred to as "almajirai", nomadic Fulani children, orphans, the girl-child particularly in Northern Nigeria are yet to qualitatively access and benefit from the programme.…

  1. Asian American Education and Income Attainment in the Era of Post-Racial America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covarrubias, Alejandro; Liou, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Prevailing perceptions of Asian Americans as model minorities have long situated this population within postracial discourse, an assumption that highlights their educational success as evidence of the declining significance of race and racism, placing them as models of success for other people of color. Despite evidence to repudiate…

  2. Asian American Educational Attainment and Earning Power in Post-Racial America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covarrubias, Alejandro; Liou, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    This policy brief contextualizes the most recent data on mobility of Asian American students within the K to Ph.D. educational system in the new, so-called, colorblind post-racial America. Achievement data on Asian Americans are often presented in the same breath with Whites when compared to the academic achievement of African American, and…

  3. One-Parent Students Leave School Earlier: Educational Attainment Gap Widens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M.; Duncan, Greg J.; Kalil, Ariel

    2015-01-01

    One of the most alarming social trends in the past 40 years is the increasing educational disadvantage of children raised in low-income families. Differences between low- and high-income children in reading and math achievement are much larger now than they were several decades ago, as are differences in college graduation rates. What might…

  4. The Earnings Impact of Age, Education, Race, and Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan, William R.; Linke, Charles M.

    1991-01-01

    Statistics prove that being middle-aged, well educated, white, and male enhances earnings. This paper uses data from the March 1991 Current Population Survey conducted by the Bureau of the Census along with some common statistical techniques to chart the specific impact of age, education, race, and gender on earnings. It is shown that earnings…

  5. Parental Educational Attainment and Sense of Control in Mid-and Late-Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    Sense of control is greater among children who grow up in households of higher socioeconomic status. It is unclear if this childhood advantage persists throughout life or if schooling and adulthood experiences override any early childhood advantage. Using data from 2 nationally representative samples of primarily middle-aged (National Survey of…

  6. Expanding Arts Education in a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Haeryun; Piro, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a way to expand the study of arts education within new contexts of technology and globalization. Drawing upon theories that have informed arts and aesthetic education in the past, the authors suggest new applications for these ideas to ensure that arts education sustains its significance in twenty-first-century society. The…

  7. Moral Education of Youths in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo, Leslie N. K; Wang, Fang

    2006-01-01

    In Chinese societies, moral education has always been considered the most essential component of education because the nurturing of moral persons is the prime function of schooling. The implementation of moral education has relied on the inculcation of values that reflect moral ideals. The emergence of the Information Age, with a plethora of…

  8. Effects of the number and age of siblings on educational transitions in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Kravdal, Øystein; Kodzi, Ivy; Sigle-Rushton, Wendy

    2013-09-01

    Studies examining the link between number of siblings and level of education attained by children in Africa have produced mixed results. This study draws on Demographic and Health Survey data from 26 sub-Saharan African countries and employs a multilevel multiprocess model that controls for time-invariant unobserved mother-level characteristics. We find indications that having younger siblings increases the likelihood of entering primary school; however, once a child is enrolled, having pre-school aged siblings is negatively associated with educational progression. Having a greater number of siblings older than age 15 increases the likelihood of primary-school entry and completion but has no effect on subsequent educational transitions. Some positive effects of having a greater number of siblings who are aged 6-15 are also observed. Girls are more adversely affected by having young siblings than are boys, but they benefit more than do boys from having siblings who are older than age 15. On the whole, the effects are not very strong, however. PMID:24006074

  9. "Healthy Aging at Older Ages: Are Income and Education Important?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Neil J.; Denton, Frank T.; Robb, A. Leslie; Spencer, Byron G.

    2004-01-01

    Being higher on the socio-economic scale is correlated with being in better health, but is there is a causal relationship? Using 3 years of longitudinal data for individuals aged 50 and older from the Canadian Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics, we study the health transitions for those who were in good health in the first year, focusing…

  10. "Holding on" or "coming to terms" with educational underachievement: a longitudinal study of ambition and attainment.

    PubMed

    Uno, Mayumi; Mortimer, Jeylan T; Kim, Minzee; Vuolo, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Given mounting aspirations to graduate from college and pervasive difficulties in obtaining a four-year degree, growing numbers of young people in the United States have become "underachievers." Using data from the ongoing Youth Development Study, the authors examine the prevalence of "holding on" and "letting go" of high aspirations and the precursors of these states as youth move from high school through their mid-twenties. They find that advantage stemming from the family of origin and changing occupational circumstances engender persistence or reappraisal of earlier educational goals. PMID:21154830

  11. The Consequences of Job Displacement for Health: Moderating Influences of Economic Conditions and Educational Attainment

    PubMed Central

    Pearlman, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    This paper will examine the impact of worker displacement on health in the United States from 1975–2004, especially the extent to which the impact of displacement on health varies according to the economic conditions in the year of displacement and the education level of the displaced worker. Findings from ordered probit and fixed effects models suggest that the negative impact of displacement on health is exacerbated by a higher unemployment rate at the time of displacement and for displaced workers with a college degree. PMID:26004481

  12. Exercise and Aging: New Perspectives and Educational Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crase, Darrell; Rosato, Frank D.

    1979-01-01

    Several factors have focused new attention on aging and the aged. A major concern emanating from these has been the role of physical fitness upon the health status of the aging. Benefits of exercise and educational and curricular modifications are identified to promote health and well-being among the elderly. (Author/BEF)

  13. Parental Interest in Children's Education, Children's Self-Esteem and Locus of Control, and Later Educational Attainment: Twenty-Six Year Follow-Up of the 1970 British Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flouri, Eirini

    2006-01-01

    Background: Few studies have investigated if mother's interest and father's interest in child's education are linked to educational attainment via their impact on child's self-esteem and locus of control. Aims: (1) To investigate (after controlling for known confounding factors) the long-term effect of mother's and father's interest in child's…

  14. Age Differences and Educational Attainment across the Life Span on Three Generations of Wechsler Adult Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, A. S.; Salthouse, T. A.; Scheiber, C.; Chen, H.

    2016-01-01

    Patterns of maintenance of ability across the life span have been documented on tests of knowledge ("Gc"), as have patterns of steady decline on measures of reasoning ("Gf/Gv"), working memory ("Gsm"), and speed ("Gs"). Whether these patterns occur at the same rate for adults from different educational…

  15. Experiential Environmental Education for Primary Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Heather

    Environmental education is defined as a cross-curricular theme in the national curriculum (NC) of England and Wales. Environmental education may be experiential in and outside the classroom; outside, the environment may act as a stimulus for creative writing, investigative fieldwork, or sensory activities. Young children learn best by doing.…

  16. Aging and Higher Education: Prospects for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebok, George W.

    1981-01-01

    An understanding of adulthood educational participation should be developed according to a criterion of environmental and situationally dependent factors rather than solely to one of inexorable and cross-situational biophysical decline. Environmental and organismic factors that may relate to chronically low rates of educational participation by…

  17. Moral Education in an Age of Globalization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noddings, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Care theory is used to describe an approach to global ethics and moral education. After a brief introduction to care ethics, the theory is applied to global ethics. The paper concludes with a discussion of moral education for personal, political, and global domains.

  18. Maine Department of Education Regulation 180: Early Intervention and Special Education for Children Age Birth to under Age Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

    This document contains regulations governing the administration of the Childfind system for children age birth to under age 6, the provision of early intervention services to eligible children birth through two with disabilities and their families, and the provision of special education and related services to eligible children age 3 to under 6…

  19. Ethnicity, Gender, Deprivation and Low Educational Attainment in England: Political Arithmetic, Ideological Stances and the Deficient Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Carl

    2016-01-01

    Attainment data on England's school pupils are more extensive in coverage, detail, quantity, accessibility and of higher quality than monitoring statistics routinely available in other European countries. These data facilitate investigation of low attainment in England's schools and its relationship to ethnicity, gender and poverty. This article…

  20. Migration and Socioeconomic Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Franklin D.

    Research among black and white males aged 18 to 54 investigated correlations between migration patterns and occupational attainment and earnings. Results indicated that: (1) the propensity to migrate is related to entrance into, exit from, and laterations in occupational careers; (2) there is a positive association between migration and…

  1. Teaching about Aging. Environmental Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary R.

    This teaching guide on aging contains 18 activities for students. A major cognitive objective is for students to examine and evaluate personal and societal attitudes and behavior toward aging in the United States and in other societies. When students make cross-cultural comparisons of these attitudes and behaviors they become aware that their own…

  2. The Golden Age of Islamic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moorman, Paul

    1978-01-01

    The state of education in Saudi Arabia is reviewed in this brief analysis of the country's growth. Considered are the single-sex institutions, enrollment trends at the university level, faculty shortages, campus expansion, and religious influences. (LBH)

  3. Education Watch: Idaho. Key Education Facts and Figures. Achievement, Attainment and Opportunity. From Elementary School through College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Trust, Washington, DC.

    This report compares Idaho's reading and mathematics performance on the most recent administrations of the state assessment with performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). To indicate how Idaho is doing in narrowing the academic achievement gap between African American, Latino, or low-income students and their white,…

  4. The Undocumented (Im)Migrant Educational Pipeline: The Influence of Citizenship Status on Educational Attainment for People of Mexican Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covarrubias, Alejandro; Lara, Argelia

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have witnessed three trends impacting educational experiences for undocumented Mexican students: (a) a dramatic increase of Mexican-origin people, (b) organized and openly supported anti-immigrant policies with a racial dimension, and (c) increased participation by politicized migrants in national public discussions on immigration.…

  5. Education Watch: Washington. Key Education Facts and Figures. Achievement, Attainment and Opportunity. From Elementary School through College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Trust, Washington, DC.

    This report compares Washington's reading and mathematics performance on the most recent administrations of the state assessment with performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). To indicate how Washington is doing in narrowing the academic achievement gap between African American and Latino students and their white,…

  6. Education Watch: Connecticut. Key Education Facts and Figures. Achievement, Attainment and Opportunity. From Elementary School through College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Trust, Washington, DC.

    This report compares Connecticut's reading and mathematics performance on the most recent administrations of the state assessment with performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). To indicate how Connecticut is doing in narrowing the academic achievement gap between African American, Latino, or low-income students and…

  7. Education Watch: Wisconsin. Key Education Facts and Figures. Achievement, Attainment and Opportunity. From Elementary School through College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Trust, Washington, DC.

    This report compares Wisconsin's reading and mathematics performance on the most recent administrations of the state assessment with performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). To indicate how Wisconsin is doing in narrowing the academic achievement gap between African American and Latino students and their white, middle…

  8. Education Watch: Hawaii. Key Education Facts and Figures. Achievement, Attainment and Opportunity. From Elementary School through College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Trust, Washington, DC.

    This report compares Hawaii's reading and mathematics performance on the most recent administrations of the state assessment with performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). To indicate how Hawaii is doing in narrowing the academic achievement gap between poor and non-poor students, the report presents NAEP data by…

  9. Racial Consciousness, Social Capital, and Educational Reform in Brazil: Black Community-Based Projects that Defy Educational Attainment Canons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentim, Silvani S.

    This study examined a Preparatory Course for Blacks and the Economically Disadvantaged (PBED) in a poor area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The PBED is an alternative educational project that offers regular classes on evenings and weekends using volunteer labor, donated space, and contributions from students who can afford it. Case studies were used…

  10. Credits and Attainment: Returns to Postsecondary Education Ten Years after High School. Statistical Analysis Report. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zucker, Brian; Dawson, Royal

    This analysis examined 16 student characteristics and their association with earnings 10 years after high school. The study used data from the High School and Beyond Longitudinal Study (HS&B) and the HS&B Postsecondary Education Transcript (PETS) file. The information in these files was gathered through a nationally representative survey of high…

  11. Education Watch: Illinois. Key Education Facts and Figures. Achievement, Attainment and Opportunity. From Elementary School through College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Trust, Washington, DC.

    This report compares Illinois's reading and mathematics performance on the most recent administrations of the state assessment with performance on the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). To indicate how Illinois is doing in narrowing the academic achievement gap between African American, Latino, or low-income students and their…

  12. Nursing education and the nuclear age

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, S.

    1989-05-01

    As reflected in the nursing literature, nurses have only recently begun discussing professional responsibilities for avoidance of nuclear war. The literature of the 1950s and 1960s focused on issues of civil defense. The 1970s were mostly silent, but with the onset of the 1980s a few articles identified the need for the nursing profession to recognize the importance of nuclear war prevention. The responsibility of nursing education for including content about nuclear issues has not been discussed in the professional literature. The author surveyed baccalaureate programs of nursing education to determine whether this lack of discussion was reflected in nursing curricula. Responses indicated that the literature does not adequately reflect the level of activity and interest occurring within nursing education about nuclear issues. Nevertheless, because there is so little discussion in the professional literature, an implicit message is sent that nuclear issues are not of importance and that nurses should not openly address them.24 references.

  13. Dealing with Unseen Obstacles to Education in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Valerie J. H.; Sirinterlikci, Arif; Zomp, Christopher; Johnson, Randall S.; Miller, Phillip; Powell, James C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper updates the efforts to educate blind students in higher education in the digital age and describes how to support the development of mental models in learning through tactile learning and 3D-printing technology. It cites research documenting a drop in Braille literacy along with the growth in use of digital technologies by blind…

  14. Digital Citizenship Means Character Education for the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohler, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…

  15. Making Tobacco Education Relevant to the School Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seffrin, John R.

    1981-01-01

    Due to the trend toward more smoking among the young and to the effect of smoking on human health and life, educators need to devise effective antismoking programs as part of the secondary curriculum. The real problem lies in educating youths prior to the age at which the decision to smoke is made. (JN)

  16. Teachers' Reflections on Education in a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callis, Laura Kyser; Osborn, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This article presents profiles of and reflections by teachers with international experience, including the authors, who offer insights on education in a global age. The respondents who were colleagues of the authors were interviewed to learn about their K-12 education, insights into and analysis of their experiences teaching abroad, and thoughts…

  17. Educational Outcomes and Indicators for Early Childhood (Age 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; And Others

    The National Center on Educational Outcomes (NCEO) has been working with federal and state agencies to facilitate and enhance the collection and use of data on educational outcomes for students with disabilities. The purpose of this document is to present a model of: (1) early childhood outcomes at age 3, where outcomes are defined as the results…

  18. Age of Onset, Length of Residence, Language Aptitude, and Ultimate L2 Attainment in Three Linguistic Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granena, Gisela; Long, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to identify the scope and timing of maturational constraints in three linguistic domains within the same individuals, as well as the potential mediating roles of amount of second language (L2) exposure and language aptitude at different ages in different domains. Participants were 65 Chinese learners of Spanish and 12 native…

  19. Beliefs about Aging: Implications for Future Educational Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sellers, Debra M.; Bolender, Benjamin C.; Crocker, Andrew B.

    2010-01-01

    The specific aim of this research study was to gain knowledge regarding beliefs about aging, in order to develop future, priority, educational, and aging-related opportunities in Kansas. The study included six focus groups with a self-selected sample of Kansans born during the years 1946-1964 (N = 39). The main themes that surfaced included the…

  20. Flourishing Creativity: Education in an Age of Wonder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Oon Seng

    2015-01-01

    The twenty-first century is often described as an age of uncertainty and ambiguity with unprecedented challenges. Those with a creative mind-set however might call this millennium an age of wonder. New technologies and digital media are facilitating imagination and inventiveness. How are we innovating education? Are schools and classroom fostering…

  1. Higher Education in the Information Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Everette E., Ed.; LaMay, Craig L., Ed.

    This book of 16 author-contributed chapters examines issues of the media and public institutions of higher education including: the media ranking of universities and their contribution to low expectations of universities; the disjunction between massive support for college and university sports events and the intellectual and presumed academic…

  2. Science Education in a Secular Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A college science education instructor tells his students he rejects evolution. What should we think? The scene unfolds in one of the largest urban centers in the world. If we are surprised, why? Expanding on Federica Raia's (2012) first-hand experience with this scenario, I broaden her discussion by considering the complexity of science education…

  3. Gender and Age in Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gajek, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays mass media shape the perception of social values and roles. Thus, aspects of media education that deal with various kinds of inequalities influence general sensitivity to diversity and its consequences. In this respect media and intercultural competences interrelate. Not only minorities' rights have to be secured, but also majorities…

  4. Art Education in the Age of Guantanamo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistolesi, Edie

    2007-01-01

    Censorship exists in institutions where art exists, and also where art education exists. In fall 2005, a group of instructors and the author taught a group project with a political theme--peace. In this article, she examines institutionalized censorship within schools, and the ramifications of teaching the subject of peace in a time of war.…

  5. Psychological Skills Education for School Aged Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haslam, Ian R.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the potential for teaching psychological skills to student athletes in school sport programs, outlining a conceptual approach to psychological skills training for athletic coaches. The paper details how to develop a psychological skills education curriculum, explaining issues of curriculum sequence and implementation strategies in the…

  6. The association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ~25,000 subjects

    PubMed Central

    Peyrot, WJ; Lee, SH; Milaneschi, Y; Abdellaoui, A; Byrne, EM; Esko, T; de Geus, EJC; Hemani, G; Hottenga, JJ; Kloiber, S; Levinson, DF; Lucae, S; Martin, NG; Medland, SE; Metspalu, A; Milani, L; Noethen, MM; Potash, JB; Rietschel, M; Rietveld, CA; Ripke, S; Shi, J; Willemsen, G; Zhu, Z; Boomsma, DI; Wray, NR; Penninx, BWJH

    2015-01-01

    An association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9,662 Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) cases and 14,949 controls (with no lifetime MDD diagnosis) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with additional Dutch and Estonian data. The association of EA and MDD was assessed with logistic regression in 15,138 individuals indicating a significantly negative association in our sample with an odds ratio for MDD 0.78 [0.75–0.82] per standard deviation increase in EA. With data of 884,105 autosomal common SNPs, three methods were applied to test for pleiotropy between MDD and EA: (i) genetic profile risk scores (GPRS) derived from training data for EA (independent meta-analysis on 120,000 subjects) and MDD (using a ten-fold leave-one-out procedure in the current sample) (ii) bivariate Genomic-Relationship-Matrix Restricted Maximum Likelihood (GREML), and (iii) SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA). With these methods we found (i) that the EA-GPRS did not predict MDD status, and MDD-GPRS did not predict EA, (ii) a weak negative genetic correlation with bivariate GREML analyses, but this correlation was not consistently significant, (iii) no evidence for concordance of MDD and EA SNP effects with SECA analysis. To conclude, our study confirms an association of lower EA and MDD risk, but this association was not due to measurable pleiotropic genetic effects, which suggests that environmental factors could be involved such as, for example, socioeconomic status. PMID:25917368

  7. The association between lower educational attainment and depression owing to shared genetic effects? Results in ~25,000 subjects.

    PubMed

    Peyrot, W J; Lee, S H; Milaneschi, Y; Abdellaoui, A; Byrne, E M; Esko, T; de Geus, E J C; Hemani, G; Hottenga, J J; Kloiber, S; Levinson, D F; Lucae, S; Martin, N G; Medland, S E; Metspalu, A; Milani, L; Noethen, M M; Potash, J B; Rietschel, M; Rietveld, C A; Ripke, S; Shi, J; Willemsen, G; Zhu, Z; Boomsma, D I; Wray, N R; Penninx, B W J H

    2015-06-01

    An association between lower educational attainment (EA) and an increased risk for depression has been confirmed in various western countries. This study examines whether pleiotropic genetic effects contribute to this association. Therefore, data were analyzed from a total of 9662 major depressive disorder (MDD) cases and 14,949 controls (with no lifetime MDD diagnosis) from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium with additional Dutch and Estonian data. The association of EA and MDD was assessed with logistic regression in 15,138 individuals indicating a significantly negative association in our sample with an odds ratio for MDD 0.78 (0.75-0.82) per standard deviation increase in EA. With data of 884,105 autosomal common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), three methods were applied to test for pleiotropy between MDD and EA: (i) genetic profile risk scores (GPRS) derived from training data for EA (independent meta-analysis on ~120,000 subjects) and MDD (using a 10-fold leave-one-out procedure in the current sample), (ii) bivariate genomic-relationship-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) and (iii) SNP effect concordance analysis (SECA). With these methods, we found (i) that the EA-GPRS did not predict MDD status, and MDD-GPRS did not predict EA, (ii) a weak negative genetic correlation with bivariate GREML analyses, but this correlation was not consistently significant, (iii) no evidence for concordance of MDD and EA SNP effects with SECA analysis. To conclude, our study confirms an association of lower EA and MDD risk, but this association was not because of measurable pleiotropic genetic effects, which suggests that environmental factors could be involved, for example, socioeconomic status. PMID:25917368

  8. A Golden Age? Dostoevsky, Daoism and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Peter

    2016-01-01

    There is much of value for educationists in the work of the great Russian novelist and thinker, Fyodor Dostoevsky. This paper explores a key theme in Dostoevsky's later writings: the notion of a "Golden Age". It compares the ideal depicted in Dostoevsky's story "The Dream of a Ridiculous Man" with the implied utopia of the…

  9. Changes in Support Networks in Late Middle Age: The Extension of Gender and Educational Differences

    PubMed Central

    Beresford, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. This paper tests whether differences by gender and by educational attainment in contact with friends and family and in support expected from friends and family narrow or widen in late middle age. Methods. The data are drawn from about 4,800 members of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Survey who answered questions about their frequency of contact with social ties and expectations of 3 kinds of help in both 1993, when they were in their early 50s, and again in 2004. Results. Using lagged dependent variable models, we find that between their 50s and 60s women’s network advantages over men and college graduates’ network advantages over high school graduates in frequency of social contact widened. The same was roughly true as well for expectations of social support, although here the divergences depended partly on the type of the support: Women gained relative to men in “talk” support and in help from nonkin if ill, but lost ground in financial support. The college-educated gained ground in all sorts of support from nonkin. Discussion. These results reinforce concern that late middle age is a period when men and the less educated become yet more disadvantaged in social support, making attention to connectedness yet more critical. PMID:24898029

  10. Consequences of teen-age parenting.

    PubMed

    Nord, C W; Moore, K A; Morrison, D R; Brown, B; Myers, D E

    1992-09-01

    The changing context of teen-age childbearing and current related controversies are reviewed. Recent research about the consequences of teen-age childbearing for the teen-age mother, the father, and for the children born is examined. The article also summarizes current knowledge about the consequences of teen-age childbearing with regard to the mother's educational attainment, marital experience, subsequent fertility behavior, labor force experience and occupational attainment, and experience with poverty and welfare. PMID:1434559

  11. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial of the impact of malaria prevention on the educational attainment of school children.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Deepika; de Silva, Damani; Carter, Richard; Mendis, Kamini N; Wickremasinghe, Rajitha

    2006-03-01

    A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of nine months duration was carried out to investigate the impact of malaria and its prevention on the educational attainment of school children in a malaria-endemic area in southern Sri Lanka where both Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax infections are prevalent. A total of 587 children attending grades 1-5 in four schools and resident in the area were randomly allocated to chloroquine (n = 295) and placebo (n = 292) arms. Language and mathematics scores of end-of-term school examinations for 1998 and 1999 and number of days absent and reasons for absenteeism during seven months pre-intervention and nine months of the intervention were recorded. The results indicate that there were no differences in language (95% confidence interval [CI] = 48.44-53.78 in chloroquine group and 50.43-55.81 in placebo group) and mathematics (95% CI = 49.24-54.38 in chloroquine group and 51.12-56.38 in placebo group) scores between the two groups prior to the intervention. During the intervention, the malaria incidence rate decreased by 55% (95% CI = 49-61%) and school absenteeism due to malaria was reduced by 62.5% (95% CI = 57-68%) in children who received chloroquine compared with the placebo group. Post-intervention, children who received chloroquine scored approximately 26% higher in both language (95% CI = 21-31%) and mathematics (95% CI = 23-33%) than children who received placebo. In a multivariate model, educational attainment was significantly associated with taking chloroquine prophylaxis and absenteeism due to malaria (P < 0.001 for both) but not due to health causes other than malaria or non-health causes. Language scores were associated with number of malaria attacks (P < 0.022). Educational attainment was significantly better among children whose compliance to chloroquine prophylaxis was higher (P < 0.001). The data suggest that malarial attacks have an adverse impact on the educational attainment of the school child and

  12. Educational Change Takes Ages: Life, Career and Generational Factors in Teachers' Emotional Responses to Educational Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargreaves, Andy

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of the emotions of teaching to teachers' age and career stages based on experiences of educational change. Drawing on an analysis of interviews with 50 Canadian elementary, middle and high school teachers it analyzes how teachers respond emotionally to educational change at different ages and stages of career,…

  13. Socioeconomic Outcomes from Adult Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooderham, Paul N.

    1991-01-01

    The degree to which age and gender influence completion of higher secondary education (HSE) and employment status was measured with a sample of 350 Norwegian adults. Application of a Status Attainment model revealed that post-HSE educational attainment is an important determinant of socioeconomic status for both men and women. (SK)

  14. Consumer Education in an Age of Adaptation. Educator Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Sally R.

    Designed to serve as a reference and resource, this publication contains ideas and information to help teachers modify content and teaching methods to assist students in coping with the changing marketplace. Part 1 of the guide lists educational objectives for these major content areas: (1) The Consumer and the Economy, (2) Values and Goals, (3)…

  15. Better Communication Research Programme: Language and Literacy Attainment of Pupils during Early Years and through KS2: Does Teacher Assessment at Five Provide a Valid Measure of Children's Current and Future Educational Attainments? Research Brief. DFE-RB172a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles; Bailey, Alison M.; Stothard, Susan E.; Lindsay, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    It is well-established that language skills are amongst the best predictors of educational success. Consistent with this, findings from a population-based longitudinal study of parents and children in the UK indicate that language development at the age of two years predicts children's performance on entering primary school. Moreover, children who…

  16. Better Communication Research Project: Language and Literacy Attainment of Pupils during Early Years and through KS2--Does Teacher Assessment at Five Provide a Valid Measure of Children's Current and Future Educational Attainments? Research Report. DFE-RR172a

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowling, Margaret J.; Hulme, Charles; Bailey, Alison M.; Stothard, Susan E.; Lindsay, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    It is well-established that language skills are amongst the best predictors of educational success. Consistent with this, findings from a population-based longitudinal study of parents and children in the UK indicate that language development at the age of two years predicts children's performance on entering primary school. Moreover, children who…

  17. Early Determinants of Postsecondary Education Participation and Degree Attainment: Findings from an Inner-City Minority Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2014-01-01

    Early determinants of college attendance and degree attainment for economically disadvantaged minority youth were examined in the present study. The study sample (n = 1,379) was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children born in 1980, growing up in high-poverty neighborhoods…

  18. Using Education Technology as a Proactive Approach to Healthy Ageing.

    PubMed

    Rodger, Daragh; Spencer, Anne; Hussey, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Bone Health in the Park was created in Ireland and is an online health promotion education resource focussing on bone health, healthy ageing and falls prevention. The programme was designed by an Advanced Nurse Practitioner in collaboration with an Education Technologist and primarily uses storytelling to promote education specifically on bone health and falls risk prevention for health care professionals, clients, families and informal carers. This paper reports on core deliverables from this programme from 2010 to 2015, and provides insight into their development, in addition to details on its clinical effectiveness by using technology enhanced learning to underpin health promotion initiatives. PMID:27332189

  19. Health in education for all: enabling school-age children and adults for healthy living.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, H S; Philip, L

    1992-01-01

    The goals of Education for All and Health for All are inseparably linked. Both aim at equity and must be achieved concurrently. Good health is essential for effective learning, and education is a powerful means of enabling children and adults to attain and maintain health and wellbeing. PMID:1398672

  20. Media Arts: Arts Education for a Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peppler, Kylie A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Context: New technologies have been largely absent in arts education curriculum even though they offer opportunities to address arts integration, equity, and the technological prerequisites of an increasingly digital age. This paper draws upon the emerging professional field of "media arts" and the ways in which youth use new…

  1. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    This paper presents a career developmental model covering the ages of 5 to 18. Career development education includes experiences which facilitate self-awareness, career-awareness and career decision-making. Before choosing a model for career development, it is necessary to decide on a model for child development. The model developed here borrows…

  2. An Age-Graded Model for Career Development Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuckman, Bruce W.

    1974-01-01

    This paper attempts to provide a framework by which educators interested in stimulating career development can choose the learning experiences most likely to have payoffs for different age youth. Eight stages of child development are described with career development themes suggested for each stage along with sample activities. (Author)

  3. Age and educational track influence adolescent discounting of delayed rewards

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Nikki C.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Boschloo, Annemarie; Dekker, Sanne; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined age-related changes in a specific aspect of adolescent decision-making, namely the preference for future versus immediate outcomes. A sample of 622 Dutch adolescents aged 12–17 years completed a temporal discounting task. Participants were asked to choose between a delayed reward of €50 or an immediate reward of lower value. The delay interval was varied in three blocks (1 week, 1 month, 6 months). Results showed that preferences for large delayed rewards over smaller immediate rewards increased with age: late adolescents made more long-term decisions than early adolescents. This change was related to educational track. In the lower educational track, an age-related decrease in discounting was found for all three delay intervals. In the higher educational track this decrease only occurred for the 6 month delay interval. However, across all delay intervals enrolment in a higher level educational track was associated with an increased preference for long-term rewards. These results suggest that late adolescents are less susceptible than early adolescents to the competing presence of an immediate reward when making long-term decisions, a skill which becomes increasingly important as they transition into adulthood. PMID:24421778

  4. The Impact of Higher Education on Mature Age Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Leo H. T.; And Others

    Changes in the working and personal lives of adults as a result of completing a bachelor's degree as a mature-age student were studied in Australia. Also considered were students' progress through the degree, patterns of employment while enrolled, and additional formal higher education after completing (or withdrawing from) the program. The study…

  5. Effective Parenting Education through Age-Paced Newsletters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan K.; Nelson, Pat Tanner

    2004-01-01

    For more than 20 years, Cooperative Extension University and county faculty throughout the nation have made available an unusually parent-friendly series of educational newsletters. Monthly issues of the newsletters address information by age groups. Through local and state collaborations that often feature the county Extension office, hospitals,…

  6. Another Challenge. Age 70 Retirement in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans H.; And Others

    Changes in higher education employee benefit plans brought about by the extension of the mandatory retirement age to 70 are the focus of the monograph. Chapter one summarizes the volume and presents some major recommendations that institutions may find helpful in benefit and personnel planning. Chapter two sketches the meaning of the new law (1978…

  7. Special Education Forms. Volume 1: School-Age Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Sandra; And Others

    This document comprises forms (and directions for their use) used in Oregon in conjunction with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) for school-aged children. Forms are identified as either required or optional and are presented in a two-page format, with one page identifying the form, explaining its purposes, and providing…

  8. Adult Education in Germany from the Middle Ages to 1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Textor, Martin R.

    1986-01-01

    The history of adult education in Germany is examined, including the power of the Church during the Middle Ages, self-instruction in informal groups during the Renaissance, Lutheran influence during the Reformation, emphasis on reason and science during the Enlightenment period, industrialization, the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and post-war…

  9. The New Age of Telecommunication: Setting the Context for Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wedemeyer, Dan J.

    1986-01-01

    This overview provides a technological context for the telecommunications age by describing existing and emerging systems--telephone, broadcasting, cable television, fiber optic, satellite, optical disk, and computer technology--and services available via these systems. It is suggested that educators need to become technologically literate and…

  10. Educating an Aging Society: The University of the Third Age in Finland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenerall, Joseph D.

    2003-01-01

    The University of the Third Age in Finland has evolved from English and French models to include lectures, discussion groups, and research groups. A survey of 165 adult learners found their primary reason for participating was to acquire general education and self-knowledge. Socializing and meeting people were among the lowest ranked motivations.…

  11. Learning Reconsidered: Education in the Digital Age. Communications, Convergence and the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Everette E.; Meyer, Philip; Sundar, S. Shyam; Pryor, Larry; Rogers, Everett M.; Chen, Helen L.; Pavlik, John

    2003-01-01

    Includes thoughts of seven educators on the place of digital communication in journalism and mass communication education. Discusses communication scholars and the professional field's readiness for the digital age. Notes educators' attitudes towards technology and technology's applications in education. (PM)

  12. Bioethics and why I hope to live beyond age 75 attaining wisdom!: A rebuttal to Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel's 75 age limit.

    PubMed

    Faria, Miguel A

    2015-01-01

    American bioethicists have been providing persuasive arguments for rationing medical care via the theory of the necessary "rational allocation of finite health care resources." Anticipating the need for the drastic rationing of medical care in the U.S. with the implementation of ObamaCare and assisted by various sectors of organized medicine in league with the State, bioethicists have deduced that more ingenious approaches are necessary to convince Americans who have been accustomed to receiving the best medical care that third-party payers are willing to pay for. It is in this context that the individual-based, patient-oriented ethics of Hippocrates, including his fundamental dictum, "First Do No Harm," have to be supplanted by the utilitarian approach promoted by the bioethicists. And today's foremost proponent of the bioethics movement is Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel. This editorial proposes a rational rebuttal to Dr. Emanuel's proposal to limit life expectancy to age 75 as a rational paradigm to a better life. PMID:25789197

  13. Bioethics and why I hope to live beyond age 75 attaining wisdom!: A rebuttal to Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel's 75 age limit

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    American bioethicists have been providing persuasive arguments for rationing medical care via the theory of the necessary “rational allocation of finite health care resources.” Anticipating the need for the drastic rationing of medical care in the U.S. with the implementation of ObamaCare and assisted by various sectors of organized medicine in league with the State, bioethicists have deduced that more ingenious approaches are necessary to convince Americans who have been accustomed to receiving the best medical care that third-party payers are willing to pay for. It is in this context that the individual-based, patient-oriented ethics of Hippocrates, including his fundamental dictum, “First Do No Harm,” have to be supplanted by the utilitarian approach promoted by the bioethicists. And today's foremost proponent of the bioethics movement is Dr. Ezekiel Emanuel. This editorial proposes a rational rebuttal to Dr. Emanuel's proposal to limit life expectancy to age 75 as a rational paradigm to a better life. PMID:25789197

  14. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health. PMID:23095066

  15. Predicting Young Adult Degree Attainment by Late Adolescent Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Kloska, Deborah D.; Patrick, Megan E.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Schulenberg, John

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Assess whether infrequent and frequent marijuana use at age 19/20 predicts receipt of educational degrees by the mid 20s, independent of confounding age 18 adolescent risk factors. Methods Data were from the Monitoring the Future study, an annual nationally-representative survey of high school seniors followed into adulthood. Thirteen cohorts (1990 to 2002) of high school seniors were followed longitudinally to their mid 20s (n=4,925; 54% female). We used logistic regression and propensity score matching with successive inclusion of age 18 risk factors and substance use to compare age 19/20 frequent marijuana users (6+ occasions in past 30 days) to non-users, frequent users to infrequent users (1 to 6 occasions), and infrequent users to non-users on their likelihood of degree attainment by the mid 20s. Results Frequent marijuana users were less likely than infrequent users and non-users to earn Bachelor’s degrees, even after controlling for a host of age 18 risk factors (e.g., family socioeconomic background, academic performance, educational expectations, truancy). However, these differences were reduced in magnitude to statistical non-significance when we controlled for age 18 substance use. Across analyses, the proportion reaching this educational milestone did not differ significantly between infrequent users and non-users. Conclusions Results support a growing body of work suggesting that frequent marijuana use predicts a lower likelihood of post-secondary educational attainment, and this difference may originate during secondary school. PMID:26206441

  16. The Second Educational Revolution: Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, A.; Halverson, R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper drew upon a recent book ("Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology") to summarize a number of prospects and challenges arising from the appropriation of digital technology into learning and educational practice. Tensions between traditional models of schooling and the affordances of digital media were noted, while the promise of…

  17. Maternal age at first birth and adolescent education in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Marteleto, Letícia J.; Dondero, Molly

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Brazil has witnessed dramatic changes in its fertility patterns in recent decades. The decline to below-replacement fertility has been accompanied by increases in the proportion of children born to young mothers. Yet we know little about the well-being of children born to young mothers in Brazil. OBJECTIVE and METHODS Using data from the 2006 Pesquisa Nacional de Demografia e Saúde and a quasi-natural experimental approach, this study examines the implications of maternal age at first birth for the education of Brazilian adolescents. RESULTS We find that being born to a young mother is associated with educational disadvantages in adolescence, but that these disadvantages are attenuated once we account for mothers’ selection into early childbearing. We also find that, in southern Brazil, adolescents born to young mothers have poorer educational outcomes compared with their peers born to older mothers, but that in northern Brazil no such disparities exist. CONCLUSIONS Adolescent educational disadvantages associated with being born to a young mother are not an artifact of selectivity, at least in southern Brazil. Regional variation in the effect of maternal age at first birth on adolescent education suggests the important role of the extended family and the father’s presence as mechanisms through which disadvantages operate. PMID:24382945

  18. Realizing Kentucky's Educational Attainment Goal: A Look in the Rear View Mirror and down the Road Ahead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    In 1997, policymakers in Kentucky enacted perhaps the most sweeping higher education reform legislation of any state in the past two decades. Kentucky's Postsecondary Education Improvement Act (House Bill 1) has been heralded by many higher education leaders across the U.S. as one of the great success stories--a rare instance when a state's…

  19. Utilization of Cloud Computing in Education and Research to the Attainment of Millennium Development Goals and Vision 2030 in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waga, Duncan; Makori, Esther; Rabah, Kefa

    2014-01-01

    Kenya Educational and Research fraternity has highly qualified human resource capacity with globally gained experiences. However each research entity works in disparity due to the absence of a common digital platform while educational units don't even have the basic infrastructure. For sustainability of Education and research progression,…

  20. Earth and Space Systems Standards Assessment: An evaluation of eighth-grade students' and elementary education majors' attainment of the standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandy, Regan G.

    In signing the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) education act in 2002, President George W. Bush enacted sweeping reform legislation that focuses on the assessment of students and new teachers, based upon state standards. Although statewide reading and math assessments have been implemented, as required by the NCLB legislation, states have until the 2007--2008 school year to begin assessing students' knowledge of state science standards and until the 2005--2006 school year to begin assessing new teachers' knowledge in science subjects. In the interim, there is a need to assess students' attainment of science standards and to assess new teachers' content knowledge in science subjects. The purpose of this study was to determine if eighth grade students in southeast Idaho and elementary education majors of an Idaho university meet the K--8 Earth and Space Systems standards of the State of Idaho, as measured by the Earth and Space Systems Standards Assessment (ESSSA). This study also sought to determine if there are differences in the mean of the total scores on the ESSSA between the two groups, and if there are differences in the number of standards met between the groups. Subject Matter Experts were utilized to validate a 44-question, four-item, multiple-choice, all-text, two-items per content standard Earth and Space Systems Standards Assessment. The instrument was used to assess 517 eighth grade students in a southeast Idaho school district, and to assess 68 elementary education majors at a university in Idaho, during the spring of 2003. Results of this study indicate that eighth grade students met a mean of 8.18 of the 22 standards (37.1%), and that the elementary education majors met a mean of 9.75 of the 22 standards (44.3%). Eighth grade students also had a mean score of 25.46 out of 44 questions (57.8%), and the elementary education majors had a mean score of 28.54 out of 44 questions (64.8%). This study determined that the elementary education majors scored