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Sample records for age ethnic background

  1. Extrinsic skin ageing in German, Chinese and Japanese women manifests differently in all three groups depending on ethnic background, age and anatomical site.

    PubMed

    Vierkötter, Andrea; Hüls, Anke; Yamamoto, Ai; Stolz, Sabine; Krämer, Ursula; Matsui, Mary S; Morita, Akimichi; Wang, Sijia; Li, Zhiwen; Jin, Li; Krutmann, Jean; Schikowski, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that extrinsic skin ageing manifests differently in Caucasians versus East Asians. In particular, from previous studies it was concluded that Caucasians are more prone to develop wrinkles, whereas pigment spot formation is the hallmark of extrinsic skin ageing in East Asians. However, these assumptions are based on a very limited number of studies which did not include different East Asian populations. We here compare the manifestation of extrinsic skin ageing signs in German, Japanese and Chinese women by specifically elucidating the age and anatomical site dependence of any potential ethnic difference. In the present study, we assessed skin ageing in N=902 German, N=165 Japanese and N=1260 Chinese women ranging from 30 to 90 years by means of SCINEXA™. Linear regression analysis was used to test for ethnic differences and their age and site dependence adjusted for educational level, sun exposure, smoking and sun protection behaviours. Pigment spots and wrinkles on the face were present among all three ethnic groups and differences were influenced by age and anatomical sites independently of further influencing factors. Pigment spots on the forehead were most pronounced over the whole age range in Chinese and German women and least developed in Japanese. Pigment spots on cheeks were a typical extrinsic skin an ageing sign in the two East Asian populations in all age groups. However, in older German women they reach the same level as observed in the two East Asian populations. In contrast, pigment spots on arms and hands were significantly more pronounced in German women ≥45years of age. Wrinkles were not exclusively a skin an ageing sign of German women, but were also very pronounced in Chinese women on forehead, between the eyebrows and in the crow's feet area. These results corroborate the previous notion that the occurrence of pigments spots and wrinkles is different between Caucasians and East Asians. In addition, this study shows

  2. An Examination of the RCMAS-2 Scores across Gender, Ethnic Background, and Age in a Large Asian School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Lowe, Patricia A.; Yusof, Noradlin

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and U.S. norms of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Second Edition (RCMAS-2; C. R. Reynolds & B. O. Richmond, 2008a) scores in a Singapore sample of 1,618 school-age children and adolescents. Although there were small…

  3. Perspectives on ageing, later life and ethnicity: ageing research in ethnic minority contexts.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Maria; Norris, Meriel

    2015-05-01

    This special issue focuses broadly upon questions and themes relating to the current conceptualisations, representations and use of 'ethnicity' (and ethnic minority experiences) within the field of social gerontology. An important aim of this special issue is to explore and address the issue of 'otherness' within the predominant existing frameworks for researching those who are ageing or considered aged, compounded by the particular constructions of their ethnicity and ethnic 'difference'. The range of theoretical, methodological and empirical papers included in this collection provide some critical insights into particular facets of the current research agendas, cultural understandings and empirical focus of ethnic minority ageing research. The main emphasis is on highlighting the ways in which ethnic cultural homogeneity and 'otherness' is often assumed in research involving older people from ethnic minority backgrounds, and how wider societal inequalities are concomitantly (re)produced, within (and through) research itself - for example, based on narrowly defined research agendas and questions; the assumed age and/or ethnic differences of researchers vis-à-vis their older research participants; the workings of the formalised ethical procedures and frameworks; and the conceptual and theoretical frameworks employed in the formulation of research questions and interpretation of data. We examine and challenge here the simplistic categorisations and distinctions often made in gerontological research based around research participants' ethnicity, age and ageing and assumed cultural differences. The papers presented in this collection reveal instead the actual complexity and fluidity of these concepts as well as the cultural dynamism and diversity of experiences within ethnic groups. Through an exploration of these issues, we address some of the gaps in existing knowledge and understandings as well as contribute to the newly emerging discussions surrounding the use of

  4. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  5. Ethnicity, Aging, and Health: An Interdisciplinary Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaves, Gaye; Hill, Gaye

    1997-01-01

    An interdisciplinary team developed an undergraduate course to teach geriatrics students about ethnicity, health, and aging. Two important aspects of such a course were identified: the dynamics of team learning and multicultural education. (SK)

  6. Age of initial drug experimentation among white and non-white ethnics.

    PubMed

    Jackson, N; Carlisi, J; Greenway, C; Zalesnick, M

    1981-12-01

    Students in four cities completed a questionnaire regarding their ethnic background and drug use patterns. From this information, comparisons in age of initial drug experimentation among ethnic groups and races were made. The results indicated significant differences in actual age of experimentation among ethnic groups, as well as differences in other general pattern relating to age of first drug use. A comparison of Whites to non-Whites showed little difference in ages of initial drug experimentation. It was concluded that ethnicity, more so than mere race, was related to age of first use of drugs.

  7. Ethnic Differences in Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms: Disadvantage in Family Background, High School Experiences, and Adult Characteristics*

    PubMed Central

    Walsemann, Katrina M.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Geronimus, Arline T.

    2009-01-01

    Although research investigating ethnic differences in mental health has increased in recent years, we know relatively little about how mental health trajectories vary across ethnic groups. Do these differences occur at certain ages, but not others? We investigate ethnic variations in trajectories of depressive symptoms, and examine the extent to which disadvantage in family background, high school experiences, and adult characteristics explain these differences. Employing random-coefficient modeling using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we find that blacks and Hispanics experience higher symptom levels in early adulthood in comparison to whites, but equivalent levels by middle-age. Ethnic differences remained in early adulthood after including all covariates, but were eliminated by middle-age for Hispanics after controlling for demographics only and for blacks after accounting for the age-varying relationship between income and depressive symptoms. These results highlight the importance of integrating a life-course perspective when investigating ethnic variations in mental health. PMID:19413136

  8. Ethnic identity and the academic adjustment of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Witkow, Melissa; Garcia, Carla

    2005-09-01

    The association of adolescents' ethnic identification with their academic attitudes and achievement was examined among a sample of 589 ninth-grade students from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Adolescents from all backgrounds chose a variety of ethnic labels to describe themselves, with those from Mexican, Chinese, and immigrant families incorporating more of their families' national origin and cultural background into their chosen ethnic labels. Nevertheless, the strength of adolescents' ethnic identification was more relevant to their academic adjustment than the specific labels that they chose, and it was most important for the extra motivation necessary for ethnic minority students to attain the same level of academic success as their European American peers.

  9. [Impact of ethnicity and social background on examination results of medical students].

    PubMed

    Stegers-Jager, K M; Brommet, F N; Themmen, A P N

    2016-01-01

    To investigate underperformance across ethnic minority groups and by first-generation university students in different types of examinations during pre-clinical training. Prospective cohort study Participants included Erasmus MC students from the 2008-2013 cohorts (n=2432). Outcome measures were pass/fail on three types of written examinations: 1) theoretical knowledge: clinical problem solving tests (CPSTs) (Year 1-3) and end-of-block tests (Year 1c2-c3), 2) language skills test (Year 1) and 3) writing skills tests (Year 1-3), and OSCEs (Year 2-3). Odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated by logistic regression analysis for ethnic subgroups (Surinamese/Antillean, Turkish/Moroccan/African, Asian, Western) compared with Dutch students, adjusted for age, gender, pre-university Grade Point Average (pu-GPA), additional socio-demographic variables (first-generation immigrant, urban background, first-generation university student, first language, medical doctor as parent). Similar analyses were conducted for first-generation university students. Compared with Dutch students, the three non-Western ethnic minority groups underperformed in the CPSTs, the language test and the OSCEs. Findings on the end-of-block and writing skills tests, and results for Western minority students were less consistent. Age, gender, pu-GPA and additional socio-demographic variables could explain the ethnicity-related differences in theoretical examinations, but not in language, clinical and writing skills examinations. First-generation university students only underperformed in the language test. Ethnic minority students underperform in pre-clinical training, but there are differences both across ethnic subgroups and between different types of examinations. In designing assessment programs care should be taken to avoid unintended effects of certain types of examinations for certain groups of students.

  10. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  12. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  13. Ethnic differences in youth well-being: The role of sociodemographic background and social support.

    PubMed

    Runarsdottir, Eyrun Maria; Vilhjalmsson, Runar

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the psychological well-being of Polish and Asian immigrant youth in Iceland in comparison with their native peers, and the role of sociodemographic background and social support in explaining ethnic differences. The study is based on a dataset from the research network Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC), collected in the school year 2009-2010. A total of 11,561 students aged 11, 13, and 15 years participated in the study. Immigrant status was determined by parents' birthplace dividing the two non-native groups into four: non-mixed Polish, mixed-Polish (one parent born in Poland), non-mixed Asian, and mixed-Asian (one parent born in Asia). Data were analyzed by means of hierarchical multiple regression. Less life-satisfaction and more distress was reported in all non-native groups compared with natives. The outcomes were more negative for youth of mixed ethnic origin. Initial ethnic differences in life-satisfaction and distress disappeared or were substantially reduced when sociodemographic background and social support were controlled. A key finding is that non-native youth more often live in challenging socioeconomic circumstances and experience less access to social support than their native peers. Emphasis should be placed on actions that aim to create better sociodemographic conditions and supportive environments for immigrant families. In particular, special effort to foster a supportive school environment for immigrant youth is suggested. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  14. Parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background.

    PubMed

    Rodenburg, Gerda; Oenema, Anke; Kremers, Stef P J; van de Mheen, Dike

    2012-02-01

    This study examines the association between parental and child fruit consumption in the context of general parenting, parental education and ethnic background. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1762 parent-child dyads. Mean age of the children was 8 years. One parent completed a questionnaire to measure their own and their child's fruit consumption, parenting style, education level and ethnicity. In mediation and moderation analyses, child fruit consumption was regressed on parental fruit consumption, parenting style, parental education and ethnicity. Participating children consumed on average 7.5 pieces of fruit per week. Fourteen percent met the recommended Dutch norm of two pieces of fruit per day. Parental and child fruit consumption were positively associated. The association was more pronounced under higher levels of psychological control and behavioural control, and among ethnic groups. Additionally, parental education and child fruit consumption were positively associated. Parental fruit consumption partially mediated this association. Interventions are needed to increase child fruit consumption. Interventions should focus on increasing parental fruit consumption and positive parental modelling, with particular focus on low-SES families. Additionally, interventions that combine positive modelling with positive general parenting skills (e.g. increasing behavioural control) may be more effective than interventions that focus on parental modelling alone.

  15. Cultural consistency in Australian dental students from two different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Mariño, Rodrigo J; Stuart, Geoffrey W; Winning, Tracey; Morgan, Michael V; Thomson, W Murray; Marshall, Roderick I; Gotjamanos, Theo

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the value orientations of dental students from different ethnic backgrounds studying in Australian dental schools. A ninety-eight-item questionnaire was used to collect the data, including fifteen subscales developed consistent with the Kluckhohn and Strodtbeck value orientation model. To compare the value orientation structure and to determine if any ethnic differences existed, a multivariate analysis of variance called profile analysis was performed on the fifteen value subscales. Of the 401 participants, 30.2 percent were Anglo-Australian and 44.9 percent were Asian. The remainder (24.9 percent) were "Other-background residents" or "Other-international students." This article presents data from Asian (n=184) and Anglo-Australian (n=124) background respondents. Mean age was 21.7 years (s.e. 0.35 years) among Anglo-Australian and 20.8 years (s.e. 0.17 years) among Asians. Asians born overseas represented 70.7 percent (n=130) of this group. Of Australia-born Asians (n=54), 90.6 percent were first-generation Australians. When comparing their value profile, we found a significant association between ethnicity and value orientation profile scores (p<0.05). Despite the significant overall result, the strength of the association (eta(2)=0.007) indicated that this effect was trivial relative to the unexplained variance in value orientation. The findings suggest that, behind an apparent ethnic diversity, a single distinctive value profile might exist to which the majority of dental students subscribe.

  16. Ethnic identity and family processes among adolescents from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2009-02-01

    Ninth graders (N = 679; 50% male, 50% female) from Latin American (41%), Asian (38%), and European (21%) backgrounds reported on their ethnic identity and family attitudes and relationships. Adolescents also completed daily checklists of family interactions over a two-week period. Results indicated that ethnic identity, measured through exploration and belonging was more strongly associated with family obligation and assistance than with parent-child closeness and family leisure time. Adolescents from Latin American and Asian backgrounds reported significantly higher levels of obligation and assistance as compared to adolescents with European backgrounds, and these ethnic differences were mediated by ethnic identity. Longitudinal analyses indicated ongoing associations, with ethnic identity predicting respect and obligation one year later. The discussion focuses on the role of ethnic identity in children's family connectedness during adolescence.

  17. Looking Inward: The Impact of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Social Class Background on Teaching Sociocultural Theory in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerrett, Allison

    2006-01-01

    In this paper I examine how and to what extent various elements of my biography--race, ethnicity, gender, age, social class background, and prior personal and professional experiences--influenced my relationships with students in a graduate course examining the impact of race, gender, and social class on education. My lived experiences as an…

  18. The association between ethnic background and characteristics of first mental health treatment for psychotic disorders in the Netherlands between 2001 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Fassaert, T; Heijnen, H; de Wit, M A S; Peen, J; Beekman, A T F; Dekker, J

    2016-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that ethnic minority status of patients is associated with specific psychotic disorder treatment characteristics. Longitudinal data (2001-2005) were extracted from a nationwide psychiatric case register in the Netherlands. The sample consisted of 30,655 episodes of mental health treatment for 23,122 patients with psychotic disorders. Information was available about waiting time and treatment duration, source of referral, occurrence of crisis contacts, admittance to clinical care and compulsory admissions. In addition, information was available about ethnicity (based on country of birth), gender, age and marital status. Results were calculated for ethnic and gender groups separately. In addition, a number of multivariate regression analyses were conducted to correct for differences in age and marital status. There was substantial variation between ethnic minority and gender groups in relation to the treatment characteristics. Compared with a Dutch ethnic background, ethnic minority background was generally associated with less waiting time, and more police referrals, crisis contacts, admittance to clinical care and compulsory admission, but shorter treatment duration. Characteristics appeared to be least favorable in episodes that involved male patients with Antillean and Surinamese backgrounds, whereas episodes were quite similar for ethnic Dutch and Turkish patients. Characteristics of mental health treatment for psychosis in the Netherlands are different for ethnic minority patient groups than for patients with an ethnic Dutch background. However, there were substantial differences between ethnic minority groups.

  19. Ethnic socialization and the academic adjustment of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Virginia W; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2008-07-01

    Ethnic and generation differences in the frequency and types of ethnic socialization messages that 524 eleventh-grade adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds received from their parents were examined. Results indicated that adolescents from both Mexican and Chinese backgrounds reported more cultural socialization and preparation for bias messages than their peers from European backgrounds. Chinese adolescents reported more promotion of mistrust messages than their peers with European backgrounds. Moreover, promotion of mistrust messages negatively predicted academic achievement, whereas positive cultural socialization messages accounted for the higher levels of motivation among adolescents from Chinese and Mexican backgrounds as compared with their equally achieving peers from European backgrounds.

  20. Eating disorder and depressive symptoms in urban high school girls from different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Bisaga, Katarzyna; Whitaker, Agnes; Davies, Mark; Chuang, Shirley; Feldman, Judith; Walsh, B Timothy

    2005-08-01

    This study examined ethnic group differences in the rates of eating disorder symptoms (EDS) and depressive disorder symptoms (DDS) with respect to ethnic identity, relative body weight, and abnormal eating behaviors among adolescent girls. A district-wide sample of high school girls (N = 1445) from different ethnic backgrounds was surveyed. EDS were assessed with the Eating Attitudes Test-26, abnormal eating behaviors with the Eating Behaviors Survey, and DDS with the Short Mood and Feelings Questionnaire. Two dimensions of ethnic identity, ethnic identity achievement and other group orientation, were assessed with Multi-Group Ethnic Identity Measure. Hispanic and non-Hispanic white girls had the highest and African-American (AA) and Caribbean girls the lowest rates of EDS. Asian girls reported the highest and AA girls the lowest rates of DDS. Early dieting was associated with EDS and DDS in Caribbean, non-Hispanic white, and mixed background girls. Relative body weight was related to EDS in all ethnic groups except in non-Hispanic white and mixed background girls. The authors did not find an effect of ethnic identity achievement on psychopathology, but there was an effect of other group orientation on both EDS and DDS. Clinicians should inquire about EDS and DDS in girls of all ethnic groups. Prevention efforts to delay unsupervised dieting may protect adolescent girls from the development of EDS and DDS.

  1. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants.

  2. Parental views of children's physical activity: a qualitative study with parents from multi-ethnic backgrounds living in England.

    PubMed

    Trigwell, Joanne; Murphy, Rebecca Catherine; Cable, Nigel Timothy; Stratton, Gareth; Watson, Paula Mary

    2015-10-02

    Guidelines recommend children and young people participate in at least 60 min of physical activity (PA) every day, however, findings from UK studies show PA levels of children vary across ethnic groups. Since parents play an instrumental role in determining children's PA levels, this article aims to explore parental views of children's PA in a multi-ethnic sample living in a large city in the North-West of England. Six single-ethnic focus groups were conducted with 36 parents of school-aged children (4 to 16 years) with a predominantly low socio-economic status (SES). Parents self-identified their ethnic background as Asian Bangladeshi (n = 5), Black African (n = 4), Black Somali (n = 7), Chinese (n = 6), White British (n = 8) and Yemeni (n = 6). Focus group topics included understanding of PA, awareness of PA guidelines, knowledge of benefits associated with PA and perceived influences on PA in childhood. Data were analysed thematically using QSR NVivo 9.0. Parents from all ethnic groups valued PA and were aware of its benefits, however they lacked awareness of PA recommendations, perceived school to be the main provider for children's PA, and reported challenges in motivating children to be active. At the environmental level, barriers to PA included safety concerns, adverse weather, lack of resources and lack of access. Additional barriers were noted for ethnic groups from cultures that prioritised educational attainment over PA (Asian Bangladeshi, Chinese, Yemeni) and with a Muslim faith (Asian Bangladeshi, Black Somali, Yemeni), who reported a lack of culturally appropriate PA opportunities for girls. Parents from multi-ethnic groups lacked awareness of children's PA recommendations and faced barriers to promoting children's PA out of school, with certain ethnic groups facing additional barriers due to cultural and religious factors. It is recommended children's PA interventions address influences at all socio-ecological levels, and

  3. Ethnic Background and Genetic Variation in the Evaluation of Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jing, Lijun; Su, Li; Ring, Brian Z.

    2014-01-01

    The clinical use of genetic variation in the evaluation of cancer risk is expanding, and thus understanding how determinants of cancer susceptibility identified in one population can be applied to another is of growing importance. However there is considerable debate on the relevance of ethnic background in clinical genetics, reflecting both the significance and complexity of genetic heritage. We address this via a systematic review of reported associations with cancer risk for 82 markers in 68 studies across six different cancer types, comparing association results between ethnic groups and examining linkage disequilibrium between risk alleles and nearby genetic loci. We find that the relevance of ethnic background depends on the question. If asked whether the association of variants with disease risk is conserved across ethnic boundaries, we find that the answer is yes, the majority of markers show insignificant variability in association with cancer risk across ethnic groups. However if the question is whether a significant association between a variant and cancer risk is likely to reproduce, the answer is no, most markers do not validate in an ethnic group other than the discovery cohort’s ancestry. This lack of reproducibility is not attributable to studies being inadequately populated due to low allele frequency in other ethnic groups. Instead, differences in local genomic structure between ethnic groups are associated with the strength of association with cancer risk and therefore confound interpretation of the implied physiologic association tracked by the disease allele. This suggest that a biological association for cancer risk alleles may be broadly consistent across ethnic boundaries, but reproduction of a clinical study in another ethnic group is uncommon, in part due to confounding genomic architecture. As clinical studies are increasingly performed globally this has important implications for how cancer risk stratifiers should be studied and

  4. Children's Attitudes toward Singing and Song Recordings Related to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siebenaler, Dennis

    2008-01-01

    This study examines students' attitudes toward singing and choir participation related to gender, age, and ethnic background. It also looks at attitudes toward recordings from basal music series that are designed to provide an appropriate model and to encourage singing. Participants (N = 249) were third to fifth graders enrolled in two public…

  5. Understanding childhood asthma in focus groups: perspectives from mothers of different ethnic backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Cane, Rachel; Pao, Caroline; McKenzie, Sheila

    2001-01-01

    Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties. PMID:11667951

  6. Obesity, age, ethnicity, and clinical features of prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Victor J; Pang, Darren; Tang, Wendell W; Zhang, Xin; Li, Li; You, Zongbing

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 36.5% of the U.S. adults (≥ 20 years old) are obese. Obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and several types of cancer. The present study included 1788 prostate cancer patients who were treated with radical prostatectomy at the Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, Louisiana, from January, 2001 to March, 2016. The patient’s medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Body mass index (BMI), age, ethnicity (Caucasians versus African Americans), clinical stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were retrieved. The relative risk of the patients was stratified into low risk and high risk groups. Associative analyses found that BMI was associated with age, clinical stage, Gleason score, but not ethnicity, PSA levels, or the relative risk in this cohort. Age was associated with ethnicity, clinical stage, Gleason score, and PSA levels, as well as the relative risk. Ethnicity was associated with Gleason score and PSA levels as well as the relative risk, but not clinical stage. These findings suggest that obesity is associated with advanced prostate cancer with stage T3 or Gleason score ≥ 7 diseases, and age and ethnicity are important factors that are associated with the clinical features of prostate cancer patients. PMID:28337464

  7. Race/ethnic disparities in reproductive age: An examination of ovarian reserve estimates across four race/ethnic groups of healthy, regularly-cycling women

    PubMed Central

    Bleil, Maria E.; Gregorich, Steven E.; Adler, Nancy E.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rosen, Mitchell P.; Cedars, Marcelle I.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether reproductive age, indexed by a validated marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone [AMH]), varies between women of different race/ethnic backgrounds. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Community-based sample. Patients Multi-ethnic sample of 947 (277 white, 237 African-American, 220 Latina, and 213 Chinese) healthy and regularly-cycling pre-menopausal women, ages 25-45. Interventions None. Main Outcome Measures(s) AMH level. Results A multivariate model was fit examining race/ethnicity, covariates, non-linear terms for age (age2, age3) and BMI (BMI2, BMI3), and 2-way interactions between race/ethnicity and each other predictor variable in relation to AMH. Following backward elimination, significant effects included race/ethnicity (F=8.45), age (F=349.94), race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction (F=4.67), age2 (F=31.61), and BMI (F=10.69). Inspection of the significant race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction showed AMH levels were consistently lower in the Latina vs. white women across all ages, whereas AMH levels were lower in the African-American and Chinese women vs. white women at younger and middle ages, respectively, and AMH levels were higher in the African-American vs. Latina and Chinese women at older ages. Conclusions Although results must be considered preliminary, findings are two-fold, suggesting 1) African-American women may have lower AMH levels at younger ages but experience less of a reduction in AMH with advancing age; and 2) Latina and Chinese women, compared to white women, may have lower AMH levels, marking a lower ovarian reserve and possible increased risk for earlier menopause. PMID:24182412

  8. Ethnic Background, Socioeconomic Status, and Problem Severity as Dropout Risk Factors in Psychotherapy with Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Anna M.; Boon, Albert E.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Hoeve, Machteld; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dropout from child and adolescent psychotherapy is a common phenomenon which can have negative consequences for the individual later in life. It is therefore important to gain insight on dropout risk factors. Objective: Several potential risk factors [ethnic minority status, a lower socioeconomic status (SES), and higher problem…

  9. Comparing Alternative Voices in the Academy: Navigating the Complexity of Mentoring Relationships from Divergent Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Hollie; Shannon, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore the personal mentoring experiences of two female scholars of diverse ethnic backgrounds across research-intensive institutions. Female faculty of color face substantial barriers to success in academe including mental and emotional discomfort, being treated as symbolically representing their race and gender, and social…

  10. Comparing Alternative Voices in the Academy: Navigating the Complexity of Mentoring Relationships from Divergent Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Hollie; Shannon, Katheryn

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we explore the personal mentoring experiences of two female scholars of diverse ethnic backgrounds across research-intensive institutions. Female faculty of color face substantial barriers to success in academe including mental and emotional discomfort, being treated as symbolically representing their race and gender, and social…

  11. Ethnic Background, Socioeconomic Status, and Problem Severity as Dropout Risk Factors in Psychotherapy with Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Anna M.; Boon, Albert E.; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Hoeve, Machteld; de Jong, Joop T. V. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dropout from child and adolescent psychotherapy is a common phenomenon which can have negative consequences for the individual later in life. It is therefore important to gain insight on dropout risk factors. Objective: Several potential risk factors [ethnic minority status, a lower socioeconomic status (SES), and higher problem…

  12. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion and toward Students with Special Educational Needs from Different Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Maria; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Glock, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on social cognition frameworks, we experimentally examined preservice teachers' implicit attitudes toward students with special educational needs (SEN) from different ethnic backgrounds and preservice teachers' explicit attitudes toward inclusive education. Preservice teachers (N = 46) completed an evaluative priming task and…

  13. Preservice Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion and toward Students with Special Educational Needs from Different Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Maria; Pit-Ten Cate, Ineke; Krolak-Schwerdt, Sabine; Glock, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on social cognition frameworks, we experimentally examined preservice teachers' implicit attitudes toward students with special educational needs (SEN) from different ethnic backgrounds and preservice teachers' explicit attitudes toward inclusive education. Preservice teachers (N = 46) completed an evaluative priming task and…

  14. Background Information on the Ethnic Chinese Refugees. General Information Series #22. Indochinese Refugee Education Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English Language Resource Center, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide background information on the ethnic Chinese refugees from Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos that will be of interest and use to educators working with these refugees. The guide consists of four sections: (1) a brief history of the Chinese communities in Southeast Asia; (2) a more detailed discussion of the…

  15. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  16. Understanding childhood asthma in focus groups: perspectives from mothers of different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Cane, R; Pao, C; McKenzie, S

    2001-01-01

    Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor - patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.

  17. The New Workforce: Age and Ethnic Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClellan, Judi L.; Holden, Richard

    As the United States population ages, employers face the possibility of a sustained retirement of the baby boom generation and a loss of their most experienced and knowledgeable employees. The public sector appears to be even more vulnerable, with an older-than-average workforce as well as a more traditional retirement system that encourages early…

  18. A Study of the Relationship Between the Ethnic Background of the Counselor and the Student Enrollment in Ethnic Studies Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Sylvia; Hernandez, Edward, Jr.

    This practicum report explores the belief that the decreasing enrollment in ethnic studies classes at Pasadena City College is related to the ethnic affiliation of the counselors and the counselors' knowledge about ethnic studies. The study investigated whether counselors who were members of an ethnic minority group enrolled more students in…

  19. Ethnic Variability in Body Size, Proportions and Composition in Children Aged 5 to 11 Years: Is Ethnic-Specific Calibration of Bioelectrical Impedance Required?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Simon; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Lum, Sooky; Stocks, Janet; Bonner, Rachel; Naik, Mitesh; Fothergill, Helen; Wells, Jonathan C. K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) has the potential to be used widely as a method of assessing body fatness and composition, both in clinical and community settings. BIA provides bioelectrical properties, such as whole-body impedance which ideally needs to be calibrated against a gold-standard method in order to provide accurate estimates of fat-free mass. UK studies in older children and adolescents have shown that, when used in multi-ethnic populations, calibration equations need to include ethnic-specific terms, but whether this holds true for younger children remains to be elucidated. The aims of this study were to examine ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition in children aged 5 to 11 years, and to establish the extent to which such differences could influence BIA calibration. Methods In a multi-ethnic population of 2171 London primary school-children (47% boys; 34% White, 29% Black African/Caribbean, 25% South Asian, 12% Other) detailed anthropometric measurements were performed and ethnic differences in body size and proportion were assessed. Ethnic differences in fat-free mass, derived by deuterium dilution, were further evaluated in a subsample of the population (n = 698). Multiple linear regression models were used to calibrate BIA against deuterium dilution. Results In children <11 years of age, Black African/Caribbean children were significantly taller, heavier and had larger body size than children of other ethnicities. They also had larger waist and limb girths and relatively longer legs. Despite these differences, ethnic-specific terms did not contribute significantly to the BIA calibration equation (Fat-free mass = 1.12+0.71*(height2/impedance)+0.18*weight). Conclusion Although clear ethnic differences in body size, proportions and composition were evident in this population of young children aged 5 to 11 years, an ethnic-specific BIA calibration equation was not required. PMID:25478928

  20. Ethnic Differences in Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms: Disadvantage in Family Background, High School Experiences, and Adult Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsemann, Katrina M.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Geronimus, Arline T.

    2009-01-01

    Although research investigating ethnic differences in mental health has increased in recent years, we know relatively little about how mental health trajectories vary across ethnic groups. Do these differences occur at certain ages but not others? We investigate ethnic variation in trajectories of depressive symptoms, and we examine the extent to…

  1. Race/ethnic disparities in reproductive age: an examination of ovarian reserve estimates across four race/ethnic groups of healthy, regularly cycling women.

    PubMed

    Bleil, Maria E; Gregorich, Steven E; Adler, Nancy E; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rosen, Mitchell P; Cedars, Marcelle I

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether reproductive age, as indexed by a validated marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone [AMH]), varies among women of different race/ethnic backgrounds. Cross-sectional study. Community-based sample. Multiethnic sample of 947 (277 white, 237 African American, 220 Latina, and 213 Chinese) healthy and regularly cycling premenopausal women, ages 25-45. None. AMH level. A multivariate model was fit examining race/ethnicity, covariates, nonlinear terms for age (age(2), age(3)), and body mass index (BMI(2), BMI(3)), and two-way interactions between race/ethnicity and each of the other predictor variables in relation to AMH. After backward elimination, significant effects included race/ethnicity (F = 8.45), age (F = 349.94), race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction (F = 4.67), age(2) (F = 31.61), and BMI (F = 10.69). Inspection of the significant race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction showed AMH levels were consistently lower among Latina women compared with white women across all ages, whereas AMH levels were lower among African American and Chinese women compared with the white women at younger and middle ages, respectively. The AMH levels were higher among African American compared with Latina and Chinese women at older ages. Although the results must be considered preliminary, the findings are twofold: African American women may have lower AMH levels at younger ages but experience less of a reduction in AMH with advancing age, and Latina and Chinese women compared with white women may have lower AMH levels, marking a lower ovarian reserve and a possibly increased risk for earlier menopause. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Inequality in Language Achievement Growth? An Investigation into the Impact of Pupil Socio-Ethnic Background and School Socio-Ethnic Composition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfi, Barbara; Goos, Mieke; Pinxten, Maarten; Verhaeghe, Jean Pierre; Gielen, Sarah; De Fraine, Bieke; Van Damme, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates how pupils' growth trajectories in three language domains (reading fluency, spelling, and reading comprehension) are related to their own socioeconomic and ethnic background and to the socioeconomic and ethnic composition of their primary school. Using multilevel piecewise growth curve analysis, the growth trajectories…

  3. Help-seeking behaviour for internalizing problems: perceptions of adolescent girls from different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Flink, Ilse Johanna Elisabeth; Beirens, Tinneke Monique Josef; Butte, Dick; Raat, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Although adolescent girls from ethnic minorities are at an increased risk of internalizing problems (e.g. depression), only a small fraction seeks formal help for these problems. To enhance help-seeking for internalizing problems among ethnic minority adolescent girls, insight into their help-seeking behaviour is required. This study explored the perceptions of adolescent girls from different ethnic backgrounds regarding their help-seeking behaviour for internalizing problems. A qualitative study using focus group discussions (FGDs) was employed. Eight ethnic-specific FGDs were conducted with 50 adolescent girls of mostly Turkish (n=23), Moroccan (n=13), and Dutch (n=10) backgrounds recruited in Rotterdam, a multicultural city in the Netherlands. FGDs were conceptually framed within a help-seeking model, facilitated by a vignette and analysed using NVivo software. When describing the internalizing problems presented in the vignette, participants of non-Dutch FGDs tended to state the causes of the problems (e.g. lack of attention) whereas participants of Dutch FGDs mentioned the emotional state. Participants did not perceive the presented internalizing problems as severe. If participants were to face internalizing problems of their own, their decision to seek help would be hampered by negative attitudes towards professionals and school-based services. Particularly in non-Dutch FGDs the fear of parental and friend's reactions was identified as a barrier. Participants identified their mother and a good friend as primary sources of help. In this study, adolescent girls of Turkish, Moroccan and Dutch backgrounds had difficulty recognizing the severity of internalizing problems, and various barriers could hamper their decision to seek help. To enhance utilization of mental health services by youth, promoting a change in their attitudes towards mental health/school-based services is recommended. Guaranteeing confidentiality within school-based services, and training for

  4. Leptin levels distribution and ethnic background in two populations from Chile: Caucasian and Mapuche groups.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E

    1998-10-01

    Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P < 0.001), respectively vs Caucasian and Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P < 0.001, respectively). When we compared Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.

  5. Age at marriage, sex-ratios, and ethnic heterogamy.

    PubMed

    Stier, H; Shavit, Y

    1994-05-01

    "This paper focuses on the effects of age at marriage and the sex-ratio on patterns of ethnic homogamy among Israeli women. We hypothesize that later marriages are more likely than early marriages to be heterogamous as the 'marriage market' shifts from school to the work-place. By the same token, when facing severe marriage squeezes women will be forced to out-marry. Employing data from the 1983 census, we model mate selection of women from Afro-Asian and Euro-American origin in various birth-cohorts. The results do not fully support our hypotheses: we find that in and of itself, age at marriage does not enhance ethnic heterogamy."

  6. Individual, family background, and contextual explanations of racial and ethnic disparities in youths' exposure to violence.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

    2013-03-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic-White gap (33%) and the Black-White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences.

  7. Individual, Family Background, and Contextual Explanations of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Youths’ Exposure to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic–White gap (33%) and the Black–White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences. PMID:23327266

  8. Attitudes and risk perception of parents of different ethnic backgrounds regarding meningococcal C vaccination.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Danielle R M; Henneman, Lidewij; Hirasing, Remy A; van der Wal, Gerrit

    2005-05-09

    The aim of the present study is to assess the attitudes of parents toward vaccination as well as their risk perception of disease and vaccination. We interviewed 1763 parents of different ethnic groups (among others, Dutch, Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese parents). Results show that there were large differences in knowledge about disease and risk perception of disease and vaccination among parents of different ethnic backgrounds. Generally, people largely overestimated the risk of contracting the disease and the risk of dying after contracting the disease. Dutch parents were best informed, least worried, had the most critical attitude toward the campaign, and the lowest vaccination level compared to other parents. The differences in knowledge about vaccination and the more critical attitude of Dutch parents emphasize the need to take more into account parents' perspectives when designing information leaflets or other information media.

  9. Age, Race and Ethnicity: A Comparative Approach. Rethinking Ageing Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blakemore, Ken; Boneham, Margaret

    The rapid growth in aging populations in Britain, as in other countries, has led to a dramatic academic and professional interest in gerontology. This book brings together major research studies and information about aging Asian and Afro-Caribbean people in Britain. It is an attempt to relate theory and practice on gerontology to race and…

  10. Ethnic background and television viewing time among 4-year-old preschool children: the generation R study.

    PubMed

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Moll, Henriëtte A; Tiemeier, Henning; Verhulst, Frank C; Hofman, Albert; Mackenbach, Johan P; Raat, Hein

    2013-02-01

    Children's television viewing has been associated with an increased risk of overweight and obesity. This study aims to assess the associations of ethnic background and acculturation characteristics with television viewing time in 4-year-old preschool children. The authors analyzed data from 3452 preschool children and their parents enrolled in the Generation R Study, a large, multiethnic, prospective birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios of watching television ≥2 hours/day and ≥1 hour/day for Turkish, Moroccan, and Surinamese children (reference group: native Dutch children), adjusted for family socioeconomic position. Effect modification by family socioeconomic position was also assessed. After adjustment for family socioeconomic position, Turkish children (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.27; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.56-3.30), Moroccan children (aOR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.03-2.76), and Surinamese children (aOR, 3.12; 95% CI, 2.16-4.50) were significantly more likely to watch television ≥2 hours/day compared with native Dutch children. Stratified analyses showed greater disparity between ethnic minority groups and native Dutch children at higher educational levels. There were no significant associations between acculturation characteristics (i.e., generational status, age at immigration, and Dutch language skills) and children's television viewing time. Children from ethnic minority groups are at an increased risk for high levels of television viewing compared with native Dutch children, independent of family socioeconomic position. Interventions aimed to reduce television viewing time should target all children from ethnic minority groups.

  11. Menopausal age in various ethnic groups in Israel.

    PubMed

    Neri, A; Bider, D; Lidor, Y; Ovadia, J

    1982-12-01

    The effects of various parameters on age at menopause have been investigated in five ethnic groups in Israel comprising East European, West European, North African, Israeli and other Middle Eastern (Mediterranean) women, respectively. The data were acquired by means of anonymous questionnaires and were programmed for 1770 women. Correlation coefficients between various variables and age at menopause revealed three variables which have a straight correlation, vis. obesity index, number of children, and years of amenorrhoea (during the reproductive years). The years-of-smoking variable has an inverse correlation with age at menopause. East Europeans have the highest age at menarche. Two-way analysis of variance has shown that the obesity index, years of amenorrhoea, number of children and years-of-smoking parameters are individually more important than ethnic origin. The finding that the age at menopause is highest in the North African group is explained by the higher incidence in this group of high parity, a greater number of amenorrhoea, obesity, and low cigarette consumption. Since many habits (such as smoking, diet, use of contraceptive pills, multiple partners and marital obligations) are subject to frequent change in the modern world, it is of the utmost importance to repeat such a study every few years.

  12. Risk factors of overweight and obesity among preschool children with different ethnic background.

    PubMed

    Toselli, Stefania; Zaccagni, Luciana; Celenza, Francesca; Albertini, Augusta; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we evaluated the risk factors associated with overweight and obesity in 2,640 preschool children in Italy taking into account the ethnic background of the parents. Height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Personal and lifestyle data for the children (birth weight, type of breastfeeding, sleep duration, skipping breakfast, snacking, physical activity) and parents (ethnicity, educational level, occupation, weight, height) were collected by means of a questionnaire. Italian and Other European children generally showed the highest percentage of normal weight, while the other ethnic groups presented a greater imbalance. Overweight and obesity were high in African males, who also presented high birth weight. Breastfeeding was most common, although formula feeding was significantly higher in Italians than in immigrants. Immigrants, particularly males, tended to skip breakfast more than Italians. Physical activity was significantly higher in Italians than in immigrants. In the parents, underweight was particularly high in Italian and Other mothers. African parents had high rates of overweight and obesity and a low educational level. The most common profession was worker for the fathers and housewife for the mothers, with the exception of Italians in which clerical work prevailed. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the BMI of children was closely related to the BMI of the parents and the birth weight. Hence, these are the most informative parameters in preventing obesity.

  13. Change in ethnic identity across the high school years among adolescents with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Baldelomar, Oscar A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet, within-person analyses of change reveal that individual adolescents exhibited substantial fluctuation in ethnic identity across the years, and this fluctuation was associated with concurrent changes in family cohesion, proportion of same-ethnic peers, and ethnic centrality. The discussion focuses on the value of examining intraindividual change over at least several years in order to more fully understand processes of ethnic identity development during adolescence.

  14. Prevalence of long face pattern in Brazilian individuals of different ethnic backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    CARDOSO, Mauricio de Almeida; de CASTRO, Renata Cristina Faria Ribeiro; LI AN, Tien; NORMANDO, David; GARIB, Daniela Gamba; CAPELOZZA FILHO, Leopoldino

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The long face pattern is a facial deformity with increased anterior total facial height due to vertical excess of the lower facial third. Individuals with long face may present different degrees of severity in vertical excess, as well as malocclusions that are difficult to manage. The categorization of vertical excess is useful to determine the treatment prognosis. This survey assessed the distribution of ethnically different individuals with vertical excess according to three levels of severity and determined the prevalence of long face pattern. Material and Methods: The survey was comprised of 5,020 individuals of Brazilian ethnicity (2,480 females and 2,540 males) enrolled in middle schools in Bauru-SP, Brazil. The criterion for inclusion of individuals with vertically impaired facial relationships was based on lip incompetence, evaluated under natural light, in standing natural head position with the lips at rest. Once identified, the individuals were classified into three subtypes according to the severity: mild, moderate, and severe. Then the pooled sample was distributed according to ethnical background as White (Caucasoid), Black (African descent), Brown (mixed descent), Yellow (Asian descent) and Brazilian Indian (Brazilian native descent). The Chi-square (χ2) test was used (p<0.05) to compare the frequency ratios of individuals with vertically impaired facial relationships in the total sample and among different ethnicities, according to the three levels of severity. Results: The severe subtype was rare, except in Black individuals (7.32%), who also presented the highest relative frequency (45.53%) of moderate subtype, followed by Brown individuals (43.40%). In the mild subtype, Yellow (68.08%) and White individuals (62.21%) showed similar and higher relative frequency values. Conclusions: Black individuals had greater prevalence of long face pattern, followed by Brown, White and Yellow individuals. The prevalence of long face pattern was 14

  15. Using visual displays to communicate risk of cancer to women from diverse race/ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Wong, Sabrina T; Pérez-Stable, Eliseo J; Kim, Sue E; Gregorich, Steven E; Sawaya, George F; Walsh, Judith M E; Washington, A Eugene; Kaplan, Celia P

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated how well women from diverse race/ethnic groups were able to take a quantitative cancer risk statistic verbally provided to them and report it in a visual format. Cross-sectional survey was administered in English, Spanish or Chinese, to women aged 50-80 (n=1160), recruited from primary care practices. The survey contained breast, colorectal or cervical cancer questions regarding screening and prevention. Women were told cancer-specific lifetime risk then shown a visual display of risk and asked to indicate the specific lifetime risk. Correct indication of risk was the main outcome. Correct responses on icon arrays were 46% for breast, 55% for colon, and 44% for cervical; only 25% correctly responded to a magnifying glass graphic. Compared to Whites, African American and Latina women were significantly less likely to use the icon arrays correctly. Higher education and higher numeracy were associated with correct responses. Lower education was associated with lower numeracy. Race/ethnic differences were associated with women's ability to take a quantitative cancer risk statistic verbally provided to them and report it in a visual format. Systematically considering the complexity of intersecting factors such as race/ethnicity, educational level, poverty, and numeracy in most health communications is needed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Trends in birth across high-parity groups by race/ethnicity and maternal age.

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Muktar H.; Salihu, Hamisu M.; Keith, Louis G.; Ehiri, John E.; Islam, M. Aminul; Jolly, Pauline E.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The changing racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population along with delayed childbearing suggest that shifts in the demographic composition of gravidas are likely. It is unclear whether trends in the proportion of births to parous women in the United States have changed over the decades by race and ethnicity, reflecting parallel changes in population demographics. METHODS: Singleton deliveries > or = 20 weeks of gestation in the United States from 1989 through 2000 were analyzed using data from the "Natality data files" assembled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). We classified maternal age into three categories; younger mothers (aged < 30 years), mature mothers (30-39 years) and older mothers (> or = 40 years) and maternal race/ethnicity into three groups: blacks (non-Hispanic), Hispanics and whites (non-Hispanic). We computed birth rates by period of delivery across the entire population and repeated the analysis stratified by age and maternal race. Chi-squared statistics for linear trend were utilized to assess linear trend across three four-year phases: 1989-1992, 1993-1996 and 1997-2000. In estimating the association between race/ethnicity and parity status, the direct method of standardization was employed to adjust for maternal age. RESULTS: Over the study period, the total number of births to blacks and whites diminished consistently (p for trend < 0.001), whereas among Hispanics a progressive increase in the total number of deliveries was evident (p for trend < 0.001). Black and white women experienced a reduction in total deliveries equivalent to 10% and 9.3%, respectively, while Hispanic women showed a substantial increment in total births (25%). Regardless of race or ethnicity, birth rate was associated with increase in maternal age in a dose-effect fashion among the high (5-9 previous live births), very high (10-14 previous live births) and extremely high (> or = 15 previous live births) parity groups (p for trend

  17. Loneliness of Older Immigrant Groups in Canada: Effects of Ethnic-Cultural Background.

    PubMed

    De Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Van der Pas, Suzan; Keating, Norah

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determinants of loneliness included country of birth, ethnic background (cultural context); belongingness (community context) and social networks (social context). Results showed that only some immigrant groups are significantly lonelier than older adults born in Canada. Immigrants with similar language and culture are not lonelier; while those from countries that differ in native language/culture are significantly higher on loneliness. Multivariate analyses showed the importance of cultural background, of composition of the network of relatives and friends, and of local participation and feelings of belonging to the Canadian society in explaining loneliness of older immigrants.

  18. Correlates of adolescent marijuana use as related to age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Brook, J S; Lukoff, I F; Whiteman, M

    1977-01-01

    This study examines the interactive effects of background factors and personality/attitudinal and perceived environmental dimensions on adolescent drug behavior. Data were collected during home interviews using a structured interview schedule. The sample consisted of 403 British West Indian black, American black, and white adolescents, ranging in age from 13 to 17. Results suggested that two processes, nonconformity to conventional middle class values at both the personality/attitudinal and institutional level, and modeling of familial and peer drug use account in large part for adolescent drug behavior. The majority of correlates of adolescent drug behavior were similar in different sex, age, and ethnic groups.

  19. [Short stature in children of Karapotó ethnic background, São Sebastião, Alagoas, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Campos, Samara Bonfim Gomes; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; Silva, Danielle Alice Vieira da; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Asakura, Leiko; Costa, Emília Chagas; Leal, Vanessa Sá

    2016-06-01

    To describe the prevalence of short stature among children of Karapotó ethnic background. Cross-sectional, population-based study that included children between 6 and 59 months of age from the Plak-Ô native village and the Terra Nova settlement, São Sebastião, Alagoas, carried out between 2008 and 2009. Short stature was evaluated by the Height/Age index, using as cutoff z score ≤-2. The prevalence of short stature was determined by comparing simple and relative frequencies. The population growth curves were compared to the WHO reference curves. Data analysis included the outcome variable: Height/Age and the predictor variables: place of residence, gender, age, anemia, birth weight, family income, maternal literacy. The chi-square test was used to compare the categorical variables, whereas the chi-square test with Yates correction was used for dichotomous variables, considering as statistically significant p-values≤0.05. The prevalence of short stature was 15.6% for children from the Terra Nova settlement and 9.1% for those from Plak-Ô native village. The prevalence of short stature among the Karapotó ethnicity was 13.4%. The variables: maternal literacy, family income and low birth weight were statistically associated with short stature. The observed short stature prevalence rates are significant, being characterized as a public health problem. Among the associated factors, the following are noteworthy: unfavorable conditions of maternal literacy, family income and low birth weight. The planning of strategies to reverse the situation must take such factors into consideration. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. A Pilot Study To Explore How Low-Income Mothers of Different Ethnic/Racial Backgrounds Perceive and Implement Recommended Childhood Obesity Prevention Messages

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Rachel L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Mothers often serve as the “gatekeepers” of food and the eating experience for young children in the home. Children of different ethnic/racial groups have different obesity prevalence rates, but little is known about how mothers of these groups interpret or implement common childhood obesity prevention messages. The purpose of this mixed methods pilot study was to explore comprehension and implementation of common childhood obesity prevention messages and to identify feeding styles among low-income mothers of young children. Methods White, black, and Hispanic low-income mothers (n=30) of children ages 3–10 were recruited from Indiana. Mothers were interviewed individually regarding the perception and implementation of eight commonly used nutrition and/or physical activity messages. Other outcomes included the results of the Caregiver Feeding Styles Questionnaire and self-reported weight of mothers and child(ren). Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis to find common themes among the different ethnic/racial groups. Results Childhood obesity prevention messages were often interpreted or implemented differently among the different ethnic/racial groups. For example, white mothers cited control as a means to manage a child's weight more often compared to the other racial/ethnic groups, whereas black and Hispanic mothers reported catering to a child's preference more frequently compared to white mothers. Conclusion The pilot study provides evidence that it may be prudent to tailor nutrition messages to mothers of different ethnic/racial backgrounds during nutrition education. PMID:23679199

  1. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  2. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  3. Do the long-term consequences of neglect differ for children of different races and ethnic backgrounds?

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Wilson, Helen W; Allwood, Maureen; Chauhan, Preeti

    2013-02-01

    Scant research has examined how children of different races or ethnic backgrounds manifest consequences of neglect. We examined multiple domains of functioning (academic/intellectual, social/behavioral, and psychiatric), three theories (racial invariance, double jeopardy, and resilience), and potential confounding variables. Children with documented cases of neglect (ages 0-11) and matched controls without such histories were followed up and interviewed in adulthood (N = 1,039). The sample was 47.3% female, 62.4% White, 34.3% Black, and 3.4% Hispanic. Black and White neglected children showed negative consequences for IQ, reading ability, and occupational status compared to controls. Compared to same race and ethnic group controls, neglected White children showed extensive mental health consequences, Black children showed more anxiety and dysthymia, and Hispanic children showed increased risk for alcohol problems. Black and White neglected children differed in risk for violence compared to same race controls: Neglected Black children were arrested for violence two times more often than Black controls, whereas neglected White children were more likely than White controls to report engaging in violence. Findings provide some support for each theory (racial invariance, double jeopardy, and resilience). Understanding the factors that account for similarities and differences in consequences requires further investigation. Implications for research and policy are discussed.

  4. Quality of life of schizophrenia patients of Aymaran ethnic background in the north of Chile.

    PubMed

    Caqueo-Urízar, Alejandra; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, José; Ferrer-García, Marta; Fernández-Dávila, Paula

    2012-01-01

    To describe the quality of life of patients of Aymaran descent with schizophrenia and analyse the differences with patients of non-Aymaran descent. The study included 45 patients who attended the Mental Health Services in Arica, Chile. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Seville Quality of Life Questionnaire (SQoLQ) were used. The patients of the study showed moderate quality of life levels, with a strong association with the negative syndrome and the general psychopathology of the disorder. No significant differences were found in the quality of life dimensions as regards ethnic background. The results found demonstrate that the integration of patients in the Community Health Services is positively associated as regards their quality of life. The integration of the caregivers is considered essential in the treatments administered. Copyright © 2011 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Cultural Transition and Academic Achievement of Students from Ethnic Minority Backgrounds: A Content Analysis of Empirical Research on Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students that has been identified in most OECD countries and the considerable educational dropout rate among students from ethnic minority backgrounds in some countries have become serious challenges for national educational systems. The educational underachievement of young…

  6. The Role of Heritage Language Development in the Ethnic Identity and Family Relationships of Adolescents from Immigrant Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oh, Janet S.; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of immigrant-background adolescents' heritage language (HL) proficiency and use of the language on parent-adolescent relationships and ethnic identity was investigated in a sample of 414 adolescents from Latin American and Asian backgrounds. HL proficiency, but not language use, was positively associated with the quality of…

  7. Cultural Transition and Academic Achievement of Students from Ethnic Minority Backgrounds: A Content Analysis of Empirical Research on Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makarova, Elena; Birman, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Background: The achievement gap between immigrant and non-immigrant students that has been identified in most OECD countries and the considerable educational dropout rate among students from ethnic minority backgrounds in some countries have become serious challenges for national educational systems. The educational underachievement of young…

  8. Religion, Ethnicity and Contraceptive Use among Reproductive age Women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obasohan, Phillips Edomwonyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Religion and Ethnicity are the two most important factors that shape the behavioral pattern especially health seeking behaviors of the people of Nigeria. This study seeks to examine the mediatory effects of the linkage between ethnicity and religion with selected socio-demographic variables on the current use of contraception (CUC) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods: Nationally representative sample of 39,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Chi-square was used to analyze the bivariate relationship between exposure variables and CUC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio with the 95% confidence interval. Results: The prevalence of CUC was generally low for women of reproductive age in Nigeria, highest among the Yoruba women and lowest among the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi (HFKS) women; highest among other Christian women and lowest for Muslim women and highest for Yoruba/other religion and lowest for women of Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi/Islam. The odds ratios showed that disparity across ethno-religious boundaries is significant. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system. In Nigeria, a cultural and religious heterogeneous society, current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age is found not to be a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and other socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interactions between the ethnicity and religion. PMID:27621987

  9. Short stature in children of Karapotó ethnic background, São Sebastião, Alagoas, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Samara Bomfim Gomes; de Menezes, Risia Cristina Egito; Oliveira, Maria Alice Araújo; da Silva, Danielle Alice Vieira; Longo-Silva, Giovana; Oliveira, Juliana Souza; Asakura, Leiko; Costa, Emília Chagas; Leal, Vanessa Sá

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe the prevalence of short stature among children of Karapotó ethnic background. Methods: Cross-sectional, population-based study that included children between 6 and 59 months of age from the Plak-Ô native village and the Terra Nova settlement, São Sebastião, Alagoas, carried out between 2008 and 2009. Short stature was evaluated by the Height/Ageindex, using as cutoff z score≤−2. The prevalence of short stature was determined by compa-ring simple and relative frequencies. The population growth curves were compared to the WHO reference curves. Data analysis included the outcome variable: Height/Age and the predictor variables: place of residence, gender, age, anemia, birth weight, family income, maternal literacy. The chi-square test was used to compare the categorical variables, where as the chi-square test with Yates correction was used for dichotomous variables, considering as statistically significant p-values≤0.05. Results: The prevalence of short stature was 15.6% for children from the Terra Nova settlement and 9.1% for those from Plak-Ô native village. The prevalence of short stature among the Karapotó ethnicity was 13.4%. The variables: maternal literacy, family income and low birth weight were statistically associated with short stature. Conclusions: The observed short stature prevalence rates are significant, being characterized as a public health problem. Among the associated factors, the following are noteworthy: unfavorable conditions of maternal literacy, family income and low birth weight. The planning of strategies to reverse the situation must take such factors into consideration. PMID:26652132

  10. Seven-year time trends in energy balance-related behaviours according to educational level and ethnic background among 14-year-old adolescents.

    PubMed

    Meijerink, Frederika J; van Vuuren, C Leontine; Wijnhoven, Hanneke A H; van Eijsden, Manon

    2016-04-01

    To assess seven-year time trends in energy balance-related behaviours in 14-year-old adolescents living in an urban area and to examine the influence of educational level and ethnicity on these time trends. Second grade students (mean age 13·6 years) filled in questionnaires about the energy balance-related behaviours of breakfast consumption, fruit and vegetable consumption, physical activity and screen-time behaviour from school years 2006-2007 to 2012-2013. Energy balance-related behaviours were dichotomized and logistic regression analyses were used to examine time trends in healthy energy balance-related behaviours, including interaction terms for educational level and ethnicity. Secondary schools in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Per school year, 2185-3331 children participated. The total sample included 19 244 students of Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan ethnic background. A significant linear increase was found for positive screen-time behaviour (<2 h/d; OR per year=1·04; 95 % CI 1·03, 1·06). For daily vegetable consumption a non-linear negative trend was observed (school year 2012-2013 v. 2006-2007: OR=0·90; 95 % CI 0·80, 1·00). Time trends in screen time were significantly different across educational levels (P-interaction=0·002) and ethnic backgrounds (P<0·001), as were time trends in daily fruit consumption (P=0·017 and P=0·018, respectively) and, for ethnicity, trends in daily vegetable consumption (P<0·001). The increase in positive screen-time behaviour is a positive finding. However, discouraging screen time and promoting other healthy behaviours, more specifically daily fruit and vegetable consumption, remain important particularly among adolescents enrolled in pre-vocational education and of non-Dutch ethnic background.

  11. Influence of ethnic origin (Asian v. Caucasian) and background diet on the bioavailability of dietary isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Vergne, Sébastien; Sauvant, Patrick; Lamothe, Valérie; Chantre, Philippe; Asselineau, Julien; Perez, Paul; Durand, Marlène; Moore, Nicholas; Bennetau-Pelissero, Catherine

    2009-12-01

    Soya isoflavones: genistein and daidzein are increasingly consumed in Western countries. Their beneficial effects are discussed considering nutrition and health in Asia. The present study aimed to check whether chronic ingestions, ethnic origin and dietary context can influence soya phyto-oestrogen bioavailability. Two prospective trials were carried out to blindly assess the pharmacokinetics after acute and chronic intake of soya-based cheese (45.97 (sd1.57) mg isoflavones) taken once a day for 10 d. Twelve healthy young Asians immersed for 2 months in France were randomised in a cross-over design to compare the influence of a Western v. Asian dietary context. The second trial partly nested in the first one, compared Asians under the Western diet to twelve healthy young male Caucasians under the same diet. All volunteers were non-equol producers. After an acute intake of soya in Western diet, Asians exhibited higher maximum concentration measured in plasma (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) for genistein and daidzein than Caucasians (P = 0.005, 0.006, 0.032 and 0.008, respectively). In Caucasians under Western diet, AUC and Cmax values significantly increased after chronic intake. This was not the case for daidzein in Asians whatever the dietary context. For the first time, it is evidenced that on acute intake of soya cheese, Asians absorb soya phyto-oestrogens better than Caucasians, regardless of whether the background diet is Western or Asian. On chronic ingestions, AUC and Cmax values were increased for daidzein and genistein in Caucasians but not in Asians. There are ethnic differences in isoflavone pharmacokinetic and bioavailability. This may influence health outcomes.

  12. Variations in GP-patient communication by ethnicity, age, and gender: evidence from a national primary care patient survey.

    PubMed

    Burt, Jenni; Lloyd, Cathy; Campbell, John; Roland, Martin; Abel, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Doctor-patient communication is a key driver of overall satisfaction with primary care. Patients from minority ethnic backgrounds consistently report more negative experiences of doctor-patient communication. However, it is currently unknown whether these ethnic differences are concentrated in one gender or in particular age groups. To determine how reported GP-patient communication varies between patients from different ethnic groups, stratified by age and gender. Analysis of data from the English GP Patient Survey from 2012-2013 and 2013-2014, including 1,599,801 responders. A composite score was created for doctor-patient communication from five survey items concerned with interpersonal aspects of care. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to estimate age- and gender-specific differences between white British patients and patients of the same age and gender from each other ethnic group. There was strong evidence (P<0.001 for age by gender by ethnicity three-way interaction term) that the effect of ethnicity on reported GP-patient communication varied by both age and gender. The difference in scores between white British and other responders on doctor-patient communication items was largest for older, female Pakistani and Bangladeshi responders, and for younger responders who described their ethnicity as 'Any other white'. The identification of groups with particularly marked differences in experience of GP-patient communication--older, female, Asian patients and younger 'Any other white' patients--underlines the need for a renewed focus on quality of care for these groups. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  13. A pilot study to explore how low-income mothers of different ethnic/racial backgrounds perceive and implement recommended childhood obesity prevention messages.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Rachel L; Mobley, Amy R

    2013-06-01

    Mothers often serve as the "gatekeepers" of food and the eating experience for young children in the home. Children of different ethnic/racial groups have different obesity prevalence rates, but little is known about how mothers of these groups interpret or implement common childhood obesity prevention messages. The purpose of this mixed methods pilot study was to explore comprehension and implementation of common childhood obesity prevention messages and to identify feeding styles among low-income mothers of young children. White, black, and Hispanic low-income mothers (n=30) of children ages 3-10 were recruited from Indiana. Mothers were interviewed individually regarding the perception and implementation of eight commonly used nutrition and/or physical activity messages. Other outcomes included the results of the Caregiver Feeding Styles Questionnaire and self-reported weight of mothers and child(ren). Interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis to find common themes among the different ethnic/racial groups. Childhood obesity prevention messages were often interpreted or implemented differently among the different ethnic/racial groups. For example, white mothers cited control as a means to manage a child's weight more often compared to the other racial/ethnic groups, whereas black and Hispanic mothers reported catering to a child's preference more frequently compared to white mothers. The pilot study provides evidence that it may be prudent to tailor nutrition messages to mothers of different ethnic/racial backgrounds during nutrition education.

  14. Ethnicity and Ethnically "Mixed" Identity in Belize: A Study of Primary School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Sarah Woodbury

    1998-01-01

    Nationalism, as taught in Belize schools, is panethnic and multiethnic, but because the increasingly widespread practice of ethnic mixing is not acknowledged, there is a discrepancy between what is taught and the daily life of students. Research results from 161 elementary school children show that the ethnic self-identification of children is…

  15. Can at-risk young adolescents be popular and anti-social? Sociometric status groups, anti-social behaviour, gender and ethnic background.

    PubMed

    van de Schoot, Rens; van der Velden, Floor; Boom, Jan; Brugman, Daniël

    2010-10-01

    This study aimed to extend the understanding of anti-social behaviour and its association with popularity and sociometric status in a sample of at-risk adolescents from diverse ethnic backgrounds (n = 1491, average age 14.7 years). Both overt and covert types of anti-social behaviour were used to distinguish subgroups. These subgroups were created on the basis of anti-social behaviour profile scores, using Latent Class Analysis. Moderator effects of gender and ethnic background were investigated using a log-linear analysis. The main finding was that each sociometric status group consisted of subgroups that differed in terms of prevalence of self-reported anti-social behaviour. At-risk young adolescents who reported involvement in anti-social behaviour appeared in every status group, including the popular group. Implications for school prevention programmes for anti-social behaviour are discussed.

  16. The educational background and qualifications of UK medical students from ethnic minorities

    PubMed Central

    McManus, IC; Woolf, Katherine; Dacre, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Background UK medical students and doctors from ethnic minorities underperform in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations. Although it is assumed that white (W) and non-white (NW) students enter medical school with similar qualifications, neither the qualifications of NW students, nor their educational background have been looked at in detail. This study uses two large-scale databases to examine the educational attainment of W and NW students. Methods Attainment at GCSE and A level, and selection for medical school in relation to ethnicity, were analysed in two separate databases. The 10th cohort of the Youth Cohort Study provided data on 13,698 students taking GCSEs in 1999 in England and Wales, and their subsequent progression to A level. UCAS provided data for 1,484,650 applicants applying for admission to UK universities and colleges in 2003, 2004 and 2005, of whom 52,557 applied to medical school, and 23,443 were accepted. Results NW students achieve lower grades at GCSE overall, although achievement at the highest grades was similar to that of W students. NW students have higher educational aspirations, being more likely to go on to take A levels, especially in science and particularly chemistry, despite relatively lower achievement at GCSE. As a result, NW students perform less well at A level than W students, and hence NW students applying to university also have lower A-level grades than W students, both generally, and for medical school applicants. NW medical school entrants have lower A level grades than W entrants, with an effect size of about -0.10. Conclusion The effect size for the difference between white and non-white medical school entrants is about B0.10, which would mean that for a typical medical school examination there might be about 5 NW failures for each 4 W failures. However, this effect can only explain a portion of the overall effect size found in undergraduate and postgraduate examinations of about -0.32. PMID:18416818

  17. Iron-deficiency anaemia and physical performance in adolescent girls from different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Nelson, M; Bakaliou, F; Trivedi, A

    1994-09-01

    One hundred and fourteen 11-14-year-old schoolgirls from Wembley, Middlesex, were assessed for Fe status (haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume and mean corpuscular Hb concentration, height, weight, eating habits, and ethnic origin, and undertook a step test to assess physical performance. Overall, 20% of girls had Hb less than 120 g/l, ranging from 11% in White girls to 22-25% in girls of Asian origin. Prevalence of low Hb was 20% in vegetarians, higher in White vegetarians compared with non-vegetarians (23 v. 4%), but lower in the Indian vegetarians compared with non-vegetarians (17 v. 32%). Low Hb was present in 25% of girls who had tried to lose weight in the previous year, and was more common in girls from manual social class backgrounds than non-manual (24 v. 10%). At the start of the step test the twenty-three girls with low Hb had heart rates similar to those with normal Hb, but heart rates in the low Hb group were significantly elevated immediately after the step test, and still significantly elevated 1 min later. The present results confirm the findings of a previous study in White girls, and suggest that physical performance may be compromised at mild levels of anaemia.

  18. Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…

  19. Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…

  20. Age and Ethnic Variation in Children's Thinking about the Nature of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2004-01-01

    A content analysis of interviews with an ethnically diverse group of 202 children aged 6 to 10 describes what children think racism is, and examines associations between age, ethnicity, and children's thinking about racism. Children's narratives capture many dimensions of racism, including stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and ethnic…

  1. Increasing Latency Age Children's Sensitivity to Racial and Ethnic Differences through Enhancing their Awareness and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Alvin D.

    This practicum addressed the needs of latency age children who were insensitive to racial and ethnic differences. These needs were met by designing and developing a Cultural Awareness Program, so as to increase latency age children's sensitivity to racial and ethnic differences. The program's focus was on helping the children gain an appreciation…

  2. Age and Ethnic Variation in Children's Thinking about the Nature of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2004-01-01

    A content analysis of interviews with an ethnically diverse group of 202 children aged 6 to 10 describes what children think racism is, and examines associations between age, ethnicity, and children's thinking about racism. Children's narratives capture many dimensions of racism, including stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and ethnic…

  3. Promoting Post-16 Participation of Ethnic Minority Students from Disadvantaged Backgrounds: A Systematic Review of the Most Promising Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Beng Huat; Gorard, Stephen; Torgerson, Carole

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread international concern that young people from disadvantaged backgrounds and some ethnic minorities are less likely to continue education or training after compulsory schooling, or are less likely to follow the highest-status and prestigious routes. Based on work done in the UK, this paper presents the results of a systematic…

  4. The Differential Effect of the Teacher-Student Interpersonal Relationship on Student Outcomes for Students with Different Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Brok, Perry; van Tartwijk, Jan; Wubbels, Theo; Veldman, Ietje

    2010-01-01

    Background: The differential effectiveness of schools and teachers receives a growing interest, but few studies focused on the relevance of student ethnicity for this effectiveness and only a small number of these studies investigated teaching in terms of the teacher-student interpersonal relationship. Furthermore, the methodology employed often…

  5. Using the Swedish Model to Motivate the Development of Family/Ethnic Backgrounds as Educational Resources in American Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernick, Walter

    Educators rarely attempt to exploit the positive features of their students' family and ethnic backgrounds as helpful resources for instruction. Rather, they seek out students' individual differences only when problems arise. Thinking positively about the influences of particular features becomes lost in problem-centered efforts to maintain test…

  6. Promoting Post-16 Participation of Ethnic Minority Students from Disadvantaged Backgrounds: A Systematic Review of the Most Promising Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    See, Beng Huat; Gorard, Stephen; Torgerson, Carole

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread international concern that young people from disadvantaged backgrounds and some ethnic minorities are less likely to continue education or training after compulsory schooling, or are less likely to follow the highest-status and prestigious routes. Based on work done in the UK, this paper presents the results of a systematic…

  7. Age as a Factor in Ethnic Accent Identification in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ying Ying

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to answer two research questions. First, can listeners distinguish the ethnicity of the speakers on the basis of voice quality alone? Second, do demographic differences among the listeners affect discriminability? A simple but carefully designed and controlled ethnic identification test was carried out on 325 Singaporean…

  8. Young Children's Cognitive Achievement: Home Learning Environment, Language and Ethnic Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frumkin, Lara A.

    2013-01-01

    For decades, research has shown differences in cognitive assessment scores between White and minority ethnic group(s) learners as well as differences across different minority ethnic groups. More recent data have indicated that the home learning environment and languages spoken can impact cognitive assessment and other corollary outcomes. This…

  9. Spotlight on equality of employment opportunities: A qualitative study of job seeking experiences of graduating nurses and physiotherapists from black and minority ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Hammond, John; Marshall-Lucette, Sylvie; Davies, Nigel; Ross, Fiona; Harris, Ruth

    2017-08-01

    There is growing attention in the UK and internationally to the representation of black and minority ethnic groups in healthcare education and the workplace. Although the NHS workforce is very diverse, ethnic minorities are unevenly spread across occupations, and considerably underrepresented in senior positions. Previous research has highlighted that this inequality also exists at junior levels with newly qualified nurses from non-White/British ethnic groups being less likely to get a job at graduation than their White/British colleagues. Although there is better national data on the scale of inequalities in the healthcare workforce, there is a gap in our understanding about the experience of job seeking, and the factors that influence disadvantage in nursing and other professions such as physiotherapy. This qualitative study seeks to fill that gap and explores the experience of student nurses (n=12) and physiotherapists (n=6) throughout their education and during the first 6-months post qualification to identify key experiences and milestones relating to successful employment particularly focusing on the perspectives from different ethnic groups. Participants were purposively sampled from one university to ensure diversity in ethnic group, age and gender. Using a phenomenological approach, in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted at course completion and 6 months later. Two main themes were identified. The 'proactive self' ('It's up to me') theme included perceptions of employment success being due to student proactivity and resilience; qualities valued by employers. The second theme described the need to 'fit in' with organisational culture. Graduates described accommodating strategies where they modified aspects of their identity (clothing, cultural markers) to fit in. At one extreme, rather than fitting in, participants from minority ethnic backgrounds avoided applying to certain hospitals due to perceptions of discriminatory cultures, 'I wouldn

  10. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment Among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2009-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans reported higher search for meaning than Latin and European Americans. Presence of meaning was positively associated with self-esteem, academic adjustment, daily well-being, and ethnic belonging and exploration, whereas search for meaning was related to lower self-esteem and less stability in daily well-being. Presence of meaning mediated associations between ethnic identity and adjustment, explaining 28–52% of ethnic identity’s protective effect on development. Ethnic identity thus appears to affect adjustment, in part, through its role in fostering a positive sense of meaning in adolescents’ lives. PMID:19915965

  11. Meaning in life as a mediator of ethnic identity and adjustment among adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2010-11-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining associations between ethnic identity and adjustment were examined. Although no generational or gender differences were found, Asian Americans reported higher search for meaning than Latin and European Americans. Presence of meaning was positively associated with self-esteem, academic adjustment, daily well-being, and ethnic belonging and exploration, whereas search for meaning was related to lower self-esteem and less stability in daily well-being. Presence of meaning mediated associations between ethnic identity and adjustment, explaining 28-52% of ethnic identity's protective effect on development. Ethnic identity thus appears to affect adjustment, in part, through its role in fostering a positive sense of meaning in adolescents' lives.

  12. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  13. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  14. The differential effect of the teacher-student interpersonal relationship on student outcomes for students with different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    den Brok, Perry; van Tartwijk, Jan; Wubbels, Theo; Veldman, Ietje

    2010-06-01

    The differential effectiveness of schools and teachers receives a growing interest, but few studies focused on the relevance of student ethnicity for this effectiveness and only a small number of these studies investigated teaching in terms of the teacher-student interpersonal relationship. Furthermore, the methodology employed often restricted researchers to investigating direct effects between variables across large samples of students. This study uses causal modelling to investigate associations between student background characteristics, students' perceptions of the teacher-student interpersonal relationship, and student outcomes, across and within several population subgroups in Dutch secondary multi-ethnic classes. Multi-group structural equation modelling was used to investigate causal paths between variables in four ethnic groups: Dutch (N=387), Turkish first- and second-generation immigrant students (N=267), Moroccan first and second generation (N=364), and Surinamese second-generation students (N=101). Different structural paths were necessary to explain associations between variables in the different (sub) groups. Different amounts of variance in student attitudes could be explained by these variables. The teacher-student interpersonal relationship is more important for students with a non-Dutch background than for students with a Dutch background. Results suggest that the teacher-student relationship is more important for second generation than for first-generation immigrant students. Multi-group causal model analyses can provide a better, more differentiated picture of the associations between student background variables, teacher behaviour, and student outcomes than do more traditional types of analyses.

  15. An Approach for Development of Age-, Gender-, and Ethnicity-Specific Thyrotropin Reference Limits

    PubMed Central

    Hollowell, Joseph G.; Surks, Martin I.

    2011-01-01

    Background The use of age- and ethnicity-specific thyrotropin (TSH) reference limits decreases misclassification of patients with thyroid dysfunction. Developing such limits requires TSH measurements in different subpopulations. Methods We determined, in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III, the TSH median, 2.5th and 97.5th centiles as a function of age, and anti-thyroid antibodies (ABs) in specific racial/ethnic groups (REGs) designated as non-Hispanic Whites, non-Hispanic Blacks, and Mexican Americans, as classified by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Directive 15. We compared TSH limits of a thyroid disease-free population (n = 15,277) to a reference population (n = 13,344) formed by exclusion of AB+ subjects and TSH >10 mIU/L or <0.1 mIU/L. With quantile regression, we examined the effect of age, REG, gender, body weight, and urinary iodine concentration on TSH reference limits in the AB− population. Results AB status did not affect the 2.5th centile and median TSH in any REG or the 97.5th centile in Blacks. The average 97.5th centile of the disease-free Whites and Mexican Americans was 1.0 mIU/L higher than the reference population group. The TSH 2.5th, 50th, and 97.5th centiles increased with age and were lower in Blacks than in Whites or Mexican Americans. Women had lower 2.5th and 50th centiles than males. From these data, we developed equations to predict subpopulation-specific TSH reference limits. Conclusions Our study provides a method to determine TSH limits in individual patients of different ages, gender, and REG criteria whose AB status is uncertain and it will enable clinicians to better classify patients within their subpopulation-specific TSH reference range. PMID:21058882

  16. The cosmic neutrino background and the age of the Universe

    SciTech Connect

    De Bernardis, Francesco; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Verde, Licia; Jimenez, Raul E-mail: lverde@physics.upenn.edu

    2008-03-15

    We discuss the cosmological degeneracy of the age of the Universe, the Hubble parameter and the effective number of relativistic particles N{sub eff}. We show that independent determinations of the Hubble parameter H(z) such as those recently provided by Simon et al (2005 Phys. Rev. D 71 123001), combined with other cosmological data sets, can provide the most stringent constraints on N{sub eff}, yielding N{sub eff} = 3.7{sub -1.2}{sup +1.1} at 95% confidence level. A neutrino background is detected with high significance: N{sub eff}>1.8 at better than 99% confidence level. Constraints on the age of the Universe in the framework of an extra background of relativistic particles are improved by a factor of 3.

  17. Ethnicity and first birth: age, smoking, delivery, gestation, weight and feeding: Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Narinder; Chalmers, James W T; Fischbacher, Colin M; Steiner, Markus F C; Bhopal, Raj S

    2014-12-01

    We linked census and health service data sets to address the shortage of information comparing maternal characteristics and pregnancy outcomes by ethnic group in Scotland. Retrospective cohort study linking the 2001 National Census for Scotland and hospital obstetric data (2001-08), comparing maternal age, smoking status, gestational age, caesarean section rates, birthweight, preterm birth and breastfeeding rates by ethnic group. In all, 144 344 women were identified as having had a first birth between 1 May 2001 and 30 April 2008. White Scottish mothers were younger [mean age 27.3 years; 95% confidence interval (CI): 27.3, 27.4] than other white groups and most non-white groups. They had the highest smoking rates (25.8%; CI: 25.5, 26.0) and the lowest rates of breastfeeding at 6-8 weeks (23.4%; CI: 23.1, 23.6), with most of the other groups being around 40%. Women from non-white minority ethnic groups in Scotland tended to have babies of lower birthweight (e.g. Pakistani mean birthweight-3105 g, white Scottish-3356 g), even after adjustment for gestational age, maternal age, education, smoking and housing tenure. This effect was more noticeable for women born in the UK. White English, Irish and other white babies tended to have higher birthweights. There was little variation between groups in caesarean section rates. Pregnant women from ethnic minority populations in Scotland have more favourable health behaviour than the white Scottish, although the non-white groups tend to have lower birthweight. Further exploration of the reasons for these differences has potential to benefit women from the majority population. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  18. Handbook for National Unions of Students on Students with a Migrant or Ethnic Minority Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maoláin, Aengus Ó.; Popescu, Cristi; Bergan, Gabriela; Sallinen, Jyri; Savola, Pauliina; de Bruijn, Simone; Dalen, Svea; Servant, Thibaut; Grønne, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    This handbook has been written by the European Student's Union's Ethnic Minorities Working Group (EMWG) based on the work it conducted from its establishment at ESU's Board Meeting 57 in 2009 until its expiration at the Board Meeting 64 in 2013. The work was undertaken by representatives from ESU's members SAMOK (Finland), NUSUK (UK), LSVb (the…

  19. Stereotype Threat and School Belonging in Adolescents from Diverse Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Mallett, Robyn K.; Andretta, James R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we extend research on stereotype threat to adolescents and to school belonging. Stereotype threat refers to the impact of societal stereotypes on individual performance. Participants included adolescents from marginalized racial/ethnic minority groups including African Americans, American Indians, and Latinos and nonmarginalized…

  20. Female EFL Learners' Request Realization in Relation to Their Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Artanti Puspita

    2010-01-01

    The choice of strategies and modifications of speech acts in conversational communication may be correlated with sociolinguistic factors, such as ethnicity, social distance and dominance. Requests, as a part of speech acts, provide an interesting focus in this research because requests are face-threatening acts. This article was based on a…

  1. Multicultural Conversations in Supervision: The Impact of the Supervisor's Racial/Ethnic Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estrada, Diane

    2005-01-01

    This article investigates the impact of supervisors' racial and ethnic origins on the exploration of multicultural competencies in clinical supervision. Data were collected from 102 practicum and internship students in three different counsellor education programs. Supervision conversations centring on multicultural awareness, skills, and…

  2. Female EFL Learners' Request Realization in Relation to Their Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Artanti Puspita

    2010-01-01

    The choice of strategies and modifications of speech acts in conversational communication may be correlated with sociolinguistic factors, such as ethnicity, social distance and dominance. Requests, as a part of speech acts, provide an interesting focus in this research because requests are face-threatening acts. This article was based on a…

  3. Age-related decline in bone density among ethnically diverse older men.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Y; Cauley, J A; Wheeler, V W; Patrick, A L; Bunker, C H; Ensrud, K E; Orwoll, E S; Zmuda, J M

    2011-02-01

    We compared rates of BMD decline in older men of diverse ethnic background. The rate of bone loss was statistically equivalent between men of African and Caucasian descent. Race differences in peak bone mineral density (BMD) are well established, but the magnitude of bone loss among non-white men has not been well characterized. Our objective was to compare and contrast the rates of decline in BMD with aging among older men of different race/ethnic groups. The rate of decline in hip BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic QDR-4500 W) with an average follow-up of 4.6 years in 3,869 Caucasian, 138 African American, 145 Asian, and 334 Afro-Caribbean men aged ≥ 65 years (Mean ages: 73 ± 5, 70 ± 4, 72 ± 5, 71 ± 5 years, respectively). The annual rate of decline in BMD at the femoral neck was -0.32%, -0.42%, -0.09%, and -0.44%/year for Caucasian, African American, Asian, and Afro-Caribbean men, respectively (p < 0.05 for Caucasian versus Asian). Although men of African ancestry have higher peak BMD than Caucasians, rates of decline in BMD with aging appear to be statistically equivalent in our study. In contrast, Asian men experienced a slower rate of decline in BMD compared with Caucasians and African Americans. More studies are needed to better define the natural history of and factors associated with bone loss among non-white men.

  4. Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted.

  5. Maternal thyroid parameters in pregnant women with different ethnic backgrounds: Do ethnicity-specific reference ranges improve the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism?

    PubMed

    Veltri, Flora; Belhomme, Julie; Kleynen, Pierre; Grabczan, Lidia; Rozenberg, Serge; Pepersack, Thierry; Poppe, Kris

    2017-06-01

    Guidelines on the management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy have recently been updated and, for the diagnosis of subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), a thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) upper reference limit (cut-off) of 4.0 mIU/L has been proposed when no institutional values are available. It is also suggested that serum TSH and thyroid autoimmunity (TAI) may be different according to the ethnic background of the women. We therefore determined the prevalence of TAI and SCH in pregnant women with different ethnic backgrounds and, to define SCH, we used different first trimester TSH upper reference cut-offs (institutional, ethnicity-specific, 2.5 mIU/L [Endocrine Society] and 4.0 mIU/L [American Thyroid Association]). Cross-sectional data analysis of 1683 pregnant women nested within an ongoing prospective database of pregnant women. The study was performed in a single centre in Brussels, Belgium. During the first antenatal visit, thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-abs), TSH and free T4 (FT4) were measured and baseline characteristics recorded. Data from 481 women with sub-Saharan (SaBg; 28.6%), 754 North African (NaBg; 44.8%) and 448 Caucasian (CaBg; 26.6%) backgrounds were analysed. For the calculation of TSH reference ranges, women with TAI, outliers, twin and assisted pregnancies were excluded. The prevalence of TAI was significantly lower in the SaBg group than in NaBg and CaBg groups (3.3% vs 8.6% and 11.1%; P<.001, respectively). Median TSH was significantly lower in SaBg and NaBg groups as compared with the CaBg group (1.3 and 1.4 vs 1.5 mIU/L; P=.006 and .014, respectively). The prevalence of women with SCH was comparable between all groups when 2.5 mIU/L was used as cut-off, but when 4.0 mIU/L or the institutional cut-off (3.74 mIU/L) was used, it was significantly higher in the CaBg group vs the NaBg group (5.4% vs 2.1% and 7.1% vs 3.3%, P=.008 and .013, respectively). The use of ethnicity-specific cut-offs did not change the prevalence of SCH

  6. Breast density across a regional screening population: effects of age, ethnicity and deprivation.

    PubMed

    Heller, Samantha L; Hudson, Sue; Wilkinson, Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Breast density (BD) is a recognized risk factor for breast cancer. This study maps density variation across a screening population and identifies demographic distinctions, which may affect density and so impact on cancer development/detection. We focus on the relationship between age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status on density. This retrospective study on a screening population adheres to local patient confidentiality requirements. BD data from screening mammograms (March 2013 to September 2014) were measured using Volpara((®))Density(™) software (Volpara((®))Solutions(™), Wellington, New Zealand). Demographics, including patient age, ethnicity and deprivation index, were obtained from our breast screening database and analysed with respect to breast volume (BV), fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV), Volpara %BD and Volpara Grade (1-4 scale, lowest to highest). Study population demonstrates little difference for BV with respect to age, but a slight negative trend was noted when FGV was evaluated vs age. Density was linked to ethnicity: females of Chinese ethnicity had higher BD largely reflecting their lower BV. Females in the most deprived quintiles tended to have larger and therefore less dense breasts. Our mapping of BD in a regional screening programme demonstrates impact of age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status on BD with attendant implications for breast cancer risk. BD is a known risk factor for development of breast cancer. Density trends in a large regional screening population with respect to age, ethnicity and socioeconomics may eventually help identify the risk of breast cancer in certain subsets of the population.

  7. Racial/Ethnic and Age Differences in Women's Awareness of Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Miller, Kerri L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to examine differences in awareness of heart disease among women according to race/ethnicity by age group, adjusted for confounders. Methods American Heart Association (AHA) National Surveys conducted in 2006 (n=1005) and 2009 (n=1142) were pooled using common variables (n=2147) and reweighted to reflect the 2010 United States Census. Surveys comprised standardized, interviewer-assisted demographic and awareness questions. Associations between racial/ethnic group and heart disease awareness stratified by age were assessed by weighted chi-square statistics; logistic regression was used for multivariable adjustment. Results Black and Hispanic women were 66% less likely than white women to be aware that heart disease is the leading cause of death in women (odds ratio [OR] 0.34, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.23–0.50) after multivariable adjustment for significant confounders. The percent aware among white women was 65%; awareness did not differ between black and Hispanic women (37% vs. 38%). Other significant multivariable predictors included age<55 years) were less likely to be aware that heart disease is the leading cause of death in women (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.50–0.87) and were less likely to report being very well/well informed about heart disease (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.41–0.68) compared to older women (age≥55 years). Awareness of heart attack signs, such as shortness of breath (34%), nausea (15%), and fatigue (7%), was low among all women. Conclusions Racial/ethnic minority status and age<55 years were significant risk factors for lower heart disease awareness among women, suggesting these groups should be targeted for educational programs. Awareness of heart attack signs was low among all subgroups of women. PMID:22512853

  8. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W C; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9-18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students' Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group.

  9. Ethnic differences in the relationship between body mass index and percentage body fat among Asian children from different backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ailing; Byrne, Nuala M; Kagawa, Masaharu; Ma, Guansheng; Poh, Bee Koon; Ismail, Mohammad Noor; Kijboonchoo, Kallaya; Nasreddine, Lara; Trinidad, Trinidad Palad; Hills, Andrew P

    2011-11-01

    Overweight and obesity in Asian children are increasing at an alarming rate; therefore a better understanding of the relationship between BMI and percentage body fat (%BF) in this population is important. A total of 1039 children aged 8-10 years, encompassing a wide BMI range, were recruited from China, Lebanon, Malaysia, The Philippines and Thailand. Body composition was determined using the 2H dilution technique to quantify total body water and subsequently fat mass, fat-free mass and %BF. Ethnic differences in the BMI-%BF relationship were found; for example, %BF in Filipino boys was approximately 2 % lower than in their Thai and Malay counterparts. In contrast, Thai girls had approximately 2.0 % higher %BF values than in their Chinese, Lebanese, Filipino and Malay counterparts at a given BMI. However, the ethnic difference in the BMI-%BF relationship varied by BMI. Compared with Caucasian children of the same age, Asian children had 3-6 units lower BMI at a given %BF. Approximately one-third of the obese Asian children (%BF above 25 % for boys and above 30 % for girls) in the study were not identified using the WHO classification and more than half using the International Obesity Task Force classification. Use of the Chinese classification increased the sensitivity. Results confirmed the necessity to consider ethnic differences in body composition when developing BMI cut-points and other obesity criteria in Asian children.

  10. Effect of serum cotinine on vitamin D serum concentrations among american females with different ethnic backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Manavi, Kiano Reza; Alston-Mills, Brenda P; Thompson, Marvin P; Allen, Jonathan C

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of blood serum concentration of cotinine among non-smokers, passive/light smokers and active smoker females in the United States population as it compares to vitamin D blood serum concentrations. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) that is designed to assess the health and nutritional status of adults and children in the United States by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (n=22,196). The analyses demonstrated that among all three smoking categories, black female active smokers have lower vitamin D (13.374 ng/ml), than hispanic (19.213 ng/ml) or white (24.929 ng/ml) females. It was demonstrated that the active smoker black females have the highest percentage of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy in the population compared to other ethnic females. The cotinine blood serum concentrations can also affect vitamin D concentrations in addition to other factors such as gender, ethnicity, dietary supplement intake and sun exposure. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  12. Coping with disabilities: the perspective of young adults from different ethnic backgrounds in inner London.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Y; Moffatt, P; Corlett, S

    1994-06-01

    In April 1993, national reforms of the method of offering community health and social care have come into effect in the U.K. A cornerstone of the reforms will be the appointment of care managers by local authorities to oversee needs assessment and care of vulnerable people. A survey was undertaken of 65 young people with physical disabilities living in inner south east London, an area of deprivation and ethnic diversity. The aim was to ascertain the perceptions of young adults in terms of access to services, lifestyle and future plans. The information was intended to inform joint work by the local health and social services departments in their own needs assessment in implementing the Community Care Act. The majority of those interviewed were living with informal carers, usually their mother. Most people had complex disabilities and were wheelchair users, but it did not follow that those with greater need were being supported more by either statutory or voluntary sectors. In fact, people were losing what contact they once had, particularly with social services. Access to respite and organised social outlets was strictly limited, particularly for people with complex disabilities. Although over half the interviewees had taken formal examinations, only five were currently employed, and several had lost their job recently. Few had received advice about careers or independent living and almost half of those interviewed did not know where to go for family planning advice. Over 40% of interviewees were from ethnic minorities, and lived in close family networks where coping skills were similar to that of the white British group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  14. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  15. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  16. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  17. Excess Weight and Physical Health-Related Quality of Life in Postmenopausal Women of Diverse Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    McTigue, Kathleen M.; Bost, James E.; Tinker, Lesley F.; Vitolins, Mara; Adams-Campbell, Lucile; Sarto, Gloria E.; Hays-Grudo, Jennifer; Manson, JoAnn E.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Studies of weight and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) generally focus on white populations. This analysis examines the association between clinical weight categories and physical HRQOL in five racial/ethnic groups of older women and determines the extent to which emotional/psychological (social support, caregiver burden) and physical health (diabetes, osteoarthritis) factors modify this relationship. Methods The cross-sectional analysis, completed in 2007, used baseline data from postmenopausal women enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) during the 5-year recruitment period (1993–1998). Results Of 161,393 women, 83% were non-Hispanic white, 9% were African American, 4% were Hispanic/Latina, 3% were Asian/Pacific Islander, and <1% were American Indian/Alaska Native. Obesity (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m2) was most common in non-Asian minority groups. Regression modeling showed higher odds of poor physical HRQOL with increasing weight category in all groups. In the total sample, these odds were at least 6 times as high in women with class 3 obesity as in women of normal weight and were only mildly attenuated after the analysis adjusted for emotional/psychological factors. Further adjustment for physical health factors made odds ratio (OR) estimates drop from 2.36 to 1.59 for class 1 obesity and from 6.96 to 3.71 for class 3 obesity. This pattern generally persisted within each racial/ethnic group. Conclusions Heavier weight negatively affects physical HRQOL in postmenopausal women across diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds. Weight-relevant physical health factors have a greater impact on this weight-HRQOL association than do emotional/psychological factors. PMID:20629574

  18. The effect of age on skin color and color heterogeneity in four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    de Rigal, Jean; Des Mazis, Isabelle; Diridollou, Stephane; Querleux, Bernard; Yang, Grace; Leroy, Frederce; Barbosa, Vietoria Holloway

    2010-05-01

    Few comparative data are available on age-related changes in skin color among different ethnic groups. The aim of the study was to measure and analyze the skin color and color heterogeneity in four different ethnic groups living in the same local environment and to determine the effects of age on these skin color characteristics. Female volunteers (385) from four ethnic populations (African-American, Caucasian, Chinese and Mexicans) living in the same city were enrolled after informed consent. Skin color was measured on two facial areas, forehead and cheek. The subjects were further divided into six age ranges: 19-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, 61-70 and 71-87 years to determine any age-related effects on the skin color and color heterogeneity in both areas. According to the L(*)a(*)b(*) CIE system, clarity (fairness/lightness) was found to be lower in the African-American group whereas the hue was lower in Caucasians, which means more red skin. A clear, statistically significant darkening of the skin with age was observed in all ethnic groups, while evidence of yellowing of the skin was shown in the Chinese volunteers. Overall, the skin color of the face of African-Americans was more heterogeneous than in the other ethnic groups, but showed the least increase with age. Our study revealed interesting differences in skin color and color heterogeneity with respect to ethnicity and age-related alterations. Data obtained are very useful in improving our knowledge about the skin of people of different origins and helps in the development of specific cosmetic products that are well adapted to all these populations.

  19. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  20. Performance of Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery: the roles of ethnicity and language backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Flores, Ilse; Casaletto, Kaitlin B; Marquine, Maria J; Umlauf, Anya; Moore, David J; Mungas, Dan; Gershon, Richard C; Beaumont, Jennifer L; Heaton, Robert K

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the influence of Hispanic ethnicity and language/cultural background on performance on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). Participants included healthy, primarily English-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-English), primarily Spanish-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-Spanish), and English speaking Non-Hispanic white (n = 93; NH white) adults matched on age, sex, and education levels. All participants were in the NIH Toolbox national norming project and completed the Fluid and Crystallized components of the NIHTB-CB. T-scores (demographically-unadjusted) were developed based on the current sample and were used in analyses. Spanish-speaking Hispanics performed worse than English-speaking Hispanics and NH whites on demographically unadjusted NIHTB-CB Fluid Composite scores (ps < .01). Results on individual measures comprising the Fluid Composite showed significant group differences on tests of executive inhibitory control (p = .001), processing speed (p = .003), and working memory (p < .001), but not on tests of cognitive flexibility or episodic memory. Test performances were associated with language/cultural backgrounds in the Hispanic-Spanish group: better vocabularies and reading were predicted by being born outside the U.S., having Spanish as a first language, attending school outside the U.S., and speaking more Spanish at home. However, many of these same background factors were associated with worse Fluid Composites within the Hispanic-Spanish group. On tests of Fluid cognition, the Hispanic-Spanish group performed the poorest of all groups. Socio-demographic and linguistic factors were associated with those differences. These findings highlight the importance of considering language/cultural backgrounds when interpreting neuropsychological test performances. Importantly, after applying previously published NIHTB-CB norms with demographic corrections, these language/ethnic group differences are eliminated.

  1. Race-Ethnicity, Social Background, and Grade Retention. CDE Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Robert M.; Pager, Devah I.; Simmons, Solon J.

    This paper reviews the policy context of school retention and shows that age-grade retardation has been common and growing in American schools from the 1970s-90s. The paper focuses on the period from 1972-98 and on grade retardation at ages 6, 9, 12, 15, and 17 years. By age 9 years, the odds of grade-retardation among African American and…

  2. Breast density across a regional screening population: effects of age, ethnicity and deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Sue; Wilkinson, Louise S

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Breast density (BD) is a recognized risk factor for breast cancer. This study maps density variation across a screening population and identifies demographic distinctions, which may affect density and so impact on cancer development/detection. We focus on the relationship between age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status on density. Methods: This retrospective study on a screening population adheres to local patient confidentiality requirements. BD data from screening mammograms (March 2013 to September 2014) were measured using Volpara®Density™ software (Volpara®Solutions™, Wellington, New Zealand). Demographics, including patient age, ethnicity and deprivation index, were obtained from our breast screening database and analysed with respect to breast volume (BV), fibroglandular tissue volume (FGV), Volpara %BD and Volpara Grade (1–4 scale, lowest to highest). Results: Study population demonstrates little difference for BV with respect to age, but a slight negative trend was noted when FGV was evaluated vs age. Density was linked to ethnicity: females of Chinese ethnicity had higher BD largely reflecting their lower BV. Females in the most deprived quintiles tended to have larger and therefore less dense breasts. Conclusion: Our mapping of BD in a regional screening programme demonstrates impact of age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status on BD with attendant implications for breast cancer risk. Advances in knowledge: BD is a known risk factor for development of breast cancer. Density trends in a large regional screening population with respect to age, ethnicity and socioeconomics may eventually help identify the risk of breast cancer in certain subsets of the population. PMID:26329467

  3. Cumulative BRCA mutation analysis in the Greek population confirms that homogenous ethnic background facilitates genetic testing.

    PubMed

    Tsigginou, Alexandra; Vlachopoulos, Fotios; Arzimanoglou, Iordanis; Zagouri, Flora; Dimitrakakis, Constantine

    2015-01-01

    Screening for BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 mutations has long moved from the research lab to the clinic as a routine clinical genetic testing. BRCA molecular alteration pattern varies among ethnic groups which makes it already a less straightforward process to select the appropriate mutations for routine genetic testing on the basis of known clinical significance. The present report comprises an in depth literature review of the so far reported BRCA 1 and BRCA 2 molecular alterations in Greek families. Our analysis of Greek cumulative BRCA 1 and 2 molecular data, produced by several independent groups, confirmed that six recurrent deleterious mutations account for almost 60 % and 70 % of all BRCA 1 and 2 and BRCA 1 mutations, respectively. As a result, it makes more sense to perform BRCA mutation analysis in the clinic in two sequential steps, first conventional analysis for the six most prevalent pathogenic mutations and if none identified, a second step of New Generation Sequencing-based whole genome or whole exome sequencing would follow. Our suggested approach would enable more clinically meaningful, considerably easier and less expensive BRCA analysis in the Greek population which is considered homogenous.

  4. Participation in sports, body composition, and fitness characteristics in children according to ethnic background.

    PubMed

    Toselli, S; Belcastro, M G

    2017-01-20

    Participation in sports has important implications, being associated with health and social features. The objectives of this study were to verify whether there were any differences in sport participation between immigrant and Italian children and whether there was any relation with their body composition and fitness characteristics. A survey was conducted on 1432 children attending primary school in the Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy). Anthropometric measurements, fitness characteristics, and data about participation in sports were considered. Italian children were more likely to participate in sports than immigrants and boys than girls. Among immigrants, the lowest values were observed in Asians. Eastern European males and Latin American females displayed the widest dimensions. Eastern Europeans generally showed the highest values of strength, while Latin Americans had the highest values of flexibility. Asian children showed the highest values of centripetal fat, and a high percentage of them exceeded the %F reference. These aspects, together with the low frequency of practicing sports, place Asians at greater risks for health. Sex and ethnic group are the most informative variables associated with participation in sports by children. Interventions including health education lessons and promoting the participation in sports for immigrant children attending schools need to be encouraged.

  5. Reionization during the dark ages from a cosmic axion background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evoli, Carmelo; Leo, Matteo; Mirizzi, Alessandro; Montanino, Daniele

    2016-05-01

    Recently it has been pointed out that a cosmic background of relativistic axion-like particles (ALPs) would be produced by the primordial decays of heavy fields in the post-inflation epoch, contributing to the extra-radiation content in the Universe today. Primordial magnetic fields would trigger conversions of these ALPs into sub-MeV photons during the dark ages. This photon flux would produce an early reionization of the Universe, leaving a significant imprint on the total optical depth to recombination τ. Using the current measurement of τ and the limit on the extra-radiation content Δ Neff by the Planck experiment we put a strong bound on the ALP-photon conversions. Namely we obtain upper limits on the product of the photon-ALP coupling constant gaγ times the magnetic field strength B down to gaγ B gtrsim 6 × 10-18 GeV-1 nG for ultralight ALPs.

  6. The applicability of Greulich and Pyle atlas to assess skeletal age for four ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Mansourvar, Marjan; Ismail, Maizatul Akmar; Raj, Ram Gopal; Kareem, Sameem Abdul; Aik, Saw; Gunalan, Roshan; Antony, Chermaine Deepa

    2014-02-01

    Recently, determination of skeletal age, defined as the assessment of bone age, has rapidly become an important task between forensic experts and radiologists. The Greulich-Pyle (GP) atlas is one of the most frequently used methods for the assessment of skeletal age around the world. After presentation of the GP approach for the estimation of the bone age, much research has been conducted to examine the usability of this method in various geographic or ethnic categories. This study investigates on a small-scale and compares the reliability of the GP atlas for assessment of the bone age for four ethnic groups - Asian, African/American, Caucasian and Hispanic - for a different range of ages. Plain radiographs of 184 left hands and wrists for males from the healthy sample between 1 to 18 years of age for four ethnic groups were taken. The skeletal age (SA) was estimated by a radiologist using the GP atlas. The blind method was utilized. The mean (SA) results were compared with mean chronological ages (CA) for the separate ethnic groups. SPSS was used to conduct the analysis and the paired t-test was applied to show the difference between the mean CA and mean SA achieved from the GP atlas. The results from the GP atlas were compared to the CA of the samples. In Asian subjects the mean difference was 0.873 years. The GP atlas showed delayed bone age at 2-7 ages (from 0.2 to 2.3 year) and then advanced bone age for age 8. In the African/American subjects the difference between CA and SA was statistically significant (P-value = 0.048). The mean difference in the Caucasian and Hispanic subjects reflects no considerable distinction with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3088 and 0.3766, respectively, (P-value >0.05 for both groups). According to the present study, it is concluded that although the GP atlas is reliable for Caucasian and Hispanic ethnic groups it is not applicable for other ethnic groups for different ranges of age, especially in the sample of the male African

  7. Does ethnicity, gender or age of physiotherapy students affect performance in the final clinical placements? An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Sandra; Norris, Meriel; Williams, Annabel

    2014-03-01

    To explore demographic differences in awarded marks of the final clinical placement in a physiotherapy undergraduate programme. Retrospective analysis of clinical placement assessment marks. A London university offering clinical placements throughout South East England. 333 physiotherapy students entering physiotherapy training between 2005 to 2009. Marks awarded following assessment using a clinical placement assessment form. The mean mark (SD) for age were standard entry 71 (7.4) vs. mature entry 72 (7.99) (ns); for gender male 72 (8.45) vs. female 71 (7.21) (ns); and ethnicity White British 72 (7.71) vs. ethnic minority 70 (7.01) (p=0.023). No interaction effects were observed between the independent variables and only ethnicity demonstrated a statistically significant effect (mean difference (MD) 2.4% 95%CI 0.5 to 4.3, F=5.24, p=0.023). This difference was maintained in most subcategories. Significant differences were observed for the interpersonal section (MD 2.21% 95%CI 0.14 to 4.28, F=4.409, p=0.03), the clinical reasoning section (MD 2.39% 95%CI 0.53 to 4.25, F=6.37, p=0.012) and the treatment section (MD 2.93 95%CI 1.10 to 4.83, F=9.198, p=0.003). Physiotherapy students from minority ethnic backgrounds were awarded a significantly lower mark than their white majority peers in final clinical placements, although the difference was small. Potential reasons are considered, with the strongest recommendation being for further enquiry into the potential relationship between ethnicity and success in undergraduate physiotherapy education. Copyright © 2013 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccination among Adults with Chronic Medical Conditions Vary by Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Degan; Qiao, Yanru; Brown, Natalie E.; Wang, Junling

    2017-01-01

    Background People living with chronic health conditions exhibit higher risk for developing severe complications from influenza according to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. Although racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination have been documented, it has not been comprehensively determined whether similar disparities are present among the adult population with at least one such condition. Objective To study if racial and ethnic disparities in relation to influenza vaccination are present in adults suffering from at least one chronic condition and if such inequalities differ between age groups. Methods The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2011–2012) was used to study the adult population (age ≥18) who had at least one chronic health condition. Baseline differences in population traits across racial and ethnic groups were identified using a chi-square test. This was conducted among various age groups. In addition, survey logistic regression was utilized to produce odds ratios of receiving influenza vaccination annually between racial and ethnic groups. Results The total sample consisted of 15,499 adults living with at least one chronic health condition. The numbers of non-Hispanic whites (whites), non-Hispanic blacks (blacks), and Hispanics were 8,658, 3,585, and 3,256, respectively. Whites (59.93%) were found to have a higher likelihood of self-reporting their receipt of the influenza vaccine in comparison to the black (48.54%) and Hispanic (48.65%) groups (P<0.001). When examining persons aged 50–64 years and ≥65 years, it was noted that the black (54.99%, 62.72%) and Hispanic (53.54%, 64.48%) population had lower rates of influenza vaccine coverage than the white population (59.22%, 77.89) (both P<0.0001). No significant differences between whites and the blacks or Hispanics were found among the groups among adults between 18 and 49 inclusive (P>0.05). After controlling for patient characteristics, the difference in influenza

  9. Influences of income, education, age, and ethnicity on physical abuse before and during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bohn, Diane K; Tebben, Julie G; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2004-01-01

    To examine the influence of socioeconomic status, education, ethnicity, and age on the prevalence of intimate partner abuse before and during pregnancy. Retrospective correlational analysis. Data were collected at six postpartum maternity settings. 1,004 women from six ethnic groups. Prevalence of intimate partner violence. 15.9% of study participants reported physical abuse by their current partner and 5.2% reported abuse during pregnancy. Decreased income, not having a high school education, and ethnicity were significantly related to current abuse and abuse during pregnancy in bivariate analyses. Having less than a high school education emerged as the most significant predictor of both abuse variables in multivariate analyses. African American and Puerto Rican women had the highest incidence of abuse in their current relationship. No significant differences were found in rates of abuse during pregnancy among women from different ethnic groups. The results of this analysis support the notion that abuse is most prevalent among the most disadvantaged women. However, it is not income per se, but rather the highly related variables of education and ethnicity that have the largest effect. Abuse occurs frequently among all women, warranting universal screening during health care encounters. Further research is needed to evaluate relationships between education, ethnicity, income, and abuse.

  10. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  11. [Is Mapuche ethnicity a risk factor for hip fracture in aged?].

    PubMed

    Sapunar, Jorge; Bravo, Paulina; Schneider, Hermann; Jiménez, Marcela

    2003-10-01

    Ethnic factors are involved in the risk for osteoporosis and hip fracture. To assess the effect of Mapuche ethnicity on the risk of hip fracture. A case control study. Cases were subjects over 55 years of age admitted, during one year, for hip fracture not associated to major trauma or tumors. Controls were randomly chosen from other hospital services and paired for age with cases. The magnitude of the association between ethnicity and hip fracture was expressed as odds ratio in a logistic regression model. In the study period, 156 cases with hip fracture were admitted. The proportion of subjects with Mapuche origin was significantly lower among cases than controls (11.8 and 26.5% respectively, p < 0.001). In the logistic regression model, Mapuche ethnicity was associated with hip fracture with an odds radio of 0.14 (p = 0.03, 95% CI 0.03-0.8). In this sample, Mapuche ethnicity is a protective factor for hip fracture.

  12. Effect of ethnicity, gender and age on the amount and composition of residual skin surface components derived from sebum, sweat and epidermal lipids

    PubMed Central

    Shetage, Satyajit S; Traynor, Matthew J; Brown, Marc B; Raji, Mahad; Graham-Kalio, Diepiriye; Chilcott, Robert P

    2014-01-01

    Background/purpose The superficial layer on the skin surface, known as the acid mantle, comprises a mixture of sebum, sweat, corneocyte debris and constituents of natural moisturizing factor. Thus, the phrase ‘residual skin surface components’ (RSSC) is an appropriate term for the mixture of substances recovered from the skin surface. There is no general agreement about the effects of ethnicity, gender and age on RSSC. The aim of this human volunteer study was to evaluate RSSC in relation to ethnicity, gender and age. A suitable acquisition medium for RSSC collection was identified and samples of RSSC were subsequently analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gravimetry. Methods A total of 315 volunteers participated in the study from a range of self-declared ethnic backgrounds. Six acquisition media were compared to determine the most suitable media for RSSC collection. The effect of age, gender and ethnicity on RSSC collection was evaluated by gravimetric analysis while GC-MS was used to determine the composition of RSSC. Results Of the six candidate materials assessed, cigarette paper provided the most practical and reproducible sample acquisition medium. There was no significant difference in the amount of RSSC collected when based on gender and ethnicity and no significant correlation between RSSC recovery and age. Up to 49 compounds were detected from human RSSC when analysed by GC-MS. Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that RSSC can be effectively collected using cigarette paper and analysed by GC-MS. Ethnicity, gender and age had no significant impact on the quantity of RSSC recovered from the skin surface. PMID:23865719

  13. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation differs according to ethnic background: results of the Multicultural Community Health Assessment Trial (M-CHAT).

    PubMed

    Lear, Scott A; Humphries, Karin H; Kohli, Simi; Chockalingam, Arun; Frohlich, Jiri J; Birmingham, C Laird

    2007-08-01

    It was suggested that body fat distribution differs across ethnic groups, and this may be important when considering risk of disease. Previous studies have not adequately investigated differences in discrete regions of abdominal adiposity across ethnic groups. We compared the relation between abdominal adipose tissue and total body fat between persons living in Canada of Aboriginal, Chinese, and South Asian origin with persons of European origin. Healthy Aboriginal, Chinese, European, and South Asian participants (n = 822) aged between 30 and 65 y were matched by sex, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI; in kg/m(2)) range. Total abdominal adipose tissue (TAT), subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), total body fat mass, lifestyle, and demographics were assessed. Relations between BMI and total body fat, TAT, SAT, and VAT and between total body fat and TAT, SAT, and VAT were investigated. BMI significantly underestimated VAT in all non-European groups. Throughout a range of total body fat mass, VAT was not significantly different between the Aboriginals and the Europeans. With total body fat >9.1 kg, Chinese participants had increasingly greater amounts of VAT than did the Europeans (P for interaction = 0.008). South Asians had less VAT with total body fat >37.4 kg but more VAT below that amount than did Europeans (P for interaction < 0.001). Compared with Europeans, the Chinese and South Asian cohorts had a relatively greater amount of abdominal adipose tissue, and this difference was more pronounced with VAT. No significant differences were observed between the Aboriginals and the Europeans.

  14. Online Learning across Ethnicity and Age: A Study on Learning Interaction Participation, Perception, and Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng; Kwak, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method study examined whether online learning interaction participation, perception, and learning satisfaction would be consistent across varied age and ethnicity groups. Data were collected from students enrolled in 28 online courses via content analysis with online interaction transcripts, structural equation modeling with the…

  15. Ethnicity and Aging: A Bibliography. Checklists in the Humanities and Education: Series Number Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murguia, Edward, Comp.; And Others

    Literature on ethnicity and aging is listed in this bibliography, which is intended to assist researchers, teachers, and policymakers. The bibliography is divided into seven categories: (1) multiethnic and general studies; (2) Black Americans; (3) Hispanic Americans; (4) Native Americans; (5) Asian and Pacific Americans; (6) European origin ethnic…

  16. Cultural Orientation in Asian American Adolescents: Variation by Age and Ethnic Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…

  17. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  18. Sexual orientation disparities in adolescent cigarette smoking: intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Corliss, Heather L; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A; Newcomb, Michael E; Buchting, Francisco O; Matthews, Alicia K

    2014-06-01

    We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64,397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay-lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians-gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians-gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking.

  19. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  20. Online Learning across Ethnicity and Age: A Study on Learning Interaction Participation, Perception, and Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng; Kwak, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method study examined whether online learning interaction participation, perception, and learning satisfaction would be consistent across varied age and ethnicity groups. Data were collected from students enrolled in 28 online courses via content analysis with online interaction transcripts, structural equation modeling with the…

  1. Ethnicity and Aging: A Bibliography. Checklists in the Humanities and Education: Series Number Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murguia, Edward, Comp.; And Others

    Literature on ethnicity and aging is listed in this bibliography, which is intended to assist researchers, teachers, and policymakers. The bibliography is divided into seven categories: (1) multiethnic and general studies; (2) Black Americans; (3) Hispanic Americans; (4) Native Americans; (5) Asian and Pacific Americans; (6) European origin ethnic…

  2. Trends in birth across high-parity groups by race/ethnicity and maternal age.

    PubMed

    Aliyu, Muktar H; Salihu, Hamisu M; Keith, Louis G; Ehiri, John E; Islam, M Aminul; Jolly, Pauline E

    2005-06-01

    The changing racial and ethnic diversity of the U.S. population along with delayed childbearing suggest that shifts in the demographic composition of gravidas are likely. It is unclear whether trends in the proportion of births to parous women in the United States have changed over the decades by race and ethnicity, reflecting parallel changes in population demographics. Singleton deliveries > or = 20 weeks of gestation in the United States from 1989 through 2000 were analyzed using data from the "Natality data files" assembled by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). We classified maternal age into three categories; younger mothers (aged < 30 years), mature mothers (30-39 years) and older mothers (> or = 40 years) and maternal race/ethnicity into three groups: blacks (non-Hispanic), Hispanics and whites (non-Hispanic). We computed birth rates by period of delivery across the entire population and repeated the analysis stratified by age and maternal race. Chi-squared statistics for linear trend were utilized to assess linear trend across three four-year phases: 1989-1992, 1993-1996 and 1997-2000. In estimating the association between race/ethnicity and parity status, the direct method of standardization was employed to adjust for maternal age. Over the study period, the total number of births to blacks and whites diminished consistently (p for trend < 0.001), whereas among Hispanics a progressive increase in the total number of deliveries was evident (p for trend < 0.001). Black and white women experienced a reduction in total deliveries equivalent to 10% and 9.3%, respectively, while Hispanic women showed a substantial increment in total births (25%). Regardless of race or ethnicity, birth rate was associated with increase in maternal age in a dose-effect fashion among the high (5-9 previous live births), very high (10-14 previous live births) and extremely high (> or = 15 previous live births) parity groups (p for trend < 0.001). After maternal age

  3. The Day-to-Day Impact of Urogenital Aging: Perspectives from Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Janis; Grady, Deborah; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Urogenital symptoms affect up to half of women after menopause, but their impact on women’s day-to-day functioning and wellbeing is poorly understood. METHODS Postmenopausal women aged 45 to 80 years reporting urogenital dryness, soreness, itching, or pain during sex were recruited to participate in in-depth focus groups to discuss the impact of their symptoms. Focus groups were homogenous with respect to race/ethnicity and stratified by age (for White or Black women) or language (for Latina women). Transcripts of sessions were analyzed according to grounded theory. RESULTS Six focus groups were conducted, involving 44 women (16 White, 14 Black, 14 Latina). Five domains of functioning and wellbeing affected by symptoms were identified: sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations. For some participants, symptoms primarily affected their ability to have and enjoy sex, as well as be responsive to their partners. For others, symptoms interfered with everyday activities, such as exercising, toileting, or sleeping. Participants regarded their symptoms as a sign that they were getting old or their body was deteriorating; women also associated symptoms with a loss of womanhood or sexuality. Additionally, participants reported feeling depressed, embarrassed, and frustrated about their symptoms, and expressed reluctance to discuss them with friends, family, or health care providers. CONCLUSIONS Urogenital symptoms can have a marked impact on sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations after menopause. Clinicians may need to question women actively about these symptoms, as many are reluctant to seek help for this problem. PMID:19908103

  4. Supporting Mature-Aged Students from a Low Socioeconomic Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tones, Megan; Fraser, Jenny; Elder, Ruth; White, Katherine M.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine mature-aged student perceptions of university support services and barriers to study. Using a mixed methods approach, interviews and focus groups were conducted with mature-aged students to identify barriers to study, knowledge and use of current student support services, and suggestions to improve upon…

  5. Bullying and victimization among adolescents: the role of ethnicity and ethnic composition of school class.

    PubMed

    Vervoort, Miranda H M; Scholte, Ron H J; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between ethnicity, peer-reported bullying and victimization, and whether these relationships were moderated by the ethnic composition of the school classes. Participants were 2386 adolescents (mean age: 13 years and 10 months; 51.9% boys) from 117 school classes in the Netherlands. Multilevel analyses showed that, after controlling for the ethnic composition of school class, ethnic minority adolescents were less victimized, but did not differ from the ethnic majority group members on bullying. Victimization was more prevalent in ethnically heterogeneous classes. Furthermore, the results revealed that ethnic minority adolescents bully more in ethnically heterogeneous classes. Our findings suggest that, in order to understand bullying and victimization in schools in ethnically diverse cultures, the ethnic background of adolescents and the ethnic composition of school classes should be taken into account.

  6. The association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with Rorschach scores.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gregory J; Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Reese, Jennifer B; Mihura, Joni L

    2015-02-01

    We examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  8. Parental perception of children's weight as a function of ethnicity/race, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Valdes, Ximena L; Nota, M Fernanda; Franco, Sofia M

    2009-12-01

    We hypothesized that parental perception of their child's weight varies as a function of ethnicity/race, age, and gender. We enrolled parents from three ethnic/race groups of children, 2-18 years of age, attending an inner-city clinic with BMI between 25th and 75th or exceeding 95th percentiles. Parents rated their own and their child's weight and their level of concern about it. A total of 104 Hispanic, 104 African-American, and 102 Caucasian parent/child dyads participated. No ethnic diference in parental perception of child's weight was noted. Analysis restricted to obese children showed parents were less likely to recognize obesity in their younger than in their older girls (P<0.001). This difference was not observed among obese boys. In 80% of parent/child dyads, the parent and child were concordant on the assessment of the child's weight, regardless of race. Both obese and non-obese parents recognized obesity in their child 75% of the time. Parents of obese Hispanic children (81%) were more concerned about their child's weight than were Caucasian (60%) or African-American (65%) (P< or =0.06). Parents of three ethnic/racial groups recognized clinical obesity but were less likely to recognize it in their younger children. Most obese children recognized their obesity, a finding that may facilitate physicians' weight loss interventions.

  9. Progress in the Inductive Strategy-Use of Children from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: A Study Employing Dynamic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resing, Wilma C. M.; Touw, Kirsten W. J.; Veerbeek, Jochanan; Elliott, Julian G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated potential differences in inductive behavioural and verbal strategy-use between children (aged 6-8 years) from indigenous and non-indigenous backgrounds. This was effected by the use of an electronic device that could present a series of tasks, offer scaffolded assistance and record children's responses. Children from…

  10. Progress in the Inductive Strategy-Use of Children from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: A Study Employing Dynamic Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resing, Wilma C. M.; Touw, Kirsten W. J.; Veerbeek, Jochanan; Elliott, Julian G.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated potential differences in inductive behavioural and verbal strategy-use between children (aged 6-8 years) from indigenous and non-indigenous backgrounds. This was effected by the use of an electronic device that could present a series of tasks, offer scaffolded assistance and record children's responses. Children from…

  11. Background characteristics, resources and volunteering among older adults (aged ≥70 years) in the community: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe (in)formal volunteering among older adults (aged ≥70 years) in the community, and the longitudinal relationships between background characteristics, resources (social, cognitive and physical functioning, social capital) and volunteering. At baseline, a total of 945 (out of 1440) independently living Dutch older adults (aged ≥70 years) completed the questionnaire (66% response). Two years later, these respondents were asked to complete a questionnaire again, of which 588 (62%) responded. Of 945 respondents (43% male; mean age 77.5 ± 5.8 years, range 70-101 years), 34.7% were married and 83.3% were born in the Netherlands. Social capital, social functioning and physical functioning were significantly higher among volunteering older adults. Being born in the Netherlands, higher educational level, social capital and social functioning were related to formal volunteering activities at baseline, and also predicted these activities 2 years later. Regarding informal volunteering activities, we found a significant association with age, being born in the Netherlands, marital status, educational level, social capital and social functioning at baseline. Examining their predictive nature, we found that younger age, being born in the Netherlands, social capital and physical functioning were associated with engagement in informal volunteering activities 2 years later. The present study shows that older adults remain engaged in volunteering activities, and that background characteristics (e.g. ethnic background, education) and resources (social functioning, social capital) contribute to this engagement. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  12. The Lateral Brow: Position in relation to age, gender and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Lora Rabin Dagi; Lira, Jennifer; Enkhbold, Enkhnasan; Dimont, Emmanuel; Scofield, Stacy; Sherwood, Pamela R.; Winn, Bryan J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Despite multiple studies regarding modes of eyebrow measurement and movement over time, the lateral aspect of the brow has been relatively ignored in literature. Therefore, we arranged a study of the most lateral aspect of the eyebrow; in doing so, we hoped to ascertain the most practical line or angle of measurement. Methods In this cross-sectional study, adults aged 18 and older with no history of congenital or acquired periorbital or orbital pathology or surgery; brow tattooing or heavy plucking; phthisis; or strabismus were measured using a combination of in-office metrics and computer analysis. Subjects were asked to identify their ethnicity and country of origin. Models of age, gender, age and ethnicity were created. Results 1024 subjects were included (1944 eyes). Measurements of nasal ala to lateral brow (NALB), lateral brow plumb line (LBPL, the vertical line between the tail of the brow and a horizontal line extending from the lateral canthus), and angle from the mid-brow to the lateral brow tail all showed statistically significant decline over time. The angle and LBPL varied most by ethnicity. The angle narrowed approximately 3 degrees per 20 years, while the LBPL fell approximately 2.5 mm per 20 years. The NALB varied most by age, and fell approximately 3 mm per 20 years. Conclusions The lateral tail of the brow descends with age. Measurements of its location and rate of change vary between genders and within ethnic groups. Two easily measured values – NALB and LBPL – can be used for pre-operative planning and post-operative documentation. PMID:25069068

  13. Age at menopause and incident heart failure: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ebong, Imo A; Watson, Karol E; Goff, David C; Bluemke, David A; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before age 45 years) and age at menopause with incident heart failure (HF) in postmenopausal women. We also explored the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with left ventricular (LV) measures of structure and function in postmenopausal women. We included 2,947 postmenopausal women, aged 45 to 84 years without known cardiovascular disease (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with incident HF. In 2,123 postmenopausal women in whom cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was obtained at baseline, we explored the associations of early menopause and age at menopause with LV measures using multivariable linear regression. Across a median follow-up of 8.5 years, we observed 71 HF events. There were no significant interactions with ethnicity for incident HF (Pinteraction > 0.05). In adjusted analysis, early menopause was associated with an increased risk of incident HF (hazard ratio, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.01-2.73), whereas every 1-year increase in age at menopause was associated with a decreased risk of incident HF (hazard ratio, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.99). We observed significant interactions between early menopause and ethnicity for LV mass-to-volume ratio (LVMVR; Pinteraction = 0.02). In Chinese-American women, early menopause was associated with a higher LVMVR (+0.11; P = 0.0002), whereas every 1-year increase in age at menopause was associated with a lower LVMVR (-0.004; P = 0.04) at baseline. Older age at menopause is independently associated with a decreased risk of incident HF. Concentric LV remodeling, indicated by a higher LVMVR, is present in Chinese-American women who experienced early menopause at baseline.

  14. Age at Menopause and Incident Heart Failure: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ebong, Imo A.; Watson, Karol E.; Goff, David C.; Bluemke, David A.; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before 45 years of age) and age at menopause with incident heart failure (HF) in post-menopausal women. We also explored associations of early, and age at menopause with left ventricular (LV) measures of structure and function in post-menopausal women. Methods We included 2947 post-menopausal women, aged 45-84 years, without known cardiovascular disease (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic study of Atherosclerosis. Cox-Proportional hazards models were used to examine associations of early, and age at menopause with incident HF. In 2123 post-menopausal women in whom cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was obtained at baseline, we explored associations of early, and age at menopause with LV measures using multivariable linear regression. Results Over a median follow-up of 8.5 years, we observed 71 HF events. There were no significant interactions with ethnicity for incident HF (Pinteraction>0.05). In adjusted analysis, early menopause was associated with increased risk of incident HF [1.66 (1.01-2.73)], while each year increase in age at menopause was associated with decreased risk of incident HF [0.96 (0.94-0.99)]. We observed significant interactions between early menopause and ethnicity for LV mass to volume ratio (LVMVR), Pinteraction=0.02. In Chinese-American women, early menopause was associated with higher LVMVR (+0.11, p=0.0002), while each year increase in age at menopause was associated with lower LVMVR (−0.004, p=0.04) at baseline. Conclusion An older menopausal age is independently associated with decreased risk of incident HF. Concentric LV remodelling, indicated by a higher LVMVR was present in Chinese-American women with early menopause at baseline. PMID:24423934

  15. Serum transthyretin levels in senile systemic amyloidosis: effects of age, gender and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, Joel; Koziol, James; Connors, Lawreen H.

    2017-01-01

    Serum transthyretin (TTR) levels are reduced in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). A single study of patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) in Sweden found that those individuals also had a significantly lower mean serum TTR concentration than age- and gender-matched controls. To determine if the same phenomenon prevailed in an ethnically more heterogeneous population, we compared the serum TTR levels, as determined by ELISA, in 45 documented SSA patients with congestive heart failure, 20 AL patients with congestive heart failure and population controls. Serum TTR concentrations in the controls were influenced in a statistically significant manner by age, gender and ethnicity. Although it is unlikely that such differences are clinically relevant, they must be considered when assessing the meaning of serum TTR concentrations in any clinically defined population. The serum concentrations in patients with SSA did not differ from age, gender and ethnically matched controls or from a group of AL patients with significant clinical cardiac involvement. We also compared TTR concentrations in 12 African-Americans carrying the TTR V122I allele with those in 826 African-Americans who were homozygous wild type at the TTR locus. The TTR V122I carriers had significantly lower serum TTR concentrations than appropriate controls even though the majority of such individuals had not reached the age of clinical or anatomic risk, i.e. over 60. Thus, as in carriers of other TTR mutations the serum TTR level is lower than normal, despite having a much later appearance of clinical disease. PMID:19065297

  16. Incidence of Age-Related Macular Degeneration in a Multi-Ethnic United States Population: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Diana E; Klein, Barbara E K; Wong, Tien Y; Rotter, Jerome I; Li, Xiaohui; Shrager, Sandi; Burke, Gregory L; Klein, Ronald; Cotch, Mary Frances

    2016-06-01

    To describe the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and associated risk factors in 4 racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese) residing in the United States. Prospective cohort study. A total of 3811 participants, aged 46 to 86 years, from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort, with retinal data collected twice, on average, 8 years apart. Fundus images, taken using a digital camera through dark-adapted pupils using a standard protocol and the same equipment at both study visits, were graded centrally for early and late AMD on the basis of drusen size, type and area, increased retinal pigment, retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation, neovascular lesions, and geographic atrophy using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory measures were included in multivariable regression models to determine their impact on the variation in AMD incidence among racial/ethnic groups. Incident early and late AMD. The overall 8-year age- and sex-standardized incidence of early and late AMD were 4.1% and 2.3%, respectively, with incidence of early and late AMD highest in whites (5.3% and 4.1%, respectively), intermediate in Chinese (4.5% and 2.2%, respectively) and Hispanics (3.3% and 0.8%, respectively), and lowest in blacks (1.6% and 0.4%, respectively). By adjusting for age and sex, blacks had a 70% lower risk of developing early AMD than whites, and this decreased only slightly to a 67% lower risk after multivariable adjustment. By adjusting for age, sex, and race/ethnicity, hyperopia was associated with early AMD (odds ratio [OR], 1.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-2.20), as was astigmatism (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.00-2.16), but not myopia (P = 0.29). Age, race/ethnicity, current smoking, hyperopia, and AMD-susceptibility genotypes Complement Factor H (CFH) RS1061170 and Age Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) RS3793917 were independently associated with

  17. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  18. Overweight at age two years in a multi-ethnic cohort (ABCD study): the role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight/obesity is a major public health problem worldwide which disproportionally affects specific ethnic groups. Little is known about whether such differences already exist at an early age and which factors contribute to these ethnic differences. Therefore, the present study assessed possible ethnic differences in overweight at age 2 years, and the potential explanatory role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors. Methods Data were derived from a multi-ethnic cohort in the Netherlands (the ABCD study). Weight and height data of 3,156 singleton infants at age 2 years were used. Five ethnic populations were distinguished: Dutch native (n = 1,718), African descent (n = 238), Turkish (n = 162), Moroccan (n = 245) and other non-Dutch (n = 793). Overweight status was defined by the International Obesity Task Force guidelines. The explanatory role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors in ethnic disparities in overweight (including obesity) was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to the native Dutch (7.1%), prevalence of overweight was higher in the Turkish (19.8%) and Moroccan (16.7%) group, whereas the prevalence was not increased in the African descent (9.2%) and other non-Dutch (8.8%) group. Although maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index partly explained the ethnic differences, the odds ratio (OR) of being overweight remained higher in the Turkish (OR: 2.66; 95%CI: 1.56-4.53) and Moroccan (OR: 2.11; 95%CI: 1.31-3.38) groups after adjusting for prenatal factors. The remaining differences were largely accounted for by weight gain during the first 6 months of life (postnatal factor). Maternal height, birth weight and gender were independent predictors for overweight at age 2 years, but did not explain the ethnic differences. Conclusion Turkish and Moroccan children in the Netherlands have 2- to 3-fold higher odds for being overweight at age 2 years, which is largely attributed to

  19. Age and ethnic differences in cold weather and contagion theories of colds and flu.

    PubMed

    Sigelman, Carol K

    2012-02-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with other people causes disease were more causally sophisticated than explanations of how cold weather causes it. Finally, Mexican American and other minority children were more likely than European American children to subscribe to cold weather theories, a difference partially but not wholly attributable to ethnic group differences in parent education. Findings support the value of an intuitive or naïve theories perspective in understanding developmental and sociocultural differences in concepts of disease and in planning health education to help both children and their parents shed misconceptions so that they can focus on effective preventive actions.

  20. Lifecourse social conditions and racial and ethnic patterns of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Glymour, M Maria; Manly, Jennifer J

    2008-09-01

    A lifecourse perspective is key for understanding and interpreting racial and ethnic patterns in neuropsychological test performance. In this article, we discuss contextual factors that shape the environmental conditions encountered by racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, in particular African-Americans. These conditions include geographic segregation at the level of regions, metropolitan areas, and neighborhoods; intra- and inter-national migration patterns; socioeconomic position, including financial resources, and occupational and educational opportunities; discrimination; and group resources. Each of these exposures sets in course a cascade of individual mediators that ultimately manifest in neuropsychological outcomes. The physiological and behavioral consequences of these pathways likely accumulate across the lifecourse. We focus on cognitive aging, although the processes discussed here begin in infancy and likely influence cognitive outcomes throughout life from childhood into old age. A lifecourse framework can help inform clinical encounters, neuropsychological research, and surveillance regarding the population prevalence of cognitive impairments.

  1. Are Constructs of the Transtheoretical Model for Physical Activity Measured Equivalently Between Sexes, Age Groups, and Ethnicities?

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Motl, Robert W.; McGee, Kelly; McCurdy, Dana; Matthai, Caroline Horwath; Dishman, Rod K.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose Identifying mediators of physical activity change requires measurement instruments that are reliable, valid, and generalizable to multiple populations. Despite continued application of the transtheoretical model (TTM) to the study of physical activity, the structural components of the TTM measurement instruments have been understudied in diverse populations. Methods A multiethnic sample (N=700, Mage=47, 63% women, 38% Caucasian) of participants living in Hawaii completed TTM measures. The factor validity and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of decisional balance, barrier self-efficacy, temptations, and processes of change instruments were explored between men, women, age groups, and ethnicities. Results/Conclusions Measurement models of barrier self-efficacy and revised models of temptations and processes of change demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I among all subgroups. A revised model of decisional balance demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I between genders and among ethnicities, but not among age groups. Future research should examine the stability of these constructs across time. PMID:18607667

  2. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. © 2013.

  3. Ethnic and Gender Trends for Cardiovascular Risk Behaviors in Anglo and Mexican American Children, Ages Four to Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, Philip R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined gender and ethnic trends in Mexican American and Anglo preschoolers at home and school using physical, physiological, dietary, activity, and socioenvironmental assessments. Height and total skinfolds showed significant ethnic differences, confirming that preschool represents an age of rapid habit and behavior development…

  4. Ethnic and Gender Trends for Cardiovascular Risk Behaviors in Anglo and Mexican American Children, Ages Four to Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, Philip R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined gender and ethnic trends in Mexican American and Anglo preschoolers at home and school using physical, physiological, dietary, activity, and socioenvironmental assessments. Height and total skinfolds showed significant ethnic differences, confirming that preschool represents an age of rapid habit and behavior development…

  5. Who Studies STEM Subjects at a Level and Degree in England? An Investigation into the Intersections between Students' Family Background, Gender and Ethnicity in Determining Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codiroli Mcmaster, Natasha

    2017-01-01

    The relative lack of students studying post-compulsory STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) subjects is a key policy concern. A particular issue is the disparities in uptake by students' family background, gender and ethnicity. It remains unclear whether the relationship between student characteristics and choice can be…

  6. Social-Cognitive Predictors of STEM Career Interests and Goal Persistence in College Students with Disabilities from Racial and Ethnic Minority Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva Cardoso, Elizabeth; Dutta, Alo; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Johnson, Ebonee T.; Kundu, Madan; Chan, Fong D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relations of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics's (STEM) self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, and contextual supports and barriers to STEM educational goals in college students with disabilities from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds. Design: Quantitative descriptive research design using…

  7. Social Mobility or Social Reproduction? A Case Study of the Attainment Patterns of Students According to Their Social Background and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Matthew; Collins, Gemma; Butt, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores levels of achievement amongst boys who attended a selective school in Birmingham, UK through consideration of their attainment, social background and ethnicity. It seeks to answer three main questions. Firstly, to what extent does academic attainment vary between students from different socio-economic groups and ethnic…

  8. Discrepancies between Parent-Child Reports of Internalizing Problems among Preadolescent Children: Relationships with Gender, Ethnic Background, and Future Internalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Looij-Jansen, Petra M.; Jansen, Wilma; de Wilde, Erik Jan; Donker, Marianne C. H.; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2011-01-01

    In a multiethnic community sample of 1,170 preadolescent children, it was investigated whether discrepancies in parent-child reports of internalizing problems are related with gender, ethnic background (Dutch, Surinamese/Antillean, Moroccan, Turkish, Other) and with future internalizing problems. No significant differences in discrepancy scores…

  9. Ethnic Background and the Transition from Vocational Education to Work: A Multi-Level Analysis of the Differences in Labour Market Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brekke, Idunn

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the impact of ethnic background on employment and earnings among people with a vocational education in Norway. I differentiate between three different groups: majority, first-generation non-Westerners and second-generation non-Westerners. Panel data from several public register databases of the entire population of…

  10. Social-Cognitive Predictors of STEM Career Interests and Goal Persistence in College Students with Disabilities from Racial and Ethnic Minority Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva Cardoso, Elizabeth; Dutta, Alo; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Johnson, Ebonee T.; Kundu, Madan; Chan, Fong D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relations of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics's (STEM) self-efficacy, outcome expectations, interests, and contextual supports and barriers to STEM educational goals in college students with disabilities from racial and ethnic minority backgrounds. Design: Quantitative descriptive research design using…

  11. Social Mobility or Social Reproduction? A Case Study of the Attainment Patterns of Students According to Their Social Background and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Matthew; Collins, Gemma; Butt, Graham

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores levels of achievement amongst boys who attended a selective school in Birmingham, UK through consideration of their attainment, social background and ethnicity. It seeks to answer three main questions. Firstly, to what extent does academic attainment vary between students from different socio-economic groups and ethnic…

  12. Part II: Multisystemic Therapy--Addressing Racial Disparity and Its Effectiveness with Families from Diverse Racial and Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in health and mental health care delivered to racial and ethnic minorities became a focus of national policy following reports of the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002) and the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001). The Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001) reported racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and quality of…

  13. Part II: Multisystemic Therapy--Addressing Racial Disparity and Its Effectiveness with Families from Diverse Racial and Ethnic Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Disparities in health and mental health care delivered to racial and ethnic minorities became a focus of national policy following reports of the Institute of Medicine (IOM, 2002) and the Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001). The Surgeon General (USDHHS, 2001) reported racial and ethnic minorities experience disparities in availability and quality of…

  14. Lifetime racial/ethnic discrimination and ambulatory blood pressure: The moderating effect of age

    PubMed Central

    Moody, Danielle L. Beatty; Waldstein, Shari R.; Tobin, Jonathan; Cassels, Andrea; Schwartz, Joseph C.; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine if the relationships of lifetime discrimination to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) varied as a function of age in a sample of Black and Latino(a) adults ages 19 – 65. Methods Participants were 607 Black (n = 318) and Latino(a) (n = 289) adults (49% female) who completed the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version (PEDQ-CV), which assesses lifetime exposure to racism/ethnic discrimination. They were outfitted with an ABP monitor to assess systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) across a 24-hour period. Mixed-level modeling was conducted to examine potential interactive effects of lifetime discrimination and age to 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, personality and life stress characteristics, and substance consumption covariates (e.g., smoking, alcohol). Results There were significant interactions of Age × Lifetime Discrimination on 24-hour and daytime DBP (ps ≤ .04), and in particular significant interactions for the Social Exclusion component of Lifetime Discrimination. Post-hoc probing of the interactions revealed the effects of Lifetime Discrimination on DBP were seen for older, but not younger participants. Lifetime discrimination was significantly positively associated with nocturnal SBP, and these effects were not moderated by age. All associations of Lifetime Discrimination to ABP remained significant controlling for recent exposure to discrimination as well as all other covariates. Conclusions Exposure to racial/ethnic discrimination across the life course is associated with elevated ABP in middle to older aged Black and Latino(a) adults. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms linking discrimination to ABP over the life course. PMID:27018724

  15. Lifetime racial/ethnic discrimination and ambulatory blood pressure: The moderating effect of age.

    PubMed

    Beatty Moody, Danielle L; Waldstein, Shari R; Tobin, Jonathan N; Cassells, Andrea; Schwartz, Joseph C; Brondolo, Elizabeth

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether the relationships of lifetime discrimination to ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) varied as a function of age in a sample of Black and Latino(a) adults ages 19 - 65. Participants were 607 Black (n = 318) and Latino(a) (n = 289) adults (49% female) who completed the Perceived Ethnic Discrimination Questionnaire-Community Version (PEDQ-CV), which assesses lifetime exposure to racism/ethnic discrimination. They were outfitted with an ABP monitor to assess systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) across a 24-hr period. Mixed-level modeling was conducted to examine potential interactive effects of lifetime discrimination and age to 24-hr, daytime, and nighttime ABP after adjustment for demographic, socioeconomic, personality and life stress characteristics, and substance consumption covariates (e.g., smoking, alcohol). There were significant interactions of Age × Lifetime Discrimination on 24-hr and daytime DBP (ps ≤ .04), and in particular significant interactions for the Social Exclusion component of Lifetime Discrimination. Post hoc probing of the interactions revealed the effects of Lifetime Discrimination on DBP were seen for older, but not younger participants. Lifetime discrimination was significantly positively associated with nocturnal SBP, and these effects were not moderated by age. All associations of Lifetime Discrimination to ABP remained significant controlling for recent exposure to discrimination as well as all other covariates. Exposure to racial/ethnic discrimination across the life course is associated with elevated ABP in middle to older aged Black and Latino(a) adults. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms linking discrimination to ABP over the life course. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Age and racial/ethnic disparities in arthritis-related hip and knee surgeries.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Dorothy D; Manheim, Larry M; Song, Jing; Sohn, Min-Woong; Feinglass, Joseph M; Chang, Huan J; Chang, Rowland W

    2008-02-01

    Nearly 18 million Americans experience limitations due to their arthritis. Documented disparities according to racial/ethnic groups in the use of surgical interventions such as knee and hip arthroplasty are largely based on data from Medicare beneficiaries age 65 or older. Whether there are disparities among younger adults has not been previously addressed. This study assesses age-specific racial/ethnic differences in arthritis-related knee and hip surgeries. Longitudinal (1998-2004) Health and Retirement Study. National probability sample of US community-dwelling adults. A total of 2262 black, 1292 Hispanic, and 13,159 white adults age 51 and older. The outcome is self-reported 2-year use of arthritis-related hip or knee surgery. Independent variables are demographic (race/ethnicity, age, gender), health needs (arthritis, chronic diseases, obesity, physical activity, and functional limitations), and medical access (income, wealth, education, and health insurance). Longitudinal data methods using discrete survival analysis are used to validly account for repeated (biennial) observations over time. Analyses use person-weights, stratum, and sampling error codes to provide valid inferences to the US population. Black adults under the age of 65 years report similar age/gender adjusted rates of hip/knee arthritis surgeries [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.43, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.87-2.38] whereas older blacks (age 65+) have significantly lower rates (HR = 0.38, CI = 0.16-0.55) compared with whites. These relationships hold controlling for health and economic differences. Both under age 65 years (HR = 0.64, CI = 0.12-1.44) and older (age 65+) Hispanic adults (HR = 0.60, CI = 0.32-1.10) report lower utilization rates, although not statistically different than whites. A large portion of the Hispanic disparity is explained by economic differences. These national data document lower rates of arthritis-related hip/knee surgeries for older black versus white adults age 65 or

  17. Age, sex, ethnic origin and hospital admission for heart attack and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Beevers, D. G.; Cruickshank, J. K.

    1981-01-01

    The frequency of admission for heart attack and stroke in blacks, whites and Asians to Dudley Road Hospital, Birmingham, was studied. The study population (denominator) was 17 739 consecutive admissions to this hospital for the years 1975 to 1979, in 35- to 64-year-old men and women. Admission for heart attack was half as common in blacks compared with whites and, in some age groups, there was a slightly increased rate in Asians. By contrast, in both sexes and in all age groups, stroke admission was commoner in blacks. These differences cannot be explained by differing levels of blood pressure or cigarette smoking in the 3 ethnic groups.

  18. 'People make assumptions about our communities': sexual health amongst teenagers from black and minority ethnic backgrounds in East london.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Shamser; Curtis, Katherine; Jayakody, Amanda; Viner, Russell; Roberts, Helen

    2007-11-01

    (1) To explore sexual behaviour and relationships amongst Black and minority ethnic (BME) teenagers in East London. (2) To examine how these relationships are shaped by culture, gender, peer norms and religion. (3) To describe the implications for sexual health policy and practice in urban, multicultural areas. This report draws primarily on the qualitative arm of a mixed methods study which collected data from 126 young people, aged 15-18, largely through focus groups in the London boroughs of Hackney, Newham and Tower Hamlets. Previous research has reported culture influencing the patterning of risk/protection amongst BME groups. Our data suggest that this is mediated by gender, religion and youth. Religion reportedly influenced young women's sexual behaviour in multiple ways. Young people described gendered norms in meeting and flirting with partners, and the role of mobile phones and peer pressure. Our paper suggests culture, gender, religion and youth influence BME teenagers in aspects of sexual relationships, and that these social markers may have different contextual meanings for individuals. The multiplicity of factors affecting attitudes/behaviour requires a range of contraceptive, counselling, screening and sex education services available for all teenagers, although delivery patterns may differ in response to differing needs.

  19. Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2014-12-01

    Family and neighborhood influences related to low-income were examined to understand their association with harsh parenting among an ethnically diverse sample of families. Specifically, a path model linking household income to harsh parenting via neighborhood disorder, fear for safety, maternal depressive symptoms, and family conflict was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 2,132 families with children ages 5-16 years from Chicago. The sample was 42% Mexican American, 41% African American, and 17% European American. Results provide support for a family process model where a lower income-to-needs ratio is associated with higher reports of neighborhood disorder, greater fear for safety, and more family conflict, which is in turn, associated with greater frequency of harsh parenting. Our tests for moderation by ethnicity/immigrant status, child gender, and child age (younger child vs. adolescent) indicate that although paths are similar for families of boys and girls, as well as for families of young children and adolescents, there are some differences by ethnic group. Specifically, we find the path from neighborhood disorder to fear for safety is stronger for Mexican American (United States born and immigrant) and European American families in comparison with African American families. We also find that the path from fear for safety to harsh parenting is significant for European American and African American families only. Possible reasons for such moderated effects are considered.

  20. Adolescent Self-Esteem: Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Bachman, Jerald G.; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Freedman-Doan, Peter; Trzesniewski, Kali H.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Large-scale representative surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States show high self-esteem scores for all groups. African-American students score highest, Whites score slightly higher than Hispanics, and Asian Americans score lowest. Males score slightly higher than females. Multivariate controls for grades and college plans actually heighten these race/ethnic/gender differences. A truncated scoring method, designed to counter race/ethnic differences in extreme response style, reduced but did not eliminate the subgroup differences. Age differences in self-esteem are modest, with 12th graders reporting the highest scores. The findings are highly consistent across 18 annual surveys from 1991 through 2008, and self-esteem scores show little overall change during that period. PMID:22279425

  1. The prevalence of multimorbidity in a geographically defined American population: patterns by age, sex, and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Walter A.; Boyd, Cynthia M.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Bobo, William V.; Rutten, Lila J.; Roger, Véronique L.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Therneau, Terry M.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Sauver, Jennifer L. St.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of multimorbidity involving 20 selected chronic conditions in a geographically defined US population, emphasizing age, sex, and ethnic differences. Patients and Methods Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) records-linkage system, we identified all residents of Olmsted County, MN on April 1, 2010, and we electronically extracted the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) codes associated with all healthcare visits made between April 1, 2005 and March 31, 2010 (5-year capture frame). Using these ICD-9 codes, we defined the 20 common chronic conditions recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services. We counted only persons who received at least two codes for a given condition separated by more than 30 days, and calculated the age-, sex-, and ethnicity-specific prevalence of multimorbidity. Results Of the 138,858 study subjects, 52.4% were women, 38.9% had one or more conditions, 22.6% had two or more, and 4.9% had 5 or more conditions. The prevalence of multimorbidity (2 or more conditions) increased steeply with older age and reached 77.3% at ages 65 years and older. However, the absolute number of people affected by multimorbidity was higher in those younger than 65 years. Although the prevalence of multimorbidity was similar in men and women overall, the most common dyads and triads of conditions varied by sex. Compared to Whites, the prevalence of multimorbidity was slightly higher in Blacks and slightly lower in Asians. Conclusion Multimorbidity is common in the general population; it increases steeply with older age, has different patterns in men and women, and varies by ethnicity. PMID:25220409

  2. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  3. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  4. Ethnic differences in the association between blood pressure components and chronic kidney disease in middle aged and older Asian adults

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an emerging public health problem worldwide. Previous studies have shown an association between blood pressure (BP) and CKD. However, it is not clear if there are ethnic differences in this association. We examined the association between BP and CKD in a multi-ethnic Asian population in Singapore. Methods We analysed data from three large population-based studies conducted between 2004–2011, (n=3,167 Chinese, 3,082 Malays and 3,228 Indians) aged 40–80 years. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73m2 from serum creatinine. Hypertension was defined as a self-reported current use of antihypertensive medication or systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg. We also analysed the association of CKD with individual BP components. Results The prevalence of both hypertension and CKD was higher among Malays (68.6, 21%) compared to Chinese (57.9, 5.9%) and Indians (56.0, 7.4%), but treatment for hypertension was lower among Malays (53.4%) compared to Chinese (89.8%) and Indians (83.1%). Hypertension was associated with CKD in all three ethnic groups (OR [95% CI] = 2.71 [1.59-4.63], 2.08 [1.62-2.68], 2.43 [1.66-3.57] in Chinese, Malays and Indians). Among the BP components, both systolic and diastolic BP were associated with CKD in Malays whereas, systolic BP was not significantly associated with CKD, and diastolic BP showed an inverse association which was explained by anti-hypertensive medication use in Chinese and Indians. Conclusions Hypertension was associated with CKD in Chinese, Malays and Indians. However, the BP components were associated with CKD only in Malays. PMID:23590421

  5. Comparison of ethnicity, gender, age of onset and outcome in South Africans with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Budhoo, A; Mody, G M; Dubula, T; Patel, N; Mody, P G

    2017-04-01

    Ethnicity, gender and age of onset are reported to influence the expression and outcome of systemic lupus erythematosus. We studied a multi-ethnic cohort of 408 South Africans (91.2% females) comprising 237 (58.1%) Indians, 137 (33.6%) African Blacks, 17 (4.2%) Mixed ethnicity and 17 (4.2%) Whites. The most common manifestations were arthritis (80.6%), photosensitivity (67.2%), oral ulcers (50.0%), malar rash (49.0%) and renal (39.2%). The common laboratory findings were positive anti-nuclear factor (96.8%), haematological (74.8%) and anti-dsDNA antibodies (45.3%). Serositis ( p = 0.002), nephritis ( p = 0.039), leucopaenia ( p = 0.001), haemolytic anaemia ( p = 0.026), anti-dsDNA antibodies ( p = 0.028) and anti-Sm antibodies ( p = 0.050) were more common in African Blacks compared to Indians. Males had increased prevalence of discoid rash ( p = 0.006) and anti-Sm antibodies ( p = 0.016). Discoid rash ( p = 0.018), renal involvement ( p < 0.001), psychosis ( p = 0.028), seizures ( p = 0.020), anti-dsDNA antibodies ( p = 0.009), leucopaenia ( p = 0.006), haemolytic anaemia ( p = 0.017) and thrombocytopaenia ( p = 0.023) were more common with early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus. On multivariate analysis, the independent predictors of death were renal involvement, anti-dsDNA antibodies and seizures. There were 53 (13%) deaths and the five- and 10-year survival was 90.8% and 85.7% respectively, with no differences related to ethnicity or age of onset. In conclusion, we report on the spectrum and outcome of systemic lupus erythematosus in a large South African multi-ethnic cohort.

  6. Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on bone health status of the elderly in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Kamaruddin, Alia Annessa Ain; Low, Nie Yen; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the developing countries and its prevalence data are important for the estimation of health care burden and policy making. This study aimed to determine the age-related changes in bone health and the prevalence of osteoporosis in males and females aged 50 years or above living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and December 2015. Subjects answered a demographic questionnaire and underwent body anthropometric and bone health measurement. Assessment of bone health was performed using a quantitative ultrasound device that generated speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score based on stiffness index value as bone health indices. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10.6% in males and 8.0% in females. Significant age-related decline of bone health indices (speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score) and a concurrent increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia were observed in females (P<0.05) but not in males (P>0.05). Ethnic differences in bone health indices and prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia were not observed (P>0.05). Conclusion A significant proportion of males and females age 50 years or above have suboptimal bone health. Preventive measures such as early screening should be implemented to retard the progression of osteoporosis. PMID:27358558

  7. The effect of age, ethnicity, and level of education on fertility awareness and duration of infertility.

    PubMed

    Swift, Brenna E; Liu, Kimberly E

    2014-11-01

    An increasing number of Canadian women are delaying child-bearing, despite a decrease in fertility with age. A longer duration of infertility is associated with a significant decrease in live birth rate, reinforcing the need for prompt access to fertility treatment. This study aimed to assess the fertility awareness of women attending a fertility clinic to determine whether fertility awareness is a factor in accessing treatment. A quantitative cross-sectional survey evaluated fertility awareness and collected information about ethnicity, education level, and the duration of infertility for new patients. Fertility awareness was evaluated with questions about prevalence, causes, and treatment of infertility. The mean age of participants in the study was 34 years (range 23 to 44; n = 140). The duration of infertility before new patients first sought medical advice for infertility was less than one year in 52.9%, one to two years in 28.6%, two to three years in 12.9%, and four or more years in 5.0% of study participants. Fertility awareness was calculated as the percentage of correct responses to the survey questions. The mean fertility awareness for all study participants was 49.9% and this ranged from the lowest score of 9.1% to the highest score of 90.9% correct. Women waiting for longer than two years to seek medical help had lower fertility awareness (P = 0.038). In addition, fertility awareness was greater in women who had previously sought medical help for infertility from a family doctor, a gynaecologist, or another fertility clinic (P = 0.001). Higher fertility awareness correlated with a higher level of education (linear trend P < 0.001). Finally, fertility awareness also varied with ethnicity (ANOVA P = 0.025), but the age at which women of different ethnicities sought treatment was similar (ANOVA P = 0.13). Fertility awareness is associated with time to seek treatment, ethnicity, and level of education among new patients seeking medical treatment. This

  8. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  9. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  10. The Effects of Age, Object, and Cultural/Religious Background on Children's Concepts of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candy-Gibbs, Sandra E.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Examined concepts of death in 114 children. Significant cultural/religious background differences were found for concepts of irreversibility, universality, and inevitability. Age effects were found for universality and inevitability. Understanding of causation of death was significantly influenced by the child's age and background. (NRB)

  11. Age-dependent changes in eumelanin composition in hairs of various ethnic origins.

    PubMed

    Commo, S; Wakamatsu, K; Lozano, I; Panhard, S; Loussouarn, G; Bernard, B A; Ito, S

    2012-02-01

    Hair pigmentation is one of the most conspicuous phenotypes of humans. From a chemical point of view, however, data remain scarce regarding human hair pigmentation characteristics. To determine melanin content and composition in human eumelanic hair from individuals of different ethnic origins and at different ages, we collected hair from 56 subjects with eumelanic hair from each group of African-American, East Asian, and Caucasian origin. The 56 subjects consist of 14, seven each of males and females, each from four age classes of younger than 11, between 12 and 19, between 20 and 45, and older than 46. We analysed hair colour scale, total melanin value, and contents of pyrrole-2,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (PTCA) and pyrrole-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (PDCA). We measured age-dependent increases in the relative quantity of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs in the three ethnic groups. Regarding melanin composition, we observed an increase in the PDCA/PTCA ratio with age in African-American and Caucasian hairs until approaching the quite constant level of the ratio in East Asian hairs in the elderly individuals. Our results evidence differences in the content and composition of eumelanin in human hair among African-American, Caucasian and East Asian individuals. Furthermore, we show evidence of age-dependent changes in the quantity and quality of eumelanin in pigmented human hairs. In particular, the age-dependent modification of the PDCA/PTCA ratio, a marker for 5,6-dihydroxyindole units in eumelanin, suggests a chronological evolution of hair follicle melanocyte phenotype (e.g. decrease in dopachrome tautomerase expression). © 2011 The Authors. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  12. The Influence of Ethnic Background, Gender and Age on Student Performance in Distance Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    2005-01-01

    The role of distance learning in higher education has exploded in recent years. The Sloan Center for OnLine Education reports that the number of students taking online courses has been growing at approximately 20 percent per year and that more than 1.9 million students were taking an online course in the United States in Fall 2003 (Carlson, 2004).…

  13. The Creation of Cybrids Harboring Mitochondrial Haplogroups in the Taiwanese Population of Ethnic Chinese Background: An Extensive In Vitro Tool for the Study of Mitochondrial Genomic Variations

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Tsu-Kung; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chen, Shang-Der; Chuang, Yao-Chung; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Wang, Pei-Wen; Huang, Sheng-Teng; Tiao, Mao-Meng; Chen, Jin-Bor; Liou, Chia-Wei

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups may contribute to the development of aging-related diseases. A reliable in vitro cellular system for investigating the physiologic significance of mtDNA haplogroups is essential. This study aims to construct and characterize a series of cybrid cell lines harboring variant mtDNA haplogroups collected from healthy Taiwanese volunteers. Cybrid cells harboring different mtDNA haplogroups like B4a, B4b, B4c, B4d, B5, R, F1a, F2, D4e, D4a, D5b, D5a, E, M8, C, and N9a were prepared. Luminex 1000 and full-length mtDNA sequencing were used to confirm that mtDNA haplogroups of transmitochondrial cybrids were identical to their original donors. Cybrid B4b had a significantly lower oxygen consumption rate and higher mitochondrial membrane potential compared to F1a, B5, D5a, D4a, and N9a but had more susceptibility to H2O2-induced oxidative stress than cybrid F1a, D4a, and N9a. Cybrid N9a had better oxygen consumption and H2O2-challenged viability compared to B4b, F1a, B5, D5a, and D4a. A series of cybrid cells harboring the main haplogroups of the Taiwanese population with ethnic Chinese background has been developed in vitro. With this mtDNA haplogroup population, the underlying mechanisms of aging-related diseases may be better understood, and therapeutic interventions can be accelerated. PMID:23304256

  14. [Current situation and comparison of age at menarche in 26 ethnic minority groups in Chinese girls in 2010].

    PubMed

    Song, Yi; Zhang, Bing; Hu, Pei-jin; Ma, Jun

    2014-06-18

    To analyze the current situation of age at menarche (AAM) in Chinese ethnic minority girls aged 9-18 years, and compare the AAM with that of Chinese Han girls from the same province or autonomous region. Probit analyses were used to calculate the AAM in various ethnic minority groups of Chinese girls who participated in 2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance. The sample size of ethnic minority girls was 31 711, and the ethnic minorities were Mongolian, Hui, Tibetan, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Zhuang, Buyi, Korean, Dong, Yao, Bai, Tujia, Hani, Kazak, Dai, Li, Lisu, Wa, Shui, Dongxiang, Naxi, Kirgiz, Tu, Qiang and Sala. The local Han girls to compare with the AAM were also surveyed in 2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance. In the 13-year-old group, the percentage of menarche in Sala was the lowest (32.17%), while that in Korean was the highest (93.23%). At the age of 18, 99.60% ethnic minority girls appeared menstruating. The AAM of the top 3 ethnic minority groups were Korean (11.79 years), Mongolian (12.44 years) and Zhuang (12.52 years); and the last 3 ethnic minority groups were Dongxiang (14.36 years), Sala (14.32 years) and Shui (14.02 years). The AAM in Korean was 0.93 years earlier than that of the Han girls from Jilin province; the AAM in Mongolian was 0.14 years earlier than that of the Han girls from Neimenggu autonomous region; the AAM in Naxi and Qiang was close to that of the Han girls in the same province (region) (P>0.05); and the AAM in Hui, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Zhuang, Buyi, Dong, Yao, Bai, Tujia, Hani, Kazak, Dai, Li, Lisu, Wa, Shui, Dongxiang, Kirgiz, Tu, and Sala was later than that of the Han girls in the same province (region). The cluster analysis indicated that the 26 ethnic minority groups could be classified as three groups: Korean were classified into the earlier age group of AAM; Dongxiang, Sala, Uighur, Yi and Shui belonged to the later age group of AAM; and the other 20 ethnic minority groups were into the middle

  15. Ethnic Differences in Hypertension Incidence among Middle-Aged and Older U. S. Adults: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Carson, April P.; Howard, George; Burke, Gregory L.; Shea, Steven; Levitan, Emily B.; Muntner, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is higher among African-Americans than whites. However, inconsistent findings have been reported on the incidence of hypertension among middle-aged and older African-Americans and whites and limited data are available on the incidence of hypertension among Hispanics and Asians in the US. Therefore, this study investigated the age-specific incidence of hypertension by ethnicity for 3,146 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants, age 45–84 years at baseline, were followed for a median of 4.8 years for incident hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg, or the initiation of antihypertensive medications. The crude incidence rate of hypertension, per 1,000 person-years, was 56.8 for whites, 84.9 for African-Americans, 65.7 for Hispanics, and 52.2 for Chinese. After adjustment for age, gender, and study site, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for hypertension was increased for African-Americans age 45–54 (IRR=2.05, 95% CI=1.47, 2.85), 55–64 (IRR=1.63, 95% CI=1.20, 2.23), and 65–74 years (IRR=1.67, 95% CI=1.21, 2.30) compared with whites, but not for those 75–84 years of age (IRR=0.97, 95% CI=0.56, 1.66). Additional adjustment for health characteristics attenuated these associations. Hispanic participants also had a higher incidence of hypertension compared with whites; however, hypertension incidence did not differ for Chinese and white participants. In summary, hypertension incidence was higher for African-Americans compared with whites between 45 and 74 years of age but not after age 75 years. Public health prevention programs tailored to middle-age and older adults are needed to eliminate ethnic disparities in incident hypertension. PMID:21502561

  16. Education and Physical Activity Mediate the Relationship between Ethnicity and Cognitive Function in Late Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masel, Meredith C.; Raji, Mukaila; Peek, M. Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status (SES), particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the mediating characteristics of education or physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in younger aged groups. Most research conducted focuses only on older adults during a time when degeneration of brain tissue may complicate the exploration of the relationships among ethnicity and cognitive function. The current research will expand existing knowledge about education, physical activity, and cognitive function in minority groups. Design The study presents data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults (n=9,204, mean age +-sd=55.8+-3.1). Regression and mediation testing determined the mediating effects of education and physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function. Results Significant association between white ethnicity and higher scores on cognitive tests was evident as early as late middle age. The magnitude of the association significantly diminished on adjusting for education and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential mediating role of education and physical activity on the ethnic differences in cognitive tests in late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults. Our findings suggest a need for studies to understand if adult education and culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions in middle age influence ethnic disparities in prevalence of cognitive impairment in old age. PMID:20401816

  17. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N.; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  18. Case Studies of Success: Supporting Academic Success for Students with High Potential from Ethnic Minority and Economically Disadvantaged Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Carol Ann; Jarvis, Jane M.

    2014-01-01

    The underrepresentation of ethnic minority and economically disadvantaged students in gifted education must be understood in terms of broader school contexts and practices. This qualitative study investigated how teachers and schools contributed to the academic success of minority students of high potential from economically disadvantaged…

  19. American High School Students from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: The Role of Parents and the Classroom in Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…

  20. Exploring occupation roles of hospice family caregivers from Māori, Chinese and Tongan ethnic backgrounds living in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Angelo, Jennifer; Wilson, Linda

    2014-06-01

    A major challenge to occupational therapists working in palliative care is determining the best ways to help family caregivers who are caring for family members. The purpose of this study was to explore palliative caregiver occupations among Māori, Chinese and Tongan ethnicities. Six informants participated, one woman and one man from each ethnic group. In each of their homes, informants were asked to discuss what it was like caring for their dying family member. The occupational themes resulting from these interviews were food preparation, spirituality and family gathering. Therapists need to be aware of the differences in how people care for family members within their ethnicity. Implications are that occupational therapists can help families identify activities important to them within the main occupational themes: different types of foods and their preparations, various ways to express spirituality and how families gather together members of their extended family. Further, clinicians need to take on the role of a "not-knowing" but curious health-care provider in order to meet the needs of caregivers. The limitation was the small number of participants who all lived in one geographic area. Future studies should include a wider group of ethnicities.

  1. American High School Students from Different Ethnic Backgrounds: The Role of Parents and the Classroom in Achievement Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jung-In

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between ethnically diverse US high school students' (N = 331) perceptions of their parents' or classroom's motivating factors and their achievement motivation in their math class, connecting achievement goal orientation and self-determination theories. Two hypothesized path models were…

  2. Norms for letter and category fluency: demographic corrections for age, education, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Gladsjo, J A; Schuman, C C; Evans, J D; Peavy, G M; Miller, S W; Heaton, R K

    1999-06-01

    Letter and category fluency tasks are used to assess semantic knowledge, retrieval ability, and executive functioning. They appear to be useful in detecting different types of dementia, but accurate detection of neuropsychological impairment relies on appropriate normative data. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop demographically corrected norms for letter and category fluency in 768 normal adults. T-score equations were developed on a base subsample of 403, and crossvalidated on a separate subsample (n = 365). Participants ranged in age from 20 years to 101 years; in educational level from 0 to 20 years; 55% were Caucasian and 45% were African American. Together, age, education, and ethnicity were significant predictors of letter and category fluency performance, accounting for 15% and 25% of variance, respectively. Formulas and tables for converting raw fluency scores to demographically corrected T scores are presented.

  3. Re-Examining the Associations between Family Backgrounds and Children's Cognitive Developments in Early Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Yu-Kang; Law, Graham R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent English study found that children from poor families who did well in cognitive tests at age three are expected to be overtaken in the cognitive test by the age of seven by children from rich families who did poorly in cognitive tests at age three. The conclusion was that family background seems to have a dominant influence on a child's…

  4. Re-Examining the Associations between Family Backgrounds and Children's Cognitive Developments in Early Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Yu-Kang; Law, Graham R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent English study found that children from poor families who did well in cognitive tests at age three are expected to be overtaken in the cognitive test by the age of seven by children from rich families who did poorly in cognitive tests at age three. The conclusion was that family background seems to have a dominant influence on a child's…

  5. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  6. Exploring young adults' contraceptive knowledge and attitudes: disparities by race/ethnicity and age.

    PubMed

    Craig, Amaranta D; Dehlendorf, Christine; Borrero, Sonya; Harper, Cynthia C; Rocca, Corinne H

    2014-01-01

    Half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, with the highest proportions occurring among Blacks, Hispanics, and teenagers. Understanding differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraception by race/ethnicity and age can improve efforts to reduce disparities in unintended pregnancy. This analysis used data from the 897 female respondents in National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge, a survey exploring young adults' knowledge and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess racial/ethnic and age group differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraceptives. Hispanics and teenagers (aged 18-19) had lower awareness of available contraceptive methods, and lower knowledge about individual methods compared with White women and young adults (age 20-29). For example, Hispanics (74%) and teenagers (77%) were less likely to have heard of the intrauterine device (IUD) than were White women (90%) and young adults (90%), and were less likely to know that a woman experiencing side effects could switch brands of oral contraceptive pills (72% of Hispanics vs. 86% of White women; 76% of teenagers vs. 90% of young adults). Hispanics born outside the United States had lower knowledge about contraceptives than U.S.-born Hispanics. For example, foreign-born Hispanics were less likely than U.S.-born Hispanics to have heard of the IUD (59% vs. 82%) or the vaginal ring (55% vs. 95%). Lower contraceptive knowledge among teenagers and Hispanics, particularly immigrants, suggests the importance of disseminating family planning information to these women as one means to address disparities in unintended pregnancy. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence of age-related macular degeneration in 4 racial/ethnic groups in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E K; Knudtson, Michael D; Wong, Tien Yin; Cotch, Mary Frances; Liu, Kiang; Burke, Gregory; Saad, Mohammed F; Jacobs, David R

    2006-03-01

    To describe the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 4 racial/ethnic groups (white, black, Hispanic, and Chinese) that participated in the second examination of the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Prospective cohort study. Six thousand one hundred seventy-six 45- to 85-year-old subjects selected from 6 United States communities. Fundus images were taken using a 45 degrees digital camera through dark-adapted pupils and were graded for drusen size, type, area, increased retinal pigment, retinal pigment epithelial depigmentation, neovascular lesions, and geographic atrophy using the modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Age-related macular degeneration. Prevalences of AMD were 2.4% (black), 4.2% (Hispanic), 4.6% (Chinese), to 5.4% (white) (P<0.001 for any differences among groups). The highest prevalence of any AMD occurred in those 75 to 84 years old, varying from 7.4% in blacks to 15.8% in whites and Chinese (P = 0.03). Estimated prevalences of late AMD were 0.3% (black), 0.2% (Hispanic), 0.6% (white), and 1.0% (Chinese). These differences were marginally significant (age and gender adjusted, P = 0.08). The frequency of exudative AMD was highest in Chinese (age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio, 4.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-14.27) compared with whites. Differences in age, gender, pupil size, body mass index, smoking, alcohol drinking history, diabetes, and hypertension status did not explain the variability among the 4 racial/ethnic groups. Low prevalences of AMD were found in the MESA cohort in all groups. A lower prevalence of AMD was found in blacks compared with whites. The higher prevalence of exudative AMD in Chinese needs further study.

  8. Parental feeding styles, young children's fruit, vegetable, water and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption, and the moderating role of maternal education and ethnic background.

    PubMed

    Inhulsen, Maj-Britt Mr; Mérelle, Saskia Ym; Renders, Carry M

    2017-08-01

    To examine the associations between parental feeding styles and children's dietary intakes and the modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations. Cross-sectional study of parental feeding styles, assessed by the Parental Feeding Style Questionnaire, and children's dietary intakes. Multiple regression analyses were carried out to assess the associations between the parental feeding styles studied ('control', 'emotional feeding', 'encouragement to eat' and 'instrumental feeding') and children's dietary intakes (consumption of fruit, vegetables, water and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB)). The modifying effect of maternal education and children's ethnicity on these associations was explored. North-western part of the Netherlands. Children aged 3-7 years (n 5926). Both 'encouragement' and 'control' were associated with higher consumption of vegetables and lower consumption of SSB, but only 'encouragement' was positively associated with fruit and water intakes. 'Instrumental feeding' showed a positive association with SSB and negative associations with fruit, vegetable and water consumption. No significant associations were found for 'emotional feeding'. Maternal educational level and children's ethnicity moderated some associations; for example, 'control' was beneficial for vegetable intake in all subgroups, whereas the association with SSB was beneficial only in highly educated mothers. The study shows that both encouraging and controlling feeding styles may improve children's dietary behaviour, while 'instrumental feeding' may have a detrimental effect. Furthermore, maternal educational level and children's ethnicity influence these associations. The study's findings could provide a basis for development of interventions to improve parental feeding styles.

  9. A longitudinal study on determinants of HPV vaccination uptake in parents/guardians from different ethnic backgrounds in Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Alberts, Catharina J; van der Loeff, Maarten F Schim; Hazeveld, Yvonne; de Melker, Hester E; van der Wal, Marcel F; Nielen, Astrid; El Fakiri, Fatima; Prins, Maria; Paulussen, Theo G W M

    2017-02-21

    determinants with both intention and uptake were largely similar across ethnic groups. We conclude that the same determinants should be targeted in the different ethnic groups, although the mode of delivery of the intervention needs to be tailored to the different cultural backgrounds. Further research is needed to explain the observed discrepancy between intention and uptake, especially among parents/guardians in the non-Dutch groups.

  10. The Role of Ethnicity in School-Based Obesity Intervention for School-Aged Children: A Pilot Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karczewski, Sabrina A.; Carter, Jocelyn S.; DeCator, Draycen D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rates of obesity have risen disproportionately for ethnic minority youth in the United States. School-based programs may be the most comprehensive and cost-effective way to implement primary prevention in children. In this study we evaluated the effect of a school-based obesity prevention on the outcome of body mass index percentile…

  11. The Role of Ethnicity in School-Based Obesity Intervention for School-Aged Children: A Pilot Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karczewski, Sabrina A.; Carter, Jocelyn S.; DeCator, Draycen D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rates of obesity have risen disproportionately for ethnic minority youth in the United States. School-based programs may be the most comprehensive and cost-effective way to implement primary prevention in children. In this study we evaluated the effect of a school-based obesity prevention on the outcome of body mass index percentile…

  12. [A survey on anemia among children under 7 years of age from 15 minority ethnic groups in Yunnan].

    PubMed

    Yao, Li-qin; Zou, Tuan-biao; Liu, Jin-tao; Quan, Xing; Chen, Qian; Yang, Fa-bin; Hu, Li-sha; Zhao, Zhong-ming; Wang, Xing-tian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the level and distribution characteristics of anemia of the minority ethnic group children in Yunnan. The cases with anemia were surveyed from 13 336 samples of 15 minority ethnic groups and Han children in Yunnan by Taking the method of random cluster sampling. The prevalence of anemia among the children under 7 years of age of 15 ethnic groups of minority in Yunnan was 13.6%. There are differences among the different ethnic groups (χ(2) = 716.33, P < 0.01), the highest was 26.6% in Jingpo, the lowest was 3.5% in Bai. There were differences among the different regions, the prevalence of anemia was high in the border regions City, the highest was 23.8% in Dehong; the prevalence of anemia was low in inland cities, the lowest was 2.7% in Fugong, and was higher in border areas. The prevalence of anemia was higher in boys (13.6%) than in girls (12.1%). There were differences among the different age in the different ethnic groups (6 months to 1 years old: χ(2) = 70.52, P < 0.01; 1 - 2 years old:χ(2) = 185.86, P < 0.01; 2 - 5 years old: χ(2) = 296.12, P < 0.01; 5 - 6 years old:χ(2) = 107.11, P < 0.01; 6 - 7 years old:χ(2) = 185.02, P < 0.01), the highest was 59.0% of Deang in 1 to 2 years old children. The trend of change was that the highest prevalence was seen in 6 months to 1 year old children, the prevalence gradually declined among older children, but rose again in children 6 years of age or older. The prevalence of anemia was 13.6% among the children of 15 ethnic minority under 7 years of age in Yunnan. There were differences among different ethnic groups of minority in different prefectures. There were differences among different ethnic groups of different age groups, but it was highest in 6 months to 1 year old children, it declined among older children, and rose in children 6 years of age or older. The prevalence of anemia was related to the ethnic and geographic factors.

  13. Vocational interests in the United States: Sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Vocational interests predict educational and career choices, job performance, and career success (Rounds & Su, 2014). Although sex differences in vocational interests have long been observed (Thorndike, 1911), an appropriate overall measure has been lacking from the literature. Using a cross-sectional sample of United States residents aged 14 to 63 who completed the Strong Interest Inventory assessment between 2005 and 2014 (N = 1,283,110), I examined sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects on work related interest levels using both multivariate and univariate effect size estimates of individual dimensions (Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional). Men scored higher on Realistic (d = -1.14), Investigative (d = -.32), Enterprising (d = -.22), and Conventional (d = -.23), while women scored higher on Artistic (d = .19) and Social (d = .38), mostly replicating previous univariate findings. Multivariate, overall sex differences were very large (disattenuated Mahalanobis' D = 1.61; 27% overlap). Interest levels were slightly lower and overall sex differences larger in younger samples. Overall sex differences have narrowed slightly for 18-22 year-olds in more recent samples. Generally very small ethnicity effects included relatively higher Investigative and Enterprising scores for Asians, Indians, and Middle Easterners, lower Realistic scores for Blacks and Native Americans, higher Realistic, Artistic, and Social scores for Pacific Islanders, and lower Conventional scores for Whites. Using Prediger's (1982) model, women were more interested in people (d = 1.01) and ideas (d = .18), while men were more interested in things and data. These results, consistent with previous reviews showing large sex differences and small year effects, suggest that large sex differences in work related interests will continue to be observed for decades. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Associations of candidate genes to age-related macular degeneration among racial/ethnic groups in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ronald; Li, Xiaohui; Kuo, Jane Z; Klein, Barbara E K; Cotch, Mary Frances; Wong, Tien Y; Taylor, Kent D; Rotter, Jerome I

    2013-11-01

    To describe the relationships of selected candidate genes to the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a cohort of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese Americans. Cross-sectional study. setting: Multicenter study. study population: A total of 2456 persons aged 45-84 years with genotype information and fundus photographs. procedures: Twelve of 2862 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 11 of 233 candidate genes for cardiovascular disease were selected for analysis based on screening with marginal unadjusted P value <.001 within 1 or more racial/ethnic groups. Logistic regression models tested for association in case-control samples. main outcome measure: Prevalence of early AMD. Early AMD was present in 4.0% of the cohort and varied from 2.4% in blacks to 6.0% in whites. The odds ratio increased from 2.3 for 1 to 10.0 for 4 risk alleles in a joint effect analysis of Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 rs10490924 and Complement Factor H Y402H (P for trend = 4.2×10(-7)). Frequencies of each SNP varied among the racial/ethnic groups. Adjusting for age and other factors, few statistically significant associations of the 12 SNPs with AMD were consistent across all groups. In a multivariate model, most candidate genes did not attenuate the comparatively higher odds of AMD in whites. The higher frequency of risk alleles for several SNPs in Chinese Americans may partially explain their AMD frequency's approaching that of whites. The relationships of 11 candidate genes to early AMD varied among 4 racial/ethnic groups, and partially explained the observed variations in early AMD prevalence among them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Development of Morphological Awareness in Young Bilinguals: Effects of Age and L1 Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Boji Pak-Wing; Sheng, Li

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Current understanding about the effect of first language (L1) background on morphological awareness (MA) development in those who are bilingual is largely limited to school-aged second-language learners. This study examined the development of MA in bilingual Mandarin-English (ManEngBi) and Spanish-English (SpaEngBi) children ages 4 to 7…

  16. The Development of Morphological Awareness in Young Bilinguals: Effects of Age and L1 Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Boji Pak-Wing; Sheng, Li

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Current understanding about the effect of first language (L1) background on morphological awareness (MA) development in those who are bilingual is largely limited to school-aged second-language learners. This study examined the development of MA in bilingual Mandarin-English (ManEngBi) and Spanish-English (SpaEngBi) children ages 4 to 7…

  17. Are Children of Young Mothers Disadvantaged because of Their Mother's Age or Family Background?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Ruth N. Lopez

    2003-01-01

    Data from national sample of 3- to 16-year-olds show that lower test scores and increased behavior problems of children of younger mothers resulted from family background rather than maternal age. For nonfirstborns, maternal age at first birth, not at child's birth, influenced test scores. Disadvantage of children born to younger mothers was…

  18. Gender differences in trajectories of alcohol use from ages 13 to 33 across Latina/o ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Niño, Michael D; Cai, Tianji; Mota-Back, Xóchitl; Comeau, Joseph

    2017-09-04

    Research examining alcohol use trajectories among Latina/os is scarce. Further, prior findings on alcohol use by ethnic group and gender is mixed. The purpose of this study was twofold: (a.) to examine developmental trajectories for two types of alcohol (drunkenness and heavy drinking) use across four Latina/o ethnic groups (Cubans, Puerto Ricans, Central/South American, and Mexican Americans) and, (b.) to examine the role of gender and ethnicity in developmental trajectories of drunkenness and heavy drinking among Latina/os. Data were drawn from Waves I-IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. The sample consisted of 1670 Latina/os that were followed from adolescence into adulthood. Multi-level logistic regression models were used to estimate drunkenness and heavy drinking trajectories and trajectories by gender. indicate that, for all four ethnic groups examined, the probability of drunkenness and heavy drinking gradually increased in adolescence, peaked in "emerging adulthood", and decreased as they transitioned into adulthood. Findings also show divergent age trajectories by gender, but patterns varied across ethnicity and alcohol use outcome. Key findings from this study demonstrate that among Latina/os, there are critical developmental periods for reported drunkenness and heavy drinking in the last 12 months, and that ethnicity and gender play substantial roles in the development of hazardous alcohol use over the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson et al. (Counsellor Education & Supervision 41: 120-130, 1992) was administered at the end of a semester to counselling students engaged in different stages of a counsellor training program. No significant differences were found in regard to gender and age-group categories, but significant differences were found among ethnic groups. It was found that Asian and White students generally had similar and also lower counselling self-efficacy means than the other ethnic groups in the sample in regard to several counselling-specific categories. Implications for counsellor educators in training counselling students of diverse characteristics are discussed.

  20. Technology use and interest among low-income parents of young children: differences by age group and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Swindle, Taren M; Ward, Wendy L; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bokony, Patti; Pettit, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    To examine demographic differences in frequency of use of technologies and interest in receiving nutrition information via technology by low-income parents and caregivers. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Head Start and state-funded child care programs. A total of 806 parents and caregivers from low-income families. A 20-item survey assessed frequency of use and interest in technologies (dependent variables) and collected participant age and ethnicity (independent variables). Multivariate ANOVA analysis investigated whether age, ethnicity, and their interactions were related to frequency of use and interest in technology types. Daily rates of usage for Internet, text messaging, and cell phone use were over 60%. However, Twitter and blogs were accessed daily by < 13% of respondents. The omnibus 2-way interaction of ethnicity and age was nonsignificant. However, main effects for ethnicity (Wilks' λ = .85; F = 3.13; P < .001) and age (Wilks' λ = .89; F = 2.29; P < .001) were observed. Facebook, e-mail, texting, and smartphone applications may be innovative modalities to engage with low-income parents and caregivers aged ≤ 45. However, some strategies may be ineffective for reaching Hispanic families as they reported less use of the Internet, Facebook, and e-mail as well as less interest in e-mail. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Microalbuminuria in a middle-aged workforce. Effect of hyperglycemia and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Metcalf, P A; Baker, J R; Scragg, R K; Dryson, E; Scott, A J; Wild, C J

    1993-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of microalbuminuria in a mixed, ethnic population and to find the extent that ethnic variation in microalbuminuria can be explained by abnormal glucose metabolism, obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and life-style factors. Urinary albumin concentrations were measured in 5467 middle-aged Maori, Pacific Islander, and European workers who participated in a health-screening survey of 46 New Zealand companies. Participants provided a first-voided, morning urine sample; had a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test; had weight, height, and blood pressure measured; and completed a self-administered questionnaire about past medical history and sociodemographic status. A significantly higher prevalence of microalbuminuria was found in individuals with new cases of diabetes mellitus (24.1%), in cases of diabetes mellitus previously diagnosed (20.6%), and in those with impaired glucose tolerance (16.1%) compared with nondiabetic individuals (4.0%). Moreover, in the general population, a piecewise linear relationship was detected between albuminuria and plasma glucose with significant changes of slope corresponding with 2 h plasma glucose concentrations (95% confidence interval) of 6.7 (6.4-7.0) and 9.2 (8.6-9.8) mM, respectively. After adjusting for sex, obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, cigarette smoking, and heavy alcohol consumption in a multivariate model, glycemia was the most significant determinant of urinary albumin concentrations in all three ethnic groups. However, blood glucose concentrations did not completely explain the higher relative risk (95% confidence interval) of microalbuminuria in Maori (5.97; 4.48-7.78) and Pacific Islander (5.33; 4.13-6.87) workers compared with European workers. Of the variables investigated, hyperglycemia was the most important factor explaining the high prevalence of microalbuminuria in Maori and Pacific Islander workers compared with the European workers. However, only 14.9% of the

  2. Incidence, and Gender, Age and Ethnic Distribution of Sarcomas in the Republic of Suriname from 1980 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Mans, DRA; Lall, AE Budhu; Macnack, VL; van Tholl, JA; Zandveld, EB; Vrede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We report on the incidence and the gender, age and ethnic distribution of sarcomas diagnosed between 1980 and 2008 in the multi-ethnic Republic of Suriname. Methods: Total and average yearly number of cases, crude rates, as well as relevant population data were derived from the records of the Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory and the General Bureau of Statistics, respectively, and stratified according to gender, age groups 0–19, 20–49 and 50+ years, and the largest ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese and Maroons). Results: Between 1980 and 2008, 258 sarcomas were diagnosed in Suriname, ie at a frequency of nine per year and an annual rate of two per 100 000. Overall, there was 0.9 male per female, two to four cases per year in each age group, and one to three patients in each ethnic group. Soft-tissue sarcomas comprised approximately 80% of overall cases, with a male/female ratio that was approximately 0.5; almost 90% of patients were older than 20 years; more than one-third was Creole. Leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma were most frequently encountered (90 cases), particularly above 20 years of age, while leiomyosarcomas seemed, additionally, more common in women and Creoles or Maroons. The most numerous bone tumours were primitive neuroectodermal tumour/Ewing tumour and osteosarcoma (37 cases). They were more common in males, the youngest age group, and Hindustanis and Creoles. Conclusions: The incidence of sarcomas in Suriname, and their gender, age and ethnic distribution in general, seemed comparable with international data. The main exception might be leiomyosarcoma which might have a predilection for Afro-Surinamese. PMID:25303244

  3. Geography matters: the prevalence of diabetes in the Auckland Region by age, gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Warin, Briar; Exeter, Daniel J; Zhao, Jinfeng; Kenealy, Timothy; Wells, Susan

    2016-06-10

    To determine whether the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes in the greater Auckland Region varies by General Electoral District (GED). Using encrypted National Health Identifiers and record linkage of routine health datasets, we identified a regional cohort of people with diagnosed diabetes in 2011 from inpatient records and medication dispensing. The geographical unit of a person's residence (meshblock) was used to determine the GED of residence. We calculated prevalence estimates and 95% confidence intervals and used binary logistic regression to map geographical variations in diabetes. An estimated 63,014 people had diagnosed diabetes in Auckland in 2011, a prevalence of 8.5% of the adult population ≥30 years of age. We found significant variation in diabetes prevalence by age, gender, ethnicity and GED. There was a more than five-fold difference in the unadjusted prevalence of diabetes by GED, ranging from 3.2% (3.1 to 3.4%) in the North Shore to 17.3% (16.8 to 17.7%) in Mangere. Such variations remained after binary logistic regression adjusting for socio-demographic variables. Compared to New Zealand Europeans, Indian people had the highest odds of having diabetes at 3.85 (3.73 to 3.97), while the odds of people living in the most deprived areas having diabetes was nearly twice that of those living in least deprived areas (OR 1.93, [1.87 to 1.99]). Geographic variations in diabetes remained after adjusting for socio-demographic circumstances: people living in GEDs in south-west Auckland were at least 60% more likely than people living in the North Shore GED to have diabetes. There is significant variation in the prevalence of diabetes by GED in Auckland that persists across strata of age group, gender and ethnicity, and persists after controlling for these same variables. These inequities should prompt action by politicians, policymakers, funders, health providers and communities for interventions aimed at reducing such inequities. Geography and its

  4. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  5. Ethnicity, Gender, Social Class and Achievement Gaps at Age 16: Intersectionality and "Getting It" for the White Working Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Perhaps the most prevailing inequalities in educational achievement in England are those associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender. However, little research has sought to compare the relative size of these gaps or to explore interactions between these factors. This paper analyses the educational achievement at age 11, 14…

  6. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  7. Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

  8. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  9. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  10. Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

  11. Development of Ethnic, Racial, and National Prejudice in Childhood and Adolescence: A Multinational Meta-Analysis of Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…

  12. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  13. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  14. Investigation of Music Student Efficacy as Influenced by Age, Experience, Gender, Ethnicity, and Type of Instrument Played in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to quantitatively examine South Carolina high school instrumental music students' self-efficacy as measured by the Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE) instrument (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1993). The independent variables of age, experience, gender, ethnicity, and type of instrument played) were correlated with…

  15. Investigation of Music Student Efficacy as Influenced by Age, Experience, Gender, Ethnicity, and Type of Instrument Played in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to quantitatively examine South Carolina high school instrumental music students' self-efficacy as measured by the Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE) instrument (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1993). The independent variables of age, experience, gender, ethnicity, and type of instrument played) were correlated with…

  16. Social determinants of malnutrition among Serbian children aged <5 years: ethnic and regional disparities.

    PubMed

    Brcanski, Jelena; Jović-Vraneš, Aleksandra; Marinković, Jelena; Favre, Dragana

    2014-10-01

    To assess the association between growth indicators of Serbian children aged <5 years of Roma and non-Roma populations and social determinants of health. This study used a cross-sectional secondary data analysis design to measure national and Roma population samples from the MICS 4 (UNICEF) performed in 2010 in Serbia. A total of 4,978 questionnaires were observed with children aged <5 years. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify association between social determinants of health and growth indicators. Roma children were more than three times more likely to exhibit stunted and/or severely stunted than non-Roma children from the lowest wealth quintile. Non-Roma children residing outside of the Belgrade region had a lower risk of stunted compared to children residing within the Belgrade region, while the risk of stunted among Roma children was nearly twofold greater than those residing in southern and eastern Serbia than in the Belgrade region. Our findings clarified the necessity to establish ethnically and regionally sensitive programs to solve the malnutrition problems.

  17. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  18. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-08-13

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, "BMIref"), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m², respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders' and ethnicities' trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40-50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan.

  19. Race/ethnicity and income in relation to the home food environment in US youth aged 6 to 19 years.

    PubMed

    Masters, Melissa A; Stanek Krogstrand, Kaye L; Eskridge, Kent M; Albrecht, Julie A

    2014-10-01

    The home food environment is complex and has the potential to influence dietary habit development in young people. Several factors may influence the home food environment, including income and race/ethnicity. To examine the relationship of income and race/ethnicity with three home food environment factors (ie, food availability frequency, family meal patterns [frequency of family and home cooked meals], and family food expenditures). A cross-sectional analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). A total of 5,096 youth aged 6 to 19 years from a nationally representative sample of US individuals participating in NHANES 2007-10. Prevalence of food availability frequency was assessed for the entire sample, race/ethnicity, poverty income ratio (PIR), and race/ethnicity stratified by PIR. Mean values of family meal patterns and food expenditures were calculated based on race/ethnicity, PIR, and race/ethnicity stratified by PIR using analysis of variance and least squares means. Tests of main effects were used to assess differences in food availability prevalence and mean values of family meal patterns and food expenditures. Non-Hispanic whites had the highest prevalence of salty snacks (51.1%±1.5%) and fat-free/low-fat milk (39.2%±1.7%) always available. High-income homes had the highest prevalence of fruits (75.4%±2.4%) and fat-free/low-fat milk (38.4%±2.1%) always available. Differences were found for prevalence of food availability when race/ethnicity was stratified by PIR. Non-Hispanic blacks had the lowest prevalence of fat-free/low-fat milk always available across PIR groups. Differences in mean levels of family meal patterns and food expenditures were found for race/ethnicity, PIR, and race/ethnicity stratified by PIR. Race/ethnicity and PIR appear to influence food availability, family meal patterns, and family food expenditures in homes of youth. Knowledge of factors that influence the home food environment could assist in

  20. Trends in participation rates for wildlife-associated outdoor recreation activities by age and race/ethnicity: implications for cohort-component projection models

    Treesearch

    John F. Dwyer; Allan Marsinko

    1998-01-01

    Cohort-component projection models have been used to explore the implications of increased aging and growth of racial/ethnic minority groups on number of participants in outdoor recreation activities in the years ahead. Projections usually assume that participation rates by age and race/ethnicity remain constant over time. This study looks at trends in activity...

  1. The home environments of children in the United States part I: variations by age, ethnicity, and poverty status.

    PubMed

    Bradley, R H; Corwyn, R F; McAdoo, H P; Coll, C G

    2001-01-01

    Although measures of the home environment have gained wide acceptance in the child development literature, what constitutes the "average" or 'typical" home environment in the United States, and how this differs across ethnic groups and poverty status is not known. Item-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth on four age-related versions of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment-Short Form (HOME-SF) from five biennial assessments (1986-1994) were analyzed for the total sample and for four major ethnic groups: European Americans, Asian Americans, African Americans, and Hispanic Americans. The percentages of homes receiving credit on each item of all four versions of the HOME-SF are described. For the majority of items at all four age levels differences between poor and nonpoor families were noted. Differences were also obtained among African American, European American, and Hispanic American families, but the magnitude of the effect for poverty status was greater than for ethnicity, and usually absorbed most of the ethnic group effects on HOME-SF items. For every item at every age, the effects of poverty were proportional across European American, African American, and Hispanic American groups.

  2. Language, Education and Ethnicity: Whose Rights Will Prevail in an Age of Globalisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Education and ethnicity cannot be discussed without taking language into account. This paper will argue that any discussion of ethnic minorities cannot ignore the question of language, nor can any discussion of human rights ignore the question of language rights. Unfortunately, in today's globalised world, governments and minorities are faced with…

  3. Vaccination coverage by race/ethnicity and poverty level among children aged 19-35 months -- United States, 1996.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    The Childhood Immunization Initiative (CII), implemented in 1993, is an intensive program to increase vaccination coverage among preschool-aged children and to reduce or eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases. In 1996, national coverage goals were achieved for 2-year-old children for the most critical doses of each routinely recommended vaccine. Disparities in vaccination coverage have been documented previously among different racial/ethnic groups. This report presents findings from CDC's National Immunization Survey (NIS), which document progress toward achieving the 1996 CII vaccination coverage goals by racial/ethnic group and by level of poverty. The findings indicate that, for each of five racial/ethnic groups, most of the national CII vaccination coverage goals were met and that, based on poverty level, all the goals were met for children living at or above the poverty level, and two of the five goals were met for children living below the poverty level.

  4. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Prevalence of Amblyopia in School-Aged Children and Variations by Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in a Multi-Country Refractive Error Study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ou; Morgan, Ian G; Ellwein, Leon B; He, Mingguang

    2015-09-01

    To estimate the age-, gender-, and ethnicity-specific prevalence of amblyopia in children aged 5 to 15 years using data from the multi-country Refractive Error Study in Children (RESC). Population-based, cross-sectional study. Among 46 260 children aged 5 to 15 years who were enumerated from 8 sites in the RESC study, 39 551 had a detailed ocular examination and a reliable visual acuity (VA) measurement in 1 or both eyes. Information on ethnicity was available for 39 321 of these participants. This study focused on findings from the 39 321 children. The examination included VA measurements, evaluation of ocular alignment and refractive error under cycloplegia, and examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus. The proportion of children aged 5 to 15 years with amblyopia in different ethnic cohorts. Amblyopia was defined as best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) of ≤20/40 in either eye, with tropia, anisometropia (≥2 spherical equivalent diopters [D]), or hyperopia (≥+6 spherical equivalent D), after excluding children with fundus or anterior segment abnormalities. The overall prevalence of amblyopia was 0.74% (95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.83) with significant (P < 0.001) variation across ethnic groups: 1.43% in Hispanic, 0.93% in Chinese, 0.62% in Indian, 0.52% in Malay, 0.35% in Nepali, and 0.28% in African children. Amblyopia was not associated with age or gender. The most common cause of amblyopia was anisometropia. In this study, the prevalence of amblyopia varied with ethnicity and was highest in Hispanic children and lowest in African children. Most cases were unilateral and developed before the age of 5 years. The impact of changes of definitions on prevalence estimates is discussed. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Ophthalmology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The effect of ethnicity and age on palatal size and shape: a study in a northern Chilean healthy population.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Tartaglia, G M; Carvajal, R; Palomino, H

    2000-01-01

    Race and ethnicity influence the form of the human craniofacial complex in varying ways. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the effects of ethnicity (mestizos, Aymara, non-Aymara), age (adolescents and adults), and sex on the form (size and shape) of the hard palate in normal Native American individuals. From the dental casts of 51 individuals with a complete permanent dentition, the x, y, and z coordinates of several standardized palatal landmarks were obtained with a computerized 3-dimensional digitizer. Palatal landmarks were used to derive a mathematical equation for palatal shape in the frontal and sagittal planes. Palatal width and length, frontal and sagittal heights, sagittal slope, and deviation of the raphe from the midline were also calculated. In the Aymara subjects, there was no effect of sex on palatal size, but there was an effect on palatal shape independent of size, especially with respect to male growth. Indeed, female palates apparently did not change their shape between adolescence and adulthood, while male palates increased their posterior "height." Overall, the 3 ethnic groups appeared to possess similar palatal size, with small significant differences. In the adult individuals, ethnicity did not seem to influence palatal shape. In contrast, adolescent males showed differences: non-Aymara subjects had the "highest" palatal shape, Aymara the "lowest," and mestizos an intermediate position. In conclusion, ethnicity does not seem to be a factor of major variability of human hard palate morphology, at least in the present 3 northern Chilean groups, as already found for dental arch shape. Age probably has a larger effect, particularly in the posterior part of the palate, where the eruption of the second and third molars between adolescence and young adulthood may play a role. A further development of the present investigation may involve larger samples of individuals from different ethnic groups.

  7. Are Schools Promoting Social and Economic Integration of Migrant and Ethnic Minorities? The Experiences of Some Young People of Ecuadorian Background in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ron-Balsera, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Although school is usually considered the most promising institution for the social and economic integration of young people of migration background, the educational outcomes of young people of Ecuadorian background signal a broken promise. Their families, peers, and teachers mediate the effect of the intersections of age, gender, class and…

  8. Are Schools Promoting Social and Economic Integration of Migrant and Ethnic Minorities? The Experiences of Some Young People of Ecuadorian Background in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ron-Balsera, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Although school is usually considered the most promising institution for the social and economic integration of young people of migration background, the educational outcomes of young people of Ecuadorian background signal a broken promise. Their families, peers, and teachers mediate the effect of the intersections of age, gender, class and…

  9. Public versus private food assistance: barriers to participation differ by age and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Martin, Katie S; Cook, John T; Rogers, Beatrice L; Joseph, Hugh M

    2003-01-01

    To examine participation in the Food Stamp Program, food pantries, and soup kitchens and to identify reasons food-insecure households choose not to participate. Cross-sectional retrospective cohort study. In respondents' homes. 330 randomly selected low-income households (below 185% of poverty). Participation in any of 3 public or private food assistance programs and barriers to participation in each program. Chi-square tests of association between program participation and sociodemographic characteristics. Logistic regression tested for associations between program participation and ethnicity and between food security status and household composition while controlling for potential confounding factors. Controlling for socioeconomic status, Black households are less than half as likely to receive food stamps (odds ratio [OR] = 0.49; P <.02) as Hispanic households. Hispanic households are more likely than non-Hispanic households to say that they feel uncomfortable using food pantries (P <.01). Elderly households are less than half as likely to receive food stamps (OR = 0.44; P =.04) as nonelderly households and are more likely to say that they feel uncomfortable receiving food stamps (P =.05). Low-income households' perceptions of which programs are socially acceptable differ by race and age. Outreach for food stamps and private food assistance should accommodate these differences so that food-insecure households can benefit from all available food assistance.

  10. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  11. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  12. Latchkey Children and School-Age Child Care: A Background Briefing. Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dale B.

    This background briefing paper synthesizes current thinking and practice on the issue of latchkey children and school-age child care (SACC). The paper defines the problem of latchkey children; reviews related literature and programmatic responses to the problem; reports responses of four southern states; and points out implications for policy…

  13. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining…

  14. Meaning in Life as a Mediator of Ethnic Identity and Adjustment among Adolescents from Latin, Asian, and European American Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiang, Lisa; Fuligni, Andrew J.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing a sense of life meaning is a primary facet of well-being, yet is understudied in adolescent development. Using data from 579 adolescents (53% female) from Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds, demographic differences in meaning in life, links with psychological and academic adjustment, and the role of meaning in explaining…

  15. The association of age, gender, ethnicity, family history, obesity and hypertension with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Nayak, B Shivananda; Sobrian, Arianne; Latiff, Khalif; Pope, Danielle; Rampersad, Akash; Lourenço, Kodi; Samuel, Nichole

    2014-01-01

    To assess the impact of risk factors such as age, gender, ethnicity, family history, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and hypertension, on the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Trinidadian population. A cross-sectional case control study comprised 146 non-diabetics and 147 type 2 diabetics ≥18 years of age, from North Central, South West and Eastern regions of Trinidad. Cross-tabulations revealed a significant difference between type 2-diabetes and age at p<0.01, and between type 2 diabetes and family history, ethnicity, waist circumference and hypertension at p<0.05. Logistic regression showed age to be the most influential risk factor. The systolic blood pressure specifically showed a significant difference at p<0.05, with the mean values for non-diabetics and type 2 diabetics being, 130.62 (±2.124) and 141.35 (±2.312), respectively. No significant difference was observed between type 2 diabetes and gender and BMI. Age was the most significant risk factor of type 2 diabetes. Therefore it can be concluded that family history, ethnicity, waist circumference and hypertension are more significant risk factors of this disease than BMI and gender in the Trinidadian population. Copyright © 2014 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Age, Gender, and Fine-Grained Ethnicity Prediction using Convolutional Neural Networks for the East Asian Face Dataset

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivas, Nisha; Rose, Derek C; Bolme, David S; Mahalingam, Gayathri; Atwal, Harleen; Ricanek, Karl

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the difficulty associated with performing machine-based automatic demographic prediction on a sub-population of Asian faces. We introduce the Wild East Asian Face dataset (WEAFD), a new and unique dataset to the research community. This dataset consists primarily of labeled face images of individuals from East Asian countries, including Vietnam, Burma, Thailand, China, Korea, Japan, Indonesia, and Malaysia. East Asian turk annotators were uniquely used to judge the age and fine grain ethnicity attributes to reduce the impact of the other race effect and improve quality of annotations. We focus on predicting age, gender and fine-grained ethnicity of an individual by providing baseline results with a convolutional neural network (CNN). Finegrained ethnicity prediction refers to predicting ethnicity of an individual by country or sub-region (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, etc.) of the East Asian continent. Performance for two CNN architectures is presented, highlighting the difficulty of these tasks and showcasing potential design considerations that ease network optimization by promoting region based feature extraction.

  17. Hispanic ethnicity and acculturation, maternal age and the risk of gastroschisis in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study.

    PubMed

    Khodr, Zeina G; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Chan, Wenyaw; Cai, Yi; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate that gastroschisis is associated with maternal age, ethnicity, and acculturation. This analysis was conducted to further define the associations between gastroschisis and parental Hispanic ethnicity and acculturation, and to determine whether such associations vary by maternal age. This study was based on data from mothers of 753 gastroschisis cases and 6,496 control infants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. The relationships between gastroschisis and both parental Hispanic ethnicity and acculturation, within maternal age strata (<20 versus ≥20 years at conception), were assessed using logistic regression and principal component analyses. The risk of gastroschisis in offspring of women <20 years old was not significantly associated with parental Hispanic ethnicity or acculturation. Among mothers ≥20 years old, US-born non-Hispanic white parents had a lower risk of gastroschisis in offspring as compared to either US-born Hispanic (odds ratios [ORs] ranging from 0.55 to 0.60) or English-speaking Hispanic (ORs ranging from 0.58 to 0.65) parents. Further, compared with US born Hispanic women ≥20 years, the risk of gastroschisis was lower for Hispanic women who had lived in the US <5 years (OR=0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17, 0.74) or who migrated to the US at ≥20 years (OR=0.47, 95% CI: 0.25, 0.88). These results provide further evidence that gastroschisis risk is associated with ethnicity and some aspects of acculturation. Additionally, these associations were limited to the offspring of women who are ≥20 at the time of conception. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Fear of dying in an ethnically diverse society: cross-sectional studies of people aged 65+ in Britain

    PubMed Central

    Iliffe, Steve; Kessel, Anthony; Higginson, Irene J

    2010-01-01

    Aim To examine fears about dying in an ethnically diverse population sample, and a more homogeneous population sample, aged 65 and over. Methods Personal interviews with people aged 65+ living at home responding to two Office for National Statistics Omnibus Surveys in Britain, and two Ethnibus Surveys of ethnically diverse populations in Britain. Results Ethnically diverse respondents were more likely than British population respondents to express fears about dying on all measures used. Respondents in both samples with better, compared with worse, quality of life had significantly reduced odds of having extreme fears of dying (ethnically diverse sample, OR 0.924 (95% CI 0.898 to 0.951); British population sample, OR 0.981 (95% CI 0.966 to 0.996); both p<0.001). In the latter sample only, older age was protective (OR 0.957; 95% CI 0.930 to 0.985; p<0.001), whereas in the Ethnibus sample, having a longstanding illness (OR 2.024; 95% CI 1.158 to 3.535; p<0.05) and having more relatives to help them (OR 1.134; 95% CI 1.010 to 1.274; p<0.05) increased fears about dying. Conclusions Enabling older people to express fears about dying is likely to be important when planning supportive end-of-life care. Practitioners should not assume that fears about dying are the same in different social groups, or that extensive family support is protective against such anxiety. Older people from ethnic minorities had more anxieties about dying than others, and were more likely to express fears the more extensive their family support. These findings have implications for commissioners and practitioners of primary and secondary care. PMID:20354041

  19. Fear of dying in an ethnically diverse society: cross-sectional studies of people aged 65+ in Britain.

    PubMed

    Bowling, Ann; Iliffe, Steve; Kessel, Anthony; Higginson, Irene J

    2010-04-01

    To examine fears about dying in an ethnically diverse population sample, and a more homogeneous population sample, aged 65 and over. Personal interviews with people aged 65+ living at home responding to two Office for National Statistics Omnibus Surveys in Britain, and two Ethnibus Surveys of ethnically diverse populations in Britain. Ethnically diverse respondents were more likely than British population respondents to express fears about dying on all measures used. Respondents in both samples with better, compared with worse, quality of life had significantly reduced odds of having extreme fears of dying (ethnically diverse sample, OR 0.924 (95% CI 0.898 to 0.951); British population sample, OR 0.981 (95% CI 0.966 to 0.996); both p<0.001). In the latter sample only, older age was protective (OR 0.957; 95% CI 0.930 to 0.985; p<0.001), whereas in the Ethnibus sample, having a longstanding illness (OR 2.024; 95% CI 1.158 to 3.535; p<0.05) and having more relatives to help them (OR 1.134; 95% CI 1.010 to 1.274; p<0.05) increased fears about dying. Enabling older people to express fears about dying is likely to be important when planning supportive end-of-life care. Practitioners should not assume that fears about dying are the same in different social groups, or that extensive family support is protective against such anxiety. Older people from ethnic minorities had more anxieties about dying than others, and were more likely to express fears the more extensive their family support. These findings have implications for commissioners and practitioners of primary and secondary care.

  20. Genetic Background, Maternal Age, and Interaction Effects Mediate Rates of Crossing Over in Drosophila melanogaster Females.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Chad M; Robinson, Matthew C; Aylor, David L; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-05-03

    Meiotic recombination is a genetic process that is critical for proper chromosome segregation in many organisms. Despite being fundamental for organismal fitness, rates of crossing over vary greatly between taxa. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to phenotypic variation in crossover frequency, as do genotype-environment interactions. Here, we test the hypothesis that maternal age influences rates of crossing over in a genotypic-specific manner. Using classical genetic techniques, we estimated rates of crossing over for individual Drosophila melanogaster females from five strains over their lifetime from a single mating event. We find that both age and genetic background significantly contribute to observed variation in recombination frequency, as do genotype-age interactions. We further find differences in the effect of age on recombination frequency in the two genomic regions surveyed. Our results highlight the complexity of recombination rate variation and reveal a new role of genotype by maternal age interactions in mediating recombination rate.

  1. Characterization of type 2 diabetes mellitus burden by age and ethnic groups based on a nationwide survey.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Janice M S; Bailey, Robert A; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Annunziata, Kathy

    2014-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes. Risk factors for its development include older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to characterize T2DM burden, from a patient perspective, with respect to age and race/ethnicity. Adults aged ≥18 years with T2DM from a large, Internet-based, nationwide survey were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and clinical characteristics (glycemic control, body mass index [BMI], comorbidities, and diabetes-related complications), hypoglycemic episodes, and medication adherence were used to assess diabetes burden. Degree of burden was compared across age (18-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years) and racial/ethnic (white, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian) groups. An apparent association was found between glycemic control and medication adherence. Hispanics had the lowest percentage of participants with a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level <7.0% (24.4%) and the highest percentage of those not knowing their HbA1c levels (55.4%) but also had the poorest medication adherence among racial/ethnic groups. Conversely, American Indians and whites had the best glycemic control, HbA1c knowledge, and medication adherence. The 18- to 64-year age group had the poorest glycemic control (28.8%), the most with unknown HbA1c levels (46.3%), and the poorest medication adherence of the age groups. Mean BMIs were high (>30 mg/kg(2)) for all racial/ethnic groups other than the Asian group (28.9 mg/kg(2)). Approximately 71% of Asians were obese or overweight compared with ≥90% in the other racial/ethnic groups. Mean BMIs decreased with increasing age group (34.5, 32.6, and 29.8 kg/m(2) for the age groups of 18-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years, respectively). Regarding diabetes-related comorbidities, the Asian group had the lowest percentages of those with hypertension (39.1%) and

  2. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  3. Interaction of age with lipoproteins as predictors of aortic valve calcification in the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Owens, David S; Katz, Ronit; Johnson, Eric; Shavelle, David M; Probstfield, Jeffrey L; Takasu, Junichiro; Crouse, John R; Carr, J Jeffrey; Kronmal, Richard; Budoff, Matthew J; O'Brien, Kevin D

    2008-06-09

    Previous epidemiologic studies have shown that low-density lipoprotein is an independent risk factor for prevalent aortic valve calcification (AVC); however, to our knowledge, the interactions between plasma lipoprotein concentrations and age on the relative risks (RRs) for AVC prevalence and severity have not been examined in a large, racially and ethnically diverse cohort. Using stepwise RR regression, the relationships of baseline fasting lipid levels and lipoprotein levels to baseline prevalence and severity of AVC were determined in 5801 non-statin-using participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). In age-stratified, adjusted analyses, the low-density lipoprotein-associated RRs (95% confidence intervals) for prevalent AVC were higher for younger compared with older participants (age 45-54 years, 1.69 [1.19-2.39]; age 55-64 years, 1.48 [1.24-1.76]; age 65-74 years, 1.09 [0.95-1.25]; and age 75-84 years, 1.16 [0.99-1.36]; P interaction = .04]. There was a similar, significant interaction of age with total cholesterol-associated RR for prevalent AVC (P interaction = .04). In contrast, total- to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio RRs were similar across all age strata (P interaction = .68). At multivariate analyses, no lipoprotein parameter was associated with AVC severity. In this racially and ethnically diverse, preclinical cohort, low-density lipoprotein was a risk factor for AVC only in participants younger than 65 years, whereas the total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio was associated with a modest increased risk of AVC across all ages. These findings may have important implications for the efficacy of and targets for dyslipidemia therapies in calcific aortic valve disease.

  4. Locating the Social Origins of Mental Illness: The Explanatory Models of Mental Illness Among Clergy from Different Ethnic and Faith Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Leavey, Gerard; Loewenthal, Kate; King, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Clergy have historically provided 'healing' through various spiritual and medical modalities and even in modern, developed welfare economies they may still be an important help-seeking resource. Partnerships between religion and psychiatry are regularly advocated, but there is scant research on clergy explanatory models of illness. This paper aimed to explore their relationship with psychiatry and to examine how clergy in various faith groups conceptualised mental health problems. In this qualitative study using in-depth interviews, these issues were explored with 32 practising clergy in the UK from a range of different Christian, Muslim and Jewish faith organisations and ethnic backgrounds. This paper presents findings related to clergy explanatory models of mental illness and, in particular, how the social factors involved in causation are tinged with spiritual influences and implications, and how the meanings of mental distress assume a social and moral significance in distinctive localised matters.

  5. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme gene polymorphism in two ethnic groups living in Brazil's southern region: association with age.

    PubMed

    Da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; Oliveira, Graziela; Taufer, Maristela; Leal, Ney Furhmann; Schwanke, Carla Helena; Glock, Luiz; Moriguchi, Yukio; Moriguchi, Emilio Hideyuki

    2003-09-01

    Several studies have been published on the association between ACE (angiotensin I-converting enzyme) polymorphism and longevity. However, the results are controversial. We analyzed the association between ACE polymorphism and age in two different ethnic populations: a population originating from different European countries (Gaucha Population, GP) and a population originating from Japan (JP). Both populations live in Brazil's southern region. We determined the ACE genotype in 834 persons aged 10-104 years. The ACE genotype and allele frequencies differed between the two populations, with the D allele being more frequent in GP than JP. We found an association between the DD genotype and D allele and age in the GP group only. The ACE polymorphism-age association occurred at age >60 years in the GP population with decreasing II frequency. We cannot dismiss the possibility of the association between ACE polymorphism and age involving linkage disequilibrium, since the nature of this phenomenon is still controversial. From our studies, it appears that there is a correlation between age, ethnicity, and ACE polymorphism. More of such studies are warranted, as further investigation in this area will have a high clinical relevance to cardiovascular disease and aging research.

  6. Psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders in Hispanic females of diverse ethnic background and non-Hispanic females.

    PubMed

    George, Valerie A; Erb, Allison F; Harris, Cristen L; Casazza, Krista

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated differences in psychosocial risk factors for eating disorders among university females (n=406) of diverse Hispanic background (Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central American/Mexican, Dominican, Venezuelan) and among White non-Hispanic (n=102) female students. Risk factors were assessed using the Psychosocial Risk Factor Questionnaire (PRFQ) which includes four subscales: Social Pressure for Thinness, Media Pressure for Thinness, Concern for Physical Appearance, and Perception of Physical Appearance. There were significant differences among the groups in total PRFQ score, F(7,499)=2.76, P<.008, and the subscale score for Concern, F(7,499)=2.99, P<.004, with Dominicans, Venezuelans and Columbians having higher scores than White non-Hispanics and Central Americans/Mexicans. In addition, there was a significant difference in BMI, F(7,499)=2.70, P<.009. Both Puerto Ricans (24.27+0.81) and Venezuelans (24.66+1.00) had higher BMIs than White non-Hispanics (21.87+0.37), Cubans (21.99+0.24) and Brazilians (21.46+0.96). There was also a significant, F(7,498)=2.70, P<.009, difference among the groups in Ideal Body Image score. Puerto Ricans had the highest score and Brazilians the lowest. Acknowledging that differences in psychosocial risk factors exist among Hispanic females of diverse background can assist us in creating more targeted approaches for the prevention of potential eating disorders in this population.

  7. Rates of firearm homicide by Chicago region, age, sex, and race/ethnicity, 2005-2010.

    PubMed

    Walker, Garth Nyambi; McLone, Suzanne; Mason, Maryann; Sheehan, Karen

    2016-10-01

    The United States reports the highest levels of firearm homicide incidences compared to other high income countries, and the focus and causes of these incidences within the US differ by demographic characteristics and location such as urban versus rural environment. Despite these findings, few studies have published on rates varied by region within a city. This study aims to provide descriptive analysis of the rates of firearm homicide by age, sex, and race/ethnicity in each of the seven City of Chicago regions, and to determine if the rates of firearm homicide differ by demographics among the seven City of Chicago regions. The Illinois Violent Death Reporting System conducts routine surveillance of violent deaths. Decedents were selected according to the following criteria: manner of death was homicide, weapon type was firearm, and location of injury that led to death was the City of Chicago. Location of injury was broken down by regions: North, Northwest, Center, West, South, Southwest, and Far South. Multiyear rates per 100,000 and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated. There were 2,254 victims of homicide by firearm in the City of Chicago. The overall rate across Chicago for all demographics was 12.9 (12.1-13.5 per 100,000) with an average age of 27.4. The highest age group (20-24) for firearm homicide rates was 43.2 (39.7-46.7) per 100,000. For the youngest age group (10-14), only the Southwest (3.3-10.4) region reported any firearm incidence. The 20 to 24 age group reported the highest rates of all age groups within the South (107.9-151.7), West (80.3-108.2), and Far South (69.6-105.3) regions, whereas the North and Northwest reported the lowest rates for all regions by age. Black firearm homicide rates were 33.5 (31.9-35.1) per 100,000 versus Hispanic and non-Hispanic white firearm homicide rates of 8.5 (7.7-9.3) and 1.2 (1-1.5) per 100,000, respectively. Lastly, the West reported the highest firearm rates at 29.1 (657). In conclusion

  8. Microcomputer-Based Approaches for Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescents from Ethnic-Racial Minority Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Moncher, Michael S; Parms, Clifford A; Orlandi, Mario A; Schinke, Steven P; Miller, Samuel O; Palleja, Josephine; Schinke, Mary B

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to empirically assess the potential of microcomputer-based intervention with black adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Subjects were 26, 11 through 14-year-old black females and males recruited from three boroughs in New York City. A sample task was administered via microcomputer system followed by a postintervention measurement battery. Observational measures were also employed to assess interactional variables. Subjects' attitudes toward educational content in general, and toward drug and alcohol information delivery in particular, appeared to be a significant intervening variable that could alter the overall efficacy of computer-delivered interventions. Both observational and postintervention measures indicated an overall positive subject response to computer-administered instruction. In contrast, however, respondents indicated a negative response to microcomputer delivery of drug and alcohol related materials. Results of the experiment are discussed along with rationales and future research directions.

  9. Microcomputer-Based Approaches for Preventing Drug and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescents from Ethnic-Racial Minority Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Moncher, Michael S.; Parms, Clifford A.; Orlandi, Mario A.; Schinke, Steven P.; Miller, Samuel O.; Palleja, Josephine; Schinke, Mary B.

    2006-01-01

    This study was designed to empirically assess the potential of microcomputer-based intervention with black adolescents from economically disadvantaged backgrounds. Subjects were 26, 11 through 14-year-old black females and males recruited from three boroughs in New York City. A sample task was administered via microcomputer system followed by a postintervention measurement battery. Observational measures were also employed to assess interactional variables. Subjects’ attitudes toward educational content in general, and toward drug and alcohol information delivery in particular, appeared to be a significant intervening variable that could alter the overall efficacy of computer-delivered interventions. Both observational and postintervention measures indicated an overall positive subject response to computer-administered instruction. In contrast, however, respondents indicated a negative response to microcomputer delivery of drug and alcohol related materials. Results of the experiment are discussed along with rationales and future research directions. PMID:17387376

  10. Neural underpinnings of background acoustic noise in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Sinanaj, Indrit; Montandon, Marie-Louise; Rodriguez, Cristelle; Herrmann, François; Santini, Francesco; Haller, Sven; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon

    2015-12-03

    Previous contributions in younger cohorts have revealed that reallocation of cerebral resources, a crucial mechanism for working memory (WM), may be disrupted by parallel demands of background acoustic noise suppression. To date, no study has explored the impact of such disruption on brain activation in elderly individuals with or without subtle cognitive deficits. We performed a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study in 23 cases (mean age=75.7 y.o., 16 men) with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 16 elderly healthy controls (HC, mean age=70.1 y.o., three men) using a 2-back WM task, under two distinct MRI background acoustic noise conditions (louder vs. lower noise echo-planar imaging). General linear models were used to assess brain activation as a function of group and noise. In both groups, lower background noise is associated with increased activation of the working memory network (WMN). A decrease of the normally observed deactivation of the default mode network (DMN) is found under louder noise in both groups. Unlike HC, MCI cases also show decreased deactivation of the DMN under both louder and lower background noise. Under louder noise, this decrease is observed in anterior parts of the DMN in HC, and in the posterior cingulate cortex in MCI cases. Our results suggest that background acoustic noise has a differential impact on WMN activation in normal aging as a function of the cognitive status. Only louder noise has a disruptive effect on the usually observed DMN deactivation during WM task performance in HC. In contrast, MCI cases show altered DMN reactivity even in the presence of lower noise.

  11. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccination among Adults with Chronic Medical Conditions Vary by Age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lu, Degan; Qiao, Yanru; Brown, Natalie E; Wang, Junling

    2017-01-01

    People living with chronic health conditions exhibit higher risk for developing severe complications from influenza according to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. Although racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination have been documented, it has not been comprehensively determined whether similar disparities are present among the adult population with at least one such condition. To study if racial and ethnic disparities in relation to influenza vaccination are present in adults suffering from at least one chronic condition and if such inequalities differ between age groups. The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2011-2012) was used to study the adult population (age ≥18) who had at least one chronic health condition. Baseline differences in population traits across racial and ethnic groups were identified using a chi-square test. This was conducted among various age groups. In addition, survey logistic regression was utilized to produce odds ratios of receiving influenza vaccination annually between racial and ethnic groups. The total sample consisted of 15,499 adults living with at least one chronic health condition. The numbers of non-Hispanic whites (whites), non-Hispanic blacks (blacks), and Hispanics were 8,658, 3,585, and 3,256, respectively. Whites (59.93%) were found to have a higher likelihood of self-reporting their receipt of the influenza vaccine in comparison to the black (48.54%) and Hispanic (48.65%) groups (P<0.001). When examining persons aged 50-64 years and ≥65 years, it was noted that the black (54.99%, 62.72%) and Hispanic (53.54%, 64.48%) population had lower rates of influenza vaccine coverage than the white population (59.22%, 77.89) (both P<0.0001). No significant differences between whites and the blacks or Hispanics were found among the groups among adults between 18 and 49 inclusive (P>0.05). After controlling for patient characteristics, the difference in influenza vaccine coverage between whites and the

  12. The background Friedmannian Hubble constant in relativistic inhomogeneous cosmology and the age of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roukema, Boudewijn F.; Mourier, Pierre; Buchert, Thomas; Ostrowski, Jan J.

    2017-02-01

    Context. In relativistic inhomogeneous cosmology, structure formation couples to average cosmological expansion. A conservative approach to modelling this assumes an Einstein-de Sitter model (EdS) at early times and extrapolates this forward in cosmological time as a "background model" against which average properties of today's Universe can be measured. Aims: This modelling requires adopting an early-epoch-normalised background Hubble constant . Methods: Here, we show that the ΛCDM model can be used as an observational proxy to estimate rather than choose it arbitrarily. We assume (i) an EdS model at early times; (ii) a zero dark energy parameter; (iii) bi-domain scalar averaging-division of the spatial sections into over- and underdense regions; and (iv) virialisation (stable clustering) of collapsed regions. Results: We find km s-1/ Mpc (random error only) based on a Planck ΛCDM observational proxy. Conclusions: Moreover, since the scalar-averaged expansion rate is expected to exceed the (extrapolated) background expansion rate, the expected age of the Universe should be much younger than Gyr. The maximum stellar age of Galactic bulge microlensed low-mass stars (most likely: 14.7 Gyr; 68% confidence: 14.0-15.0 Gyr) suggests an age of about a Gyr older than the (no-backreaction) ΛCDM estimate.

  13. Government public housing health needs assessment: focus on race, ethnicity, and the older adult: background, methods, and demographics.

    PubMed

    Lascher, Steven; Tasir-Rodriguez, Wesley; Moon, Grace; Irizzary, Maria; Baney, Matthew; Kellogg, F Russell

    2013-01-01

    St. Vincent's Catholic Medical Centers of New York initiated a study in 2009 to assess the health needs of residents of New York City (NYC) municipal housing at the Robert Fulton public housing complex in Manhattan. The aim of this project was to provide valid data on perceived health services needs of the residents of a NYC housing project. These data may also be used to support hospital and community collaborative strategic decisions for developing resident-appropriate health and social services and would be valuable for use in formulating policies and programs by other interested nonprofit health and social services organizations and government. We designed a 28-item instrument and pilot tested it with our research team and members of the population under study. The English and Spanish surveys were designed as an in-person surveyor-administered instruments addressing four domains: demographics, access and barriers to health care services, risk behaviors, and perceived health needs. The sampling was an apartment-level stratified random sampling. A 20%, 188 apartment sample was drawn from the population of 944 housing units. Our response rate was 92% (173/188 apartments). Background methods, and demographic results are reported in this article. A second article will report on the needs assessment results.

  14. Background chromatic contrast preference in cases with age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh-Ebadi, Mahmoud; Markowitz, Samuel N.; Shima, Noboru

    2013-01-01

    Objective To identify background chromatic contrast preferred subjectively by patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Prospective observational case series. Study subjects with AMD were recruited and compared to a control group of study subjects with normal vision. Study subjects were presented with letter size printed sheets of white paper with randomly typed 2 M size standard black optotypes. Chromatic contrast was created with colored plastic sheets positioned on top of the black on white printed sheets. The 4 major color hues which were selected for testing were blue, yellow, green and red. Study subjects were required to identify background contrast best preferred for viewing at the end of 4 trial sequences. Results 40 subjects with AMD were recruited together with 57 study subjects with normal vision. In either the control group or the group with AMD subjects the majority's chromatic preference for background was yellow (56.14%, p = 0.42 and 71.67%, p = 0.006 respectively) with subjects with AMD preferring yellow color background significantly more than subjects with normal vision (p = 0.0002). Conclusions Yellow color background seems to be preferred by most of healthy and AMD eyes. This preference may be modulated by factors such as the yellow-blue vision processing channel and/or luminosity differences produced by selectively transmitted light.

  15. Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Left Ventricular Structure by Age and Gender: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Javaheri, Sogol; Sharma, Ravi K.; Wang, Rui; Weng, Jia; Rosen, Boaz D.; Bluemke, David A.; Lima, Joao A.C.; Redline, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are associated with impaired left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Our goal was to quantify the associations between LV systolic function and mass with severity of OSA in an ethnically diverse cohort, assessing variations by age and sex. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from 1,412 racially/ethnically diverse participants across 6 US communities from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who underwent both overnight polysomnography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging from 2010–2012. We evaluated the association between the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) by clinical category (< 5, 5–15, 15–30, 30–50, > 50) and secondary measures of sleep apnea with the outcomes left ventricular (LV) mass adjusted for height, LV mass/volume ratio, and LV ejection fraction. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders and mediators, LV mass was significantly increased with increasing AHI category for subjects age 65 y or younger (β = 1.84 ± 0.47 g/m, P = 0.0001). The association between the AHI and LV mass appeared stronger in whites and Chinese compared to blacks and Hispanics, although interaction terms were not statistically significant. Additionally, while both LV mass and LV mass/volume ratio were significantly associated with hypoxia, ejection fraction was not associated with any OSA severity index. Comparable associations were observed in men and women. Conclusions: Independent of confounders, higher levels of AHI are significantly associated with increased LV mass in both men and women younger than 65 y from a community-based cohort. Citation: Javaheri S, Sharma RK, Wang R, Weng J, Rosen BD, Bluemke DA, Lima JA, Redline S. Association between obstructive sleep apnea and left ventricular structure by age and gender: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. SLEEP 2016;39(3):523–529. PMID:26888453

  16. Passwords Usage and Human Memory Limitations: A Survey across Age and Educational Background

    PubMed Central

    Pilar, Denise Ranghetti; Jaeger, Antonio; Gomes, Carlos F. A.; Stein, Lilian Milnitsky

    2012-01-01

    The present article reports a survey conducted to identify the practices on passwords usage, focusing particularly on memory limitations and the use of passwords across individuals with different age and education backgrounds. A total of 263 participants were interviewed, with ages ranging from 18 to 93 years, and education level ranging from grade school to graduate degree. Contrary to our expectations, effects of cognitive decline due to aging were not observed on memory performance for passwords. The results suggested instead, that the number of password uses was the most influential factor on memory performance. That is, as the number of circumstances in which individuals utilized passwords increased, the incidence of forgotten and mixed-up passwords also increased. The theoretical significance of these findings and their implications for good practices on password usage are discussed. PMID:23227232

  17. Epidemiology of Fractures in the United Kingdom 1988-2012: Variation with age, sex, geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Elizabeth M; van der Velde, Robert; Moon, Rebecca J; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Geusens, Piet; de Vries, Frank; van Staa, Tjeerd P; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2016-01-01

    Summary Rates of fracture worldwide are changing. Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), age, and gender, geographical, ethnic and socioeconomic trends in fracture rates across the United Kingdom were studied over a 24 year period 1988-2012. Previously observed patterns in fracture incidence by age and fracture site were evident. New data on the influence of geographic location, ethnic group and socioeconomic status were obtained. Introduction With secular changes in age- and sex-specific fracture incidence observed in many populations, and global shifts towards an elderly demography, it is vital for health care planners to have an accurate understanding of fracture incidence nationally. We aimed to present up to date fracture incidence data in the UK, stratified by age, sex, geographic location, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Methods The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) contains anonymised electronic health records for approximately 6.9% of the UK population. Information comes from General Practitioners, and covers 11.3 million people from 674 practices across the UK, demonstrated to be representative of the national population. The study population consisted of all permanently registered individuals aged >=18 years. Validated data on fracture incidence were obtained from their medical records, as was information on socioeconomic deprivation, ethnicity and geographic location. Age and sex-specific fracture incidence rates were calculated. Results Fracture incidence rates by age and sex were comparable to those documented in previous studies and demonstrated a bimodal distribution. Substantial geographic heterogeneity in age and sex adjusted fracture incidence was observed, with rates in Scotland almost 50% greater than those in London and South East England. Lowest rates of fracture were observed in black individuals of both sexes; rates of fragility fracture in white women were 4.7 times greater than in black women. Strong

  18. The Development of Morphological Awareness in Young Bilinguals: Effects of Age and L1 Background.

    PubMed

    Lam, Boji Pak-Wing; Sheng, Li

    2016-08-01

    Current understanding about the effect of first language (L1) background on morphological awareness (MA) development in those who are bilingual is largely limited to school-aged second-language learners. This study examined the development of MA in bilingual Mandarin-English (ManEngBi) and Spanish-English (SpaEngBi) children ages 4 to 7 years, whose L1 is predominated by compounding and derivation, respectively. We targeted specific word formation rules that develop within different developmental time frames. Forty-two ManEngBi, 30 SpaEngBi, and 27 English monolingual children divided into 4- to 5-year-old and 6- to 7-year-old age groups produced English words using compounding, the derivational agentive -er suffix, and the derivational characteristic -y suffix for both real and novel word roots. The characteristic -y suffix consistently elicited the poorest performance. This finding held true regardless of language group, age, or novelty of prompts. Both older SpaEngBi and English monolingual children outperformed older ManEngBi children in the characteristic -y suffix, whereas the three groups performed comparably on the other two rules at both age intervals. Error analysis further suggested influence of cross-linguistic features. L1 influence on English MA development is sensitive to the developmental time frame of word formation rules. Future studies on the development of MA in bilingual children should adopt a more fine-grained approach and include a wider age range.

  19. The rs4646 and rs12592697 Polymorphisms in CYP19A1 Are Associated with Disease Progression among Patients with Breast Cancer from Different Racial/Ethnic Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    Armamento-Villareal, Reina; Shah, Vallabh O.; Aguirre, Lina E.; Meisner, Angela L. W.; Qualls, Clifford; Royce, Melanie E.

    2016-01-01

    Given the racial/ethnic disparities in breast cancer, we evaluated the association between CYP19A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on disease progression in women with breast cancer from different racial/ethnic backgrounds. This is a cross-sectional analysis of data from 327 women with breast cancer in the Expanded Breast Cancer Registry program of the University of New Mexico. Stored DNA samples were analyzed for CYP19A1 SNPs using a custom designed microarray panel. Genotype-phenotype correlations were analyzed. Of the 384 SNPs, 2 were associated with clinically significant outcomes, the rs4646 and rs12592697. The T allele for the rs4646 was associated with advanced stage of the disease at the time of presentation (odds ratio [OR]:1.8, confidence intervals [CI]: 1.05–3.13, p < 0.05) and a more progressive disease (OR: 2.1 [CI: 1.1–4.0], p = 0.04). For the rs12592697, the variant T allele was more frequent in Hispanic women and associated with a more progressive disease (OR: 2.05 [CI: 1.0–4.0], p = 0.04). However, further analysis according to menopausal status showed that the association between these 2 SNPs with disease progression or the stage at diagnosis are confined only to postmenopausal women. The odds ratios of disease progression among postmenopausal women carrying the T allele for the rs4646 and rs12592697 are 3.05 (1.21, 7.74, p = 0.02) and 3.80 (1.24, 11.6, p = 0.02), respectively. Regardless, differences in disease progression among the different genotypes for both SNPs disappeared after adjustment for treatment. In summary, the rs4646 and the rs12592697 SNPs in CYP19A1 are associated with differences in disease progression in postmenopausal women. However, treatment appears to mitigate the differences in genetic risk. PMID:27994616

  20. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school.

    PubMed

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.

  1. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Andreia Maria Araújo; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Gomes, Viviane Elisangela; Marcenes, Wagner

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24-1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02-3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education and income fully explained ethnic

  2. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  3. Age, Sex, and Ethnic Variations in Inner and Outer Retinal and Choroidal Thickness on Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography.

    PubMed

    Bafiq, Rinoza; Mathew, Raeba; Pearce, Elizabeth; Abdel-Hey, Ahmed; Richardson, Matthew; Bailey, Thomas; Sivaprasad, Sobha

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate age, sex, and ethnic variations in inner and outer retinal and choroidal thickness and foveal pit, using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT). Single-center observational cross-sectional study. Ninety randomly selected, healthy individuals of white, black, and South Asian origin underwent SD OCT raster and enhanced depth imaging scan. Manual measurements of inner and outer retinal thickness and choroidal thickness up to 3 mm nasal and temporal to the fovea were performed. The age, sex, and ethnic differences in these parameters were analyzed. The mean inner retinal thickness was lower by approximately 12 μm in black subjects across the central retina compared to white subjects (P < .05). The central foveal thickness below the foveal pit was lower in eyes of blacks compared to South Asians (12 μm, P = .035) and white subjects (18 μm, P < .0001). The fovea was also significantly wider in eyes of black and South Asian subjects compared to white individuals. The inner retinal thickness decreased by 0.5 μm per year of age of subjects and was thinner by 6.1 μm (P < .02) in female compared to male subjects. The subfoveal choroidal thickness did not vary between ethnic groups but the temporal choroid was significantly thinner in black subjects (P < .05). The choroid showed an age-related decline in thickness of 2 μm per year of age of the subjects. Interethnic differences include wider fovea, lower central foveal thickness, and thinner inner retina in eyes of black subjects compared to their white and South Asian counterparts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluating the Role of Birth Weight and Gestational Age on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Those of Hispanic Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Barahmani, Nadia; Dorak, M Tevfik; Forman, Michele R; Sprehe, Michael R; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L; Okcu, M Fatih; Lupo, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) compared with LGA non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.86) after adjusting for infant gender, year of birth, maternal age, birth order, and presence of Down syndrome. However, the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that there may be differences in the association between higher growth in utero and risk of childhood ALL among Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.

  5. [Gene Analysis of Thalassemia in Han and Dai Ethnic Childbearing-aged Population of Chinese Yunnan Province].

    PubMed

    He, Jing; Zeng, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Yong-Mei; Pu, Jian; Zhou, Feng-Zhen; Jin, Chan-Chan; Su, Jie; Zhang, Jin-Man; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Jie; Li, Sun-Yun; Zhang, Yin-Hong; Zhu, Bao-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the common mutation spectrum of α- and β-thalassemia in Yunnan childbearing-aged population. The common mutation types of α- or β-globin genes were detected by multiple Gap-PCR and the PCR-reversed dot blotting, and the unknown mutation types were determined by DNA sequencing in DNA samples of hypochromic microcytic anemia patients and carriers who were confirmed to be positive by serologic screaning, then the mutation types of globin in Yunnan population were analyzed statistically. A total of 40 kinds of mutation types were detected in 685 detected persons, among them the 3 commonest mutation types of α-globin genes were --(SEA)/αα (49.09%), -α(3.7)/αα (36.67%) and α(CS)α/αα (8.79%), the 3 commonest genetypes of β-globin gene were CD26(GAG>AAG)/N (43.78%), CD41-42(-CTTT)/N (20.1%) and CD17(AAG>TAG)/N (18.9%). There were 348 Han and 212 Dai ethnic persons in 685 cases, but their mutation of globin genes were different between these 2 ethnic groups. The results also showed that the gene mutation types were mostly concentrated in Dai ethnic individuals, since 28 of 38 detected α-β-thalassemia cases were Dai ethnic individuals. The mutation spectrums of α- and β-globin genes in Yunnan childbearing-aged population are diverse and different from that in other areas of China.

  6. Performance of a postnatal metabolic gestational age algorithm: a retrospective validation study among ethnic subgroups in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Hawken, Steven; Ducharme, Robin; Murphy, Malia S Q; Atkinson, Katherine M; Potter, Beth K; Chakraborty, Pranesh; Wilson, Kumanan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Biological modelling of routinely collected newborn screening data has emerged as a novel method for deriving postnatal gestational age estimates. Validation of published models has previously been limited to cohorts largely consisting of infants of white Caucasian ethnicity. In this study, we sought to determine the validity of a published gestational age estimation algorithm among recent immigrants to Canada, where maternal landed immigrant status was used as a surrogate measure of infant ethnicity. Design We conducted a retrospective validation study in infants born in Ontario between April 2009 and September 2011. Setting Provincial data from Ontario, Canada were obtained from the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences. Participants The dataset included 230 034 infants born to non-landed immigrants and 70 098 infants born to immigrant mothers. The five most common countries of maternal origin were India (n=10 038), China (n=7468), Pakistan (n=5824), The Philippines (n=5441) and Vietnam (n=1408). Maternal country of origin was obtained from Citizenship and Immigration Canada’s Landed Immigrant Database. Primary and secondary outcome measures Performance of a postnatal gestational age algorithm was evaluated across non-immigrant and immigrant populations. Results Root mean squared error (RMSE) of 1.05 weeks was observed for infants born to non-immigrant mothers, whereas RMSE ranged from 0.98 to 1.15 weeks among infants born to immigrant mothers. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for distinguishing term versus preterm infants (≥37 vs <37 weeks gestational age or >34 vs ≤34 weeks gestational age) was 0.958 and 0.986, respectively, in the non-immigrant subgroup and ranged from 0.927 to 0.964 and 0.966 to 0.99 in the immigrant subgroups. Conclusions Algorithms for postnatal determination of gestational age may be further refined by development and validation of region or ethnicity-specific models. However, our

  7. Health-behaviour inequalities among Russian and ethnic majority school-aged children in the Baltic countries.

    PubMed

    Sumskas, Linas; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Aasvee, Katrin; Gobina, Inese; Pudule, Iveta

    2012-08-01

    The main aim of this paper was to investigate whether ethnic heath inequalities exist in self-rated health and risk-taking behaviours (smoking, drunkenness, use of cannabis) between ethnic majority (Estonian, Latvian, Lithuanian) and minority (Russian) population groups of school-aged children in three Baltic countries. Investigation was carried out in the framework of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Randomly selected students aged 11, 13, and 15 years answered questionnaires in the classroom in 2006. In total, 14,354 questionnaire forms were selected for analysis. Russian boys were more likely (p<0.05) to evaluate their self-rated health positively in schools with Russian teaching language. Odd ratios for current smoking and drunkenness were significantly lower among Russian boys in the schools with Russian language of instruction (p<0.05) in comparison with the reference group. Russian girls did not differ significantly (the exceptions were smoking in Estonia and cannabis use in Latvia) from the majority population girls by self-rated health as well as by the risk of smoking, drunkenness, and use of cannabis. The study found some differences in self-rated health and in risk-taking behaviours between Russian minority and ethnic majority students as well as between students of schools with different language of instruction (majority language vs. Russian) in Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Being a member of minority group was not related with poor self-rated health or involvement in risk-taking behaviours in school-aged children in the Baltic countries.

  8. Development of ethnic, racial, and national prejudice in childhood and adolescence: a multinational meta-analysis of age differences.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In addition to differences for the various operationalizations of prejudice, detailed findings revealed different age-related changes in prejudice toward higher versus lower status out-groups and positive effects of contact opportunities with the out-group on prejudice development. Results confirm that prejudice changes systematically with age during childhood but that no developmental trend is found in adolescence, indicating the stronger influence of the social context on prejudice with increasing age.

  9. Differences in alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by age, gender, and race/ethnicity – United States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Ayers, Amanda J.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim No previous national study has reported the prevalence of alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by demographic characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the alcohol brand preferences among underage drinkers in different demographic categories. Method We administered an online survey to a national sample of 1,031 underage youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. The sample was recruited from a previously established internet survey panel. The main outcome measure was the estimated 30-day consumption prevalence for each of 898 brands by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results Two beer brands—Bud Light and Budweiser—are uniformly popular among underage drinkers, regardless of age, gender, or race/ethnicity. There are several hard liquor brands whose use increases markedly with age. Two flavored alcoholic beverages sharing the names of hard liquor brands—Smirnoff and Bacardi—are more popular with older youth. Some flavored alcoholic beverages are about twice as popular among female underage drinkers. There are 12 alcohol brands that are uniquely popular among Black underage drinkers, and these brands are heavily promoted in urban music. Conclusion There are differential patterns of brand-specific alcohol use among underage drinkers. PMID:26557044

  10. Differences in alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by age, gender, and race/ethnicity - United States, 2012.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Michael; Ayers, Amanda J; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; Jernigan, David H

    2015-11-01

    No previous national study has reported the prevalence of alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by demographic characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the alcohol brand preferences among underage drinkers in different demographic categories. We administered an online survey to a national sample of 1,031 underage youth, ages 13-20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. The sample was recruited from a previously established internet survey panel. The main outcome measure was the estimated 30-day consumption prevalence for each of 898 brands by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Two beer brands-Bud Light and Budweiser-are uniformly popular among underage drinkers, regardless of age, gender, or race/ethnicity. There are several hard liquor brands whose use increases markedly with age. Two flavored alcoholic beverages sharing the names of hard liquor brands-Smirnoff and Bacardi-are more popular with older youth. Some flavored alcoholic beverages are about twice as popular among female underage drinkers. There are 12 alcohol brands that are uniquely popular among Black underage drinkers, and these brands are heavily promoted in urban music. There are differential patterns of brand-specific alcohol use among underage drinkers.

  11. Optic Nerve Head (ONH) Topographic Analysis by Stratus OCT in Normal Subjects: Correlation to Disc Size, Age, and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Barbara C.; Cantor, Louis B.; WuDunn, Darrell; Hoop, Joni; Lipyanik, Jennifer; Patella, Vincent Michael; Budenz, Donald L.; Greenfield, David S.; Savell, Jonathan; Schuman, Joel S.; Varma, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study optic nerve head (ONH) topography parameters measured by Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) in normal subjects and to analyze ONH data for differences in relation to disc size, ethnicity, and age. Methods Three hundred sixty-seven normal subjects underwent Stratus optical coherence tomography ONH measurement using the fast optic disc scan protocol software package 3.0. Only ONH scans meeting specific qualification criteria were included for data analysis ensuring appropriate scan quality and reliability. ONH topographic parameters of qualified scans were analyzed for differences in regards to optic disc size, age, and ethnicity. Results Two hundred and twelve qualified ONH scans were included for data analysis. Mean disc area was 2.27±0.41 mm2 and optic cup area, rim area, and horizontal integrated rim width increased with disc size, whereas vertical integrated rim area did not. Vertical integrated rim area, horizontal integrated rim width, and rim area decreased and cup area increased with age. Mean optic disc area was larger in African-Americans as compared with Hispanics or Whites and this difference was statistically significant. Conclusions Optic cup area, rim area, and horizontal integrated rim width correlated to disc size. Vertical integrated rim area, horizontal integrated rim width, rim area, and cup area, changed with age. African-American optic discs had larger disc area measurements as compared with Whites optic discs and this difference was statistically significant. PMID:19855299

  12. The language needs of residents from linguistically diverse backgrounds in Victorian aged care facilities.

    PubMed

    Runci, Susannah J; Eppingstall, Barbara J; van der Ploeg, Eva S; Graham, Georgia; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the language needs of residents of aged care facilities within the State of Victoria, Australia, and determine what language resources were accessible to them. Postal questionnaires were sent to 586 aged care facilities, enquiring about residents' and staff members' languages and language-specific resources. The response rate was 38%. The majority of facilities had residents who spoke non-English languages, and 55 different languages were represented. Three-quarters of the facilities employed staff members who spoke to residents in non-English languages and employed language-specific resources. The metropolitan and ethnospecific facilities had a greater presence of non-English-speaking residents and staff and more commonly used language-specific resources in comparison with regional and mainstream facilities. We found a large number of languages used by many residents from non-English-speaking backgrounds, with evidence of a large unmet language resource need. Unmet need was greatest in rural areas. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  13. Association of menopause age and N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ebong, Imo A; Watson, Karol E; Goff, David C; Bluemke, David A; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G

    2015-05-01

    Menopause age can affect the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before age 45 y) and menopause age with N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a potential risk marker of CVD and heart failure. Our cross-sectional study included 2,275 postmenopausal women, aged 45 to 85 years and without clinical CVD (2000-2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants were classified as having or not having early menopause. NT-proBNP was log-transformed. Multivariable linear regression was used for analysis. Five hundred sixty-one women had early menopause. The median (25th-75th percentiles) NT-proBNP value was 79.0 (41.1-151.6) pg/mL for all participants, 83.4 (41.4-164.9) pg/mL for women with early menopause, and 78.0 (40.8-148.3) pg/mL for women without early menopause. The mean (SD) age was 65 (10.1) and 65 (8.9) years for women with and without early menopause, respectively. No significant interactions between menopause age and ethnicity were observed. In multivariable analysis, early menopause was associated with a 10.7% increase in NT-proBNP levels, whereas each 1-year increase in menopause age was associated with a 0.7% decrease in NT-proBNP levels. Early menopause is associated with greater NT-proBNP levels, whereas each 1-year increase in menopause age is associated with lower NT-proBNP levels, in postmenopausal women.

  14. The Association of Menopausal Age and NT-proBrain Natriuretic Peptide: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ebong, Imo A.; Watson, Karol E.; Goff, David C.; Bluemke, David A.; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Menopausal age could affect the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before 45 years of age) and menopausal age with NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a potential risk marker of CVD and heart failure (HF). Methods Our cross-sectional study included 2275 postmenopausal women, aged 45–85 years, without clinical CVD (2000–2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants were classified as having or not having early menopause. NT-proBNP was log-transformed. Multivariable linear regression was used for analysis. Results There were 561 women with early menopause. The median NT-proBNP value was 79.0 (41.1–151.6) pg/ml for all participants with values of 83.4 (41.4–164.9) pg/ml and 78.0 (40.8–148.3) pg/ml for women with and without early menopause respectively. The mean (SD) age was 65 (10.1) and 65 (8.9) years for women with and without early menopause respectively. There were no significant interactions between menopausal age and ethnicity. In multivariable analysis, early menopause was associated with a 10.7% increase in NT-proBNP while each year increase in menopausal age was associated with a 0.7% decrease in NT-proBNP. Conclusion Early menopause is associated with greater NT-proBNP levels while each year increase in menopausal age is associated with lower NT-proBNP levels in postmenopausal women. PMID:25290536

  15. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE. PMID:26080417

  16. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Mitchell S

    2015-07-28

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE.

  17. The link between body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in adolescents: Similarities across gender, age, weight status, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Patricia A.; Mond, Jonathan; Eisenberg, Marla; Ackard, Diann; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The present study examined whether the cross-sectional association between body dissatisfaction and low self-esteem varies across gender, age, body weight status, race/ethnicity, and SES. We also examined the association longitudinally. Methods A school-based survey of eating, weight, and related attitudes was conducted with a diverse sample of adolescents aged 11–18 years (N = 4,746). Height and weight were measured in the schools at Time 1. Participants was resurveyed by mail five years later (Time 2, N = 2,516). Results The body dissatisfaction/self-esteem association was strong and significant in both boys and girls (p’s<.0001), and did not differ significantly between genders (p =.16), nor between the middle school and high school cohorts in either boys (p=.79) or girls (p=.80). Among girls, the body dissatisfaction/self-esteem relationship was strong, but did vary across weight status, race/ethnicity, and SES (p’s .0001–.03). The relationship was non-significant in underweight girls (p=.36), and weaker but still significant among black, Asian, and low SES girls (all p’s <.0001) in comparison to white and high SES group girls. Among boys, the association did not differ significantly across demographic groups (p’s .18–.79). In longitudinal analyses, the strength of the association did not change significantly as adolescents grew older. Conclusions Findings indicate that body dissatisfaction and self-esteem are strongly related among nearly all groups of adolescents. This suggests the importance of addressing body image concerns with adolescents of all backgrounds and ages. PMID:20708569

  18. Racial and ethnic differences in smoking changes after chronic disease diagnosis among middle-aged and older adults in the United States.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Ana R; Nagel, Corey L; Newsom, Jason T; Huguet, Nathalie; Sheridan, Paige; Thielke, Stephen M

    2017-02-08

    Middle-aged and older Americans from underrepresented racial and ethnic backgrounds are at risk for greater chronic disease morbidity than their white counterparts. Cigarette smoking increases the severity of chronic illness, worsens physical functioning, and impairs the successful management of symptoms. As a result, it is important to understand whether smoking behaviors change after the onset of a chronic condition. We assessed the racial/ethnic differences in smoking behavior change after onset of chronic diseases among middle-aged and older adults in the US. We use longitudinal data from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS 1992-2010) to examine changes in smoking status and quantity of cigarettes smoked after a new heart disease, diabetes, cancer, stroke, or lung disease diagnosis among smokers. The percentage of middle-aged and older smokers who quit after a new diagnosis varied by racial/ethnic group and disease: for white smokers, the percentage ranged from 14% after diabetes diagnosis to 32% after cancer diagnosis; for black smokers, the percentage ranged from 15% after lung disease diagnosis to 40% after heart disease diagnosis; the percentage of Latino smokers who quit was only statistically significant after stoke, where 38% quit. In logistic models, black (OR = 0.43, 95% CI: 0.19-0.99) and Latino (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 0.11-0.65) older adults were less likely to continue smoking relative to white older adults after a stroke, and Latinos were more likely to continue smoking relative to black older adults after heart disease onset (OR = 2.69, 95% CI [1.05-6.95]). In models evaluating changes in the number of cigarettes smoked after a new diagnosis, black older adults smoked significantly fewer cigarettes than whites after a new diagnosis of diabetes, heart disease, stroke or cancer, and Latino older adults smoked significantly fewer cigarettes compared to white older adults after newly diagnosed diabetes and heart disease. Relative to black

  19. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. PMID:1561298

  20. Profiling the ethnic characteristics of domestic injuries in children younger than age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Oyetunji, Tolulope A; Stevenson, Adrienne A; Oyetunji, Aderonke O; Onguti, Sharon K; Ames, Sarah A; Haider, Adil H; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2012-04-01

    The home remains a very common location for deadly injuries among children younger than 5 years. The aim of this study is to describe the demographic and injury characteristics of domestic injuries in children younger than 5 years. The National Trauma Data Bank's National Sample Program data set was queried for children younger than 5 years with the injury site classified as home. Bivariate analysis was performed to determine unadjusted differences by ethnicity. Appropriate weight was applied to the sample to determine accurate national estimates. A total of 7,364 children, representing 32,033 children, were analyzed. Overall mortality was 1.6 per cent. Among whites, blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans, intentional injuries accounted for 6.5, 12.8, 10.2, 5.2, and 19.0 per cent of all injuries by intent, respectively (P < 0.003). Burn injury was disproportionately higher in blacks (24.1%) followed by Native Americans and Asians (15.3 and 11.5%, P = 0.008). On multivariate analysis, black ethnicity was associated with increased length of stay. Intentional injuries were significantly higher in blacks and Native Americans with black patients sustaining a disproportionately higher proportion of burn injury. Therefore, greater attention is needed to provide more effective home safety interventions to children among high-risk ethnic groups.

  1. Patients' preferences for video cassette recorded information: effect of age, sex and ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Deary, A; Kaminski, E; Stockton, D; De Zueew, N

    1999-06-01

    The emotional turmoil patients endure following a diagnosis of cancer can impair their ability to retain complex treatment-related information. Manoeuvres which increase the intensity of information have been shown to increase the amount retained. Providing details of treatment in a video format is one method of intensifying information provision, but the attitudes of patients to this format have not previously been evaluated. In this pilot study, the attitudes of 300 patients to video directed information were evaluated via questionnaires, of which 210 (70%) were returned. Eighty-nine per cent had easy access to a video cassette player. A highly significant number felt that the video would be very helpful or helpful (78%) compared to not helpful, worrying or equivocal 21% (P < 0.0001). This trend was particularly strong in patients < 60 years (83% versus 17%) (P < 0.0001) and those from ethnic groups (95% versus 5%) (P < 0.0001). As a result of this trial, a 20-min film (HEP) has been commissioned. It describes details of the two main treatments for cancer after surgery, namely chemotherapy and radiotherapy, shows patients actually having treatment, and explains the common side-effects and ways to alleviate them. Patients satisfaction with the film and its effect on anxiety and depression are currently being evaluated in an international prospective randomized trial. If it proves advantageous for patients--in view of the ethnic group bias in this study--it will be translated into the ethnic languages of the UK.

  2. Profiling the Ethnic Characteristics of Domestic Injuries in Children Younger Than Age 5 Years

    PubMed Central

    OYETUNJI, TOLULOPE A.; STEVENSON, ADRIENNE A.; OYETUNJI, ADERONKE O.; ONGUTI, SHARON K.; AMES, SARAH A.; HAIDER, ADIL H.; NWOMEH, BENEDICT C.

    2012-01-01

    The home remains a very common location for deadly injuries among children younger than 5 years. The aim of this study is to describe the demographic and injury characteristics of domestic injuries in children younger than 5 years. The National Trauma Data Bank’s National Sample Program data set was queried for children younger than 5 years with the injury site classified as home. Bivariate analysis was performed to determine unadjusted differences by ethnicity. Appropriate weight was applied to the sample to determine accurate national estimates. A total of 7,364 children, representing 32,033 children, were analyzed. Overall mortality was 1.6 per cent. Among whites, blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans, intentional injuries accounted for 6.5, 12.8, 10.2, 5.2, and 19.0 per cent of all injuries by intent, respectively (P < 0.003). Burn injury was disproportionately higher in blacks (24.1%) followed by Native Americans and Asians (15.3 and 11.5%, P = 0.008). On multivariate analysis, black ethnicity was associated with increased length of stay. Intentional injuries were significantly higher in blacks and Native Americans with black patients sustaining a disproportionately higher proportion of burn injury. Therefore, greater attention is needed to provide more effective home safety interventions to children among high-risk ethnic groups. PMID:22472399

  3. Benefit/risk for adjuvant breast cancer therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor use by age, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Chlebowski, R T; Haque, R; Hedlin, H; Col, N; Paskett, E; Manson, J E; Kubo, J T; Johnson, K C; Wactawski-Wende, J; Pan, K; Anderson, G

    2015-12-01

    In early adjuvant breast cancer trial reports, aromatase inhibitors more effectively reduced breast recurrence with lower risk of thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer than tamoxifen, while aromatase inhibitors had higher fracture and cardiovascular disease risk. We used data from updated patient-level meta-analyses of adjuvant trials in analyses to summarize the benefits and risks of these agents in various clinical circumstances. Baseline incidence rates for health outcomes by age and race/ethnicity, absent aromatase inhibitor, or tamoxifen use were estimated from the Women's Health Initiative. Aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen effects on distant recurrence were obtained from a meta-analysis of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) and Breast International Group (Big-1-98) clinical trials. Impact on other health outcomes were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials comparing aromatase inhibitor to tamoxifen use and from placebo-controlled chemoprevention trials. All health outcomes were given equal weight when modeling net benefit/risk for aromatase inhibitor compared to tamoxifen use by breast cancer recurrence risk, age (decade), race/ethnicity, hysterectomy (yes/no), and by prior myocardial infarction. Over a 10-year period, the benefit/risk index was more favorable for aromatase inhibitor than for tamoxifen as adjuvant breast cancer therapy in almost all circumstances regardless of patient age, race/ethnicity, breast cancer recurrence risk, or presence or absence of a uterus. Only in older women with prior myocardial infarction and low recurrence risk was an advantage for tamoxifen seen. Using a benefit/risk index for endocrine adjuvant breast cancer therapy in postmenopausal women, benefit was higher for aromatase inhibitor use in almost all circumstances.

  4. Self-Injurious Thoughts and Behaviors among Youth in an Underserved Area of the Southern United States: Exploring the Moderating Roles of Gender, Racial/Ethnic Background, and School-Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latzman, Robert D.; Gratz, Kim L.; Young, John; Heiden, Laurie J.; Damon, John D.; Hight, Terry L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the clinical relevance of self-injurious thoughts and behaviors (SITB) among youth, little is known about the subset of youth most at-risk for SITB. This study examined the moderating roles of gender, racial/ethnic background, and school-level (and their interactions) on rates of SITB within a large (N = 2638, 52.2% female),…

  5. Age, Gender and Hypertension-Related Remodeling Influences Left Ventricular Torsion Assessed by Tagged Cardiac Magnetic Resonance in Asymptomatic Individuals: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Yoneyama, Kihei; Gjesdal, Ola; Choi, Eui-Young; Wu, Colin O.; Hundley, W. Gregory; Gomes, Antoinette S.; Liu, Chia-Ying; McClelland, Robyn L.; Bluemke, David A.; Lima, Joao A.C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate how torsion is influenced by left ventricular (LV) remodeling associated with age, gender and hypertension in a large community-based population. Methods and Results Myocardial shortening and torsion were assessed by tagged cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) in 1478 participants without clinically apparent cardiovascular disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Torsion was defined as the difference between apical and basal rotation, divided by slice distance. In multivariable linear regression models, older age was associated with lower stroke volume (−3.6 ml/decade, p<0.001) and higher LV mass –to-volume ratio (0.03 g/ml/decade, p<0.001) along with lower circumferential shortening (−0.17%/decade, p<0.05). Torsion, however, was greater at older ages (0.14 °/decade, p<0.001) and in women (0.37°/cm vs. men, p<0.001). Hypertensive participants had higher LV mass and LV mass –to-volume ratio (15.5g and 0.07 g/ml, respectively, p<0.001 for both). Circumferential shortening was lower in hypertensive (−0.42%, p<0.01), whereas torsion was higher after adjustment for age and gender (0.17°/cm, p<0.05). Conclusions Older age is associated with lower LV volumes and greater relative wall thickness, and accompanied by lower circumferential myocardial shortening, whereas torsion is greater with older age. Hypertensive individuals have greater LV volumes and relative wall thickness and lower circumferential shortening. Torsion, however, is greater in hypertension independent of age and gender. Torsion may therefore represent a compensatory mechanism to maintain an adequate stroke volume and cardiac output in the face of progressively reduced LV volumes and myocardial shortening associated with hypertension and aging. PMID:23147172

  6. Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in micronutrient intakes of US adults with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Joan A; Huffman, Fatma G

    2013-03-01

    Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US adults ≥  21 years were assessed from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. The participants included Black non-Hispanics, Mexican-American and White non-Hispanics who signed an informed consent form for the interview and who completed the in-person 24-h recall. Micronutrient intakes were based on the Institute of Medicines' classifications of recommended dietary allowances specific for age and gender. Likelihood of many micronutrient insufficiencies was associated with being female, over 65 years, having diabetes and minority status. Younger and female adults had a greater likelihood of iron insufficiency than male and older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the intersection of age, gender and race in setting policies for micronutrient deficiency screening, particularly in young female adults and minorities.

  7. Prevalence, Incidence, and Disease Characteristics of Takayasu Arteritis by Ethnic Background: Data From a Large, Population-Based Cohort Resident in Southern Norway.

    PubMed

    Gudbrandsson, Birgir; Molberg, Øyvind; Garen, Torhild; Palm, Øyvind

    2017-02-01

    To study the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Takayasu arteritis (TAK) in southeast Norway (population 2.8 million). All study area hospital databases were screened to capture every potential TAK case between 1999 and 2012. These cases were manually chart reviewed, and only patients fulfilling either the 1990 American College of Rheumatology classification or the 1995 Ishikawa diagnostic criteria were included. Inclusion criteria were met by 78 patients (68 female, 10 male). Point prevalence (by 2012) segregated by ethnic origin was 22.0 per 10(6) (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 17-29) in northern Europeans compared to 78.1 (95% CI 38-152) in Asian whites and 108.3 (95% CI 46-254) in Africans (P < 0.001). The incidence rate increased from 1 to 2 per 10(6) in the first to last 5-year period of the study (P = 0.03). Northern Europeans were mean age 32.3 years at onset, and 47% had involvement confined to aortic arch branches (angiographic type I), while 24% had extensive type V disease. Mean onset age in Asian and African cases was 20.3 years and 47% had type V disease. Coexisting inflammatory bowel disease was observed in 8% and ankylosing spondylitis in 7%. We report 2-4 times higher population prevalence than previously observed, and the highest prevalence ever found in Norwegians of Asian and African descent. The results support the idea that TAK in northern Europeans is marked by limited arterial involvement and older age at onset. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Pathobiology of aging mice and GEM: background strains and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Brayton, C F; Treuting, P M; Ward, J M

    2012-01-01

    The use of induced and spontaneous mutant mice and genetically engineered mice (and combinations thereof) to study cancers and other aging phenotypes to advance improved functional human life spans will involve studies of aging mice. Genetic background contributes to pathology phenotypes and to causes of death as well as to longevity. Increased recognition of expected phenotypes, experimental variables that influence phenotypes and research outcomes, and experimental design options and rationales can maximize the utility of genetically engineered mice (GEM) models to translational research on aging. This review aims to provide resources to enhance the design and practice of chronic and longevity studies involving GEM. C57BL6, 129, and FVB/N strains are emphasized because of their widespread use in the generation of knockout, transgenic, and conditional mutant GEM. Resources are included also for pathology of other inbred strain families, including A, AKR, BALB/c, C3H, C57L, C58, CBA, DBA, GR, NOD.scid, SAMP, and SJL/J, and non-inbred mice, including 4WC, AB6F1, Ames dwarf, B6, 129, B6C3F1, BALB/c,129, Het3, nude, SENCAR, and several Swiss stocks. Experimental strategies for long-term cross-sectional and longitudinal studies to assess causes of or contributors to death, disease burden, spectrum of pathology phenotypes, longevity, and functional healthy life spans (health spans) are compared and discussed.

  9. Increases in summer serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in elderly subjects in São Paulo, Brazil vary with age, gender and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypovitaminosis D is a common condition among elderly individuals in temperate-climate countries, with a clear seasonal variation on 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels, increasing after summer and decreasing after winter, but there are few data from sunny countries such as Brazil. Many factors can interfere on vitamin D cutaneous synthesis. We aimed at studying the 25OHD variations during winter and summer in an outdoor physically active elderly population living in São Paulo city, and analysed their determining factors. Methods Ninety-nine individuals (52 women and 47 men, from 55 to 83 years old) from different ethnic groups were selected from an outdoor physical activity group. Data are reported as Mean ± SD, and we used Pearson Linear Correlation, Student's t-test for non-related samples, Chi-square (χ²) test and One-way ANOVA for analysis. Results Mean 25OHD value for the whole group was 78.9 ± 30.9 nmol/L in the winter and 91.6 ± 31.7 nmol/L in the summer (p = 0.005). Mean winter serum 25OHD concentrations were not different between men and women (81.2 ± 30.1 nmol/L vs. 76.7 ± 31.8 nmol/L, respectively), and 19.2% of the individuals showed values < 50 nmol/L. In the summer, we noticed an increase only for men (107.6 ± 31.4 nmol/L) compared to women (76.7 ± 24.0 nmol/L), and 6.5% showed values < 50 nmol/L. A decrease in the mean PTH in the summer compared to the winter was noticed, with PTH levels showing a relationship with 25OHD concentrations only in the winter (r = -0.208, p = 0.041). White individuals showed an increase in mean serum 25OHD in the summer (p = 0.016) which was not noticed for other ethnic groups (Asians, native Brazilians and blacks). An increase in 25OHD values in the summer was observed in the age groups ranging from 51-60 and 61-70 years old (p < 0.05), but not in the age group from 71 years old on. Conclusions 25OHD values increased during the summer in elderly residents of São Paulo, but to different extents depending on

  10. Effect of race/ethnicity on risk of complete and partial molar pregnancy after adjustment for age.

    PubMed

    Melamed, Alexander; Gockley, Allison A; Joseph, Naima T; Sun, Sue Yazaki; Clapp, Mark A; Goldstein, Donald P; Berkowitz, Ross S; Horowitz, Neil S

    2016-10-01

    To quantify the effect of race/ethnicity on risk of complete and partial molar pregnancy. We conducted a cross-sectional study including women who were followed for complete or partial mole and those who had a live singleton birth in a teaching hospital in the northeastern United States between 2000 and 2013. We calculated race/ethnicity-specific risk of complete and partial mole per 10,000 live births, and used logistic regression to estimate crude and age-adjusted relative risks (RR) of complete and partial mole. We identified 140 cases of complete mole, 115 cases of partial mole, and 105,942 live births. The risk of complete mole was 13 cases per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval [CI] 11-16) and that of partial mole was 11 cases per 10,000 live births (95% CI 9-13). After age-adjustment, Asians were more likely to develop complete mole (RR 2.3 95% CI 1.4-3.8, p<0.001) but less likely to develop partial mole (RR 0.2; 95% CI 0.04-0.7, p=0.02) than whites. Blacks were significantly less likely than whites to develop partial mole (RR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.8, p=0.01) but only marginally less likely to develop complete mole (RR 0.6; 95% CI 0.3-1.0, p=0.07). Hispanics were less likely than whites to develop complete mole (RR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.7, p=0.002) and partial mole (RR 0.4; 95% CI 0.2-0.9, p=0.02). Race/ethnicity is a significant risk factor for both complete and partial molar pregnancy in the northeastern United States. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Age factors in the background electrical activity of the superior cervical ganglion neurons in rats].

    PubMed

    Korobkin, A A; Vasil'eva, O A; Emanuĭlov, A I; Korzina, M B; Masliukov, P M

    2010-06-01

    Background discharges of single neurons were studied from the superior cervical ganglion in newborn, 10-, 20-day-old, 1-, 2- and 6-month-old rats. In all age groups, the largest proportion of neurons exhibited aperiodic activity. The percentage of neurons with respiratory rhythmic was less. In newborn and 10-day-old rats, the frequency of discharges was low. Discharge frequency increased in 20-day-old rats. In 20-day-old and more adult rats, we found neurons bursting with cardiac frequency. The means of frequency did not statistically differ in 1-, 2- and 6-month-old rats. Thus, the pattern of neuronal activity is formed during the development in 20-day-old rats. Final maturation of this pattern is observed in 1-month-old rats.

  12. Background and educational characteristics of prelingually deaf children implanted by five years of age.

    PubMed

    Geers, Ann; Brenner, Chris

    2003-02-01

    cochlear implant for their child, especially during the initial period of device availability, this population can be characterized as follows. Most parents had normal hearing, were of majority (white) ethnicity and had more education and higher incomes than the general population. The families tended to be intact with both a mother and a father who involved their hearing-impaired child in family activities on a regular basis. The children were enrolled in the full range of educational placements available across the United States and Canada. Fairly even distributions of children from public and private schools, special education and mainstream classes and oral and total communication methodologies were represented. Educational placement changed as children gained increased experience with a cochlear implant. They received an increased emphasis on speech and auditory skills in their classroom settings and tended to move from private school and special education settings to public school and mainstream programs. These data support the position that early cochlear implantation is a cost effective procedure that allows deaf children to participate in a normal school environment with hearing age mates.

  13. Behavioral deficits in an Angelman syndrome model: effects of genetic background and age.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hsien-Sung; Burns, Andrew J; Nonneman, Randal J; Baker, Lorinda K; Riddick, Natallia V; Nikolova, Viktoriya D; Riday, Thorfinn T; Yashiro, Koji; Philpot, Benjamin D; Moy, Sheryl S

    2013-04-15

    Angelman syndrome (AS) is a severe neurodevelopmental disorder associated with disruption of maternally inherited UBE3A (ubiquitin protein ligase E3A) expression. At the present time, there is no effective treatment for AS. Mouse lines with loss of maternal Ube3a (Ube3a(m-/p+)) recapitulate multiple aspects of the clinical AS profile, including impaired motor coordination, learning deficits, and seizures. Thus, these genetic mouse models could serve as behavioral screens for preclinical efficacy testing, a critical component of drug discovery for AS intervention. However, the severity and consistency of abnormal phenotypes reported in Ube3a(m-/p+) mice can vary, dependent upon age and background strain, which is problematic for the detection of beneficial drug effects. As part of an ongoing AS drug discovery initiative, we characterized Ube3a(m-/p+) mice on either a 129S7/SvEvBrd-Hprt(b-m2) (129) or C57BL/6J (B6) background across a range of functional domains and ages to identify reproducible and sufficiently large phenotypes suitable for screening therapeutic compounds. The results from the study showed that Ube3a(m-/p+) mice have significant deficits in acquisition and reversal learning in the Morris water maze. The findings also demonstrated that Ube3a(m-/p+) mice exhibit motor impairment in a rotarod task, hypoactivity, reduced rearing and marble-burying, and deficient fear conditioning. Overall, these profiles of abnormal phenotypes can provide behavioral targets for evaluating effects of novel therapeutic strategies relevant to AS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. The Associations of Age and Ethnicity on Substance Use Behaviors of Adolescent and Young Adult Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Maritza E; Sender, Leonard; Torno, Lilibeth; Fortier, Michelle A

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations between age and ethnicity on the development of substance use behaviors among Hispanic and non-Hispanic White (NHW) adolescent and young adult (AYA) childhood cancer survivors. Participants were recruited from a single institution through the CHOC Children's Hospital Cancer Registry and included 55 Hispanic and 61 NHW AYA childhood cancer survivors, ages 12 to 33 years (Mean age ± SD: 19 ± 4.2). Smoking, alcohol, and drug use were measured using the Child Health Illness Profile - Adolescent Edition. Hispanic AYA survivors were less likely to be medically insured and reported lower household income than their NHW counterparts (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). After controlling for socioeconomic differences and gender, age and ethnicity were significant predictors of substance use among AYA survivors. Hispanic survivors reported less lifetime use of cigarette smoking compared with NHW survivors (OR 0.17, 95% CI, 0.03-0.80). Older age, for both Hispanic and NHW survivors, was found to be a risk factor for lifetime substance use and current alcohol/hard liquor consumption and binge drinking (P < 0.05). Young adult childhood cancer survivors and NHW survivors are at greatest risk for developing substance use behaviors. The frequency of substance use among AYA survivors appears to increase as they transition into adulthood. These findings emphasize the need to improve long-term health behavior screening and develop effective interventions on reducing substance use behaviors in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Exploring Alcohol-Use Behaviors Among Heterosexual and Sexual Minority Adolescents: Intersections With Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Aranda, Frances; Birkett, Michelle; Marshal, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation status differences in alcohol use among youths aged 13 to 18 years or older, and whether differences were moderated by sex, age, or race/ethnicity. Methods. We pooled data from the 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys and conducted weighted analyses, adjusting for complex design effects. We operationalized sexual orientation status with items assessing sexual orientation identity, sexual behavior, sexual attraction, or combinations of these. Results. Compared with exclusively heterosexual youths, sexual-minority youths were more likely to report each of the primary study outcomes (i.e., lifetime and past-month alcohol use, past-month heavy episodic drinking, earlier onset of drinking, and more frequent past-month drinking). Alcohol-use disparities were larger and more robust for (1) bisexual youths than lesbian or gay youths, (2) girls than boys, and (3) younger than older youths. Few differences in outcomes were moderated by race/ethnicity. Conclusions. Bisexual youths, sexual-minority girls, and younger sexual-minority youths showed the largest alcohol-use disparities. Research is needed that focuses on identifying explanatory or mediating mechanisms, psychiatric or mental health comorbidities, and long-term consequences of early onset alcohol use, particularly frequent or heavy use, among sexual-minority youths. PMID:24328614

  16. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Distress: The Impact of Ethnic Identity and Age Among Immigrant and United States–Born Asian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tiffany; Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to 50, 51 to 75) and nativity status (i.e., immigrant vs. U.S.-born), ethnic identity was tested as either a protective or exacerbating factor. Analyses showed that ethnic identity buffered the association between discrimination and mental health for U.S.-born individuals 41 to 50 years of age. For U.S.-born individuals 31 to 40 years of age and 51 to 75 years of age, ethnic identity exacerbated the negative effects of discrimination on mental health. The importance of age and immigrant status for the association between ethnic identity, discrimination, and well-being among Asians in the United States is discussed. PMID:18473644

  17. Immigrant differences in school-age children's verbal trajectories: a look at four racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Tama; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study explored inter- and intraindividual immigrant group differences in children's English verbal ability over ages 6-16 in 4 racial/ethnic groups-White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans (N=2,136). Although all children's mean verbal scores increased with age, immigrant children (except for Black Americans) had lower scores than respective nonimmigrant children. In contrast, immigrant children (except for Mexican Americans) had more persistent verbal growth into adolescence than respective nonimmigrant children. Family resources moderately accounted for immigrant differences in children's mean verbal scores only. The findings support different theoretical models for understanding inter- and intraindividual immigrant differences in achievement. Mexican-American immigrants and Black American nonimmigrants were struggling and merit policy attention.

  18. Aging, Genetic Variations, and Ethnopharmacology: Building Cultural Competence Through Awareness of Drug Responses in Ethnic Minority Elders.

    PubMed

    Woods, Diana Lynn; Mentes, Janet C; Cadogan, Mary; Phillips, Linda R

    2017-01-01

    Unique drug responses that may result in adverse events are among the ethnocultural differences described by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. These differences, often attributed to a lack of adherence on the part of the older adult, may be linked to genetic variations that influence drug responses in different ethnic groups. The paucity of research coupled with a lack of knowledge among health care providers compound the problem, contributing to further disparities, especially in this era of personalized medicine and pharmacogenomics. This article examines how age-related changes and genetic differences influence variations in drug responses among older adults in unique ethnocultural groups. The article starts with an overview of age-related changes and ethnopharmacology, moves to describing genetic differences that affect drug responses, with a focus on medications commonly prescribed for older adults, and ends with application of these issues to culturally congruent health care. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Marital happiness and sleep disturbances in a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Wendy M; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N = 2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4 items from the Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women.

  20. Marital Happiness and Sleep Disturbances in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N=2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single-item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4-items from the Women’s Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women. PMID:19116797

  1. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans With and Without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or ethnicity, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51 and older from the 1998 to 2006 Health and Retirement Study. Multilevel models and a cohort-sequential design were applied to quantitatively depict the age norm of physical disability after age 50. Results: Adults with diabetes not only experience greater levels of physical disability but also faster rates of deterioration over time. This pattern is net of attrition, time-invariant sociodemographic factors, and time-varying chronic disease conditions. Differences in physical disability between adults with and without diabetes were more pronounced in women, non-White, and those of lower education. The moderating effects of gender and education remained robust even after controlling for selected covariates in the model. Implications: This study highlighted the consistently greater development of disability over time in adults with diabetes and particularly in those who are women, non-White, or adults of lower education. Future studies are recommended to examine the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of diabetes on physical disability by gender and education. PMID:20713455

  2. Urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis Infections among Ethnic Groups in Paramaribo, Suriname; Determinants and Ethnic Sexual Mixing Patterns

    PubMed Central

    van der Helm, Jannie J.; Bom, Reinier J. M.; Grünberg, Antoon W.; Bruisten, Sylvia M.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Sabajo, Leslie O. A.; de Vries, Henry J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia) in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for chlamydia, including the role of ethnicity, and identified transmission patterns and ethnic sexual networks among clients of two clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname. Methods Participants were recruited at two sites a sexually transmitted infections (STI) clinic and a family planning (FP) clinic in Paramaribo. Urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained for nucleic acid amplification testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of chlamydia. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed to genotype C. trachomatis. To identify transmission patterns and sexual networks, a minimum spanning tree was created, using full MLST profiles. Clusters in the minimum spanning tree were compared for ethnic composition. Results Between March 2008 and July 2010, 415 men and 274 women were included at the STI clinic and 819 women at the FP clinic. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 15% (224/1508). Age, ethnicity, and recruitment site were significantly associated with chlamydia in multivariable analysis. Participants of Creole and Javanese ethnicity were more frequently infected with urogenital chlamydia. Although sexual mixing with other ethnic groups did differ significantly per ethnicity, this mixing was not independently significantly associated with chlamydia. We typed 170 C. trachomatis-positive samples (76%) and identified three large C. trachomatis clusters. Although the proportion from various ethnic groups differed significantly between the clusters (P = 0.003), all five major ethnic groups were represented in all three clusters. Conclusion Chlamydia prevalence in Suriname is high and targeted prevention measures are

  3. Health needs of prisoners in England and Wales: the implications for prison healthcare of gender, age and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, Francesca; Hek, Gill; Condon, Louise

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence of the healthcare needs of prisoners in relation to gender, age and ethnicity, drawing from a larger systematic overview of the policy and research literature concerning primary care nursing in prisons in England and Wales. The literature overview shaped the initial stages of a research project funded by the Department of Health to examine the views and perspectives of prisoners and nurses working in prisons, and to identify good primary care nursing in the prison environment. At total of 17 databases were searched using search terms related to primary healthcare in prisons (health, nurs*, primary care, healthcare, family medicine, prison*, offender*, inmate*) with terms truncated where possible in the different databases. Following this, a sifting phase was employed using inclusion/exclusion criteria to narrow and focus the literature perceived as relevant to the research questions. All papers were critically appraised for quality using standardised tools. Findings from the literature overview show that prisoners are more likely to have suffered some form of social exclusion compared to the rest of society, and there are significantly greater degrees of mental health problems, substance abuse and worse physical health in prisoners than in the general population. Women, young offenders, older prisoners and those from minority ethnic groups have distinct health needs compared to the prison population taken as a whole, with implications for the delivery of prison healthcare, and how these needs are met effectively and appropriately.

  4. Chronic Exposure to Everyday Discrimination and Sleep in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Middle-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Tené T.; Troxel, Wendy M.; Kravitz, Howard M.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Researchers have suggested that poor sleep may play a role in the association between discrimination and health, but studies linking experiences of discrimination to sleep are limited. The authors examined associations between reports of everyday discrimination over four years (chronic everyday discrimination) and subjective and objective indicators of poor sleep. Methods Participants were 368 African-American, Caucasian, and Chinese women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Sleep Study. Everyday discrimination was assessed each year from baseline through the third follow-up exam via questionnaire with the Everyday Discrimination Scale (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient over four years=.90). Subjective sleep complaints were measured beginning in year 5 with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Objective indices of sleep continuity, duration, and architecture were assessed via in-home polysomnography (PSG), beginning in year 5. Results In linear regression analyses adjusted for age, race/ethnicity and financial strain, chronic everyday discrimination was associated with more subjective sleep complaints (Estimate =1.52, p<.001) and PSG-assessed wakefulness after sleep onset (Estimate=.19, p<.02), a marker of sleep continuity. Findings did not differ by race/ethnicity and remained significant after adjusting for menopausal status, body mass index, medication use and depressive symptoms. Conclusions Experiences of chronic everyday discrimination are independently associated with both subjective and objective indices of poor sleep. Findings add to the growing literature linking discrimination to key markers of biobehavioral health. PMID:23088174

  5. Risk for Maternal Harsh Parenting in High-Risk Families From Birth to Age Three: Does Ethnicity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2017-01-01

    Child maltreatment prevention programs typically identify at-risk families by screening for risk with limited consideration of how risk might vary by ethnicity. In this study, longitudinal data from mothers who participated in a randomized clinical trial of a home-visitation, child maltreatment prevention program (N=262) were examined to determine whether risk for harsh parenting differed among mothers who identified themselves as Spanish-speaking Latinas (n=64), English-speaking Latinas (n=102), or non-Latina Caucasians (n=96). The majority of the participants were first-time mothers (58.4%), and the average age of all participants was 23.55 years (SD=6.04). At the time of their infants’ births, the Spanish-speaking Latina mothers demonstrated higher SES risk, whereas the English-speaking Latina and non-Latina Caucasian mothers demonstrated higher psychosocial risk. Three years later, the English-speaking Latina and non-Latina Caucasian mothers reported harsher parenting behaviors than the Spanish-speaking Latina mothers. The need for prevention programs to consider how risk and protective factors differ by ethnic group membership when identifying at-risk mothers is discussed. PMID:21935658

  6. Type 2 diabetes mellitus in people with severe mental illness: inequalities by ethnicity and age. Cross-sectional analysis of 588 408 records from the UK.

    PubMed

    Das-Munshi, J; Ashworth, M; Dewey, M E; Gaughran, F; Hull, S; Morgan, C; Nazroo, J; Petersen, I; Schofield, P; Stewart, R; Thornicroft, G; Prince, M J

    2017-07-01

    To investigate whether the association of severe mental illness with Type 2 diabetes varies by ethnicity and age. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from an ethnically diverse sample of 588 408 individuals aged ≥18 years, registered to 98% of general practices (primary care) in London, UK. The outcome of interest was prevalent Type 2 diabetes. Relative to people without severe mental illness, the relative risk of Type 2 diabetes in people with severe mental illness was greatest in the youngest age groups. In the white British group the relative risks were 9.99 (95% CI 5.34, 18.69) in those aged 18-34 years, 2.89 (95% CI 2.43, 3.45) in those aged 35-54 years and 1.16 (95% CI 1.04, 1.30) in those aged ≥55 years, with similar trends across all ethnic minority groups. Additional adjustment for anti-psychotic prescriptions only marginally attenuated the associations. Assessment of estimated prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in severe mental illness by ethnicity (absolute measures of effect) indicated that the association between severe mental illness and Type 2 diabetes was more marked in ethnic minorities than in the white British group with severe mental illness, especially for Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi individuals with severe mental illness. The relative risk of Type 2 diabetes is elevated in younger populations. Most associations persisted despite adjustment for anti-psychotic prescriptions. Ethnic minority groups had a higher prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in the presence of severe mental illness. Future research and policy, particularly with respect to screening and clinical care for Type 2 diabetes in populations with severe mental illness, should take these findings into account. © 2016 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Diabetes UK.

  7. Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on bone health status of the elderly in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Kamaruddin, Alia Annessa Ain; Low, Nie Yen; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the developing countries and its prevalence data are important for the estimation of health care burden and policy making. This study aimed to determine the age-related changes in bone health and the prevalence of osteoporosis in males and females aged 50 years or above living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and December 2015. Subjects answered a demographic questionnaire and underwent body anthropometric and bone health measurement. Assessment of bone health was performed using a quantitative ultrasound device that generated speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score based on stiffness index value as bone health indices. The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10.6% in males and 8.0% in females. Significant age-related decline of bone health indices (speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score) and a concurrent increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia were observed in females (P<0.05) but not in males (P>0.05). Ethnic differences in bone health indices and prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia were not observed (P>0.05). A significant proportion of males and females age 50 years or above have suboptimal bone health. Preventive measures such as early screening should be implemented to retard the progression of osteoporosis.

  8. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  9. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-22

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels.

  10. Patient race/ethnicity, age, gender and education are not related to preference for or response to disclosure.

    PubMed

    Hobgood, C; Tamayo-Sarver, J H; Weiner, B

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to (a) characterise patients' preferences for disclosure of medical errors and reporting, (b) assess patients' responses to disclosure of error and (c) determine how these preferences differ by patient race/ethnicity, gender, age and level of education. A survey was conducted of consecutive patients presenting at any hour to a tertiary care academic emergency department. Inclusion criteria were: >21 years, competent to conduct the interview (ie, conscious, not demented, delirious, intoxicated or undergoing a psychiatric evaluation), initial Glasgow Coma Scale >12, and patient not transferred from another institution and not in state custody. A four-scenario survey was used to assess patients' preferences for: disclosure, reporting and responses to disclosure. The responses to the scenarios were analysed using Somers D. Independent effects of study variables were assessed with a generalised estimating equation. Of 512 eligible patients, 394 (77% response rate) participated, and 238/394 (61%) met the criteria for analysis. Overall, in 902 (98%) responses to the scenarios, participants wanted disclosure, in 404 (45%), they wanted the error reported and in 311 (35%) they were less likely to seek legal action if informed of the error. In all three categories there was no relation with race/ethnicity, gender, age and education, with the exception of an increased desire for reporting in younger patients and those with less education. Interventions that aim to assist doctors with disclosure of medical error must emphasise the uniformity of patient preferences for disclosure and the diminished likelihood of legal action following disclosure.

  11. Bullying in German Primary Schools: Gender Differences, Age Trends and Influence of Parents' Migration and Educational Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The study discussed herein assessed the prevalence of bullying and analysed possible predictors for bullying in a sample of urban primary school-age children. Factors considered were students' gender and age differences as well as parents' educational level and migration backgrounds. Using a cross-informant approach (self- and teacher-reports),…

  12. Bullying in German Primary Schools: Gender Differences, Age Trends and Influence of Parents' Migration and Educational Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The study discussed herein assessed the prevalence of bullying and analysed possible predictors for bullying in a sample of urban primary school-age children. Factors considered were students' gender and age differences as well as parents' educational level and migration backgrounds. Using a cross-informant approach (self- and teacher-reports),…

  13. Comparative risk of microalbuminuria and proteinuria in UK residents of south Asian and white European ethnic background with type 2 diabetes: a report from UKADS.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Neil T; Paul O'Hare, J; Bellary, Srikanth; Kumar, Sudhesh; Jones, Alan; Barnett, Anthony H

    2011-11-01

    This study investigated and compared the prevalence of microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria and their determinants in a cohort of UK resident patients of white European or south Asian ethnicity with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 1978 patients, comprising 1486 of south Asian and 492 of white European ethnicity, in 25 general practices in Coventry and Birmingham inner city areas in England were studied in a cross-sectional study. Demographic and risk factor data were collected and presence of microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria assessed. ISRCTN 38297969. Prevalences of microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria. Urinary albumin:creatinine measurements were available for 1852 (94%) patients. The south Asian group had a lower prevalence of microalbuminuria, 19% vs. 23% and a higher prevalence of overt proteinuria, 8% vs. 3%, χ(2) = 15.85, 2df, P = 0.0004. In multiple logistic regression models, adjusted for confounding factors, significantly increased risk for the south Asian vs. white European patients for overt proteinuria was shown; OR (95% CI) 2.17 (1.05, 4.49), P = 0.0365. For microalbuminuria, an interaction effect for ethnicity and duration of diabetes suggested that risk for south Asian patients was lower in early years following diagnosis; OR for SA vs. WH at durations 0 and 1 year were 0.56 (0.37, 0.86) and 0.59 (0.39, 0.89) respectively. After 20 years' duration, OR = 1.40 (0.63, 3.08). Comparability of ethnicity defined groups; statistical methods controlled for differences between groups, but residual confounding may remain. Analyses are based on a single measure of albumin:creatinine ratio. There were significant differences between ethnicity groups in risk factor profiles and microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria outcomes. Whilst south Asian patients had no excess risk of microalbuminuria, the risk of overt proteinuria was elevated significantly, which might be explained by faster progression of renal dysfunction in patients of south Asian

  14. The role of age and ethnic group in face recognition memory: ERP evidence from a combined own-age and own-race bias study.

    PubMed

    Wiese, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Young adult participants are known to more accurately remember faces from both their own age- and ethnic groups. The present study examined combined effects of such own-age and own-race biases by asking young Caucasian participants to learn and remember elderly and young Caucasian as well as elderly and young Asian faces. Neural correlates were assessed by recording event-related potentials (ERPs). Behavioral results indicated both an own-race bias for young but not elderly faces, and an own-age bias for Caucasian but not Asian faces. Importantly, no additional decrease in recognition memory for other-race/other-age faces was detected. An early parietal ERP old/new effect (300-500 ms) was most pronounced for young Caucasian "in-group" faces, while the old/new effect in a later time window (500-800 ms) was generally larger for own- as compared to other-race faces. In conclusion, these findings suggest at least partly different neural processes to accompany the own-race and own-age biases. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Body composition in offspring of New Zealand women: ethnic and gender differences at age 1-3 years in 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Rush, Elaine C; Obolonkin, Victor; Battin, Malcolm; Wouldes, Trecia; Rowan, Janet

    2015-01-01

    In multi-ethnic New Zealand the prevalence of obesity and diabetes is increasing and varies by ethnic group. This study explored ethnic and gender differences in body composition in offspring of women treated for gestational diabetes in the metformin in gestational diabetes (MiG) trial. Total and regional body composition measured by dual X-ray absorptiometry were investigated in European, Indian, Polynesian and "Other" children aged 2 years (48 boys; 56 girls). By ethnicity, boys were not different by height or weight. Compared with European girls, Indian girls weighed less (2.3 ± 0.58 kg) and Polynesian (1.13 ± 0.53 kg) more, but percentage body fat was not different. Adjusted for age, height and weight boys had less total and appendicular fat and higher abdominal fat mass and total bone mineral density than girls (p < 0.001). Adjusted for age, weight and height Indian boys had more fat in the central and abdominal regions and less total lean mass than European boys (p < 0.05). These measurements provide early evidence for gender and ethnic differences in the distribution of fat and might help identify who is most likely to benefit from intervention in the first few years of life to reduce risk of chronic disease including diabetes.

  16. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  17. Disparities in survival improvement for metastatic colorectal cancer by race/ethnicity and age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sineshaw, Helmneh M; Robbins, Anthony S; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2014-04-01

    Previous studies documented significant increase in overall survival for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) since the late 1990s coinciding with the introduction and dissemination of new treatments. We examined whether this survival increase differed across major racial/ethnic populations and age groups. We identified patients diagnosed with primary metastatic colorectal cancer during 1992-2009 from 13 population-based cancer registries of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, which cover about 14 % of the US population. The 5-year cause-specific survival rates were calculated using SEER*Stat software. From 1992-1997 to 2004-2009, 5-year cause-specific survival rates increased significantly from 9.8 % (95 % CI 9.2-10.4) to 15.7 % (95 % CI 14.7-16.6) in non-Hispanic whites and from 11.4 % (95 % CI 9.4-13.6) to 17.7 % (95 % CI 15.1-20.5) in non-Hispanic Asians, but not in non-Hispanic blacks [from 8.6 % (95 % CI 7.2-10.1) to 9.8 % (95 % CI 8.1-11.8)] or Hispanics [from 14.0 % (95 % CI 11.8-16.3) to 16.4 % (95 % CI 14.0-19.0)]. By age group, survival rates increased significantly for the 20-64-year age group and 65 years or older age group in non-Hispanic whites, although the improvement in the older non-Hispanic whites was substantially smaller. Rates also increased in non-Hispanic Asians for the 20-64-year age group although marginally nonsignificant. In contrast, survival rates did not show significant increases in both younger and older age groups in non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics. Non-Hispanic blacks, Hispanics, and older patients diagnosed with metastatic CRC have not equally benefitted from the introduction and dissemination of new treatments.

  18. The Effects of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Spinal Level on the Rate of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration. A review of 1712 Intervertebral Discs

    PubMed Central

    Siemionow, Krzysztof; An, Howard; Masuda, Koichi; Andersson, Gunnar; Cs-Szabo, Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    Study Design A gross anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration in fresh cadaveric lumbar spines. Objective The purpose of this study was to find the rate of IVD degeneration. Summary of Background Data Age, sex, race, and lumbar level are among some of the factors that play a role in IVD degeneration. The rate at which IVDs degenerate is unknown. Methods Complete lumbar spine segments (T11/12 to S1) were received within 24 hours of death. The nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus, cartilaginous and bony end-plate, and the peripheral verterbral body were assessed with MRI and IVD degeneration was graded by two observers from grade 1(nondegenerated) to grade 5(severely degenerated) based on a scale developed by Tanaka et al. The specimens were then sectioned and gross anatomical evaluation was performed according to Thompson et al. Results 433 donors and 1712 IVDs were analyzed. There were 366 Caucasians, 47 Africans, 16 Hispanics, 4 Asian. There were 306 males and 127 females. The age range was 14–81 years, (average 60.5+/−11.3). For donors greater than age 40, the L5/S1 IVD degenerated at a significantly faster rate of 0.043/year compared to 0.031, 0.034, 0.033, 0.027 for L12, L23, L34, L45, respectively. For donors younger than 40, L5/S1 IVD degenerated at a significantly faster rate of 0.141/year compared to 0.033,0.021, 0.031, 0.050 for L12, L23, L34, L45, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that gender had no significant effect on IVD degeneration whereas African ethnicity was associated with lower Thompson score at L12, L23, L34, L45 when compared to Caucasians. Conclusions The relatively early degeneration at L5-S1 in all races and lower Thompson grade in donors of African ethnicity needs further investigation. Factors such as sagittal alignment, facet joint arthritis, and genetics potentially play a role in IVD degeneration. PMID:21217432

  19. Ethnic differences in dietary intake at age 12 and 18 months: the Born in Bradford 1000 Study.

    PubMed

    Sahota, Pinki; Gatenby, Lisa A; Greenwood, Darren C; Bryant, Maria; Robinson, Sian; Wright, John

    2016-01-01

    To compare the intake of key indicator foods at age 12 months and 18 months between infants of Pakistani and White British origin. Logistic regression was used to model associations between ethnicity and consumption of key indicator foods defined by high or low energy density using an FFQ at age 12 and 18 months. Born in Bradford 1000 study, Bradford, UK. Infants (n 1259; 38 % White British, 49 % Pakistani), mean age 12·7 (sd 1·0) months and toddlers (n 1257; 37 % White British, 49 % Pakistani), mean age 18·7 (sd1·0) months. At 12 months, Pakistani infants consumed more commercial sweet baby meals than White British infants, with greater odds for being above average consumers (adjusted OR (AOR)=1·90; 95 % CI 1·40, 2·56), more chips/roast potatoes (AOR=2·75; 95 % CI 2·09, 3·62), less processed meat products (AOR=0·11; 95 % CI 0·08, 0·15), more fruit (AOR=2·20; 95 % CI 1·70, 2·85) and more sugar-sweetened drinks (AOR=1·68; 95 % CI 1·29, 2·18). At 18 months these differences persisted, with Pakistani infants consuming more commercial sweet baby meals (AOR=4·57; 95 % CI 2·49, 8·39), more chips/roast potato shapes (AOR=2·26; 95 % CI 1·50, 3·43), more fruit (AOR=1·40; 95 % CI 1·08, 1·81), more sugar-sweetened drinks (AOR=2·03; 95 % CI 1·53, 2·70), more pure fruit juice (AOR=1·82; 95 % CI 1·40, 2·35), more water (AOR=3·24; 95 % CI 2·46, 4·25) and less processed meat (AOR=0·10; 95 % CI 0·06, 0·15) than White British infants. Dietary intake during infancy and the early toddlerhood period is associated with ethnicity, suggesting the importance of early and culturally adapted interventions aimed at establishing healthy eating behaviours.

  20. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC).

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T; Jorgensen, Neal W; Rotter, Jerome I; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Herrington, David M

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54-1.90) (P < 0.0001) overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39-1.94), Chinese, 1.39 (1.06-1.83), African, 1.67 (1.37-2.02), and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65). Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91-2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46-2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12-1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity, Caucasian (HR = 1

  1. Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-yr age range: the global lung function 2012 equations.

    PubMed

    Quanjer, Philip H; Stanojevic, Sanja; Cole, Tim J; Baur, Xaver; Hall, Graham L; Culver, Bruce H; Enright, Paul L; Hankinson, John L; Ip, Mary S M; Zheng, Jinping; Stocks, Janet

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the Task Force was to derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5-95 yrs. Lung function data were collated and prediction equations derived using the LMS method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals aged 3-95 yrs for Caucasians (n=57,395), African-Americans (n=3,545), and North (n=4,992) and South East Asians (n=8,255). Forced expiratory value in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV(1)/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Spirometric prediction equations for the 3-95-age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent and Arabic, Polynesian and Latin American countries, as well as Africa will further improve these equations in the future.

  2. Effects of ethnicity and child's age on maternal judgements of children's transgressions against persons and property.

    PubMed

    Henderson, R W; Brody, G H; Lane, T S; Parra, E

    1982-06-01

    Mothers (N = 256) of four different cultural groups judged the culpability of children whose actions were described in Piaget-type stories depicting commission of harm under various conditions. Child's age, harm to persons vs material objects, intentions, and amount of harm were systematically varied. All main effects (culture, intent of transgressor, age, and magnitude of harm) were significant, but several effects were qualified interactions. A cognitive social learning explanation is proposed to account for group differences in judgement, with special attention to cultural differences in values attached to harm to persons vs damage to property.

  3. Ethnic differences in dietary intakes, physical activity, and energy expenditure in middle-aged, premenopausal women: the Healthy Transitions Study.

    PubMed

    Lovejoy, J C; Champagne, C M; Smith, S R; de Jonge, L; Xie, H

    2001-07-01

    Menopause is a time of increased risk of obesity in women. The effect of menopause in African American women, in whom obesity is already highly prevalent, is unknown. We compared dietary intakes and energy expenditure (EE) between middle-aged, premenopausal African American and white women participating in a longitudinal study of the menopausal transition. Dietary intakes by food record, EE by triaxial accelerometer, physical activity by self-report, and body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were compared in 97 white and 52 African American women. Twenty-four-hour and sleeping EE were measured by whole-room indirect calorimetry in 56 women. Sleeping EE (adjusted for lean and fat mass) was lower in African American than in white women (5749 +/- 155 compared with 6176 +/- 75 kJ/d; P = 0.02); however, there was no significant difference in 24-h EE between groups. Reported leisure activity over the course of a week was less in African American than in white women (556 +/- 155 compared with 1079 +/- 100 kJ/d; P = 0.02), as were the daily hours spent standing and climbing stairs. Dietary intakes of protein, fiber, calcium, magnesium, and several fatty acids were significantly less in African Americans, whereas there were no observed ethnic differences in intakes of fat or carbohydrate. Body fat within the whole group was positively correlated with total, saturated, and monounsaturated fat intakes and inversely associated with fiber and calcium intakes. Fiber was the strongest single predictor of fatness. Ethnic differences in EE and the intake of certain nutrients may influence the effect of menopausal transition on obesity in African American women.

  4. Race Insanity: Intertextual Discursive Practices Challenging Race and Ethnicity in the Digital Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Oliveira, Janaina Minelli

    2017-01-01

    In the global communicative landscape of the digital age, researchers and educators need a more nuanced understanding of identity creation. This paper analysed how fan fiction writers create representations of identity in their personal profiles in the "fanfiction.net" archive site. Specifically, I assessed whether traditional…

  5. Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye where they are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Current dietary databases make it difficult to ascertain their individual roles in eye health because their concentrations ...

  6. Inflammation, complement factor h, and age-related macular degeneration: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klein, Ronald; Knudtson, Michael D; Klein, Barbara E K; Wong, Tien Y; Cotch, Mary Frances; Liu, Kiang; Cheng, Ching Y; Burke, Gregory L; Saad, Mohammed F; Jacobs, David R; Sharrett, A Richey

    2008-10-01

    To describe the relationship of systemic inflammatory disease, complement factor H (CFH) Y402H (1277T-->C) genotype status and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) prevalence in a multiethnic population of whites, blacks, Hispanics, and Chinese. Population-based, cross-sectional study. We included 5887 persons aged 45 to 84 years with gradable AMD. Digital fundus photographs were used to measure AMD. Two years earlier, biomarkers of inflammation were measured and history of inflammatory disease and use of antiinflammatory agents obtained. Prevalence of AMD. While controlling for age, gender, race/ethnicity, and study site, there were no associations between systemic inflammatory factors and AMD severity. Higher levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation [SD] increase in natural log [ln] units, 2.34; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.33-4.13) and interleukin-6 (OR per SD in ln, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.21-3.49) were associated with geographic atrophy but not other AMD end points. History of periodontal disease (OR, 1.68; 95% CI, 1.14-2.47) was related to increased retinal pigment. A history of arthritis was associated with soft distinct drusen (OR, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.06-1.46). A history of oral steroid use was related to large drusen (OR, 2.13; 95% CI, 1.14-3.97) and soft distinct drusen (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.00-3.10) and history of cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor use were associated with large drusen (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.10-2.04), soft indistinct drusen (OR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.09-3.10), and large drusen area (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.02-2.71). Whites, blacks, and Hispanics with CFH Y402H CC variant genotype had the highest frequency of early AMD compared with those with wild TT genotype. The frequency of CFH did explain some of the difference in AMD prevalence between Chinese and Hispanics compared with whites, but did not explain the difference in prevalence between whites and blacks. This study confirmed associations of the Y402H CFH gene variant

  7. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…

  8. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N…

  9. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  10. Outcasts of Echo Park, Heroes of Brentwood: "Quinceanera, Keeping Up with the Steins" and Coming of Age in Ethnic L.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of maintaining a national identity as a subculture in America is most evident in connection with special occasions, like transition rites. Coming of age is such an event. The continuity and transformation of the subculture is at stake. In American cities, as exemplified by Los Angeles, the ethnic neighborhood becomes a New Old…

  11. The Impact of Developmental Mathematics Courses and Age, Gender, and Race and Ethnicity on Persistence and Academic Performance in Virginia Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, James D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined the 2006 cohort of First-Time-in-College students from all 23 community colleges in Virginia. The goal was to examine fall-to-fall persistence and success in the first college-level mathematics course. Predictor variables used were developmental status, age, gender, and race and ethnicity of the student. Interaction…

  12. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  13. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N…

  14. The Impact of Developmental Mathematics Courses and Age, Gender, and Race and Ethnicity on Persistence and Academic Performance in Virginia Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, James D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined the 2006 cohort of First-Time-in-College students from all 23 community colleges in Virginia. The goal was to examine fall-to-fall persistence and success in the first college-level mathematics course. Predictor variables used were developmental status, age, gender, and race and ethnicity of the student. Interaction…

  15. MULTI-ETHNIC REFERENCE VALUES FOR SPIROMETRY FOR THE 3–95 YEAR AGE RANGE: THE GLOBAL LUNG FUNCTION 2012 EQUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Quanjer, Philip H.; Stanojevic, Sanja; Cole, Tim J.; Baur, Xaver; Hall, Graham L.; Culver, Bruce H.; Enright, Paul L.; Hankinson, John L.; Ip, Mary S.M.; Zheng, Jinping; Stocks, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Objective Derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Material Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5–95 years. Methods Lung function data were collated, and prediction equations derived using the LMS (λ, µ, σ) method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. Results After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals from 3–95 years for Caucasians (N=57,395), African Americans (N=3,545), and North (N=4,992) and South East Asians (N=8,255). FEV1 and FVC between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV1/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Conclusion Spirometric prediction equations for the 3–95 age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent, Arab, Polynesian, Latin American countries, and Africa will further improve these equations in the future. PMID:22743675

  16. Race/Ethnic Differences in Birth Size, Infant Growth, and Body Mass Index at Age Five Years in Children in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Caryn E S; Novotny, Rachel; Grove, John S; Hurwitz, Eric L

    2015-12-01

    Factors at birth and infancy may increase risk of being overweight in childhood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of birth size and infant growth (2-24 months) with BMI at age 5 years in a multiethnic population. This was a retrospective study (using electronic medical records of a health maintenance organization in Hawaii) of singleton children born in 2004-2005, with linked maternal and birth information, infant weights (n = 597) and lengths (n = 473) in the first 2 years, and BMI measures at age 5 years (n = 894). Multiple regression models were used to estimate the association of BMI at age 5 years with birth size and infant growth. Birth weight was positively associated with BMI at age 5 years, adjusting for gestational age, sex, race/ethnicity, and maternal prepregnancy weight, age, education, and smoking. A greater change in infant weight was associated with a higher BMI at age 5 years, though the effect of birth weight on BMI was neither mediated nor modified by infant growth rate. Birth weight, change in infant weight, and BMI at age 5 years varied by race/ethnicity. Change in infant BMI in the first 2 years was higher in other Pacific Islanders and whites (Δ = 0.966; confidence interval [CI] = 0.249-1.684; p = 0.02) than in Asian, other, and part Native Hawaiian race/ethnic groups. Early biological measures of birth weight and infant weight gain varied by race/ethnicity and positively predicted BMI at age 5 years.

  17. Gender-, age-, and race/ethnicity-based differential item functioning analysis of the movement disorder society-sponsored revision of the Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale.

    PubMed

    Goetz, Christopher G; Liu, Yuanyuan; Stebbins, Glenn T; Wang, Lu; Tilley, Barbara C; Teresi, Jeanne A; Merkitch, Douglas; Luo, Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Assess MDS-UPDRS items for gender-, age-, and race/ethnicity-based differential item functioning. Assessing differential item functioning is a core rating scale validation step. For the MDS-UPDRS, differential item functioning occurs if item-score probability among people with similar levels of parkinsonism differ according to selected covariates (gender, age, race/ethnicity). If the magnitude of differential item functioning is clinically relevant, item-score interpretation must consider influences by these covariates. Differential item functioning can be nonuniform (covariate variably influences an item-score across different levels of parkinsonism) or uniform (covariate influences an item-score consistently over all levels of parkinsonism). Using the MDS-UPDRS translation database of more than 5,000 PD patients from 14 languages, we tested gender-, age-, and race/ethnicity-based differential item functioning. To designate an item as having clinically relevant differential item functioning, we required statistical confirmation by 2 independent methods, along with a McFadden pseudo-R(2) magnitude statistic greater than "negligible." Most items showed no gender-, age- or race/ethnicity-based differential item functioning. When differential item functioning was identified, the magnitude statistic was always in the "negligible" range, and the scale-level impact was minimal. The absence of clinically relevant differential item functioning across all items and all parts of the MDS-UPDRS is strong evidence that the scale can be used confidently. As studies of Parkinson's disease increasingly involve multinational efforts and the MDS-UPDRS has several validated non-English translations, the findings support the scale's broad applicability in populations with varying gender, age, and race/ethnicity distributions. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2016 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  18. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  19. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. Copyright © 2015 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Kindergarten Entrance Age and Children's Achievement: Impacts of State Policies, Family Background, and Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, Todd E.; Lubotsky, Darren H.

    2009-01-01

    We present evidence that the positive relationship between kindergarten entrance age and school achievement primarily reflects skill accumulation prior to kindergarten, rather than a heightened ability to learn in school among older children. The association between achievement test scores and entrance age appears during the first months of…

  1. The Couple that Prays Together: Race and Ethnicity, Religion, and Relationship Quality among Working-Age Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Burdette, Amy M.; Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that relationship quality tends to be (a) lower among racial and ethnic minorities and (b) higher among more religious persons and among couples in which partners share common religious affiliations, practices, and beliefs. However, few studies have examined the interplay of race or ethnicity and religion…

  2. Educating Other People's Children: Race, Class, Ethnicity, Aging, and the Politics of School Funding in Long Island, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan

    Long Island, New York, including Nassau and Suffolk Counties, is a patchwork of small ethnically, racially, and economically segregated towns organized into 126 school districts. School funding patterns and problems conform to racial, ethnic, and class lines. Predominantly minority school districts generally have higher property tax rates, fewer…

  3. Re-Seeing Race in a Post-Obama Age: Asian American Studies, Comparative Ethnic Studies, and Intersectional Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…

  4. Re-Seeing Race in a Post-Obama Age: Asian American Studies, Comparative Ethnic Studies, and Intersectional Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…

  5. Children under the age of two are more likely to watch inappropriate background media than older children

    PubMed Central

    Tomopoulos, Suzy; Brockmeyer Cates, Carolyn; Dreyer, Benard P; Fierman, Arthur H; Berkule, Samantha B; Mendelsohn, Alan L

    2014-01-01

    Aim To establish whether young children watched foreground electronic media or background media that was not aimed at them or was inappropriate for their age. Methods We performed a longitudinal analysis of mother-infant dyads participating in a larger parenting study. The primary dependent variable was maternal reports of watching habits from media diaries at six, 14, 24 and 36 months. Independent variables were child age, programme content and whether the programme was turned on specifically for the child. Results We analysed 3,570 programme exposures in 527 children, mostly from television. Children were significantly more likely to actually watch programmes if they were older, if the content was coded as “educational-young child” or if the parent tuned on the programme specifically so the child could watch it. Children under the age of two were more likely than older children to watch background media that featured age-inappropriate content or had not been turned on for them to watch (30% versus 16% of programmes; AOR = 2.19, [95%CI 1.82-2.65]). Conclusions Young children under the age of two frequently watch background media that has age-inappropriate content or has not been turned on for them to watch. PMID:24812713

  6. Axone, an ethnic probiotic containing food, reduces age of sexual maturity and increases poultry production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Singh, R K

    2014-06-01

    Axone (Akhuni) is a homemade synbiotic (Nagamese fermented soybean product) served as side dish in North Eastern India. In this study, effects of Axone feeding on growth, weight gain, sexual maturity and egg production on Vanaraja birds (a strain of poultry bird developed at PDP Hyderabad for villages and backyard poultry) were evaluated. Axone incorporation in commercial poultry feed at the rate of 5% (W/W) significantly improved growth rate (weight gain) both in male (p 0.001) and female (p 0.05) chicks, reduced age by 13 days at first egg laying (p 0.01), increased egg production (p ≤ 0.001) and improved egg weight (p ≤ 0.01). Microbiological analysis of Axone sample revealed that the major bacteria in Axone samples were Bacillus coagulans, well known for their probiotic value.

  7. Influence of Body Weight, Ethnicity, Oral Contraceptives, and Pregnancy on the Pharmacokinetics of Azithromycin in Women of Childbearing Age

    PubMed Central

    Habibi, Mitra; Kilpatrick, Sarah J.; Tuomala, Ruth E.; Shier, Janice M.; Wollett, Lori; Fischer, Patricia A.; Khorana, Kinnari S.; Rodvold, Keith A.

    2012-01-01

    Women of childbearing age commonly receive azithromycin for the treatment of community-acquired infections, including during pregnancy. This study determined azithromycin pharmacokinetics in pregnant and nonpregnant women and identified covariates contributing to pharmacokinetic variability. Plasma samples were collected by using a sparse-sampling strategy from pregnant women at a gestational age of 12 to 40 weeks and from nonpregnant women of childbearing age receiving oral azithromycin for the treatment of an infection. Pharmacokinetic data from extensive sampling conducted on 12 healthy women were also included. Plasma samples were assayed for azithromycin by high-performance liquid chromatography. Population data were analyzed by nonlinear mixed-effects modeling. The population analysis included 53 pregnant and 25 nonpregnant women. A three-compartment model with first-order absorption and a lag time provided the best fit of the data. Lean body weight, pregnancy, ethnicity, and the coadministration of oral contraceptives were covariates identified as significantly influencing the oral clearance of azithromycin and, except for oral contraceptive use, intercompartmental clearance between the central and second peripheral compartments. No other covariate relationships were identified. Compared to nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives, a 21% to 42% higher dose-adjusted azithromycin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) occurred in non-African American women who were pregnant or receiving oral contraceptives. Conversely, azithromycin AUCs were similar between pregnant African American women and nonpregnant women not receiving oral contraceptives. Although higher levels of maternal and fetal azithromycin exposure suggest that lower doses be administered to non-African American women during pregnancy, the consideration of azithromycin pharmacodynamics during pregnancy should guide any dose adjustments. PMID:22106226

  8. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels.

  9. Human actuarial aging increases faster when background death rates are lower: a consequence of differential heterogeneity?

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Kristen; Smith, Ken R; Blevins, James K

    2012-01-01

    Many analyses of human populations have found that age-specific mortality rates increase faster across most of adulthood when overall mortality levels decline. This contradicts the relationship often expected from Williams' classic hypothesis about the effects of natural selection on the evolution of senescence. More likely, much of the within-species difference in actuarial aging is not due to variation in senescence, but to the strength of filters on the heterogeneity of frailty in older survivors. A challenge to this differential frailty hypothesis was recently posed by an analysis of life tables from historical European populations and traditional societies that reported variation in actuarial aging consistent with Williams' hypothesis after all. To investigate the challenge, we reconsidered those cases and aging measures. Here we show that the discrepancy depends on Ricklefs' aging rate measure, ω, which decreases as mortality levels drop because it is an index of mortality level itself, not the rate of increase in mortality with age. We also show unappreciated correspondence among the parameters of Gompertz-Makeham and Weibull survival models. Finally, we compare the relationships among mortality parameters of the traditional societies and the historical series, providing further suggestive evidence that differential heterogeneity has strong effects on actuarial aging.

  10. Intercultural Crossings in a Digital Age: ICT Pathways with Migrant and Refugee-Background Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Ben; Harris, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This article problematises the uptake and use of digital technologies by migrant and refugee-background young people, through the lens of a site-based arts pedagogy program, Culture Shack (CS), in Melbourne, Australia. It argues that online pedagogies including animation, Facebook, photoshop, mobile phones and Youtube can be used effectively for…

  11. Background Interference Procedure: A Means of Assessing Neurologic Dysfunction in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Thomas J.

    1971-01-01

    The Bender Gestalt test incorporating the Background Interference Procedure was administered to three groups of children. The BIP yielded significantly higher scores for the brain damaged group, while the scores of the controls and emotionally disturbed children did not differ. (Author)

  12. Intercultural Crossings in a Digital Age: ICT Pathways with Migrant and Refugee-Background Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Mara, Ben; Harris, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This article problematises the uptake and use of digital technologies by migrant and refugee-background young people, through the lens of a site-based arts pedagogy program, Culture Shack (CS), in Melbourne, Australia. It argues that online pedagogies including animation, Facebook, photoshop, mobile phones and Youtube can be used effectively for…

  13. Background Interference Procedure: A Means of Assessing Neurologic Dysfunction in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Thomas J.

    1971-01-01

    The Bender Gestalt test incorporating the Background Interference Procedure was administered to three groups of children. The BIP yielded significantly higher scores for the brain damaged group, while the scores of the controls and emotionally disturbed children did not differ. (Author)

  14. The MCCI (Millon College Counseling Inventory) in an Ethnically Diverse Student Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dornheim, Liane; Ramnath, R.; Gomez, C.; von Harscher, H.; Pellegrini, A.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined psychometric properties of the MCCI (Millon College Counseling Inventory) (T. Millon, Strack, C. Millon, & Grossman, 2006), as applied to students from ethnically and culturally diverse backgrounds. The sample (N = 209, Mean age = 23.81, 74% identified as ethnic minority) was derived from students presented for counseling…

  15. Autonomy and Relatedness in Adolescent-Parent Disagreements: Ethnic and Developmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Jean S.; Kim-Jo, Tina; Osorio, Saloniki; Vilhjalmsdottir, Perla

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the way in which young people from diverse American ethnic backgrounds express autonomy and relatedness in their responses to disagreements with parents and the factors that influence their responses. Adolescents and emerging adults (N = 240) aged 14 to 22 years from four ethnic groups (European American, Mexican American,…

  16. Cognitive Development in Infants of Different Age Levels and from Different Environmental Backgrounds: An Explanatory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachs, Theodore D.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Reports a cross-sectional study examining intensity of stimulation and verbal stimulation in home circumstances as these factors relate to psychological development across several age groups (7th, 11th, 15th, or 22nd month of life). (WY)

  17. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and adolescent and adult recidivism: considerations with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Keira C; Olver, Mark E; Wong, Stephen C P

    2010-12-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health facility. The PCL: YV significantly predicted any general, nonviolent, and violent recidivism in the aggregate sample over a 7-year follow-up; however, when results were disaggregated by youth and adult outcomes, the PCL: YV consistently appeared to be a stronger predictor of youth recidivism. The PCL: YV predicted youth recidivism for subsamples of female and Aboriginal youths, and very few differences in the predictive accuracy of the tool were observed for younger vs. older adolescent groups. Both the 13-item (i.e., D. J. Cooke & C. Michie, 2001, 3-factor) and the 20-item (i.e., R. D. Hare, 2003, 4-factor) models appeared to predict various recidivism criteria comparably across the aggregate sample and within specific demographic subgroups (e.g., female and Aboriginal youth). The Antisocial facet contributed the most variance in the prediction of adult outcomes, whereas the 3-factor model contributed significant incremental variance in the prediction of youth recidivism outcomes. Potential implications concerning the use of the PCL: YV in clinical and forensic assessment contexts are discussed.

  18. Relation of EEG alpha background to cognitive fuction, brain atrophy, and cerebral metabolism in Down's syndrome. Age-specific changes

    SciTech Connect

    Devinsky, O.; Sato, S.; Conwit, R.A.; Schapiro, M.B. )

    1990-01-01

    We studied 19 young adults (19 to 37 years old) and 9 older patients (42 to 66 years old) with Down's syndrome (DS) and a control group of 13 healthy adults (22 to 38 years old) to investigate the relation of electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha background to cognitive function and cerebral metabolism. Four of the older patients with DS had a history of mental deterioration, disorientation, and memory loss and were demented. Patients and control subjects had EEGs, psychometric testing, quantitative computed tomography, and positron emission tomography with fludeoxyglucose F 18. A blinded reader classified the EEGs into two groups--those with normal alpha background or those with abnormal background. All the control subjects, the 13 young adult patients with DS, and the 5 older patients with DS had normal EEG backgrounds. In comparison with the age-matched patients with DS with normal alpha background, older patients with DS with decreased alpha background had dementia, fewer visuospatial skills, decreased attention span, larger third ventricles, and a global decrease in cerebral glucose utilization with parietal hypometabolism. In the young patients with DS, the EEG background did not correlate with psychometric or positron emission tomographic findings, but the third ventricles were significantly larger in those with abnormal EEG background. The young patients with DS, with or without normal EEG background, had positron emission tomographic findings similar to those of the control subjects. The mechanism underlying the abnormal EEG background may be the neuropathologic changes of Alzheimer's disease in older patients with DS and may be cerebral immaturity in younger patients with DS.

  19. The impact of race, ethnicity, age and sex on clinical outcome in chronic lymphocytic leukemia: a comprehensive Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results analysis in the modern era.

    PubMed

    Nabhan, Chadi; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Chiu, Brian C-H; Smith, Sonali M; Shanafelt, Tait D; Evens, Andrew M; Kay, Neil E

    2014-12-01

    To analyze racial, ethnic, sex and age disparities in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we examined population-based overall survival (OS) data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-13 (1992-2009) across various races/ethnicities over two consecutive 9-year periods: era 1 (1992-2000) and era 2 (2001-2009). We analyzed 28 590 patients (whites: 24 438, blacks: 1954, Hispanics: 1389 and Asians/Pacific Islanders [A/PI]: 809). A higher proportion of whites were aged > 80 years (22% vs. 17% [Hispanics], 16% [blacks], 16% [A/PI]; p < 0.001). Higher socioeconomic status (SES) was also identified for A/PI and whites compared with blacks and Hispanics (p < 0.001). OS for all patients improved at 5 years (66% vs. 60%, p < 0.0001) and was significant in all races/ethnicities except A/PI. Patients of higher SES had better outcomes than others independent of era, but both SES classes experienced relative improvement in their OS across eras. The OS of patients with CLL has improved in the modern era but racial/ethnic, gender and SES differences persist, warranting further investigation.

  20. Strategies Underlying Psychometric Test Responses in Young and Middle-aged Adults of Varying Educational Background.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macrae, Kristina S.

    The aim of this study was to investigate the strategies leading to test item responses in 60 young (20-25 years) and 60 middle-aged (35-40 years) adults, whose highest level of education had been either secondary, technical or university. Subjects were individually administered a 12 item test similar to Raven's Progressive Matrices, and were…

  1. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  2. Genetic background influences age-related decline in visual and nonvisual retinal responses, circadian rhythms, and sleep☆

    PubMed Central

    Banks, Gareth; Heise, Ines; Starbuck, Becky; Osborne, Tamzin; Wisby, Laura; Potter, Paul; Jackson, Ian J.; Foster, Russell G.; Peirson, Stuart N.; Nolan, Patrick M.

    2015-01-01

    The circadian system is entrained to the environmental light/dark cycle via retinal photoreceptors and regulates numerous aspects of physiology and behavior, including sleep. These processes are all key factors in healthy aging showing a gradual decline with age. Despite their importance, the exact mechanisms underlying this decline are yet to be fully understood. One of the most effective tools we have to understand the genetic factors underlying these processes are genetically inbred mouse strains. The most commonly used reference mouse strain is C57BL/6J, but recently, resources such as the International Knockout Mouse Consortium have started producing large numbers of mouse mutant lines on a pure genetic background, C57BL/6N. Considering the substantial genetic diversity between mouse strains we expect there to be phenotypic differences, including differential effects of aging, in these and other strains. Such differences need to be characterized not only to establish how different mouse strains may model the aging process but also to understand how genetic background might modify age-related phenotypes. To ascertain the effects of aging on sleep/wake behavior, circadian rhythms, and light input and whether these effects are mouse strain-dependent, we have screened C57BL/6J, C57BL/6N, C3H-HeH, and C3H-Pde6b+ mouse strains at 5 ages throughout their life span. Our data show that sleep, circadian, and light input parameters are all disrupted by the aging process. Moreover, we have cataloged a number of strain-specific aging effects, including the rate of cataract development, decline in the pupillary light response, and changes in sleep fragmentation and the proportion of time spent asleep. PMID:25179226

  3. Vitamin D intakes of children differ by race/ethnicity, sex, age, and income in the United States, 2007 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Moore, Carolyn E; Radcliffe, John D; Liu, Yan

    2014-06-01

    The 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was used to estimate vitamin D intakes of children 1 to 18 years old in the United States by race/ethnicity, sex, age, and family using 24-hour dietary intake recalls and dietary supplement use questionnaires. We hypothesized that total, dietary, and supplemental vitamin D intakes of children would differ by race/ethnicity, sex, age, and income. Statistical analyses of weighted data were performed using Statistical Analysis Software (V 9.2) to estimate means ± SE. Race and ethnic intake differences controlling for poverty income ratio (PIR), sex, and age were assessed by analysis of covariance. Total (dietary and supplement) vitamin D intake was greater in the high (7.9 ± 0.3 μg/d) vs the medium (6.5 ± 0.3 μg/d) income group, but not the low (7.2 ± 0.2 μg/d) PIR group. Total vitamin D intake of non-Hispanic (NH) white children (8.1 ± 0.2 μg/d) was greater than Hispanic (7.0 ± 0.2 μg/d) and NH black (5.9 ± 0.2 μg/d) children. Total vitamin D intake declined with age, and intake by boys was higher than girls. Only 17.4% of the children consumed supplements containing vitamin D. Overall, mean intake of vitamin D by all children in each age and ethnic group was lower than the estimated average requirement for vitamin D. Public health efforts should encourage consumption of foods high in vitamin D, expand the number of foods fortified, and target health messages to parents to increase use of vitamin D supplements by children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Supplement use contributes to meeting recommended dietary intakes for calcium, magnesium, and vitamin C in four ethnicities of middle-aged and older Americans: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Burnett-Hartman, Andrea N; Fitzpatrick, Annette L; Gao, Kun; Jackson, Sharon A; Schreiner, Pamela J

    2009-03-01

    Low intake of nutrients is associated with poor health outcomes. We examined the contribution of dietary supplementation to meeting recommended dietary intakes of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and vitamin C in participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, a cohort of white, African-American, Hispanic, and Chinese-American participants ages 45 to 84 years. We also assessed the prevalence of intakes above Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs). At the baseline exam in 2000-2001, 2,938 men and 3,299 women completed food frequency questionnaires and provided information about dietary supplementation. We used relative risk regression to estimate the probability of meeting Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) or Adequate Intakes (AIs) in supplement users vs nonusers and Fisher's exact tests to compare the proportion of those exceeding ULs between the two groups. RDAs, AIs, and ULs were defined by the National Academy of Sciences Food and Nutrition Board's Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). After adjustment for age and education, the relative risk of meeting RDAs or AIs in supplement-users vs nonusers ranged from 1.9 (1.6, 2.3) in white men to 5.7 (4.1, 8.0) in African-American women for calcium, from 2.5 (1.9, 3.3) in Hispanic men to 5.2 (2.4, 11.2) in Chinese men for magnesium, and from 1.4 (1.3, 1.5) in African-American women to 2.0 (1.7, 2.2) in Chinese men for vitamin C. The relative risks for meeting RDAs for calcium differed significantly by ethnicity (P<0.001) and sex (P<0.001), and by ethnicity for magnesium (P=0.01). The relative risk for each sex/ethnicity strata was close to 1 and did not reach statistical significance at alpha=.05 for potassium. For calcium, 15% of high-dose supplement users exceeded the UL compared with only 2.1% of nonusers. For vitamin C, the percentages were 6.6% and 0%, and for magnesium, 35.3% and 0% (P<0.001 for all). Although supplement use is associated with meeting DRI guidelines for calcium, vitamin C and magnesium, many

  5. Antral follicle count as a marker of ovarian biological age to reflect the background risk of fetal aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Grande, Maribel; Borobio, Virginia; Jimenez, Jose Miguel; Bennasar, Mar; Stergiotou, Iosifina; Peñarrubia, Joana; Borrell, Antoni

    2014-06-01

    Can antral follicle count (AFC) measured during pregnancy be used as a marker of ovarian age to assess the background risk of fetal aneuploidy? AFC was lower than expected according to maternal chronological age in trisomic pregnancies; therefore ovarian age could potentially reflect a more precise background risk of fetal aneuploidy screening. The decline in a woman's reproductive function is determined by a decline in the ovarian follicle pool and the quality of oocytes. The quantitative status of ovarian reserve can be indirectly assessed by AFC, but the role of AFC as an aneuploidy risk marker in pregnant women has not been assessed yet. Our study comprised a prospective cohort including 1239 singleton pregnancies scanned before 14 weeks in our center during a 14-month period. Reference ranges for AFC were constructed using 812 spontaneously conceived, chromosomally normal singleton ongoing pregnancies using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma method. The study population (n = 934) included 19 pregnancies with viable autosomal trisomies (trisomies 21, 18 and 13), 17 non-viable autosomal trisomies (other than 21, 18 or 13), 7 monosomies X, 1 sex trisomy and 3 triploidies (total n = 47 with chromosomal abnormalities). AFC in chromosomally abnormal pregnancies was plotted against the reference ranges. AFC multiple of the median was calculated according to the median AFC obtained by each year of age. Sixty-eight percent of women carrying a pregnancy with viable trisomies and 65% with non-viable trisomies presented an AFC below the 50th percentile. The median ovarian age in viable trisomies and non-viable trisomies was estimated to be 3 and 6 years above than median maternal age, respectively. However, the median ovarian age in monosomies X and triploidies was not higher than median maternal age. We did not assess the intra- and inter-observer reliability, or use specific three-dimensional analysis which may have advantages over our two-dimensional study. In clinical practice, a

  6. Bone mineral accrual across growth in a mixed-ethnic group of children: are Asian children disadvantaged from an early age?

    PubMed

    Burrows, Melonie; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Mirwald, Robert; Macdonald, Heather; McKay, Heather

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the contribution of ethnicity, physical activity, body composition, and calcium intake to bone accrual across 7 years of growth. We assessed 80 Caucasian and 74 Asian boys and 81 Caucasian and 64 Asian girls at baseline and retained 155 children across all 7 years. Ethnicity, physical activity, and calcium intake were assessed by questionnaire; fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), total proximal femur (PF(TOT)), and femoral neck (FN) were measured using DXA (Hologic QDR 4500). We aligned children on peak height velocity and utilized multilevel modeling to assess bone mineral accrual. Height and lean mass accounted for 51.8% and 44.1% of BMC accrual in children. There was a significant difference in physical activity, calcium intake, and lean mass between Asians and Caucasian boys and girls at baseline and conclusion (p < 0.05). In boys, physical activity and ethnicity significantly predicted BMC accrual at the FN. In girls, Asians had significantly lower PF(TOT) and FN BMC. Calcium was a significant predictor of WB BMC accrual in boys and girls. In conclusion, our findings highlight the importance of accounting for ethnicity in pediatric studies. Physical activity, dietary calcium, and lean mass positively influence bone accrual and are lower in Asian compared to Caucasian children from a very young age.

  7. Normal reference ranges for and variability in the levels of blood manganese and selenium by gender, age, and race/ethnicity for general U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B; Choi, Y Sammy

    2015-04-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2011-2012 were used to determine normal reference ranges and percentile distributions for manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) in blood by gender, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status as determined by annual family income, and smoking status. The effect of gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, and smoking status on the levels of Mn and Se was also determined by fitting regression models. Males had lower adjusted levels of Mn and higher adjusted levels of Se than females. Adjusted levels of Mn decreased with increase in age but adjusted levels of Se were lower in adolescents aged 12-19 years than adults aged 20-64 years. Non-Hispanic black (NHB) had the lowest levels of both Mn and Se and non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) had the highest levels of both Mn and Se. Non-Hispanic white (NHW) and NHB had lower levels of Mn than Hispanics (HISP) and NHAS. NHB and HISP had lower levels of Se than NHW and NHAS. Low annual income (<$20,000) was associated with lower levels of Se than high annual income (≥$55,000). Smoking negatively affected the adjusted levels of Se among seniors aged ≥65 years but this was not observed in other age groups. Mn levels were not affected by smoking. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  8. Age at menopause and determinants of hysterectomy and menopause in a multi-ethnic community: The Hilo Women’s Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Murphy, Lorna; Morrison, Lynn; Reza, Angela; Brown, Daniel E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives A lifespan approach was used to evaluate age at menopause, and determinants of surgical and natural menopause, in the multi-ethnic community of Hilo, Hawaii. Study design Participants aged 40–60 years (n=898) were drawn from a larger, randomly-generated sample recruited by postal questionnaires. Median age at natural menopause was computed by probit analysis. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine determinants of hysterectomy, and Cox regression analysis was used to examine risk factors for an earlier age at menopause. Main outcome measures History of hysterectomy, Age at menopause Results Frequency of hysterectomy was 19.2% at a mean age of 40.5 years. The likelihood of hysterectomy increased with older ages, lower education, mixed ancestry, having been overweight at age 30, and married 20 years prior to survey. Median age at natural menopause was 53.0 years. Smoking and not being married 10 years before survey were associated with an earlier age at menopause. Conclusions Median age at menopause was later than the national average. Ethnicity and education were determinants of hysterectomy, but not associated with age at natural menopause. Events later in the lifespan (e.g., smoking and not being married 10 years prior to the survey) were more important than earlier events (e.g., childhood residence) in relation to age at menopause. The timing of weight gain and marital status appear to be important in relation to surgical menopause, and the timing of marital status appears to be important in relation to the timing of natural menopause. PMID:24054435

  9. Modelling T cell proliferation: Dynamics heterogeneity depending on cell differentiation, age, and genetic background

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Cell proliferation is the common characteristic of all biological systems. The immune system insures the maintenance of body integrity on the basis of a continuous production of diversified T lymphocytes in the thymus. This involves processes of proliferation, differentiation, selection, death and migration of lymphocytes to peripheral tissues, where proliferation also occurs upon antigen recognition. Quantification of cell proliferation dynamics requires specific experimental methods and mathematical modelling. Here, we assess the impact of genetics and aging on the immune system by investigating the dynamics of proliferation of T lymphocytes across their differentiation through thymus and spleen in mice. Our investigation is based on single-cell multicolour flow cytometry analysis revealing the active incorporation of a thymidine analogue during S phase after pulse-chase-pulse experiments in vivo, versus cell DNA content. A generic mathematical model of state transition simulates through Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) the evolution of single cell behaviour during various durations of labelling. It allows us to fit our data, to deduce proliferation rates and estimate cell cycle durations in sub-populations. Our model is simple and flexible and is validated with other durations of pulse/chase experiments. Our results reveal that T cell proliferation is highly heterogeneous but with a specific “signature” that depends upon genetic origins, is specific to cell differentiation stages in thymus and spleen and is altered with age. In conclusion, our model allows us to infer proliferation rates and cell cycle phase durations from complex experimental 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) data, revealing T cell proliferation heterogeneity and specific signatures. PMID:28288157

  10. Modelling T cell proliferation: Dynamics heterogeneity depending on cell differentiation, age, and genetic background.

    PubMed

    Vibert, Julien; Thomas-Vaslin, Véronique

    2017-03-01

    Cell proliferation is the common characteristic of all biological systems. The immune system insures the maintenance of body integrity on the basis of a continuous production of diversified T lymphocytes in the thymus. This involves processes of proliferation, differentiation, selection, death and migration of lymphocytes to peripheral tissues, where proliferation also occurs upon antigen recognition. Quantification of cell proliferation dynamics requires specific experimental methods and mathematical modelling. Here, we assess the impact of genetics and aging on the immune system by investigating the dynamics of proliferation of T lymphocytes across their differentiation through thymus and spleen in mice. Our investigation is based on single-cell multicolour flow cytometry analysis revealing the active incorporation of a thymidine analogue during S phase after pulse-chase-pulse experiments in vivo, versus cell DNA content. A generic mathematical model of state transition simulates through Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) the evolution of single cell behaviour during various durations of labelling. It allows us to fit our data, to deduce proliferation rates and estimate cell cycle durations in sub-populations. Our model is simple and flexible and is validated with other durations of pulse/chase experiments. Our results reveal that T cell proliferation is highly heterogeneous but with a specific "signature" that depends upon genetic origins, is specific to cell differentiation stages in thymus and spleen and is altered with age. In conclusion, our model allows us to infer proliferation rates and cell cycle phase durations from complex experimental 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) data, revealing T cell proliferation heterogeneity and specific signatures.

  11. Predicting curriculum and test performance at age 11 years from pupil background, baseline skills and phonological awareness at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Savage, Robert; Carless, Sue; Ferraro, Vittoria

    2007-07-01

    Phonological awareness tests are amongst the best predictors of literacy and predict outcomes of Key Stage 1 assessment of the National Curriculum in England at age 7. However, it is unknown whether their ability to predict National Curricular outcomes extends to Key Stage 2 assessments given at age 11, or also whether the predictive power of such tests is independent of letter-knowledge. We explored the unique predictive validity of phonological awareness and early literacy measures, and other pupil background measures taken at age 5 in the prediction of English, Maths, and Science performance at age 11. Three hundred and eighty-two children from 21 primary schools in one Local Educational Authority were assessed at age 5 and followed to age 11 (Key Stage 2 assessment). Teaching assistants (TAs) administered phonological awareness tasks and early literacy measures. Baseline and Key Stage 2 performance measures were collected by teachers. Phonological awareness was a significant unique predictor of all nine outcome measures after baseline assessment and pupil background measures were first controlled in regression analyses, and continued to be a significant predictor of reading, maths, and science performance, and teacher assessments after early literacy skill and letter-knowledge was controlled. Gender predicted performance in writing, the English test, and English teacher assessment, with girls outperforming boys. Phonological awareness is a unique predictor of general curricular attainment independent of pupil background, early reading ability and letter-knowledge. Practically, screening of phonological awareness and basic reading skills by school staff in year 1 significantly enhances the capacity of schools to predict curricular outcomes in year 6.

  12. Narrative performance of gifted African American school-aged children from low-income backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Mills, Monique T

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Forty-three children, Grades 2-5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms.

  13. Narrative Performance of Gifted African American School-Aged Children From Low-Income Backgrounds

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated classroom differences in the narrative performance of school-age African American English (AAE)-speaking children in gifted and general education classrooms. Method Forty-three children, Grades 2–5, each generated fictional narratives in response to the book Frog, Where Are You? (Mayer, 1969). Differences in performance on traditional narrative measures (total number of communication units [C-units], number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words) and on AAE production (dialect density measure) between children in gifted and general education classrooms were examined. Results There were no classroom-based differences in total number of C-units, number of different words, and mean length of utterance in words. Children in gifted education classrooms produced narratives with lower dialect density than did children in general educated classrooms. Direct logistic regression assessed whether narrative dialect density measure scores offered additional information about giftedness beyond scores on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition (Dunn & Dunn, 2007), a standard measure of language ability. Results indicated that a model with only Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test–Fourth Edition scores best discriminated children in the 2 classrooms. Conclusion African American children across gifted and general education classrooms produce fictional narratives of similar length, lexical diversity, and syntax complexity. However, African American children in gifted education classrooms may produce lower rates of AAE and perform better on standard measures of vocabulary than those in general education classrooms. PMID:25409770

  14. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sleep Disorders and Reporting of Trouble Sleeping Among Women of Childbearing Age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amyx, Melissa; Xiong, Xu; Xie, Yiqiong; Buekens, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Whether racial/ethnic differences in prevalence/reporting of sleep disorders exist in pregnant women/women of child-bearing age is unknown. Study objectives were to estimate prevalence of sleep disorders and to examine racial/ethnic differences in sleep disorders, reporting of sleep issues, and amount of sleep among women of child-bearing age (15-44 years) in the US. Methods Through a secondary analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 (3175 non-pregnant, 432 pregnant women in main analysis), prevalence of sleep disorders, reporting of sleep disorders to a physician/health professional, and amount of sleep were estimated overall, by pregnancy status, and by race/ethnicity stratified by pregnancy status. Racial/ethnic differences in reporting of trouble sleeping by pregnancy status were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders among women of childbearing age was 4.9 % [3.9 % pregnant; 5.1 % non-pregnant (p < 0.01)]. Significantly fewer pregnant and non-pregnant minority women reported adequate sleep (7-8 h) than non-Hispanic white (white) women (p < 0.05). Among non-pregnant women, odds of report of trouble sleeping were significantly higher for white compared to black (aOR 0.47 [95 % CI 0.36, 0.61]) or Mexican-American women (aOR 0.29 [95 % CI 0.21, 0.41]); non-pregnant minority women were also significantly less likely to report trouble sleeping than white women when controlling for amount of sleep. Among pregnant women, these same trends were found. Discussion Compared to white women, minority women, despite reporting less adequate sleep, are less likely to report trouble sleeping, providing evidence of an important health disparity.

  15. Assessing the Influence of Age and Ethnicity on the Association Between Iron Status and Lead Concentration in Blood: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Ngueta, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Inverse association has been reported between iron intake and blood lead concentration (PbB) in epidemiological studies. Data on this association at a low dose of lead exposure are scarce, and the potential influence of ethnicity and age has not been previously reported. This study aimed to estimate the relation between serum ferritin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume and PbB among 6-18-year-old individuals. Data from Canadian Health and Measures Survey (CHMS), cycle 1 (2007-2009) and cycle 2 (2009-2011), were accessed. A household interview followed by a physical examination (including collection of blood) was performed. The quantification of lead and trace elements in blood was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean PbB was 0.79 μg/dL (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.75-0.82). Except for haemoglobin levels, no association was found between PbB and any of the parameters of iron status, independently of age. A significant interaction was observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to PbB (p = 0.07). We found a little evidence of an association between iron status and PbB in the whole sample of subjects aged 6-18 years exposed to low levels of environmental lead. The significant interaction observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to BPb suggests that the influence of ferritin levels on lead uptake may change by ethnicity, even at low exposure.

  16. Potential mediators of ethnic differences in physical activity in older Mexican Americans and European Americans: results from the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging.

    PubMed

    Dergance, Jeannae M; Mouton, Charles P; Lichtenstein, Michael J; Hazuda, Helen P

    2005-07-01

    Factors were examined that might explain reported ethnic differences in leisure time physical activity (LTPA) between Mexican Americans (MAs) and European Americans (EAs). Data were from a random sample of 749 community-dwelling MAs and EAs, aged 65 and older, who participated in the San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (SALSA) baseline examination. Variables examined included LTPA measured as kilocalories of energy expended per week, contextual variables (age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), acculturation/structural assimilation), psychosocial measures (self-esteem, mastery, perceived health control), lifestyle variables (fat avoidance, current alcohol drinker, years smoking, body mass index (BMI)), and presence of chronic diseases (diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction, stroke, hypertension, arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, depression, mild cognitive impairment). Hierarchical multiple regression was used to examine potential mediators of the ethnic group-LTPA association. EAs expended almost 300 kcal/wk more energy than did MAs (1,287 kcal/wk vs 1,001 kcal/wk). SES and psychosocial (self-esteem), lifestyle (fat avoidance, smoking, BMI), and disease (depression) factors that vary by SES explained this ethnic difference. In MAs, structural assimilation, but not acculturation, was significantly associated with LTPA independent of SES. Self-esteem, BMI, and depression explained this association. Psychosocial resources, lifestyle behaviors, and depression explain differences in LTPA between older MAs and EAs. Interventions to increase LTPA in both ethnic groups should be targeted especially at women and persons who have low self-esteem, smoke, and are obese or depressed. In MAs, additional emphasis should be focused on those who are less structurally assimilated into the broader American society.

  17. Validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – 2 – Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) scores as a function of gender, ethnicity, and age of bariatric surgery candidates.

    PubMed

    Marek, Ryan J; Ben-Porath, Yossef S; Sellbom, Martin; McNulty, John L; Heinberg, Leslie J

    2015-01-01

    Presurgical psychological screening is used to identify factors that may impact postoperative adherence and surgical outcomes in bariatric surgery candidates. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory - 2 Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) findings have demonstrated utility for this task. To explore whether there are clinically meaningful gender, ethnicity, or age differences in presurgical MMPI-2-RF scores and the validity of these scores in bariatric surgery candidates. The sample was composed of 872 men and 2337 women. Ethnicity/race groups included 2,204 Caucasian, 744 African American, and 96 Hispanic individuals. A sample of 165 were not included in the ethnicity/race analyses because they were of another descent. Ages groups included 18-35 year olds (n = 454), 36-49 year olds (n = 1154), 50-64 year olds, (n = 1246), and 65 years old or older (n = 355). Validity data, obtained via a retrospective chart review, were available for a subset patients (n = 1,268) who were similarly distributed. Step-down hierarchical regression analyses were conducted to assess for differential validity. Bariatric surgery candidates produced comparable MMPI-2-RF scores in all subsamples, indicating that the test norms generalize across demographic groups. Validity findings were also generally comparable, indicating that MMPI-2-RF scores have the same interpretive implications in demographically diverse subgroups of bariatric surgery candidates. The MMPI-2-RF can assist in presurgical psychological screening of demographically diverse bariatric surgery candidates. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Prevailing oral hygiene practices among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender and socio-economic background.

    PubMed

    Al-Otaibi, Meshari; Zimmerman, Mikael; Angmar-Månsson, Birgit

    2003-08-01

    The aim was to analyze prevailing oral hygiene practices among urban Saudi Arabians in relation to age, gender, and socio-economic background. Structured interviews were performed with 1155 regular patients at two centers providing dental care for university and military staff and their families, respectively, in the city of Makkah. Consecutive patients were stratified according to gender and age into 6 age categories from 10 to 60 years, with 50 male or female subjects in each group at each center. Oral hygiene habits were correlated with the subject's age and gender, and analyzed statistically using a generalized linear model. It was found that 73% used a toothbrush daily, while a miswak was used daily by 65%. Significant differences were found between genders and age groups, and between the centers. Regular miswak use was more prevalent among men (P < 0.01), while women used toothbrush more than miswak (P < 0.05). Regular miswak use was more frequent at older age (P < 0.001) and tooth brushing was less prevalent. Forty-four percent of the 51- to 60-year-old patients at the military center never used a toothbrush. Regular toothbrush use was more prevalent in the youngest age groups (P < 0.001). Among the 10- to 15-year-olds, 45% at the university center used only a toothbrush, while no adolescents at the military center used only a toothbrush. We conclude that there are large differences in current oral hygiene habits among Saudi Arabians, and that these are related mainly to age and socio-economic level, and to a lesser extent gender. This should be taken into account when planning oral health strategies for different categories.

  19. Ethnicity and perception of dental shade esthetics.

    PubMed

    Niaz, Muhammad Omar; Naseem, Mustafa; Elcock, Claire

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether or not people from different ethnic backgrounds have different attitudes towards dental esthetics and chose different dental appearances in terms of tooth shade, and to determine whether the dental professional's choice and the individual's own choice have any relationship with what the individual ideally perceives as esthetically pleasing. For this cross-sectional analytical study, 120 volunteer students from the University of Sheffield (excepting dental students) from various ethnic backgrounds, of different ages, of both genders, and with varying degree/educational levels were recruited from the campus. The volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire containing 9 adapted attitudinal statements regarding positive or negative dental esthetic perceptions in terms of tooth shade, with responses on a 5-point Likert scale from "Entirely agree" to "Entirely disagree". Scores for all attitudinal statements were summed up to give an attitudinal score. The participants' ideal, perceived, and actual (self-assessed and investigatorassessed) tooth shade was also determined using a shade guide and a facial mirror. No association between ethnicity and attitudinal score was found. However, statistically significant associations were found between the participants' degree/educational level (P=0.004, 95% Confidence Interval (CI)=-4.18 to -0.82) and their ideal tooth shade value (P=0.038, 95% CI=-3.53 to -0.11). There were strong correlations between self-assessed and professionally assessed tooth shade value in all ethnic groups, with Spearman's rank correlation coefficient (rho) being ρ>0.6. Regarding ideally desired and perceived tooth shade value, weak correlations were found in all ethnic groups (Spearman's rho being ρ<0.4). Although no significant association was found in this sample between ethnicity and attitude towards dental esthetics with regard to tooth shade, both ethnicity and dental esthetics are very diverse terms with multiple

  20. Patterns in Recidivism and Discretionary Placement in Disciplinary Alternative Education: The Impact of Gender, Ethnicity, Age, and Special Education Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Kimberly; Mitchell, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the probability of (a) being placed in a disciplinary alternative education setting for mandatory versus discretionary reasons and (b) returning within the same year among an ethnically diverse sample (African American, Caucasian, Hispanic) of middle and high school students (N=270). Participants were compared based on…

  1. Impact of a Parenting Program in a High-Risk, Multi-Ethnic Community: The PALS Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Stephen; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Futh, Annabel; Matias, Carla; Price, Jenny; Doolan, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Background: Parenting programs have been shown to work when delivered to motivated ethnic majority parents in demonstration projects, but comparatively little is known about their impact when delivered to high-risk, multi-ethnic populations by routine local services. Methods: The Primary Age Learning Skills (PALS) trial was a randomized controlled…

  2. Will the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Improve Racial/Ethnic Disparity of Eye Examination Among US Working-Age Population with Diabetes?

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Fonseca, Vivian; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Zhao, Yingnan; Nellans, Frank P; Luo, Qingyang; Shi, Lizheng

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the racial/ethnic disparity of eye examination rates among US adults with diabetes before and after the ACA. Working-age adults (18-64 years) with diabetes for years 2014-2017 were simulated by bootstrapping from the working-age diabetes patient sample of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component 2011. Insurance coverage rates were separately predicted for each racial/ethnic group based on the Congressional Budgeting Office (CBO) report in 2014 and the proportions of Medicaid eligibility. Eye examination rates were weighted to national estimates and compared between racial/ethnic groups. Confidence intervals were estimated using the bootstrap percentile method. Health insurance coverage after the ACA is projected to increase from 90.23 % in 2011 to 98.33 % in 2014 among non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), reaching 98.96 % in 2017. Minorities are forecasted to have about 15 % expansion of insurance coverage from 2011 (80.65 %) to 2014 (96.00 %), reaching 97.25 % in 2017. In 2011, 63.01 % of NHW had eye examinations with forecasted increase to 65.83 % in 2014 and 66.05 % in 2017, while the eye examination rate in the minorities will increase from 55.75 % in 2011 to 59.23 % in 2014 and remain at 59.48 % in 2017. Therefore, racial disparity in eye examination rates is forecasted to persist (ranging from 6.57 % in 2017 to 6.69 % in 2016). The ACA is projected to improve the eye examination rate along with the expansion in insurance coverage. Although predicted racial/ethnic disparities will improve, some differences will persist. Comprehensive strategies need to be developed to eliminate the disparity.

  3. A novel ecological methodology for constructing ethnic-majority life tables in the absence of individual ethnicity information.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melanie; Woods, Laura M; Rachet, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Deprivation-specific life tables have been in use for some time, but health outcomes are also known to vary by ethnicity over and above deprivation. The mortality experiences of ethnic groups are little studied in the UK, however, because ethnicity is not captured on death certificates. Population data for all Output Areas (OAs) in England and Wales were stratified by age-group, sex and ethnic proportion, and matched to the deaths counts in that OA from 2000 to 2002. We modelled the relationship between mortality, age, deprivation and ethnic proportion. We predicted mortality rates for an area that contained the maximum proportion of each ethnic group reported in any area in England and Wales, using a generalised linear model with a Poisson distribution adjusted for deprivation. After adjustment, Asian and White life expectancies between 1 and 80 years were very similar. Black men and women had lower life expectancies: men by 4 years and women by around 1.5 years. The Asian population had the lowest mortality of all groups over age 45 in women and over 50 in men, whereas the Black population had the highest rates throughout, except in girls under 15. We adopted a novel ecological method of constructing ethnic-majority life tables, adjusted for deprivation. There is still diversity within these three broad ethnic groups, but our data show important residual differences in mortality for Black men and women. These ethnic life tables can be used to inform public health planning and correctly account for background mortality in ethnic subgroups of the population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Age at Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Diagnosis by Race, Ethnicity, and Primary Household Language Among Children with Special Health Care Needs, United States, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Jo, Heejoo; Schieve, Laura A; Rice, Catherine E; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Tian, Lin H; Blumberg, Stephen J; Kogan, Michael D; Boyle, Coleen A

    2015-08-01

    We examined prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age at diagnosis according to child's race/ethnicity and primary household language. From the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, we identified 2729 3-17-year-old US children whose parent reported a current ASD diagnosis. We compared ASD prevalence, mean diagnosis age, and percentage with later diagnoses (≥5 years) across racial/ethnic/primary household language groups: non-Hispanic-white, any language (NHW); non-Hispanic-black, any language (NHB); Hispanic-any-race, English (Hispanic-English); and Hispanic-any-race, other language (Hispanic-Other). We assessed findings by parent-reported ASD severity level and adjusted for family sociodemographics. ASD prevalence estimates were 15.3 (NHW), 10.4 (NHB), 14.1 (Hispanic-English), and 5.2 (Hispanic-Other) per 1000 children. Mean diagnosis age was comparable across racial/ethnic/language groups for 3-4-year-olds. For 5-17-year-olds, diagnosis age varied by race/ethnicity/language and also by ASD severity. In this group, NHW children with mild/moderate ASD had a significantly higher proportion (50.8 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (33.5 %) or Hispanic-Other children (18.0 %). However, NHW children with severe ASD had a comparable or lower (albeit non-significant) proportion (16.4 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (37.8 %), Hispanic-English (30.8 %), and Hispanic-Other children (12.0 %). While NHW children have comparable ASD prevalence and diagnosis age distributions as Hispanic-English children, they have both higher prevalence and proportion of later diagnoses than NHB and Hispanic-Other children. The diagnosis age findings were limited to mild/moderate cases only. Thus, the prevalence disparity might be primarily driven by under-representation (potentially under-identification) of older children with mild/moderate ASD in the two minority groups.

  5. Perceptions and employment intentions among aged care nurses and nursing assistants from diverse cultural backgrounds: A qualitative interview study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Fengsong; Tilse, Cheryl; Wilson, Jill; Tuckett, Anthony; Newcombe, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The residential aged care industry faces shortages and high turnover rates of direct care workers. This situation is further complicated by the increasing cultural diversity of residents and staff. To retain direct care workers, it is crucial to explore their perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of care work, and their employment intentions in multicultural environments. A qualitative descriptive study was used to understand perceptions of the rewards and difficulties of residential aged care work for core direct care workers (i.e. nurses and nursing assistants), how these were related to their intentions to stay or leave, and how these varied between nurses and nursing assistants, and between locally and overseas born workers. Individual interviews were conducted between June and September 2013 with 16 direct care workers in an Australian residential aged care facility with a specific focus on people from culturally and linguistically diverse backgrounds. It was found that direct care workers' employment intentions were related to their perceptions and management of the rewards and difficulties of care work. Their experiences of care work, the employment characteristics, and the organizational resources that fitted their personality, ability, expectations, and essential needs were viewed as rewards. Evaluating their jobs as meaningful was a shared perception for direct care workers who intended to stay. Individual workers' perceptions of the rewarding aspects of care work served to counterbalance the challenges of care work, and promoted their intentions to stay. Perceptions and employment intentions varied by occupational groups and by cultural backgrounds. Overseas born direct care workers are valuable resources in residential aged care facility rather than a limitation, but they do require organizational support, such as cultural awareness of the management, English language support, a sense of family, and appropriate job responsibility. The findings

  6. Ethnic inequalities in acute myocardial infarction hospitalization rates among young and middle-aged adults in Northern Italy: high risk for South Asians.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ugo; Cestari, Laura; Ferroni, Eliana; Avossa, Francesco; Saugo, Mario; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo

    2017-02-07

    The knowledge of ethnic-specific health needs is now essential to design effective health services and population-based prevention strategies. However, data on migrant populations living in Southern Europe are limited. The study is designed to investigate ethnic inequalities in hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Veneto region (Italy). Hospital admissions for AMI in Veneto for the whole resident population aged 20-59 years during 2008-2013 were studied. Age and gender-specific AMI hospitalization rates for immigrant groups (classified by country of origin according to the United Nations geoscheme) and Italians were calculated. The indirect standardization method was used to estimate standardized hospitalization ratios (SHR) for each immigrant group, with rates of Italian residents as a reference. Overall, 8200 AMI events were retrieved, 648 among immigrants. The highest risk of AMI is seen in South Asians males (SHR 4.2, 95% CI 3.6-4.9) and females (SHR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.5). AMI rates in South Asian males sharply increase in the 30-39 years age class. Other immigrant subgroups (Eastern Europe, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, other Asian countries, Central-South America, high-income countries) displayed age- and gender-adjusted hospitalization rates similar to the native population. Present findings stress the urgent need for implementation of ethnic-specific health policies in Italy. The awareness about the high cardiovascular risk in subjects from South Asia must be increased among general practitioners and immigrant communities.

  7. Prevalence of vaccination rates in systolic heart failure: a prospective study of 549 patients by age, race, ethnicity, and sex in a heart failure disease management program.

    PubMed

    Hebert, Kathy; Marzouka, George; Arcement, Lee; Julian, Elyse; Cortazar, Frank; Dias, Andre; Tamariz, Leonardo

    2010-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 aims at immunizing 60% of high-risk adults annually against influenza and once against pneumococcal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of a standardized approach to improve vaccination rates in patients with heart failure (HF); to determine whether disparities exist based on age, race, ethnicity, or sex at baseline and follow-up; and to evaluate the impact of clinical variables on the odds of being vaccinated. A prospective study of 549 indigent patients enrolled in a systolic HF disease management program (HFDMP) began enrollment from August 2007 to January 2009 at Jackson Memorial Hospital. Patients were interviewed at their initial visit for immunization status; those without vaccinations were offered the vaccines. Prevalence of vaccination (POV) for influenza and pneumococcal disease was obtained at baseline and at follow-up. The odds ratio for being vaccinated was calculated using logistic regression. The study population comprised mostly Hispanic (56%), black (37%), and male (70%) patients, with a mean age of 56 ± 12 years and a mean ejection fraction of 25% ± 10%. The initial POV for both was 22% at baseline. At follow-up, POV improved to 60.5%. Of those not vaccinated at baseline, 17.5% refused vaccination. Odds ratios at baseline for age, race/ethnicity, and sex were 0.99 (P=.99), 0.63 (P=.08), and 0.62 (P=.14), respectively. These did not change significantly at follow-up. Prevalence of vaccination in our cohort was low. Enrollment into the HFDMP improved immunization prevalence without creating age, race, ethnicity, or sex disparities. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. U.S. Perspectives: International Action on Aging. A Background Paper Prepared by the American Association for International Aging for the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    In response to challenges and guidelines set forth in the 1982 International Plan of Action on Aging (IPAA) by the World Assembly on Aging, this background paper summarizes (1) immediate and long-range reasons for the World Assembly; (2) content and significance of the IPAA and the factual base on which action plan decisions were made; (3)…

  9. Post-stroke Fractures in a Bi-ethnic Community

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Wing, Jeffrey J; Sanchez, Brisa N; Zahuranec, Darin B; Skolarus, Lesli E; Burke, James F; Kleerekoper, Michael; Smith, Melinda A; Brown, Devin L

    2010-01-01

    Background Mexican Americans have increased stroke risk and lower fracture risk compared with non-Hispanic whites, but little is known about post-stroke fracture risk in Mexican Americans. The objective was to describe post-stroke fracture risk in a bi-ethnic population and to compare risk by ethnicity. Methods In the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project, strokes were identified through hospital surveillance (2000–2004) and validated by neurologists (n=2,389). Inpatient claims for fractures were ascertained (2000–2004) and cross-referenced with strokes. Survival free from fracture (any and hip) post-stroke was estimated and compared by ethnicity. Cox regression was used to test the association of ethnicity and fracture risk adjusted for confounders. Interaction terms for ethnicity and age were considered. Results Mean age was 71 years (sd=13); 54% were Mexican American; 52% were women. Mean follow-up was 4 years. There were 105 fractures (hip 33%). Survival free of any fracture and of hip fracture did not differ by ethnicity in unadjusted analyses. Increasing age, female gender, intracerebral hemorrhage and greater stroke severity were associated with risk of any fracture, but ethnicity was not. Ethnicity was associated with risk of hip fracture but this association was modified by age (p=0.02), where Mexican Americans were protected from hip fractures at younger but not older ages. Conclusion Stroke patients were at high fracture risk, with a 10% risk at 5 years. Mexican Americans were protected from hip fractures at younger but not older ages. Both elderly Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites should be targeted for fracture prevention post-stroke. PMID:21334222

  10. The effect of age at immigration and generational status of the mother on infant mortality in ethnic minority populations in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Troe, Ernst-Jan W M; Kunst, Anton E; Bos, Vivian; Deerenberg, Ingeborg M; Joung, Inez M A; Mackenbach, Johan P

    2007-04-01

    Migrant populations consist of migrants with differences in generational status and length of residence. Several studies suggest that health outcomes differ by generational status and duration of residence. We examined the association of generational status and age at immigration of the mother with infant mortality in migrant populations in The Netherlands. Data from Statistics Netherlands were obtained from 1995 through 2000 for infants of mothers with Dutch, Turkish and Surinamese ethnicity. Mothers were categorized by generational status (Dutch-born and foreign-born) and by age at immigration (0-16 and >16 years). The associations of generational status and age at immigration of the mother with total and cause-specific infant mortality were examined. The infant mortality rate in Turkish mothers rose with lower age at immigration (from 5.5 to 6.4 per 1000) and was highest for Dutch-born Turkish mothers (6.8 per 1000). Infant death from perinatal and congenital causes increased with lower age at immigration and was highest in the Dutch-born Turkish women. In contrast, in Surinamese mothers infant mortality declined with lower age at immigration (from 8.0 to 6.3 per 1000) and was lowest for Dutch-born Surinamese mothers (5.5 per 1000). Generational status and lower age at immigration of Surinamese women were associated with declining mortality of congenital causes. Total and cause-specific infant mortality seem to differ according to generational status and age at immigration of the mother. The direction of these trends however differs between ethnic populations. This may be related to acculturation and selective migration.

  11. Differences in Access to and Preferences for Using Patient Portals and Other eHealth Technologies Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Age: A Database and Survey Study of Seniors in a Large Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Hornbrook, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients are being encouraged to go online to obtain health information and interact with their health care systems. However, a 2014 survey found that less than 60% of American adults aged 65 and older use the Internet, with much lower usage among black and Latino seniors compared with non-Hispanic white seniors, and among older versus younger seniors. Objective Our aims were to (1) identify race/ethnic and age cohort disparities among seniors in use of the health plan’s patient portal, (2) determine whether race/ethnic and age cohort disparities exist in access to digital devices and preferences for using email- and Web-based modalities to interact with the health care system, (3) assess whether observed disparities in preferences and patient portal use are due simply to barriers to access and inability to use the Internet, and (4) learn whether older adults not currently using the health plan’s patient portal or website have a potential interest in doing so in the future and what kind of support might be best suited to help them. Methods We conducted two studies of seniors aged 65-79 years. First, we used administrative data about patient portal account status and utilization in 2013 for a large cohort of English-speaking non-Hispanic white (n=183,565), black (n=16,898), Latino (n=12,409), Filipino (n=11,896), and Chinese (n=6314) members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan. Second, we used data from a mailed survey conducted in 2013-2014 with a stratified random sample of this population (final sample: 849 non-Hispanic white, 567 black, 653 Latino, 219 Filipino, and 314 Chinese). These data were used to examine race/ethnic and age disparities in patient portal use and readiness and preferences for using digital communication for health-related purposes. Results Adults aged 70-74 and 75-79 were significantly less likely than 65-69 year olds to be registered to use the patient portal, and among those registered, to have used the

  12. Patterns of antibacterial use and impact of age, race/ethnicity, and geographic region on antibacterial use in an outpatient medicaid cohort.

    PubMed

    Gahbauer, Alice M; Gonzales, Marco L; Guglielmo, B Joseph

    2014-07-01

    To describe patterns of outpatient antibacterial use among California Medicaid (Medi-Cal) fee-for-service system beneficiaries, and to investigate the influence of demographic factors-age, race/ethnicity, state county, and population density-on those patterns. Retrospective analysis of administrative claims data. Medi-Cal fee-for-service system claims database. All outpatient Medi-Cal fee-for-service system beneficiaries enrolled between 2006 and 2011 who had at least one systemic antibacterial claim. Rates of antibacterial prescribing and the proportion of broad-spectrum antibacterial use were measured over the study period and among age, racial/ethnic, and geographic (county) groups. Of the 10,018,066 systemic antibacterial claims selected for analysis, antibacterial prescribing rates decreased from 542 claims/1000 beneficiaries in 2006 to 461 claims/1000 beneficiaries in 2011 (r = -0.971, p=0.0012; τ-b = -1.00, p=0.009). Among age groups, children had the highest rate of use (605 claims/1000 beneficiaries, χ(2) (2) = 320,000, p<0.001); among racial/ethnic groups, Alaskan Natives and Native Americans had the highest rate of use (1086/1000 beneficiaries, χ(2) (5) = 197,000, p<0.001). Broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing increased from 28.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.1-28.2%) to 32.7% (95% CI 32.6-32.8%) over the study period. Senior age groups and whites received the highest proportions of broad-spectrum agents (53.4% [95% CI 52.5-54.3%] and 36.6% [95% CI 36.6-36.7%], respectively). Population density was inversely related to both overall antibacterial use (ρ = -0.432, p=0.0018) and broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing (ρ = -0.359, p<0.001). The rate of prescribing decreased over the study period for all antibacterial classes with the exception of macrolides and sulfonamides. Amoxicillin was the most frequently prescribed agent. Overall and broad-spectrum antibacterial use in the Medi-Cal fee-for-service program are less than that

  13. Accuracy of parent-reported information for estimating prevalence of overweight and obesity in a race-ethnically diverse pediatric clinic population aged 3 to 12.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Nancy P; Mellor, R Grant

    2015-02-12

    There is conflicting evidence about the accuracy of estimates of childhood obesity based on parent-reported data. We assessed accuracy of child height, weight, and overweight/obesity classification in a pediatric clinic population based on parent data to learn whether accuracy differs by child age and race/ethnicity. Parents of patients ages 3-12 (n = 1,119) completed a waiting room questionnaire that asked about their child's height and weight. Child's height and weight was then measured and entered into the electronic health record (EHR) by clinic staff. The child's EHR and questionnaire data were subsequently linked. Accuracy of parent-reported height, weight, overweight/obesity classification, and parent perception of child's weight status were assessed using EHR data as the gold standard. Statistics were calculated for the full sample, two age groups (3-5, 6-12), and four racial/ethnic groups (nonHispanic White, Black, Latino, Asian). A parent-reported height was available for 59.1% of the children, weight for 75.6%, and weight classification for 53.0%. Data availability differed by race/ethnicity but not age group. Parent-reported height was accurate for 49.2% of children and weight for 58.2%. Latino children were less likely than nonHispanic Whites to have accurate height and weight data, and weight data were less accurate for 6-12 year than 3-5 year olds. Concordance of parent- and EHR-based classifications of the child as overweight/obese and obese was approximately 80% for all subgroups, with kappa statistics indicating moderate agreement. Parent-reported data significantly overestimated prevalence of overweight/obesity (50.2% vs. 35.2%) and obesity (32.1% vs. 19.4%) in the full sample and across all age and racial/ethnic subgroups. However, the percentages of parents who perceived their child to be overweight or very overweight greatly underestimated actual prevalence of overweight/obesity and obesity. Missing data did not bias parent-based overweight

  14. Breast cancer incidence and case fatality among 4.7 million women in relation to social and ethnic background: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Incidence of breast cancer is increasing around the world and it is still the leading cause of cancer mortality in low- and middle-income countries. We utilized Swedish nationwide registers to study breast cancer incidence and case fatality to disentangle the effect of socioeconomic position (SEP) and immigration from the trends in native Swedes. Methods A nation-wide cohort of women in Sweden was followed between 1961 and 2007 and incidence rate ratio (IRR) and hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Poisson and Cox proportional regression models, respectively. Results Incidence continued to increase; however, it remained lower among immigrants (IRR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.86 to 0.90) but not among immigrants' daughters (IRR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.94 to 1.01) compared to native Swedes. Case fatality decreased over the last decades and was similar in native Swedes and immigrants. However, case fatality was significantly 14% higher if cancer was diagnosed after age 50 and 20% higher if cancer was diagnosed in the most recent years among immigrants compared with native Swedes. Women with the highest SEP had significantly 20% to 30% higher incidence but had 30% to 40% lower case fatality compared with women with the lowest SEP irrespective of country of birth. Age at immigration and duration of residence significantly modified the incidence and case fatality. Conclusions Disparities found in case fatality among immigrants by age, duration of residence, age at immigration and country of birth emphasize the importance of targeting interventions on women that are not likely to attend screenings or are not likely to adhere to the therapy suggested by physicians. The lower risk of breast cancer among immigrant women calls for more knowledge about how the lifestyle factors in these women differ from those with high risk, so that preventative measures may be implemented. PMID:22225950

  15. Behavioural problems in Sri Lankan schoolchildren: associations with socio-economic status, age, gender, academic progress, ethnicity and religion.

    PubMed

    Prior, Margot; Virasinghe, Shanya; Smart, Diana

    2005-08-01

    Little is known about behavioural and emotional adjustment in children in Sri Lanka, and this study is the first attempt to assess mental health problems in this population. Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman R (1994) A modified version of the Rutter parent questionnaire including items on children's strengths: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 35:1483-1494) with parent, teacher and child informants, in a large sample of 10- to 13-year-old school children from Colombo, we found rates and types of problems consistent with other international studies of child mental health. Problem rates were higher in boys and were associated with lower SES and poorer academic performance. Relationships between behavioural adjustment and Tamil ethnicity and Hindu religion emerged in this sample and could possibly be associated with the experience of longstanding ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. The study confirms the need for development of child and adolescent health services in Sri Lanka.

  16. Heterogeneity in Blood Pressure Transitions Over the Life Course: Age-Specific Emergence of Racial/Ethnic and Sex Disparities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Shakia T; Holliday, Katelyn M; Chakladar, Sujatro; Engeda, Joseph C; Allen, Norrina B; Heiss, Gerardo; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Schreiner, Pamela J; Shay, Christina M; Lin, Danyu; Zeng, Donglin; Avery, Christy L

    2017-06-01

    Many studies have assessed racial/ethnic and sex disparities in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure (BP) from childhood to adulthood, yet few have examined differences in age-specific transitions between categories of BP over the life course in contemporary, multiracial/multiethnic populations. To estimate age, racial/ethnic, and sex-specific annual net transition probabilities between categories of BP using Markov modeling of cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. National probability sample (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2007-2008, 2009-2010, and 2011-2012) of 17 747 African American, white American, and Mexican American participants aged 8 to 80 years. The data were analyzed from September 2014 to November 2015. Age-specific American Heart Association-defined BP categories. Three National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey cross-sectional samples were used to characterize the ages at which self-reported African American (n = 4973), white American (n = 8886), and Mexican American (n = 3888) populations transitioned between ideal BP, prehypertension, and hypertension across the life course. At age 8 years, disparities in the prevalence of ideal BP were observed, with the prevalence being lower among boys (86.6%-88.8%) compared with girls (93.0%-96.3%). From ages 8 to 30 years, annual net transition probabilities from ideal to prehypertension among male individuals were more than 2 times the net transition probabilities of their female counterparts. The largest net transition probabilities for ages 8 to 30 years occurred in African American young men, among whom a net 2.9% (95% CI, 2.3%-3.4%) of those with ideal BP transitioned to prehypertension 1 year later. Mexican American young women aged 8 to 30 years experienced the lowest ideal to prehypertension net transition probabilities (0.6%; 95% CI, 0.3%-0.8%). After age 40 years, ideal to prehypertension net transition

  17. The Individual and Ethnic Identity: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Henry H.; And Others

    This guide to teaching ethnicity from the ethnic individual's point of view is designed to accompany the student sourcebook, The Individual and Ethnic Identity (see SO 013 157). The sourcebook, suitable for secondary and higher education, contains quotations of 51 individuals from varying ethnic backgrounds and varying degrees of ethnicity. It…

  18. The Individual and Ethnic Identity: A Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein, Henry H.; And Others

    This guide to teaching ethnicity from the ethnic individual's point of view is designed to accompany the student sourcebook, The Individual and Ethnic Identity (see SO 013 157). The sourcebook, suitable for secondary and higher education, contains quotations of 51 individuals from varying ethnic backgrounds and varying degrees of ethnicity. It…

  19. Individual Differences in Preferences for Matched-Ethnic Mentors among High-Achieving Ethnically Diverse Adolescents in STEM

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Goza, Barbara K.; Chemers, Martin M.; Zurbriggen, Eileen L.

    2012-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined (a) adolescents' contact with mentors who share their background in relation to the importance they place on having such mentors, and (b) the associations of these perceptions with self-efficacy, identity, and commitment to a science career. Participants were 265 ethnically diverse adolescents (M age =…

  20. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.

  1. Health concerns and expectations of Anglo and ethnic older Australians: a comparative approach.

    PubMed

    Quine, S

    1999-06-01

    Australia is a multicultural society in which the most rapidly ageing groups are immigrants, many of whom cannot speak English well. Minimal research has been conducted to identify ethnic variation in health concerns and expectations of older Australians from non-English-speaking backgrounds, necessary to facilitate culturally appropriate services. This paper presents findings from 12 focus group sessions (4 Anglo, 3 Italian, 2 Chinese, 2 Arabic, 1 Greek) with older (60+) Australians. Common areas of concern were inadequate medication information, labelling and instructions. Anglo participants differed from ethnic participants in their use of herbal remedies, language, relationship with pharmacist and doctor and awareness of health rights. Other concerns and expectations were specific to a particular ethnic group. The findings should increase health professionals' awareness of the similarities and differences which exist between mainstream Anglo and ethnic Australians, and also between ethnic groups, thereby avoiding the use of a blanket approach when communicating with, or planning policies for, ethnic older Australians.

  2. Ethnic differences in acute hospitalisations for otitis media and elective hospitalisations for ventilation tubes in New Zealand children aged 0-14 years.

    PubMed

    McCallum, Justine; Craig, Liz; Whittaker, Ian; Baxter, Joanne

    2015-06-12

    This paper describes ethnic differences in acute hospitalisations for otitis media (OM) and elective hospitalisations for ventilation tube insertion in New Zealand children aged 0-14 years. Ethnic differences in first attendances at Ear Nose and Throat (ENT) outpatient clinics are also described. The analysis included all hospital admissions of children aged 0-14 years during 2002-2008 which met the following criteria: Acute admissions with an ICD-10-AM primary diagnosis code of otitis media; and elective admissions with a primary procedure code of ventilation tube insertion. First attendances at ENT outpatient clinics during 2007-2008 were also reviewed. Explanatory variables included ethnicity, gender, age, and NZ Deprivation Index decile. Among 0-4 year olds, Māori and Pacific children were more likely to be admitted acutely for otitis media than European children. In contrast, both Māori and Pacific children had lower rates of elective admissions for ventilation tube insertion, with ethnic differences being most marked for children from the most deprived areas. Māori and Pacific children aged 5-14 years also had higher acute otitis media admission rates than European children. In contrast to their younger counterparts however, they also had higher rates of ventilation tube insertion. Exploration of ENT outpatient data for children 0-4 years revealed similar first appointment rates for European and Māori children, but lower rates for Pacific and Asian children. For the 5-14 age group, first appointment rates were higher for Māori and Pacific children than for European children. However, Māori and Pacific children in both age groups had higher rates of non-attendance at their first ENT appointments than European children. This study highlights ethnic differences in access to ventilation tubes amongst New Zealand's 0-4 year olds, with the greatest inequalities being seen for Māori, Pacific and Asian children living in the most deprived areas. For Māori and

  3. Ethnic Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Alesina, Alberto; Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the consequences and origins of between-ethnicity economic inequality across countries. First, combining satellite images of nighttime luminosity with the historical homelands of ethnolinguistic groups we construct measures of ethnic inequality for a large sample of countries. We also compile proxies of overall spatial inequality and regional inequality across administrative units. Second, we uncover a strong negative association between ethnic inequality and contemporary comparative development; the correlation is also present when we condition on regional inequality, which is itself related to under-development. Third, we investigate the roots of ethnic inequality and establish that differences in geographic endowments across ethnic homelands explain a sizable fraction of the observed variation in economic disparities across groups. Fourth, we show that ethnic-specific inequality in geographic endowments is also linked to under-development. PMID:27330223

  4. Educational Outcomes and Functioning of Bi-Ethnic Dutch Children in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karssen, Merlijn; van der Veen, Ineke; Volman, Monique

    2015-01-01

    Background: Changing demographics in societies through international migration have led to an increasing number of bi-ethnic individuals. The focus of this study is on bi-ethnic students with one parent with an ethnic majority background and one parent with an ethnic minority background. Most studies worldwide have grouped these bi-ethnic students…

  5. Adapting the buccal micronucleus cytome assay for use in wild birds: age and sex affect background frequency in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, G L; Somers, C M

    2012-03-01

    Micronucleus (MN) formation has been used extensively as a biomarker of damage from genotoxic exposures. The Buccal MN Cytome (BMCyt) assay provides a noninvasive means of quantifying MN frequency in humans, but it has not been developed for use in wildlife. We adapted the BMCyt assay for use in wild birds, with a focus on feral pigeons (Columba livia) as a potential indicator species. Five of six urban bird species sampled using oral cavity swabs produced sufficient buccal cells for the BMCyt assay. The body size of species sampled ranged almost 100-fold (~60 to 5,000 g), but was a not major factor influencing the number of buccal cells collected. Pigeon cells were stained and scored following published BMCyt assay protocols for humans, but with a modified fixation approach using heat and methanol. Pigeons had the same common nuclear abnormalities reported in human studies, and a similar background MN formation frequency of 0.88 MN/1,000 cells. Adult pigeons had on average a threefold higher rate of MN formation than juveniles, and males had a 1.4- to 2.2-fold higher frequency than females. Domestic and feral pigeons did not differ in overall MN frequency. Our results indicate that the BMCyt assay can be used on wild birds, and could provide a means of assessing environmental genotoxicity in pigeons, a useful indicator species. However, bird age and sex are important factors affecting background MN frequency, and thereby the design of environmental studies.

  6. The prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and overactive bladder (OAB) by racial/ethnic group and age: results from OAB-POLL.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Karin S; Sexton, Chris C; Bell, Jill A; Thompson, Christine L; Dmochowski, Roger; Bavendam, Tamara; Chen, Chieh-I; Quentin Clemens, J

    2013-03-01

    To estimate the prevalence of LUTS and OAB in a large, ethnically diverse US study. This cross-sectional, population-representative survey was conducted via the Internet in the US among 10,000 men and women aged 18-70 (2,000 African-Americans [AA], 2,000 Hispanics, 6,000 whites). The LUTS tool assessed how often participants experienced LUTS during the past 4 weeks on a five-point Likert scale. OAB was defined by the presence of urinary urgency ≥ "sometimes" or ≥ "often," and/or the presence of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI). Descriptive statistics were used to evaluate group differences. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine the impact of racial/ethnic group on OAB. Response rate, 56.7%. Prevalent LUTS included terminal dribble and nocturia across gender, post-micturition leaking (men), and stress incontinence (women). Prevalence of OAB ≥ "sometimes" and ≥ "often" were 17% and 8% in men and 30% and 20% in women--with significantly higher rates among AA men and women. A similar trend was found for UUI among men (AA, 10%; Hispanic and whites, 6%), while AA and white women had higher prevalence of UUI (19%) as compared to Hispanic women (16%). In logistic regression analyses, AA and Hispanic men and women were significantly more likely than whites to have OAB despite having lower prevalence of self-reported comorbid conditions and risk factors. LUTS and OAB are highly prevalent in both men and women and increase with advancing age. Further, racial/ethnic group is a robust predictor of OAB in men and women. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women: The WIHS Neurocognitive Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Manly, Jennifer J.; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A.; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well-suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible, and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1653) were administered the Trailmaking Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportion of variance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%) and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed. PMID:21950512

  8. Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women: the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Neurocognitive Substudy.

    PubMed

    Manly, Jennifer J; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth T; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther; Martin, Eileen M; Young, Mary

    2011-10-01

    Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%), and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed.

  9. Prevalence, awareness, medication, control, and risk factors associated with hypertension in Yi ethnic group aged 50 years and over in rural China: the Yunnan minority eye study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lixing; Zong, Yuan; Wei, Tao; Sheng, Xun; Shen, Wei; Li, Jun; Niu, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Yuan, Yuansheng; Chen, Qin; Zhong, Hua

    2015-04-15

    Hypertension is an important public health issue in China, but there are few studies examining hypertension in ethnic groups in Yunnan, China. This study, Yunnan Minority Eye Study (YMES), was initially designed to determine the prevalence and impact of eye diseases, including hypertension and diabetes mellitus. As a part of YMES, the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension and the associated risk factors among the Yi ethnic population in rural China are reported. A population-based survey was conducted in 2012 with adult participants over 50 from rural communities in Shilin Yi Autonomous County, Yunnan Province, located in southwest China. A random cluster sampling method was used to select a representative sample. The participants' blood pressure, height, weight, and waist circumference were measured. Hypertension was defined as mean systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, and/or current use of antihypertensive medications. A total of 2208 adults were assessed. The prevalence of hypertension was 38.5%, and the age- and gender-adjusted prevalence was 37.0%. The proportion of patients who were aware of their hypertension among those diagnosed with hypertension was 24.8%. Of those aware of having hypertension, 23.6% took antihypertensive drugs. Among all hypertensive patients, only 7.2% had controlled their hypertension (<140/90 mmHg). Risk factors for hypertension were older age, smoking, alcohol consumption, family history of high blood pressure, overweight, and obesity. Protective factors included being slim and higher education. Hypertension was highly prevalent among this population of the Yi ethnic group in China. The ratio of awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension were considerately low. Hypertension education and screening programs in rural China are recommended to improve the health status of this population.

  10. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Preferred Activities among Māori and non-Māori of Advanced age in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Wright-St Clair, Valerie A; Rapson, Angela; Kepa, Mere; Connolly, Martin; Keeling, Sally; Rolleston, Anna; Teh, Ruth; Broad, Joanna B; Dyall, Lorna; Jatrana, Santosh; Wiles, Janine; Pillai, Avinesh; Garrett, Nick; Kerse, Ngaire

    2017-06-09

    This study explored active aging for older Māori and non-Māori by examining their self-nominated important everyday activities. The project formed part of the first wave of a longitudinal cohort study of aging well in New Zealand. Māori aged 80 to 90 and non-Māori aged 85 were recruited. Of the 937 participants enrolled, 649 answered an open question about their three most important activities. Responses were coded under the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), Activities and Participation domains. Data were analyzed by ethnicity and gender for first in importance, and all important activities. Activity preferences for Māori featured gardening, reading, walking, cleaning the home, organized religious activities, sports, extended family relationships, and watching television. Gendered differences were evident with walking and fitness being of primary importance for Māori men, and gardening for Māori women. Somewhat similar, activity preferences for non-Māori featured gardening, reading, and sports. Again, gendered differences showed for non-Māori, with sports being of first importance to men, and reading to women. Factor analysis was used to examine the latent structural fit with the ICF and whether it differed for Māori and non-Māori. For Māori, leisure and household activities, spiritual activities and interpersonal interactions, and communicating with others and doing domestic activities were revealed as underlying structure; compared to self-care, sleep and singing, leisure and work, and domestic activities and learning for non-Māori. These findings reveal fundamental ethnic divergences in preferences for active aging with implications for enabling participation, support provision and community design.

  11. The association between sexual orientation identity and behavior across race/ethnicity, sex, and age in a probability sample of high school students.

    PubMed

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G

    2014-02-01

    We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities.

  12. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  13. Gender-specific prevalence and associated risk factors of high normal blood pressure and hypertension among multi-ethnic Chinese adolescents aged 8-18 years old.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Zhu, Guangjin; Liu, Junting; Han, Shaomei

    2015-06-01

    To date, accurate reports about the prevalence of high normal blood pressure (BP) and hypertension among Chinese adolescents have been rare. We examine the sex-specific and age-specific prevalence of high normal BP and hypertension, and the associated risk factors among multi-ethnic Chinese adolescents from a large and representative sample. 29,997 adolescents aged 8-18 years old received blood pressure measurement on one clinical visit. The overall prevalence was 4.15% for hypertension (4.73% for boys and 3.62% for girls) and 29.85% for high normal BP (33.40% for boys and 26.65% for girls). The odds ratios (ORs) increased with age, but the absolute changes of ORs were significantly different between boys and girls. Compared with that of the Han counterparts, the risk of high normal BP was 1.960-fold, 1.283-fold and 1.618-fold for Yi boys, Mongolian boys and Yi girls, respectively, whereas the OR was 0.440 for Tibetan boys, 0.492 for Tibetan girls and 0.794 for Korean girls. Compared with those of normal weight, overweight and obese adolescents had significantly increased risk of high normal BP (OR = 3.377 for obese boys and OR = 2.009 for overweight boys; OR = 2.865 for obese girls and OR = 1.738 for overweight girls). Rural adolescents had a higher risk of hypertension than those living in urban areas. The prevalence of high normal BP and hypertension was high in Chinese adolescents. Age, ethnicity, obesity, overweight, abnormal waist circumference, family history of cardiovascular diseases and dwelling at rural districts were significantly associated with pediatric high normal BP or hypertension.

  14. Impact of sex, age, and ethnicity/race on the survival of patients with rectal cancer in the United States from 1988 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Martin D.; Yang, Dongyun; Sunakawa, Yu; Zhang, Wu; Ning, Yan; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Okazaki, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yuji; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Schirripa, Marta; Lenz, Annika Medea; Bohanes, Pierre; Barzi, Afsaneh; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Hanna, Diana L.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2016-01-01

    Most studies report on colon and rectal cancers collectively, even though biologic and prognostic differences exist between these disease entities. Here, we investigated the effects of sex, age, and ethnicity/race on rectal cancer (RC) mortality by stage focusing on differences before and after 2004. Using the SEER database, we identified 105,511 patients diagnosed with RC from 1988-2012. Main outcomes were disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS). In patients with stage I-III RC, women achieved a longer DSS (HR 0.87, P < 0.001) than men, independent of age, from 1988-2012. In stage IV disease, the sex disparity favoring women was limited to the age 18-44 yr cohort (DSS HR 0.79, P < 0.001). The sex difference in DSS (Pinteraction = 0.009) was significantly reduced from 2004 to 2012 across all ages. Hispanics and Native Americans with locoregional RC had inferior DSS relative to Whites from 1988-2003, but these differences were not evident from 2004-2012 (Pinteraction = 0.001). Additionally, Asians with stage I-III RC had superior DSS from 2004 on compared to Whites. Mortality in African American patients improved modestly overall and remained significantly higher than other ethnicities/races across all stages. Sex disparities have narrowed in patients with metastatic RC, but persist in patients with stage I-III disease. These differences are most evident among young patients (18-44 years), where sex disparities have even widened in stage I-III disease. While outcomes have improved for Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans with stage I-III rectal cancer, black-white disparities remain in all disease stages. PMID:27449091

  15. Multi-Ethnic Differences in Responses to Laboratory Pain Stimuli among Children

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Qian; Zeltzer, Lonnie; Tsao, Jennie

    2013-01-01

    Objective A growing body of literature suggests ethnic differences in experimental pain. However, these studies largely focus on adults and the comparison between Caucasians and African-Americans. The primary aim of this study is to determine ethnic differences in laboratory induced pain in a multi-ethnic child sample. Methods Participants were 214 healthy children (mean age = 12.7, SD= 3.0 yrs). Ninety-eight Caucasian, 58 Hispanic, 34 African-American, and 24 Asian children were exposed to four trials of pressure and radiant heat pain stimuli. Pain responses were assessed with self-report measures (i.e., pain intensity and unpleasantness) and behavioral observation (i.e., pain tolerance). Results Asians demonstrated more pain sensitivity than Caucasians, who evidenced more pain sensitivity than African-Americans and Hispanics. The results hold even after controlling for age, sex, SES, and experimenter’s ethnicity. Asians also showed higher anticipatory anxiety compared with other ethnic groups. Anticipatory anxiety accounted for some ethnic differences in pain between Asians, Hispanics, and African Americans. Conclusions By examining response to laboratory pain stimuli in children representing multiple ethnicities, an understudied sample, the study reveals unique findings compared to the existing literature. These findings have implications for clinicians who manage acute pain in children from diverse ethnic backgrounds. Future investigations should examine mechanisms that account for ethnic differences in pain during various developmental stages. PMID:23668844

  16. Psychotic-like experiences and other antecedents of schizophrenia in children aged 9-12 years: a comparison of ethnic and migrant groups in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Laurens, K R; West, S A; Murray, R M; Hodgins, S

    2008-08-01

    The incidence of schizophrenia and the prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the general adult population are elevated in migrant and ethnic minority groups relative to host populations. These increases are particularly prominent among African-Caribbean migrants to the UK. This study examined the associations of ethnicity and migrant status with a triad of putative antecedents of schizophrenia in a UK community sample of children aged 9-12 years. The antecedent triad comprised: (i) psychotic-like experiences; (ii) a speech and/or motor developmental delay or abnormality; and (iii) a social, emotional or behavioural problem. MethodChildren (n=595) and their primary caregivers, recruited via schools and general practitioners in southeast London, completed questionnaires. Four indices of risk were examined for associations with ethnicity and migrant status: (i) certain experience of at least one psychotic-like experience; (ii) severity of psychotic-like experiences (total psychotic-like experience score); (iii) experience of the antecedent triad; and (iv) severity of antecedent triad experiences (triad score). African-Caribbean children, as compared to white British children, experienced greater risk on all four indices. There were trends for South Asian and Oriental children to present lowered risk on several indices, relative to white British children. Migration status was unrelated to any risk index. ConclusionPrevalence of the putative antecedents of schizophrenia is greater among children of African-Caribbean origin living in the UK than among white British children. This parallels the increased incidence of schizophrenia and elevated prevalence of psychotic symptoms among adults of African-Caribbean origin.

  17. Ethnic discrimination and health: the relationship between experienced ethnic discrimination and multiple health domains in Norway's rural Sami population

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-reported ethnic discrimination has been associated with a range of health outcomes. This study builds on previous efforts to investigate the prevalence of self-reported ethnic discrimination in the indigenous (Sami) population, and how such discrimination may be associated with key health indicators. Study design The study relies on data from the 2003/2004 (n=4,389) population-based study of adults (aged 36–79 years) in 24 rural municipalities of Central and North Norway (the SAMINOR study). Self-reported ethnic discrimination was measured using the question: “Have you ever experienced discrimination due to your ethnic background?” Health indicators included questions regarding cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic muscle pain, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported ethnic discrimination and health outcomes. Results The study finds that for Sami people living in minority areas, self-reported ethnic discrimination is associated with all the negative health indicators included in the study. Conclusion We conclude that ethnic discrimination affects a wide range of health outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring freedom from discrimination for the Sami people of Norway. PMID:25683064

  18. Ethnic discrimination and health: the relationship between experienced ethnic discrimination and multiple health domains in Norway's rural Sami population.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-reported ethnic discrimination has been associated with a range of health outcomes. This study builds on previous efforts to investigate the prevalence of self-reported ethnic discrimination in the indigenous (Sami) population, and how such discrimination may be associated with key health indicators. Study design The study relies on data from the 2003/2004 (n=4,389) population-based study of adults (aged 36-79 years) in 24 rural municipalities of Central and North Norway (the SAMINOR study). Self-reported ethnic discrimination was measured using the question: "Have you ever experienced discrimination due to your ethnic background?" Health indicators included questions regarding cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic muscle pain, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported ethnic discrimination and health outcomes. Results The study finds that for Sami people living in minority areas, self-reported ethnic discrimination is associated with all the negative health indicators included in the study. Conclusion We conclude that ethnic discrimination affects a wide range of health outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring freedom from discrimination for the Sami people of Norway.

  19. Ethnic discrimination and health: the relationship between experienced ethnic discrimination and multiple health domains in Norway's rural Sami population.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert

    2015-01-01

    Self-reported ethnic discrimination has been associated with a range of health outcomes. This study builds on previous efforts to investigate the prevalence of self-reported ethnic discrimination in the indigenous (Sami) population, and how such discrimination may be associated with key health indicators. The study relies on data from the 2003/2004 (n=4,389) population-based study of adults (aged 36-79 years) in 24 rural municipalities of Central and North Norway (the SAMINOR study). Self-reported ethnic discrimination was measured using the question: "Have you ever experienced discrimination due to your ethnic background?" Health indicators included questions regarding cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic muscle pain, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported ethnic discrimination and health outcomes. The study finds that for Sami people living in minority areas, self-reported ethnic discrimination is associated with all the negative health indicators included in the study. We conclude that ethnic discrimination affects a wide range of health outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring freedom from discrimination for the Sami people of Norway.

  20. Another Inconvenient Truth: Race and Ethnicity Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…

  1. Another Inconvenient Truth: Race and Ethnicity Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Willis D.; Nieto, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    When it comes to maximizing learning opportunities and outcomes for students from racially and ethnically diverse backgrounds, race and ethnicity matter: They affect how students respond to instruction and curriculum, and they influence teachers' assumptions about how students learn. Effective implementation of race- and ethnicity-responsive…

  2. An exploratory examination of the relationships among emotional intelligence, elementary school science teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, race/ethnicity, gender, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okech, Allan P.

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in

  3. Classroom Dimensions Predict Early Peer Interaction when Children Are Diverse in Ethnicity, Race, and Home Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Guerra, Alison Wishard; Fuligni, Allison; Zucker, Eleanor; Lee, Linda; Obregon, Nora B.; Spivak, Asha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model for predicting preschool-age children's behaviors with peers from dimensions of the classroom and teacher-child relationship quality when the children were from diverse race, ethnic, and home language backgrounds. Eight hundred children, (M=age 63 months, SD=8.1 months), part of the National Evaluation…

  4. Classroom Dimensions Predict Early Peer Interaction when Children Are Diverse in Ethnicity, Race, and Home Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howes, Carollee; Guerra, Alison Wishard; Fuligni, Allison; Zucker, Eleanor; Lee, Linda; Obregon, Nora B.; Spivak, Asha

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a model for predicting preschool-age children's behaviors with peers from dimensions of the classroom and teacher-child relationship quality when the children were from diverse race, ethnic, and home language backgrounds. Eight hundred children, (M=age 63 months, SD=8.1 months), part of the National Evaluation…

  5. Determinants of Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption among Low-Income Children: Are There Differences by Race/Ethnicity, Age, and Sex?

    PubMed

    Tasevska, Natasha; DeLia, Derek; Lorts, Cori; Yedidia, Michael; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2017-05-08

    Understanding determinants of high consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), a highly prevalent obesogenic behavior, will help build effective customized public health interventions. Our aim was to identify child and parent lifestyle and household demographic factors predictive of high SSB consumption frequency in children from low-income, ethnically diverse communities that may help inform public health interventions. We used a cross-sectional telephone household survey. Participants were 717 boys and 686 girls aged 3 to 18 years old from the New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study living in five low-income cities (Camden, New Brunswick, Newark, Trenton, and Vineland). The adult most knowledgeable about household food shopping completed a questionnaire over the telephone inquiring about their and their child's dietary and physical activity habits, and household-, parent-, and child-level demographics. Child's SSB consumption frequency was measured. Multivariate ordered logit models were designed to investigate a variety of variables hypothesized to affect the frequency of SSB consumption. Exploratory stratified analyses by race, sex, and age were also conducted. Eight percent of our study participants never consumed SSBs, 45% consumed SSBs at least once per day, and 23% consumed twice or more per day. SSB consumption was higher among children 12 to 18 years vs 3 to 5 years (P<0.0001), of non-Hispanic black vs non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity (P=0.010), who were moderate fast food consumers vs never consumers (P=0.003), and those whose parents were high vs low SSB consumers (P<0.0001). Living in a non-English-speaking household (P=0.030), having a parent with a college or higher education vs less than high school (P=0.003), and having breakfast 6 to 7 days/wk vs never to 2 days/wk or less were associated with lower SSB consumption (P=0.001). We identified a number of household-, parent-, and child-level predictors of SSB consumption, which varied by race, sex

  6. Age-Specific Race and Ethnicity Disparities in HIV Infection and Awareness Among Men Who Have Sex With Men--20 US Cities, 2008-2014.

    PubMed

    Wejnert, Cyprian; Hess, Kristen L; Rose, Charles E; Balaji, Alexandra; Smith, Justin C; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2016-03-01

    Over half of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections in the United States occur among men who have sex with men (MSM). Among MSM, 16% of estimated new infections in 2010 occurred among black MSM <25 years old. We analyzed National HIV Behavioral Surveillance data on MSM from 20 cities. Poisson models were used to test racial disparities, by age, in HIV prevalence, HIV awareness, and sex behaviors among MSM in 2014. Data from 2008, 2011, and 2014 were used to examine how racial/ethnic disparities changed across time. While black MSM did not report greater sexual risk than other MSM, they were most likely to be infected with HIV and least likely to know it. Among black MSM aged 18-24 years tested in 2014, 26% were HIV positive. Among white MSM aged 18-24 years tested in 2014, 3% were HIV positive. The disparity in HIV prevalence between black and white MSM increased from 2008 to 2014, especially among young MSM. Disparities in HIV prevalence between black and white MSM continue to increase. Black MSM may be infected with HIV at younger ages than other MSM and may benefit from prevention efforts that address the needs of younger men. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Geneticizing Ethnicity and Diet: Anti-doping Science and Its Social Impact in the Age of Post-genomics

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Jaehwan

    2017-01-01

    While gene doping and other technological means of sport enhancement have become a topic of ethical debate, a major outcome from genomic research in sports is often linked to the regulation of doping. In particular, researchers within the field of anti-doping science, a regulatory science that aims to develop scientific solutions for regulating doped athletes, have conducted genomic research on anabolic-androgenic steroids. Genomic knowledge on anabolic-androgenic steroids, a knowledge base that has been produced to improve doping regulation, has caused the ‘geneticization’ of cultural objects such as ethnic identities and dietary habits. Through examining how anti-doping genomic knowledge and its media representation unnecessarily reify cultural objects in terms of genomics, I argue that Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) research programs in human enhancement should include the social impacts of anti-doping science in their discussions. Furthermore, this article will propose that ELSI scholars begin their academic analysis on anti-doping science by engaging with the recent ELSI scholarship on genomics and race and consider the regulatory and political natures of anti-doping research. PMID:28536601

  8. Associations between air pollution and socioeconomic characteristics, ethnicity and age profile of neighbourhoods in England and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Fischer, Paul; Fortunato, Léa; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Marra, Marten; Kruize, Hanneke; Vienneau, Danielle; Beelen, Rob; Hansell, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Air pollution levels are generally believed to be higher in deprived areas but associations are complex especially between sensitive population subgroups. We explore air pollution inequalities at national, regional and city level in England and the Netherlands comparing particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and publicly available population characteristics (deprivation, ethnicity, proportion of children and elderly). We saw higher concentrations in the most deprived 20% of neighbourhoods in England (1.5 μg/m(3) higher PM10 and 4.4 μg/m(3) NO2). Concentrations in both countries were higher in neighbourhoods with >20% non-White (England: 3.0 μg/m(3) higher PM10 and 10.1 μg/m(3) NO2; the Netherlands: 1.1 μg/m(3) higher PM10 and 4.5 μg/m(3) NO2) after adjustment for urbanisation and other variables. Associations for some areas differed from the national results. Air pollution inequalities were mainly an urban problem suggesting measures to reduce environmental air pollution inequality should include a focus on city transport.

  9. Geneticizing Ethnicity and Diet: Anti-doping Science and Its Social Impact in the Age of Post-genomics.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Jaehwan

    2017-01-01

    While gene doping and other technological means of sport enhancement have become a topic of ethical debate, a major outcome from genomic research in sports is often linked to the regulation of doping. In particular, researchers within the field of anti-doping science, a regulatory science that aims to develop scientific solutions for regulating doped athletes, have conducted genomic research on anabolic-androgenic steroids. Genomic knowledge on anabolic-androgenic steroids, a knowledge base that has been produced to improve doping regulation, has caused the 'geneticization' of cultural objects such as ethnic identities and dietary habits. Through examining how anti-doping genomic knowledge and its media representation unnecessarily reify cultural objects in terms of genomics, I argue that Ethical, Legal, and Social Implications (ELSI) research programs in human enhancement should include the social impacts of anti-doping science in their discussions. Furthermore, this article will propose that ELSI scholars begin their academic analysis on anti-doping science by engaging with the recent ELSI scholarship on genomics and race and consider the regulatory and political natures of anti-doping research.

  10. Cross-validation of the very short form of the Physical Self-Inventory (PSI-VS): invariance across genders, age groups, ethnicities and weight statuses.

    PubMed

    Morin, Alexandre J S; Maïano, Christophe

    2011-09-01

    In a recent review of various physical self-concept instruments, Marsh and Cheng (in press) noted that the very short 12-item version of the French Physical Self-Inventory (PSI-VS) represents an important contribution to applied research but that further research was needed to investigate the robustness of its psychometric properties in new and diversified samples. The present study was designed to answer these questions based on a sample of 1103 normally achieving French adolescents. The results show that the PSI-VS measurement model is quite robust and fully invariant across subgroups of students formed according to gender, weight, age and ethnicity. The results also confirm the convergent validity and scale score reliability of the PSI-VS subscales. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Addicted-Self Model of addictive behavior cessation: does it predict recovery for gender, ethnic, age and drug preference populations?

    PubMed

    Fiorentine, Robert; Hillhouse, Maureen P

    2004-01-01

    Although previous research provided empirical support for the main assumptions of the Addicted-Self (A-S) Model of recovery, it is not known whether the model predicts recovery for various gender, ethnic, age, and drug preference populations. It may be that the model predicts recovery only for some groups of addicts and should not be viewed as a general theory of the recovery process. Addressing this concern using data from the Los Angeles Target Cities Drug Treatment Enhancement Project, it was determined that only trivial population differences exist in the primary variables associated with the A-S Model. The A-S Model predicts abstinence with about the same degree of accuracy and parsimony for all populations. The findings indicate that the A-S Model is a general theory of drug and alcohol addictive behavior cessation.

  12. [Prevalence of myopia and increase trend in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in Han ethnic group in China, 2005-2014].

    PubMed

    Dong, Y H; Liu, H B; Wang, Z H; Yang, Z P; Xu, R B; Yang, Z G; Ma, J

    2017-05-10

    Objective: To understand and evaluate the prevalence of myopia and its trend in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years in Han ethnic group in China from 2005 to 2014, and provide evidence for the prevention of myopia. Methods: The data of 2005, 2010 and 2014 Chinese National Students Constitution and Health Surveys were collected. The children and adolescents with complete detection data of binoculus were selected as study subjects. The sample size of three studies were 233 108, 215 319 and 212 743, respectively. The method of curve fitting was used to simulate the myopia detection increase model and analyze the gender and area specific myopia detection increase trends and characteristics from 2005 to 2014. Results: The overall myopia detection rate increased gradually in the children and adolescents aged 7 to 18, which was 47.5% in 2005, 55.5% in 2010 and 57.1% in 2014, respectively. The increase slowed in 2014. A"parabola" shape of myopia detection increase rate was observed. Myopia detection rate increased with age before puberty and decreased with age after puberty gradually. A"cross phenomenon" of myopia detection increase was observed in boys and girls between urban and rural areas. The increase of myopia detection was mainly in urban students before puberty and in rural students after puberty. The age of myopia prevalence peak has become earlier constantly in children and adolescents aged 7-18 years from 2005 to 2014, which was 13 years old in 2005, 12 years old in 2010 and 11 years old in 2014. The increase rate was about 7%. During 2005-2014, the increase rate of myopia detection gradually increased in younger students and tended to zero in older students. Conclusion: The detection rate of myopia was still high in children and adolescents in China. The age of myopia prevalence peak has become earlier gradually.

  13. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7–12 years. METHODS A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). RESULTS The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that < 7% of subjects were grossly misclassified. Moderate correlations noted between the two methods ranged from r = 0.310 (p < 0.001) for fat to r = 0.497 (p < 0.001) for energy. The reproducibility of the FFQ, as assessed by Cronbach’s alpha, ranged from 0.61 (protein) to 0.70 (energy, carbohydrates and fat). Spearman’s correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from rho = 0.333 (p = 0.072) for protein to rho = 0.479 (p < 0.01) for fat. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that the FFQ is valid and reliable for measuring the average intake of energy and macronutrients in a population of multi-ethnic children aged 7–12 years in Malaysia. PMID:26702165

  14. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7-12 years. A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that < 7% of subjects were grossly misclassified. Moderate correlations noted between the two methods ranged from r = 0.310 (p < 0.001) for fat to r = 0.497 (p < 0.001) for energy. The reproducibility of the FFQ, as assessed by Cronbach's alpha, ranged from 0.61 (protein) to 0.70 (energy, carbohydrates and fat). Spearman's correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from rho = 0.333 (p = 0.072) for protein to rho = 0.479 (p < 0.01) for fat. These findings indicate that the FFQ is valid and reliable for measuring the average intake of energy and macronutrients in a population of multi-ethnic children aged 7-12 years in Malaysia.

  15. Relationships between Menopausal and Mood Symptoms and EEG Sleep Measures in a Multi-ethnic Sample of Middle-Aged Women: The SWAN Sleep Study

    PubMed Central

    Kravitz, Howard M.; Avery, Elizabeth; Sowers, MaryFran; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Owens, Jane F.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica; Zheng, Huiyong; Gold, Ellen B.; Buysse, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Examine associations of vasomotor and mood symptoms with visually scored and computer-generated measures of EEG sleep. Design: Cross-sectional analysis. Setting: Community-based in-home polysomnography (PSG). Participants: 343 African American, Caucasian, and Chinese women; ages 48–58 years; pre-, peri- or post-menopausal; participating in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Sleep Study (SWAN Sleep Study). Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Measures included PSG-assessed sleep duration, continuity, and architecture, delta sleep ratio (DSR) computed from automated counts of delta wave activity, daily diary-assessed vasomotor symptoms (VMS), questionnaires to collect mood (depression, anxiety) symptoms, medication, and lifestyle information, and menopausal status using bleeding criteria. Sleep outcomes were modeled using linear regression. Nocturnal VMS were associated with longer sleep time. Higher anxiety symptom scores were associated with longer sleep latency and lower sleep efficiency, but only in women reporting nocturnal VMS. Contrary to expectations, VMS and mood symptoms were unrelated to either DSR or REM latency. Conclusions: Vasomotor symptoms moderated associations of anxiety with EEG sleep measures of sleep latency and sleep efficiency and was associated with longer sleep duration in this multi-ethnic sample of midlife women. Citation: Kravitz HM; Avery E; Sowers MF; Bromberger JT; Owens JF; Matthews KA; Hall M; Zheng H; Gold EB; Buysse DJ. Relationships between menopausal and mood symptoms and Eeg sleep measures in a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged women: the SWAN Sleep Study. SLEEP 2011;34(9):1221-1232. PMID:21886360

  16. Acculturation or Development? Autonomy Expectations among Ethnic German Immigrant Adolescents and Their Native German Age-Mates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared immigrant and native adolescents' expectations concerning the timing of conventional socially acceptable and oppositional less socially acceptable forms of autonomy. Based on normative development and a collectivist background among immigrants, both developmental and acculturative change was expected. The sample…

  17. Acculturation or Development? Autonomy Expectations among Ethnic German Immigrant Adolescents and Their Native German Age-Mates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titzmann, Peter F.; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study compared immigrant and native adolescents' expectations concerning the timing of conventional socially acceptable and oppositional less socially acceptable forms of autonomy. Based on normative development and a collectivist background among immigrants, both developmental and acculturative change was expected. The sample…

  18. Contribution of Spoken Language and Socio-Economic Background to Adolescents' Educational Achievement at Age 16 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy; Rush, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Background: Well-documented associations exist between socio-economic background and language ability in early childhood, and between educational attainment and language ability in children with clinically referred language impairment. However, very little research has looked at the associations between language ability, educational attainment and…

  19. The Individual and Ethnic Identity: A Sourcebook for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownstein Henry H.; And Others

    This student sourcebook, developed by an ethnic identity project, contains quotations of 51 individuals from varying ethnic backgrounds and with varying degrees of ethnicity. Appropriate for secondary and higher education, the primary objective is to illustrate that people who identify with ethnic groups are individuals and not merely members of…

  20. Ethnic identity negotiation among Sami youth living in a majority Sami community in Norway.

    PubMed

    Nystad, Kristine; Spein, Anna Rita; Balto, Asta Mitkija; Ingstad, Benedicte

    2017-01-01

    This study was part of the international research project "Circumpolar Indigenous Pathways to Adulthood" (CIPA). To explore ethnic identity negotiation, an unexplored theme, among indigenous North Sami youth living in a majority Sami community context in Arctic Norway. A qualitative design was followed using open-ended, in-depth interviews conducted in 2010 with 22 Sami adolescents aged 13-19 years, all reporting Sami self-identification. Grounded theory, narrative analysis, theories of ethnic identity and ecological perspectives on resilience were applied in order to identify the themes. All 22 youth reported being open about either their Sami background (86%) and/or ethnic pride (55%). Ethnic pride was reported more often among females (68%) than males (27%). However, a minority of youth (14%) with multi-ethnic parentage, poor Sami language skills, not having been born or raised in the community and with a lack of reindeer husbandry affiliation experienced exclusion by community members as not being affirmed as Sami, and therefore reported stressors like anger, resignation, rejection of their Sami origins and poor well-being. Sami language was most often considered as important for communication (73%), but was also associated with the perception of what it meant to be a Sami (32%) and "traditions" (23%). Ethnic pride seemed to be strong among youth in this majority Sami context. Denial of recognition by one's own ethnic group did not negatively influence ethnic pride or openness about ones' ethnic background, but was related to youth experience of intra-ethnic discrimination and poorer well-being. As Sami language was found to be a strong ethnic identity marker, effective language programmes for Norwegian-speaking Sami and newcomers should be provided. Language skills and competence would serve as an inclusive factor and improve students' well-being and health. Raising awareness about the diversity of Sami identity negotiations among adolescents in teacher

  1. The age-testosterone relationship in black, white, and Mexican-American men, and reasons for ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies give contradictory findings regarding testosterone levels in white, black, and Hispanic men. Here, I present a cross-sectional reanalysis of serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in 1637 males, aged 12-90, who participated in the morning examination of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) during the year 1988-1991. Testosterone and SHBG in males are described precisely over the age range 12 to 90 years. Testosterone and SHBG are not notably different in white and Mexican-American (MA) males. In the age range 20-69 years, black men average 0.39 ng/ml higher testosterone than white and MA men (p < 0.001). The higher testosterone in black men is partly explained by low marriage rate and low adiposity.

  2. The vulnerability of middle-aged and older adults in a multiethnic, low-income area: contributions of age, ethnicity, and health insurance.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kara Odom; Steers, Neil; Liang, Li-Jung; Morales, Leo S; Forge, Nell; Jones, Loretta; Brown, Arleen F

    2010-12-01

    This community-partnered study was developed and fielded in partnership with key community stakeholders and describes age- and race-related variation in delays in care and preventive service utilization between middle-aged and older adults living in South Los Angeles. The survey sample included adults aged 50 and older who self-identified as African American or Latino and lived in ZIP codes of South Los Angeles (N=708). Dependent variables were self-reported delays in care and use of preventive services. Insured participants aged 50 to 64 were more likely to report any delay in care (adjusted predicted percentage (APP)=18%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=14-23) and problems obtaining needed medical care (APP=15%, 95% CI=12-20) than those aged 65 and older. Uninsured participants aged 50 to 64 reported even greater delays in care (APP=45%, 95% CI=33-56) and problems obtaining needed medical (APP=33%, 95% CI=22-45) and specialty care (APP=26%, 95% CI=16-39) than those aged 65 and older. Participants aged 50 to 64 were generally less likely to receive preventive services, including influenza and pneumococcal vaccines and colonoscopy than older participants, but women were more likely to receive mammograms. Participants aged 50 to 64 had more problems obtaining recommended preventive care and faced more delays in care than those aged 65 and older, particularly if they were uninsured. Providing insurance coverage for this group may improve access to preventive care and promote wellness. © 2010, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2010, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. The Moderating Role of Centrality on Associations between Ethnic Identity Affirmation and Ethnic Minority College Students' Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brittian, Aerika S.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Lee, Richard M.; Zamboanga, Byron L.; Kim, Su Yeong; Weisskirch, Robert S.; Castillo, Linda G.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss; Hurley, Eric A.; Huynh, Que-Lam; Brown, Elissa J.; Caraway, S. Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prior literature has shown that ethnic affirmation, one aspect of ethnic identity, is positively associated with mental health. However, the associations between ethnic affirmation and mental health may vary depending how much importance individuals place on their ethnic group membership (ie, centrality). Methods: Using path analysis,…

  4. Citizenship, Education, and Identity: A Comparative Study of Ethnic Chinese in Korea and Ethnic Koreans in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sheena

    2004-01-01

    The crux of this study lies in the consideration of the manner in which rights to citizenship are granted or denied, and in which the ensuing educational policy toward an ethnic minority influences identity formation. In this article the author first introduces a brief background of the two ethnic groups, ethnic Chinese in Korea and ethnic Koreans…

  5. Teaching about Ethnic Conflict: Global Issues. Ethnic Heritage Series, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamy, Steven L.

    The document presents background information and activities for use by secondary school social studies teachers as they incorporate material on ethnic conflict into the curriculum. Ethnic conflicts are interpreted as hostilities which are either solely based upon or accentuated by ethnic differences. Examples are violence in Northern Ireland,…

  6. Racial, Ethnic, and Age Differences in the Incidence and Survival of Childhood Cancer in Oklahoma, 1997-2012

    PubMed Central

    Janitz, Amanda E.; Campbell, Janis E.; Pate, Anne; Anderson, Amber; McNall-Knapp, René

    2016-01-01

    While cancer is relatively rare in children under 20, it is the leading cause of disease-related death among children aged 5 to 14 years. We aimed to describe the incidence and survival of childhood cancer in Oklahoma from 1997-2012. We calculated age-adjusted incidence rates and five-year observed survival by cancer type using Oklahoma Central Cancer Registry and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program data among children diagnosed with cancer under the age of 20 from 1997-2012. The average annual age-adjusted incidence rate of childhood cancer was 168.9 per million for the US and 171.7 per million for Oklahoma. Overall, Oklahoma had lower survival from childhood cancer compared to the US (77.0% v. 80.6%). In recent years, research has been conducted on the epidemiology of childhood cancer. Little research has been done, however, on the incidence or survival of childhood cancer at state levels and none focused exclusively on Oklahoma. PMID:27885305

  7. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class: A Nationally Random Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Lasgaard, Mathias; Walsh, Sophie; Stevens, Gonneke G W J M; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2016-07-01

    Loneliness is a public health concern that increases the risk for several health, behavioral and academic problems among adolescents. Some studies have suggested that adolescents with an ethnic minority background have a higher risk for loneliness than adolescents from the majority population. The increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Even though adolescents spend a substantial amount of time at school, there is currently very little non-U.S. research that has examined the importance of the ethnic composition of school classes for loneliness in adolescence. The present research aimed to address this gap by exploring the association between loneliness and three dimensions of the ethnic composition in the school class: (1) membership of ethnic majority in the school class, (2) the size of own ethnic group in the school class, and (3) the ethnic diversity of the school class. We used data from the Danish 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey: a nationally representative sample of 4383 (51.2 % girls) 11-15-year-olds. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents who did not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic diversity of the school classes and loneliness. The study adds novel and important findings to how ethnicity in a school class context, as opposed to ethnicity per se, influences adolescents' loneliness.

  8. Optimal scaling of weight and waist circumference to height for maximal association with DXA-measured total body fat mass by sex, age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Heo, M; Kabat, G C; Gallagher, D; Heymsfield, S B; Rohan, T E

    2013-08-01

    Body mass index (BMI; weight (Wt)/height (Ht) (in kg m(-2)) and waist circumference (WC) are widely used as proxy anthropometric measures for total adiposity. Little is known about what scaling power of 'x' in both Wt(kg)/Ht(m)(x) and WC(m)/Ht(m)(x) is maximally associated with measured total body fat mass (TBFM). Establishing values for x would provide the information needed to create optimum anthropometric surrogate measures of adiposity. To estimate the value of 'x' that renders Wt/Ht(x) and WC/Ht(x) maximally associated with DXA-measured TBFM. Participants of the NHANES 1999-2004 surveys, stratified by sex (men, women), race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic whites, non-Hispanic blacks, Mexican-Americans), and age(18-29, 30-49, 50-84 years). We apply a grid search by increasing x from 0.0-3.0 by increments of 0.1 to the simple regression models, TBFM=b0+b1*(Wt/Ht(x)) and TBFM=b0+b1*(WC/Ht(x)) to obtain an estimate of x that results in the greatest R(2), taking into account complex survey design features and multiply imputed data. R(2)'s for BMI are 0.86 for men (N=6544) and 0.92 for women (N=6362). The optimal powers x for weight are 1.0 (R(2)=0.90) for men and 0.8 (R(2)=0.96) for women. The optimal power x for WC is 0, that is, no scaling of WC to height, for men (R(2)=0.90) or women (R(2)=0.82). The optimal powers for weight across nine combinations of race/ethnicity and age groups for each sex vary slightly (x=0.8-1.3) whereas the optimal scaling powers for WC are all 0 for both sexes except for non-Hispanic black men aged 18-29y (x=0.1). Although the weight-for-height indices with optimal powers are not independent of height, they yield more accurate TBFM estimates than BMI. In reference to TBFM, Wt/Ht and Wt/Ht(0.8) are the optimal weight-for-height indices for men and women, respectively, whereas WC alone, without Ht adjustment, is the optimal WC-for-height index for both sexes. Thus, BMI, an index independent of height, may be less useful when predicting TBFM.

  9. Paradox Revisited: A Further Investigation of Race/Ethnic Differences in Infant Mortality by Maternal Age1

    PubMed Central

    Powers, Daniel A.

    2013-01-01

    We reexamine the epidemiological paradox of lower overall infant mortality rates in the Mexican-origin population relative to US-born non-Hispanic whites using the 1995–2002 U.S. NCHS linked cohort birth-infant death files. A comparison of infant mortality rates among US-born non-Hispanic white and Mexican-origin mothers by maternal age reveals an infant survival advantage at younger maternal ages when compared to non-Hispanic whites, which is consistent with the Hispanic infant mortality paradox. However, this is accompanied by higher infant mortality at older ages for Mexican-origin women, which is consistent with the weathering framework. These patterns vary by nativity of the mother and do not change when rates are adjusted for risk factors. The relative infant survival disadvantage among Mexican-origin infants born to older mothers may be attributed to differences in the socioeconomic attributes of US-born non-Hispanic white and Mexican-origin women. PMID:23055238

  10. Cultural/ethnic differences in the prevalence of depressive symptoms among middle-aged women in Israel: the Women's Health at Midlife Study.

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Tzvia; Benyamini, Yael; Hourvitz, Ariel; Boyko, Valentina; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptoms among Israeli midlife women from different cultural origins and to identify sociodemographic, lifestyle, psychosocial, health, and menopause status characteristics that could explain cultural differences in depressive symptoms. Data were collected for the Women's Health in Midlife National Study in Israel, in which women aged 45 to 64 years were randomly selected according to age and ethnic/origin group strata: long-term Jewish residents (n = 540), immigrants from the former Soviet Union (n = 151), and Arab women (n = 123). The survey instrument included a short form of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale dichotomized according to a <10/≥10 cutpoint. The crude prevalence of depressive symptoms was 17%, 39%, and 46% for long-term residents, immigrants, and Arabs, respectively. Among women aged 45 to 54 years, 46% were postmenopausal. After adjustment for sociodemographics, health and menopause status, and lifestyle and psychosocial characteristics, immigrants and Arab women were at a significantly higher risk of depressive symptoms as compared with native-born/long-term Jewish residents (odds ratio, 2.97 and 2.79, respectively). Perimenopause status, numbers of medical symptoms, being unmarried, and negative attitude to aging were positively associated with depressive symptoms, whereas social support and perceived control were associated with lower odds of depressive symptoms. These associations differed across cultural groups when analysis was stratified by study group. Our findings demonstrate that the high level of depressive symptoms among Israeli women is related to cultural/minority status. The high risk for depressive symptoms in these minority groups calls for intervention policy to improve their mental health.

  11. QuickStats: Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity* - National Vital Statistics System, United States,(†) 2007 and 2015(§).

    PubMed

    2016-08-19

    From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.

  12. I am really good at puzzles, but I don't get asked to play with others: age, gender, and ethnic differences in Head Start children's self-perceptions of competence.

    PubMed

    Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

    2004-03-01

    The author examined age, gender, and ethnic differences in the self-perceptions of 112 low-income children who were assessed with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) at Head Start and kindergarten. Children's self-ratings of competence were overly optimistic across the 4 subscales of the PSPCSA during the 2 years of the investigation. Contrary to the author's expectations, children's self-evaluations were significantly higher at the end of kindergarten across all subscales of the PSPCSA. Ethnic group differences also were found. African American children described their cognitive competence less favorably than did Caucasian children.

  13. Ethnic Hairdressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Flora B.

    The practical aspects of ethnic hairdressing for the beginning student in the field of Cosmetology are presented in this manual. Lessons and review questions are provided to give the student a knowledge of the problems encountered in dealing with the many different variations in hair, as well as to serve as a foundation for more complex material.…

  14. Ethnic Hairdressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Flora B.

    The practical aspects of ethnic hairdressing for the beginning student in the field of Cosmetology are presented in this manual. Lessons and review questions are provided to give the student a knowledge of the problems encountered in dealing with the many different variations in hair, as well as to serve as a foundation for more complex material.…

  15. Examining ethnic differences in self-reported psychopathic traits among Portuguese male juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Pechorro, Pedro; Poiares, Carlos; Barroso, Ricardo; Nunes, Cristina; Jesus, Saul Neves

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze differences regarding psychopathic traits and related constructs in male youths of diverse ethnic backgrounds. The participants were 216 male youths from the Juvenile Detention Centers of the Portuguese Ministry of Justice (White Europeans group: n = 108; ethnic minorities group: n = 108). Psychopathy was measured by the Antisocial Process Screening Device and the Child and Adolescent Taxon Scale. The results showed that no differences were found between ethnic groups regarding psychopathic traits and psychopathy taxon. Independent of ethnic group membership, psychopathic trait scores were significantly associated with behavioral problems, conduct disorder, self-reported delinquency, seriousness of criminal activity, age of criminal activity onset, and age at first trouble with the law. The present study adds support to the literature regarding youth psychopathic traits and supports the psychopathy construct as universally and interculturally consistent. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. The employment status of the ethnic women in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, H; Du, Y

    1993-10-01

    Statistical tables and complementary text describe the employment situation of ethnic women in China. Employed ethnic women constitute a small population (61.75% (6.94 million) of ethnic women aged 15-64 years compared to 66.38% of working age women out of the total population). In 1990, there were 44.2 million ethnic women out of 550 million women nationally. Ethnic working women were primarily young. 55.6% were aged 15-29 years, and 37.88% were aged 30-49 years. The proportion of illiterates and semi-illiterates was high (41.65% compared to 31.93% for the national population). Employment of ethnic women was high, particularly in the primary industry (86%). 84.38% of ethnic women aged 15-54 years were employed. About 50% of working ethnic women were aged 50 years and older. 20% of employed ethnic females were aged 15-19. The largest ethnic group was the Shuang (7.62 million). Ethnic females with a population ranging from 0.5 million to one million were Korean, Bai, Hani, Kazak, Dai, and Li. The Dong, Yao, Tujia, Bouyei, Tibetan, and Mongolian women constituted from one to three million, and the Uygar, Miao, Yi, Heui, and Manchu ranged from three to five million. There were five ethnic groups which have fewer illiterates and semi-illiterates than the Han majority (the Mongolian, Uygur, Korean, Manchu, and Kazak). In 1990, 7.91 million ethnic women attained a junior middle school or higher level of education. The older working populations lacked access to a pension system. Unemployment among ethnic girls of school-age was higher than among unemployed Han women. Tables are provided of the proportion of the population by ethnic group, ages of all ethnic women, educational status by level of education and age, illiteracy rates among 10 ethnic groups, age specific employment of ethnic women, and unemployment by age.

  17. Health care expenses in relation to obesity and smoking among U.S. adults by gender, race/ethnicity, and age group: 1998-2011.

    PubMed

    An, R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and smoking are two leading health risk factors and consume substantial health care resources. This study estimates and tracks annual per-capita health care expenses associated with obesity and smoking among U.S. adults aged 18 years and older from 1998 to 2011. Retrospective data analysis. Individual-level data came from the National Health Interview Survey 1996-2010 waves and the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey 1998-2011 waves. Annual per-capita health care expenses associated with obesity and smoking were estimated in two-part models, accounting for individual characteristics and sampling design. Obesity and smoking were associated with an increase in annual per-capita total health care expenses (2011 US$) by $1360 (95% confidence interval: $1134-$1587) and $1046 ($846-$1247), out-of-pocket expenses by $143 ($110-$176) and $70 ($37-$104), hospital inpatient expenses by $406 ($283-$529) and $405 ($291-$519), hospital outpatient expenses by $164 ($119-$210) and $95 ($52-$138), office-based medical provider service expenses by $219 ($157-$280) and $117 ($62-$172), emergency room service expenses by $45 ($28-$63) and $57 ($44-$71), and prescription expenses by $439 ($382-$496) and $251 ($199-$302), respectively. From 1998 to 2011, the estimated per-capita expenses associated with obesity and smoking increased by 25% and 30% for total health care, 41% and 48% for office-based medical provider services, 59% and 66% for emergency room services, and 62% and 70% for prescriptions but decreased by 16% and 15% for out-of-pocket health care expenses, 3% and 0.3% for inpatient care, and 6% and 2% for outpatient care, respectively. Health care expenses associated with obesity and smoking were considerably larger among women, Non-Hispanic whites, and older adults compared with their male, racial/ethnic minority, and younger counterparts. Health care costs associated with obesity and smoking are substantial and increased noticeably during 1998-2011. They also vary

  18. Individual differences in preferences for matched-ethnic mentors among high-achieving ethnically diverse adolescents in STEM.

    PubMed

    Syed, Moin; Goza, Barbara K; Chemers, Martin M; Zurbriggen, Eileen L

    2012-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined (a) adolescents' contact with mentors who share their background in relation to the importance they place on having such mentors, and (b) the associations of these perceptions with self-efficacy, identity, and commitment to a science career. Participants were 265 ethnically diverse adolescents (M age = 15.82) attending a 4-week science education program. Cluster analyses indicated that at Time 1, underrepresented ethnic minorities were more often in the cluster defined by feelings of importance of having a matched-background mentor but not having much contact. Perceptions of contact increased over time for these students and were associated with increased feelings of identity as a science student. The results suggest the need for attending to individual differences in students' preferences for matched-background mentors.

  19. Contribution of spoken language and socio-economic background to adolescents' educational achievement at age 16 years.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Sarah; Clegg, Judy; Stackhouse, Joy; Rush, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Well-documented associations exist between socio-economic background and language ability in early childhood, and between educational attainment and language ability in children with clinically referred language impairment. However, very little research has looked at the associations between language ability, educational attainment and socio-economic background during adolescence, particularly in populations without language impairment. To investigate: (1) whether adolescents with higher educational outcomes overall had higher language abilities; and (2) associations between adolescent language ability, socio-economic background and educational outcomes, specifically in relation to Mathematics, English Language and English Literature GCSE grade. A total of 151 participants completed five standardized language assessments measuring vocabulary, comprehension of sentences and spoken paragraphs, and narrative skills and one nonverbal assessment when between 13 and 14 years old. These data were compared with the participants' educational achievement obtained upon leaving secondary education (16 years old). Univariate logistic regressions were employed to identify those language assessments and demographic factors that were associated with achieving a targeted A(*) -C grade in English Language, English Literature and Mathematics General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) at 16 years. Further logistic regressions were then conducted to examine further the contribution of socio-economic background and spoken language skills in the multivariate models. Vocabulary, comprehension of sentences and spoken paragraphs, and mean length utterance in a narrative task along with socio-economic background contributed to whether participants achieved an A(*) -C grade in GCSE Mathematics and English Language and English Literature. Nonverbal ability contributed to English Language and Mathematics. The results of multivariate logistic regressions then found that vocabulary skills

  20. Methods for using argon-39 to age-date groundwater using ultra-low-background proportional counting

    DOE PAGES

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Brandenberger, Jill; ...

    2016-12-21

    Argon-39 can be used as a tracer for age-dating glaciers, oceans, and more recently, groundwater. With a half-life of 269 years, 39Ar fills an intermediate age range gap (50–1,000 years) not currently covered by other common groundwater tracers. Therefore, adding this tracer to the data suite for groundwater studies provides an important tool for improving our understanding of groundwater systems. Lastly, we present the methods employed for arriving at an age-date for a given sample of argon degassed from groundwater.

  1. Methods for using argon-39 to age-date groundwater using ultra-low-background proportional counting

    SciTech Connect

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Brandenberger, Jill; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Humble, Paul; Keillor, Martin; Kulongoski, Justin; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen; White, Signe; Freeburg, Eric Wilcox; Williams, Richard

    2016-12-21

    Argon-39 can be used as a tracer for age-dating glaciers, oceans, and more recently, groundwater. With a half-life of 269 years, 39Ar fills an intermediate age range gap (50–1,000 years) not currently covered by other common groundwater tracers. Therefore, adding this tracer to the data suite for groundwater studies provides an important tool for improving our understanding of groundwater systems. Lastly, we present the methods employed for arriving at an age-date for a given sample of argon degassed from groundwater.

  2. Methods for using argon-39 to age-date groundwater using ultra-low-background proportional counting.

    PubMed

    Mace, Emily; Aalseth, Craig; Brandenberger, Jill; Day, Anthony; Hoppe, Eric; Humble, Paul; Keillor, Martin; Kulongoski, Justin; Overman, Cory; Panisko, Mark; Seifert, Allen; White, Signe; Wilcox Freeburg, Eric; Williams, Richard

    2016-12-21

    Argon-39 can be used as a tracer for age-dating glaciers, oceans, and more recently, groundwater. With a half-life of 269 years, (39)Ar fills an intermediate age range gap (50-1,000 years) not currently covered by other common groundwater tracers. Therefore, adding this tracer to the data suite for groundwater studies provides an important tool for improving our understanding of groundwater systems. We present the methods employed for arriving at an age-date for a given sample of argon degassed from groundwater.

  3. The Correlation between Sex, Age, Educational Background, and Hours of Service on Vigilance Level of ATC Officers in Air Nav Surabaya, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleh, Lalu Muhammad; Suwandi, Tjipto; Hamidah

    2016-01-01

    The vigilance of an Air Traffic Control (ATC) officer determines aviation safety. The number of aviation accidents tends to be increasing in recent years. Aviation accidents may be caused by human errors (i.e. errors made by pilot or ATC officer) or unsafe work condition. Sex, age, educational background, and hours of service might affect…

  4. HIV and coronary artery calcium score: comparison of the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cardiovascular Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dominic; Young, Rebekah; Valcour, Nicole; Kronmal, Richard A.; Lum, Corey J.; Parikh, Nisha I.; Tracy, Russell P.; Budoff, Matthew; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of HIV, immunologic, and inflammatory factors on coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Cross-sectional study comparing baseline data of males from Hawaii Aging with HIV –Cardiovascular Study (HAHCS) with the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. The cohorts were pooled to determine effects of HIV on CAC and explore immunologic and inflammatory factors that may explain development of CAC in HIV. Multivariable regression models compared CAC prevalence in HAHCS with MESA adjusting for coronary heart disease (CHD) risk profiles. Results We studied 100 men from HAHCS and 2733 men from MESA. Positive CAC was seen in 58% HAHCS participants and 57% MESA participants. Mean CAC was 260.8 in HAHCS and 306.5 in MESA. Using relative risk (RR) regression, HAHCS participants had a greater risk (RR=1.20, P<0.05) of having positive CAC than MESA when adjusting for age, smoking status, diabetes, antihypertensive therapy, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. Among participants with positive CAC, HIV infection was not associated with larger amounts of CAC. Among HAHCS participants, current HIV viral load, CD4, length of HIV, interleukin 6 (IL-6), fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer were not associated with the presence or amount of CAC. Discussion HIV was independently associated with a positive CAC in men with increased likelihood occurring between 45 and 50 years of age. Current HIV viral load, CD4 count, length of HIV, and inflammatory markers were unrelated to either presence or amount of CAC. PMID:26038953

  5. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. PMID:27314387

  6. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Gluckman, Peter D; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-06-15

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to GUIDELINES over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life.

  7. [Plasma vitamin D levels in native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years of different ethnic origins].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Muro, J M; Yeste Fernández, D; Marín Muñoz, A; Fernández Cancio, M; Audí Parera, L; Carrascosa Lezcano, A

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional rickets is an emergent disease in Spain, and occurs particularly in black and dark-skinned infants and children from immigrant populations. The aim of this work was to ascertain the vitamin D reserve in a population of native and immigrant children under the age of 6 years. A prospective study was conducted at a Primary Healthcare Centre in Salt (Girona). 307 children with the following origin and race distribution: Caucasian (n=85; 28%), Sub-Saharan (n=101; 32.5%); Maghrebí (n=87, 28.0%); Central-American (n=20; 6.4%) and Indo-Pakistani (n=14; 4.5%). The biochemistry blood parameters studied were: calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, 25-hydroxivitamin D, and parathormone. A nutritional survey was used to estimate calcium and vitamin D intake and degree of sun exposure. Vitamin D deficiency (<20 ng/ml) was detected in Caucasians (8%), Sub-Saharans (18%), Central-Americans (20%), Maghrebís (34.5%), and Indo-Pakistanis (64%). Of the children studied (n=9), 2.9% had serious vitamin D deficiency (< 10 ng/ml); only one child of Sub-Saharan origin met the biochemical criteria for classical rickets. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was significantly higher in children not receiving vitamin D supplements in the first year of life. Plasma vitamin D concentrations were deficient in 22.5% of children under the age of six, being more prevalent in children of Indo-Pakistani and Maghrebí origin. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i