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Sample records for age ethnic origin

  1. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  2. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Neelam A; de Castro Maymone, Mayra Buainain; Kundu, Roopal V

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  3. Differences in the prevalence of hypertension by ethnic origin and age at immigration in a cohort of 5,146 Israelis.

    PubMed

    Green, M S; Peled, I

    1992-06-01

    Marked ethnic differences in hypertension prevalence have been described in Jewish immigrants to Israel. The extent to which this phenomenon has persisted after a long period of living in the same country, and whether native-born descendants exhibit similar patterns, is not clear. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hypertension in immigrants to Israel and native-born Israelis by region of origin and age at immigration. Complete data were available for 5,146 subjects (3,607 men and 1,539 women) aged 20-64 years who were employed in Israeli industries and were examined during 1985-1987. In both sexes, Jews originating in the West (Europe and the Americas) had higher blood pressures and a significantly higher prevalence of hypertension than those from northern Africa or Asia, particularly in the age group 20-44 years (17% vs. 9% and 8% in men, respectively, and 9% vs. 3% and 5% in women). There was a significant positive association between the prevalence of hypertension and age at immigration (p less than 0.001) in both sexes, and this finding was present in all ethnic groups. In multiple logistic regression analysis, the associations of hypertension with ethnic origin and age at immigration were only partly explained by variations in body mass index, after controlling for other potentially confounding variables. These findings suggest that despite these subjects' having shared a relatively similar physical environment for many years, ethnic differences in the prevalence of hypertension persist. Immigration at an older age was associated with a higher prevalence of hypertension for both subjects originating in industrialized countries and those originating in nonindustrialized countries, suggesting that the process of immigration itself may adversely affect blood pressure. PMID:1378241

  4. Mexican-origin Early Adolescents' Ethnic Socialization, Ethnic Identity, and Psychosocial Functioning.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; O'Donnell, Megan; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W; Berkel, Cady; Nair, Rajni

    2014-02-01

    The current study examined how parental ethnic socialization informed adolescents' ethnic identity development and, in turn, youths' psychosocial functioning (i.e., mental health, social competence, academic efficacy, externalizing behaviors) among 749 Mexican-origin families. In addition, school ethnic composition was examined as a moderator of these associations. Findings indicated that mothers' and fathers' ethnic socialization were significant longitudinal predictors of adolescents' ethnic identity, although fathers' ethnic socialization interacted significantly with youths' school ethnic composition in 5(th) grade to influence ethnic identity in 7(th) grade. Furthermore, adolescents' ethnic identity was significantly associated with increased academic self-efficacy and social competence, and decreased depressive symptoms and externalizing behaviors. Findings support theoretical predictions regarding the central role parents play in Mexican-origin adolescents' normative developmental processes and adjustment and, importantly, underscore the need to consider variability that is introduced into these processes by features of the social context such as school ethnic composition.

  5. Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) among psychiatric out-patients in Sweden: relations with season, age, ethnic origin and psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Humble, Mats B; Gustafsson, Sven; Bejerot, Susanne

    2010-07-01

    In a chart review at a psychiatric out-patient department, latitude 59.3 degrees N, a sample of patients with tests of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD) and plasma intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) was collected, together with demographic data and psychiatric diagnoses. During 19 months, 117 patients were included. Their median 25-OHD was 45 nmol/l; considerably lower than published reports on Swedish healthy populations. Only 14.5% had recommended levels (over 75). In 56.4%, 25-OHD was under 50 nmol/l, which is related to several unfavourable health outcomes. Seasonal variation of 25-OHD was blunted. Patients with ADHD had unexpectedly low iPTH levels. Middle East, South-East Asian or African ethnic origin, being a young male and having a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder or schizophrenia predicted low 25-OHD levels. Hence, the diagnoses that have been hypothetically linked to developmental (prenatal) vitamin D deficiency, schizophrenia and autism, had the lowest 25-OHD levels in this adult sample, supporting the notion that vitamin D deficiency may not only be a predisposing developmental factor but also relate to the adult patients' psychiatric state. This is further supported by the considerable psychiatric improvement that coincided with vitamin D treatment in some of the patients whose deficiency was treated. PMID:20214992

  6. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians. PMID:26553738

  7. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians.

  8. Age at marriage, sex-ratios, and ethnic heterogamy.

    PubMed

    Stier, H; Shavit, Y

    1994-05-01

    "This paper focuses on the effects of age at marriage and the sex-ratio on patterns of ethnic homogamy among Israeli women. We hypothesize that later marriages are more likely than early marriages to be heterogamous as the 'marriage market' shifts from school to the work-place. By the same token, when facing severe marriage squeezes women will be forced to out-marry. Employing data from the 1983 census, we model mate selection of women from Afro-Asian and Euro-American origin in various birth-cohorts. The results do not fully support our hypotheses: we find that in and of itself, age at marriage does not enhance ethnic heterogamy."

  9. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  10. Inferring ethnic origin by means of an STR profile.

    PubMed

    Lowe, A L; Urquhart, A; Foreman, L A; Evett, I W

    2001-06-01

    We report the use of DNA profiles from six STR loci for inferring the ethnic origin of a crime stain and discuss how such inference may be used as intelligence information to reduce the expected number of interviews to resolve a case. To enable this work, databases have been created for five British ethnic groups (Caucasians, Afro-Caribbeans, Indian sub-continentals, Southeast Asians and Middle Easterners) that together comprise 99.7% of the UK population.

  11. Age and ethnic variations in sebaceous lipids

    PubMed Central

    Pappas, Apostolos; Fantasia, Jared; Chen, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare lipid components of sebum from persons from three ethnic backgrounds—Caucasian, African American and Northern Asian. Men and women with no acne in two age groups (18‒25 y and 35‒45 y) were recruited. Skin surface hydration (SkiCon 200EX and NovaMeter), barrier function (Delfin VapoMeter), high-resolution clinical imaging, self-assessments and two pairs of sebutapes on the forehead that extracted the lipids on the surface of their skin were used. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in skin hydration between African Americans and Caucasians in both age groups were noted, with the order from highest to lowest absolute values: African American > Northern Asian > Caucasian. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurements demonstrated that African Americans and Caucasians were significantly different (p < 0.05), with the trend being the inverse of the hydration trend—Caucasian > Northern Asian > African American, which would indicate better barrier function for African Americans with a lower TEWL. African American women had more total lipid production than Northern Asian or Caucasian women. When analyzing the three lipid classes (free fatty acids, triglycerides and wax esters), the trend became significant (p < 0.05) in the wax ester fraction when directly comparing African Americans with Caucasians. Additionally, six lipids were identified in the wax ester fractions that were significantly different in quantity (p < 0.05) between African Americans and Caucasians. These results identified significant differences in sebaceous lipid profiles across ethnic groups and determined that the differences correlated with skin barrier function. PMID:24194973

  12. Choosing Futures: Influence of Ethnic Origin in University Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ivy, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to determine the role of ethnic origin on university application among Leicester college students. Design/methodology/approach: The approach takes the form of a quantitative survey of 427 students in sixth form colleges in Leicester. Findings: Five distinct motivational factors were derived from a survey of 427 sixth form…

  13. Cultural Socialization and Ethnic Pride among Mexican-Origin Adolescents during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Maciel M.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.; Bacher, Kelly Beaumont; Widaman, Keith F.

    2014-01-01

    The relation between cultural socialization and ethnic pride during the transition to middle school was examined for 674 fifth-grade students (50% boys; M[subscript age] = 10.4 years) of Mexican origin. The theoretical model guiding the study proposes that parent-child relationship quality is a resource in the transmission of cultural values from…

  14. Beyond black, white and Hispanic: race, ethnic origin and drinking patterns in the United States.

    PubMed

    Dawson, D A

    1998-01-01

    This study used data on 42,862 U.S. adults, including 18,352 past-year drinkers, to describe differentials by race and national origin in U.S. drinking patterns. Age-sex standardized estimates were presented within 21 categories of ethnic origin for whites and within five categories each for individuals of black and other races. Of the three racial groups, whites were the most likely to drink, but blacks had the highest volume of intake and frequency of heavy drinking. Differences by ethnic origin within racial categories were as marked as differentials between races. Compared to whites of European origin, those of Hispanic and native American origin were less likely to drink but consumed more alcohol on days when they drank. Whites of Southern and Eastern European origin drank proportionately more wine and demonstrated more moderate drinking patterns (lower intake per drinking day and/or less frequent heavy drinking) than those of Northern or Central European origin. Hispanics of Caribbean origin were less prone to heavy drinking than other white Hispanics; similarly, blacks from the English-speaking Caribbean showed more moderate drinking patterns than other blacks. Individuals of Asian origin, in particular those of non-Japanese origin, had the most moderate drinking patterns within the category of other race. Although the black/white differentials in volume of intake and frequency of heavy drinking disappeared after adjusting for marital status, education and income, most of the differences by ethnic origin retained their statistical significance if not their original magnitudes. These findings indicate that cultural forces exert a strong effect on drinking behavior. Differences among European whites with respect to prevalence of drinking, beverage preference and frequency of heavy drinking suggest that the association between ethnic origin and drinking behavior may persist even after many generations of presumed acculturation.

  15. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants. PMID:21323155

  16. The origins of human ageing.

    PubMed Central

    Kirkwood, T B

    1997-01-01

    The origins of human ageing are to be found in the origins and evolution of senescence as a general feature in the life histories of higher animals. Ageing is an intriguing problem in evolutionary biology because a trait that limits the duration of life, including the fertile period, has a negative impact on Darwinian fitness. Current theory suggests that senescence occurs because the force of natural selection declines with age and because longevity is only acquired at some metabolic cost. In effect, organisms may trade late survival for enhanced reproductive investments in earlier life. The comparative study of ageing supports the general evolutionary theory and reveals that human senescence, while broadly similar to senescence in other mammalian species, has distinct features, such as menopause, that may derive from the interplay of biological and social evolution. PMID:9460059

  17. Conspiracy Beliefs about the Origin of HIV/AIDS in Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Michael W.; Essien, E. James; Torres, Isabel

    2006-01-01

    We examined beliefs about the origin of HIV as a genocidal conspiracy in men and women of four racial/ethnic groups in a street intercept sample in Houston, Texas. Groups sampled were African American, Latino, non-Hispanic white, and Asian. Highest levels of conspiracy theories were found in women, and in African American and Latino populations (over a quarter of African Americans and over a fifth of Latinos) with slightly lower rates in whites (a fifth) and Asians less than one in ten). Reductions in condom use associated with such beliefs were however only apparent in African American men. Conspiracy beliefs were an independent predictor of reported condom use along with race/ethnicity, gender, education, and age group. Data suggest that genocidal conspiracy beliefs are relatively widespread in several racial/ethnic groups and that an understanding of the sources of these beliefs is important to determine their possible impact on HIV prevention and treatment behaviors. PMID:16540935

  18. Ethnic identity development and ethnic discrimination: examining longitudinal associations with adjustment for Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2013-10-01

    Few studies examine normative developmental processes among teenage mothers. Framed from a risk and resilience perspective, this prospective study examined the potential for ethnic identity status (e.g., diffuse, achieved), a normative developmental task during adolescence, to buffer the detrimental effects of discrimination on later adjustment and self-esteem in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Ethnic discrimination was associated with increases in depressive symptoms and decreases in self-esteem over time, regardless of ethnic identity status. However, ethnic discrimination was only associated with increases in engagement in risky behavior among diffuse adolescents, suggesting that achieved or foreclosed identities buffered the risk of ethnic discrimination on later risky behavior. Findings suggest that ethnic identity resolution (i.e., the component shared by those in foreclosed and achieved statuses) may be a key cultural factor to include in prevention and intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of ethnic discrimination on later externalizing problems.

  19. Ethnic identity development and ethnic discrimination: examining longitudinal associations with adjustment for Mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2013-10-01

    Few studies examine normative developmental processes among teenage mothers. Framed from a risk and resilience perspective, this prospective study examined the potential for ethnic identity status (e.g., diffuse, achieved), a normative developmental task during adolescence, to buffer the detrimental effects of discrimination on later adjustment and self-esteem in a sample of 204 Mexican-origin adolescent mothers. Ethnic discrimination was associated with increases in depressive symptoms and decreases in self-esteem over time, regardless of ethnic identity status. However, ethnic discrimination was only associated with increases in engagement in risky behavior among diffuse adolescents, suggesting that achieved or foreclosed identities buffered the risk of ethnic discrimination on later risky behavior. Findings suggest that ethnic identity resolution (i.e., the component shared by those in foreclosed and achieved statuses) may be a key cultural factor to include in prevention and intervention efforts aimed to reduce the negative effects of ethnic discrimination on later externalizing problems. PMID:24011098

  20. Ethnic Origins 3: An Experiment in the Use of a Direct Question about Ethnicity, for the Census. Occasional Paper 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillitoe, Ken

    This is a report on the third effort to formulate an effective question for determining the ethnicity of respondents to Great Britain's 1981 census. Discussed herein is the response to the ethnic origins questions, different versions of which were incorporated into the main census pre-test and administered to 4250 households (including large…

  1. Ethnicity and Aging: A Bibliography. Checklists in the Humanities and Education: Series Number Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murguia, Edward, Comp.; And Others

    Literature on ethnicity and aging is listed in this bibliography, which is intended to assist researchers, teachers, and policymakers. The bibliography is divided into seven categories: (1) multiethnic and general studies; (2) Black Americans; (3) Hispanic Americans; (4) Native Americans; (5) Asian and Pacific Americans; (6) European origin ethnic…

  2. Examining Ethnic Identity among Mexican-Origin Adolescents Living in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Fine, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to test a model of ethnic identity development among 513 Mexican-origin adolescents living in the United States. The model examined the influence of ecological factors, familial ethnic socialization, and autonomy on adolescents' ethnic identity achievement. Findings indicated that lower percentages of…

  3. Familism, Family Ethnic Socialization, and Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers’ Educational Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Diamond Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Guimond, Amy B.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.

    2016-01-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers’ ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers’ reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers’ familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers’ endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers’ educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers’ educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers’ educational adjustment in the context of family and culture. PMID:25045950

  4. Familism, family ethnic socialization, and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational adjustment.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Diamond Y; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Guimond, Amy B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B

    2014-07-01

    The current longitudinal study examined how familism values and family ethnic socialization impacted Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 205) educational adjustment (i.e., educational expectations, educational utility), and whether these associations were moderated by adolescent mothers' ethnic centrality. Findings indicated that adolescent mothers' reports of familism values and family ethnic socialization were positively associated with their beliefs about educational utility, but not educational expectations. Ethnic centrality moderated the association between adolescent mothers' familism values and educational utility, such that adolescent mothers' endorsement of familism values during pregnancy were associated with significant increases in educational utility after their transition to parenthood, but only when adolescents reported high levels of ethnic centrality. Moreover, ethnic centrality was positively associated with adolescent mothers' educational expectations. Results highlight the importance of familism, ethnic socialization, and ethnic centrality for promoting Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' educational outcomes. Findings are discussed with respect to understanding adolescent mothers' educational adjustment in the context of family and culture.

  5. Children's Ocular Components and Age, Gender, and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Twelker, J. Daniel; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Messer, Dawn H.; Bhakta, Rita; Jones, Lisa A.; Mutti, Donald O.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Zadnik, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This cross-sectional report includes ocular component data as a function of age, gender, and ethnicity from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Methods The ocular components of 4881 school-aged children were examined using cycloplegic autorefraction (refractive error), keratometry (corneal curvature), ultrasonography (axial dimensions), and videophakometry (lens curvature). Results The average age (± SD) was 8.8 ± 2.3 years, and 2458 were girls (50.4%). Sixteen percent were African American, 14.8% were Asian, 22.9% were Hispanic, 11.6% were Native American, and 34.9% were White. More myopic/less hyperopic refractive error was associated with greater age, especially in Asians, less in Whites and African Americans. Corneal power varied slightly with age, with girls showing a greater mean corneal power. Native-American children had greater corneal toricity with a markedly flatter horizontal corneal power. Anterior chambers were deeper with age, and boys had deeper anterior chambers. Native-American children had the shallowest anterior chambers and Whites the deepest. Girls had higher Gullstrand and calculated lens powers than boys. Boys had longer vitreous chambers and axial lengths, and both were deeper with age. Native Americans had the longest vitreous chambers and Whites the shortest. Conclusions Most ocular components showed little clinically meaningful variation by ethnicity. The shallower anterior chambers and deeper vitreous chambers of Native-American children appeared to be offset by flatter corneas. The relatively deeper anterior chamber and shallower vitreous chambers of White children appeared to be offset by steeper corneas. Asian children had more myopic spherical equivalent refractive errors, but for a given refractive error the ocular parameters of Asian children were moderate in value compared to those of other ethnic groups. Asian children may develop longer, myopic eyes more often

  6. Motor Development in Canadian Infants of Asian and European Ethnic Origins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayson, Tanja A.; Backman, Catherine L.; Harris, Susan R.; Hayes, Virginia E.

    2009-01-01

    Ethnic origin is one factor that may influence the rate or sequence of infant motor development, interpretation of screening test results, and decisions regarding early intervention. The primary purpose of this study is to compare motor development screening test scores from infants of Asian and European ethnic origins. Using a cross-sectional…

  7. Association between body size and blood pressure in children from different ethnic origins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess associations between body size and blood pressure in children (5-6 years) from different ethnic origins. Method Five ethnic groups of the ABCD cohort were examined: Dutch (n=1 923), Turkish (n=99), Moroccan (n=187), Black-African (n=67) and Black-Caribbean (n=121). Data on body-mass-index (BMI), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), fat-mass-index (FMI), and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), were collected. Linear regression analysis with restricted cubic splines was used to examine non-linear associations between body size and blood pressure, adjusted for age, sex, height and birth weight. Results Ethnic differences were found in associations of BMI with SBP and DBP (SBP: p=0.001 and DBP: p=0.01) and FMI with SBP (p=0.03). BMI and FMI had a relatively large positive association with SBP in Turkish children (BMI: β=2.46mmHg; 95%CI:1.20-3.72; FMI: β=2.41mmHg; 95%CI:1.09-3.73) compared to Dutch (BMI: β=1.31mmHg; 95%CI:0.71-1.92; FMI: β=0.84mmHg; 95%CI:0.23-1.45). Black-Caribbean and Moroccan children showed high blood pressure with low BMI and FMI. Moroccan children showed higher SBP with high BMI and FMI. WHtR was positively associated with SBP and DBP, similar in all ethnic groups. Generally, strongest associations with blood pressure were found for BMI in all ethnic groups. Conclusion Ethnic-specific associations between BMI, and FMI and blood pressure are present at young age, with Turkish children showing the highest increase in blood pressure with increasing body size. The higher blood pressure in the Black-Caribbean and Moroccan children with low BMI needs further research. WHtR or FMI do not seem to be associated more strongly to blood pressure than BMI in any ethnic group. PMID:23126496

  8. Fetal growth and the ethnic origins of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Skilton, Michael R

    2015-03-01

    Birthweight is known to differ by ethnicity, with South Asian, black African and Caribbean, and Hispanic ethnic groups having lower birthweight on average, when compared with people of white European ethnicity. Birthweight is the most frequently used proxy of fetal growth, and represents the net effect of a host of genetic, physiological and pathophysiological factors. These same ethnic groups that have lower average birthweight also tend to have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes in adulthood. It is not unreasonable to propose that the well-established inverse association between birthweight and risk of type 2 diabetes may at least partially contribute to these differences in prevalence of type 2 diabetes between ethnic groups. This hypothesis would rely on the mechanisms that drive the ethnic differences in birthweight aligning with those that modify the risk of type 2 diabetes. In this issue of Diabetologia (DOI: 10.1007/s00125-014-3474-7), Nightingale et al have furthered this field by determining whether ethnic differences in markers of cardio-metabolic risk are consistent with the differences in birthweight in an ethnically diverse cohort of children. The likely contribution of fetal growth to ethnic differences in risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease is discussed, particularly in light of the magnitude of the birthweight differences, as are implications for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:25567103

  9. Stress and coping among gay men: age and ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    David, Steven; Knight, Bob G

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies suggest that perceived stigmatization of sexual minority status, ethnicity, and age are associated with negative mental health outcomes, and other studies suggest that coping styles may influence these outcomes. However, no studies have examined these relationships among gay men of varying ethnicities and age groups. Three hundred eighty-three Black and White, younger, middle-aged, and older adult gay men completed measures of perceived stigmatization, coping style, and mental health outcomes. Black older adult gay men reported significantly higher levels of perceived ageism than the older White group, significantly higher levels of perceived racism than the younger Black group, significantly higher levels of homonegativity than the younger Black and the White groups, and were more likely to use disengaged coping styles than White gay men. However, Black older adult gay men did not experience significantly higher levels of negative mental health outcomes. Results suggest that further research should examine how older Black gay men, who perceive higher levels of stigma while reporting greater use of less effective coping styles, do not appear to be experiencing more negative mental health outcomes as a result.

  10. Student Profile by Ethnicity, Primary Language and Country of Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Wallace M.

    In recognition of the importance of diversity, and in response to numerous requests from the college community, New York City Technical College (NYCTC) developed a profile of fall semester 1989 students enrolled in each curriculum, each academic division, and the entire college, based on students' ethnicity, primary language, and country of…

  11. Gender, age, and ethnicity in immigration for an Australian nation.

    PubMed

    Fincher, R

    1997-02-01

    An analysis of Australian immigration policy since the Second World War is presented. The emphasis is on the gender and age of preferred immigrants, rather than on their race or place of birth. "The author proposes that selection of immigrant settlers in Australia since World War 2 has been gendered as well as racialised, often combining particular sexisms with particular racisms and specifying the ways that ethnicity and gender should coexist in immigrants of different age groups. She notes implications for immigrants once in Australia (especially women) of the category under which they have entered the country. And she suggests that a new phase relating immigration to redefinition of the Australian nation, in which the temporary migration of skilled workers is preferred to their permanent migration, may be beginning; a phase whose modes of regulation and outcomes are as distinctively gendered as were those of their predecessors."

  12. Ethnic identity and racial attitudes in a minority group of mixed racial origin.

    PubMed

    Smith, Timothy B; Stratton, Joy; Stones, Christopher R; Naidoo, Anthony

    2003-02-01

    Limited information exists on the racial attitudes and ethnic identities of groups of mixed racial origin. The present research tested the hypotheses that the construct of ethnic identity is valid among such groups and that ethnic identity is related to out-group prejudice, as predicted by social identity theory. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure, the Anti-White Scale, and the Subtle Racism Scale were administered to 70 South Africans of mixed racial descent, the so-called Coloureds. A factor analysis supported the structural validity of the 12-item measure of ethnic identity with this sample, but correlations between scales did not support the prediction that group identity would be positively associated with out-group prejudice. Group identity was positively related .27 to positive attitudes toward Whites consistent with the tenets of social dominance theory.

  13. Neither self-reported ethnicity nor declared family origin are reliable indicators of genomic ancestry.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade; D'Elia, Maria Paula Barbieri; Amador, Marcos Antônio Trindade; Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista; da Cruz Castelli, Erick; Witkin, Steven S; Miot, Hélio Amante; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães

    2016-06-01

    Ancestry information can be useful in investigations of diseases with a genetic or infectious background. As the Brazilian population is highly admixed physical traits tend to be poor indicators of ancestry. The assessment of ancestry by ancestry informative markers (AIMs) can exclude the subjectivity of self-declared ethnicity and reported family origin. We aimed to evaluate the reliability of self-reported ethnicity or reported family origin as indicators of genomic ancestry in a female population from the Southeast of Brazil. Two cohorts were included: 404 women asked to self-report their ethnicity (Pop1) and 234 women asked to report their family's origin (Pop2). Identification of AIMs was performed using a panel of 61 markers and results were plotted against parental populations-Amerindian, Western European and Sub-Saharan African-using Structure v2.3.4. In Pop1 57.4 % of women self-reported as white, 34.6 % as brown and 8.0 % as black. Median global European, Amerindian and African contributions were 66.8, 12.6 and 16.6 %. In Pop2, 66.4 % of women declared European origin, 23.9 % African origin and 26.9 % Amerindian. Median global European, Amerindian and African contributions were 80.8, 7.3 and 7.6 %, respectively. Only 31.0 and 21.0 % of the global variation in African and European contributions, respectively, could be explained by self-reported ethnicity and reported family origin only accounted for 20.0 and 5.0 % of the variations observed in African and European ancestries, respectively. Amerindian ancestry did not influence self-reported ethnicity or declared family origin. Neither self-reported ethnicity nor declared family origin are reliable indicators of genomic ancestry in these Brazilian populations.

  14. Adiposity and hyperglycaemia in pregnancy and related health outcomes in European ethnic minorities of Asian and African origin: a review

    PubMed Central

    Jenum, Anne Karen; Sommer, Christine; Sletner, Line; Mørkrid, Kjersti; Bærug, Anne; Mosdøl, Annhild

    2013-01-01

    Background Ethnic minorities in Europe have high susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and, in some groups, also cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pregnancy can be considered a stress test that predicts future morbidity patterns in women and that affects future health of the child. Objective To review ethnic differences in: 1) adiposity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia during pregnancy; 2) future risk in the mother of obesity, T2DM and CVD; and 3) prenatal development and possible influences of maternal obesity, hyperglycaemia, and pre-eclampsia on offspring's future disease risk, as relevant for ethnic minorities in Europe of Asian and African origin. Design Literature review. Results Maternal health among ethnic minorities is still sparsely documented. Higher pre-pregnant body mass index (BMI) is found in women of African and Middle Eastern descent, and lower BMI in women from East and South Asia compared with women from the majority population. Within study populations, risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is considerably higher in many minority groups, particularly South Asians, than in the majority population. This increased risk is apparent at lower BMI and younger ages. Women of African origin have higher risk of pre-eclampsia. A GDM pregnancy implies approximately seven-fold higher risk of T2DM than normal pregnancies, and both GDM and pre-eclampsia increase later risk of CVD. Asian neonates have lower birth weights, and mostly also African neonates. This may translate into increased risks of later obesity, T2DM, and CVD. Foetal overgrowth can promote the same conditions. Breastfeeding represents a possible strategy to reduce risk of T2DM in both the mother and the child. Conclusions Ethnic minority women in Europe with Asian and African origin and their offspring seem to be at increased risk of T2DM and CVD, both currently and in the future. Pregnancy is an important window of opportunity for short and long-term disease prevention. PMID:23467680

  15. Social Interaction, Age, and Ethnicity: An Examination of the "Double Jeopardy" Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, James J.; Bengston, Vern L.

    This paper explores the relationships among ethnicity, age and inherent social dilemmas. The study examines selected dependent variables (economic and health indicators, social interaction, and life satisfaction items) in an effort to determine the extent to which different configurations of age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status produce varying…

  16. Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…

  17. Labor management and mode of delivery among migrant and Spanish women: does the variability reflect differences in obstetric decisions according to ethnic origin?

    PubMed

    Bernis, Cristina; Varea, Carlos; Bogin, Barry; González-González, Antonio

    2013-07-01

    Based on previous findings showing both better birth outcomes in migrant than in Spanish women and different rates of medical intervention according to mother's origin, we hypothesize that mode of delivery decisions to solve similar problems differ according to ethnic origin. Ethnic differences for maternal characteristics, medical intervention, and mode of delivery were evaluated in 16,589 births from a Maternity Hospital in Madrid (Spain). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of mother's ethnic origin on the mode of delivery, adjusting for mother's age, parity, gestational age, birth weight, and epidural anesthesia. Compared with the Spanish mothers, the risk of having a Caesarean section is significantly higher in Latin Americans and significantly lower for the Chinese. Both low birth weight and macrosomic deliveries are at higher risk for Caesarean section. The interventionist system characterizing Spain is being extended to all ethnic groups and, at the same time, different medical interventions are applied to similar problems depending on women's ethnic origin. Obstetric interventions might be contributing to the increasing trend of low birth weight and late preterm/early full term deliveries (37-38 weeks) observed in Spain. Behavioral and cultural values of the women and of the health care providers may contribute to systematic differences in labor management and mode of delivery.

  18. Age as a Factor in Ethnic Accent Identification in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ying Ying

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to answer two research questions. First, can listeners distinguish the ethnicity of the speakers on the basis of voice quality alone? Second, do demographic differences among the listeners affect discriminability? A simple but carefully designed and controlled ethnic identification test was carried out on 325 Singaporean…

  19. Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' stressors and psychosocial functioning: examining ethnic identity affirmation and familism as moderators.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A

    2011-02-01

    Mexican-origin adolescent mothers are at increased risk for poor psychosocial functioning as a result of various stressors with which they must contend; however, existing theory suggests that cultural strengths may help mitigate the negative effects of stress. As such, the current study examined the associations between cultural and economic stressors and Mexican-origin adolescent mothers' (N = 207; M age = 16.23 years, SD = 1.0) internalizing and externalizing behaviors, as well as the degree to which ethnic identity affirmation and familism values moderated these links. Adolescent mothers who reported higher levels of discrimination, acculturative stress, and economic stress also reported higher depressive symptoms and greater involvement in risky behaviors. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation minimized the negative associations between cultural stressors and adolescents' involvement in risky behaviors, with the associations being weakest among adolescents with high levels of ethnic identity. Familism appeared to serve a protective function under conditions of low levels of discrimination, but not under conditions of high levels of discrimination. Findings are discussed with special attention to the developmental and cultural contexts in which these adolescent mothers' lives are embedded, and implications for future research and practice are presented.

  20. Cultural socialization and ethnic pride among Mexican-origin adolescents during the transition to middle school.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Maciel M; Conger, Rand D; Robins, Richard W; Bacher, Kelly Beaumont; Widaman, Keith F

    2014-01-01

    The relation between cultural socialization and ethnic pride during the transition to middle school was examined for 674 fifth-grade students (50% boys; Mage = 10.4 years) of Mexican origin. The theoretical model guiding the study proposes that parent-child relationship quality is a resource in the transmission of cultural values from parent to child and that parental warmth promotes the child's positive response to cultural socialization. Results showed that mother and father cultural socialization predicted youth ethnic pride and that this relation was stronger when parents were high in warmth. The findings highlight the positive role parent cultural socialization may play in the development of adolescent ethnic pride. Furthermore, findings reveal the role of parent-child relationship quality in this process.

  1. Major Depressive Disorder and Dysthymia at the Intersection of Nativity and Racial-Ethnic Origins.

    PubMed

    Szaflarski, Magdalena; Cubbins, Lisa A; Bauldry, Shawn; Meganathan, Karthikeyan; Klepinger, Daniel H; Somoza, Eugene

    2016-08-01

    Immigrants often have lower rates of depression than US-natives, but longitudinal assessments across multiple racial-ethnic groups are limited. This study examined the rates of prevalent, acquired, and persisting major depression and dysthymia by nativity and racial-ethnic origin while considering levels of acculturation, stress, and social ties. Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions were used to model prevalence and 3-year incidence/persistence of major depression and dysthymia (DSM-IV diagnoses) using logistic regression. Substantive factors were assessed using standardized measures. The rates of major depression were lower for most immigrants, but differences were noted by race-ethnicity and outcome. Furthermore, immigrants had higher prevalence but not incidence of dysthymia. The associations between substantive factors and outcomes were mixed. This study describes and begins to explain immigrant trajectories of major depression and dysthymia over a 3-year period. The continuing research challenges and future directions are discussed.

  2. Ethnic differences in hypertension incidence among middle-aged and older adults: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Carson, April P; Howard, George; Burke, Gregory L; Shea, Steven; Levitan, Emily B; Muntner, Paul

    2011-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is higher among blacks than whites. However, inconsistent findings have been reported on the incidence of hypertension among middle-aged and older blacks and whites, and limited data are available on the incidence of hypertension among Hispanics and Asians in the United States. Therefore, this study investigated the age-specific incidence of hypertension by ethnicity for 3146 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants, age 45 to 84 years at baseline, were followed for a median of 4.8 years for incident hypertension, defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg, diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg, or the initiation of antihypertensive medications. The crude incidence rate of hypertension, per 1000 person-years, was 56.8 for whites, 84.9 for blacks, 65.7 for Hispanics, and 52.2 for Chinese. After adjustment for age, sex, and study site, the incidence rate ratio (IRR) for hypertension was increased for blacks age 45 to 54 (IRR: 2.05 [95%CI: 1.47 to 2.85]), 55 to 64 (IRR: 1.63 [95% CI: 1.20 to 2.23]), and 65 to 74 years (IRR: 1.67 [95% CI: 1.21 to 2.30]) compared with whites but not for those 75 to 84 years of age (IRR: 0.97 [95% CI: 0.56 to 1.66]). Additional adjustment for health characteristics attenuated these associations. Hispanic participants also had a higher incidence of hypertension compared with whites; however, hypertension incidence did not differ for Chinese and white participants. In summary, hypertension incidence was higher for blacks compared with whites between 45 and 74 years of age but not after age 75 years. Public health prevention programs tailored to middle-aged and older adults are needed to eliminate ethnic disparities in incident hypertension.

  3. Ethnic identity, perceived support, and depressive symptoms among racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha

    2015-01-01

    Although racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents compose a rapidly growing sector of the U.S. population, few studies have examined the role of contextual factors in mental health among these youth. The present study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms, the relationship between perceived social support and depressive symptoms, and the relationship between sociodemographic factors (ethnicity, gender, and socioeconomic status) and depressive symptoms, among a culturally diverse group of adolescents. In addition, the potential moderating role of nativity status (U.S. born vs. foreign born) was examined in these associations. Participants were 9th and 10th graders (N = 341; 141 foreign born and 200 U.S. born, from Asian, Latino(a), and Afro-Caribbean backgrounds), attending an urban high school. Consistent with previous research, ethnic identity was negatively associated with depressive symptomatology in the overall sample. Nativity status did not moderate the relationship between ethnic identity and depressive symptoms. Among the sociodemographic factors examined, only gender was associated with depressive symptoms, with girls reporting higher levels of depressive symptoms compared with boys. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in the degree of depressive symptomatology between U.S.-born and foreign-born adolescents, and perceived social support was not associated with fewer depressive symptoms. The findings suggest the importance of gender and ethnic identity in mental health and, more broadly, the complexity of social location in mental health outcomes among U.S.-born and foreign-born immigrant-origin adolescents. Implications for research and interventions with immigrant-origin adolescents are discussed.

  4. Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted.

  5. Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

    Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain

  6. Coming of Age Ethnically: Teaching Young Adolescents of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gay, Geneva

    1994-01-01

    Examines the current status of cultural diversity in middle school education theory, suggests some developmental characteristics of young adolescents of color that are often overlooked, and proposes some ways that middle school education could be modified to be more responsive to the ethnic and cultural diversity of early adolescents. (SM)

  7. Secular trends in age at menarche among Chinese girls from 24 ethnic minorities, 1985 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Agardh, Anette; Lau, Patrick W.C.; Hu, Peijin; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Background Declining age at menarche has been observed in many countries. In China, a decrease of 4.5 months per decade in the average age at menarche among the majority Han girls has recently been reported. However, the trends in age at menarche among ethnic minority girls over the past 25 years remain unknown. Objectives To compare the differences in median age at menarche among girls aged 9–18 years across 24 ethnic minorities in 2010 and to estimate the trends in age at menarche in different ethnic minorities from 1985 to 2010. Design We used data from six cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (1985, 1991, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010). The median age at menarche was estimated by using probit analysis. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with the earliest age at menarche were the Koreans (11.79 years), Mongolians (12.44 years), and Zhuang (12.52 years). The three ethnic minorities with the latest age at menarche were the Sala (14.32 years), Yi (13.74 years), and Uighurs (13.67 years). From 1985 to 2010, the age at menarche declined in all 24 minority groups. The Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean minorities showed the largest reductions in age at menarche by 1.79 (p<0.05), 1.69 (p<0.05), and 1.57 (p<0.05) years, respectively, from 1985 to 2010. The Yi, Sala, and Li minorities showed the smallest reductions, with age at menarche declining by only 0.06 (p>0.05), 0.15 (p>0.05), and 0.15 (p>0.05) years, respectively, in the same period. Conclusion A large variation in age at menarche was observed among different ethnic minorities, with the earliest age at menarche found among Korean girls. A reduction in the average age at menarche appeared among most of the ethnic minorities over time, and the largest decrease was observed in Lisu, Kazakh, and Korean girls. Thus, health education should focus on targeting the specific needs of each ethnic minority group. PMID:26220757

  8. Perceived discrimination and ethnic affirmation: Anglo culture orientation as a moderator among mexican-origin adolescent mothers.

    PubMed

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Toomey, Russell B; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B; Flores, Lluliana I

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether Anglo culture orientation modified the association between adolescents' perceived ethnic discrimination and ethnic identity affirmation over time in a sample of Mexican-origin adolescent mothers (N = 205, Mage  = 16.24 years). Results indicated that perceived ethnic discrimination was significantly associated with decreases in ethnic identity affirmation over time for adolescents reporting high Anglo culture orientation, but no relation existed for adolescents reporting low Anglo culture orientation. Findings suggest that a person-environment mismatch (i.e., between adolescents' perceptions of their connection to Anglo culture and the messages they receive from others regarding that connection in terms of perceived ethnic discrimination) may be detrimental to adolescents' development of positive feelings about their ethnicity.

  9. Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project--Enclaves Unit [And] The First Original New Ethnic Comic Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjervold, Christian K.; And Others

    The student booklet presents short chapters illustrating the enclaves unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. A seven-page comic book is also included in the document. Six brief chapters in the student booklet describe ethnic neighborhoods and occupations. Chapter I discusses the Cuban refugees in Miami as…

  10. The association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with Rorschach scores.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gregory J; Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Reese, Jennifer B; Mihura, Joni L

    2015-02-01

    We examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice. PMID:25059682

  11. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  12. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  13. Revisiting the Hispanic health paradox: the relative contributions of nativity, country of origin, and race/ethnicity to childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Kawachi, Ichiro; Bennett, Gary G; Subramanian, S V

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between race and Hispanic ethnicity, maternal and child nativity, country of origin and asthma among 2,558 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children across 65 Los Angeles neighborhoods. A series of two-level multilevel models were estimated to examine the independent effects of race, ethnicity, and country of origin on childhood asthma. Lifetime asthma prevalence was reported among 9% of children, with no significant differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites overall. However, in fully adjusted models, Hispanic children of non-Mexican origin reported higher odds of asthma compared to non-Hispanic white children. A protective nativity effect was also observed among children of foreign born mothers compared to US born mothers. Our study provides evidence in support of the heterogeneity of childhood asthma by Hispanic ethnicity and maternal nativity. These findings suggest moving beyond solely considering racial/ethnic classifications which could mask subgroups at increased risk of childhood asthma.

  14. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  15. Ethnicity and cardiovascular health research: pushing the boundaries by including comparison populations in the countries of origin.

    PubMed

    Agyemang, Charles; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Bhopal, Raj

    2012-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major health problems in most ethnic minority and migrant populations living in high income countries. By the same token, CVD is a looming threat that is creating a double burden in most of the countries where these populations originate from. The causes of the rising burden are unclear, but they are likely to be multifaceted. Traditionally, ethnicity and health research have mostly concentrated on comparing the health of ethnic minority groups with the majority populations of the countries in which they live. This is an important area of research which illuminates ethnic inequalities in health. However, a few studies on international comparisons show that a lot can be learned from comparing similar ethnic groups living in different industrialised countries. Equally, comparing ethnic minority and migrant populations to similar populations in their countries of origin will generate new knowledge about factors that predispose them to poor health outcomes. Thus, to make progress in the field of ethnicity and health research, we need a new conceptual framework that simultaneously studies migrant/ethnic groups in the country of settlement, in similar countries of settlement, and in the countries of ancestral origin. Such studies need to go beyond the commonest design of cross-sectional studies to include more cohort studies, interventions and linkage studies. This article discusses (1) the burden of CVD in ethnic minority and migrant populations; (2) approaches to understanding predisposing factors; and (3) application of the results to give insight into the potential threats that their countries of origin are likely to face. PMID:23534505

  16. Ethnic aged discrimination and disparities in health and social care: a question of social justice.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Megan-Jane; Kanitsaki, Olga

    2008-09-01

    Older overseas-born Australians of diverse cultural and language backgrounds experience significant disparities in their health and social care needs and support systems. Despite being identified as a 'special needs' group, the ethnic aged in Australia are generally underserved by local health and social care services, experience unequal burdens of disease and encounter cultural and language barriers to accessing appropriate health and social care compared to the average Australian-born population. While a range of causes have been suggested to explain these disparities, rarely has the possibility of cultural racism been considered. In this article, it is suggested that cultural racism be named as a possible cause of ethnic aged disparities and disadvantage in health and social care. It is further suggested that unless cultural racism is named as a structural mechanism by which ethnic aged disparities in health and social care have been created and maintained, redressing them will remain difficult.

  17. Trajectories of Ethnic-Racial Identity and Autonomy Among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trajectories of ethnic-racial identity (ERI) and autonomy development among Mexican-origin adolescent females in the United States (N = 181; M(age) at Wave 1 = 16.80 years, SD = 1.00) as they transitioned through the first 5 years of parenthood. Trajectories of ERI and autonomy also were examined in relation to psychosocial functioning. Unconditional latent growth models indicated significant growth in autonomy, ERI resolution, and ERI affirmation from middle to late adolescence. Conditional latent growth models indicated that autonomy and ERI exploration growth trajectories were positively associated with psychosocial adjustment. Although adolescent mothers are experiencing transitions that are not normative during adolescence, they also engage in normative developmental processes, and their engagement in such processes is linked with better adjustment. PMID:26450526

  18. Trajectories of Ethnic-Racial Identity and Autonomy Among Mexican-Origin Adolescent Mothers in the United States.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Jahromi, Laudan B; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trajectories of ethnic-racial identity (ERI) and autonomy development among Mexican-origin adolescent females in the United States (N = 181; M(age) at Wave 1 = 16.80 years, SD = 1.00) as they transitioned through the first 5 years of parenthood. Trajectories of ERI and autonomy also were examined in relation to psychosocial functioning. Unconditional latent growth models indicated significant growth in autonomy, ERI resolution, and ERI affirmation from middle to late adolescence. Conditional latent growth models indicated that autonomy and ERI exploration growth trajectories were positively associated with psychosocial adjustment. Although adolescent mothers are experiencing transitions that are not normative during adolescence, they also engage in normative developmental processes, and their engagement in such processes is linked with better adjustment.

  19. Determinants of dental care utilization for diverse ethnic and age groups.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P L; Andersen, R M

    1997-05-01

    Dental services utilization in the past 12 months was compared across population-based samples of African-American, Navajo, Lakota, Hispanic, and White adults participating in the WHO International Collaborative Study of Oral Health Outcomes (ICS-II) at USA research locations. Bivariate results revealed that ethnic minority groups in both age cohorts reported significantly fewer dental visits in the past 12 months compared with White adults. When dentate status was controlled for, age cohort differences were not significant in Baltimore (African-American and White) and San Antonio (Hispanic and White) research locations. In contrast, older Native Americans (65-74 years) reported visiting the dentist significantly less often compared with their middle-aged (35-44 years) counterparts. Multivariate results indicated that generalizable variables were associated with dental contact in every ICS-II USA ethnic group (i.e., dentate, usual source of dental care, oral pain). Among the diverse ethnic groups, other determinants presented a varied pattern of risk factors for underutilizing dental care. Information on ethnic-specific risk factors can be used to design culturally appropriate and acceptable oral health promotion programs. Generalizable risk factors across ethnic groups inform oral health policy-makers about changing national priorities for promoting oral health. PMID:9549991

  20. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  1. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  2. The Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (PASAT): Norms for Age, Education, and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diehr, Michael C.; Heaton, Robert K.; Miller, Walden; Grant, Igor

    1998-01-01

    Demographic influences on performance on a modified version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task (D. Gronwall and H. Sampson, 1974), a measure of some cognitive functions, were studied with 566 healthy North-American adults. Age, education, and ethnicity were significant predictors. A formula and tables are presented for computing T scores…

  3. Approaches to Learning, Age, Ethnicity and Assessment. Implications for Widening Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridley, Anne M.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated age- and ethnicity-related effects on approaches to learning and the possible impact of such differences on assessment outcomes. This is important in the context of widening participation and the growing number of students from non-traditional educational backgrounds. Some 77 Level 1 psychology undergraduates completed an…

  4. Cultural Orientation in Asian American Adolescents: Variation by Age and Ethnic Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…

  5. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  6. Online Learning across Ethnicity and Age: A Study on Learning Interaction Participation, Perception, and Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng; Kwak, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method study examined whether online learning interaction participation, perception, and learning satisfaction would be consistent across varied age and ethnicity groups. Data were collected from students enrolled in 28 online courses via content analysis with online interaction transcripts, structural equation modeling with the…

  7. Ethnicity, bioethics, and prenatal diagnosis: the amniocentesis decisions of Mexican-origin women and their partners.

    PubMed Central

    Browner, C H; Preloran, H M; Cox, S J

    1999-01-01

    Bioethical standards and counseling techniques that regulate prenatal diagnosis in the United States were developed at a time when the principal constituency for fetal testing was a self-selected group of White, well-informed, middle-class women. The routine use of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) testing, which has become widespread since the mid-1980s, introduced new constituencies to prenatal diagnosis. These new constituencies include ethnic minority women, who, with the exception of women from certain Asian groups, refuse amniocentesis at significantly higher rates than others. This study examines the considerations taken into account by a group of Mexican-origin women who had screened positive for AFP and were deciding whether to undergo amniocentesis. We reviewed 379 charts and interviewed 147 women and 120 partners to test a number of factors that might explain why some women accept amniocentesis and some refuse. A woman's attitudes toward doctors, medicine, and prenatal care and her assessment of the risk and uncertainty associated with the procedure were found to be most significant. Case summaries demonstrate the indeterminacy of the decision-making process. We concluded that established bioethical principles and counseling techniques need to be more sensitive to the way ethnic minority clients make their amniocentesis choices. PMID:10553385

  8. Racial and ethnic differences in skin aging: implications for treatment with soft tissue fillers.

    PubMed

    Alexis, Andrew F; Alam, Murad

    2012-08-01

    Racial and ethnic differences in the age of onset, severity, and anatomical features of facial aging have been described. In addition, increased melanocyte lability and fibroblast reactivity are functional features that are characteristic of skin of color. These differences should be considered when treating patients with soft tissue fillers in order to achieve optimal results. Signs of facial aging in individuals with skin of color tend to be most pronounced in the periorbital and midface region with less prominent features of skin aging in the upper third of the face and a decreased tendency toward perioral rhytides and radial lip lines. As such, volumization of the midface while preserving individual and ethnic ideals of beauty is a key goal. Important treatment considerations include minimization of inflammation, epidermal injury, and bruising, which can lead to aesthetically displeasing sequelae.

  9. 27 CFR 5.56 - Certificates of age and origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates of age and... Labels of Domestically Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.56 Certificates of age and origin. Distilled spirits... the bottler possesses certificates of age and certificates of origin applicable to such spirits...

  10. 27 CFR 5.56 - Certificates of age and origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certificates of age and... Labels of Domestically Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.56 Certificates of age and origin. Distilled spirits... the bottler possesses certificates of age and certificates of origin applicable to such spirits...

  11. 27 CFR 5.56 - Certificates of age and origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certificates of age and... Labels of Domestically Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.56 Certificates of age and origin. Distilled spirits... the bottler possesses certificates of age and certificates of origin applicable to such spirits...

  12. 27 CFR 5.56 - Certificates of age and origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certificates of age and... Labels of Domestically Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.56 Certificates of age and origin. Distilled spirits... the bottler possesses certificates of age and certificates of origin applicable to such spirits...

  13. 27 CFR 5.56 - Certificates of age and origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certificates of age and... Labels of Domestically Bottled Distilled Spirits § 5.56 Certificates of age and origin. Distilled spirits... the bottler possesses certificates of age and certificates of origin applicable to such spirits...

  14. Ethnic identity and risky health behaviors in school-age Mexican-American children.

    PubMed

    Love, Ashley S; Yin, Zenong; Codina, Edward; Zapata, Jesse T

    2006-06-01

    The study examined the relationship between ethnic identity and risky health behaviors in 1,892 Mexican-American students (M age= 14.6, SD= 1.35; 50.3% male) in South Texas. The Ethnic Identity Scale assessed ethnic identity and questions from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey measured risky health behaviors (mixed use of alcohol and drugs, heavy drinking, driving under the influence, regular marijuana use, regular cigarette smoking, lack of regular exercise, not eating breakfast regularly, and carrying a gun or knife to school). Logistic regression tested the relationships between ethnic identity and report of risky health behaviors controlling for potential confounders (sex, free school lunch status, grade, and self-reported school grade). Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and confidence intervals were calculated. Results indicated that being associated with Mexican-American cultural identity was significantly associated with a decreased mixed use of alcohol and drugs (AOR= .97), heavy drinking (AOR= .98), and regular marijuana use (AOR= .97). A stronger ethnic identity was protective against engaging in risky health behaviors among these Mexican-American adolescents.

  15. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  16. Age at menarche in Peninsular Malaysia: time trends, ethnic differentials, and association with ages at marriage and at first birth.

    PubMed

    Tan Boon Ann; Othman, R; Butz, W P; Davanzo, J

    1983-12-01

    This study, based on respondent-reported data from the 1976-77 Malaysian Family Life Survey, analyzeed the association between age at menarche and several family-level factors. The data on mean age at menarche for birth cohorts of pre-1929 to post-1955, by ethnic group, indicate substantial declines for Chinese and Indians but virtually no change for Malays. Age at menarche has fallen by 3.25 months/decade for women born in 1926-61. Girls raised in households of higher socioeconomic status tend to experience earlier menarche. In fact, about half of the secular decline in age at menarche is attributable to improvements in socioeconomic level and, to a lesser extent, declines in the proportion of foreign births. In this sample, age at menarche was related to age at 1st marriage and age at 1st birth. Moreover, controlling for age at menarche affects the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables on the 1 hand and age at marriage and 1st birth on the other. When ethnicity is controlled, a 1 year delay in menarche is associated with a 3 month delay in age at marriage. When the socioeconomic status and childhood abroad indices are controlled, the coefficient of age at menarche increases by almost 1/3. When ethnicity, birthdate, childhood abroad, and socioeconomic status are controlled, each 1 year delay in menarche is associated, on average, with a 5 month delay in age at marriage. Even when socioeconomic variables are controlled, the relationship between age at menarche and at marriage is much smaller for Chinese women than for Indian or Malay women, perhaps because the average age between these 2 events is greater for Chinese (6.8 years, versus 3.5 years for Malays and 4.6 years for Indians). These findings suggest that studies that look only at the relationship between age at menarche and age at 1st marriage, without controlling for other factors, will underestimate the relationship. In addition, it is noted that the observed trend toward falling age

  17. Age at menarche in Peninsular Malaysia: time trends, ethnic differentials, and association with ages at marriage and at first birth.

    PubMed

    Tan Boon Ann; Othman, R; Butz, W P; Davanzo, J

    1983-12-01

    This study, based on respondent-reported data from the 1976-77 Malaysian Family Life Survey, analyzeed the association between age at menarche and several family-level factors. The data on mean age at menarche for birth cohorts of pre-1929 to post-1955, by ethnic group, indicate substantial declines for Chinese and Indians but virtually no change for Malays. Age at menarche has fallen by 3.25 months/decade for women born in 1926-61. Girls raised in households of higher socioeconomic status tend to experience earlier menarche. In fact, about half of the secular decline in age at menarche is attributable to improvements in socioeconomic level and, to a lesser extent, declines in the proportion of foreign births. In this sample, age at menarche was related to age at 1st marriage and age at 1st birth. Moreover, controlling for age at menarche affects the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables on the 1 hand and age at marriage and 1st birth on the other. When ethnicity is controlled, a 1 year delay in menarche is associated with a 3 month delay in age at marriage. When the socioeconomic status and childhood abroad indices are controlled, the coefficient of age at menarche increases by almost 1/3. When ethnicity, birthdate, childhood abroad, and socioeconomic status are controlled, each 1 year delay in menarche is associated, on average, with a 5 month delay in age at marriage. Even when socioeconomic variables are controlled, the relationship between age at menarche and at marriage is much smaller for Chinese women than for Indian or Malay women, perhaps because the average age between these 2 events is greater for Chinese (6.8 years, versus 3.5 years for Malays and 4.6 years for Indians). These findings suggest that studies that look only at the relationship between age at menarche and age at 1st marriage, without controlling for other factors, will underestimate the relationship. In addition, it is noted that the observed trend toward falling age

  18. 27 CFR 5.52 - Certificates of age and origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certificates of age and... From Customs Custody of Bottled Imported Distilled Spirits § 5.52 Certificates of age and origin. (a... government must certify to the age of the youngest distilled spirits in the bottle. The age certified...

  19. 27 CFR 5.52 - Certificates of age and origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certificates of age and... From Customs Custody of Bottled Imported Distilled Spirits § 5.52 Certificates of age and origin. (a... government must certify to the age of the youngest distilled spirits in the bottle. The age certified...

  20. 27 CFR 5.52 - Certificates of age and origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certificates of age and... From Customs Custody of Bottled Imported Distilled Spirits § 5.52 Certificates of age and origin. (a... government must certify to the age of the youngest distilled spirits in the bottle. The age certified...

  1. 27 CFR 5.52 - Certificates of age and origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certificates of age and... From Customs Custody of Bottled Imported Distilled Spirits § 5.52 Certificates of age and origin. (a... government must certify to the age of the youngest distilled spirits in the bottle. The age certified...

  2. 27 CFR 5.52 - Certificates of age and origin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certificates of age and... From Customs Custody of Bottled Imported Distilled Spirits § 5.52 Certificates of age and origin. (a... government must certify to the age of the youngest distilled spirits in the bottle. The age certified...

  3. The Relationship between Ethnic Classroom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging.

    PubMed

    Mok, Sog Yee; Martiny, Sarah E; Gleibs, Ilka H; Keller, Melanie M; Froehlich, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215) extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students' proportion on sense of belonging to school for Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students' proportion on all students' performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging. German students' sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed.

  4. The Relationship between Ethnic Classroom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging.

    PubMed

    Mok, Sog Yee; Martiny, Sarah E; Gleibs, Ilka H; Keller, Melanie M; Froehlich, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215) extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students' proportion on sense of belonging to school for Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students' proportion on all students' performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging. German students' sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed. PMID:27471484

  5. The Relationship between Ethnic Classroom Composition and Turkish-Origin and German Students' Reading Performance and Sense of Belonging

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Sog Yee; Martiny, Sarah E.; Gleibs, Ilka H.; Keller, Melanie M.; Froehlich, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Past research on ethnic composition effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance has reported inconclusive results: Some studies have found no relationship between the proportion of migrant students in school and students' performance, some revealed positive effects, whereas others showed negative effects of the proportion of migrant students. Most of the studies did not consider whether an increase in the proportion of migrant students in the classroom has different effects on migrant and ethnic majority students' performance. For this reason, the present study (N = 9215) extends previous research by investigating the cross-level interaction effect of the proportion of Turkish-origin students in classrooms on Turkish-origin and German students' reading performance with data based on the German National Assessment Study 2008/2009 in the school subject German. In addition, we examined the cross-level interaction effect of Turkish-origin students' proportion on sense of belonging to school for Turkish-origin and German students, as sense of belonging has been shown to be an important predictor of well-being and integration. No cross-level interaction effect on performance emerged. Only a small negative main effect of the Turkish-origin students' proportion on all students' performance was found. As predicted, we showed a cross-level interaction on sense of belonging. Only Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging was positively related to the proportion of Turkish-origin students: The more Turkish-origin students there were in a classroom, the higher Turkish-origin students' sense of belonging. German students' sense of belonging was not related to the ethnic classroom composition. Implications of the results in the educational context are discussed. PMID:27471484

  6. Serum transthyretin levels in senile systemic amyloidosis: effects of age, gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Joel; Koziol, James; Connors, Lawreen H

    2008-12-01

    Serum transthyretin (TTR) levels are reduced in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). A single study of patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) in Sweden found that those individuals also had a significantly lower mean serum TTR concentration than age- and gender-matched controls. To determine if the same phenomenon prevailed in an ethnically more heterogeneous population, we compared the serum TTR levels, as determined by ELISA, in 45 documented SSA patients with congestive heart failure, 20 AL patients with congestive heart failure and population controls. Serum TTR concentrations in the controls were influenced in a statistically significant manner by age, gender and ethnicity. Although it is unlikely that such differences are clinically relevant, they must be considered when assessing the meaning of serum TTR concentrations in any clinically defined population. The serum concentrations in patients with SSA did not differ from age, gender and ethnically matched controls or from a group of AL patients with significant clinical cardiac involvement. We also compared TTR concentrations in 12 African-Americans carrying the TTR V122I allele with those in 826 African-Americans who were homozygous wild type at the TTR locus. The TTR V122I carriers had significantly lower serum TTR concentrations than appropriate controls even though the majority of such individuals had not reached the age of clinical or anatomic risk, i.e. over 60. Thus, as in carriers of other TTR mutations the serum TTR level is lower than normal, despite having a much later appearance of clinical disease. PMID:19065297

  7. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  8. Ethnic Identity Trajectories among Mexican-Origin Girls during Early and Middle Adolescence: Predicting Future Psychosocial Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early…

  9. Mexican origin youths' trajectories of perceived peer discrimination from middle childhood to adolescence: variation by neighborhood ethnic concentration.

    PubMed

    White, Rebecca M B; Zeiders, Katharine H; Knight, George P; Roosa, Mark W; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2014-10-01

    Developmentally salient research on perceived peer discrimination among minority youths is limited. Little is known about trajectories of perceived peer discrimination across the developmental period ranging from middle childhood to adolescence. Ethically concentrated neighborhoods are hypothesized to protect minority youths from discrimination, but strong empirical tests are lacking. The first aim of the current study was to estimate trajectories of perceived peer discrimination from middle childhood to adolescence, as youths transitioned from elementary to middle and to high school. The second aim was to examine the relationship between neighborhood ethnic concentration and perceived peer discrimination over time. Using a diverse sample of 749 Mexican origin youths (48.9% female), a series of growth models revealed that youths born in Mexico, relative to those born in the U.S., perceived higher discrimination in the 5th grade and decreases across time. Youths who had higher averages on neighborhood ethnic concentration (across the developmental period) experienced decreases in perceived peer discrimination over time; those that had lower average neighborhood ethnic concentration levels showed evidence of increasing trajectories. Further, when individuals experienced increases in their own neighborhood ethnic concentration levels (relative to their own cross-time averages), they reported lower levels of perceived peer discrimination. Neighborhood ethnic concentration findings were not explained by the concurrent changes youths were experiencing in school ethnic concentrations. The results support a culturally-informed developmental view of perceived peer discrimination that recognizes variability in co-ethnic neighborhood contexts. The results advance a view of ethnic enclaves as protective from mainstream threats.

  10. Ethnic identity and gender as moderators of the association between discrimination and academic adjustment among Mexican-origin adolescents.

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Wong, Jessie J; Gonzales, Nancy A; Dumka, Larry E

    2012-08-01

    Existing work has identified perceived discrimination as a risk factor that may contribute to the relatively poorer academic outcomes exhibited by Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. The current study examined the longitudinal associations among perceived discrimination and three indices of adolescent adjustment in the school setting (i.e., grade point average, teacher reports of externalizing, adolescents' deviant peer associations) among 178 Mexican-origin adolescents (53% female). Ethnic identity affirmation was examined as a protective factor expected to reduce the negative effects of discrimination on adolescents' adjustment, and gender was examined as a potential moderator of the associations of interest. Findings indicated that the deleterious effects of discrimination on adolescents' adjustment in school were particularly salient for Mexican-origin male adolescents. Importantly, ethnic identity affirmation emerged as a protective factor for Mexican-origin male adolescents by buffering the negative effects of discrimination on their externalizing behaviors in school.

  11. Age and ethnic differences in cold weather and contagion theories of colds and flu.

    PubMed

    Sigelman, Carol K

    2012-02-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with other people causes disease were more causally sophisticated than explanations of how cold weather causes it. Finally, Mexican American and other minority children were more likely than European American children to subscribe to cold weather theories, a difference partially but not wholly attributable to ethnic group differences in parent education. Findings support the value of an intuitive or naïve theories perspective in understanding developmental and sociocultural differences in concepts of disease and in planning health education to help both children and their parents shed misconceptions so that they can focus on effective preventive actions.

  12. Ethnic and Gender Trends for Cardiovascular Risk Behaviors in Anglo and Mexican American Children, Ages Four to Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, Philip R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined gender and ethnic trends in Mexican American and Anglo preschoolers at home and school using physical, physiological, dietary, activity, and socioenvironmental assessments. Height and total skinfolds showed significant ethnic differences, confirming that preschool represents an age of rapid habit and behavior development…

  13. Religion, Ethnicity and Contraceptive Use among Reproductive age Women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obasohan, Phillips Edomwonyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Religion and Ethnicity are the two most important factors that shape the behavioral pattern especially health seeking behaviors of the people of Nigeria. This study seeks to examine the mediatory effects of the linkage between ethnicity and religion with selected socio-demographic variables on the current use of contraception (CUC) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods: Nationally representative sample of 39,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Chi-square was used to analyze the bivariate relationship between exposure variables and CUC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio with the 95% confidence interval. Results: The prevalence of CUC was generally low for women of reproductive age in Nigeria, highest among the Yoruba women and lowest among the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi (HFKS) women; highest among other Christian women and lowest for Muslim women and highest for Yoruba/other religion and lowest for women of Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi/Islam. The odds ratios showed that disparity across ethno-religious boundaries is significant. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system. In Nigeria, a cultural and religious heterogeneous society, current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age is found not to be a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and other socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interactions between the ethnicity and religion. PMID:27621987

  14. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status.

  15. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. PMID:24183134

  16. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Infant Mortality Attributable to Birth Defects by Gestational Age

    PubMed Central

    Broussard, Cheryl S.; Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Lee, Kyung A.; Oster, Matthew; Petrini, Joann R.; Honein, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Birth defects are a leading cause of infant mortality in the United States. Previous reports have highlighted black-white differences in overall infant mortality and infant mortality attributable to birth defects (IMBD). We evaluated the impact of gestational age on US racial/ethnic differences in IMBD. Methods We estimated the rate of IMBD (using ICD-10 codes for the underlying cause of death) using the period linked birth/infant death data for US residents for January 2003 to December 2006. We excluded infants with missing gestational age, implausible values based on Alexander’s index of birth weight for gestational age norms, or gestational ages <20 weeks or >44 weeks; we categorized gestational age into three groups: 20–33; 34–36; and 37–44 weeks. Using Poisson regression, we compared neonatal and postneonatal mortality attributable to birth defects for infants of non-Hispanic black and Hispanic mothers with that for infants of non-Hispanic white mothers stratified by gestational age. Results IMBD occurred in 12.2 per 10,000 live births. Among infants delivered at 37–44 weeks, blacks (and Hispanics, to a lesser degree) had significantly higher neonatal and postneonatal mortality attributable to birth defects than whites. However, among infants delivered at 20–33 or 34–36 weeks, neonatal (but not postneonatal) mortality attributable to birth defects was significantly lower among blacks compared with whites. Conclusions Racial/ethnic differences in IMBD were not explained in these data by differences in gestational age. Further investigation should include an assessment of possible racial/ethnic differences in severity and/or access to timely diagnosis and management of birth defects. PMID:22908111

  17. Revisiting the Hispanic health paradox: the relative contributions of nativity, country of origin, and race/ethnicity to childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Camacho-Rivera, Marlene; Kawachi, Ichiro; Bennett, Gary G; Subramanian, S V

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between race and Hispanic ethnicity, maternal and child nativity, country of origin and asthma among 2,558 non-Hispanic white and Hispanic children across 65 Los Angeles neighborhoods. A series of two-level multilevel models were estimated to examine the independent effects of race, ethnicity, and country of origin on childhood asthma. Lifetime asthma prevalence was reported among 9% of children, with no significant differences between Hispanics and non-Hispanic whites overall. However, in fully adjusted models, Hispanic children of non-Mexican origin reported higher odds of asthma compared to non-Hispanic white children. A protective nativity effect was also observed among children of foreign born mothers compared to US born mothers. Our study provides evidence in support of the heterogeneity of childhood asthma by Hispanic ethnicity and maternal nativity. These findings suggest moving beyond solely considering racial/ethnic classifications which could mask subgroups at increased risk of childhood asthma. PMID:24380929

  18. MULTI-ETHNIC REFERENCE VALUES FOR SPIROMETRY FOR THE 3–95 YEAR AGE RANGE: THE GLOBAL LUNG FUNCTION 2012 EQUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Quanjer, Philip H.; Stanojevic, Sanja; Cole, Tim J.; Baur, Xaver; Hall, Graham L.; Culver, Bruce H.; Enright, Paul L.; Hankinson, John L.; Ip, Mary S.M.; Zheng, Jinping; Stocks, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Objective Derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Material Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5–95 years. Methods Lung function data were collated, and prediction equations derived using the LMS (λ, µ, σ) method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. Results After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals from 3–95 years for Caucasians (N=57,395), African Americans (N=3,545), and North (N=4,992) and South East Asians (N=8,255). FEV1 and FVC between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV1/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Conclusion Spirometric prediction equations for the 3–95 age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent, Arab, Polynesian, Latin American countries, and Africa will further improve these equations in the future. PMID:22743675

  19. Ethnic identity trajectories among Mexican-origin girls during early and middle adolescence: Predicting future psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early adolescents, growth in exploration was associated with more depressive symptoms during middle adolescence, whereas higher initial levels and greater rates of change of affirmation predicted fewer subsequent depressive symptoms. Among middle adolescents, higher baseline levels of exploration and affirmation predicted fewer depressive symptoms in late adolescence. Higher initial levels and greater change in affirmation predicted higher self-esteem among both cohorts. Findings highlight the developmental and multifaceted quality of ethnic identity and that associations between ethnic identity and adjustment may vary by adolescent developmental stage. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26986228

  20. Ethnic identity trajectories among Mexican-origin girls during early and middle adolescence: Predicting future psychosocial adjustment.

    PubMed

    Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A; Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y; Allen, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    We examined trajectories of ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation and their associations with depressive symptoms and self-esteem 3.5 years later among early and middle adolescent Mexican-origin girls (N = 338). Findings indicated that exploration, resolution, and affirmation increased over time for both cohorts. Among early adolescents, growth in exploration was associated with more depressive symptoms during middle adolescence, whereas higher initial levels and greater rates of change of affirmation predicted fewer subsequent depressive symptoms. Among middle adolescents, higher baseline levels of exploration and affirmation predicted fewer depressive symptoms in late adolescence. Higher initial levels and greater change in affirmation predicted higher self-esteem among both cohorts. Findings highlight the developmental and multifaceted quality of ethnic identity and that associations between ethnic identity and adjustment may vary by adolescent developmental stage. (PsycINFO Database Record

  1. Understanding academic attitudes and achievement in mexican-origin youths: ethnic identity, other-group orientation, and fatalism.

    PubMed

    Guzmán, Michele R; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L; Hasse, Richard F

    2005-02-01

    This study tested the relationships among ethnic identity, other-group orientation, fatalism, and 2 dependent variables: attitude toward education and school, and grade point average (GPA). Mexican-origin adolescents (N = 222) completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (J. S. Phinney, 1992), the fatalism scale of the Multiphasic Assessment of Cultural Constructs-Short Form (I. Cuellar, B. Arnold, & G. Gonzalez, 1995), and the attitude scale of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory-High School (C. E. Weinstein & D. R. Palmer, 1990a). Other-group orientation was positively related to attitude and GPA, and a negative relationship between fatalism and attitude was demonstrated. No relationship emerged between ethnic identity and the dependent variables.

  2. International migration and adverse birth outcomes: role of ethnicity, region of origin and destination

    PubMed Central

    Glazier, Richard Henry; Blondel, Beatrice; Zeitlin, Jennifer; Gissler, Mika; Macfarlane, Alison; Ng, Edward; Heaman, Maureen; Stray-Pedersen, Babill; Gagnon, Anita J

    2010-01-01

    Background The literature on international migration and birth outcomes shows mixed results. This study examined whether low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth differed between non-migrants and migrant subgroups, defined by race/ethnicity and world region of origin and destination. Methods A systematic review and meta-regression analyses were conducted using three-level logistic models to account for the heterogeneity between studies and between subgroups within studies. Results Twenty-four studies, involving more than 30 million singleton births, met the inclusion criteria. Compared with US-born black women, black migrant women were at lower odds of delivering LBW and preterm birth babies. Hispanic migrants also exhibited lower odds for these outcomes, but Asian and white migrants did not. Sub-Saharan African and Latin-American and Caribbean women were at higher odds of delivering LBW babies in Europe but not in the USA and south-central Asians were at higher odds in both continents, compared with the native-born populations. Conclusions The association between migration and adverse birth outcomes varies by migrant subgroup and it is sensitive to the definition of the migrant and reference groups. PMID:19692737

  3. Influence of Ethnicity, Gender and Answering Mode on a Virtual Point-to-Origin Task

    PubMed Central

    Kitson, Alexandra; Sproll, Daniel; Riecke, Bernhard E.

    2016-01-01

    In a virtual point-to-origin task, participants seem to show different response patterns and underlying strategies for orientation, such as “turner” and “non-turner” response patterns. Turners respond as if succeeding to update simulated heading changes, and non-turners respond as if failing to update their heading, resulting in left-right hemisphere errors. We present two other response patterns, “non-movers” and “spinners,” that also appear to result in failures to update heading. We have three specific goals in mind: (1) extend previous findings of higher turner rates with spatial language response mode using a point-to-origin task instead of a triangle completion task; (2) replicate the gender effect of males more likely responding as turners; (3) examine ethnicity influence. Designed as a classroom study, we presented participants (N = 498) with four passages through a virtual star field. Participants selected the direction pointing to the origin from four multiple-choice items. Response mode was either pictograms or written language, chosen to compare with similar studies and see if these response modes have an effect on virtual orientation behavior. Results show a majority of participants (48.35%) classified as non-turners, 32.93% turners, 15.57% as non-movers, and 3.14% as spinners. A multinomial regression model reached 49% classification performance. Written spatial language, compared to pictograms, made turner response patterns more likely; this effect was more pronounced for Chinese participants and among females, but not male Caucasians. Moreover, higher turner numbers for written spatial language extends Avraamides findings of higher turner numbers when participants turned their bodies toward the origin but not when they responded verbally. Using pictorial response mode (i.e., top-down picture of a head) may have increased cognitive load because it could be considered more embodied. It remains to be seen how we can reduce the reference

  4. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  5. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  6. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  7. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  8. A Differential Item Functional Analysis by Age of Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination in a Multi-racial/ethnic Sample of Adults.

    PubMed

    Owens, Sherry; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether individual items on the nine item William's Perceived Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) functioned differently by age (<45 vs ≥ 45) within five racial groups in the United States: Asians (n=2,017); Hispanics (n=2,688); Black Caribbeans (n=1,377); African Americans (n=3,434); and Whites (n=854). We used data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Lives and the 2001-2003 National Latino and Asian Studies. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models (MIMIC) were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the EDS by age within each racial/ethnic group. Overall, Asian and Hispanic respondents reported less discrimination than Whites; on the other hand, African Americans and Black Caribbeans reported more discrimination than Whites. Regardless of race/ethnicity, the younger respondents (aged <45 years) reported less discrimination than the older respondents (aged ≥ 45 years). In terms of age by race/ethnicity, the results were mixed for 19 out of 45 tests of DIF (40%). No differences in item function were observed among Black Caribbeans. "Being called names or insulted" and others acting as "if they are afraid" of the respondents were the only two items that did not exhibit differential item functioning by age across all racial/ethnic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that the EDS scale should be used with caution in multi-age multi-racial/ethnic samples.

  9. A Differential Item Functional Analysis by Age of Perceived Interpersonal Discrimination in a Multi-racial/ethnic Sample of Adults.

    PubMed

    Owens, Sherry; Kristjansson, Alfgeir L; Hunte, Haslyn E R

    2015-01-01

    We investigated whether individual items on the nine item William's Perceived Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS) functioned differently by age (<45 vs ≥ 45) within five racial groups in the United States: Asians (n=2,017); Hispanics (n=2,688); Black Caribbeans (n=1,377); African Americans (n=3,434); and Whites (n=854). We used data from the 2001-2003 National Survey of American Lives and the 2001-2003 National Latino and Asian Studies. Multiple-indicator, multiple-cause models (MIMIC) were used to examine differential item functioning (DIF) on the EDS by age within each racial/ethnic group. Overall, Asian and Hispanic respondents reported less discrimination than Whites; on the other hand, African Americans and Black Caribbeans reported more discrimination than Whites. Regardless of race/ethnicity, the younger respondents (aged <45 years) reported less discrimination than the older respondents (aged ≥ 45 years). In terms of age by race/ethnicity, the results were mixed for 19 out of 45 tests of DIF (40%). No differences in item function were observed among Black Caribbeans. "Being called names or insulted" and others acting as "if they are afraid" of the respondents were the only two items that did not exhibit differential item functioning by age across all racial/ethnic groups. Overall, our findings suggest that the EDS scale should be used with caution in multi-age multi-racial/ethnic samples. PMID:26673317

  10. Socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration: examining the potential mechanisms underlying Mexican-origin adolescents' organized activity participation.

    PubMed

    Simpkins, Sandra D; Delgado, Melissa Y; Price, Chara D; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth

    2013-04-01

    The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms by which these macro factors might be related to Mexican-origin adolescents' participation in organized after-school activities. Qualitative data were collected through focus group interviews with 44 adolescents, 50 parents, and 18 activity leaders from 2 neighborhoods that varied in ethnic composition and average family income. Results indicated that family socioeconomic status might be related to adolescents' participation through financial resources and parents' work. Ethnicity was identified as a predictor of participation via experiences with ethnic discrimination, particularly in the neighborhood with a low percentage of Hispanic families. Cultural values and practices were related to participants' preferences for particular activities (e.g., bilingual, church-sponsored) and adolescents' participation in activities. Immigration seemed to be a factor in parents' familiarity with and beliefs about organized activities. PMID:22545831

  11. Understanding Racial and Ethnic Disparities in U.S. Infant Mortality Rates

    MedlinePlus

    ... specific infant mortality rates, by race and Hispanic origin of mother: United States, 2007 Gestational age (weeks) ... ethnic groups is higher than in other developed countries, all U.S. racial and ethnic groups might benefit ...

  12. On the Ethnic Origins of African Development: Chiefs and Precolonial Political Centralization

    PubMed Central

    Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2015-01-01

    We report on recent findings of a fruitful research agenda that explores the importance of ethnic-specific traits in shaping African development. First, using recent surveys from Sub-Saharan African countries, we document that individuals identify with their ethnic group as often as with the nation pointing to the salience of ethnicity. Second, we focus on the various historical and contemporary functions of tribal leaders (chiefs) and illustrate their influence on various aspects of the economy and the polity. Third, we elaborate on a prominent dimension of ethnicity, that of the degree of complexity of pre-colonial political organization. Building on insights from the African historiography, we review recent works showing a strong association between pre-colonial centralization and contemporary comparative development both across and within countries. We also document that the link between pre-colonial political centralization and regional development -as captured by satellite images of light density at night-is particularly strong in areas outside the vicinity of the capitals, where due to population mixing and the salience of national institutions ethnic traits play a lesser role. Overall, our evidence is supportive to theories and narratives on the presence of a “dual” economic and institutional environment in Africa. PMID:27011760

  13. Variations in GP–patient communication by ethnicity, age, and gender: evidence from a national primary care patient survey

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Jenni; Lloyd, Cathy; Campbell, John; Roland, Martin; Abel, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background Doctor–patient communication is a key driver of overall satisfaction with primary care. Patients from minority ethnic backgrounds consistently report more negative experiences of doctor–patient communication. However, it is currently unknown whether these ethnic differences are concentrated in one gender or in particular age groups. Aim To determine how reported GP–patient communication varies between patients from different ethnic groups, stratified by age and gender. Design and setting Analysis of data from the English GP Patient Survey from 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, including 1 599 801 responders. Method A composite score was created for doctor–patient communication from five survey items concerned with interpersonal aspects of care. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to estimate age- and gender-specific differences between white British patients and patients of the same age and gender from each other ethnic group. Results There was strong evidence (P<0.001 for age by gender by ethnicity three-way interaction term) that the effect of ethnicity on reported GP–patient communication varied by both age and gender. The difference in scores between white British and other responders on doctor–patient communication items was largest for older, female Pakistani and Bangladeshi responders, and for younger responders who described their ethnicity as ‘Any other white’. Conclusion The identification of groups with particularly marked differences in experience of GP–patient communication — older, female, Asian patients and younger ‘Any other white’ patients — underlines the need for a renewed focus on quality of care for these groups. PMID:26541182

  14. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices.

    PubMed

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-04-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species.

  15. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices.

    PubMed

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-04-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  16. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N.; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  17. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  18. Exploring Young Adults' Contraceptive Knowledge and Attitudes: Disparities by Race/Ethnicity and Age

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Amaranta D.; Dehlendorf, Christine; Borrero, Sonya; Harper, Cynthia C.; Rocca, Corinne H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Half of pregnancies in the United States are unintended, with the highest proportions occurring among Blacks, Hispanics, and teenagers. Understanding differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraception by race/ethnicity and age can improve efforts to reduce disparities in unintended pregnancy. Methods This analysis used data from the 897 female respondents in National Survey of Reproductive and Contraceptive Knowledge, a survey exploring young adults' knowledge and attitudes about contraception and pregnancy. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to assess racial/ethnic and age group differences in knowledge and attitudes about contraceptives. Findings Hispanics and teenagers (aged 18–19) had lower awareness of available contraceptive methods, and lower knowledge about individual methods compared with White women and young adults (age 20–29). For example, Hispanics (74%) and teenagers (77%) were less likely to have heard of the intrauterine device (IUD) than were White women (90%) and young adults (90%), and were less likely to know that a woman experiencing side effects could switch brands of oral contraceptive pills (72% of Hispanics vs. 86% of White women; 76% of teenagers vs. 90% of young adults). Hispanics born outside the United States had lower knowledge about contraceptives than U.S.-born Hispanics. For example, foreign-born Hispanics were less likely than U.S.-born Hispanics to have heard of the IUD (59% vs. 82%) or the vaginal ring (55% vs. 95%). Conclusions Lower contraceptive knowledge among teenagers and Hispanics, particularly immigrants, suggests the importance of disseminating family planning information to these women as one means to address disparities in unintended pregnancy. PMID:24725755

  19. Immigrant Differences in School-Age Children's Verbal Trajectories: A Look at Four Racial/Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Tama; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study explored inter- and intraindividual immigrant group differences in children's English verbal ability over ages 6-16 in 4 racial/ethnic groups--White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans (N=2,136). Although all children's mean verbal scores increased with age, immigrant children (except for Black Americans)…

  20. [Thermodynamics of the origin of life, evolution and aging].

    PubMed

    Gladyshev, G P

    2014-01-01

    Briefly discusses the history of the search of thermodynamic approach to explain the origin of life, evolution and aging of living beings. The origin of life is the result of requirement by the quasi-equilibrium hierarchical thermodynamics, in particular, the supramolecular thermodynamics. The evolution and aging of living beings is accompanied with changes of chemical and supramolecular compositions of living bodies, as well as with changes in the composition and structure of all hierarchies of the living world. The thermodynamic principle of substance stability predicts the existence of a single genetic code in our universe. The thermodynamic theory optimizes physiology and medicine and recommends antiaging diets and medicines. Hierarchical thermodynamics forms the design diversity of culture and art. The thermodynamic theory of origin of life, evolution and aging is the development of Clausius-Gibbs thermodynamics. Hierarchical thermodynamics is the mirror of Darwin-Wallace's-theory.

  1. Age and Origin of the Crustal Dichotomy in Eastern Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    2002-01-01

    The crustal dichotomy in eastern Mars is largely due to the very large impact which produced the Utopia Basin. Buried impact basins on the Utopia Basin constrain the Utopia impact (and therefore the dichotomy) to be very Early Noachian in age. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  2. Racial and ethnic differences in hospitalization rates among aged Medicare beneficiaries, 1998.

    PubMed

    Eggers, P W; Greenberg, L G

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to study racial variations in access to health care for minorities other than black persons have been hampered by a paucity of data. The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) has made efforts in the past few years to enhance the racial codes on the Medicare enrollment files to include Hispanic, Asian American, and Native American designations. This study examines hospitalization rates by these more detailed racial/ethnic groupings. The results show black, Hispanic, and Native American aged beneficiaries compared with white beneficiaries have higher hospitalization rates. Asian American beneficiaries have lower hospitalization rates. Rates of revascularization--coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)--are lower for black, Hispanic, and Native American beneficiaries compared with white beneficiaries, while rates for Asian Americans are similar to rates for white beneficiaries.

  3. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Hospitalization Rates Among Aged Medicare Beneficiaries, 1998.

    PubMed

    Eggers, Paul W; Greenberg, Linda G

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to study racial variations in access to health care for minorities other than black persons have been hampered by a paucity of data. The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) has made efforts in the past few years to enhance the racial codes on the Medicare enrollment files to include Hispanic, Asian American, and Native American designations. This study examines hospitalization rates by these more detailed racial/ethnic groupings. The results show black, Hispanic, and Native American aged beneficiaries compared with white beneficiaries have higher hospitalization rates. Asian American beneficiaries have lower hospitalization rates. Rates of revascularization-coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)-are lower for black, Hispanic, and Native American beneficiaries compared with white beneficiaries, while rates for Asian Americans are similar to rates for white beneficiaries.

  4. Effects of age, ethnicity and menopause on ambulatory blood pressure: Japanese-American and Caucasian school teachers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Brown, D E; Sievert, L L; Aki, S L; Mills, P S; Etrata, M B; Paopao, R N; James, G D

    2001-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements of 120 female teachers of Japanese-American or Caucasian ethnicity working in public schools located in Hilo, Hawaii, were recorded. BP was measured at 15-min intervals during waking hours and 30-min intervals during sleep over a 24-hr period that included a full work day. These measurements were averaged during three daily settings: at work, at home while awake ("home"), and during sleep. ANCOVAs using ethnicity as a predictor variable of BP, with age and the body mass index (BMI) as covariates, show a significant interaction effect between age and ethnicity in some daily settings. Among Japanese-Americans partial correlations between age and systolic BP controlling for the BMI are significant in these settings, while among Caucasians none of the correlations are significant. Menopausal status is not significantly related to BP when age is controlled in analyses. There was no significant ethnic difference in number of symptoms reported, including frequency of "hot flushes/flashes," within the past two weeks. Those who reported hot flushes had significantly elevated BP in waking settings but not during sleep. The greater increase in BP with age in Japanese-Americans may be related to their elevated risk for development of hypertension. The lack of a significant relationship between menopausal status and BP may be due to the high rate of usage of hormonal replacement therapy in this sample, as well as an unusually high rate of hysterectomy. PMID:11400219

  5. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson et al. (Counsellor Education & Supervision 41: 120-130, 1992) was administered at the end of a semester to counselling students engaged in different stages of a counsellor training program. No significant differences were found in regard to gender and age-group categories, but significant differences were found among ethnic groups. It was found that Asian and White students generally had similar and also lower counselling self-efficacy means than the other ethnic groups in the sample in regard to several counselling-specific categories. Implications for counsellor educators in training counselling students of diverse characteristics are discussed.

  6. Biostatistical evaluation of mixed stains with contributors of different ethnic origin.

    PubMed

    Fukshansky, N; Bär, W

    1999-01-01

    The analysis of a mixed biological stain by means of highly polymorphic VNTR systems usually reveals a profile composed of multiple alleles. If the victim and one or several suspects match the profile the evidential strength of the matches has to be very carefully analysed. The appropriate methods for the statistical analysis of DNA profiles advanced recently by Weir with coauthors and by the present authors are limited to cases where all non-tested persons involved in the analysis belong to the same ethnic group. The present paper extends the theory beyond this limitation.

  7. The Protective Influence of Family Bonding on Smoking Initiation in Adolescents by Racial/Ethnic and Age Subgroups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahabee-Gittens, E. Melinda; Khoury, Jane C.; Huang, Bin; Dorn, Lorah D.; Ammerman, Robert T.; Gordon, Judith S.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examined the associations among family bonding factors and the initiation of smoking by race/ethnicity and age group among nonsmokers at Wave 1. Overall, 18% of the sample initiated smoking by Wave 2. For younger African-American and Hispanic youths, high maternal…

  8. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  9. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  10. Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

  11. Development of Ethnic, Racial, and National Prejudice in Childhood and Adolescence: A Multinational Meta-Analysis of Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…

  12. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  13. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  14. Performance of San Joaquin Delta College Freshmen Students in Reading, Writing and Math by Ethnicity, High School Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Merrilee R.; And Others

    A study was conducted in fall 1985 to determine how well students at San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC) were prepared in reading, writing, and mathematics, comparing students by ethnicity, high school status, and age. SJDC uses the Comparative Guidance Placement (CGP) Tests to to assess all new students who do not have an Associate of Arts degree or…

  15. Age, Sex and Ethnic Trade-Offs in Faculty Employment: You Can't Have Your Cake and Eat It Too.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linnell, Robert H.

    Age, sex, and ethnic trade-offs in faculty employment in higher education give rise to dilemmas--situations requiring a choice between equally undesirable alternatives. When an over-age-65 faculty member retains a full time position, someone else--probably a woman, ethnic minority, and/or young person--is deprived of a position. The problem of age…

  16. Blood Cadmium Levels in Women of Childbearing Age Vary by Race/Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Mijal, Renée S.; Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-01-01

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long -lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half -life of the metal, reproductive age-exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20–44 who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n =1734–3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06–2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96–4.47) times those of non -Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non -Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences. PMID:20400068

  17. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  18. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, "BMIref"), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m², respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders' and ethnicities' trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40-50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  19. Tracing the Origins of Success: Implications for Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Nora M.; Martin, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This paper addresses the debate about the use of the term “successful aging” from a humanistic, rather than behavioral, perspective. It attempts to uncover what success, a term frequently associated with aging, is: how can it be defined and when did it first come into use? In this paper, we draw from a number of humanistic perspectives, including the historical and linguistic, in order to explore the evolution of the term “success.” We believe that words and concepts have deep implications for how concepts (such as aging) are culturally and historically perceived. Design and Methods: We take a comparative approach, turning to the etymological roots of this term in British, French, and German literature. According to the earliest entries of the term in the Oxford English Dictionary, events can have good or bad success. Another definition marks success as outcome oriented. Results: Often used in the context of war, religion, and medicine, the neutral, but often negative, use of “success” in literature of the Renaissance demonstrates the tensions that surround the word, and suggests that success is something to be approached carefully. Implications: Ignoring the ambiguous origins of success erases the fact that aging in earlier centuries echoes much of the same ambivalence with which many people discuss it today. Attending to the origins of success can help gerontologists understand the humanistic tradition behind their inquiry into what successful aging means today. PMID:24997595

  20. The Experience of Ethnic and Racial Group Membership among Immigrant-Origin Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tummala-Narra, Pratyusha; Sathasivam-Rueckert, Nina

    2016-01-01

    Immigrant-origin adolescents in the United States face a number of stressors across different social contexts (e.g., home, school), and yet, distress related to these stressors often goes unnoticed and access to resources is limited. This study examined how racial minority immigrant-origin adolescents in an urban setting construct and negotiate…

  1. The effect of ethnicity and age on palatal size and shape: a study in a northern Chilean healthy population.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Tartaglia, G M; Carvajal, R; Palomino, H

    2000-01-01

    Race and ethnicity influence the form of the human craniofacial complex in varying ways. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the effects of ethnicity (mestizos, Aymara, non-Aymara), age (adolescents and adults), and sex on the form (size and shape) of the hard palate in normal Native American individuals. From the dental casts of 51 individuals with a complete permanent dentition, the x, y, and z coordinates of several standardized palatal landmarks were obtained with a computerized 3-dimensional digitizer. Palatal landmarks were used to derive a mathematical equation for palatal shape in the frontal and sagittal planes. Palatal width and length, frontal and sagittal heights, sagittal slope, and deviation of the raphe from the midline were also calculated. In the Aymara subjects, there was no effect of sex on palatal size, but there was an effect on palatal shape independent of size, especially with respect to male growth. Indeed, female palates apparently did not change their shape between adolescence and adulthood, while male palates increased their posterior "height." Overall, the 3 ethnic groups appeared to possess similar palatal size, with small significant differences. In the adult individuals, ethnicity did not seem to influence palatal shape. In contrast, adolescent males showed differences: non-Aymara subjects had the "highest" palatal shape, Aymara the "lowest," and mestizos an intermediate position. In conclusion, ethnicity does not seem to be a factor of major variability of human hard palate morphology, at least in the present 3 northern Chilean groups, as already found for dental arch shape. Age probably has a larger effect, particularly in the posterior part of the palate, where the eruption of the second and third molars between adolescence and young adulthood may play a role. A further development of the present investigation may involve larger samples of individuals from different ethnic groups.

  2. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns.

  3. Aging among Jewish Americans: Implications for Understanding Religion, Ethnicity, and Service Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glicksman, Allen; Koropeckyj-Cox, Tanya

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article challenges popular conceptions of the nature of ethnicity and religiousness in the gerontological literature. Using the example of older Jewish Americans, the authors argue for more nuanced definitions and usage of terms such as "religion" and "ethnicity" in order to begin to understand the complex interweaving of these two…

  4. Ethnicity in the Electronic Age: Looking at the Internet through a Multicultural Lens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Thomas

    This research report examines the unique preferences, attitudes, motivations, and practices of ethnic Internet users, particularly African Americans and Hispanic Americans, discussing implications for marketing to U.S. ethnic communities. Data come from field research collected between August-November 2000. Researchers partnered with popular…

  5. Language, Education and Ethnicity: Whose Rights Will Prevail in an Age of Globalisation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Keith

    2007-01-01

    Education and ethnicity cannot be discussed without taking language into account. This paper will argue that any discussion of ethnic minorities cannot ignore the question of language, nor can any discussion of human rights ignore the question of language rights. Unfortunately, in today's globalised world, governments and minorities are faced with…

  6. Down Syndrome: Parental Origin, Recombination, and Maternal Age

    PubMed Central

    Vraneković, Jadranka; Božović, Ivana Babić; Grubić, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlinić, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frédérique; Čulić, Vida

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations. PMID:21861707

  7. Down syndrome: parental origin, recombination, and maternal age.

    PubMed

    Vraneković, Jadranka; Božović, Ivana Babić; Grubić, Zorana; Wagner, Jasenka; Pavlinić, Dinko; Dahoun, Sophie; Bena, Frédérique; Culić, Vida; Brajenović-Milić, Bojana

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess (1) the parental origin of trisomy 21 and the stage in which nondisjunction occurs and (2) the relationship between altered genetic recombination and maternal age as risk factors for trisomy 21. The study included 102 cases with Down syndrome from the Croatian population. Genotyping analyses were performed by polymerase chain reaction using 11 short tandem repeat markers along chromosome 21q. The vast majority of trisomy 21 was of maternal origin (93%), followed by paternal (5%) and mitotic origin (2%). The frequencies of maternal meiotic I (MI) and meiotic II errors were 86% and 14%, respectively. The highest proportion of cases with zero recombination was observed among those with maternal MI derived trisomy 21. A higher proportion of telomeric exchanges were presented in cases with maternal MI errors and cases with young mothers, although these findings were not statistically significant. The present study is the first report examining parental origin and altered genetic recombination as a risk factor for trisomy 21 in a Croatian population. The results support that trisomy 21 has a universal genetic etiology across different human populations. PMID:21861707

  8. Perspiration Functions in Different Ethnic, Age, and Sex Populations: Modification of Sudomotor Function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Murota, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The sudomotor mechanism, wich contributes to tolerating thermal environments, is affected by not only the body temperature, but also sex, ethnicity, exercise training, region, season, and heat adaptation. Aging attenuates the sudomotor function by the decreased peripheral sensitivity to acetylcholine and demyelination of innervating nerves. Women show less sudomotor activity than men. Heat adaptation with sudomotor modification is induced by repetitive physical and/or thermal training. Short-term heat acclimation increases sweat gland activity. Long-term heat acclimation results in a reduction in the sweating response to stimuli. Residents of tropical areas sweat less and more slowly than residents of temperate areas. Short-term heat acclimation enhances the sweating response. Long-term heat acclimation, from seasonal change or migration, diminishes the sweating response. Also, deacclimation can be induced by migration from a tropical area to a temperate area. Body composition, especially brown adipose tissue, and weight affect thermal responses. Further studies should investigate BAT and endocrinal pyrogens as additional factors. PMID:27584970

  9. Trajectories of Ethnic-Racial Identity and Autonomy among Mexican-origin Adolescent Mothers in the U.S

    PubMed Central

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Jahromi, Laudan B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined trajectories of ethnic-racial identity (ERI) and autonomy development among Mexican-origin adolescent females in the U.S. (N = 181; Mage at Wave 1 = 16.80 years, SD = 1.00) as they transitioned through the first five years of parenthood. Trajectories of ERI and autonomy also were examined in relation to psychosocial functioning. Unconditional latent growth models indicated significant growth in autonomy, ERI resolution, and ERI affirmation from middle to late adolescence. Conditional latent growth models indicated that autonomy and ERI exploration growth trajectories were positively associated with psychosocial adjustment. Although adolescent mothers are experiencing transitions that are not normative during adolescence, they also engage in normative developmental processes, and their engagement in such processes is linked with better adjustment. PMID:26450526

  10. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  11. Ethnic elders.

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, S.

    1996-01-01

    The numbers of elderly people from ethnic groups within Britain is rising rapidly as postwar immigrants age. Ethnic elders face problems owing to age-associated increased risks of common chronic diseases, racial discrimination, and poor access to many health services and social services. This disadvantage will be alleviated through increased understanding of health beliefs held by ethnic elders and ensuring better access to services through mechanisms such as employment of more staff from ethnic minority groups in senior positions, better training of staff, and more appropriate and sensitive environments. The myths that family care is sufficient, that no use of services implies no need, and that assimilation into the majority population will occur must be discounted. Images p610-a Fig 1 PMID:8806256

  12. Multiple ethnic origins of mitochondrial DNA lineages for the population of Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Fregel, Rosa; Seetah, Krish; Betancor, Eva; Suárez, Nicolás M; Čaval, Diego; Caval, Saša; Janoo, Anwar; Pestano, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first genetic assessment of the contemporary Mauritian population. Small island nodes such as Mauritius played a critical role in historic globalization processes and revealing high-resolution details of labour sourcing is crucial in order to better understand early-modern diaspora events. Mauritius is a particularly interesting case given detailed historic accounts attesting to European (Dutch, French and British), African and Asian points of origin. Ninety-seven samples were analysed for mitochondrial DNA to begin unravelling the complex dynamics of the island's modern population. In corroboration with general demographic information, the majority of maternal lineages were derived from South Asia (58.76%), with Malagasy (16.60%), East/Southeast Asian (11.34%) and Sub-Saharan African (10.21%) also making significant contributions. This study pinpoints specific regional origins for the South Asian genetic contribution, showing a greater influence on the contemporary population from northern and southeast India. Moreover, the analysis of lineages related to the slave trade demonstrated that Madagascar and East Asia were the main centres of origin, with less influence from West Africa.

  13. Multiple Ethnic Origins of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages for the Population of Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Betancor, Eva; Suárez, Nicolás M.; Calaon, Diego; Čaval, Saša; Janoo, Anwar; Pestano, Jose

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on the first genetic assessment of the contemporary Mauritian population. Small island nodes such as Mauritius played a critical role in historic globalization processes and revealing high-resolution details of labour sourcing is crucial in order to better understand early-modern diaspora events. Mauritius is a particularly interesting case given detailed historic accounts attesting to European (Dutch, French and British), African and Asian points of origin. Ninety-seven samples were analysed for mitochondrial DNA to begin unravelling the complex dynamics of the island's modern population. In corroboration with general demographic information, the majority of maternal lineages were derived from South Asia (58.76%), with Malagasy (16.60%), East/Southeast Asian (11.34%) and Sub-Saharan African (10.21%) also making significant contributions. This study pinpoints specific regional origins for the South Asian genetic contribution, showing a greater influence on the contemporary population from northern and southeast India. Moreover, the analysis of lineages related to the slave trade demonstrated that Madagascar and East Asia were the main centres of origin, with less influence from West Africa. PMID:24676463

  14. Secular trends for age at spermarche among Chinese boys from 11 ethnic minorities, 1995–2010: a multiple cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi; Ma, Jun; Li, Liu-Bai; Dong, Bin; Wang, Zhiqiang; Agardh, Anette

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We compared the differences in median age at spermarche among 11 ethnic minorities in 2010, estimated the trends regarding age at spermarche in different ethnic minorities from 1995 to 2010, and explored the association of spermarche with body mass index (BMI). Methods We used four cross-sectional Chinese National Surveys on Students’ Constitution and Health (CNSSCH, 1995, 2000, 2005 and 2010), and the total sample size was 40 113 children aged 11–18 years. The median age at spermarche of each ethnic minority was determined by using probit analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess the association of spermarche with BMI. Results In 2010, the ethnic minorities with earliest age at spermarche were Qiang (12.03 years), Zhuang (12.91 years) and Kirghiz (13.17 years); the three ethnic minorities with latest age at spermarche were Dong (14.73 years), Yao (14.60 years), and Naxi (14.36 years). From 1995 to 2010, age at spermarche showed a decline in almost each minority group except Yao and Dong. A higher BMI was associated with an increased likelihood of having reached spermarche after adjusting for age, regions or ethnic minorities. Conclusions A large variation in age at spermarche was observed among different ethnic minorities. The age at spermarche showed a downward shift in almost each of the 11 ethnic minorities with different patterns over time, and the children with higher BMI are more likely to enter puberty early. PMID:26911588

  15. Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Left Ventricular Structure by Age and Gender: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Javaheri, Sogol; Sharma, Ravi K.; Wang, Rui; Weng, Jia; Rosen, Boaz D.; Bluemke, David A.; Lima, Joao A.C.; Redline, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The presence and severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are associated with impaired left ventricular (LV) structure and function. Our goal was to quantify the associations between LV systolic function and mass with severity of OSA in an ethnically diverse cohort, assessing variations by age and sex. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of data from 1,412 racially/ethnically diverse participants across 6 US communities from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis who underwent both overnight polysomnography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging from 2010–2012. We evaluated the association between the obstructive apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) by clinical category (< 5, 5–15, 15–30, 30–50, > 50) and secondary measures of sleep apnea with the outcomes left ventricular (LV) mass adjusted for height, LV mass/volume ratio, and LV ejection fraction. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders and mediators, LV mass was significantly increased with increasing AHI category for subjects age 65 y or younger (β = 1.84 ± 0.47 g/m, P = 0.0001). The association between the AHI and LV mass appeared stronger in whites and Chinese compared to blacks and Hispanics, although interaction terms were not statistically significant. Additionally, while both LV mass and LV mass/volume ratio were significantly associated with hypoxia, ejection fraction was not associated with any OSA severity index. Comparable associations were observed in men and women. Conclusions: Independent of confounders, higher levels of AHI are significantly associated with increased LV mass in both men and women younger than 65 y from a community-based cohort. Citation: Javaheri S, Sharma RK, Wang R, Weng J, Rosen BD, Bluemke DA, Lima JA, Redline S. Association between obstructive sleep apnea and left ventricular structure by age and gender: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. SLEEP 2016;39(3):523–529. PMID:26888453

  16. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  17. Mutational Analysis in Pediatric Thyroid Cancer and Correlations with Age, Ethnicity, and Clinical Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Nikita, Maria Eleni; Jiang, Wen; Cheng, Shih-Min; Hantash, Feras M.; McPhaul, Michael J.; Newbury, Robert O.; Phillips, Susan A.; Reitz, Richard E.; Waldman, Frederic M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC) incidence in pediatrics is rising, most being papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of different mutations in pediatric WDTC and correlate the genotype with the clinical phenotype. Methods: This is a single-center retrospective study. Thyroid tissue blocks from 42 consecutive pediatric WDTC patients who underwent thyroidectomy between 2001 and 2013 were analyzed at Quest Diagnostics for BRAFV600E, RAS mutations (N,K,H), and RET/PTC and PAX8/PPARγ rearrangements, using validated molecular methods. Thyroid carcinomas included PTC, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC), and follicular variant of PTC (FVPTC). Results: Thirty-nine samples (29 females) were genotyped. The mean age at diagnosis was 14.7 years (range 7.9–18.4 years), and most were Hispanic (56.4%) or Caucasian (35.9%). The mean follow-up period was 2.9 years. Mutations were noted in 21/39 (53.8%), with both BRAFV600E (n = 9), and RET/PTC (n = 6) detected only in PTC. Mutations were detected in 2/5 FTC (PAX8/PPARγ and NRAS) and 3/6 FVPTC cases (PAX8/PPARγ). Of 28 PTC patients, 57.1% had mutations: 32.1% with BRAFV600E, 21.4% with RET/PTC, and 3.6% with NRAS. Of patients with BRAFV600E, 77.8% were Hispanic and 88.9% were >15 years, while all RET/PTC-positive patients were ≤15 years (p = 0.003). Tumor size, lymph node involvement, and distant metastasis at diagnosis (or soon after 131I ablation) did not vary significantly based on the mutation. Conclusions: BRAFV600E was the most common mutation, especially in older and Hispanic adolescents. A larger, ethnically diverse pediatric cohort followed long term will enable the genotypic variability, clinical presentation, and response to therapy to be better assessed. PMID:26649796

  18. Generic Tobacco Use among Four Ethnic Groups in a School Age Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Moor, Carl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…

  19. Origin and Age of the Yemi Limestone Breccia, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KOH, Hee Jae

    2015-04-01

    The Yemi Limestone Breccia (YLB), which has been argued for its age and depositional origin, occurs sporadically in the upper part of the Cambro-Ordovician Chosun Supergroup (CS) in Korean Peninsula. The YLB is characterized by a carbonate breccia with calcareous and carbonaceous shale matrix. Based on occurrence and composition of breccia and matrix, the YLB can be classified into Type-I and Type-II carbonate breccia. Type-I carbonate breccia comprises dark gray to light gray limestone and lime-mudstone breccia with calcareous matrix and is commonly constrained within the upper part of the CS as a lens-shaped zonal occurrence. The Type-I carbonate breccia results in syn-depositional solution-collapsed brecciation through karstification during intermittent subareal exposure of platform carbonate in Middle Ordovician. Type-II carbonate breccia mainly occurs in the uppermost part of the CS showing an irregular-shaped distribution rather than sheet-like layering parallel to bedding. Type-II carbonate breccia consists of gray to dark gray limestone and lime-mudstone breccia and shale matrix. Matrix is typically purple to reddish and gray to dark gray shale with minor amount of sandstone, and partly carbonaceous indicating organic origin. Most of Type-II carbonate breccia is morphologically classified into chaotic breccia. Matrix and breccia display considerable difference of composition and deformational structures. Breccia preserves various penetrative ductile to brittle deformation structures such as cleavage superimposing bedding, minor fold structure, minor faults crosscutting both dolomite and calcite veins, and fracture zones filled in calcite. However, these deformational structures of breccia do not continuously extended into matrix. Especially Type-II carbonate breccia is well observed in limestone of the lower part of unconformity between CS and clastic rocks of the Jurassic Bansong Group (BS). Fractured and solution zones of brecciated limestone of the CS

  20. Differences in alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by age, gender, and race/ethnicity – United States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Ayers, Amanda J.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim No previous national study has reported the prevalence of alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by demographic characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the alcohol brand preferences among underage drinkers in different demographic categories. Method We administered an online survey to a national sample of 1,031 underage youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. The sample was recruited from a previously established internet survey panel. The main outcome measure was the estimated 30-day consumption prevalence for each of 898 brands by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results Two beer brands—Bud Light and Budweiser—are uniformly popular among underage drinkers, regardless of age, gender, or race/ethnicity. There are several hard liquor brands whose use increases markedly with age. Two flavored alcoholic beverages sharing the names of hard liquor brands—Smirnoff and Bacardi—are more popular with older youth. Some flavored alcoholic beverages are about twice as popular among female underage drinkers. There are 12 alcohol brands that are uniquely popular among Black underage drinkers, and these brands are heavily promoted in urban music. Conclusion There are differential patterns of brand-specific alcohol use among underage drinkers. PMID:26557044

  1. Exome sequencing identifies titin mutations causing hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) in families of diverse ethnic origins

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure (HMERF) was described in several North European families and recently linked to a titin gene (TTN) mutation. We independently studied HMERF-like diseases with the purpose to identify the cause, refine diagnostic criteria, and estimate the frequency of this disease among myopathy patients of various ethnic origins. Methods Whole exome sequencing analysis was carried out in a large U.S. family that included seven members suffering from skeletal muscle weakness and respiratory failure. Subsequent mutation screening was performed in further 45 unrelated probands with similar phenotypes. Studies included muscle strength evaluation, nerve conduction studies and concentric needle EMG, respiratory function test, cardiologic examination, and muscle biopsy. Results A novel TTN p.Gly30150Asp mutation was identified in the highly conserved A-band of titin that co-segregated with the disease in the U.S. family. Screening of 45 probands initially diagnosed as myofibrillar myopathy (MFM) but excluded based on molecular screening for the known MFM genes led to the identification of a previously reported TTN p.Cys30071Arg mutation in one patient. This same mutation was also identified in a patient with suspected HMERF. The p.Gly30150Asp and p.Cys30071Arg mutations are localized to a side chain of fibronectin type III element A150 of the 10th C-zone super-repeat of titin. Conclusions Missense mutations in TTN are the cause of HMERF in families of diverse origins. A comparison of phenotypic features of HMERF caused by the three known TTN mutations in various populations allowed to emphasize distinct clinical/pathological features that can serve as the basis for diagnosis. The newly identified p.Gly30150Asp and the p.Cys30071Arg mutation are localized to a side chain of fibronectin type III element A150 of the 10th C-zone super-repeat of titin. PMID:23514108

  2. The Association of Menopausal Age and NT-proBrain Natriuretic Peptide: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ebong, Imo A.; Watson, Karol E.; Goff, David C.; Bluemke, David A.; Srikanthan, Preethi; Horwich, Tamara; Bertoni, Alain G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Menopausal age could affect the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the associations of early menopause (menopause occurring before 45 years of age) and menopausal age with NT-pro brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), a potential risk marker of CVD and heart failure (HF). Methods Our cross-sectional study included 2275 postmenopausal women, aged 45–85 years, without clinical CVD (2000–2002), from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Participants were classified as having or not having early menopause. NT-proBNP was log-transformed. Multivariable linear regression was used for analysis. Results There were 561 women with early menopause. The median NT-proBNP value was 79.0 (41.1–151.6) pg/ml for all participants with values of 83.4 (41.4–164.9) pg/ml and 78.0 (40.8–148.3) pg/ml for women with and without early menopause respectively. The mean (SD) age was 65 (10.1) and 65 (8.9) years for women with and without early menopause respectively. There were no significant interactions between menopausal age and ethnicity. In multivariable analysis, early menopause was associated with a 10.7% increase in NT-proBNP while each year increase in menopausal age was associated with a 0.7% decrease in NT-proBNP. Conclusion Early menopause is associated with greater NT-proBNP levels while each year increase in menopausal age is associated with lower NT-proBNP levels in postmenopausal women. PMID:25290536

  3. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1. PMID:1561298

  4. Ethnicity, location, age, and fluoridation factors in baby bottle tooth decay and caries prevalence of Head Start children.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G P; Parker, W A; Lyon, T C; Drum, M A; Coleman, G C

    1992-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a term applied to a specific form of rampant decay associated with inappropriate bottle or breast feeding of infants and young children. Although the prevalence of BBTD has been studied in individual ethnic groups, comparison studies are rare. Head Start children have frequently served as study subjects for assessing the prevalence of BBTD. The purpose of this study was to compare BBTD and caries prevalence among Head Start children who are members of four ethnic groups in five southwestern States. Age, residence, and fluoridation status were also compared for the total sample and ethnic categories. The sampling process was a stratified random site selection; it was used to obtain data on 1,230 children. This number constituted 3 percent of the children enrolled in Head Start in Public Health Service Region VI (Arkansas, Louisiana, New Mexico, Oklahoma, and Texas) where the study was conducted. The criterion for determining the presence of BBTD was based on the number of carious deciduous maxillary incisors observed. The severity of the condition was reported as two of four and three of four of the target teeth affected. Thus, two levels of severity are reported. BBTD was prevalent in approximately 24 percent and 15 percent of the total sample, depending on the severity criterion used. Native American children had a significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence than Hispanic, white, and black subjects. Rural children had significantly higher (P less than 0.05) prevalence of BBTD than nonrural children for all ethnic groups except whites. The prevalence of decayed and filled (df) surfaces of primary dentition was significantly greater for all rural than for non rural groups (P< 0.05).Children attending centers showed no significant differences based on fluoride status for the total sample or other variables. BBTD and caries prevalence increased with age. Studies are needed to identify predisposing factors among the ethnic

  5. Severity and correlates of depressive symptoms among recipients of meals on wheels: age, gender, and racial/ethnic difference.

    PubMed

    Choi, Namkee G; Teeters, Mary; Perez, Linda; Farar, Bart; Thompson, David

    2010-03-01

    In this study, we briefly described a large urban Meals on Wheels program's adoption of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) as its depression-screening tool. Then we reported the assessment outcomes with respect to the rates, severity, and correlates of depressive symptoms. The sample consisted of 736 MOW clients. Bivariate analysis, with chi(2) statistics, was performed to examine differences in the rates and severity of depressive symptoms by age group, gender, race/ethnicity, and cognitive status. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to determine the correlates of depression symptom severity. Of the sample, 17.5% had clinically significant depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 > or = 10), and 8.8% had probable major depressive disorder (MDD). A significantly higher proportion of those under age 60 years was found to have clinically significant depressive symptoms and probable MDD. The multivariate regression results show that age, gender, race/ethnicity, income, cognitive impairment, number of chronic medical conditions, and the nutritional risk score were significant predictors of the severity of depression symptoms. Implications of and recommendations for incorporating a valid depression-screening tool into social service agencies' existing assessment process are discussed.

  6. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE. PMID:26080417

  7. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Mitchell S

    2015-07-28

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE. PMID:26080417

  8. Crossing boundaries: nativity, ethnicity, and mate selection.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E; Batson, Christie D

    2012-05-01

    The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration has often focused on panethnic differences, and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican-, Mexican-, Chinese-, and Filipino-origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a lesser extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups. PMID:22350840

  9. Crossing boundaries: nativity, ethnicity, and mate selection.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E; Batson, Christie D

    2012-05-01

    The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration has often focused on panethnic differences, and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican-, Mexican-, Chinese-, and Filipino-origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a lesser extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups.

  10. What can we learn from the age- and race/ethnicity- specific rates of inflammatory breast carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Il'yasova, Dora; Siamakpour-Reihani, Sharareh; Akushevich, Igor; Akushevich, Lucy; Spector, Neil; Schildkraut, Joellen

    2011-11-01

    Inflammatory Breast Carcinoma (IBC), the most aggressive type of breast tumor with unique clinicopathological presentation, is hypothesized to have distinct etiology with a socioeconomic status (SES) component. Using the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) Program data for 2004-2007, we compare incidence rates of IBC to non-inflammatory locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) among racial/ethnic groups with different SES. The analysis includes women 20-84 years of age. To examine evidence for the distinct etiology of IBC, we analyzed age-distribution patterns of IBC and non-inflammatory LABC, using a mathematical carcinogenesis model. Based on the Collaborative Staging Extension codes, 2,942 incident IBC cases (codes 71 and 73) and 5,721 non-inflammatory LABC cases (codes 40-62) were identified during the four-year study period. Age-adjusted rates of IBC among non-Hispanic White and Hispanic women were similar (2.5/100,000 in both groups). Similar rates were also found in non-inflammatory LABC in these two groups (4.8/100,000 and 4.2/100,000, respectively). In African-American women, the IBC (3.91/100,000) and non-inflammatory LABC (8.47/100,000) rates were greater compared with other ethnic/racial sub-groups. However, the ratio of rates of IBC/non-inflammatory LABC was similar among all the racial/ethnic groups, suggesting that African-American women are susceptible to aggressive breast tumors in general but not specifically to IBC. The mathematical model successfully predicted the observed age-specific rates of both examined breast tumors and revealed distinct patterns. IBC rates increased until age 65 and then slightly decreased, whereas non-inflammatory LABC rates steadily increased throughout the entire age interval. The number of critical transition carcinogenesis stages (m-stages) predicted by the model were 6.3 and 8.5 for IBC and non-inflammatory LABC, respectively, supporting different etiologies of these breast tumors.

  11. Differences in Fruit and Vegetable Intake by Race/Ethnicity and by Hispanic Origin and Nativity Among Women in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, 2015

    PubMed Central

    Monica, Dorothy; Cullen, Karen Weber; Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Gray, Heewon Lee; Sikorskii, Alla

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this exploratory study was to determine whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by race/ethnicity, by origin and nativity among Hispanics, and by language preference (as an indicator of acculturation) among foreign-born Hispanics. Methods We recruited 723 women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and orally administered a questionnaire containing demographic items, validated measures of food security status and social desirability trait, and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System fruit and vegetable module. Differences in intakes of 100% fruit juice, fruit, cooked or canned beans, and dark green, orange-colored, and other vegetables were assessed by using analysis of covariance with Bonferroni post hoc tests. Analyses were controlled for age, pregnancy status, breastfeeding status, food security status, educational attainment, and social desirability trait. Results The frequency of vegetable intake differed by race/ethnicity (cooked or canned beans were consumed more often among Hispanic than non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white or other participants, orange-colored vegetables were consumed more often among Hispanics than non-Hispanic black participants, and other vegetables were consumed more often among non-Hispanic white or other than among non-Hispanic black and Hispanic participants), origin (other vegetables were consumed more often among Columbian and other Hispanics than Dominican participants) and nativity (orange-colored vegetables were consumed more often among foreign-born than US-born Hispanics). Fruit and vegetable intake did not differ by language preference among foreign-born Hispanics. Conclusion Differences in fruit and vegetable consumption among WIC participants by race/ethnicity and by Hispanic origin and nativity may have implications for WIC nutrition policies and nutrition education efforts. PMID:27560723

  12. The Multidimensional Structure of Internal Barriers to Substance Abuse Treatment and Its Invariance Across Gender, Ethnicity, and Age.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiangmin; Wang, Jichuan; Rapp, Richard C; Carlson, Robert G

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to identify the dimensions present in items representing internal barriers to substance abuse treatment and to test their invariance across gender, ethnic, and age groups. Twenty items from the Barriers to Treatment Inventory (BTI) were used to assess the structure and nature of the internal treatment barriers of 518 clients presenting to a central intake unit for a substance abuse assessment. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) revealed that a five factor model provided the best fit to the data. Internal treatment barriers were best described by five dimensions: absence of problem, negative social support, fear of treatment, privacy concerns, and committed lifestyle. Extending the confirmatory factor analysis to test multi-group invariance, there were some differences in measurement and structural relations among the internal barrier dimensions across gender, ethnic, and age groups. However, the lack of invariance was small and practically insubstantial. The findings led to the conclusion that the theoretical constructs measured by the five internal barrier dimensions are equivalent across important characteristics in this population.

  13. Cross-sectional study of ethnic differences in physical fitness among children of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin: the Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Nightingale, C M; Donin, A S; Kerry, S R; Owen, C G; Rudnicka, A R; Brage, S; Westgate, K L; Ekelund, U; Cook, D G; Whincup, P H

    2016-01-01

    Objective Little is known about levels of physical fitness in children from different ethnic groups in the UK. We therefore studied physical fitness in UK children (aged 9–10 years) of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Primary schools in the UK. Participants 1625 children (aged 9–10 years) of South Asian, black African–Caribbean and white European origin in the UK studied between 2006 and 2007. Outcome measures A step test assessed submaximal physical fitness from which estimated VO2 max was derived. Ethnic differences in estimated VO2 max were estimated using multilevel linear regression allowing for clustering at school level and adjusting for age, sex and month as fixed effects. Results The study response rate was 63%. In adjusted analyses, boys had higher levels of estimated VO2 max than girls (mean difference 3.06 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 2.66 to 3.47, p<0.0001). Levels of estimated VO2 max were lower in South Asians than those in white Europeans (mean difference −0.79 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI −1.41 to −0.18, p=0.01); levels of estimated VO2 max in black African–Caribbeans were higher than those in white Europeans (mean difference 0.60 mL O2/min/kg, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.17, p=0.04); these patterns were similar in boys and girls. The lower estimated VO2 max in South Asians, compared to white Europeans, was consistent among Indian, Pakistani and Bangladeshi children and was attenuated by 78% after adjustment for objectively measured physical activity (average daily steps). Conclusions South Asian children have lower levels of physical fitness than white Europeans and black African–Caribbeans in the UK. This ethnic difference in physical fitness is at least partly explained by ethnic differences in physical activity. PMID:27324713

  14. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health.

  15. Prevalence of oral health problems in U.S. adults, NHANES 1999-2004: exploring differences by age, education, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ki; Baker, Lindsey A; Seirawan, Hazem; Crimmins, Eileen M

    2012-01-01

    Using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) 1999-2004, the authors examined age patterns in oral health indicators by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status related to edentulism, presence of root caries, and periodontal disease. Our analysis included subjects who were non-Hispanic White, Mexican American, and African American over the age of 20, and who participated in the NHANES oral health examination. African Americans experienced more oral health problems at younger ages; as age increased, so did racial disparities in oral health problems. Lower educational attainment was strongly associated with more oral health problems at all ages. These results may indicate a faster progression of oral health problems with age among African Americans, thus suggesting that the "earlier aging" of members of racial/ethnic minorities which has been reported in prior research may also be found in oral health. PMID:23095066

  16. Years of potential life lost before age 65, by race, Hispanic origin, and sex--United States, 1986-1988.

    PubMed

    Desenclos, J C; Hahn, R A

    1992-11-20

    A substantial proportion of mortality among young persons is preventable. National vital statistics were used to establish a baseline for the surveillance of rates of years of potential life lost before age 65 (YPLL < 65) in the United States. Rates of YPLL < 65 were calculated for 1986 through 1988 for leading causes of preventable death, by race, Hispanic origin, and sex. U.S. racial and ethnic populations differed widely in YPLL < 65. Among males, the rate (per 1,000 population < 65 years) of YPLL < 65 was highest for non-Hispanic blacks (140.0), followed by American Indians/Alaskan Natives (100.9), Hispanics (74.3), non-Hispanic whites (68.3), and Asians/Pacific Islanders (38.2). Among females, the rate was highest for non-Hispanic blacks (73.7), followed by American Indians/Alaskan Natives (52.0), non-Hispanic whites (35.7), Hispanics (32.9), and Asians/Pacific Islanders (23.2). For non-Hispanic blacks, the high rate of YPLL < 65 was due to increased rates for all causes of death considered, particularly homicide. The high rate for American Indians/Alaskan Natives was due principally to deaths from four causes: unintentional injuries, cirrhosis, suicide, and diabetes. Asians/Pacific Islanders had low rates for most causes of death. In setting health-care priorities and prevention strategies to reduce the large racial-ethnic gap in early deaths, it is essential to recognize the differences in causes of premature mortality among sex, racial, and ethnic populations. Periodic reassessment of YPLL < 65 among these groups provides a simple, timely, and representative means of conducting surveillance to measure the impact of intervention strategies on a national basis.

  17. Marital happiness and sleep disturbances in a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Wendy M; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N = 2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4 items from the Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women.

  18. Marital happiness and sleep disturbances in a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Wendy M; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N = 2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4 items from the Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women. PMID:19116797

  19. Socioeconomic Status, Ethnicity, Culture, and Immigration: Examining the Potential Mechanisms Underlying Mexican-Origin Adolescents' Organized Activity Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpkins, Sandra D.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Price, Chara D.; Quach, Alex; Starbuck, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The integrative model for child development and ecodevelopmental theory suggest that macro factors, such as socioeconomic status, ethnicity, culture, and immigration influence the settings in which adolescents engage. The goal of this investigation was to use a combination of deductive and inductive qualitative analysis to describe the mechanisms…

  20. Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on bone health status of the elderly in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Kamaruddin, Alia Annessa Ain; Low, Nie Yen; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the developing countries and its prevalence data are important for the estimation of health care burden and policy making. This study aimed to determine the age-related changes in bone health and the prevalence of osteoporosis in males and females aged 50 years or above living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and December 2015. Subjects answered a demographic questionnaire and underwent body anthropometric and bone health measurement. Assessment of bone health was performed using a quantitative ultrasound device that generated speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score based on stiffness index value as bone health indices. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10.6% in males and 8.0% in females. Significant age-related decline of bone health indices (speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score) and a concurrent increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia were observed in females (P<0.05) but not in males (P>0.05). Ethnic differences in bone health indices and prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia were not observed (P>0.05). Conclusion A significant proportion of males and females age 50 years or above have suboptimal bone health. Preventive measures such as early screening should be implemented to retard the progression of osteoporosis. PMID:27358558

  1. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-22

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels.

  2. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  3. Tungsten isotopic constraints on the age and origin of chondrules

    PubMed Central

    Kleine, Thorsten; Kruijer, Thomas S.; Burkhardt, Christoph; Metzler, Knut

    2016-01-01

    Chondrules may have played a critical role in the earliest stages of planet formation by mediating the accumulation of dust into planetesimals. However, the origin of chondrules and their significance for planetesimal accretion remain enigmatic. Here, we show that chondrules and matrix in the carbonaceous chondrite Allende have complementary 183W anomalies resulting from the uneven distribution of presolar, stellar-derived dust. These data refute an origin of chondrules in protoplanetary collisions and, instead, indicate that chondrules and matrix formed together from a common reservoir of solar nebula dust. Because bulk Allende exhibits no 183W anomaly, chondrules and matrix must have accreted rapidly to their parent body, implying that the majority of chondrules from a given chondrite group formed in a narrow time interval. Based on Hf-W chronometry on Allende chondrules and matrix, this event occurred ∼2 million years after formation of the first solids, about coeval to chondrule formation in ordinary chondrites. PMID:26929340

  4. The age at death assessment in a multi-ethnic sample of pelvic bones using nature-inspired data mining methods.

    PubMed

    Buk, Zdenek; Kordik, Pavel; Bruzek, Jaroslav; Schmitt, Aurore; Snorek, Miroslav

    2012-07-10

    Recently published studies showed that age assessment methods are population specific. Authors analyse the senescence changes in pubic symphysis and sacro-pelvic surface of a pelvic bone using data mining methods. The multi-ethnic data set consists of 956 adult individuals ranging from 19 to 100 years of age derived from 9 different populations with known age and sex. The results show that accurate and reliable age assessment is possible to three age classes (less than 30, 30-60, 60 and more). The study confirms that population specificity of the methods exists and the variable "sex" is not important in age classification.

  5. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination by Teachers and Ethnic Minority Students' Academic Futility: Can Parents Prepare Their Youth for Better or for Worse?

    PubMed

    D'hondt, Fanny; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A J

    2016-06-01

    This study focuses on the interplay of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers, parents' ethnic socialization practices, and ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. Since discrimination creates barriers beyond control of the individual, the first research goal is to examine the association of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers with ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. The second research goal is to focus on the role of perceived parental ethnic socialization (e.g., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) to get a better understanding of the interaction between family level factors and the potentially negative consequences of ethnic teacher discrimination. A multilevel analysis on 1181 ethnic minority students (50.6 % girls; mean age = 15.5), originating from migration, in 53 secondary schools in Flanders (Belgium) shows that the frequent perception of ethnic discrimination by teachers is associated with stronger feelings of academic futility, and if these students also received high levels of parents' ethnic socialization, they perceive even stronger feelings of futility. The group of ethnic minority students, who perceive frequent ethnic teacher discrimination, is a group at risk, and parents' ethnic socialization does not seem able to change this.

  6. Perceived Ethnic Discrimination by Teachers and Ethnic Minority Students' Academic Futility: Can Parents Prepare Their Youth for Better or for Worse?

    PubMed

    D'hondt, Fanny; Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Van Houtte, Mieke; Stevens, Peter A J

    2016-06-01

    This study focuses on the interplay of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers, parents' ethnic socialization practices, and ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. Since discrimination creates barriers beyond control of the individual, the first research goal is to examine the association of perceived ethnic discrimination by teachers with ethnic minority students' sense of academic futility. The second research goal is to focus on the role of perceived parental ethnic socialization (e.g., cultural socialization and preparation for bias) to get a better understanding of the interaction between family level factors and the potentially negative consequences of ethnic teacher discrimination. A multilevel analysis on 1181 ethnic minority students (50.6 % girls; mean age = 15.5), originating from migration, in 53 secondary schools in Flanders (Belgium) shows that the frequent perception of ethnic discrimination by teachers is associated with stronger feelings of academic futility, and if these students also received high levels of parents' ethnic socialization, they perceive even stronger feelings of futility. The group of ethnic minority students, who perceive frequent ethnic teacher discrimination, is a group at risk, and parents' ethnic socialization does not seem able to change this. PMID:26861710

  7. Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Newborns in Women With Gestational Diabetes by Race and Ethnicity and Body Mass Index Categories

    PubMed Central

    Sridhar, Sneha B.; Ferrara, Assiamira; Ehrlich, Samantha F.; Brown, Susan D.; Hedderson, Monique M.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the prevalence of large-for-gestational-age (LGA) newborns across categories of body mass index (BMI) in five racial and ethnic groups. METHODS This cohort study examined 7,468 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) who delivered a live newborn between 1995 and 2006 at Kaiser Permanente Northern California. The racial and ethnic groups were non-Hispanic white, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and Filipina. The BMI was classified using the World Health Organization International guidelines (normal, 18.50–24.99; overweight, 25.00–29.99; obese, 30.00–34.99; obese class II, 35.00 or higher). Having an LGA newborn was defined as birth weight more than 90th percentile for the study population’s race or ethnicity and gestational age–specific birth weight distribution. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds of having an LGA newborn by BMI and race and ethnicity. RESULTS Overall prevalence of LGA newborns was highest in African American women (25.1%), lowest in Asians (13.9%), and intermediate among Hispanic (17.3%), white (16.4%), and Filipina women (15.3%). The highest increased risk of LGA newborns was observed among women with class II obesity in most racial and ethnic groups, and African American and Asian women with class II obesity had a four-fold increased risk of LGA newborns compared with women of normal weight in the same racial and ethnic group. CONCLUSIONS African American women with GDM have a greater risk of LGA newborns at a lower BMI than other racial and ethnic groups. Clinicians should be aware that among women with GDM, there may be significant racial and ethnic differences in the risk of LGA newborns by BMI threshold. PMID:23812460

  8. [High prevalence of antiHTLV-1 antibodies in the Boni, an ethnic group of African origin isolated in French Guiana since the 18th century].

    PubMed

    Gessain, A; Calender, A; Strobel, M; Lefait-Robin, R; de Thé, G

    1984-01-01

    Antibodies to HTLV-1 (ELISA test using disrupted virus) were studied in different ethnic groups in French Guiana, including 135 blood donors from Cayenne, 97 Boni Blacks and 57 Wayana Indians from Maripasoula area, and 57 Hmong from Cacao village. We observed significant differences between Boni Blacks and Wayana Indians, having respectively 10.3% versus 0% of high antibody titers. The Hmong, recent refugees from Kampuchea, exhibited an intermediate level (3.5%) of infection. These results favour an African origin of HTLV-1 and raise, for the Hmong, the question of an infection acquired in Guiana.

  9. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  10. Trajectories of Externalizing Behavior from Age 2 to Age 9: Relations with Gender, Temperament, Ethnicity, Parenting, and Rater

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miner, Jennifer L.; Clarke-Stewart, K. Alison

    2008-01-01

    Trajectories of children's externalizing behavior were examined using multilevel growth curve modeling of data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development. According to ratings by both mothers and caregivers/teachers when children were 2, 3, 4, 7, and 9 years old, externalizing behavior declined with age. However, mothers rated…

  11. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  12. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese…

  13. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  14. Outcasts of Echo Park, Heroes of Brentwood: "Quinceanera, Keeping Up with the Steins" and Coming of Age in Ethnic L.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Bernard

    2007-01-01

    The challenge of maintaining a national identity as a subculture in America is most evident in connection with special occasions, like transition rites. Coming of age is such an event. The continuity and transformation of the subculture is at stake. In American cities, as exemplified by Los Angeles, the ethnic neighborhood becomes a New Old…

  15. Effect of Ethnicity on the Age of Onset of the Male Voice Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to compare the age of onset of the voice change in African American, White, and Hispanic male students, as well as to describe characteristics of the changing male voice in fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-grade students, using Cooksey's maturation stages. Participants included volunteers from two urban elementary…

  16. Ethnic identity of older Chinese in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daniel W L

    2012-06-01

    In Canada's multicultural society, ethnic identity is important to the elderly and can influence areas such as access to services, health promotion and care. Often, the complex nature of ethnic identity is underestimated when looking at cultural groups. This study aims to: (a) validate the factor structure of a Chinese ethnic identity measure for older Chinese in Canada, (b) examine the level of ethnic identity of the participants, and (c) examine the correlates of ethnic identity in these older individuals. Using data from a large, national research project on the elderly Chinese in Canada, this study analyzed the results gathered from a total of 2,272 participants. Principal component analysis, maximum-likelihood confirmatory factor analysis, and multiple regression analysis were performed. The results indicated that ethnic identity of the older Chinese is a multi-dimensional construct made up of three factors: (a) culture related activities, (b) community ties, (c) linkage with country of origin, and (d) cultural identification. The findings have provided a better understanding of how ethnic identity can be measured among the aging Chinese population in Canada.

  17. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels.

  18. A systematic review of age, sex, ethnicity, and race as predictors of violent recidivism.

    PubMed

    Piquero, Alex R; Jennings, Wesley G; Diamond, Brie; Reingle, Jennifer M

    2015-01-01

    Recidivism of released prisoners, especially violent recidivism, is an important policy issue. Equally important is an understanding of how demographic risk factors may act as moderators of recidivism. Knowledge of such relationships is important in developing a deeper theoretical understanding of the risk of recidivism as well as identifying points of intervention that may need to be re-oriented to reduce recidivism. The present study conducts a meta-analytic review of the violent recidivism literature focusing on the role of several demographic risk factors. Findings show that age, sex, and race (Whites) were significantly related to violent recidivism. Implications and directions for future research are identified.

  19. Educating Other People's Children: Race, Class, Ethnicity, Aging, and the Politics of School Funding in Long Island, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan

    Long Island, New York, including Nassau and Suffolk Counties, is a patchwork of small ethnically, racially, and economically segregated towns organized into 126 school districts. School funding patterns and problems conform to racial, ethnic, and class lines. Predominantly minority school districts generally have higher property tax rates, fewer…

  20. Re-Seeing Race in a Post-Obama Age: Asian American Studies, Comparative Ethnic Studies, and Intersectional Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…

  1. The Couple that Prays Together: Race and Ethnicity, Religion, and Relationship Quality among Working-Age Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Burdette, Amy M.; Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that relationship quality tends to be (a) lower among racial and ethnic minorities and (b) higher among more religious persons and among couples in which partners share common religious affiliations, practices, and beliefs. However, few studies have examined the interplay of race or ethnicity and religion…

  2. Ethnic Lifestyles and Mental Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia-Weber, Gloria, Ed.

    This document presents two overview essays (one on the ethnic history of the United States and one on multicultural society) and seven articles on various aspects of the relationship between ethnic values and mental health. Articles were originally presented as papers at a series of seminars convened to encourage humanists from four ethnic groups…

  3. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and adolescent and adult recidivism: considerations with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Keira C; Olver, Mark E; Wong, Stephen C P

    2010-12-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health facility. The PCL: YV significantly predicted any general, nonviolent, and violent recidivism in the aggregate sample over a 7-year follow-up; however, when results were disaggregated by youth and adult outcomes, the PCL: YV consistently appeared to be a stronger predictor of youth recidivism. The PCL: YV predicted youth recidivism for subsamples of female and Aboriginal youths, and very few differences in the predictive accuracy of the tool were observed for younger vs. older adolescent groups. Both the 13-item (i.e., D. J. Cooke & C. Michie, 2001, 3-factor) and the 20-item (i.e., R. D. Hare, 2003, 4-factor) models appeared to predict various recidivism criteria comparably across the aggregate sample and within specific demographic subgroups (e.g., female and Aboriginal youth). The Antisocial facet contributed the most variance in the prediction of adult outcomes, whereas the 3-factor model contributed significant incremental variance in the prediction of youth recidivism outcomes. Potential implications concerning the use of the PCL: YV in clinical and forensic assessment contexts are discussed.

  4. Prevalence of chronic viral hepatitis in people of south Asian ethnicity living in England: the prevalence cannot necessarily be predicted from the prevalence in the country of origin.

    PubMed

    Uddin, G; Shoeb, D; Solaiman, S; Marley, R; Gore, C; Ramsay, M; Harris, R; Ushiro-Lumb, I; Moreea, S; Alam, S; Thomas, H C; Khan, S; Watt, B; Pugh, R N; Ramaiah, S; Jervis, R; Hughes, A; Singhal, S; Cameron, S; Carman, W F; Foster, G R

    2010-05-01

    The prevalence of hepatitis B and hepatitis C in immigrant communities is unknown. Immigrants from south Asia are common in England and elsewhere, and the burden of viral hepatitis in these communities is unknown. We aimed to determine the prevalence of viral hepatitis in immigrants from south Asia living in England, and we therefore undertook a community-based testing project in such people at five sites in England. A total of 4998 people attending community centres were screened for viral hepatitis using oral fluid testing. The overall prevalence of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) in people of south Asian origin was 1.6% but varied by country of birth being 0.4%, 0.2%, 0.6% and 2.7% in people of this ethnic group born in the UK, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, respectively. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen was 1.2%-0.2%, 0.1%, 1.5% and 1.8% in people of this ethnic group born in the UK, India, Bangladesh and Pakistan, respectively. Analysis of risk factors for HCV infection shows that people from the Pakistani Punjab and those who have immigrated recently are at increased risk of infection. Our study suggests that migrants from Pakistan are at highest risk of viral hepatitis, with those from India at low risk. As prevalence varies both by country and region of origin and over time, the prevalence in migrant communities living in western countries cannot be easily predicted from studies in the country of origin.

  5. Ethnic divergence and linkage disequilibrium of novel SNPs in the human NLI-IF gene: evidence of human origin and lack of association with tuberculosis susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xin; Wright, John; Dou, Shujun; Olsen, Paul; Teeter, Larry; Adams, Gerald; Graviss, Edward

    2002-01-01

    Sequence variation in the human genome has been used as a tool in studying human diseases and the evolutionary history of man. A human inherited predisposition to tuberculosis has been suggested and studied; however. genetic mechanisms are still ambiguous. In the present study, we scanned the regulatory and coding region of Nuclear LIM Interactor-Interacting Factor gene (NLI-IF), which is physically close to the tuberculosis-associated gene NRAMP1. Thirteen biallelic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified from four ethnic populations (African-American, Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian) with population-specific distribution of alleles. The extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between 402T > C, and 472-42G > A varied distinctly from complete LD in the non-African-American groups to strong but incomplete LD in African-Americans. Both SNPs were in significant LD with the polymorphism 3' UTR in NRAMP1 among these ethnic groups (P < 0.02), except 402T > C in African-Americans. In a case-control study with a Caucasian population, three cosmopolitan SNPs (204C > A, 402T > C and 472 - 42G > A) in NLI-IF showed no significant association with human susceptibility to tuberculosis. Our results support the "out-of-Africa" model of human origin, and suggest the time for the common ancestor dispersing from Africa could not have been more than approximately 385,620 years ago.

  6. The impact of ethnicity/race on the association between the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index and neurocognitive function among HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Marquine, M J; Sakamoto, M; Dufour, C; Rooney, A; Fazeli, P; Umlauf, A; Gouaux, B; Franklin, D; Ellis, R; Letendre, S; Cherner, M; Heaton, R K; Grant, I; Moore, D J

    2016-08-01

    The Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) Index was developed as a risk index for health outcomes in HIV, and it has been consistently associated with mortality. It shows a significant, yet relatively weak, association with neurocognitive impairment, and little is known about its utility among ethnic/racial minority groups. We examined whether the association between the VACS Index and neurocognition differed by ethnic/racial group. Participants included 674 HIV-infected individuals (369 non-Hispanic whites, 111 non-Hispanic blacks, and 194 Hispanics). Neurocognitive function was assessed via a comprehensive battery. Scaled scores for each neurocognitive test were averaged to calculate domain and global neurocognitive scores. Models adjusting for demographics and HIV disease characteristics not included in the VACS Index showed that higher VACS Index scores (indicating poorer health) were significantly associated with worse global neurocognition among non-Hispanic whites. This association was comparable in non-Hispanic blacks, but nonsignificant among Hispanics (with similar results for English and Spanish speaking). We obtained comparable findings in analyses adjusting for other covariates (psychiatric and medical comorbidities and lifestyle factors). Analyses of individual neurocognitive domains showed similar results in learning and delayed recall. For other domains, there was an effect of the VACS Index and no significant interactions with race/ethnicity. Different components of the VACS Index were associated with global neurocognition by race/ethnicity. In conclusion, the association between the VACS Index and neurocognitive function differs by ethnic/racial group. Identifying key indicators of HIV-associated neurocognitive impairment by ethnic/racial group might play an important role in furthering our understanding of the biomarkers of neuroAIDS. PMID:26679535

  7. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  8. Cosmic Ray Exposure Ages, Ar-Ar Ages, and the Origin and History of Eucrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wakefield, Kelli; Bogard, Donald; Garrison, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    HED meteorites likely formed at different depths on the large asteroid 4-Vesta, but passed through Vesta-derived, km-sized intermediary bodies (Vestoids), before arriving at Earth. Most eucrites and diogenites (and all howardites) are brecciated, and impact heating disturbed or reset the K-Ar ages (and some Rb-Sr ages) of most eucrites in the time period of approx. 3.4 - 4.1 Gyr ago. Some basaltic eucrites and most cumulate eucrites, however, are not brecciated. We recently showed that the Ar-39 - Ar-40 ages for several of these eucrites tightly cluster about a value of 4.48 +/- 0.02 Gyr, and we argue that this time likely represents a single large impact event on Vesta, which ejected these objects from depth and quenched their temperatures. A different parent body has been suggested for cumulate eucrites, although the Ar-Ar ages argue for a common parent. Similarities in the cosmic-ray (space) exposure ages for basaltic eucrites and diogenites also have been used to infer a common parent body for some HEDs. Here we present CRE ages of several cumulate and unbrecciated basaltic (UB) eucrites and compare these with CRE ages of other HEDs. This comparison also has some interesting implications for the relative locations of various HED types on Vesta and/or the Vestoids.

  9. Normal reference ranges for and variability in the levels of blood manganese and selenium by gender, age, and race/ethnicity for general U.S. population.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B; Choi, Y Sammy

    2015-04-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2011-2012 were used to determine normal reference ranges and percentile distributions for manganese (Mn) and selenium (Se) in blood by gender, age, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status as determined by annual family income, and smoking status. The effect of gender, age, race/ethnicity, family income, and smoking status on the levels of Mn and Se was also determined by fitting regression models. Males had lower adjusted levels of Mn and higher adjusted levels of Se than females. Adjusted levels of Mn decreased with increase in age but adjusted levels of Se were lower in adolescents aged 12-19 years than adults aged 20-64 years. Non-Hispanic black (NHB) had the lowest levels of both Mn and Se and non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) had the highest levels of both Mn and Se. Non-Hispanic white (NHW) and NHB had lower levels of Mn than Hispanics (HISP) and NHAS. NHB and HISP had lower levels of Se than NHW and NHAS. Low annual income (<$20,000) was associated with lower levels of Se than high annual income (≥$55,000). Smoking negatively affected the adjusted levels of Se among seniors aged ≥65 years but this was not observed in other age groups. Mn levels were not affected by smoking.

  10. The Jews: Their Origins, In America, In Connecticut. The Peoples of Connecticut Multicultural Ethnic Heritage Series, Number Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Sally Innis

    The guide reviews the origins and history of the Jewish people, their contributions to American history, and their role in Connecticut history. It also incorporates a brief survey of Jewish religious beliefs and cultural patterns. Useful for both Jewish and non-Jewish students, the material is designed for junior and senior high school classes…

  11. Ethnic Identity and Gender as Moderators of the Association between Discrimination and Academic Adjustment among Mexican-Origin Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Wong, Jessie J.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Dumka, Larry E.

    2012-01-01

    Existing work has identified perceived discrimination as a risk factor that may contribute to the relatively poorer academic outcomes exhibited by Mexican-origin adolescents in the U.S. The current study examined the longitudinal associations among perceived discrimination and three indices of adolescent adjustment in the school setting (i.e.,…

  12. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  13. Ethnic differences in the relationships between diabetes, early age adiposity and mortality among breast cancer survivors: the Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study.

    PubMed

    Connor, Avonne E; Visvanathan, Kala; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Baumgartner, Richard N; Boone, Stephanie D; Hines, Lisa M; Wolff, Roger K; John, Esther M; Slattery, Martha L

    2016-05-01

    The contribution of type 2 diabetes and obesity on mortality in breast cancer (BC) patients has not been well studied among Hispanic women, in whom these exposures are highly prevalent. In a multi-center population-based study, we examined the associations between diabetes, multiple obesity measures, and mortality in 1180 Hispanic and 1298 non-Hispanic white (NHW) women who were diagnosed with incident invasive BC from the San Francisco Bay Area, New Mexico, Utah, Colorado, and Arizona. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. The median follow-up time from BC diagnosis to death was 10.8 years. In ethnic-stratified results, the association for BC-specific mortality among Hispanics was significantly increased (HR 1.85 95 % CI 1.11, 3.09), but the ethnic interaction was not statistically significant. In contrast, obesity at age 30 increased BC-specific mortality risk in NHW women (HR 2.33 95 % CI 1.36, 3.97) but not Hispanics (p-interaction = 0.045). Although there were no ethnic differences for all-cause mortality, diabetes, obesity at age 30, and post-diagnostic waist-hip ratio were significantly associated with all-cause mortality in all women. This study provides evidence that diabetes and adiposity, both modifiable, are prognostic factors among Hispanic and NHW BC patients.

  14. Differences in fruit and vegetable intake by race/ethnicity and by Hispanic origin and nativity among women in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children, 2015

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this exploratory study was to determine whether fruit and vegetable consumption differed by race/ethnicity, by origin and nativity among Hispanics, and by language preference (as an indicator of acculturation) among foreign-born Hispanics. We recruited 723 women enrolled in the Spec...

  15. Will the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Improve Racial/Ethnic Disparity of Eye Examination Among US Working-Age Population with Diabetes?

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Fonseca, Vivian; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Zhao, Yingnan; Nellans, Frank P; Luo, Qingyang; Shi, Lizheng

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the racial/ethnic disparity of eye examination rates among US adults with diabetes before and after the ACA. Working-age adults (18-64 years) with diabetes for years 2014-2017 were simulated by bootstrapping from the working-age diabetes patient sample of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component 2011. Insurance coverage rates were separately predicted for each racial/ethnic group based on the Congressional Budgeting Office (CBO) report in 2014 and the proportions of Medicaid eligibility. Eye examination rates were weighted to national estimates and compared between racial/ethnic groups. Confidence intervals were estimated using the bootstrap percentile method. Health insurance coverage after the ACA is projected to increase from 90.23 % in 2011 to 98.33 % in 2014 among non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), reaching 98.96 % in 2017. Minorities are forecasted to have about 15 % expansion of insurance coverage from 2011 (80.65 %) to 2014 (96.00 %), reaching 97.25 % in 2017. In 2011, 63.01 % of NHW had eye examinations with forecasted increase to 65.83 % in 2014 and 66.05 % in 2017, while the eye examination rate in the minorities will increase from 55.75 % in 2011 to 59.23 % in 2014 and remain at 59.48 % in 2017. Therefore, racial disparity in eye examination rates is forecasted to persist (ranging from 6.57 % in 2017 to 6.69 % in 2016). The ACA is projected to improve the eye examination rate along with the expansion in insurance coverage. Although predicted racial/ethnic disparities will improve, some differences will persist. Comprehensive strategies need to be developed to eliminate the disparity.

  16. Rural origin, age, and endoparasite fecal prevalence in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Schurer, Janna M.; Hamblin, Brie; Davenport, Laura; Wagner, Brent; Jenkins, Emily J.

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of fecal parasite surveillance in dogs surrendered to the Regina Humane Society, Saskatchewan, Canada, between May and November 2013. Overall, 23% of 231 dogs were infected with at least 1 intestinal parasite. Endoparasite infection was positively associated with rural origin (P = 0.002) and age (< 12 months; P < 0.001). PMID:25477549

  17. Social Origin and Graduation Age: A Cohort Comparison of Danish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960-1975. These are cohorts for whom university attendance increased steeply. Contrary to recent findings…

  18. Age at Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) Diagnosis by Race, Ethnicity, and Primary Household Language Among Children with Special Health Care Needs, United States, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Jo, Heejoo; Schieve, Laura A; Rice, Catherine E; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Tian, Lin H; Blumberg, Stephen J; Kogan, Michael D; Boyle, Coleen A

    2015-08-01

    We examined prevalence of diagnosed autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and age at diagnosis according to child's race/ethnicity and primary household language. From the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, we identified 2729 3-17-year-old US children whose parent reported a current ASD diagnosis. We compared ASD prevalence, mean diagnosis age, and percentage with later diagnoses (≥5 years) across racial/ethnic/primary household language groups: non-Hispanic-white, any language (NHW); non-Hispanic-black, any language (NHB); Hispanic-any-race, English (Hispanic-English); and Hispanic-any-race, other language (Hispanic-Other). We assessed findings by parent-reported ASD severity level and adjusted for family sociodemographics. ASD prevalence estimates were 15.3 (NHW), 10.4 (NHB), 14.1 (Hispanic-English), and 5.2 (Hispanic-Other) per 1000 children. Mean diagnosis age was comparable across racial/ethnic/language groups for 3-4-year-olds. For 5-17-year-olds, diagnosis age varied by race/ethnicity/language and also by ASD severity. In this group, NHW children with mild/moderate ASD had a significantly higher proportion (50.8 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (33.5 %) or Hispanic-Other children (18.0 %). However, NHW children with severe ASD had a comparable or lower (albeit non-significant) proportion (16.4 %) of later diagnoses than NHB (37.8 %), Hispanic-English (30.8 %), and Hispanic-Other children (12.0 %). While NHW children have comparable ASD prevalence and diagnosis age distributions as Hispanic-English children, they have both higher prevalence and proportion of later diagnoses than NHB and Hispanic-Other children. The diagnosis age findings were limited to mild/moderate cases only. Thus, the prevalence disparity might be primarily driven by under-representation (potentially under-identification) of older children with mild/moderate ASD in the two minority groups.

  19. The Role of Ethnicity in School-Based Obesity Intervention for School-Aged Children: A Pilot Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karczewski, Sabrina A.; Carter, Jocelyn S.; DeCator, Draycen D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rates of obesity have risen disproportionately for ethnic minority youth in the United States. School-based programs may be the most comprehensive and cost-effective way to implement primary prevention in children. In this study we evaluated the effect of a school-based obesity prevention on the outcome of body mass index percentile…

  20. Diagnosing prosopagnosia: effects of ageing, sex, and participant-stimulus ethnic match on the Cambridge Face Memory Test and Cambridge Face Perception Test.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Devin C; McKone, Elinor; Dawel, Amy; Duchaine, Bradley; Palermo, Romina; Schmalzl, Laura; Rivolta, Davide; Wilson, C Ellie; Yovel, Galit

    2009-07-01

    The Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT) have provided the first theoretically strong clinical tests for prosopagnosia based on novel rather than famous faces. Here, we assess the extent to which norms for these tasks must take into account ageing, sex, and testing country. Data were from Australians aged 18 to 88 years (N = 240 for CFMT; 128 for CFPT) and young adult Israelis (N = 49 for CFMT). Participants were unselected for face recognition ability; most were university educated. The diagnosis cut-off for prosopagnosia (2 SDs poorer than mean) was affected by age, participant-stimulus ethnic match (within Caucasians), and sex for middle-aged and older adults on the CFPT. We also report internal reliability, correlation between face memory and face perception, correlations with intelligence-related measures, correlation with self-report, distribution shape for the CFMT, and prevalence of developmental prosopagnosia.

  1. Patterns of Antibacterial Use and Impact of Age, Race-Ethnicity, and Geographic Region on Antibacterial Use in an Outpatient Medicaid Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Gahbauer, Alice M.; Gonzales, Marco L.; Guglielmo, B. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES To describe patterns of outpatient antibacterial use among California Medicaid (Medi-Cal) fee-for-service system beneficiaries, and to investigate the influence of demographic factors—age, race-ethnicity, state county, and population density—on those patterns. DESIGN Retrospective analysis of administrative claims data. DATA SOURCE Medi-Cal fee-for-service system claims database. PATIENTS All outpatient Medi-Cal fee-for-service system beneficiaries enrolled between 2006 and 2011 who had at least one systemic antibacterial claim. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Rates of antibacterial prescribing and the proportion of broad-spectrum antibacterial use were measured over the study period and among age, racial-ethnic and geographic (county) groups. Of the 10,018,066 systemic antibacterial claims selected for analysis, antibacterial prescribing rates decreased from 542 claims/1000 beneficiaries in 2006 to 461 claims/1000 beneficiaries in 2011 (r = –0.971, p = 0.0012; τ-b = –1.00, p = 0.009). Among age groups, children had the highest rate of use (605 claims/1000 beneficiaries, χ2 (2) = 320,000, p < 0.001); among racial-ethnic groups, Alaskan Natives and Native Americans had the highest rate of use (1086/1000 beneficiaries, χ2 (5) = 197,000, p < 0.001). Broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing increased from 28.1% (95% confidence interval [CI] 28.1–28.2%) to 32.7% (95% CI 32.6–32.8%) over the study period. Senior age groups and Caucasians received the highest proportions of broad-spectrum agents (53.4% [95% CI 52.5–54.3%] and 36.6% [95% CI 36.6–36.7%], respectively). Population density was inversely related to both overall antibacterial use (ρ = –0.432, p = 0.0018) and broad-spectrum antibacterial prescribing (ρ = –0.359, p < 0.001). The rate of prescribing decreased over the study period for all antibacterial classes with the exception of macrolides and sulfonamides. Amoxicillin was the most frequently prescribed agent. CONCLUSION

  2. Malaria risk perception, knowledge and prophylaxis practices among travellers of African ethnicity living in Paris and visiting their country of origin in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Pistone, T; Guibert, P; Gay, F; Malvy, D; Ezzedine, K; Receveur, M C; Siriwardana, M; Larouzé, B; Bouchaud, O

    2007-10-01

    An observational prospective cohort study assessed malaria risk perception, knowledge and prophylaxis practices among individuals of African ethnicity living in Paris and travelling to their country of origin to visit friends or relatives (VFR). The study compared two groups of VFR who had visited a travel clinic (TC; n=122) or a travel agency (TA; n=69) before departure. Of the 47% of VFR citing malaria as a health concern, 75% knew that malaria is mosquito-borne and that bed nets are an effective preventive measure. Perception of high malaria risk was greater in the TA group (33%) than in the TC group (7%). The availability of a malaria vaccine was mentioned by 35% of VFR, with frequent confusion between yellow fever vaccine and malaria prevention. Twenty-nine percent took adequate chemoprophylaxis with complete adherence, which was higher among the TC group (41%) than the TA group (12%). Effective antivector protection measures used were bed nets (16%), wearing long clothes at night (14%) and air conditioning (8%), with no differences between the study groups except in the use of impregnated bed nets (11% of the TC group and none of the TA group). Media coverage, malaria chemoprophylaxis repayment and cultural adaptation of preventive messages should be improved to reduce the high rate of inadequate malaria prophylaxis in VFR.

  3. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.

  4. Disparities in receipt of radiotherapy and survival by age, sex and ethnicity among patients with stage I diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binay Kumar; Bista, Amir; Shafii, Bahman

    2015-04-01

    Disparities in cancer care have been documented. However, less is known about the disparities in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We reviewed the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to evaluate disparities in receipt of radiotherapy (RT) and relative survival among patients diagnosed with stage I DLBCL between 1998 and 2008 on the basis of age, sex and ethnicity. African Americans and other races were significantly less likely to receive RT compared to Caucasians (adjusted odds ratio [OR] of 0.743 and 0.81, respectively). Similarly, patients aged 60 + years and males were less likely to receive RT compared to their counterparts (p < 0.001). Caucasian race, younger age and female sex were associated with better survival among patients receiving RT. This study showed that 38.2% of patients with stage I DLBCL received radiotherapy. Survival rates were significantly higher for patients who received RT.

  5. Parental age and the origin of trisomy 21. A study of 302 families.

    PubMed

    Dagna Bricarelli, F; Pierluigi, M; Landucci, M; Arslanian, A; Coviello, D A; Ferro, M A; Strigini, P

    1989-04-01

    Several studies have attempted to define the role of parental age in determining the prevalence of 47, +21 according to the origin of nondisjunction. This report analyzes the original data of 197 informative families from Italy and reviews the available literature (96 families from Denmark and 201 from other countries). Mothers whose gametes showed nondisjunction are treated as cases, and those with normal meiosis as controls within each study. To utilize the data fully, maternal age at birth of a 47, +21 individual is treated as a continuous variable in a nonparametric comparison. The combined evidence indicates that nondisjunction in the female is associated with a significant age difference between cases and controls which is mostly due to errors in the second meiotic division. It may be inferred that in the general population, aging enhances nondisjunction at both first and second division in the female, while aging in the male is presumably associated mostly (or only) with first division errors. Implications and alternative models are discussed.

  6. Parental age and the origin of trisomy 21. A study of 302 families.

    PubMed

    Dagna Bricarelli, F; Pierluigi, M; Landucci, M; Arslanian, A; Coviello, D A; Ferro, M A; Strigini, P

    1989-04-01

    Several studies have attempted to define the role of parental age in determining the prevalence of 47, +21 according to the origin of nondisjunction. This report analyzes the original data of 197 informative families from Italy and reviews the available literature (96 families from Denmark and 201 from other countries). Mothers whose gametes showed nondisjunction are treated as cases, and those with normal meiosis as controls within each study. To utilize the data fully, maternal age at birth of a 47, +21 individual is treated as a continuous variable in a nonparametric comparison. The combined evidence indicates that nondisjunction in the female is associated with a significant age difference between cases and controls which is mostly due to errors in the second meiotic division. It may be inferred that in the general population, aging enhances nondisjunction at both first and second division in the female, while aging in the male is presumably associated mostly (or only) with first division errors. Implications and alternative models are discussed. PMID:2523851

  7. Comparable ages for the independent origins of electrogenesis in African and South American weakly electric fishes.

    PubMed

    Lavoué, Sébastien; Miya, Masaki; Arnegard, Matthew E; Sullivan, John P; Hopkins, Carl D; Nishida, Mutsumi

    2012-01-01

    One of the most remarkable examples of convergent evolution among vertebrates is illustrated by the independent origins of an active electric sense in South American and African weakly electric fishes, the Gymnotiformes and Mormyroidea, respectively. These groups independently evolved similar complex systems for object localization and communication via the generation and reception of weak electric fields. While good estimates of divergence times are critical to understanding the temporal context for the evolution and diversification of these two groups, their respective ages have been difficult to estimate due to the absence of an informative fossil record, use of strict molecular clock models in previous studies, and/or incomplete taxonomic sampling. Here, we examine the timing of the origins of the Gymnotiformes and the Mormyroidea using complete mitogenome sequences and a parametric bayesian method for divergence time reconstruction. Under two different fossil-based calibration methods, we estimated similar ages for the independent origins of the Mormyroidea and Gymnotiformes. Our absolute estimates for the origins of these groups either slightly postdate, or just predate, the final separation of Africa and South America by continental drift. The most recent common ancestor of the Mormyroidea and Gymnotiformes was found to be a non-electrogenic basal teleost living more than 85 millions years earlier. For both electric fish lineages, we also estimated similar intervals (16-19 or 22-26 million years, depending on calibration method) between the appearance of electroreception and the origin of myogenic electric organs, providing rough upper estimates for the time periods during which these complex electric organs evolved de novo from skeletal muscle precursors. The fact that the Gymnotiformes and Mormyroidea are of similar age enhances the comparative value of the weakly electric fish system for investigating pathways to evolutionary novelty, as well as the

  8. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    2014-05-01

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  9. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  10. Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women: the Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Neurocognitive Substudy.

    PubMed

    Manly, Jennifer J; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth T; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther; Martin, Eileen M; Young, Mary

    2011-10-01

    Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high-risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1,653) were administered the Trail Making Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportions ofvariance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%), and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed.

  11. Origin of the cannula for tracheotomy during the middle ages and Renaissance.

    PubMed

    Missori, Paolo; Brunetto, Giacoma M; Domenicucci, Maurizio

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this article was to trace the historical origin of the inserted cannula during tracheotomy. Tracheotomy is mentioned in most ancient medical texts, but the origin of cannula insertion into the windpipe is unclear. We reviewed the incunabula and Renaissance texts reporting the utilization of surgical cannulas and tracheotomy. The incunabula disclosed extended use of surgical cannulas during the middle ages and Renaissance. Although tracheotomy was advocated in acutely suffocating patients for a disease of the throat termed squinantia or angina, the first report of the procedure was found only at the end of the middle ages and a second during the middle Renaissance. The introduction of cannula use in tracheotomy was supported by a semantic misinterpretation by Antonio Musa Brasavola. The historical origin for tracheotomy in the middle ages and Renaissance is conflicting. Antonio Brasavola wrongly interpreted Avicenna's oral cannula introduced into the windpipe for angina. This misinterpretation allowed Giulio Casserio to draw the first curved cannula introduced for used during tracheotomy.

  12. The Association Between Sexual Orientation Identity and Behavior Across Race/Ethnicity, Sex, and Age in a Probability Sample of High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Mustanski, Brian; Birkett, Michelle; Greene, George J.; Rosario, Margaret; Bostwick, Wendy; Everett, Bethany G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence and associations between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation among adolescents in the United States, with consideration of differences associated with race/ethnicity, sex, and age. Methods. We used pooled data from 2005 and 2007 Youth Risk Behavior Surveys to estimate prevalence of sexual orientation variables within demographic sub-groups. We used multilevel logistic regression models to test differences in the association between sexual orientation identity and sexual behavior across groups. Results. There was substantial incongruence between behavioral and identity dimensions of sexual orientation, which varied across sex and race/ethnicity. Whereas girls were more likely to identify as bisexual, boys showed a stronger association between same-sex behavior and a bisexual identity. The pattern of association of age with sexual orientation differed between boys and girls. Conclusions. Our results highlight demographic differences between 2 sexual orientation dimensions, and their congruence, among 13- to 18-year-old adolescents. Future research is needed to better understand the implications of such differences, particularly in the realm of health and health disparities. PMID:24328662

  13. Development of racial-ethnic identity among First Nation children.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Elements of racial-ethnic identity, often found among adolescents from racial-ethnic minority groups, have their origins in middle childhood and pre-adolescence. The present study explored the developmental trajectory of some of those components among Native Canadian children living on relatively remote First Nation communities. Children and young adolescents (N = 414,209 female) between the ages of 6-11 completed measures assessing their level of racial-ethnic identity, concrete operational thought, implicit and explicit self-esteem, implicit and explicit in-group attitudes, and the importance of their racial-ethnic identity each year for 5 years. Consistent with predictions from cognitive developmental theory, trajectory modeling revealed significant increases over time in explicit and implicit in-group attitudes, level of concrete operational thought and the importance of children's racial-ethnic identity. However, level of racial-ethnic identity remained unchanged over time. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-developmental theory, and the influence of living in a racially homogeneous environment on the development of racial-ethnic identity among minority group children. Studies are also suggested for future research. PMID:23982921

  14. Development of racial-ethnic identity among First Nation children.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Elements of racial-ethnic identity, often found among adolescents from racial-ethnic minority groups, have their origins in middle childhood and pre-adolescence. The present study explored the developmental trajectory of some of those components among Native Canadian children living on relatively remote First Nation communities. Children and young adolescents (N = 414,209 female) between the ages of 6-11 completed measures assessing their level of racial-ethnic identity, concrete operational thought, implicit and explicit self-esteem, implicit and explicit in-group attitudes, and the importance of their racial-ethnic identity each year for 5 years. Consistent with predictions from cognitive developmental theory, trajectory modeling revealed significant increases over time in explicit and implicit in-group attitudes, level of concrete operational thought and the importance of children's racial-ethnic identity. However, level of racial-ethnic identity remained unchanged over time. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-developmental theory, and the influence of living in a racially homogeneous environment on the development of racial-ethnic identity among minority group children. Studies are also suggested for future research.

  15. Two-year citations of JAPPL original articles: evidence of a relative age effect.

    PubMed

    Soares de Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares; Ramalho de Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro; de Oliveira, Bruno Ribeiro Ramalho; de Oliveira Brito, Letícia Vargas; da Matta, Thiago Torres; Viana, Bruno Ferreira; de Souza, Cintia Pereira; Guerreiro, Renato de Carvalho; de Carvalho Guerreiro, Renato; Slama, Fabian Antonio; Portugal, Eduardo da Matta Mello; da Matta Mello Portugal, Eduardo

    2012-05-01

    Several indicators have been used to analyze scientific journals, with the impact factor and the number of citations in a 2-yr calendar time frame (2-YRC) being the most common factors. However, considering that the Journal of Applied Physiology (JAPPL) appears monthly and that calculations of these indicators are based on citations of papers published in previous years, we hypothesized that articles published at the beginning of the year would be cited more in the 2-YRC compared with those appearing in the last issues of the year, a phenomena known as a relative age effect. Our objective was to confirm the existence of a relative age effect in the 2-YRC for original articles published in JAPPL. From 2005 to 2008, a total of 1,726 original articles were published, according to the Web of Science, and 9,973 citations in 2-YRC, varying from 0 to 45, with a mean of 5.78 for individual papers. Although there were no differences in the number of original articles published in a given month (P = 0.99), the 2-YRC varied considerably throughout the year, being higher for those earlier issues of the year, as shown by the linear regression analysis (r(2) = 0.76; P < 0.001). The 2-YRC began at 6.62 during the first 3 mo of the year, dropping by 10% at each 3-mo period. In summary, the longer an article has been out there, the more citations it collects. The relative age effect is a potential confounding variable for the assessment and interpretation of 2-YRC (using calendar years) from JAPPL original articles.

  16. Smokeless tobacco use accelerates age-related loss of bone mineral density among older women in a multi-ethnic rural community.

    PubMed

    Quandt, Sara A; Spangler, John G; Case, L Douglas; Bell, Ronny A; Belflower, Amy E

    2005-06-01

    Cigarette smoking is a recognized risk factor for low bone mineral density (BMD) and osteoporosis. Despite the prevalence of smokeless tobacco (ST) use by women in some areas of the United States, minority groups in the United Kingdom, and populations in South Asia and Africa, no data exist to evaluate its effect on bone health. The objective of the study is to identify risk factors for low BMD among older women in a multi-ethnic population, with particular attention to smoking and ST use. Data were collected in Robeson County, North Carolina. ST use from childhood is common among women in this community. Two hundred-forty women aged 60 years and older (approximately equal numbers of African Americans, Native Americans and whites) were recruited at a variety of community events to obtain a cross-section of the demographic composition of the county. The main outcome was BMD measured in the heel using a portable dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Twenty-nine percent of women were current or former smokers, and 26% current or former ST users. Increased BMD was predicted by greater body mass index, estrogen use in the past year, and African American and Native American ethnicity. There was a significant interaction between ST use and age, and between smoking and nutritional supplement use. BMD declined with age; the decline with age was greater for women who were current or former ST users than for those who never used ST. Women who formerly smoked and did not use supplements had a decreased BMD. ST should be considered as an additional risk factor for osteoporosis in populations where its use is prevalent. PMID:16917747

  17. Origins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of resources dealing with the theme of origins of life, the universe, and traditions. Includes Web sites, videos, books, audio materials, and magazines with appropriate grade levels and/or subject disciplines indicated; professional resources; and learning activities. (LRW)

  18. Ethnic Minorities and Telecommunications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Hull, Marion

    Developments in communications technology should become a major concern of minorities (native Americans and Americans of African, Asian, and Hispanic racial or ethnic origin). Although minorities are disillusioned with broadcast television because television decision makers have not been sensitive to minority needs, they have shown interest…

  19. Social equity theory and racial-ethnic achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process, direct and signal influences, that these two kinds of processes operate across developmental contexts, and that the kind of influence and the setting in which they are enacted change with age. Evidence supporting each of SET's key propositions is discussed in the context of a critical review of research on the Black-White achievement gap. Specific developmental hypotheses derived from SET are described, along with proposed standards of evidence for testing those hypotheses.

  20. Social equity theory and racial-ethnic achievement gaps.

    PubMed

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process, direct and signal influences, that these two kinds of processes operate across developmental contexts, and that the kind of influence and the setting in which they are enacted change with age. Evidence supporting each of SET's key propositions is discussed in the context of a critical review of research on the Black-White achievement gap. Specific developmental hypotheses derived from SET are described, along with proposed standards of evidence for testing those hypotheses. PMID:23240908

  1. Origins.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, S

    1985-10-01

    The farthest of the galaxies that can be seen through the large ground-based telescopes of modern astronomy, such as those on La Palma in the Canary Islands, are so far away that they appear as they did close to the time of the origin of the universe, perhaps some 10 billion years ago. Much has been learned, and much has still to be learned, about the young universe from optical and radio telescopes, but these instruments cannot be used to look directly at the universe in its first few hundred thousand years. Instead, they are used to search the relatively recent past for relics of much earlier times. Together with experiments planned for the next generation of elementary particle accelerators, astronomical observations should continue to extend what is known about the universe backward in time to the Big Bang and may eventually help to reveal the origins of the physical laws that govern the universe.

  2. An exploratory examination of the relationships among emotional intelligence, elementary school science teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, race/ethnicity, gender, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okech, Allan P.

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in

  3. Dietary intakes of preschool-aged children in relation to caregivers' race/ethnicity, acculturation, and demographic characteristics: results from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Erinosho, Temitope O; Berrigan, David; Thompson, Frances E; Moser, Richard P; Nebeling, Linda C; Yaroch, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have examined the influence of acculturation on dietary behaviors of young children while controlling for other demographic variables. The purpose of this study was to assess reported dietary intakes of preschool-aged children (3-5 years) and subsequent associations with caregivers' race/ethnicity, acculturation and demographic characteristics, using data from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). Analysis was restricted to Hispanic and non-Hispanic white caregivers and their preschool-aged children (n = 1,105). Caregivers' acculturation was assessed using place of birth, duration of United States residence, and language spoken at home. Proxy-reports by caregivers to a dietary screener were used to estimate children's intakes of fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables, sweets, and sugar-sweetened beverages consumed. In multivariate analyses, Hispanic caregivers reported their children consumed fewer servings of vegetables than did the children of non-Hispanic white caregivers; there were no other statistically significant differences in children's dietary intakes by caregivers' race/ethnicity. Caregivers' acculturation was associated with caregiver-reported consumption of sweets by children (β = 0.09, 95%CI = 0.01-0.18). Demographic characteristics that were associated with reported dietary intakes of children included caregivers' age, education, and geographic region of residence. In contrast to past studies of acculturation and diet in older children and adults, this study suggests that for 3-5 year olds, caregivers' level of acculturation does not play as strong a role in the dietary intakes of the younger children under their care.

  4. Increases in summer serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in elderly subjects in São Paulo, Brazil vary with age, gender and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypovitaminosis D is a common condition among elderly individuals in temperate-climate countries, with a clear seasonal variation on 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels, increasing after summer and decreasing after winter, but there are few data from sunny countries such as Brazil. Many factors can interfere on vitamin D cutaneous synthesis. We aimed at studying the 25OHD variations during winter and summer in an outdoor physically active elderly population living in São Paulo city, and analysed their determining factors. Methods Ninety-nine individuals (52 women and 47 men, from 55 to 83 years old) from different ethnic groups were selected from an outdoor physical activity group. Data are reported as Mean ± SD, and we used Pearson Linear Correlation, Student's t-test for non-related samples, Chi-square (χ²) test and One-way ANOVA for analysis. Results Mean 25OHD value for the whole group was 78.9 ± 30.9 nmol/L in the winter and 91.6 ± 31.7 nmol/L in the summer (p = 0.005). Mean winter serum 25OHD concentrations were not different between men and women (81.2 ± 30.1 nmol/L vs. 76.7 ± 31.8 nmol/L, respectively), and 19.2% of the individuals showed values < 50 nmol/L. In the summer, we noticed an increase only for men (107.6 ± 31.4 nmol/L) compared to women (76.7 ± 24.0 nmol/L), and 6.5% showed values < 50 nmol/L. A decrease in the mean PTH in the summer compared to the winter was noticed, with PTH levels showing a relationship with 25OHD concentrations only in the winter (r = -0.208, p = 0.041). White individuals showed an increase in mean serum 25OHD in the summer (p = 0.016) which was not noticed for other ethnic groups (Asians, native Brazilians and blacks). An increase in 25OHD values in the summer was observed in the age groups ranging from 51-60 and 61-70 years old (p < 0.05), but not in the age group from 71 years old on. Conclusions 25OHD values increased during the summer in elderly residents of São Paulo, but to different extents depending on

  5. Sm-Nd evidence for the age and origin of a Mississippi Valley Type ore deposit.

    PubMed

    Halliday, A N; Shepherd, T J; Dickin, A P; Chesley, J T

    1990-03-01

    MISSISSIPPI Valley Type (MVT) ore deposits represent the relatively common product of large-scale fluid transport in the continental lithosphere, yet the models for their genesis have been more controversial and unconstrained than those of any other class of giant ore deposit(1,2). Here we show that Sm-Nd isotope data can be used to determine the age and origin of an MVT deposit. Sm-Nd data for fluorites from the North Pennine orefield are difficult to explain unless some of the mineralization is of Mesozoic rather than the traditionally accepted Palaeozoic age. Furthermore, the Nd and Sr isotopie compositions of the fluorites do not support a variety of recent models that include derivation of the components from the mantle, the Lower Palaeozoic basement or the underlying buried granite which served to focus the flow of hydrothermal fluids.

  6. Sm-Nd evidence for the age and origin of a Mississippi Valley Type ore deposit.

    PubMed

    Halliday, A N; Shepherd, T J; Dickin, A P; Chesley, J T

    1990-03-01

    MISSISSIPPI Valley Type (MVT) ore deposits represent the relatively common product of large-scale fluid transport in the continental lithosphere, yet the models for their genesis have been more controversial and unconstrained than those of any other class of giant ore deposit(1,2). Here we show that Sm-Nd isotope data can be used to determine the age and origin of an MVT deposit. Sm-Nd data for fluorites from the North Pennine orefield are difficult to explain unless some of the mineralization is of Mesozoic rather than the traditionally accepted Palaeozoic age. Furthermore, the Nd and Sr isotopie compositions of the fluorites do not support a variety of recent models that include derivation of the components from the mantle, the Lower Palaeozoic basement or the underlying buried granite which served to focus the flow of hydrothermal fluids. PMID:18278025

  7. On the origin and age of the Great Sand Dunes, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Madole, R.F.; Romig, J.H.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; VanSistine, D.P.; Yacob, E.Y.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 100??yr, several hypotheses have been proposed for the origin and age of the Great Sand Dunes. These hypotheses differ widely in the descriptions of dune morphometry, the immediate source of eolian sand, and when sand transport occurred. The primary purpose of this paper is to evaluate these hypotheses and, where warranted, to present new ideas about the origin and age of the Great Sand Dunes. To evaluate the previous hypotheses, we had to develop more detailed information about the surficial geology of the northern San Luis Valley. Thus, we mapped the surficial geology of an area extending several tens of kilometers north, south, and west of the Great Sand Dunes and examined subsurface stratigraphy in more than 200 wells and borings. In addition, we used relative-dating criteria and several radiocarbon and OSL ages to establish the chronology of surficial deposits, and we determined the U-Pb ages of detrital zircons to obtain information about the sources of the sand in the Great Sand Dunes. The first principal finding of this study is that the lower part of the closed basin north of the Rio Grande, referred to here as the sump, is the immediate source of the sand in the Great Sand Dunes, rather than the late Pleistocene flood plain of the Rio Grande (the most widely accepted hypothesis). A second principal finding is that the Great Sand Dunes are older than late Pleistocene. They postdate the draining of Lake Alamosa, which began ??? 440??ka, and predate the time when streams draining the west flank of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains were deflected by incipient dunes that formed near the mountain front. Geomorphic and stratigraphic evidence indicate that this deflection occurred prior to the end of the next to last glaciation (Bull Lake), i.e., prior to ??? 130??ka.

  8. Family ethnic socialization and ethnic identity: a family-driven, youth-driven, or reciprocal process?

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Zeiders, Katharine H; Updegraff, Kimberly A

    2013-02-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal associations between family ethnic socialization and youths' ethnic identity among a sample of Mexican-origin youth (N = 178, Mage = 18.17, SD = .46). Findings from multiple-group cross lagged panel models over a 2-year period indicated that for U.S.-born youth with immigrant parents, the process appeared to be family driven: Youths' perceptions of family ethnic socialization in late adolescence were associated with significantly greater ethnic identity exploration and resolution in emerging adulthood, while youths' ethnic identity during late adolescence did not significantly predict youths' future perceptions of family ethnic socialization. Conversely, for U.S.-born youth with U.S. born parents, youths' ethnic identity significantly predicted their future perceptions of family ethnic socialization but perceptions of family ethnic socialization did not predict future levels of youths' ethnic identity, suggesting a youth-driven process. Findings were consistent for males and females.

  9. Prevalence of overweight and obese school children aged between 7 to 16 years amongst the major 3 ethnic groups in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kasmini, K; Idris, M N; Fatimah, A; Hanafiah, S; Iran, H; Asmah Bee, M N

    1997-09-01

    6239 children aged 7 to 16 years, attending 22 primary and secondary schools in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were screened using a self report questionnaire, with their heights and weights measured using a digital electronic SECA beam balance. The selection was done by a two staged stratified random sampling from a total of 226 schools in Kuala Lumpur. The racial distribution was 56.7% Malays, 33.8% Chinese and 8.1% Indians; 3.6% (n:222) of the children were identified as obese and 6% (n:373) identified as overweight. The definitions of obese and overweight were computed using growth charts of the National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) from the median of the reference population. There were no significant differences amongst the 3 major ethnic groups in the obese group. The differences were significant in the overweight group with the Indians most overweight, followed by the Chinese and the Malays.

  10. The Addicted-Self Model of addictive behavior cessation: does it predict recovery for gender, ethnic, age and drug preference populations?

    PubMed

    Fiorentine, Robert; Hillhouse, Maureen P

    2004-01-01

    Although previous research provided empirical support for the main assumptions of the Addicted-Self (A-S) Model of recovery, it is not known whether the model predicts recovery for various gender, ethnic, age, and drug preference populations. It may be that the model predicts recovery only for some groups of addicts and should not be viewed as a general theory of the recovery process. Addressing this concern using data from the Los Angeles Target Cities Drug Treatment Enhancement Project, it was determined that only trivial population differences exist in the primary variables associated with the A-S Model. The A-S Model predicts abstinence with about the same degree of accuracy and parsimony for all populations. The findings indicate that the A-S Model is a general theory of drug and alcohol addictive behavior cessation.

  11. Impact Constraints on the Age and Origin of the Crustal Dichotomy on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert V.

    2004-01-01

    MOLA data have revealed a large population of 'Quasi-Circular Depressions' (QCDs) with little or no visible expression in image data. These likely buried impact basins have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, how that compares with original highland crust, and when and how the crustal dichotomy may have formed. The buried lowlands are of Early Noachian age, likely slightly younger than the buried highlands but older than the exposed (visible) highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands and/or the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest impact basins. The global field appears to have disappeared at about the time the lowlands formed. It seems likely the topographic crustal dichotomy was produced very early in martian history by processes which operated very quickly. This and the preservation of large relic impact basins in the northern hemisphere, which themselves can account for the lowland topography, suggest that large impacts played the major role in the origin Mars fundamental crustal feature.

  12. Impact Constraints on the Age and Origin of the Crustal Dichotomy on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    MOLA data have revealed a large population of "Quasi-Circular Depressions" (QCDs) with little or no visible expression in image data. These likely buried impact basins have important implications for the age of the lowland crust, how that compares with original highland crust, and when and how the crustal dichotomy may have formed. The buried lowlands are of Early Noachian age, likely slightly younger than the buried highlands but older than the exposed (visible) highland surface. A depopulation of large visible basins at diameters 800 to 1300 km suggests some global scale event early in martian history, maybe related to the formation of the lowlands andor the development of Tharsis. A suggested early disappearance of the global magnetic field can be placed within a temporal sequence of formation of the very largest impact basins. The global field appears to have disappeared at about the time the lowlands formed. It seems likely the topographic crustal dichotomy was produced very early in martian history by processes which operated very quickly. This and the preservation of large relic impact basins in the north- em hemisphere, which themselves can account for the lowland topography, suggest that large impacts played the major role in the origin Mars fundamental crustal feature.

  13. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7–12 years. METHODS A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). RESULTS The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that < 7% of subjects were grossly misclassified. Moderate correlations noted between the two methods ranged from r = 0.310 (p < 0.001) for fat to r = 0.497 (p < 0.001) for energy. The reproducibility of the FFQ, as assessed by Cronbach’s alpha, ranged from 0.61 (protein) to 0.70 (energy, carbohydrates and fat). Spearman’s correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from rho = 0.333 (p = 0.072) for protein to rho = 0.479 (p < 0.01) for fat. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that the FFQ is valid and reliable for measuring the average intake of energy and macronutrients in a population of multi-ethnic children aged 7–12 years in Malaysia. PMID:26702165

  14. Ages, distributions, and origins of upland coastal dune sheets in Oregon, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, C.D.; Stock, E.; Price, D.M.; Hart, R.; Reckendorf, F.; Erlandson, J.M.; Hostetler, S.W.

    2007-01-01

    A total of ten upland dune sheets, totaling 245??km in combined length, have been investigated for their origin(s) along the Oregon coast (500??km in length). The ages of dune emplacement range from 0.1 to 103??ka based on radiocarbon (36 samples) and luminescence (46 samples) dating techniques. The majority of the emplacement dates fall into two periods of late-Pleistocene age (11-103??ka) and mid-late-Holocene age (0.1-8??ka) that correspond to marine low-stand and marine high-stand conditions, respectively. The distribution of both the late-Pleistocene dune sheets (516??km2 total surface area) and the late-Holocene dune sheets (184??km2) are concentrated (90% of total surface area) along a 100??km coastal reach of the south-central Oregon coast. This coastal reach lies directly landward of a major bight (Heceta-Perpetua-Stonewall Banks) on the continental shelf, at depths of 30-200??m below present mean sea level (MSL). The banks served to trap northward littoral drift during most of the late-Pleistocene conditions of lowered sea level (- 50 ?? 20??m MSL). The emerged inner-shelf permitted cross-shelf, eolian sand transport (10-50??km distance) by onshore winds. The depocenter sand deposits were reworked by the Holocene marine transgression and carried landward by asymmetric wave transport during early- to mid-Holocene time. The earliest dated onset of Holocene dune accretion occurred at 8??ka in the central Oregon coast. A northward migration of Northeast Pacific storm tracks to the latitude of the shelf depocenter (Stonewall, Perpetua, Heceta Banks) in Holocene time resulted in eastward wave transport from the offshore depocenter. The complex interplay of coastal morphology, paleosea-level, and paleoclimate yielded the observed peak distribution of beach and dune sand observed along the south-central Oregon coast. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Snow-avalanche impact landforms in Breheimen, southern Norway: Origin, age, and paleoclimatic implications

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, J.A.; McCarroll, D. )

    1994-05-01

    Twelve snow-avalanche ramparts in Jostedalen and Sprongdalen (Breheimen, southern Norway) are investigated to elucidate processes of formation, the history of avalanche activity, and their potential for paleoclimatic reconstruction. Variation in the form of these riverbank boulder ramparts reflects local patterns of avalanche impact. Differences in clast roundness between ramparts, avalanche tracks, and river beds indicate that, on average, 50 to 60% of the clasts in the ramparts originate from river bedload as opposed to avalanche source areas or tracks. Rampart clasts increase in roundness downstream over a distance of 12 km, and the contribution from the river bed varies from 26 to 80% depending on local factors. Conventional lichenometric dating suggests ages for the initiation of rampart formation of 250 to 2000 yr, but they probably have a much longer history. Lichen-size frequency distributions, using the largest lichen from each of n boulders, reflect the age-frequency of surface boulders, providing a record of late Holocene avalanche activity. A simulation model suggests that maximum avalanche activity affected nine of the ramparts during the 19th century, after the peak of the Little Ice Age. The pattern of avalanche activity differs from the pattern of glacier variations but is in close agreement with that of debris-flow activity. The ramparts may yield a valuable proxy record of winter snowfall. 48 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Lunar crater arcs. [origins, distribution and age classification of Pre-Imbrian families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Bulkley, E. O.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the tendency of large lunar craters to lie along circles. A catalog of the craters at least 50 km in diameter was prepared first, noting position, diameter, rim sharpness and completion, nature of underlying surface, and geological age. The subset of those craters 50-400 km in diameter was then used as input to computer programs which identified each 'family' of four or more craters of selected geological age lying on a circular arc. For comparison, families were also identified for randomized crater models in which the crater spatial density was matched to that on the moon, either overall or separately for mare and highland areas. The observed frequency of lunar arcuate families was statistically highly significantly greater than for the randomized models, for craters classified as either late-pre-Imbrian (Nectarian), middle pre-Imbrian, or early pre-Imbrian, as well as for a number of larger age-classes. The lunar families tend to center in specific areas of the moon; these lie in highlands rather than maria and are different for families of Nectarian craters than for pre-Nectarian. The origin of the arcuate crater groupings is not understood.

  17. "They Will Post a Law about Playing Soccer" and Other Ethnic/Racial Microaggressions in Organized Activities Experienced by Mexican-Origin Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Alex R.; Menjívar, Cecilia; Vest Ettekal, Andrea; Simpkins, Sandra D.; Gaskin, Erin R.; Pesch, Annelise

    2016-01-01

    Organized activities have been found to provide positive experiences for Latino adolescents to develop confidence and learn critical life skills; however, these programs are sometimes a context where youth encounter negative experiences related to ethnic/racial microaggressions (ERMs). This qualitative study explores the types of ERMs that…

  18. Hepatitis C in ethnic minority populations in England.

    PubMed

    Mann, A G; Trotter, C L; Balogun, M Adekoyejo; Ramsay, M E

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the differing epidemiology of hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease in ethnic minorities in England. We used Hospital Episode Statistics from 1997/98 to 2004/05 to directly age-standardize numbers of episodes and deaths from hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease in ethnic groups using the white English population as standard and the age-structured population by ethnic group from the 2001 Census. We estimated the odds of having a diagnosis of end-stage liver disease amongst hepatitis C-infected individuals in each ethnic group compared with whites using logistic regression. The main outcome measures were age-standardized morbidity and mortality ratios and morbidity and mortality odds ratios. Standardized ratios (95% confidence interval) for hepatitis C-related end-stage liver disease ranged from 73 (38-140) in Chinese people to 1063 (952-1186) for those from an 'Other' ethnic group. Amongst individuals with a diagnosis of hepatitis C infection, the odds ratios (95% CI) of severe liver disease were 1.42 (1.13-1.79), 1.57 (1.36-1.81), 2.44 (1.85-3.22), 1.73 (1.36-2.19) and 1.83 (1.08-3.10) comparing individuals of Black African, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Indian and Chinese origin with whites, respectively. Ethnic minority populations in England are more likely than whites to experience an admission or to die from severe liver disease as a result of hepatitis C infection. Ethnic minority populations may have a higher prevalence of hepatitis C or they may experience a poorer prognosis because of differential access to health services, longer duration of infection or the prevalence of co-morbidities.

  19. The vulnerability of middle-aged and older adults in a multiethnic, low-income area: contributions of age, ethnicity, and health insurance.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kara Odom; Steers, Neil; Liang, Li-Jung; Morales, Leo S; Forge, Nell; Jones, Loretta; Brown, Arleen F

    2010-12-01

    This community-partnered study was developed and fielded in partnership with key community stakeholders and describes age- and race-related variation in delays in care and preventive service utilization between middle-aged and older adults living in South Los Angeles. The survey sample included adults aged 50 and older who self-identified as African American or Latino and lived in ZIP codes of South Los Angeles (N=708). Dependent variables were self-reported delays in care and use of preventive services. Insured participants aged 50 to 64 were more likely to report any delay in care (adjusted predicted percentage (APP)=18%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=14-23) and problems obtaining needed medical care (APP=15%, 95% CI=12-20) than those aged 65 and older. Uninsured participants aged 50 to 64 reported even greater delays in care (APP=45%, 95% CI=33-56) and problems obtaining needed medical (APP=33%, 95% CI=22-45) and specialty care (APP=26%, 95% CI=16-39) than those aged 65 and older. Participants aged 50 to 64 were generally less likely to receive preventive services, including influenza and pneumococcal vaccines and colonoscopy than older participants, but women were more likely to receive mammograms. Participants aged 50 to 64 had more problems obtaining recommended preventive care and faced more delays in care than those aged 65 and older, particularly if they were uninsured. Providing insurance coverage for this group may improve access to preventive care and promote wellness.

  20. Ages and Origins of Calcite and Opal in the Exploratory Studies Facility Tunnel, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paces, James B.; Neymark, Leonid A.; Marshall, Brian D.; Whelan, Joseph F.; Peterman, Zell E.

    2001-01-01

    and smallest delta oxygen-18 values compared to calcite from intermediate and outer positions. Basal calcite has relatively small strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios, between 0.7105 and 0.7120, that are similar to the initial isotopic compositions of the strontium-rich tuff units, whereas outer calcite has more radiogenic strontium-87/strontium-86 ratios between 0.7115 and 0.7127. Isotopic compositions of strontium, oxygen, and carbon in the outer (youngest) unsaturated-zone calcite are coincident with those measured in Yucca Mountain calcrete, which formed by pedogenic processes. The physical and isotopic data from calcite and opal indicate that they formed from solutions of meteoric origin percolating through a limited network of connected fracture pathways in the unsaturated zone rather than by inundation from ascending ground water originating in the saturated zone. Mineral assemblages, textures, and distributions within the unsaturated zone are distinctly different from those deposited below the water table at Yucca Mountain. The calcite and opal typically are present only on footwall surfaces of a small fraction of fractures and only on floors of a small fraction of lithophysal cavities. The similarities in the carbon, oxygen, and strontium isotopic compositions between fracture calcite and soil-zone calcite, as well as the gradation of textures from detritus-rich micrite in the soil to detritus-free spar 10 to 30 meters below the surface, also support a genetic link between the two depositional environments. Older deposits contain oxygen isotope compositions that indicate elevated temperatures of mineral formation during the early stages of deposition; however, in the youngest deposits these values are consistent with deposition under geothermal gradients similar to modern conditions. Correlations between mineral ages and varying Pleistocene climate conditions are not apparent from the current data. Cumulative evidence from calcite and opal deposits indicate

  1. Initial insights into the age and origin of the Kubuqi sand sea of northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiaoping; Forman, Steven; Hu, Fangen; Zhang, Deguo; Liu, Ziting; Li, Hongwei

    2016-04-01

    The Kubuqi Desert is the only active sand sea in the semiarid regions of northern China and occurs along the southern margin of the Yellow River. Little is known about the age and origin of this large (17,000 km2) sand sea with a present annual precipitation of 200-480 mm. Sand drift potentials indicated net capable winds for aeolian transport are from the northwest, though winds are stronger to north beyond the dune field than within the sand sea. Geomorphic and stratigraphic observations indicate that Holocene aeolian sand often drapes over bedrock and river terraces as a palimpsest landscape. Field investigations identified four stratigraphic sections with multiple aeolian sand units and palaeosols, with age control by optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz grains. Palaeosols are weakly developed, mostly accumulative A horizon with organic carbon content < 1% and reflect sand sheet deposition possibly in a steppe environment. Although sediments near river channels or former lakes might give old ages, the initial formation and age of the Kubuqi sand sea should be judged from the occurrence of the sandy palimpsest of the landscape that is OSL dated to the Holocene in general. The latest period of aeolian reactivation may be related to human activity associated with grazing and farming from lost cities in the Kubuqi Desert during the Han (206 B.C. - A.D. 220) and the Tang (A.D. 608 - 907) Dynasties. Also, variable discharge of the Yellow River with local diversions for irrigation and throughout the catchment resulted in possibly an increased supply of aeolian particles for dune field expansion in the past 2 ka.

  2. Subduction Along the South Caribbean Deformed Belt: Age of Initiation and Backthrust Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Kroehler, M.; Escalona, A.; Magnani, B.; Christeson, G.

    2007-12-01

    The South Caribbean deformed belt (SCDB) represents a submarine prism formed at the interface between subducting oceanic material in the Colombian and Venezuelan basins and arc terranes along the northern edge of the South American continent. The SCDB and subducted Caribbean slab extends 1500 km from Panama to the Aves Ridge and is similar in scale to better studied magmatic subduction zones in the Lesser Antilles and Central America. The age of subduction of the Venezuelan basin at the SCDB has been examined by dating asymmetrical sediment wedges inferred to have formed above the bending and subducting slab of the Venezuelan basin. Ages are constrained by ties to DSDP wells drilled in the Venezuelan basin ~150 km north of the SCDB. Onlapping wedges are oldest in the western area near the Beata Ridge (middle Eocene), of intermediate age in the central area (early Miocene), and youngest in the east near the Aves Ridge (Mio- Pleistocene). Overlying younger wedges in all areas demonstrate that subduction continued following its initiation. Similar ages of deformed syn-thurst wedges are known from the now inactive continental foreland of northern South America in a belt from western Venezuela to Trinidad. Based on this correlation, we propose a simple back arc thrusting origin for the SCDB that is analogous to the eastern Sunda arc of Indonesia. The obliquity of convergence in the Caribbean case has produced a longlived, eastwardly-migrating backthrust that contrasts to more static backthrust in Sunda. The immediate onset of backthrusting following continental collision means that South America-Caribbean convergence was accommodated by newly organized and focussed subduction at the SCDB backthrust; the "collided" crust of intervening accreted arc terranes remains remarkably unaffected by regional shortening effects.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome Derived from Principal Component Analysis and Incident Cardiovascular Events: The Multi Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC)

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Subhashish; Jacobs, David R.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Sibley, Christopher T.; Jorgensen, Neal W.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Liu, Yongmei; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Kritchevsky, Stephen; Goodpaster, Bret; Kanaya, Alka; Newman, Anne B.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Herrington, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. The NCEP metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a combination of dichotomized interrelated risk factors from predominantly Caucasian populations. We propose a continuous MetS score based on principal component analysis (PCA) of the same risk factors in a multiethnic cohort and compare prediction of incident CVD events with NCEP MetS definition. Additionally, we replicated these analyses in the Health, Aging, and Body composition (Health ABC) study cohort. Methods and Results. We performed PCA of the MetS elements (waist circumference, HDL, TG, fasting blood glucose, SBP, and DBP) in 2610 Caucasian Americans, 801 Chinese Americans, 1875 African Americans, and 1494 Hispanic Americans in the multiethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. We selected the first principal component as a continuous MetS score (MetS-PC). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between MetS-PC and 5.5 years of CVD events (n = 377) adjusting for age, gender, race, smoking and LDL-C, overall and by ethnicity. To facilitate comparison of MetS-PC with the binary NCEP definition, a MetS-PC cut point was chosen to yield the same 37% prevalence of MetS as the NCEP definition (37%) in the MESA cohort. Hazard ratio (HR) for CVD events were estimated using the NCEP and Mets-PC-derived binary definitions. In Cox proportional models, the HR (95% CI) for CVD events for 1-SD (standard deviation) of MetS-PC was 1.71 (1.54–1.90) (P < 0.0001) overall after adjusting for potential confounders, and for each ethnicity, HRs were: Caucasian, 1.64 (1.39–1.94), Chinese, 1.39 (1.06–1.83), African, 1.67 (1.37–2.02), and Hispanic, 2.10 (1.66-2.65). Finally, when binary definitions were compared, HR for CVD events was 2.34 (1.91–2.87) for MetS-PC versus 1.79 (1.46–2.20) for NCEP MetS. In the Health ABC cohort, in a fully adjusted model, MetS-PC per 1-SD (Health ABC) remained associated with CVD events (HR = 1.21, 95%CI 1.12–1.32) overall, and for each ethnicity

  4. The origin and age of haplochromine fishes in Lake Victoria, east Africa.

    PubMed Central

    Nagl, S; Tichy, H; Mayer, W E; Takezaki, N; Takahata, N; Klein, J

    2000-01-01

    According to a widely held view, the more than 300 species of haplochromine cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria (LV), East Africa, originated from a single founder species in less than 12,000 years. This view, however, does not follow from the published geological and molecular evidence. The former does indeed suggest that the LV basin dried out less than 15,000 years ago, but it does not provide any information about the species that re-colonized the new lake or that remained in the rivers draining the area. The molecular evidence is inconclusive with respect to the origin of the LV haplochromines because cichlids from critical regions around LV were not adequately sampled; and as far as the age of the LV haplochromines is concerned, it in fact led to an estimate of 250,000-750,000 years old. In the present study, mitochondrial DNA (control region) variation was determined by heteroduplex and sequencing analyses of more than 670 specimens collected at widely distributed East African riverine and lacustrine localities. The analyses revealed the existence of seven haplogroups (I-VII) distinguishable by characteristic substitutions. All endemic LV samples tested fell into one of these haplogroups (V) which, however, was also found to be present at various other localities, both riverine and lacustrine, outside LV. Within this haplogroup, four subgroups (VA through VD) could be distinguished, two of which (VB and VC) were represented in LV and at other localities. The great majority of the LV haplochromine species could be classified as belonging to the VC subgroup, which was found only in LV and in the rivers draining into it. Hence, while the endemic haplochromine species of LV could not have originated from a single founding population, the lake does harbour a large species flock which probably arose in situ. PMID:10874756

  5. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Perry, John R B; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E; Sulem, Patrick; Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Hua Zhao, Jing; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coviello, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Davey Smith, George; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco E J; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth J F; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F; Stefansson, Kari; Murabito, Joanne M; Ong, Ken K

    2014-10-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

  6. Parent-of-origin specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Zhao, Jing Hua; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J. Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coveillo, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D’adamo, Adamo Pio; Smith, George Davey; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco EJ; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul DP; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce HR; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth JF; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild IA; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F

    2014-01-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality1. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation2,3, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P<5×10−8) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1/WDR25, MKRN3/MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signaling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition. PMID:25231870

  7. Parent-of-origin-specific allelic associations among 106 genomic loci for age at menarche.

    PubMed

    Perry, John R B; Day, Felix; Elks, Cathy E; Sulem, Patrick; Thompson, Deborah J; Ferreira, Teresa; He, Chunyan; Chasman, Daniel I; Esko, Tõnu; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Albrecht, Eva; Ang, Wei Q; Corre, Tanguy; Cousminer, Diana L; Feenstra, Bjarke; Franceschini, Nora; Ganna, Andrea; Johnson, Andrew D; Kjellqvist, Sanela; Lunetta, Kathryn L; McMahon, George; Nolte, Ilja M; Paternoster, Lavinia; Porcu, Eleonora; Smith, Albert V; Stolk, Lisette; Teumer, Alexander; Tšernikova, Natalia; Tikkanen, Emmi; Ulivi, Sheila; Wagner, Erin K; Amin, Najaf; Bierut, Laura J; Byrne, Enda M; Hottenga, Jouke-Jan; Koller, Daniel L; Mangino, Massimo; Pers, Tune H; Yerges-Armstrong, Laura M; Hua Zhao, Jing; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Atsma, Femke; Bandinelli, Stefania; Beckmann, Matthias W; Benitez, Javier; Blomqvist, Carl; Bojesen, Stig E; Bolla, Manjeet K; Bonanni, Bernardo; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brenner, Hermann; Buring, Julie E; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Chanock, Stephen; Chen, Jinhui; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Collée, J Margriet; Couch, Fergus J; Couper, David; Coviello, Andrea D; Cox, Angela; Czene, Kamila; D'adamo, Adamo Pio; Davey Smith, George; De Vivo, Immaculata; Demerath, Ellen W; Dennis, Joe; Devilee, Peter; Dieffenbach, Aida K; Dunning, Alison M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Eriksson, Johan G; Fasching, Peter A; Ferrucci, Luigi; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Flyger, Henrik; Foroud, Tatiana; Franke, Lude; Garcia, Melissa E; García-Closas, Montserrat; Geller, Frank; de Geus, Eco E J; Giles, Graham G; Gudbjartsson, Daniel F; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guénel, Pascal; Guo, Suiqun; Hall, Per; Hamann, Ute; Haring, Robin; Hartman, Catharina A; Heath, Andrew C; Hofman, Albert; Hooning, Maartje J; Hopper, John L; Hu, Frank B; Hunter, David J; Karasik, David; Kiel, Douglas P; Knight, Julia A; Kosma, Veli-Matti; Kutalik, Zoltan; Lai, Sandra; Lambrechts, Diether; Lindblom, Annika; Mägi, Reedik; Magnusson, Patrik K; Mannermaa, Arto; Martin, Nicholas G; Masson, Gisli; McArdle, Patrick F; McArdle, Wendy L; Melbye, Mads; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Mihailov, Evelin; Milani, Lili; Milne, Roger L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Neven, Patrick; Nohr, Ellen A; Oldehinkel, Albertine J; Oostra, Ben A; Palotie, Aarno; Peacock, Munro; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pharoah, Paul D P; Postma, Dirkje S; Pouta, Anneli; Pylkäs, Katri; Radice, Paolo; Ring, Susan; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Robino, Antonietta; Rose, Lynda M; Rudolph, Anja; Salomaa, Veikko; Sanna, Serena; Schlessinger, David; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Southey, Mellissa C; Sovio, Ulla; Stampfer, Meir J; Stöckl, Doris; Storniolo, Anna M; Timpson, Nicholas J; Tyrer, Jonathan; Visser, Jenny A; Vollenweider, Peter; Völzke, Henry; Waeber, Gerard; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wallaschofski, Henri; Wang, Qin; Willemsen, Gonneke; Winqvist, Robert; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Wright, Margaret J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Econs, Michael J; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Loos, Ruth J F; McCarthy, Mark I; Montgomery, Grant W; Rice, John P; Streeten, Elizabeth A; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Bergmann, Sven; Boerwinkle, Eric; Boyd, Heather A; Crisponi, Laura; Gasparini, Paolo; Gieger, Christian; Harris, Tamara B; Ingelsson, Erik; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kraft, Peter; Lawlor, Debbie; Metspalu, Andres; Pennell, Craig E; Ridker, Paul M; Snieder, Harold; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Spector, Tim D; Strachan, David P; Uitterlinden, André G; Wareham, Nicholas J; Widen, Elisabeth; Zygmunt, Marek; Murray, Anna; Easton, Douglas F; Stefansson, Kari; Murabito, Joanne M; Ong, Ken K

    2014-10-01

    Age at menarche is a marker of timing of puberty in females. It varies widely between individuals, is a heritable trait and is associated with risks for obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, breast cancer and all-cause mortality. Studies of rare human disorders of puberty and animal models point to a complex hypothalamic-pituitary-hormonal regulation, but the mechanisms that determine pubertal timing and underlie its links to disease risk remain unclear. Here, using genome-wide and custom-genotyping arrays in up to 182,416 women of European descent from 57 studies, we found robust evidence (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for 123 signals at 106 genomic loci associated with age at menarche. Many loci were associated with other pubertal traits in both sexes, and there was substantial overlap with genes implicated in body mass index and various diseases, including rare disorders of puberty. Menarche signals were enriched in imprinted regions, with three loci (DLK1-WDR25, MKRN3-MAGEL2 and KCNK9) demonstrating parent-of-origin-specific associations concordant with known parental expression patterns. Pathway analyses implicated nuclear hormone receptors, particularly retinoic acid and γ-aminobutyric acid-B2 receptor signalling, among novel mechanisms that regulate pubertal timing in humans. Our findings suggest a genetic architecture involving at least hundreds of common variants in the coordinated timing of the pubertal transition.

  8. The origin of the Canary Island Seamount Province - new ages of old seamounts.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Canary Island Seamount Province forms a scattered hotspot track on the Atlantic ocean floor ~1300 km long and ~350 km wide, perpendicular to lithospheric fractures, and parallel to the NW African continental margin. New (40)Ar/(39)Ar datings show that seamount ages vary from 133 Ma to 0.2 Ma in the central archipelago, and from 142 Ma to 91 Ma in the southwest. Combining (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages with plate tectonic reconstructions, I find that the temporal and spatial distribution of seamounts is irreconcilable with a deep fixed mantle plume origin, or derivation from passive mantle upwelling beneath a mid-ocean ridge. I conclude that shallow mantle upwelling beneath the Atlantic Ocean basin off the NW African continental lithosphere flanks produced recurrent melting anomalies and seamounts from the Late Jurassic to Recent, nominating the Canary Island Seamount Province as oldest hotspot track in the Atlantic Ocean, and most long-lived preserved on earth. PMID:23838703

  9. The origin of the Canary Island Seamount Province - new ages of old seamounts.

    PubMed

    van den Bogaard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Canary Island Seamount Province forms a scattered hotspot track on the Atlantic ocean floor ~1300 km long and ~350 km wide, perpendicular to lithospheric fractures, and parallel to the NW African continental margin. New (40)Ar/(39)Ar datings show that seamount ages vary from 133 Ma to 0.2 Ma in the central archipelago, and from 142 Ma to 91 Ma in the southwest. Combining (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages with plate tectonic reconstructions, I find that the temporal and spatial distribution of seamounts is irreconcilable with a deep fixed mantle plume origin, or derivation from passive mantle upwelling beneath a mid-ocean ridge. I conclude that shallow mantle upwelling beneath the Atlantic Ocean basin off the NW African continental lithosphere flanks produced recurrent melting anomalies and seamounts from the Late Jurassic to Recent, nominating the Canary Island Seamount Province as oldest hotspot track in the Atlantic Ocean, and most long-lived preserved on earth.

  10. The origin of the Canary Island Seamount Province - New ages of old seamounts

    PubMed Central

    van den Bogaard, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The Canary Island Seamount Province forms a scattered hotspot track on the Atlantic ocean floor ~1300 km long and ~350 km wide, perpendicular to lithospheric fractures, and parallel to the NW African continental margin. New 40Ar/39Ar datings show that seamount ages vary from 133 Ma to 0.2 Ma in the central archipelago, and from 142 Ma to 91 Ma in the southwest. Combining 40Ar/39Ar ages with plate tectonic reconstructions, I find that the temporal and spatial distribution of seamounts is irreconcilable with a deep fixed mantle plume origin, or derivation from passive mantle upwelling beneath a mid-ocean ridge. I conclude that shallow mantle upwelling beneath the Atlantic Ocean basin off the NW African continental lithosphere flanks produced recurrent melting anomalies and seamounts from the Late Jurassic to Recent, nominating the Canary Island Seamount Province as oldest hotspot track in the Atlantic Ocean, and most long-lived preserved on earth. PMID:23838703

  11. Age and origin of the Gezira alluvial fan between the Blue and White Nile rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, martin

    2014-05-01

    The Gezira is a low-angle alluvial fan bounded by the Blue Nile to the east and the White Nile to the west. It is the main agricultural region of Sudan and produces high quality long-staple cotton for export. Dark cracking clays (vertisols) cover much of the Gezira and range in age from 50 kyr to Holocene. The Gezira is traversed by a series of defunct sandy channels that originate between Sennar and Wad Medani on the present-day Blue Nile. With a radius of 300 km and an area of 40,000 km2 the Gezira is a mega-fan. The younger channels range in age from early Holocene to 100 kyr, while near surface channels filled with rolled quartz and carbonate gravels have ages back to >250 kyr. Boreholes in the Gezira reveal coarse alluvial sands and gravels in now buried channels overlain by alluvial clays, forming a repetitive sequence of fining-upwards alluvial units. that probably extend back to Pliocene times. The fan is up to 180 m thick with a volume of ~1,800 km3. The sandy or gravelly bed-load channels coincide with colder drier climates and sparse vegetation in the Ethiopian headwaters of the Blue Nile and the alluvial clays denote widespread flooding during times of stronger summer monsoon. The early stages of such flood events were often accompanied by mass burial of Nile oyster (Etheria elliptica) beds, such as the 45-50 kyr floods that deposited up to 5 m of clay in the northern Gezira. A unique feature of the eastern Gezira is a former Blue Nile channel at least 80 km long running parallel to the present river and entirely filled with volcanic ash. The channel was only 3-4 m deep and 20-30 m wide. Very fine laminations and cross-beds, together with locally abundant phytoliths and sponge spicules, suggest slow-moving water, with flow dispersed across many distributary channels. The ash geochemistry is similar to that in the lower part of the Kibish Formation in the lower Omo valley of southern Ethiopia and points to a minimum age of 100 kyr and a maximum age of

  12. QuickStats: Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity* - National Vital Statistics System, United States,(†) 2007 and 2015(§).

    PubMed

    2016-08-19

    From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.

  13. I am really good at puzzles, but I don't get asked to play with others: age, gender, and ethnic differences in Head Start children's self-perceptions of competence.

    PubMed

    Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

    2004-03-01

    The author examined age, gender, and ethnic differences in the self-perceptions of 112 low-income children who were assessed with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) at Head Start and kindergarten. Children's self-ratings of competence were overly optimistic across the 4 subscales of the PSPCSA during the 2 years of the investigation. Contrary to the author's expectations, children's self-evaluations were significantly higher at the end of kindergarten across all subscales of the PSPCSA. Ethnic group differences also were found. African American children described their cognitive competence less favorably than did Caucasian children. PMID:15101551

  14. Anticipatory injustice among adolescents: age and racial/ethnic differences in perceived unfairness of the justice system.

    PubMed

    Woolard, Jennifer L; Harvell, Samantha; Graham, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines age differences in anticipatory injustice, or the expectation of unfair or discriminatory treatment in the legal system. 1,393 adolescents and young adults from the community or from detention centers and jails were interviewed regarding demographic and justice system experience, intelligence, expectations about fair treatment, and legal decisions. African Americans and Latinos and those with more system experience expected greater injustice across multiple legal contexts. Anticipatory injustice increased with age among African Americans and those with the most system experience. It also predicted choices about police interrogation, attorney consultation, and plea agreements. Anticipations of injustice during adolescence may affect future interactions with court officials as well as more general constructs of legal socialization. PMID:18344171

  15. Ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jeanne; Lawson, William; Escobar, Javier

    2002-12-01

    Ethnic minorities have relatively similar rates of mood disorders as do white Americans, but they are much less likely to receive appropriate care. Barriers to care include lack of insurance, few minority providers' racism, and distrust of care providers. A priority in research is identifying practice interventions and policies that could eliminate disparities in care.

  16. Ethnic Hairdressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Flora B.

    The practical aspects of ethnic hairdressing for the beginning student in the field of Cosmetology are presented in this manual. Lessons and review questions are provided to give the student a knowledge of the problems encountered in dealing with the many different variations in hair, as well as to serve as a foundation for more complex material.…

  17. Social Equity Theory and Racial-Ethnic Achievement Gaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2013-01-01

    In the United States, racial-ethnic differences on tests of school readiness and academic achievement continue. A complete understanding of the origins of racial-ethnic achievement gaps is still lacking. This article describes social equity theory (SET), which proposes that racial-ethnic achievement gaps originate from two kinds of social process,…

  18. HIV and coronary artery calcium score: comparison of the Hawaii Aging with HIV Cardiovascular Study and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Dominic; Young, Rebekah; Valcour, Nicole; Kronmal, Richard A.; Lum, Corey J.; Parikh, Nisha I.; Tracy, Russell P.; Budoff, Matthew; Shikuma, Cecilia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of HIV, immunologic, and inflammatory factors on coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods Cross-sectional study comparing baseline data of males from Hawaii Aging with HIV –Cardiovascular Study (HAHCS) with the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) cohort. The cohorts were pooled to determine effects of HIV on CAC and explore immunologic and inflammatory factors that may explain development of CAC in HIV. Multivariable regression models compared CAC prevalence in HAHCS with MESA adjusting for coronary heart disease (CHD) risk profiles. Results We studied 100 men from HAHCS and 2733 men from MESA. Positive CAC was seen in 58% HAHCS participants and 57% MESA participants. Mean CAC was 260.8 in HAHCS and 306.5 in MESA. Using relative risk (RR) regression, HAHCS participants had a greater risk (RR=1.20, P<0.05) of having positive CAC than MESA when adjusting for age, smoking status, diabetes, antihypertensive therapy, BMI, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol. Among participants with positive CAC, HIV infection was not associated with larger amounts of CAC. Among HAHCS participants, current HIV viral load, CD4, length of HIV, interleukin 6 (IL-6), fibrinogen, C-reactive protein (CRP), and D-dimer were not associated with the presence or amount of CAC. Discussion HIV was independently associated with a positive CAC in men with increased likelihood occurring between 45 and 50 years of age. Current HIV viral load, CD4 count, length of HIV, and inflammatory markers were unrelated to either presence or amount of CAC. PMID:26038953

  19. Ethnic Incongruence and the Student-Teacher Relationship: The Perspective of Ethnic Majority Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thijs, Jochem; Westhof, Saskia; Koomen, Helma

    2012-01-01

    Among 36 ethnic-Dutch school teachers in the Netherlands, the present study examined the role of ethnic incongruence in perceived student-teacher relationship quality. Teachers rated their relationships with 59 Turkish-Dutch, 62 Moroccan-Dutch, and 109 ethnic-Dutch students attending grades 4 through 6 (M[subscript age] = 10.81 years, SD = 1.05).…

  20. Age, origins and extinctions of the avifauna of Macaronesia: a synthesis of phylogenetic and fossil information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Rando, Juan Carlos; Richardson, David S.; Emerson, Brent C.

    2012-09-01

    Understanding the age, origins and extinction of oceanic island biota has captivated the interest of evolutionary biologists since Darwin and Wallace. Because oceanic islands are discrete entities of small geographical size but with considerable habitat diversity, they provide ideal templates within which to study evolutionary processes. The peripheral North Atlantic islands, collectively referred to as Macaronesia, are considered a hot spot of biodiversity due to the fact that they contain a large proportion of endemic taxa (ca 25%). Recent molecular studies are providing insight into the patterns of colonization and radiation within the extant avifauna, while paleontological studies have described many extinct avian species, sometimes identifying the causes and chronology of extinction. The aim of this review is to develop an understanding of the evolutionary and biogeographic history of the macaronesian avifauna, combining information from phylogenetic and paleontological studies. We then compare patterns for Macaronesia with those of other oceanic archipelagos to evaluate to what extent patterns may be generalised across regions. Phylogenetic analyses have confirmed the close relationships between endemic macaronesian avifauna and the closest mainland areas (Europe and Africa), however, in contrast to other archipelagos of a similar age, we show that most extant birds appear to have colonized macaronesian archipelagos relatively recently, within the last four million years, despite some islands being approximately 30 million years old. Fossil records support the idea that higher species richness previously existed, with recent dating on bone collagen of selected extinct species suggesting that their extinction coincided with the arrival of aboriginal people ca 2500 years ago in the Canary Islands, or the arrival of Europeans across all the macaronesian islands in the 14th century. It is plausible that these human mediated extinctions may have selectively acted

  1. Vitamin A status of the minority ethnic group of Karen hill tribe children aged 1-6 years in Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Tienboon, Prasong; Wangpakapattanawong, Prasit

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is the most common cause of childhood blindness in the developing world. It is estimated that by giving adequate vitamin A, in vitamin A deficient populations, child mortality from measles can be reduced by 50%, and mortality from diarrheal disease by 40%. Overall mortality in children 6-59 months of age can be reduced by 23%. This paper reported results from a study of vitamin A status and malnutrition of the minority ethnic group of Karen hill tribe children aged 1-6 years in the north of Thailand. All children aged 1-6 years (N = 158; 83 boys, 75 girls) from the three Karen villages (Mae Hae Tai, Mae Yot, Mae Raek) of Mae Chaem district in the north of Thailand were studied. The Karen is the largest mountain ethnic minority ("hill tribe") group in Thailand. All children were examined by a qualified medical doctor and were assessed for their vitamin A intakes using 24 hours dietary recall. Thai food composition table from Ministry of Health, Thailand were used as references. The results were compared with the Thai Recommended Dietary Allowances. Children aged 1-3 years and 4-6 years were separately analysed due to the differences in Thai Recommended Dietary Allowances between the two age groups. A whole blood of 300 microL was obtained by "fingerstick" for determination of serum vitamin A. Community or village's vitamin A status was assessed by using Simplified Dietary Assessment (SDA) method and Helen Keller International (HKI) food frequency method. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse the data. All families of the study boys and girls had income lower than the Thailand poverty line (US $ 1,000/year). On average, 63% of children from Mae Hae Tai village, 1.5% of children from Mae Yot village and none of children from Mae Raek village had serum vitamin A<0.7 micromol/L which indicated VAD. All boys and only girls from Mae Raek village consumed vitamin A more than the Thai RDA but girls from Mae Hae Tai village and Mae Yot

  2. Genetics and skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Makrantonaki, Evgenia; Bekou, Vassiliki; Zouboulis, Christos C.

    2012-01-01

    Skin aging is a complex process and underlies multiple influences with the probable involvement of heritable and various environmental factors. Several theories have been conducted regarding the pathomechanisms of aged skin, however fundamental mechanisms still remain poorly understood. This article addresses the influence of genetics on skin aging and in particular deals with the differences observed in ethnic populations and between both genders. Recent studies indicate that male and female aged skin differs as far as the type, the consistency and the sensitivity to external factors is concerned. The same has been also documented between elderly people of different origin. Consequently, the aging process taking place in both genders and in diverse ethnic groups should be examined separately and products specialized to each population should be developed in order to satisfy the special needs. PMID:23467395

  3. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. PMID:27314387

  4. Lung function in children in relation to ethnicity, physique and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Lum, Sooky; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Sonnappa, Samatha; Wade, Angie; Cole, Tim J; Harding, Seeromanie; Wells, Jonathan C K; Griffiths, Chris; Treleaven, Philip; Bonner, Rachel; Kirkby, Jane; Lee, Simon; Raywood, Emma; Legg, Sarah; Sears, Dave; Cottam, Philippa; Feyeraband, Colin; Stocks, Janet

    2015-12-01

    Can ethnic differences in spirometry be attributed to differences in physique and socioeconomic factors?Assessments were undertaken in 2171 London primary schoolchildren on two occasions 1 year apart, whenever possible, as part of the Size and Lung function In Children (SLIC) study. Measurements included spirometry, detailed anthropometry, three-dimensional photonic scanning for regional body shape, body composition, information on ethnic ancestry, birth and respiratory history, socioeconomic circumstances, and tobacco smoke exposure.Technically acceptable spirometry was obtained from 1901 children (mean (range) age 8.3 (5.2-11.8) years, 46% boys, 35% White, 29% Black-African origin, 24% South-Asian, 12% Other/mixed) on 2767 test occasions. After adjusting for sex, age and height, forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 1.32, 0.89 and 0.51 z-score units lower in Black-African origin, South-Asian and Other/mixed ethnicity children, respectively, when compared with White children, with similar decrements for forced vital capacity (p<0.001 for all). Although further adjustment for sitting height and chest width reduced differences attributable to ethnicity by up to 16%, significant differences persisted after adjusting for all potential determinants, including socioeconomic circumstances.Ethnic differences in spirometric lung function persist despite adjusting for a wide range of potential determinants, including body physique and socioeconomic circumstances, emphasising the need to use ethnic-specific equations when interpreting results. PMID:26493801

  5. Lung function in children in relation to ethnicity, physique and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Lum, Sooky; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Sonnappa, Samatha; Wade, Angie; Cole, Tim J; Harding, Seeromanie; Wells, Jonathan C K; Griffiths, Chris; Treleaven, Philip; Bonner, Rachel; Kirkby, Jane; Lee, Simon; Raywood, Emma; Legg, Sarah; Sears, Dave; Cottam, Philippa; Feyeraband, Colin; Stocks, Janet

    2015-12-01

    Can ethnic differences in spirometry be attributed to differences in physique and socioeconomic factors?Assessments were undertaken in 2171 London primary schoolchildren on two occasions 1 year apart, whenever possible, as part of the Size and Lung function In Children (SLIC) study. Measurements included spirometry, detailed anthropometry, three-dimensional photonic scanning for regional body shape, body composition, information on ethnic ancestry, birth and respiratory history, socioeconomic circumstances, and tobacco smoke exposure.Technically acceptable spirometry was obtained from 1901 children (mean (range) age 8.3 (5.2-11.8) years, 46% boys, 35% White, 29% Black-African origin, 24% South-Asian, 12% Other/mixed) on 2767 test occasions. After adjusting for sex, age and height, forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 1.32, 0.89 and 0.51 z-score units lower in Black-African origin, South-Asian and Other/mixed ethnicity children, respectively, when compared with White children, with similar decrements for forced vital capacity (p<0.001 for all). Although further adjustment for sitting height and chest width reduced differences attributable to ethnicity by up to 16%, significant differences persisted after adjusting for all potential determinants, including socioeconomic circumstances.Ethnic differences in spirometric lung function persist despite adjusting for a wide range of potential determinants, including body physique and socioeconomic circumstances, emphasising the need to use ethnic-specific equations when interpreting results.

  6. Genetic evidence for an origin of the Armenians from Bronze Age mixing of multiple populations

    PubMed Central

    Haber, Marc; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Xue, Yali; Comas, David; Gasparini, Paolo; Zalloua, Pierre; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-01-01

    The Armenians are a culturally isolated population who historically inhabited a region in the Near East bounded by the Mediterranean and Black seas and the Caucasus, but remain under-represented in genetic studies and have a complex history including a major geographic displacement during World War I. Here, we analyse genome-wide variation in 173 Armenians and compare them with 78 other worldwide populations. We find that Armenians form a distinctive cluster linking the Near East, Europe, and the Caucasus. We show that Armenian diversity can be explained by several mixtures of Eurasian populations that occurred between ~3000 and ~2000 bce, a period characterized by major population migrations after the domestication of the horse, appearance of chariots, and the rise of advanced civilizations in the Near East. However, genetic signals of population mixture cease after ~1200 bce when Bronze Age civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean world suddenly and violently collapsed. Armenians have since remained isolated and genetic structure within the population developed ~500 years ago when Armenia was divided between the Ottomans and the Safavid Empire in Iran. Finally, we show that Armenians have higher genetic affinity to Neolithic Europeans than other present-day Near Easterners, and that 29% of Armenian ancestry may originate from an ancestral population that is best represented by Neolithic Europeans. PMID:26486470

  7. Genetic evidence for an origin of the Armenians from Bronze Age mixing of multiple populations.

    PubMed

    Haber, Marc; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Xue, Yali; Comas, David; Gasparini, Paolo; Zalloua, Pierre; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2016-06-01

    The Armenians are a culturally isolated population who historically inhabited a region in the Near East bounded by the Mediterranean and Black seas and the Caucasus, but remain under-represented in genetic studies and have a complex history including a major geographic displacement during World War I. Here, we analyse genome-wide variation in 173 Armenians and compare them with 78 other worldwide populations. We find that Armenians form a distinctive cluster linking the Near East, Europe, and the Caucasus. We show that Armenian diversity can be explained by several mixtures of Eurasian populations that occurred between ~3000 and ~2000 bce, a period characterized by major population migrations after the domestication of the horse, appearance of chariots, and the rise of advanced civilizations in the Near East. However, genetic signals of population mixture cease after ~1200 bce when Bronze Age civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean world suddenly and violently collapsed. Armenians have since remained isolated and genetic structure within the population developed ~500 years ago when Armenia was divided between the Ottomans and the Safavid Empire in Iran. Finally, we show that Armenians have higher genetic affinity to Neolithic Europeans than other present-day Near Easterners, and that 29% of Armenian ancestry may originate from an ancestral population that is best represented by Neolithic Europeans. PMID:26486470

  8. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Margaret C.; Gordon, Nancy P.; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R. Grant; Lo, Joan C.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3–5, 44.2% were 6–11, and 41.6% were 12–17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents. PMID:26885385

  9. Perceived risk of regular cannabis use in the United States from 2002 to 2012: differences by sex, age, and race/ethnicity*

    PubMed Central

    Mauro, Pia M.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cannabis is one of the most widely used psychoactive substances in the United States (U.S.). Perceived risk of use is associated with substance use; the recent debate surrounding medicalization and legalization of cannabis in the U.S. has the potential to impact perceived risk of use. Recent estimates are needed to assess temporal changes in, and identify correlates of, perceived risk of cannabis use. Methods Utilizing data from the 2002–2012 survey years of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, chi-squared statistics and logistic regression were used to describe temporal changes in perceived risk of regular cannabis use (i.e., once or twice a week), to explore correlates of perceived risk, and to report frequency of cannabis use. Results Between 2002–2012, perceived great risk of regular cannabis use varied significantly overall (p<0.001). The prevalence of past year non-daily (p<0.001) and daily use varied significantly during this time (p<0.001). Controlling for survey year and other confounders, characteristics associated with increased odds of perceived great risk of regular cannabis use included: female sex; Non-White race/ethnicity; age 50+; and family income of $20,000–49,999. Characteristics associated with decreased odds of perceived great risk included: ages 12–17 and 18–25; high school education or greater; total family income of $75,000+; past year non-daily and daily cannabis use; and survey years 2008–2012. Conclusions Findings characterize trends of perceived risk of regular cannabis use, and past year non-daily and daily cannabis use. Longitudinal studies of the influence of legal status of cannabis at the state-level are needed. PMID:25735467

  10. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years. PMID:27605919

  11. The Origins of Mental Toughness – Prosocial Behavior and Low Internalizing and Externalizing Problems at Age 5 Predict Higher Mental Toughness Scores at Age 14

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Hatzinger, Martin; Gerber, Markus; Lemola, Sakari; Clough, Peter J.; Perren, Sonja; von Klitzing, Kay; von Wyl, Agnes; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: The concept of mental toughness (MT) has gained increasing importance among groups other than elite athletes by virtue of its psychological importance and explanatory power for a broad range of health-related behaviors. However, no study has focused so far on the psychological origins of MT. Therefore, the aims of the present study were: to explore, to what extent the psychological profiles of preschoolers aged five were associated with both (1) MT scores and (2) sleep disturbances at age 14, and 3) to explore possible gender differences. Method: Nine years after their first assessment at age five (preschoolers), a total of 77 adolescents (mean age: 14.35 years; SD = 1.22; 42% females) took part in this follow-up study. At baseline, both parents and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), covering internalizing and externalizing problems, hyperactivity, negative peer relationships, and prosocial behavior. At follow-up, participants completed a booklet of questionnaires covering socio-demographic data, MT, and sleep disturbances. Results: Higher prosocial behavior, lower negative peer relationships, and lower internalizing and externalizing problems at age five, as rated by parents and teachers, were associated with self-reported higher MT and lower sleep disturbances at age 14. At age 14, and relative to males, females had lower MT scores and reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusion: The pattern of results suggests that MT traits during adolescence may have their origins in the pre-school years.

  12. The Origin of Aging: Imperfectness-Driven Non-Random Damage Defines the Aging Process and Control of Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2013-01-01

    Physico-chemical properties preclude ideal biomolecules and perfect biological functions. This inherent imperfectness leads to the generation of damage by every biological process, at all levels, from small molecules to cells. The damage is too numerous to be repaired, is partially invisible to natural selection and manifests as aging. I propose that it is the inherent imperfectness of biological systems that is the true root of the aging process. As each biomolecule generates specific forms of damage, the cumulative damage is largely non-random and is indirectly encoded in the genome. I consider this concept in light of other proposed theories of aging and integrate these disparate ideas into a single model. I also discuss the evolutionary significance of damage accumulation and strategies for reducing damage. Finally, I suggest ways to test this integrated model of aging. PMID:23769208

  13. Kukersite--An oil shale of Ordovician age: Origin, occurrence, and geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Bauert, H. . Geology Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    Kukersite is the name originally given to Ordovician oil shale in the Baltic oil shale basin of Estonia. This basin covers about 50,000 sq km and extends eastward to the Leningrad district of Russia. The main oil shale sequence contains up to 50 kukersite beds alternating with argillaceous limestone. They accumulated in Llandeilo-early Caradoc (early Middle Ordovician) during a prominent regression of the Baltoscandian epicontinental sea. This oil shale contains up to 50--60% of total organic carbon. Kukersite consists mostly of accumulations of the microfossil Gloeocapsomorpha prisca, which was apparently an intertidal to very shallow subtidal, marine, mat-forming, benthonic cyanobacterium. Morphological and biogeochemical characteristics show strong similarities with modern mat-forming cyanobacterium Entophysalis major, which can be regarded as a modern analogue for G. prisca. Beside Estonia, the kukersite-type oil shales are known from several sedimentary basins in North America (in Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, North Dakota, Oklahoma) and in Australia (Amadeus and Canning basins), and all of these are exclusively of Ordovician age. G. prisca-dominated oil shales have a high hydrocarbon yield and are considered the main source for Ordovician oils in the USA. Hydrocarbons generated from kukersites have certain distinctive geochemical characteristics. These oils have the characteristic predominance of odd carbon number (C[sub 13]-C[sub 19]) n-alkanes with virtual absence of pristane and phytane. The worldwide distribution of kukersites and the related oils points to the fact that shallow-water widespread Ordovician cratonic seas were a favorable environment for C. prisca.

  14. Locating the Social Origins of Mental Illness: The Explanatory Models of Mental Illness Among Clergy from Different Ethnic and Faith Backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Leavey, Gerard; Loewenthal, Kate; King, Michael

    2016-10-01

    Clergy have historically provided 'healing' through various spiritual and medical modalities and even in modern, developed welfare economies they may still be an important help-seeking resource. Partnerships between religion and psychiatry are regularly advocated, but there is scant research on clergy explanatory models of illness. This paper aimed to explore their relationship with psychiatry and to examine how clergy in various faith groups conceptualised mental health problems. In this qualitative study using in-depth interviews, these issues were explored with 32 practising clergy in the UK from a range of different Christian, Muslim and Jewish faith organisations and ethnic backgrounds. This paper presents findings related to clergy explanatory models of mental illness and, in particular, how the social factors involved in causation are tinged with spiritual influences and implications, and how the meanings of mental distress assume a social and moral significance in distinctive localised matters. PMID:26874526

  15. Partner selection and divorce in ethnic minorities: distinguishing between two types of ethnic homogamous marriages.

    PubMed

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Lievens, John; Van de Putte, Bart; Lusyne, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article compares divorce risks according to marriage type. The common dichotomy between ethnic homogamous and ethnic heterogamous marriages is further elaborated by differentiating a third marriage type; ethnic homogamous marriages between individuals from an ethnic minority group and a partner from the country of origin. Based on the analysis of data concerning the Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium, it has been confirmed that the divorce risk associated with these marriages is higher than that of other ethnic homogamous marriages. However, specific divorce patterns according to marriage type also indicate the importance of differences between the minority groups.

  16. Partner selection and divorce in ethnic minorities: distinguishing between two types of ethnic homogamous marriages.

    PubMed

    Eeckhaut, Mieke C W; Lievens, John; Van de Putte, Bart; Lusyne, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article compares divorce risks according to marriage type. The common dichotomy between ethnic homogamous and ethnic heterogamous marriages is further elaborated by differentiating a third marriage type; ethnic homogamous marriages between individuals from an ethnic minority group and a partner from the country of origin. Based on the analysis of data concerning the Turkish and Moroccan minorities in Belgium, it has been confirmed that the divorce risk associated with these marriages is higher than that of other ethnic homogamous marriages. However, specific divorce patterns according to marriage type also indicate the importance of differences between the minority groups. PMID:22069768

  17. A cross-sectional study of the association of age, race and ethnicity, and body mass index with sex steroid hormone marker profiles among men in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III)

    PubMed Central

    Ritchey, Jamie; Karmaus, Wilfried; Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Steck, Susan E; Zhang, Hongmei

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Since sex hormone markers are metabolically linked, examining sex steroid hormones singly may account for inconsistent findings by age, race/ethnicity and body mass index (BMI) across studies. First, these markers were statistically combined into profiles to account for the metabolic relationship between markers. Then, the relationships between sex steroid hormone profiles and age, race/ethnicity and BMI were explored in multinomial logistic regression models. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting The US Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). Participants 1538 Men, >17 years. Primary outcome measure Sex hormone profiles. Results Cluster analysis was used to identify four statistically determined profiles with Blom-transformed T, E, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and 3-α diol G. We used these four profiles with multinomial logistic regression models to examine differences by race/ethnicity, age and BMI. Mexican American men >50 years were associated with the profile that had lowest T, E and 3-α diol G levels compared to other profiles (p<0.05). Non-Hispanic Black, overweight (25–29.9 kg/m2) and obese (>30 kg/m2) men were most likely to be associated with the cluster with the lowest SHBG (p<0.05). Conclusion The associations of sex steroid hormone profiles by race/ethnicity are novel, while the findings by age and BMI groups are largely consistent with observations from single hormone studies. Future studies should validate these hormone profile groups and investigate these profiles in relation to chronic diseases and certain cancers. PMID:23043125

  18. The Effect of Ethnic Variation on the Success of Induced Labour in Nulliparous Women with Postdates Pregnancies

    PubMed Central

    Antonakou, Angeliki; Tzavara, Chara

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To identify the potential effect of ethnic variation on the success of induction of labour in nulliparous women with postdates pregnancies. Study Design. This was an observational cohort study of women being induced for postdates pregnancies (≥41 weeks) between 2007 and 2013. Women induced for stillbirths and with multiple pregnancies were excluded. The primary objective was to identify the effect of ethnicity on the caesarean section (CS) delivery rates in this cohort of women. Results. 1,636 nulliparous women were identified with a mean age of 27.2 years. 95.8% of the women were of White ethnic origin, 2.6% were Asian, and 1.6% were of Black ethnic origin. The CS delivery rate was 24.4% in the total sample. Women of Black ethnic origin had a 3.26 times greater likelihood for CS in comparison to White women, after adjusting for maternal age, BMI, smoking, presence of meconium, use of epidural analgesia, fetal gender, birth weight, and head circumference (adjusted OR = 3.26; 95% CI: 1.31–8.08, p = 0.011). Conclusion. We have found that nulliparous women of Black ethnicity demonstrate an almost threefold increased risk of caesarean section delivery when induced for postdates pregnancy. PMID:27006861

  19. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

  20. Adapting health promotion interventions for ethnic minority groups: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing Jing; Davidson, Emma; Bhopal, Raj; White, Martin; Johnson, Mark; Netto, Gina; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-06-01

    Adaptation of health interventions has garnered international support across academic disciplines and among various health organizations. Through semi-structured interviews, we sought to explore and understand the perspectives of 26 health researchers and promoters located in the USA, UK, Australia, New Zealand and Norway, working with ethnic minority populations, specifically African-, South Asian- and Chinese-origin populations in the areas of smoking cessation, increasing physical activity and healthy eating, to better understand how adaptation works in practice. We drew on the concepts of intersectionality, representation and context from feminist, sociology and human geography literature, respectively, to help us understand how adaptations for ethnic groups approach the variable of ethnicity. Findings include (i) the intersections of ethnicity and demographic variables such as age and gender highlight the different ways in which people interact, interpret and participate in adapted interventions; (ii) the representational elements of ethnicity such as ancestry or religion are more complexly lived than they are defined in adapted interventions and (iii) the contextual experiences surrounding ethnicity considerations shape the receptivity, durability and continuity of adapted interventions. In conclusion, leveraging the experience and expertise of health researchers and promoters in light of three social science concepts has deepened our understanding of how adaptation works in principle and in practice for ethnic minority populations.

  1. Ethnic networks and language proficiency among immigrants.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R; Miller, P W

    1996-02-01

    "This paper uses a unique data set for Australia (1988) that includes a variety of ethnic network variables to analyze the role of the language concentration measure [in immigrants' acquisition of the language of the destination country]. These ethnic variables, in particular, ethnic press, relatives in Australia, and spouse's origin language, are highly statistically significant. Their inclusion in the equation eliminates the effect of the minority-language concentration variable. The model for analyzing the determinants of English reading and English writing skills in Australia is also shown to be very similar to the model for speaking fluency, including the effect of the ethnic network variables." PMID:12291403

  2. Ethnic networks and language proficiency among immigrants.

    PubMed

    Chiswick, B R; Miller, P W

    1996-02-01

    "This paper uses a unique data set for Australia (1988) that includes a variety of ethnic network variables to analyze the role of the language concentration measure [in immigrants' acquisition of the language of the destination country]. These ethnic variables, in particular, ethnic press, relatives in Australia, and spouse's origin language, are highly statistically significant. Their inclusion in the equation eliminates the effect of the minority-language concentration variable. The model for analyzing the determinants of English reading and English writing skills in Australia is also shown to be very similar to the model for speaking fluency, including the effect of the ethnic network variables."

  3. Ethnicity and Education in Thailand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, C. L.

    With over 95 percent of the people professing Buddhism, about 90 percent having a common or related racial origin, and almost 85 percent speaking the Thai language, the Thai society is fairly homogeneous. There are, however, a few ethnic minorities of which the significant ones are the Chinese (12 percent of the population), the Malays (2…

  4. Age-of-Recall Effects on Family-of-Origin Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampson, Robert B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    College students (n=141) completed Self-Report Family Inventory on Beavers Systems Model of Family Functioning, rating current family, family when they were 10 years old, and family when they were 16 years old. Found significant differences between age-of-recall groups, with recall ratings from age 10 significantly more competent, cohesive, and…

  5. A Study of Selected Socio-Economic Characteristics of Ethnic Minorities Based on the 1970 Census. Volume I: Americans of Spanish Origin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RJ Associates, Inc., Arlington, VA.

    Persons of Spanish Origin are the second largest minority group in the United States. In 1970, they numbered 9.1 million people; 2.4 million of whom were in poverty. These 9.1 million persons are a diverse group of people, from divergent areas of the world, and of different national backgrounds. The separate Spanish groups were designated by the…

  6. Possible Origin of Improved High Temperature Performance of Hydrothermally Aged Cu/Beta Zeolite Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Peden, Charles HF; Kwak, Ja Hun; Burton, Sarah D.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Kim, Do Heui; Lee, Jong H.; Jen, H. W.; Cavattaio, Giovanni; Cheng, Yisun; Lambert, Christine

    2012-04-30

    The hydrothermal stability of Cu/beta NH3 SCR catalysts are explored here. In particular, this paper focuses on the interesting ability of this catalyst to maintain and even enhance high-temperature performance for the "standard" SCR reaction after modest (900 °C, 2 hours) hydrothermal aging. Characterization of the fresh and aged catalysts was performed with an aim to identify possible catalytic phases responsible for the enhanced high temperature performance. XRD, TEM and 27Al NMR all showed that the hydrothermally aging conditions used here resulted in almost complete loss of the beta zeolite structure between 1 and 2 hours aging. While the 27Al NMR spectra of 2 and 10 hour hydrothermally-aged catalysts showed significant loss of a peak associated with tetrahedrally-coordinated Al species, no new spectral features were evident. Two model catalysts, suggested by these characterization data as possible mimics of the catalytic phase formed during hydrothermal aging of Cu/beta, were prepared and tested for their performance in the "standard" SCR and NH3 oxidation reactions. The similarity in their reactivity compared to the 2 hour hydrothermally-aged Cu/beta catalyst suggests possible routes for preparing multi-component catalysts that may have wider temperature windows for optimum performance than those provided by current Cu/zeolite catalysts.

  7. Motivational Shifts in Aging Monkeys and the Origins of Social Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Almeling, Laura; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Sennhenn-Reulen, Holger; Freund, Alexandra M; Fischer, Julia

    2016-07-11

    As humans age, they become more selective regarding their personal goals [1] and social partners [2]. Whereas the selectivity in goals has been attributed to losses in resources (e.g., physical strength) [3], the increasing focus on emotionally meaningful partners is, according to socioemotional selectivity theory, driven by the awareness of one's decreasing future lifetime [2]. Similar to humans, aging monkeys show physical losses [4] and reductions in social activity [2, 5-7]. To disentangle a general resource loss and the awareness of decreasing time, we combined field experiments with behavioral observations in a large age-heterogeneous population of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at La Forêt des Singes. Novel object tests revealed a loss of interest in the nonsocial environment in early adulthood, which was modulated by the availability of a food reward. Experiments using vocal and visual representations of social partners indicated that monkeys maintained an interest in social stimuli and a preferential interest in friends and socially important individuals into old age. Old females engaged in fewer social interactions, although other group members continued to invest in relationships with them. Consequently, reductions in sociality were not due to a decrease in social interest. In conclusion, some of the motivational shifts observed in aging humans, particularly the increasing focus on social over nonsocial stimuli, may occur in the absence of a limited time perspective and are most likely deeply rooted in primate evolution. Our findings highlight the value of nonhuman primates as valuable models for understanding human aging [8, 9].

  8. Age Changes in Personality and Their Origins: Comment on Roberts, Walton, and Viechtbauer (2006)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Paul T.; McCrae, Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents comments on the original article "Patterns of Mean-Level Change in Personality Traits Across the Life Course: A Meta-Analysis of Longitudinal Studies," by B. W. Roberts, K. W. Walton, and W. Viechtbauer. Although Roberts et al depicted the present authors as proponents of the immutability of traits, in fact we have always…

  9. The Origin of a Killer Revealed by Bronze Age Yersinia Genomes.

    PubMed

    Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Martin, William F

    2015-11-11

    Bubonic plaque is caused by Yersinia pestis, a deadly pathogen that left deep scars in human history. Rasmussen et al. (2015) have now retrieved Y. pestis genomes from 2,800- to 5,000-year-old human teeth, shedding new light on origins of the strain that brought Black Death to Europe 670 years ago. PMID:26567502

  10. Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS-11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…

  11. 39Ar-40Ar "ages" and origin of excess 40Ar in Martian shergottites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogard, Donald; Park, Jisun; Garrison, Daniel

    2009-06-01

    We report new 39Ar-40Ar measurements on 15 plagioclase, pyroxene, and/or whole rock samples of 8 Martian shergottites. All age spectra suggest ages older than the meteorite formation ages, as defined by Sm-Nd and Rb-Sr isochrons. Employing isochron plots, only Los Angeles plagioclase and possibly Northwest Africa (NWA) 3171 plagioclase give ages in agreement with their formation ages. Isochrons for all shergottite samples reveal the presence of trapped Martian 40Ar (40Arxs), which exists in variable amounts in different lattice locations. Some 40Arxs is uniformly distributed throughout the lattice, resulting in a positive isochron intercept, and other 40Arxs occurs in association with K-bearing minerals and increases the isochron slope. These samples demonstrate situations where linear Ar isochrons give false ages that are too old. After subtracting 40Ar*that would accumulate by 40K decay since meteorite formation and small amounts of terrestrial 40Ar, all young age samples give similar 40Arxs concentrations of ˜1-2 × 10-6cm3/g, but a variation in K content by a factor of ˜80. Previously reported NASA Johnson Space Center data for Zagami, Shergotty, Yamato (Y-) 000097, Y-793605, and Queen Alexandra Range (QUE) 94201 shergottites show similar concentrations of 40Arxs to the new meteorite data reported here. Similar 40Arxs in different minerals and meteorites cannot be explained as arising from Martian atmosphere carried in strongly shocked phases such as melt veins. We invoke the explanation given by Bogard and Park (2008) for Zagami, that this 40Arxs in shergottites was acquired from the magma. Similarity in 40Arxs among shergottites may reveal common magma sources and/or similar magma generation and emplacement processes.

  12. Out of Tibet: Pliocene woolly rhino suggests high-plateau origin of Ice Age megaherbivores.

    PubMed

    Deng, Tao; Wang, Xiaoming; Fortelius, Mikael; Li, Qiang; Wang, Yang; Tseng, Zhijie J; Takeuchi, Gary T; Saylor, Joel E; Säilä, Laura K; Xie, Guangpu

    2011-09-01

    Ice Age megafauna have long been known to be associated with global cooling during the Pleistocene, and their adaptations to cold environments, such as large body size, long hair, and snow-sweeping structures, are best exemplified by the woolly mammoths and woolly rhinos. These traits were assumed to have evolved as a response to the ice sheet expansion. We report a new Pliocene mammal assemblage from a high-altitude basin in the western Himalayas, including a primitive woolly rhino. These new Tibetan fossils suggest that some megaherbivores first evolved in Tibet before the beginning of the Ice Age. The cold winters in high Tibet served as a habituation ground for the megaherbivores, which became preadapted for the Ice Age, successfully expanding to the Eurasian mammoth steppe. PMID:21885780

  13. Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability

    PubMed Central

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and daughters such that mothers reported later expectations for the timing of behavioral autonomy than did daughters. Follow-up analyses indicated that findings appeared to be driven by maternal nativity, with dyads comprised of Mexico-born mothers reporting the latest age expectations for behavioral autonomy when compared with dyads comprised of U.S.-born mothers. Findings underscore the need to examine normative development among Latino adolescents and their families with a specific focus on how sociocultural characteristics can contribute to within-family differences. PMID:22093152

  14. Motivational Shifts in Aging Monkeys and the Origins of Social Selectivity.

    PubMed

    Almeling, Laura; Hammerschmidt, Kurt; Sennhenn-Reulen, Holger; Freund, Alexandra M; Fischer, Julia

    2016-07-11

    As humans age, they become more selective regarding their personal goals [1] and social partners [2]. Whereas the selectivity in goals has been attributed to losses in resources (e.g., physical strength) [3], the increasing focus on emotionally meaningful partners is, according to socioemotional selectivity theory, driven by the awareness of one's decreasing future lifetime [2]. Similar to humans, aging monkeys show physical losses [4] and reductions in social activity [2, 5-7]. To disentangle a general resource loss and the awareness of decreasing time, we combined field experiments with behavioral observations in a large age-heterogeneous population of Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus) at La Forêt des Singes. Novel object tests revealed a loss of interest in the nonsocial environment in early adulthood, which was modulated by the availability of a food reward. Experiments using vocal and visual representations of social partners indicated that monkeys maintained an interest in social stimuli and a preferential interest in friends and socially important individuals into old age. Old females engaged in fewer social interactions, although other group members continued to invest in relationships with them. Consequently, reductions in sociality were not due to a decrease in social interest. In conclusion, some of the motivational shifts observed in aging humans, particularly the increasing focus on social over nonsocial stimuli, may occur in the absence of a limited time perspective and are most likely deeply rooted in primate evolution. Our findings highlight the value of nonhuman primates as valuable models for understanding human aging [8, 9]. PMID:27345168

  15. Life-course origins of the ages at menarche and menopause

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Michele R; Mangini, Lauren D; Thelus-Jean, Rosenie; Hayward, Mark D

    2013-01-01

    A woman’s age at menarche (first menstrual period) and her age at menopause are the alpha and omega of her reproductive years. The timing of these milestones is critical for a woman’s health trajectory over her lifespan, as they are indicators of ovarian function and aging. Both early and late timing of either event are associated with risk for adverse health and psychosocial outcomes. Thus, the search for a relationship between age at menarche and menopause has consequences for chronic disease prevention and implications for public health. This article is a review of evidence from the fields of developmental biology, epidemiology, nutrition, demography, sociology, and psychology that examine the menarche–menopause connection. Trends in ages at menarche and menopause worldwide and in subpopulations are presented; however, challenges exist in constructing trends. Among 36 studies that examine the association between the two sentinel events, ten reported a significant direct association, two an inverse association, and the remainder had null findings. Multiple factors, including hormonal and environmental exposures, socioeconomic status, and stress throughout the life course are hypothesized to influence the tempo of growth, including body size and height, development, menarche, menopause, and the aging process in women. The complexity of these factors and the pathways related to their effects on each sentinel event complicate evaluation of the relationship between menarche and menopause. Limitations of past investigations are discussed, including lack of comparability of socioeconomic status indicators and biomarker use across studies, while minority group differences have received scant attention. Suggestions for future directions are proposed. As research across endocrinology, epidemiology, and the social sciences becomes more integrated, the confluence of perspectives will yield a richer understanding of the influences on the tempo of a woman

  16. The age and origin of the Pacific islands: a geological overview.

    PubMed

    Neall, Vincent E; Trewick, Steven A

    2008-10-27

    The Pacific Ocean evolved from the Panthalassic Ocean that was first formed ca 750 Ma with the rifting apart of Rodinia. By 160 Ma, the first ocean floor ascribed to the current Pacific plate was produced to the west of a spreading centre in the central Pacific, ultimately growing to become the largest oceanic plate on the Earth. The current Nazca, Cocos and Juan de Fuca (Gorda) plates were initially one plate, produced to the east of the original spreading centre before becoming split into three. The islands of the Pacific have originated as: linear chains of volcanic islands on the above plates either by mantle plume or propagating fracture origin, atolls, uplifted coralline reefs, fragments of continental crust, obducted portions of adjoining lithospheric plates and islands resulting from subduction along convergent plate margins. Out of the 11 linear volcanic chains identified, each is briefly described and its history summarized. The geology of 10 exemplar archipelagos (Japan, Izu-Bonin, Palau, Solomons, Fiji, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Society, Galápagos and Hawaii) is then discussed in detail. PMID:18768382

  17. Children's cross-ethnic relationships in elementary schools: concurrent and prospective associations between ethnic segregation and social status.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Travis M; Rodkin, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children (n = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike. Social status measures were same- and cross-ethnicity peer nominations of acceptance, rejection, and cool. Among African Americans, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (European American) acceptance and same-ethnicity rejection, and increases in same-ethnicity acceptance and perceived coolness. For European American children, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (African American) acceptance and increases in cross-ethnicity rejection. Results indicate that segregation induces asymmetric changes in social status for African American and European American children.

  18. Children's cross-ethnic relationships in elementary schools: concurrent and prospective associations between ethnic segregation and social status.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Travis M; Rodkin, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children (n = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike. Social status measures were same- and cross-ethnicity peer nominations of acceptance, rejection, and cool. Among African Americans, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (European American) acceptance and same-ethnicity rejection, and increases in same-ethnicity acceptance and perceived coolness. For European American children, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (African American) acceptance and increases in cross-ethnicity rejection. Results indicate that segregation induces asymmetric changes in social status for African American and European American children. PMID:23170933

  19. Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike.…

  20. Age and origin of carlsbad cavern and related caves from 40Ar/39Ar of alunite

    PubMed

    Polyak; McIntosh; Guven; Provencio

    1998-03-20

    40Ar/39Ar dating of fine-grained alunite that formed during cave genesis provides ages of formation for the Big Room level of Carlsbad Cavern [4.0 to 3.9 million years ago (Ma)], the upper level of Lechuguilla Cave (6.0 to 5.7 Ma), and three other hypogene caves (11.3 to 6.0 Ma) in the Guadalupe Mountains of New Mexico. Alunite ages increase and are strongly correlative with cave elevations, which indicates an 1100-meter decline in the water table, apparently related to tectonic uplift and tilting, from 11.3 Ma to the present. 40Ar/39Ar dating studies of the hypogene caves have the potential to help resolve late Cenozoic climatic, speleologic, and tectonic questions.

  1. The origin of early age expansions induced in cementitious materials containing shrinkage reducing admixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Sant, Gaurav; Lothenbach, Barbara; Juilland, Patrick; Le Saout, Gwenn; Weiss, Jason; Scrivener, Karen

    2011-03-15

    Studies on the early-age shrinkage behavior of cement pastes, mortars, and concretes containing shrinkage reducing admixtures (SRAs) have indicated these mixtures frequently exhibit an expansion shortly after setting. While the magnitude of the expansion has been noted to be a function of the chemistry of the cement and the admixture dosage; the cause of the expansion is not clearly understood. This investigation uses measurements of autogenous deformation, X-ray diffraction, pore solution analysis, thermogravimetry, and scanning electron microscopy to study the early-age properties and describe the mechanism of the expansion in OPC pastes made with and without SRA. The composition of the pore solution indicates that the presence of the SRA increases the portlandite oversaturation level in solution which can result in higher crystallization stresses which could lead to an expansion. This observation is supported by deformation calculations for the systems examined.

  2. Apoptosis: its origin, history, maintenance and the medical implications for cancer and aging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-06-01

    Programmed cell death is a basic cellular mechanism. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death (called apoptosis in animals) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, and some apoptotic mechanisms are observed in bacteria. Endosymbiosis between mitochondria and eukaryotic cells took place early in the eukaryotic evolution, and some of the apoptotic-like mechanisms of mitochondria that were retained after this event now serve as parts of the eukaryotic apoptotic machinery. Apoptotic mechanisms have several functions in unicellular organisms: they include kin-selected altruistic suicide that controls population size, sharing common goods, and responding to viral infection. Apoptotic factors also have non-apoptotic functions. Apoptosis is involved in the cellular aging of eukaryotes, including humans. In addition, apoptosis is a key part of the innate tumor-suppression mechanism. Several anticancer drugs induce apoptosis, because apoptotic mechanisms are inactivated during oncogenesis. Because of the ancient history of apoptosis, I hypothesize that there is a deep relationship between mitochondrial metabolism, its role in aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, and the connection between apoptosis and cancer. Whereas normal cells rely primarily on oxidative mitochondrial respiration, most cancer cells use anaerobic metabolism. According to the Warburg hypothesis, the remodeling of the metabolism is one of the processes that leads to cancer. Recent studies indicate that anaerobic, non-mitochondrial respiration is particularly active in embryonic cells, stem cells, and aggressive stem-like cancer cells. Mitochondrial respiration is particularly active during the pathological aging of human cells in neurodegenerative diseases. According to the reversed Warburg hypothesis formulated by Demetrius, pathological aging is induced by mitochondrial respiration. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the stimulation of mitochondrial metabolism leads to pathological aging.

  3. Origin of the slow dynamics and the aging of a soft glass.

    PubMed

    Mazoyer, Sylvain; Cipelletti, Luca; Ramos, Laurence

    2006-12-01

    We study by light microscopy a soft glass consisting of a compact arrangement of polydisperse multilamellar vesicles. We show that its slow and nonstationary dynamics results from the unavoidable small fluctuations of temperature, which induce intermittent local shear deformations in the sample, because of thermal expansion and contraction. Temperature-induced shear provokes both reversible and irreversible rearrangements whose amplitude decreases with time, leading to an exponential slowing down of the dynamics with sample age. PMID:17280252

  4. Apoptosis: its origin, history, maintenance and the medical implications for cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-01-01

    Programmed cell death is a basic cellular mechanism. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death (called apoptosis in animals) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, and some apoptotic mechanisms are observed in bacteria. Endosymbiosis between mitochondria and eukaryotic cells took place early in the eukaryotic evolution, and some of the apoptotic-like mechanisms of mitochondria that were retained after this event now serve as parts of the eukaryotic apoptotic machinery. Apoptotic mechanisms have several functions in unicellular organisms: they include kin-selected altruistic suicide that controls population size, sharing common goods, and responding to viral infection. Apoptotic factors also have non-apoptotic functions. Apoptosis is involved in the cellular aging of eukaryotes, including humans. In addition, apoptosis is a key part of the innate tumor-suppression mechanism. Several anticancer drugs induce apoptosis, because apoptotic mechanisms are inactivated during oncogenesis. Because of the ancient history of apoptosis, I hypothesize that there is a deep relationship between mitochondrial metabolism, its role in aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, and the connection between apoptosis and cancer. Whereas normal cells rely primarily on oxidative mitochondrial respiration, most cancer cells use anaerobic metabolism. According to the Warburg hypothesis, the remodeling of the metabolism is one of the processes that leads to cancer. Recent studies indicate that anaerobic, non-mitochondrial respiration is particularly active in embryonic cells, stem cells, and aggressive stem-like cancer cells. Mitochondrial respiration is particularly active during the pathological aging of human cells in neurodegenerative diseases. According to the reversed Warburg hypothesis formulated by Demetrius, pathological aging is induced by mitochondrial respiration. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the stimulation of mitochondrial metabolism leads to pathological aging

  5. Internal versus external controls on age variability: Definitions, origins and implications in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, A. M.; Poole, G. C.; Payn, R. A.; Izurieta, C.; Wright, M.; Bernhardt, E. S.; Stanford, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The unsteadiness of stream water age is now well established, but the controls on the age dynamics, and the adequate representation and prediction of those dynamics, are not. A basic distinction can be made between internal variability that arises from changes in the proportions of flow moving through the diverse flow pathways of a hydrologic system, and external variability that arises from the stochasticity of inputs and outputs (such as precipitation and streamflow). In this talk I will show how these two types of age variability can be formally defined and distinguished within the framework of rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions. Internal variability implies variations in time in the rSAS function, while external variability does not. This leads naturally to the definition of several modes of internal variability, reflecting generic ways that system flowpaths may be rearranged. This rearrangement may be induced by fluctuations in the system state (such as catchment wetness), or by longer-term changes in catchment structure (such as land use change). One type of change, the 'inverse storage effect' is characterized by an increase in the release of young water from the system in response to an increase in overall system storage. This effect can be seen in many hydrologic settings, and has important implications for the effect of altered hydroclimatic conditions on solute transport through a landscape. External variability, such as increased precipitation, can induce a decrease in mean transit time (and vice versa), but this effect is greatly enhanced if accompanied by an internal shift in flow pathways that increases the relative importance of younger water. These effects will be illustrated using data from field and experimental studies.

  6. Internal versus external controls on age variability: Definitions, origins and implications in a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    The unsteadiness of stream water age is now well established, but the controls on the age dynamics, and the adequate representation and prediction of those dynamics, are not. A basic distinction can be made between internal variability that arises from changes in the proportions of flow moving through the diverse flow pathways of a hydrologic system, and external variability that arises from the stochasticity of inputs and outputs (such as precipitation and streamflow). In this talk I will show how these two types of age variability can be formally defined and distinguished within the framework of rank StorAge Selection (rSAS) functions. Internal variability implies variations in time in the rSAS function, while external variability does not. This leads naturally to the definition of several modes of internal variability, reflecting generic ways that system flowpaths may be rearranged. This rearrangement may be induced by fluctuations in the system state (such as catchment wetness), or by longer-term changes in catchment structure (such as land use change). One type of change, the 'inverse storage effect' is characterized by an increase in the release of young water from the system in response to an increase in overall system storage. This effect can be seen in many hydrologic settings, and has important implications for the effect of altered hydroclimatic conditions on solute transport through a landscape. External variability, such as increased precipitation, can induce a decrease in mean transit time (and vice versa), but this effect is greatly enhanced if accompanied by an internal shift in flow pathways that increases the relative importance of younger water. These effects will be illustrated using data from field and experimental studies.

  7. Apoptosis: its origin, history, maintenance and the medical implications for cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Kaczanowski, Szymon

    2016-05-11

    Programmed cell death is a basic cellular mechanism. Apoptotic-like programmed cell death (called apoptosis in animals) occurs in both unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes, and some apoptotic mechanisms are observed in bacteria. Endosymbiosis between mitochondria and eukaryotic cells took place early in the eukaryotic evolution, and some of the apoptotic-like mechanisms of mitochondria that were retained after this event now serve as parts of the eukaryotic apoptotic machinery. Apoptotic mechanisms have several functions in unicellular organisms: they include kin-selected altruistic suicide that controls population size, sharing common goods, and responding to viral infection. Apoptotic factors also have non-apoptotic functions. Apoptosis is involved in the cellular aging of eukaryotes, including humans. In addition, apoptosis is a key part of the innate tumor-suppression mechanism. Several anticancer drugs induce apoptosis, because apoptotic mechanisms are inactivated during oncogenesis. Because of the ancient history of apoptosis, I hypothesize that there is a deep relationship between mitochondrial metabolism, its role in aerobic versus anaerobic respiration, and the connection between apoptosis and cancer. Whereas normal cells rely primarily on oxidative mitochondrial respiration, most cancer cells use anaerobic metabolism. According to the Warburg hypothesis, the remodeling of the metabolism is one of the processes that leads to cancer. Recent studies indicate that anaerobic, non-mitochondrial respiration is particularly active in embryonic cells, stem cells, and aggressive stem-like cancer cells. Mitochondrial respiration is particularly active during the pathological aging of human cells in neurodegenerative diseases. According to the reversed Warburg hypothesis formulated by Demetrius, pathological aging is induced by mitochondrial respiration. Here, I advance the hypothesis that the stimulation of mitochondrial metabolism leads to pathological aging.

  8. Age and origin of the Cortlandt Complex, New York: Implications from Sm-Nd data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domenick, M.A.; Basu, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    Sm-Nd systematics for nine whole-rock samples of hornblende norites, pyroxenites and a lamprophyre from various parts of the Cortlandt Complex were analyzed. Six of these samples from the central and eastern parts of the complex give an isochron age of 430??34 (2 ??) Ma with an e{open}Nd value of -2.9??0.5, and the other three samples from the western part, including the lamprophyre, define a similar age of 394??33 (2 ??) Ma but with a distinctly different e{open}Nd value of -1.4??0.4. The two different initial 143Nd/144Nd ratios corresponding to these e{open}-values are interpreted to reflect continental crustal contamination of the lamprophyric parental liquid prior to final emplacement and crystal fractionation to produce the different rock types of the complex. The intrusion age of 430 Ma for the complex clearly post-dates the major metamorphic event of the Taconic orogeny. The Nd-isotopic data also suggest a relationship between the Cortlandt Complex and a belt of lamprophyric dike rocks to the west, known as the Beemerville trend, which cuts across the metamorphic trends of the Taconic (Ratcliffe 1981). ?? 1982 Springer-Verlag.

  9. QuickStats: Colorectal Cancer Screening* Among Adults Aged 50-75 Years, by Race/Ethnicity(†) - National Health Interview Survey,(§) United States, 2000-2015.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    During 2000-2015, among adults aged 50-75 years, the use of colorectal cancer tests or procedures increased for all racial/ ethnic groups included in the analysis. Colorectal screening percentages more than doubled for non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic Asian adults during that period. Despite these increases, in 2015, the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening was higher among non-Hispanic white (65.6%) adults than among non-Hispanic black (60.3%), non-Hispanic Asian (52.1%), and Hispanic (47.4%) adults. PMID:27685356

  10. QuickStats: Percentage* of Preterm Births(†) Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Ethnicity - National Vital Statistics System, United States, 2007-2014(§).

    PubMed

    2016-08-05

    During 2007-2014, the percentage of births among teens aged 15-19 years that were preterm declined for each racial/ethnic group, except for non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander teens, where the change was not significant. In 2014, the percentage of births that were preterm was higher among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic Asian or Pacific Islander teens (10.6% for both) than non-Hispanic white (8.6%), non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (8.2%), and Hispanic (7.9%) teens.

  11. Ethnic inequalities in limiting health and self-reported health in later life revisited

    PubMed Central

    Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Feng, Zhixin; Vlachantoni, Athina

    2016-01-01

    Background It is well established that there are ethnic inequalities in health in the UK; however, such inequalities in later life remain a relatively under-researched area. This paper explores ethnic inequalities in health among older people in the UK, controlling for social and economic disadvantages. Methods This paper analyses the first wave (2009–2011) of Understanding Society to examine differentials in the health of older persons aged 60 years and over. 2 health outcomes are explored: the extent to which one's health limits the ability to undertake typical activities and self-rated health. Logistic regression models are used to control for a range of other factors, including income and deprivation. Results After controlling for social and economic disadvantage, black and minority ethnic (BME) elders are still more likely than white British elders to report limiting health and poor self-rated health. The ‘health disadvantage’ appears most marked among BME elders of South Asian origin, with Pakistani elders exhibiting the poorest health outcomes. Length of time resident in the UK does not have a direct impact on health in models for both genders, but is marginally significant for women. Conclusions Older people from ethnic minorities report poorer health outcomes even after controlling for social and economic disadvantages. This result reflects the complexity of health inequalities among different ethnic groups in the UK, and the need to develop health policies which take into account differences in social and economic resources between different ethnic groups. PMID:26787199

  12. Depressed rates of origination and extinction during the late Paleozoic ice age: A new state for the global marine ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Steven M.; Powell, Matthew G.

    2003-10-01

    Rates of origination and extinction for marine animal genera dropped to low levels in latest Mississippian time, immediately after massive glaciers formed in the Southern Hemisphere and a second-order mass extinction occurred. Evolutionary turnover and diversity remained low for ˜50 m.y., shifting markedly upward precisely when extensive glaciation ended in Early Permian time. All diverse taxa with good fossil records experienced low rates of origination and extinction during this major ice age. Such sluggish rates would be predicted for faunas of shallow seas on or adjacent to a heavily glaciated supercontinent such as Pangea, where cool and highly seasonal thermal regimes should dictate that species have broad ecological niches, widespread geographic distributions, and large and relatively stable populations.

  13. Origin, variability and age of biomass burning plumes intercepted during BORTAS-B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, D. P.; Palmer, P. I.; Parrington, M.

    2014-12-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem atmospheric chemistry transport model to interpret aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) in biomass burning outflow taken during the 2011 BORTAS-B campaign over eastern Canada. The model has some skill reproducing the observed variability, with a Spearman's rank correlation rs = 0.65, but has a positive negative bias for observations <100 ppb and a negative bias for observations > 300 ppb. We find that observed CO variations are largely due to fires over Ontario, as expected, with smaller and less variable contributions from fossil fuel combustion from eastern Asia and NE North America. To help interpret observed variations of CO we develop a Eulerian effective physical age of emissions (A) metric, accounting for mixing and chemical decay, which we apply to pyrogenic emissions of CO. We find that during BORTAS-B the age of emissions intercepted over Halifax, Nova Scotia is typically 4-11 days, and on occasion as young as two days. We show that A is typically 1-5 days older than the associated photochemical ages inferred from co-located measurements of different hydrocarbons. We find that the frequency distribution of differences between the age measures (Δτ) in plumes (defined by CH3CN > 150 ppt) peaks at 3 days. This corresponds to a chemical retardation of 50%. We find a strong relationship in biomass burning plumes between A and Δτ (r2 = 0.80), which is not present outwith these plumes (r2 = 0.28). We argue that these observed relationships, together with a robust observed relationship between CO and black carbon aerosol during BORTAS-B (r2 > 0.7), form the basis of indirect evidence that aerosols co-emitted with gases during pyrolysis markedly slowed down the plume photochemistry during BORTAS-B with respect to photochemistry at the same latitude and altitude in

  14. The many faces of self: ego and ethnic identities.

    PubMed

    Branch, C W

    2001-12-01

    This study addressed how adolescents come to develop a sense of ethnic identity. The author examined ethnic identity development as a process that occurs simultaneously with the development of ego identity and attitudes toward groups other than one's own. A multiethnic sample of 297 adolescents and young adults (aged 13 to 26 years) completed the Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Scale Revision 2 (EOMEIS2; L. Bennion & G. Adams, 1986), the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (MEIM; J. Phinney, 1992), and the Other Group Orientation Scale (J. Phinney, 1992). An Age x Ethnic Group x Gender experimental design was used to determine whether these factors contributed differently to ethnic identity and ego identity. Analyses showed significant differences in the level of ethnic identity development among the ethnic groups. More pronounced age differences were found at the lower levels of ego identity development than at the more advanced levels.

  15. Microscopic Origin of the Logarithmic Time Evolution of Aging Processes in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomholt, Michael A.; Lizana, Ludvig; Metzler, Ralf; Ambjörnsson, Tobias

    2013-05-01

    There exists compelling experimental evidence in numerous systems for logarithmically slow time evolution, yet its full theoretical understanding remains elusive. We here introduce and study a generic transition process in complex systems, based on nonrenewal, aging waiting times. Each state n of the system follows a local clock initiated at t=0. The random time τ between clock ticks follows the waiting time density ψ(τ). Transitions between states occur only at local clock ticks and are hence triggered by the local forward waiting time, rather than by ψ(τ). For power-law forms ψ(τ)≃τ-1-α (0<α<1) we obtain a logarithmic time evolution of the state number ⟨n(t)⟩≃log⁡(t/t0), while for α>2 the process becomes normal in the sense that ⟨n(t)⟩≃t. In the intermediate range 1<α<2 we find the power-law growth ⟨n(t)⟩≃tα-1. Our model provides a universal description for transition dynamics between aging and nonaging states.

  16. The origin and age of the Alpha-Mendeleev and Lomonosov ridges in the Amerasia Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verzhbitskii, E. V.; Lobkovskii, L. I.; Byakov, A. F.; Kononov, M. V.

    2013-02-01

    The results of the bathymetry simulation indicate the emplacement of the Mesozoic Arctic plume into the lithosphere of the Alpha-Mendeleev and Lomonosov ridges. The study also presents a model of the thermal subsidence to the asthenosphere. The calculated coefficients are compared with those obtained for the Greenland-Iceland and Iceland-Faeroe ridges, which were formed in response to hotspot activity. It was shown that the coefficients of the thermal subsidence in the central part of the Alpha-Mendeleev and Lomonosov Ridges are similar to those calculated for the Greenland-Iceland and Iceland-Faeroe ridges. This indicates the thermal regime of the subsidence of the Alpha-Mendeleev and Lomonosov ridges since the Early Miocene and the increased influence of the Arctic plume on the ridge genesis. The ridges are interpreted to have formed over a broad geological timeframe, from the late Cretaceous to the Cenozoic. A geothermal method, which is highly informative in terms of the age of the lithosphere, provides better constraints on the timing of ridge formation. The age estimates for the Alpha-Mendeleev (97-79 Ma) and Lomonosov ridges (69-57 Ma) derived from the geothermal data allowed us to draw a convincing conclusion about the genesis of these ridges.

  17. Ribosome origins: The relative age of 23S rRNA Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hury, James; Nagaswamy, Uma; Larios-Sanz, Maia; Fox, George E.

    2006-08-01

    The modern ribosome and its component RNAs are quite large and it is likely that at an earlier time they were much smaller. Hence, not all regions of the modern ribosomal RNAs (rRNA) are likely to be equally old. In the work described here, it is hypothesized that the oldest regions of the RNAs will usually be highly integrated into the machinery. When this is the case, an examination of the interconnectivity between local RNA regions can provide insight to the relative age of the various regions. Herein, we describe an analysis of all known long-range RNA/RNA interactions within the 23S rRNA and between the 23S rRNA and the 16S rRNA in order to assess the interconnectivity between the usual Domains as defined by secondary structure. Domain V, which contains the peptidyl transferase center is centrally located, extensively connected, and therefore likely to be the oldest region. Domain IV and Domain II are extensively interconnected with both themselves and Domain V. A portion of Domain IV is also extensively connected with the 30S subunit and hence Domain IV may be older than Domain II. These results are consistent with other evidence relating to the relative age of RNA regions. Although the relative time of addition of the GTPase center can not be reliably deduced it is pointed out that the development of this may have dramatically affected the progenotes that preceded the last common ancestor.

  18. Developmental Origin of Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells Determines Response to Demyelination and Susceptibility to Age-Associated Functional Decline

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Abbe H.; Tripathi, Richa B.; Richardson, William D.; Franklin, Robin J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Oligodendrocyte progenitors (OPs) arise from distinct ventral and dorsal domains within the ventricular germinal zones of the embryonic CNS. The functional significance, if any, of these different populations is not known. Using dual-color reporter mice to distinguish ventrally and dorsally derived OPs, we show that, in response to focal demyelination of the young adult spinal cord or corpus callosum, dorsally derived OPs undergo enhanced proliferation, recruitment, and differentiation as compared with their ventral counterparts, making a proportionally larger contribution to remyelination. However, with increasing age (up to 13 months), the dorsally derived OPs become less able to differentiate into mature oligodendrocytes. Comparison of dorsally and ventrally derived OPs in culture revealed inherent differences in their migration and differentiation capacities. Therefore, the responsiveness of OPs to demyelination, their contribution to remyelination, and their susceptibility to age-associated functional decline are markedly dependent on their developmental site of origin in the developing neural tube. PMID:27149850

  19. Influence of neighbourhood ethnic density, diet and physical activity on ethnic differences in weight status: a study of 214,807 adults in Australia.

    PubMed

    Astell-Burt, Thomas; Feng, Xiaoqi; Croteau, Karen; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-09-01

    We investigated whether ethnic and country of birth differences in adult Body Mass Index (BMI) were associated with differences in diet, physical activity and ethnic density (the percentage of an ethnic group within the neighbourhood environment). A sample of 214,807 adults living in Australia was extracted from the 45 and Up Study. Analyses comprised multilevel modelling of BMI for 38 ethnic and country of birth groups. Physical activity was ascertained using the Active Australia Survey. Dietary measures included self-reported consumption of fruit, vegetables, meat and cheese. Ethnic density was objectively measured using 2006 Australian Census data. Possible confounders included age, gender, household income, educational qualifications, economic status, couple status, language, duration of residence, neighbourhood affluence and remoteness. Compared to Australian-born Australians (age-gender adjusted mean BMI = 27.1, 95%CI 27.1, 27.2), overseas-born groups often had lower mean BMI, especially the Chinese born in China (23.2, 23.0, 23.4). Exceptions included the Italians (BMI = 28.1), Greeks (28.5), Maltese (27.6), Lebanese (28.4) and Croatians (27.8) born in their ethnic-country of origin. Regardless of birthplace, BMI was lower for the English, Scottish, and Chinese, but higher for Italians and Greeks. Some ethnic differences reflected the 'healthy migrant' hypothesis, whereas others did not. These differences were only partially attenuated by controls for portions of fruit and vegetables, meat and cheese, frequency of participation in physical activity, and other explanatory variables. Ethnic density was associated with lower BMI for the English and Irish (p < 0.05), regardless of whether they were born in the UK, Ireland, or Australia. Ethnic differences in adult weight status in Australia do not appear to be fully explained by conventional risk factors. For some groups, but not all, living among others of the same ethnic group may proxy unmeasured health

  20. Global signatures and dynamical origins of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly.

    PubMed

    Mann, Michael E; Zhang, Zhihua; Rutherford, Scott; Bradley, Raymond S; Hughes, Malcolm K; Shindell, Drew; Ammann, Caspar; Faluvegi, Greg; Ni, Fenbiao

    2009-11-27

    Global temperatures are known to have varied over the past 1500 years, but the spatial patterns have remained poorly defined. We used a global climate proxy network to reconstruct surface temperature patterns over this interval. The Medieval period is found to display warmth that matches or exceeds that of the past decade in some regions, but which falls well below recent levels globally. This period is marked by a tendency for La Niña-like conditions in the tropical Pacific. The coldest temperatures of the Little Ice Age are observed over the interval 1400 to 1700 C.E., with greatest cooling over the extratropical Northern Hemisphere continents. The patterns of temperature change imply dynamical responses of climate to natural radiative forcing changes involving El Niño and the North Atlantic Oscillation-Arctic Oscillation.

  1. Age and origin of Cretaceous planktonic foraminifers from limestone of the Franciscan Complex near Laytonville, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sliter, W.V.; Premoli-Silva, I.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy from eight measured sections of Cretaceous limestone near Laytonville, California, indicates a composite sequence that extends in age from late Albian to early Turonian. The sequence contains seven biozones and two subzones. Unequivocal biostratigraphic facing directions show four sections are right side up and four are reversed, and confirm the stratigraphic polarity employed in the paleomagnetic studies of Alvarez et al. (1980) and Tarduno et al. (1986). We propose that this complex of biogenic and lithogenic patterns records transit via oceanic plate motion from a depositional site in the southern part of the paleoequatorial zone of high productivity to the central part of the equatorial zone dominated by biogenic calcite deposition. -from Authors

  2. The origins of pure and applied science in Gilded Age America.

    PubMed

    Lucier, Paul

    2012-09-01

    "Pure science" and "applied science" have peculiar histories in the United States. Both terms were in use in the early part of the nineteenth century, but it was only in the last decades that they took on new meanings and became commonplace in the discourse of American scientists. The rise in their currency reflected an acute concern about the corruption of character and the real possibilities of commercializing scientific knowledge. "Pure" was the preference of scientists who wanted to emphasize their nonpecuniary motives and their distance from the marketplace. "Applied" was the choice of scientists who accepted patents and profits as other possible returns on their research. In general, the frequent conjoining of "pure" and "applied" bespoke the inseparable relations of science and capitalism in the Gilded Age. PMID:23286191

  3. Morphology, petrography, age and origin of Fogo Seamount chain, offshore eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pe-Piper, G.; de Jonge, A.; Piper, D. J. W.; Jansa, L. F.

    2003-04-01

    The Fogo Seamounts are located approximately 500 km offshore from Newfoundland to the southwest of the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. This complex seamount chain is early Cretaceous in age and is partially buried under later continental slope deposits. It has in the past been ascribed to the passage of a Canary or Azores hot spot. The seamounts are developed along the northeastern transform margin of the Jurassic central Atlantic Ocean. The Narwhal F-99 well was drilled in 1986 on the continental slope into one buried seamount. In this study, we bring together unpublished data on the bathymetry, seismic-reflection character, and distribution of the Fogo Seamounts and interpret new petrographic, geochemical, isotopic and geochronological data from a dredge sample from the central part of the seamount chain and from the Narwhal F-99 well, making comparisons with other offshore volcanic rocks on the eastern Canadian margin. Petrographically, the seamount samples consist of vitrophyric basalt, with clinopyroxene at Narwhal and kaersutite in the dredge sample. Chemically, the samples are olivine basalt with a low Mg number and low concentration of transition metals. Trace element and REE abundances are similar to those of other early Cretaceous volcanic rocks on the southeast Canadian margin. Three petrogenetic types of mafic magma are recognised in the area. The dredge sample is typical OIB rather alkalic basalts and similar to those in other seamount chains. Rocks at Narwhal and Brant have a greater signature of a depleted mantle source (are more tholeiitic). All have Nd isotopes similar to the Newfoundland and New England seamounts. In Orpheus graben to the northwest, there appears to have been greater crustal contamination, either from the crust in the region or from mantle previously enriched in crustal contaminants. The dredge sample gave a 40Ar/39Ar age of 130.3 +/- 1.3 Ma (Hauterivian). A K/Ar age from the Narwhal F-99 well of 127 +/- 6 Ma is inconsistent with

  4. The origins of pure and applied science in Gilded Age America.

    PubMed

    Lucier, Paul

    2012-09-01

    "Pure science" and "applied science" have peculiar histories in the United States. Both terms were in use in the early part of the nineteenth century, but it was only in the last decades that they took on new meanings and became commonplace in the discourse of American scientists. The rise in their currency reflected an acute concern about the corruption of character and the real possibilities of commercializing scientific knowledge. "Pure" was the preference of scientists who wanted to emphasize their nonpecuniary motives and their distance from the marketplace. "Applied" was the choice of scientists who accepted patents and profits as other possible returns on their research. In general, the frequent conjoining of "pure" and "applied" bespoke the inseparable relations of science and capitalism in the Gilded Age.

  5. The Origin and Age of Scallop Floodplain Benches from Difficult Run, Fairfax County, Virginia.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scamardo, J. E.; Pizzuto, J. E.; Skalak, K.; Benthem, A.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment is deposited within scallop-shaped erosional scarps that form between trees armoring the banks of Difficult Run, a suburban watershed with a forested riparian zone. These deposits create small (surface area 85 m2, volume 300 m3), low-lying floodplain landforms this group terms Scallop Floodplain Benches (SFB). It is hypothesized that SFB formed within the past couple decades initially forming as transversal accretion deposits and eventually gaining floodplain features dominated by vertical accretion. Stratigraphic data supports that SFB deposits begin laterally as sand and gravel bars approximately 100 cm thick, and continue to grow by vertical accretion of sand, silt, and clay. As a SFB reaches its maximum height, a distinctive levee develops adjacent to the channel, and fine-grained silt and clay are deposited behind the levee. Core samples to a depth of 118 cm and additional samples from an overbank event that occurred on June 20, 2015 were collected from one of two SFB on Difficult Run near Leesburg Pike. The grain size distribution was measured using a Coulter Counter and activities of Pb-210, Cs-137, and Be-7 were measured using High Purity Germanium Detectors. Cs-137 activities are relatively constant with depth without a well-defined peak, suggesting that the SFB was deposited after 1963. Be-7 is present in the recent flood deposits, but is absent below the surface, suggesting that the SFB deposits are at least several years old. Excess Pb-210 activities decrease exponentially with depth, and can be fit using the Constant Rate of Supply method to determine an average age of approximately 13.5 years for the SFB. The SFB is storing sediment at a rate of 27 tons/year, which is equal to 0.35% of the annual sediment load of Difficult Run, based on this average age. SFB appear to be a significant component of the sediment storage of Difficult Run and therefore should be considered in the sediment budget.

  6. Magnetic Signature of the Lunar South Pole-Aitken Basin: Character, Origin, and Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purucker, Michael E.; Head, James W., III; Wilson, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    A new magnetic map of the Moon, based on Lunar Prospector (LP) magnetometer observations, sheds light on the origin of the South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA), the largest and oldest of the recognized lunar basins. A set of WNW-trending linear to arcuate magnetic features, evident in both the radial and scalar observations, covers much of a 1000 km wide region centered on the NW portion of SPA. The source bodies are not at the surface because the magnetic features show no first-order correspondence to any surface topographic or structural feature. Patchy mare basalts of possible late Imbrianage are emplaced within SPA and are inferred to have been emplaced through dikes, directly from mantle sources. We infer that the magnetic features represent dike swarms that served as feeders for these mare basalts, as evident from the location of the Thomson/ Mare Ingenii, Van de Graaff, and Leeuwenhoek mare basalts on the two largest magnetic features in the region. Modeling suggests that the dike zone is between 25 and 50 km wide at the surface, and dike magnetization contrasts are in the range of 0.2 A/m. We theorize that the basaltic dikes were emplaced in the lunar crust when a long-lived dynamo was active. Based on pressure, temperature, and stress conditions prevalent in the lunar crust, dikes are expected to be a dominantly subsurface phenomenon, consistent with the observations reported here.

  7. Bullying and Victimization among Adolescents: The Role of Ethnicity and Ethnic Composition of School Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vervoort, Miranda H. M.; Scholte, Ron H. J.; Overbeek, Geertjan

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the relationships between ethnicity, peer-reported bullying and victimization, and whether these relationships were moderated by the ethnic composition of the school classes. Participants were 2386 adolescents (mean age: 13 years and 10 months; 51.9% boys) from 117 school classes in the Netherlands. Multilevel analyses…

  8. Differences in Access to and Preferences for Using Patient Portals and Other eHealth Technologies Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Age: A Database and Survey Study of Seniors in a Large Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Hornbrook, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients are being encouraged to go online to obtain health information and interact with their health care systems. However, a 2014 survey found that less than 60% of American adults aged 65 and older use the Internet, with much lower usage among black and Latino seniors compared with non-Hispanic white seniors, and among older versus younger seniors. Objective Our aims were to (1) identify race/ethnic and age cohort disparities among seniors in use of the health plan’s patient portal, (2) determine whether race/ethnic and age cohort disparities exist in access to digital devices and preferences for using email- and Web-based modalities to interact with the health care system, (3) assess whether observed disparities in preferences and patient portal use are due simply to barriers to access and inability to use the Internet, and (4) learn whether older adults not currently using the health plan’s patient portal or website have a potential interest in doing so in the future and what kind of support might be best suited to help them. Methods We conducted two studies of seniors aged 65-79 years. First, we used administrative data about patient portal account status and utilization in 2013 for a large cohort of English-speaking non-Hispanic white (n=183,565), black (n=16,898), Latino (n=12,409), Filipino (n=11,896), and Chinese (n=6314) members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan. Second, we used data from a mailed survey conducted in 2013-2014 with a stratified random sample of this population (final sample: 849 non-Hispanic white, 567 black, 653 Latino, 219 Filipino, and 314 Chinese). These data were used to examine race/ethnic and age disparities in patient portal use and readiness and preferences for using digital communication for health-related purposes. Results Adults aged 70-74 and 75-79 were significantly less likely than 65-69 year olds to be registered to use the patient portal, and among those registered, to have used the

  9. A service life extension (SLEP) approach to operating aging aircraft beyond their original design lives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pentz, Alan Carter

    With today's uncertain funding climate (including sequestration and continuing budget resolutions), decision makers face severe budgetary challenges to maintain dominance through all aspects of the Department of Defense (DoD). To meet war-fighting capabilities, the DoD continues to extend aircraft programs beyond their design service lives by up to ten years, and occasionally much more. The budget requires a new approach to traditional extension strategies (i.e., reuse, reset, and reclamation) for structural hardware. While extending service life without careful controls can present a safety concern, future operations planning does not consider how much risk is present when operating within sound structural principles. Traditional structural hardware extension methods drive increased costs. Decision makers often overlook the inherent damage tolerance and fatigue capability of structural components and rely on simple time- and flight-based cycle accumulation when determining aircraft retirement lives. This study demonstrates that decision makers should consider risk in addition to the current extension strategies. Through an evaluation of eight military aircraft programs and the application and simulation of F-18 turbine engine usage data, this dissertation shows that insight into actual aircraft mission data, consideration of fatigue capability, and service extension length are key factors to consider. Aircraft structural components, as well as many critical safety components and system designs, have a predefined level of conservatism and inherent damage tolerance. The methods applied in this study would apply to extensions of other critical structures such as bridges. Understanding how much damage tolerance is built into the design compared to the original design usage requirements presents the opportunity to manage systems based on risk. The study presents the sensitivity of these factors and recommends avenues for further research.

  10. Effect of ethnic origin (Caucasians versus Turks) on the prevalence of rheumatic diseases: a WHO-ILAR COPCORD urban study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Davatchi, Fereydoun; Jamshidi, Ahmad-Reza; Tehrani Banihashemi, Arash; Gholami, Jaleh; Hossein Forouzanfar, Mohammad; Akhlaghi, Massoomeh; Barghamdi, Mojgan; Noorolahzadeh, Elham; Khabazi, Ali-Reza; Salesi, Mansour; Salari, Amir-Hossein; Karimifar, Mansoor; Essalat-Manesh, Kamal; Hajialiloo, Mehrzad; Soroosh, Mohsen; Farzad, Farhad; Moussavi, Hamid-Reza; Samadi, Farideh; Ghaznavi, Koorosh; Asgharifard, Homa; Zangiabadi, Amir-Hossein; Shahram, Farhad; Nadji, Abdolhadi; Akbarian, Mahmood; Gharibdoost, Farhad; Rasker, Johannes J

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the prevalence of musculoskeletal complaints and rheumatic disorders in Caucasians and Turks in an identical environment. Subjects were selected randomly for an interview from Tehran's 22 districts. The Community Oriented Program for Control of Rheumatic Diseases questionnaire was filled in, positive cases were examined, and if needed, laboratory or X-ray tests were performed. A total of 4,096 houses were visited, and 10,291 persons were interviewed. They were 71.4% Caucasians and 23.1% Turks with similar distribution of age and gender. Musculoskeletal complaints of the past 7 days were detected in 40.8% of Caucasians and 45.5% of Turks (p < 0.001). In Caucasians, the total of musculoskeletal complaints in men was 33.8% (95% CI, 31.4-36.2%) versus 48.3% in women (95% CI, 45.7-50.8%). In Turks, the total of musculoskeletal complaints in men was 36.6% (95% CI, 32.2-41.1%) versus 55.8% in women (95% CI, 55.8-60.6%). The data of Caucasians versus Turks were as follows: knee pain 20.2% (95% CI, 18.2-22.1) versus 24.1% (95% CI, 20.5-27.6), with p < 0.001; dorso-lumbar spine pain 15.1% (95% CI, 13.6-16.6) versus 18.4% (95% CI, 15.1-21.8), with p < 0.001; shoulder pain 10.7% (95% CI, 9.4-11.9) versus 12.3% (95% CI, 9.7-14.8), with p = 0.025; osteoarthritis 14.1% (95% CI, 12.8-15.2) versus 16.4% (95% CI, 14.3-18.6), p = 0.04; and knee osteoarthritis 12.3% (95% CI, 11.8-14.1) versus 15.3% (95% CI, 13.3-17.4), with p < 0.001). There were no significant differences regarding the prevalence of soft tissue rheumatism, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Behcet's disease, fibromyalgia, and gout. Although musculoskeletal complaints were more frequent in Turks than in Caucasians, the prevalence of rheumatic disorders was rather similar except for knee osteoarthritis.

  11. The active site of oxidative phosphorylation and the origin of hyperhomocysteinemia in aging and dementia.

    PubMed

    McCully, Kilmer S

    2015-01-01

    The active site of oxidative phosphorylation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis in mitochondria is proposed to consist of two molecules of thioretinamide bound to cobalamin, forming thioretinaco, complexed with ozone, oxygen, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. and inorganic phosphate, TR2CoO3O2NAD(+)H2PO4(-). Reduction of the pyridinium nitrogen of the nicotinamide group by an electron from electron transport complexes initiates polymerization of phosphate with adenosine diphosphate, yielding nicotinamide riboside and ATP bound to thioretinaco ozonide oxygen. A second electron reduces oxygen to hydroperoxyl radical, releasing ATP from the active site. A proton gradient is created within F1F0 ATPase complexes of mitochondria by reaction of protons with reduced nicotinamide riboside and with hydroperoxyl radical, yielding reduced nicotinamide riboside and hydroperoxide. The hyperhomocysteinemia of aging and dementia is attributed to decreased synthesis of adenosyl methionine by thioretinaco ozonide and ATP, causing decreased allosteric activation of cystathionine synthase and decreased allosteric inhibition of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase and resulting in dysregulation of methionine metabolism. PMID:25887881

  12. Geographic origins and dietary transitions during the Bronze Age in the Oman Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Gregoricka, Lesley A

    2013-11-01

    The nature of the Bronze Age transition from the Umm an-Nar (ca. 2700-2000 BC) to the Wadi Suq (ca. 2000-1300 BC) period in the Oman Peninsula has been highly debated by archaeologists, with some characterizing the latter as a time of cultural isolation, social collapse, and/or population replacement following the successful involvement of the area in widespread interregional exchange networks across Arabia and South Asia. The hypothesis that a substantial change in residential mobility, immigration, and diet took place in response to considerable societal changes as reflected by the archaeological record was tested using stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. Archaeological human dental enamel from individuals interred in six Umm an-Nar (n = 100) and seven Wadi Suq (n = 16) communal tombs in the United Arab Emirates was used. Oxygen isotope data reveal largely homogeneous ratios indicative of a predominantly local population that acquired water from isotopically similar sources, although the presence of immigrants during both periods suggests that the region was not as isolated as previously held. Carbon isotope data exhibit a substantial temporal shift from an extremely varied to a more restricted diet, demonstrating that while considerable changes in subsistence strategies and social organization took place in the early second millennium BC, population continuity and sustained (although lessened) participation in pan-Gulf trade systems best characterizes this regional transformation. PMID:24104555

  13. The age and origin of felsic intrusions of the Thetford Mines ophiolite, Quebec.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Frankel, C.S.; Eaby, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    This ophiolite was obducted in the early Ordovician during the closing of the proto-Atlantic. The tectonized peridotite of the lower unit of the ophiolite is intruded by felsic dykes and pods, including isolated lenses of massive rodingite, small bodies of strongly deformed diorite, and younger, less deformed monzonite. These intrusions are found only near the base of the ophiolite, and are considered to have been emplaced before the ophiolite reached its present position. The young group of intrusions consists of biotite-muscovite quartz monzonite and leuco-quartz monzonite. Analysed samples have high K2O, high (K2O X 100)/Na2O + K2O) ratios, and high initial Sr ratios, indicating that the magma source was continental and that these felsic rocks formed by partial melting of continental sediments. Whole-rock and mineral isochron ages suggest that the felsic intrusions are approx 456 + or - 4 m.y. old and that they were metamorphosed approx 418 + or - 7 m.y. ago. The detachment of the ophiolite occurred approx 491 + or - 3 m.y. ago. The felsic dykes were intruded approx 35 m.y. later, during the Taconic orogeny. The lengthy time between detachment and final nappe emplacement recorded by the felsic dykes may be a requirement for formation of abundant asbestiform chrysotile. Whole-rock analyses (16) and Rb, Sr and 87Sr/86Sr data from the Colline de Granite, King Mts., Vimy Ridge and Black Lake samples are presented.-P.Br.

  14. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of Semitic languages identifies an Early Bronze Age origin of Semitic in the Near East

    PubMed Central

    Kitchen, Andrew; Ehret, Christopher; Assefa, Shiferaw; Mulligan, Connie J.

    2009-01-01

    The evolution of languages provides a unique opportunity to study human population history. The origin of Semitic and the nature of dispersals by Semitic-speaking populations are of great importance to our understanding of the ancient history of the Middle East and Horn of Africa. Semitic populations are associated with the oldest written languages and urban civilizations in the region, which gave rise to some of the world's first major religious and literary traditions. In this study, we employ Bayesian computational phylogenetic techniques recently developed in evolutionary biology to analyse Semitic lexical data by modelling language evolution and explicitly testing alternative hypotheses of Semitic history. We implement a relaxed linguistic clock to date language divergences and use epigraphic evidence for the sampling dates of extinct Semitic languages to calibrate the rate of language evolution. Our statistical tests of alternative Semitic histories support an initial divergence of Akkadian from ancestral Semitic over competing hypotheses (e.g. an African origin of Semitic). We estimate an Early Bronze Age origin for Semitic approximately 5750 years ago in the Levant, and further propose that contemporary Ethiosemitic languages of Africa reflect a single introduction of early Ethiosemitic from southern Arabia approximately 2800 years ago. PMID:19403539

  15. [Marginality, ethnic groups and health].

    PubMed

    Corretger, J M; Fortuny, C; Botet, F; Valls, O

    1992-06-01

    Main marginated ethnic groups in Span are to be found among gypsies and 3rd world immigrants. The first group include about 250,000 persons and the second group more tan half a million people. Their origins and their being past of the less fortunate social layers made them a group of health risk. Pediatric pathologies are those favored by socio-economic shortcomings as well as hygienic-sanitary deficiencies. Imported pediatric pathologies have a small incident.

  16. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  17. Suicide and ethnicity in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Murty, Om Prakash; Cheh, Lo Boon; Bakit, Pangie Anak; Hui, Foo Jhi; Ibrahim, Zarina Binti; Jusoh, Nazirah Binti

    2008-03-01

    This article highlights methods of ending life in different ethnic groups. This inference is drawn from analysis of data from suicidal cases from the University Malaya Medical Centre mortuary. This study also looked at sex, age, social, and employment factors. Kuala Lumpur has sizeable populations of Muslims, Chinese, Indians and Indonesian, etc. This study is based on 251 cases of suicide that were reported at the University Malaya Medical Centre from 2000 to 2004. Malaysia has a population of 22,662,365 people with 3 major ethnic groups: Malay (58%), Chinese (24%), and Indians (8%) with a minority of "others" (10%), which includes foreigners, Sabahan, and Sarawakian. This research found suicides of 164 male (65%) and 87 female (35%) victims. Their age ranged from 15 to 80 years. The age group from 21 to 30 had the highest total cases of suicide (83 of 251; 33.1%). Among ethnic groups highest rate of suicide was among Chinese with a total of 120 cases (120 of 251; 47.8%). As far as lone method of suicide is concerned, hangings accounted for the highest proportion of cases (108 of 251; 43%). Among ethnic groups, jumping from height was the commonest method used by Chinese (49 of 120; 41%), Malay (9 of 16; 56%), and others (15 of 28; 53.4%); whereas, hanging was the commonest method of committing suicide by Indians (49 of 87); Muslims showed the lowest cases of suicide (18 of 251; 7.2%). In poisoning group Indian was the highest ethnic group who used this method (20 of 37; 54.1%). PMID:19749611

  18. Origin and age of the earliest Martian crust from meteorite NWA 7533.

    PubMed

    Humayun, M; Nemchin, A; Zanda, B; Hewins, R H; Grange, M; Kennedy, A; Lorand, J-P; Göpel, C; Fieni, C; Pont, S; Deldicque, D

    2013-11-28

    The ancient cratered terrain of the southern highlands of Mars is thought to hold clues to the planet's early differentiation, but until now no meteoritic regolith breccias have been recovered from Mars. Here we show that the meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7533 (paired with meteorite NWA 7034) is a polymict breccia consisting of a fine-grained interclast matrix containing clasts of igneous-textured rocks and fine-grained clast-laden impact melt rocks. High abundances of meteoritic siderophiles (for example nickel and iridium) found throughout the rock reach a level in the fine-grained portions equivalent to 5 per cent CI chondritic input, which is comparable to the highest levels found in lunar breccias. Furthermore, analyses of three leucocratic monzonite clasts show a correlation between nickel, iridium and magnesium consistent with differentiation from impact melts. Compositionally, all the fine-grained material is alkalic basalt, chemically identical (except for sulphur, chlorine and zinc) to soils from Gusev crater. Thus, we propose that NWA 7533 is a Martian regolith breccia. It contains zircons for which we measured an age of 4,428 ± 25 million years, which were later disturbed 1,712 ± 85 million years ago. This evidence for early crustal differentiation implies that the Martian crust, and its volatile inventory, formed in about the first 100 million years of Martian history, coeval with earliest crust formation on the Moon and the Earth. In addition, incompatible element abundances in clast-laden impact melt rocks and interclast matrix provide a geochemical estimate of the average thickness of the Martian crust (50 kilometres) comparable to that estimated geophysically. PMID:24256724

  19. Origin and age of the Eisenkappel gabbro to granite suite (Carinthia, SE Austrian Alps)

    PubMed Central

    Miller, C.; Thöni, M.; Goessler, W.; Tessadri, R.

    2011-01-01

    The northern part of the Karawanken plutonic belt is a gabbro–granite complex located just north of the Periadriatic lineament near the Slovenian–Austrian border. Petrographic and geochemical studies of the Eisenkappel intrusive complex indicate that this multiphase plutonic suite developed by a combination of crystal accumulation, fractional crystallization and assimilation processes, magma mixing and mingling. The mafic rocks are alkaline and have within-plate geochemical characteristics, indicating anorogenic magmatism in an extensional setting and derivation from an enriched mantle source. The mafic melts triggered partial melting of the crust and the formation of granite. The granitic rocks are alkalic, metaluminous and have the high Fe/Fe + Mg characteristics of within-plate plutons. Temperature and pressure conditions, derived from amphibole-plagioclase and different amphibole thermobarometers, suggest that the analysed Eisenkappel gabbros crystallized at around 1000 ± 20 °C and 380–470 MPa, whereas the granitic rock crystallized at T ≤ 800 ± 20 °C and ≤ 350 MPa. Mineral-whole rock Sm–Nd analyses of two cumulate gabbros yielded 249 ± 8.4 Ma and 250 ± 26 Ma (εNd: + 3.6), garnet-whole rock Sm–Nd analyses of two silicic samples yielded well-constrained ages of 238.4 ± 1.9 Ma and 242.1 ± 2.1 Ma (εNd: − 2.6). PMID:26525511

  20. Origin and age of the earliest Martian crust from meteorite NWA 7533.

    PubMed

    Humayun, M; Nemchin, A; Zanda, B; Hewins, R H; Grange, M; Kennedy, A; Lorand, J-P; Göpel, C; Fieni, C; Pont, S; Deldicque, D

    2013-11-28

    The ancient cratered terrain of the southern highlands of Mars is thought to hold clues to the planet's early differentiation, but until now no meteoritic regolith breccias have been recovered from Mars. Here we show that the meteorite Northwest Africa (NWA) 7533 (paired with meteorite NWA 7034) is a polymict breccia consisting of a fine-grained interclast matrix containing clasts of igneous-textured rocks and fine-grained clast-laden impact melt rocks. High abundances of meteoritic siderophiles (for example nickel and iridium) found throughout the rock reach a level in the fine-grained portions equivalent to 5 per cent CI chondritic input, which is comparable to the highest levels found in lunar breccias. Furthermore, analyses of three leucocratic monzonite clasts show a correlation between nickel, iridium and magnesium consistent with differentiation from impact melts. Compositionally, all the fine-grained material is alkalic basalt, chemically identical (except for sulphur, chlorine and zinc) to soils from Gusev crater. Thus, we propose that NWA 7533 is a Martian regolith breccia. It contains zircons for which we measured an age of 4,428 ± 25 million years, which were later disturbed 1,712 ± 85 million years ago. This evidence for early crustal differentiation implies that the Martian crust, and its volatile inventory, formed in about the first 100 million years of Martian history, coeval with earliest crust formation on the Moon and the Earth. In addition, incompatible element abundances in clast-laden impact melt rocks and interclast matrix provide a geochemical estimate of the average thickness of the Martian crust (50 kilometres) comparable to that estimated geophysically.

  1. Age constraints on late Mesozoic lithospheric extension and origin of bimodal volcanic rocks from the Hailar basin, NE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shuang-Qing; Hegner, Ernst; Yang, Yi-Zeng; Wu, Jia-De; Chen, Fukun

    2014-03-01

    Following the amalgamation of the late Mesoproterozoic-Carboniferous Central Asian Orogenic Belt with the Siberian and North China cratons, NE China underwent late Mesozoic lithospheric extension and widespread formation of volcano-sedimentary basins. We report U-Pb zircon ages and geochemical data for mafic and felsic volcanic rocks from the Hailar basin, located about 1000 km north of Beijing. Zircon populations of six felsic rock samples analyzed by laser ablation ICP-MS yielded similar U-Pb age spectra ranging from 158 to 125 Ma. The youngest zircon ages are interpreted as time of magma eruption and the xenocrystic zircon-age spectra as evidence for a protracted melting of lower crust due to the underplating of mantle-derived magmas during lithospheric extension. The volcanic assemblage has a bimodal composition comprising geochemically evolved trachybasalts and felsic volcanic rocks of I- and subordinate A-type compositions. The mafic volcanic rocks have negative Nb-anomalies, high Th/Nb and Ce/Pb ratios, low initial ɛNd values of + 0.4 to + 3.4, and radiogenic Pb and Sr isotopes all interpreted as evidence for the melting of passively upwelling asthenosphere and lithospheric mantle previously modified by plate subduction. The xenocrystic zircon ages and chemical/isotopic data of the felsic rocks support an origin from juvenile crustal protoliths: the data of I-type felsic rocks are consistent with the melting of underplated mafic protoliths and those of the A-type rhyolites support the melting of a crustal source with a composition similar to the I-type felsites with apatite controlling their Nb anomaly. The evidence for the persistent melting of a subduction-modified mantle in NE China is in agreement with a model of an extending coupled upper mantle-crust system due to a retreating Paleo-Pacific trench.

  2. Age and origin of Terra Rossa soils in the Coonawarra area of South Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mee, Aija C.; Bestland, Erick A.; Spooner, Nigel A.

    2004-03-01

    The famous Terra Rossa soil in the Coonawarra area, South Australia, is dominated by locally derived aeolian detritus, which probably accumulated over the last 120-130 ka. Four soil profiles and associated limestone and lunette deposits were investigated using the following methods: mass balance geochemistry of bulk soil samples (major and trace elements), quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) mineralogy, strontium isotopes (87/86), as well as grain-size analysis and cation exchange capacity. These data show that the Terra Rossa soil from the Coonawarra has a thick, clayey B-horizon which is geochemically homogeneous and dominated by smectite and kaolinite. Mass-balance calculations show unrealistic weathering scenarios when plotted using silicate residuum from the underlying limestone as parent. Realistic weathering scenarios are produced with fine-grained silicate material from local lunette deposits as parent. Strontium isotopes of silicate residuum from Gambier Limestone (0.78) contrast strongly with the clayey B-horizon (0.726). Strontium isotope ratios of silicate material from a local lunette (0.725) are similar to the B-horizon soil values. Strontium isotope ratios from regional geological units indicate that the strontium signature in the lunette and soil B-horizon is dominated by weathering products from the Palaeozoic Kanmantoo shales, extensively exposed upwind to the west on Kangaroo Island and the Fleurieu Peninsula. Optical (optically stimulated luminescence, OSL) dating of 61 individual quartz grains (single aliquot) from three samples in the Coonawarra soil profile (one from the A-horizon and two from the B-horizon) shows that most of the quartz sand grains have been buried for only a few thousand years. Many of the grains, however, have been buried for tens of thousands of years with three grains having exposure ages of between 105 and 109 ka. The large population of young exposure dates represents quartz sands recently exposed in the A-horizon and

  3. Origin, Age, and Geochemistry of the Tuff of Saguache Creek, Southwestern Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, K. J.; Young, M. D.; Wendlandt, R. F.

    2003-12-01

    A crystal-poor, rhyolitic, ash-flow tuff in the Eastern San Juan Volcanic Field currently known as the tuff of Saguache Creek (TSC) was reinterpreted by Simon and Wendlandt (1999) as not being distal Sapinero Mesa Tuff. Currently there is no source caldera established for this tuff thereby leaving uncertainties in the volcanic history. Regional mapping of the TSC has subsequently been completed to constrain a possible source caldera. Petrographic studies, and EPMA and LA-ICPMS analyses of the mineral assemblage have been performed to characterize further the tuff, enable correlation of mapped TSC, and constrain petrogenetic models. Petrographic and chemical identification of the TSC builds on characteristics set forth by Simon (2000). These characteristics include abundant feldspar clusters, alkali feldspar mantled plagioclase, no modal quartz, Fe-Ti oxides (often with apatites and zircons), and sparse biotite and pyroxene. Pyroxenes show curiously high MnO (avg 2.70 wt%) and Mg# (avg 79.2) and might be xenocrystic. In comparison, biotites have much lower MnO (avg 0.82 wt%). Average sanidine (Or50) and plagioclase (Ab71) compositions fall within the documented range (Simon, 2000) and show little trace element substitution including Eu <3 ppm and Ba <1200 ppm. Titanites are enriched in Ce (17,000-20,000 ppm) and Pr (2,200-2700 ppm). Apatites show similar enrichment in Ce (2200-7600 ppm) and Pr (330-350 ppm). Confirmed outcrops of TSC are best preserved just north of Trickle Mtn where it is approximately 30 m thick and overlain by a welded airfall ash deposit preliminarily dated at 29-30 Ma. Outcrop localities south of Colorado Highway 114 show thinning and are interpreted as erosional remnants plastered on older Conejos age volcanic deposits. Similarly, an andesitic topographic high just west of Trickle Mtn has TSC vitrophyre on the east-facing slope suggesting strong north-south channeling of the flow unit by paleo-topographic lows. Outcrop elevations also decrease

  4. Thermal and tectonic evolution of the central and southern Appalachians: evidence from distribution, age, and origin of granitic rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Sinha, A.K.; Guy, R.; Hund, E.; Tamburro, E.

    1985-01-01

    The distribution and resolution of thermal events and associated igneous activity can discriminate between tectonic processes that form orogenic terrains, i.e., accretion of terranes, overthrusting of terranes versus thrust stacking within terranes. Reinterpretation of regional tectonics (Higgins et al., 1984) coupled with the authors interpretation of the age, origin, and distribution of granitic rocks suggest a very different mechanism for the evolution of the central and southern Appalachian orogenic belt. The Cambro-Ordovician magmatic arc (weakly bimodal) separated from the North American Margin by a Back arc basin, was thrust over the North American plate margin during the middle Ordovician. The Avalon terrane (Little River allochthon of Higgins et al., 1984) arrived during the late Silurian - but unlike earlier models that require subduction zone related with its arrival, the authors postulate strike-slip tectonics. The gabbro-diorite-syenite association in the Charlotte belt (Macon melange of Higgins) is probably related to grabens associated with the strike-slip accretion. Rocks of similar age (Siluro-Devonian) in the present day Blue Ridge and Inner Piedmont blocks are related to decompressional melting after the Ordovician thrusting. The high pressure metamorphism and associated melting show a range in ages indicating variations in uplift rates or thickness of the crust caused by the initial overthrusting, and do not require a discrete subduction or orogenic event. The Permo-Carboniferous igneous activity, and associated uplift and thrusting with a strike-slip component are related to oblique subduction and post-subduction collision processes.

  5. Age and origin of the Lomonosov Ridge: a key continental fragment in Arctic Ocean reconstructions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcussen, Christian; Knudsen, Christian; Hopper, John R.; Funck, Thomas; Ineson, Jon R.; Bjerager, Morten

    2015-04-01

    The Lomonosov Ridge is a trans-oceanic seafloor high that separates the Eurasia Basin from the Amerasia Basin. It extends for a distance of almost 1800 km across the Arctic Ocean from the Lincoln Shelf off Greenland and Canada to the East Siberian Shelf. Although known from the ACEX drilling expedition to be a sliver of continental crust, it remains an enigmatic feature and many details of its history are unknown. In the summer of 2012, GEUS recovered dredge samples from two locations along the flank of the ridge facing the Eurasian Basin. The samples comprise 100 kg and 200 kg of rocks and rock pieces ranging in size from 0.1 to 80 kg which were recovered from two different scarps associated with rotated continental fault blocks. A significant quantity of rocks with identical structures and isotopic fingerprints show that they formed at the same time and from the same geological material. This combined with the broken and angular nature of many of the pieces recovered indicates that the material is from in situ bedrock and does not represent dropstones brought to the area by drifting ice. Two main sedimentary rock types were recovered - an arkosic metasedimentary rock, and a quartz rich non-metamorphic sandstone. The arkosic metasedimentary rock shows compositional layering (primary heterolithic fabric) that is deformed and with a well-developed schistosity. These metasedimentary rocks contain muscovite with textural evidence that shows the muscovite is metamorphic and not detrital, and thus formed at the time the rocks were deformed. The metamorphic fabrics and mineralogy indicate deformation under greenschist facies conditions, indicating that the metamorphism was associated with an orogenic event; the metamorphic muscovite has yielded an Ar/Ar age of around 470 Ma. Thus the rock is interpreted as a Proterozoic to lower Palaeozoic heterolithic sandstone that was involved in an orogenic event during the Ordovician. This event may be related to the Mid

  6. Longitudinal consistency of adolescent ethnic identification across varying school ethnic contexts.

    PubMed

    Nishina, Adrienne; Bellmore, Amy; Witkow, Melissa R; Nylund-Gibson, Karen

    2010-11-01

    The present study examined consistency and inconsistency in adolescents' ethnic identification (i.e., self-reported ethnicity) across the 6 middle-school semesters. The sample (N = 1,589, of whom 46% were boys and 54% were girls) included African American, Asian/Pacific Islander, Caucasian/White, Latino/Latina, Mexican/Mexican American, and multiethnic students. Latent class analyses yielded 3 key patterns in ethnic identification across the middle-school years: consistent, late consistent, and inconsistent. Ethnic identification remained consistent across fall and spring of 6th, 7th, and 8th grades for only about 60% of the students. Asian/Pacific Islander students were more consistent, and multiethnic students were less consistent than students from other ethnic groups. School ethnic composition was associated with systematic shifts in ethnic identification from the beginning to the end of middle school for those students who initially identified as Latino/Latina, African American, or multiethnic but not for Mexican-origin students. In combination, the results provide insight into the consistency of ethnic identification, the role of context in adolescents' self-representation, and considerations for longitudinal studies that examine ethnic differences.

  7. Finger patterns and age of onset for the determination of the parent-of-origin in the transmission of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ponnudurai, R.; Jayakar, J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Dermatoglyphic traits which are reported to be largely determined by genes could be considered as phenotypic characterestics and if the same are expressed through generations in schizophrenic families it can be speculated to serve as genetic markers for schizophrenia. Another factor that might be influenced by genes is the age of onset of the illness in the offspring and the parent of origin. Objective: This study was aimed to elucidate the occurrence of identical finger patterns in the schizophrenic patients and their affected parents. The other objective was to assess the age of onset of the illness in them. Methods: Forty six schizophrenic patients in whom one of the parents was also affected with schizophrenia or related disorders were recruited. Of these pairs 29 were taken up for finger patterns analysis, with an equal number of control group pairs. 35 proband and parent pairs were investigated for the age of onset of the illness. Results: The frequency of occurrence of identical patterns in the right thumbs of proband and their affected mother pairs was significantly more than between the proband and their affected father pairs. Additionally, the number of identical patterns was also more in the right thumbs of proband and their affected mother pairs compared with the control group. The difference between the mean age of onset of the illness in the probands and their affected fathers was more than between the probands and their affected mothers. Conclusion: The genetic association of schizophrenic patients with the affected maternal side appear to be more stronger than with the paternal side. PMID:25657454

  8. Some results on ethnic conflicts based on evolutionary game simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jun; Yi, Yunfei; Wu, Hongrun; Liu, Yuhang; Tong, Xiaonian; Zheng, Bojin

    2014-07-01

    The force of the ethnic separatism, essentially originating from the negative effect of ethnic identity, is damaging the stability and harmony of multiethnic countries. In order to eliminate the foundation of the ethnic separatism and set up a harmonious ethnic relationship, some scholars have proposed a viewpoint: ethnic harmony could be promoted by popularizing civic identity. However, this viewpoint is discussed only from a philosophical prospective and still lacks support of scientific evidences. Because ethnic group and ethnic identity are products of evolution and ethnic identity is the parochialism strategy under the perspective of game theory, this paper proposes an evolutionary game simulation model to study the relationship between civic identity and ethnic conflict based on evolutionary game theory. The simulation results indicate that: (1) the ratio of individuals with civic identity has a negative association with the frequency of ethnic conflicts; (2) ethnic conflict will not die out by killing all ethnic members once for all, and it also cannot be reduced by a forcible pressure, i.e., increasing the ratio of individuals with civic identity; (3) the average frequencies of conflicts can stay in a low level by promoting civic identity periodically and persistently.

  9. Constraining the age and origin of the seamount province in the Northeast Indian Ocean using geophysical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taneja, Rajat; O'Neill, Craig

    2014-12-01

    The breakup of western margin of Australia from Greater India started around 155 Ma and progressed southwards. After the separation, the interceding intraplate region experienced large volumes of submarine volcanism, extending over 100 Myrs. The Christmas Island Seamount Province (CHRISP, as it has been dubbed) lies south of the Java-Sunda Trench, and contains numerous submerged volcanic seamounts, and two sub-aerially exposed island groups—Cocos (Keeling) Islands, and Christmas Island. While recent geochronological investigations have shed light on the diverse eruption ages of the volcanics of this region, some islands/seamounts have demonstrated protracted volcanic histories, and it is not clear how the volcanic loading, tectonic subsidence, and subsequent emergence history of the islands relates to these discrete volcanic episodes. This study utilises a number of geophysical techniques to determine the crustal structure, loading and subsidence history, and last sub-aerial exposure age for the CHRISP. The study shows that flexural and subsidence modelling are reliable techniques in constraining the age of the seamounts when geochronological techniques are not possible. Utilising regional gravity signatures, we model the crustal structure underneath the Cocos (Keeling) Island, and constrain the thickness of the limestone cover between 900 and 2,100 m. Using age-depth subsidence curves for oceanic lithosphere the time since these seamounts were exposed above sea-level was determined, and a trend in exposure ages that youngs towards the west is observed. Two episodes of volcanism have been recorded at Christmas Island and they are of different origin. The younger phase in the Pliocene is a manifestation of flexure induced cracks produced in the lithosphere as it rides the subduction fore-bulge, whereas a low velocity seismic zone rising from the lower mantle, and tectonic reorganization, may be associated with the older Eocene volcanic phase, as well as much of

  10. Post-retrieval effects of icv infusions of hemicholinium in mice are dependent on the age of the original memory.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Mariano M; Blake, Mariano G; Acosta, Gabriela B; Baratti, Carlos M

    2006-01-01

    CF-1 male mice were trained in an inhibitory avoidance task using a high footshock (1,2 mA, 50 Hz, 1 sec) in order to reduce the influence of extinction on retention performance. At 2, 7, 14, or 30 d after training, the first retention test was performed and hemicholinium (HC-3, 1.0 microg/mice), a specific inhibitor of high-affinity choline uptake in brain cholinergic neurons, was given intracerebroventricularly immediately after. Twenty four hours after treatment, mice were tested in an inhibitory avoidance task during five consecutive days, each 24 h apart. Retention performance was impaired by HC-3 when the first re-exposure took place at 2, 7, or 14 d, but the effect was no longer seen when re-exposure occurred 30 d after training. We did not find spontaneous recovery 21 d after training, when memory was retrieved 2 d after training and HC-3 was given immediately after. Although we cannot definitively discard a retrieval deficit, this lack of spontaneous recovery is in accordance with the storage-deficit interpretation. These results confirm and extend previous ones, suggesting that central cholinergic mechanisms are involved in the hypothetical reconsolidation memory processes of an inhibitory avoidance task in mice and also suggest that this participation depends on the "age" of the original memory trace. This implies that the vulnerability of a reactivated memory to a specific treatment, as the one used in this study, inversely correlates with the age of the original memory, and it is likely to determine memory reconsolidation processes. PMID:16741287

  11. Post-retrieval effects of icv infusions of hemicholinium in mice are dependent on the age of the original memory.

    PubMed

    Boccia, Mariano M; Blake, Mariano G; Acosta, Gabriela B; Baratti, Carlos M

    2006-01-01

    CF-1 male mice were trained in an inhibitory avoidance task using a high footshock (1,2 mA, 50 Hz, 1 sec) in order to reduce the influence of extinction on retention performance. At 2, 7, 14, or 30 d after training, the first retention test was performed and hemicholinium (HC-3, 1.0 microg/mice), a specific inhibitor of high-affinity choline uptake in brain cholinergic neurons, was given intracerebroventricularly immediately after. Twenty four hours after treatment, mice were tested in an inhibitory avoidance task during five consecutive days, each 24 h apart. Retention performance was impaired by HC-3 when the first re-exposure took place at 2, 7, or 14 d, but the effect was no longer seen when re-exposure occurred 30 d after training. We did not find spontaneous recovery 21 d after training, when memory was retrieved 2 d after training and HC-3 was given immediately after. Although we cannot definitively discard a retrieval deficit, this lack of spontaneous recovery is in accordance with the storage-deficit interpretation. These results confirm and extend previous ones, suggesting that central cholinergic mechanisms are involved in the hypothetical reconsolidation memory processes of an inhibitory avoidance task in mice and also suggest that this participation depends on the "age" of the original memory trace. This implies that the vulnerability of a reactivated memory to a specific treatment, as the one used in this study, inversely correlates with the age of the original memory, and it is likely to determine memory reconsolidation processes.

  12. The accumulation of whole body skeletal mass in third- and fourth-grade children: effects of age, gender, ethnicity, and body composition.

    PubMed

    Nelson, D A; Simpson, P M; Johnson, C C; Barondess, D A; Kleerekoper, M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study is to describe bone mass and body composition, and the annual changes in these measurements, among third grade students recruited from a suburban school district. Whole body bone mineral content (WBBMC), bone mineral density (WBBMD), fat, and lean mass were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Bone mass in the lumbar spine (LBMC) region of the whole body scan was also utilized. 773 students (38% white, 57% black, 5% other) had baseline visits; 561 had a second measurement a year later. At baseline, black children have significantly higher WBBMC, WBBMD, height, and lean mass than whites. Black males, but not black females, have a greater LBMC. There are no significant gender differences in body size, WBBMC, or WBBMD, although girls have a greater LBMC and fat mass, and boys have a higher lean mass. Most of these differences persist in visit 2. The annual change in bone and lean mass is greater in blacks. Stepwise linear regression analyses of bone mass on body size, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions indicate that log-transformed weight explains most of the variance in both WBBMC and WBBMD (multiple r2 = 0.90 and 0.64, respectively). There are significant black/white differences in intercepts and slopes. Other variables explain only another 1%-2% of the variance. The strongest Pearson correlations are between changes in bone mass and changes in lean mass and log-transformed weight (r ranging from 0.62 to 0.84, p = 0.0001). We conclude that there is a significant black/white, but not male/female difference in whole body bone mass and bone density before puberty. Ethnic and gender differences in bone and body composition suggest that the lean component may contribute to a greater peak bone mass in blacks vs. whites, and perhaps in males vs. females.

  13. Age, field, and petrological relationships of the Hyde School Gneiss, Adirondack lowlands, New York: Criteria for an intrusive igneous origin

    SciTech Connect

    McLelland, J. ); Perham, A. ); Chiarenzelli, J.

    1992-01-01

    Alaskitic and tonalitic rocks constituting Hyde School Gneiss (HSG) occur in 14 domical bodies in the Adirondack lowlands. Recent models have interpreted these bodies as metamorphosed rhyolitic and dacitic ash-flow deposits forming the basal member of a regional stratigraphic package. In contrast, this paper presents criteria and evidence for an intrusive origin for HSG. Field evidence includes intrusion breccias and complex crosscutting relationships involving mafic layers resembling synplutonic dikes. Petrologic constraints supporting an intrusive origin include: (1) the common occurrence of quartz-mesoperthite hypersolvus assemblages; (2) magmatic features in tonalitic, trondhjemitic, and alaskitic facies, (3) local occurrences of orthopyroxene in all facies of HSG; and (4) the development of marginal garnet-sillimanite gneiss with corundum-spinel-garnet-sillimanite assemblages yielding paleotemperatures of 780-810C and interpreted as restite remaining after anatexis of country rock metapelite by intrusions of hypersolvus granitoids. U-Pb zircon ages reported here suggest that the majority of the HSG was intruded at ca. 1230 Ma, contemporaneous with high-grade metamorphic activity in the Adirondacks and elsewhere in the SW sector of the Grenville Province. Geochronological evidence from a leucogranitic rock crosscutting metasediments on Wellesley Island suggest that these metasediments are older than 1416 {plus minus} 5 Ma.

  14. The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Grøver, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twemty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood, were employed to predict the children's L2 vocabulary trajectories. The results of growth analyses revealed that maternal education was the only variable predicting children's vocabulary growth during the elementary years. However, teacher-led talk, peer talk, and neighborhood predicted children's L2 vocabulary skills at age five, and these differences were maintained up to age ten. This study underscores the importance of both preschool talk exposure (teacher-led talk and peer talk) and demographic factors on L2 learners' vocabulary development.

  15. Strong Components of Epigenetic Memory in Cultured Human Fibroblasts Related to Site of Origin and Donor Age

    PubMed Central

    Ivanov, Nikolay A.; Tao, Ran; Chenoweth, Joshua G.; Brandtjen, Anna; Mighdoll, Michelle I.; Genova, John D.; McKay, Ronald D.; Jia, Yankai; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Hyde, Thomas M.; Jaffe, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating pluripotent cells from fibroblast progenitors is a potentially transformative tool in personalized medicine. We previously identified relatively greater success culturing dura-derived fibroblasts than scalp-derived fibroblasts from postmortem tissue. We hypothesized that these differences in culture success were related to epigenetic differences between the cultured fibroblasts by sampling location, and therefore generated genome-wide DNA methylation and transcriptome data on 11 intrinsically matched pairs of dural and scalp fibroblasts from donors across the lifespan (infant to 85 years). While these cultured fibroblasts were several generations removed from the primary tissue and morphologically indistinguishable, we found widespread epigenetic differences by sampling location at the single CpG (N = 101,989), region (N = 697), “block” (N = 243), and global spatial scales suggesting a strong epigenetic memory of original fibroblast location. Furthermore, many of these epigenetic differences manifested in the transcriptome, particularly at the region-level. We further identified 7,265 CpGs and 11 regions showing significant epigenetic memory related to the age of the donor, as well as an overall increased epigenetic variability, preferentially in scalp-derived fibroblasts—83% of loci were more variable in scalp, hypothesized to result from cumulative exposure to environmental stimuli in the primary tissue. By integrating publicly available DNA methylation datasets on individual cell populations in blood and brain, we identified significantly increased inter-individual variability in our scalp- and other skin-derived fibroblasts on a similar scale as epigenetic differences between different lineages of blood cells. Lastly, these epigenetic differences did not appear to be driven by somatic mutation—while we identified 64 probable de-novo variants across the 11 subjects, there was no association between mutation burden and age of the donor (p

  16. Does COPD risk vary by ethnicity? A retrospective cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Gilkes, Alexander; Ashworth, Mark; Schofield, Peter; Harries, Timothy H; Durbaba, Stevo; Weston, Charlotte; White, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Background Lower risk of COPD has been reported in black and Asian people, raising questions of poorer recognition or reduced susceptibility. We assessed prevalence and severity of COPD in ethnic groups, controlling for smoking. Method A retrospective cross-sectional study using routinely collected primary care data in London. COPD prevalence, severity (% predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1]), smoking status, and treatment were compared between ethnic groups, adjusting for age, sex, smoking, deprivation, and practice clustering. Results Among 358,614 patients in 47 general practices, 47.6% were white, 20% black, and 5% Asian. Prevalence of COPD was 1.01% overall, 1.55% in whites, 0.58% in blacks, and 0.78% in Asians. COPD was less likely in blacks (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.44; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39–0.51) and Asians (0.82; CI, 0.68–0.98) than whites. Black COPD patients were less likely to be current smokers (OR, 0.56; CI, 0.44–0.71) and more likely to be never-smokers (OR, 4.9; CI, 3.4–7.1). Treatment of patients with similar disease severity was similar irrespective of ethnic origin, except that long-acting muscarinic antagonists were prescribed less in black COPD patients (OR, 0.53; CI, 0.42–0.68). Black ethnicity was a predictor of poorer lung function (% predicted FEV1: B coefficient, −7.6; P<0.0001), an effect not seen when ethnic-specific predicted FEV1 values were used. Conclusion Black people in London were half as likely as whites to have COPD after adjusting for lower smoking rates in blacks. It seems likely that the differences observed were due either to ethnic differences in the way cigarettes were smoked or to ethnic differences in susceptibility to COPD. PMID:27103797

  17. Ten Years of Longitudinal Research on U.S. Adolescent Sexual Behavior: Developmental Correlates of Sexual Intercourse, and the Importance of Age, Gender and Ethnic Background

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Helfand, Mark

    2008-01-01

    We integrated findings from 35 recent, longitudinal studies of the onset of heterosexual intercourse. Correlates of adolescent sexual intercourse onset, whether in early (before age 16) or middle (ages 16-18) adolescence, included living with other than two biological parents, being less monitored by parents, having more advanced physical maturity…

  18. Age, origin and evolution of Antarctic debris-covered glaciers: Implications for landscape evolution and long-term climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, Sean Leland

    Antarctic debris-covered glaciers are potential archives of long-term climate change. However, the geomorphic response of these systems to climate forcing is not well understood. To address this concern, I conducted a series of field-based and numerical modeling studies in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica (MDV), with a focus on Mullins and Friedman glaciers. I used data and results from geophysical surveys, ice-core collection and analysis, geomorphic mapping, micro-meteorological stations, and numerical-process models to (1) determine the precise origin and distribution of englacial and supraglacial debris within these buried-ice systems, (2) quantify the fundamental processes and feedbacks that govern interactions among englacial and supraglacial debris, (3) establish a process-based model to quantify the inventory of cosmogenic nuclides within englacial and supraglacial debris, and (4) isolate the governing relationships between the evolution of englacial /supraglacial debris and regional climate forcing. Results from 93 field excavations, 21 ice cores, and 24 km of ground-penetrating radar data show that Mullins and Friedman glaciers contain vast areas of clean glacier ice interspersed with inclined layers of concentrated debris. The similarity in the pattern of englacial debris bands across both glaciers, along with model results that call for negligible basal entrainment, is best explained by episodic environmental change at valley headwalls. To constrain better the timing of debris-band formation, I developed a modeling framework that tracks the accumulation of cosmogenic 3He in englacial and supraglacial debris. Results imply that ice within Mullins Glacier increases in age non-linearly from 12 ka to ˜220 ka in areas of active flow (up to >> 1.6 Ma in areas of slow-moving-to-stagnant ice) and that englacial debris bands originate with a periodicity of ˜41 ka. Modeling studies suggest that debris bands originate in synchronicity with changes in

  19. Origin, age, and paleoclimatic setting of the Late Quaternary deposits in Wadi Feiran, Sinai Peninsula: Geomorphologic, geochronologic, and isotopic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farag, A. Z. A.; Sultan, M.; Forman, S. L.; Krishnamurthy, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    There is considerable debate on the origin, age, and paleoclimatic setting of Late Quaternary deposits within the basement complex of the Sinai Peninsula. Our research in Wadi Feiran focused on documenting the sedimentology, stratigraphy, geochemistry and chronology of Late Quaternary deposits in the Feiran (lat. 28.706 N; long. 33.665; elevation: 715 to 772 m a.m.s.l) and Tarfa (lat. 28.692 N; long. 33.933 E; elevation: 1160 to 1244 m a.m.s.l) oases. Sequence stratigraphy, analysis of remote sensed images, and groundwater levels in these two areas indicate that the investigated deposits are structurally-controlled as they are found in areas with anomalously elevated groundwater levels and upstream from shear zone/wadi intersections. Sediments are largely arenaceous upstream and transition downstream to marly successions. We infer that these sediments were not deposited in lake settings because of the absence of shorelines and associated littoral, sublittoral and deeper water facies, and the presence of rhizoliths, secondary calcite veins and gastropods, all of which suggest deposition in a spring or wetland environment. A short hydrologic residence time and/or deposition in an open water system is supported by the lack of correlation (R = 0.08) between δ18O and δ13C values in carbonate deposits. Our findings are consistent with deposition of sediments by alluvial, fluvial and paludal processes under variable hydrologic conditions and higher water table conditions. Quartz extracts from these sediments yielded optically stimulated luminescence ages between ca. 27 and 11 ka and place these wetter conditions during the last glacial period and extend the "greening" of North Africa further eastward. Our findings are consistent with models which identify the wet periods in the Late Quaternary in the Sinai Peninsula and in North Africa as being glacial periods.

  20. Emergent self regulation skills among very young ethnic minority children: A confirmatory factor model

    PubMed Central

    Caughy, Margaret O’Brien; Mills, Britain; Owen, Margaret Tresch; Hurst, Jamie R.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging self regulation skills were assessed in 407 low income, African American and Latino (primarily Mexican origin) preschoolers. A battery of self regulation tasks was administered when children were 2½ years old and again approximately one year later. Confirmatory factor analyses supported four components of self regulation: inhibitory control, complex response inhibition, set shifting and working memory. Complex response inhibition was too rare a skill in this sample to be detected reliably from measures collected at age 2½ but emerged from measures collected at age 3½. In addition, significant ethnic differences were found in that African American children scored better on measures of complex response inhibition and set shifting while Latino children scored better on measures of inhibitory control and working memory. Implications of study findings for measuring self regulation in low income, ethnic diverse populations of young children as well as for the development of interventions to enhance self regulation development are discussed. PMID:24076382

  1. Reporting of ethnicity in research on chronic disease: update

    PubMed Central

    O'Loughlin, J; Dugas, E; Maximova, K; Kishchuk, N

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the inclusion of ethnicity and race as variables in current, leading edge research on chronic disease and its risk factors. Of 100 randomly selected original research articles published in high‐impact journals in 2005, 85% did not report either a definition of ethnicity or its conceptualisation in terms of theoretical reasoning, and 98% did not report an actual measurement item. Ethnicity and race remain non‐standardised and largely underdescribed variables in research on chronic disease. This represents an important loss of opportunity to articulate and test hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying ethnic group differences in chronic disease. PMID:17099093

  2. The potential contribution of marital-cohabitation status to racial, ethnic, and nativity differentials in birth outcomes in Texas.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kate; Raley, R Kelly; Hummer, Robert A; Schiefelbein, Emily

    2012-05-01

    Disparities in infant mortality by race/ethnicity and nativity are widely known. Patterns of marriage and union formation also vary by race, ethnicity and nativity and may contribute to disparities in birth outcomes. Using population level data, we build on previous research of race/ethnic disparities in birth outcomes by investigating the role of union status. Data come from the 2006 Birth Record from Texas Vital Statistics. The final sample size included 369,839 births to Texas women aged 18 and older. Birth outcomes were constructed from indicators of low birth weight and preterm birth. Logistic regression estimates odds of low birth weight and preterm birth by race/ethnicity and nativity and union status. Race/ethnicity/nativity and union status are significant and independent predictors of birth outcomes. US born Black and Mexican Origin mothers had higher odds of preterm birth and low birth weight babies compared to US born White mothers. Unmarried mothers had higher odds of adverse birth outcomes compared to married women. There was only modest support that the association between race/ethnicity/nativity status and birth outcomes could be explained by divergent patterns in union status. Though disparities in birth outcomes are persistent across race, ethnicity and nativity, the results suggest that union status at birth is a very weak factor in accounting for these disparities. Differing patterns in union status did not account for the Black-White and Mexican Origin-White gaps in infant health outcomes. Additional research aimed at uncovering the processes that put these mothers and infants at higher risk is needed.

  3. The potential contribution of marital-cohabitation status to racial, ethnic, and nativity differentials in birth outcomes in Texas.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kate; Raley, R Kelly; Hummer, Robert A; Schiefelbein, Emily

    2012-05-01

    Disparities in infant mortality by race/ethnicity and nativity are widely known. Patterns of marriage and union formation also vary by race, ethnicity and nativity and may contribute to disparities in birth outcomes. Using population level data, we build on previous research of race/ethnic disparities in birth outcomes by investigating the role of union status. Data come from the 2006 Birth Record from Texas Vital Statistics. The final sample size included 369,839 births to Texas women aged 18 and older. Birth outcomes were constructed from indicators of low birth weight and preterm birth. Logistic regression estimates odds of low birth weight and preterm birth by race/ethnicity and nativity and union status. Race/ethnicity/nativity and union status are significant and independent predictors of birth outcomes. US born Black and Mexican Origin mothers had higher odds of preterm birth and low birth weight babies compared to US born White mothers. Unmarried mothers had higher odds of adverse birth outcomes compared to married women. There was only modest support that the association between race/ethnicity/nativity status and birth outcomes could be explained by divergent patterns in union status. Though disparities in birth outcomes are persistent across race, ethnicity and nativity, the results suggest that union status at birth is a very weak factor in accounting for these disparities. Differing patterns in union status did not account for the Black-White and Mexican Origin-White gaps in infant health outcomes. Additional research aimed at uncovering the processes that put these mothers and infants at higher risk is needed. PMID:21626094

  4. Perceived racial/ethnic discrimination, smoking and alcohol consumption in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Borrell, Luisa N.; Diez Roux, Ana V.; Jacobs, David R.; Shea, Steven; Jackson, Sharon A.; Shrager, Sandi; Blumenthal, Roger S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking and alcohol consumption in adults participating in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Methods Data on 6,680 black, Chinese, Hispanic and white adults aged 45 to 84 years of age recruited from Illinois, New York, Maryland, North Carolina, Minnesota and California during 2000 and 2002 were used for this analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association of perceived racial/ethnic discrimination with smoking status and alcohol consumption for each racial/ethnic group separately. Results Blacks were more likely to experience racial/ethnic discrimination (43%) than Hispanics (19%), Chinese participants (10%) or whites (4%, P<0.0001). In the fully-adjusted model, blacks reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 34% and 51% greater odds of reporting smoking and drinking, respectively, than blacks who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Hispanics reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 62% greater odds of heavy drinking. Whites reporting racial/ethnic discrimination had 88% greater odds of reporting being current smokers than whites who did not report racial/ethnic discrimination. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the experience of discrimination is associated with greater prevalence of unhealthy behaviors. Specifically, the use of smoking and alcohol may be patterned by experience of discrimination. PMID:20609433

  5. QuickStats: Age-Adjusted Death Rates* for Top Five Causes of Cancer Death,(†) by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In 2014, the top five causes of cancer deaths for the total population were lung, colorectal, female breast, pancreatic, and prostate cancer. The non-Hispanic black population had the highest age-adjusted death rates for each of these five cancers, followed by non-Hispanic white and Hispanic groups. The age-adjusted death rate for lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer death in all groups, was 42.1 per 100,000 standard population for the total population, 45.4 for non-Hispanic white, 45.7 for non-Hispanic black, and 18.3 for Hispanic populations. PMID:27632152

  6. Cognitive Preferences and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, William J.; O'Donnell, Teresa Flores

    This document reports on a study into the relationships between cognitive preferences, achievement, and ethnicity of first year algebra students. The sample consisted of 175 students from two high schools in the Denver (Colorado) metropolitan area. The two schools were chosen because of the diversity of ethnic groups in the student populations.…

  7. Ethnic Dimensions of Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Femminella, Francis X.

    The relationship between ethnic heritage and citizenship is explored in this paper. The author develops his analysis in four chapters. Chapter I examines levels of identity through which all individuals progress as they mature. These include identification with oneself, one's family, the extended family and ethnic group, the nation, and the world…

  8. Ethnic Studies Bulletins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut Univ., Storrs. World Education Project.

    These six bulletins contain teaching suggestions for ethnic, global, and multicultural programs. "Doing Family and Local History in Ethnic Studies" lists Connecticut organizations concerned with family and local history, suggests six steps for implementing a family or local history project, provides a checklist for obtaining data, and includes a…

  9. Acceptability, Precision and Accuracy of 3D Photonic Scanning for Measurement of Body Shape in a Multi-Ethnic Sample of Children Aged 5-11 Years: The SLIC Study

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jonathan C. K.; Stocks, Janet; Bonner, Rachel; Raywood, Emma; Legg, Sarah; Lee, Simon; Treleaven, Philip; Lum, Sooky

    2015-01-01

    Background Information on body size and shape is used to interpret many aspects of physiology, including nutritional status, cardio-metabolic risk and lung function. Such data have traditionally been obtained through manual anthropometry, which becomes time-consuming when many measurements are required. 3D photonic scanning (3D-PS) of body surface topography represents an alternative digital technique, previously applied successfully in large studies of adults. The acceptability, precision and accuracy of 3D-PS in young children have not been assessed. Methods We attempted to obtain data on girth, width and depth of the chest and waist, and girth of the knee and calf, manually and by 3D-PS in a multi-ethnic sample of 1484 children aged 5–11 years. The rate of 3D-PS success, and reasons for failure, were documented. Precision and accuracy of 3D-PS were assessed relative to manual measurements using the methods of Bland and Altman. Results Manual measurements were successful in all cases. Although 97.4% of children agreed to undergo 3D-PS, successful scans were only obtained in 70.7% of these. Unsuccessful scans were primarily due to body movement, or inability of the software to extract shape outputs. The odds of scan failure, and the underlying reason, differed by age, size and ethnicity. 3D-PS measurements tended to be greater than those obtained manually (p<0.05), however ranking consistency was high (r2>0.90 for most outcomes). Conclusions 3D-PS is acceptable in children aged ≥5 years, though with current hardware/software, and body movement artefacts, approximately one third of scans may be unsuccessful. The technique had poorer technical success than manual measurements, and had poorer precision when the measurements were viable. Compared to manual measurements, 3D-PS showed modest average biases but acceptable limits of agreement for large surveys, and little evidence that bias varied substantially with size. Most of the issues we identified could be

  10. Ethnic variation in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Coussens, Anna K; Wilkinson, Robert J; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Elkington, Paul T; Hanifa, Yasmeen; Islam, Kamrul; Timms, Peter M; Bothamley, Graham H; Claxton, Alleyna P; Packe, Geoffrey E; Darmalingam, Mathina; Davidson, Robert N; Milburn, Heather J; Baker, Lucy V; Barker, Richard D; Drobniewski, Francis A; Mein, Charles A; Bhaw-Rosun, Leena; Nuamah, Rosamond A; Griffiths, Christopher J; Martineau, Adrian R

    2013-01-01

    Distinct phylogenetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cause disease in patients of particular genetic ancestry, and elicit different patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion when cultured with human macrophages in vitro. Circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of these inflammatory mediators might therefore be expected to vary significantly between tuberculosis patients of different ethnic origin. Studies to characterise such variation, and to determine whether it relates to host or bacillary factors, have not been conducted. We therefore compared circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of 43 inflammatory mediators and 14 haematological parameters (inflammatory profile) in 45 pulmonary tuberculosis patients of African ancestry vs. 83 patients of Eurasian ancestry in London, UK, and investigated the influence of bacillary and host genotype on these profiles. Despite having similar demographic and clinical characteristics, patients of differing ancestry exhibited distinct inflammatory profiles at presentation: those of African ancestry had lower neutrophil counts, lower serum concentrations of CCL2, CCL11 and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) but higher serum CCL5 concentrations and higher antigen-stimulated IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-12 secretion. These differences associated with ethnic variation in host DBP genotype, but not with ethnic variation in MTB strain. Ethnic differences in inflammatory profile became more marked following initiation of antimicrobial therapy, and immunological correlates of speed of elimination of MTB from the sputum differed between patients of African vs. Eurasian ancestry. Our study demonstrates a hitherto unappreciated degree of ethnic heterogeneity in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis patients that associates primarily with ethnic variation in host, rather than bacillary, genotype. Candidate immunodiagnostics and immunological biomarkers of response to antimicrobial therapy should be derived

  11. Negotiating Ethnic Identity in Canada: The Case of the "Satellite Children."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsang, A. Ka Tat; Irving, Howard; Alaggia, Ramona; Chau, Shirley B. Y.; Benjamin, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Examined the concept of ethnic identity through the experience of Canada's satellite children (children of ethnically Chinese immigrants to North America who have returned to their country of origin after immigration). Interviews with 68 adolescent satellite children highlighted multiple ways of ethnic negotiation, ranging from an essentialist…

  12. The Ethnic Queue in the U.S.: The Case of the Puerto Ricans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Clara

    What effects will racial and ethnic discrimination have on Puerto Ricans? Will Puerto Ricans go the route of previous immigrant groups? Or will they be like blacks? What bearings does all this have on other ethnic groups? On blacks? The examination of the historical context begins with a discussion of the origins of ethnic and racial prejudice in…

  13. Country of origin, age at migration and risk of cutaneous melanoma: a migrant cohort study of 1,100,000 Israeli men.

    PubMed

    Levine, Hagai; Afek, Arnon; Shamiss, Ari; Derazne, Estela; Tzur, Dorit; Astman, Nadav; Keinan-Boker, Lital; Mimouni, Daniel; Kark, Jeremy D

    2013-07-15

    Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is a common cancer with increasing incidence in many parts of the world where light-skinned populations live. We conducted a large-scale nationally representative migrant cohort study to assess country of origin and age at migration as predictors of CM, controlling for possible confounders. Data on 1,086,569 Israeli Jewish males, who underwent a general health examination before compulsory military service at ages 16-19 between the years 1967-2005, were linked to Israel National Cancer Registry to obtain incident CM up to 2006. Cox proportional hazards was used to model time to event. Overall, 1562 incident cases were detected during 19.3 million person-years of follow-up. Origin was a strong independent predictor of CM. Incidence was higher for European (hazard ratio [HR] = 4.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.55-4.67) and Israeli origin (HR = 2.92, 95% CI: 2.25-3.79) compared to N. African/Asian origin, adjusted for year of birth, years of education, residential socio-economic position, rural residence and body surface area (or height). Among those of European origin, the adjusted risk was significantly lower for those who immigrated after the age of 10 years (HR = 0.58, 95% CI: 0.45-0.73) but not for younger ages (HR = 1.02, 95% CI 0.84-1.23) compared to Israeli born. The high rates of CM among men of European origin and the almost twofold lower risk among those immigrating after age 10 provide solid support for the deleterious role of childhood sun exposure as a risk factor for melanoma. These findings will serve in directing public health and research efforts.

  14. Towards the Theory of the Age, Origin and Demise of the Universe - A Geochemical/Isotopic Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargi, S. P.

    2005-12-01

    Both the Big Bang and Unified Field theories are derived from Einstein's well known theory of Relativity. The former only describes how the Universe was created, that is by the explosion of an extremely condensed state of energy, the Singular State. It provides no information regarding the time of its creation. The latter shows that progressively heavier matter is continually created in space-time from structured nothingness. However, Hubble later showed a strong correlation between the relative distantance of the galaxies and their receding velocity. As the array formed by this relation passes through the point of origin, it was readily accepted as the physical evidence for the Big Bang theory. Based on this relation at that time, the age of the Universe was estimated to be less than 4 Gyrs. The upper age limit of formation (TM ) of any radioactive isotope by nucleosynthesis can be determined, provided no daughter isotopes were formed at that time, from the equation: N = NA × e(-λTM); where NA is the total number of parent nuclides formed, N is the number of present-day parent nuclides, and λ is the decay constant. The above equation yields the TM age of 155, 196, 17.68, 5.56, and 7.16 Gyrs for 87Rb, 147Sm, 232Th, 235U, 238U respectively. For these elements to form at any time later than their respective TM, part of their daughter isotopes also have to be formed by nucleosynthesis. For example, if 232Th were to form about seven Gyrs ago, it would require that 85% of 208Pb/204Pb be formed by nucleosynthesis. Thus the three isotopes 232Th, 235U, and 238U, no matter when they form between 17.68 and 4.55 Gyrs ago; they all violate the Unified Field theory, either because of the formation of 208Pb before 206Pb and 207Pb, or the formation of 238U before 235U. The time of total decay (TD) for any radioactive isotope cannot be determined by using the radioactivity equation. One possible way is to estimate the TD age by extrapolating the bulk Earth parent atomic

  15. The multigroup ethnic identity measure-revised: measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan D; Unger Hu, Kirsten A; Mevi, Ashley A; Hedderson, Monique M; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2014-01-01

    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one's ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined (a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R, including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and (b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the "Gestational diabetes' Effect on Moms" diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age = 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated 2-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the 2 MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups.

  16. The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised: Measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Susan D.; Unger Hu, Kirsten A.; Mevi, Ashley A.; Hedderson, Monique M.; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2014-01-01

    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one’s ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the “Gestational diabetes’ Effect on Moms” diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated two-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the two MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups. PMID:24188656

  17. Sexual Identity Development among Ethnic Sexual-Minority Male Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Eric M.; Savin-Williams, Ritch C.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored how ethnicity influenced sexual identity development in 139 sexual-minority males. Findings demonstrated that participants, regardless of ethnicity, experienced most identity milestones at developmentally appropriate ages, had moderately low internalized homophobia, and became romantically and sexually involved with other males…

  18. Racial-Ethnic Identity and Adjustment in Canadian Indigenous Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gfellner, Barbara M.; Armstrong, Helen D.

    2013-01-01

    This study supported associations between three theoretically driven conceptualizations of racial and ethnic identity (REI; Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure; Multidimensional Racial Identity Measure; Bicultural Identity Measure) and with adaptive functioning among Canadian indigenous adolescents in middle school to high school. Age differences…

  19. Ethnic Diversity and the Potential for Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medora, Nilufer P.; And Others

    This study compared the potential for child abuse among three ethnic groups, when age, educational attainment, and marital status were controlled for in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income mothers residing in a large metropolitan area. Participants (n=195) were between 15 and 45 years and were enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children…

  20. Hispanic ethnicity, race and blood donation in the United States.

    PubMed

    Gillum, F; Eder, A F; McLaurin-Jones, T L

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the hypothesis that blood donation rates vary with Hispanic ethnicity (family origin in Spanish-speaking countries) in addition to race in the United States. Lower blood donation rates have been reported among African Americans (AAs) compared with non-Hispanic European Americans (EAs). Adequate published reports on donation rates are not available for Hispanic Americans (HAs). Using data from a 2002 national survey, which included 4923 men and 7600 women aged 15-44 years with complete data, we tested the hypothesis using weighted bivariate and multivariate statistics. Among men aged 25-44 years, the percentage [95% confidence limits (95% CL)] with a history of blood donation since 1985 was similar at ages 25-34 years (46%, 42-49) and 35-44 years (41%, 37-45). It was highest in non-Hispanic EA (49%, 45-52%), intermediate in AA (35%, 30-40%) and lowest in HA (30%, 25-36%) (P < 0.001). Other variables significantly (P < 0.01) associated with history of blood donation in bivariate analyses were nativity (United States/other), education (<12/>or=12 years), poverty (<200%/>or=200% poverty limit) and married (yes/no). Variables that are not significantly associated were age, metropolitan residence (yes/no), receipt of public assistance (yes/no), current labour-force participation (yes/no) and religion raised. Compared with non-Hispanic EA, the adjusted odds ratios were essentially the same for Hispanics 0.66 (95% CL 0.47-0.92) and AAs 0.64 (95% CL 0.49-0.84). Only 34% of women had donated blood, but the association with race/ethnicity was similar. Similar patterns were also seen at ages 15-24 years. HAs and AAs have similar low blood donation rates compared with non-Hispanic EAs. The difference is not explained by sociodemographic variables.

  1. The Everyday Implications of Ethnic-Racial Identity Processes: Exploring Variability in Ethnic-Racial Identity Salience Across Situations.

    PubMed

    Douglass, Sara; Wang, Yijie; Yip, Tiffany

    2016-07-01

    Given the social and developmental relevance of ethnicity-race during adolescence, it is important to understand the meaning of ethnic-racial identity in adolescents' everyday lives. The current study considered how individual differences in ethnic-racial identity exploration (i.e., the extent to which individuals have explored their ethnicity-race), and commitment (i.e., the extent which they have a clear sense of what it means to them) influenced variability versus stability in the awareness of ethnicity-race in a given situation (i.e., salience), and how this variability is related to mood in that situation. Within an ethnic/racially diverse sample of 395 adolescents (M age = 15; 63 % female; 12 % Black, 26 % Latino, 34 % Asian, 23 % White), results indicated that ethnic-racial identity exploration was unrelated to variability in salience, while commitment promoted stability in salience across situations. Further, among adolescents who were generally very aware of their ethnicity-race, increases in situational salience were related to decreased negative and anxious mood. Among adolescents who were generally not aware of their ethnicity-race, increases in situational salience were related to increased positive and decreased negative mood. Implications for understanding the developmental and everyday experiences of ethnic-racial identity are discussed. PMID:26662047

  2. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae. PMID:26370652

  3. Ethnic hair disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Scott F; Tosti, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The management of hair and scalp conditions is difficult in any patient, especially given the emotional and psychological implications of hair loss. This undertaking becomes even more challenging in the ethnic patient. Differences in hair care practices, hair shaft morphology, and follicular architecture add complexity to the task. It is imperative that the physician be knowledgeable about these practices and the phenotypic differences seen in ethnic hair in order to appropriately diagnose and treat these patients. In this chapter, we will discuss cultural practices and morphologic differences and explain how these relate to the specific disorders seen in ethnic populations. We will also review the most prominent of the ethnic hair conditions including acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, pseudofolliculitis barbae, dissecting cellulitis, and acne keloidalis nuchae.

  4. A Fever of Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Robert

    1972-01-01

    Reviews two new books that argue for the political implementation of cultural pluralism in the United States: Peter Schrag's The Decline of the Wasp," and Michael Novak's The Rise of the Unmeltable Ethnics." (Author/JM)

  5. HPV-Associated Oropharyngeal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ethnicity, and Sex, United States, 2008–2012 The graph above shows age-adjusted incidence rates for HPV- ... were diagnosed with HPV-associated oropharyngeal cancer. This graph was adapted from Viens LJ, Henley SJ, Watson ...

  6. Effect of multiple-micronutrient supplementation on maternal nutrient status, infant birth weight and gestational age at birth in a low-income, multi-ethnic population.

    PubMed

    Brough, Louise; Rees, Gail A; Crawford, Michael A; Morton, R Hugh; Dorman, Edgar K

    2010-08-01

    Poor nutrient intake during pregnancy can adversely affect both infant and maternal health. The aim was to investigate the efficacy of multiple-micronutrient supplementation during pregnancy in a socially deprived population in the developed world. We conducted a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of multiple-micronutrient supplementation including 20 mg Fe and 400 microg folic acid, from the first trimester of pregnancy in 402 mothers, in East London, UK. Nutrient status was measured at recruitment, and at 26 and 34 weeks of gestation. Infants were weighed at birth. At recruitment the prevalence of anaemia was 13 %, vitamin D insufficiency 72 %, thiamin deficiency 12 % and folate deficiency 5 %, with no differences between groups. Only 39 % of women completed the study; rates of non-compliance were similar in both groups. Intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants receiving treatment had higher mean Hb at 26 weeks of gestation (110 (sd 10) v.108 (sd 10) g/l; P = 0.041) and 34 weeks of gestation (113 (sd 12) v.109 (sd 10) g/l; P = 0.003) and packed cell volume concentrations at 26 weeks of gestation (0.330 (sd 0.025) v. 0.323 (sd 0.026) l/l; P = 0.011) and 34 weeks of gestation (0.338 (sd 0.029) v. 0.330 (sd 0.028) l/l; P = 0.014) compared with controls. Analysis of compliant women showed supplemented women had higher median concentrations of serum ferritin, erythrocyte folate and 25-hydroxyvitamin D later in gestation than controls. In the compliant subset (n 149), placebo mothers had more small-for-gestational age (SGA) infants (eight SGA v. thirteen; P = 0.042) than treatment mothers. Baseline micronutrient deficiencies were common; the multiple-micronutrient supplement was well-tolerated and improved nutrient status. Multiple-micronutrient supplements from early pregnancy may be beneficial and larger studies are required to assess impact on birth outcomes and infant development.

  7. Status homogamy in the preindustrial marriage market: partner selection according to age, social origin, and place of birth in nineteenth-century rural Sweden.

    PubMed

    Dribe, Martin; Lundh, Christer

    2009-10-01

    This article studies partner selection according to three dimensions: social origin, age, and place of birth. The authors use micro-level data from local population registers in five parishes in southern Sweden from 1815 to 1895. The results confirm that all three aspects were important but that socioeconomic status was the most important characteristic, structuring much of the selection process. The importance of social and age homogamy remained stable over the period, while geographic exogamy became more frequent, which could be interpreted in terms of an increasing openness of rural society. The authors also find some indications of exchange of characteristics in the partner selection process.

  8. Mineralogy and Ar-Ar Age of the Tarahumara IIE Iron, with Reference to the Origin of Alkali-Rich Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takeda, Hiroshi; Bogard, Donald D.; Otsuki, Mayumi; Ishii, Teruaki

    2003-01-01

    Silicate inclusions in nine known IIE irons show diversity in mineralogy, and Colomera, Kodaikanal, Elga and Miles contain alkali-rich silicate inclusions. Bogard et al. showed evidence of a complex parent body evolution for IIE irons based on Ar-39-Ar-40 ages. Colomera contained a sanidine-rich surface inclusion and the K-enrichment trends in the Na-rich inclusions are different from those of other IIEs. To elucidate the origin of K-rich materials, we studied the mineralogy and Ar-Ar age of silicate inclusions from the Tarahumara IIE iron meteorite.

  9. Changing Literacies, Changing Populations, Changing Places--English Teachers' Work in an Age of Rampant Standardisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comber, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    School-age populations in many nations are becoming increasingly diverse (in terms of languages, countries of origin, ethnicity, faith traditions and so on) especially in low socio-economic communities where recent arrivals tend to be accommodated. In Australian classrooms, it is not unusual for a single classroom to include children who speak…

  10. Age and origin of anorthosites, charnockites, and granulites in the Central Virginia Blue Ridge: Nd and Sr isotopic evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pettingill, H.S.; Sinha, A.K.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1984-01-01

    Rb-Sr isotopic data for anorthosites, charnockites, ferrodioritic to quartz monzonitic plutons, and high-grade gneisses of the Blue Ridge of central Virginia show evidence of post-emplacement metamorphism, but in some cases retain Grenville ages. The Pedlar River Charnockite Suite yields an isochron age of 1021 +/-36 Ma, (initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7047 +/-6), which agrees with published U-Pb zircon ages. Five samples of that unit which contain Paleozoic mylonitic fabrics define a regression line of 683 Ma, interpreted as a mixing line with no age significance. Samples of the Roseland Anorthosite Complex show excessive scatter on a Rb-Sr evolution diagram probably due to Paleozoic (475 m.y.) metamorphism. Data from the ferrodioritic to quartz monzonitic plutons of the area yield an age of 1009 +/-26 Ma (inital ratio=0.7058 +/-4), which is in the range of the U-Pb zircon ages of 1000-1100 Ma. The Stage Road Layered Gneiss yields an age of 1147 +/-34 Ma (initial ratio of 0.7047 +/- 5). Sm-Nd data for the Pedlar River Charnockite Suite reflect a pre-Grenville age of 1489 +/-118 Ma (e{open}Nd=+6.7 +/-1.2). Data for the Roseland Anorthosite Complex and the ferrodioritic to quartz monzonitic plutons yield Grenville isochron ages of 1045 +/44 Ma (e{open}Nd=+1.0 +/-0.3) and 1027 +/-101 Ma (e{open}Nd=+1.4 +/-1.0), respectively. Two Roseland Anorthosite samples plot far above the isochron, demonstrating the effects of post-emplacement disturbance of Sm-Nd systematics, while mylonitized Pedlar River Charnockite Suite samples show no evidence of Sm-Nd redistribution. The disparity of the Sm-Nd age and other isotopic ages for the Pedlar River Charnockite Suite probably reflects a Sm-Nd "source" age, suggesting the presence of an older crust within this portion of the ca. 1 Ga old basement. ?? 1984 Springer-Verlag.

  11. Ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and overweight in Asian American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cook, Won Kim; Tseng, Winston; Bautista, Roxanna; John, Iyanrick

    2016-12-01

    Asian American children and adolescents are an under-investigated subpopulation in obesity research. This study aimed to identify specific profiles of Asian subgroups at high risk of adolescent overweight with special attention to Asian ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), and their interaction. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted using a sample of 1533 Asian American adolescents ages 12-17 from the 2007-2012 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). In addition to Asian ethnicity and socioeconomic status (assessed by family income and parental education level), age, gender, nativity, and two lifestyle variables, fast food consumption and physical activity, were also controlled for in these models. Key predictors of overweight in Asian American adolescents included certain Asian ethnicities (Southeast Asian, Filipino, and mixed ethnicities), low family income (< 300% of the Federal Poverty Level), and being male. Multiplicative interaction terms between low family income and two ethnicities, Southeast Asian and Vietnamese that had the lowest SES among Asian ethnic groups, were significantly associated with greatly elevated odds of being overweight (ORs = 12.90 and 6.67, respectively). These findings suggest that high risk of overweight in Asian American adolescents associated with low family incomes may be further elevated for those in low-income ethnic groups. Future research might investigate ethnic-group SES as a meaningful indicator of community-level socioeconomic disparities that influence the health of Asian Americans. PMID:27413687

  12. Ethnic group and alcohol consumption: the case of 15-16-year-olds in Leicestershire.

    PubMed

    Denscombe, M

    1995-03-01

    In recent years a number of research projects have reported on the level of alcohol use by young people. The research to date, however, has tended to overlook the ethnic origins of the young people as a factor associated with the level of alcohol use. Against this background, this paper reports findings on the use of alcohol by 15-16-year-olds in Leicestershire with specific reference to ethnic group. A survey of over 1000 young people revealed significant differences between ethnic groups in terms of their attitudes to alcohol consumption and the frequency of alcohol consumption. As expected, South Asians tended to hold less favourable attitudes to drinking alcohol than their White counterparts and reported a far lower frequency of alcohol consumption. The extent of the divergence between the two ethnic groups is detailed, revealing a stark contrast between the groups at age 15-16 years. Attitudes to alcohol consumption and reported frequency of alcohol consumption were also analysed in relation to the religion of the respondents. This analysis was undertaken to see if there were differences within the broader ethnic groups which would be disguised by aggregating the results under the headings of 'South Asian' and 'White'. Within the South Asian group, some differences in attitudes to the consumption of alcohol were found between Hindus, Sikhs and Muslims, with the Muslims exhibiting particular sensitivity to their religion's proscription of drinking alcohol. Despite this, the reported level of drinking by the Hindus and Sikhs was not much greater than that of the Muslims. The three groups tended to have a similar frequency of alcohol consumption which was markedly lower than that reported by the White 15-16-year-olds. The findings from the DART research have certain substantive and certain methodological implications in relation to epidemiological studies of alcohol consumption. Substantively, the findings reinforce the need to include ethnic group as a key

  13. A reversal of age-dependent proliferative capacity of endothelial progenitor cells from different species origin in in vitro condition

    PubMed Central

    Hassanpour, Mehdi; Cheraghi, Omid; Siavashi, Vahid; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Nouri, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: A large number of cardiovascular disorders and abnormalities, notably accelerated vascular deficiencies could be related to aging changes and increased length of life. During the past decades, the discovery of different stem cells facilitates ongoing attempts for attenuating many disorders, especially in vascular beds. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are a subtype of stem cells that have potent capacity to differentiate into mature endothelial cells (ECs). However, some documented studies reported an age-related decline in proliferation and function of many stem cells. There is no data on aging effect upon proliferation and morphological feature of EPCs. Methods: To show aging effect on EPCs proliferation and multipotentiality, bone marrow samples were provided from old and young cases in three different species; human, mouse and dog. After 7 days of culture, the cell morphology and clonogenic capacity were evaluated. We also calculated the mean number of colonies both in bone marrow samples from old and young subjects. To confirm the cell phenotype, isolated cells were immune-phenotyped by a panel of antibodies against Tie-2, CD133 and CD309 markers. Results: Our results showed that EPCs exhibited prominent spindle form in all bone marrow samples from young cases while the cell shape became more round by aging. Notably, the number of colonies was reduced in aged samples as compared to parallel young subject samples (P < 0.05). We also detected that the expression of endothelial related markers diminished by aging. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that the age-related vascular abnormalities could be presumably related to the decline in stemness capacity of EPCs. PMID:27777694

  14. Cancer in minority ethnic populations: priorities from epidemiological data.

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, R. S.; Rankin, J.

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to review the literature on the frequency of cancers to develop priorities for cancer policy, prevention, services and research for black and minority ethnic populations in Britain. Data on populations originating in the Indian sub-continent, and Caribbean and African Commonwealth were extracted from published works. Cancers were ranked (top seven) on the basis of the number of cases, actual frequency, and also on relative frequency (SMR, SRR, PMR). Cancer was found to be a common cause of death. For example, during 1979-83 the proportion of deaths resulting from neoplasms in immigrants living in England and Wales was 11% for Indian and African men aged 20-49, and 19% for Caribbeans. The corresponding proportions were higher among women. The pattern of cancer depended on the method used to assess rankings. On the basis of the number of cases the top 3 ranking cancers for adults were breast, long and neoplasms of the lymphatic system. Based on SMR's cancer of the gallbladder, liver and oral cavity ranked amongst the top 3 for adults. For children the top ranking cancers were acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, central nervous system tumours and neuroblastoma. Variations by ethnic group were more evident in the rankings of relative frequency than in rankings based on numbers of cases. In conclusion, the most common and preventable cancers among minority ethnic populations were the same as those for the general population. The different cancer pattern based on SMRs highlight additional needs and provide potential models for research into understanding the causes of these cancers. Health services policy and practice should ensure that the common and preventable cancers take priority over rare cancers and those for which there is no effective treatment or prevention. Priorities for policy, prevention, clinical care and research should be set separately, for they differ. PMID:8782795

  15. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development. PMID:26142190

  16. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  17. Comparison of information on death certificates and matching 1960 census records: age, marital status, race, nativity and country of origin.

    PubMed

    Hambright, T Z

    1969-11-01

    A sample of death certificates matched with 1960 Census records permitted comparison of response data for items asked on both records. Estimates of bias in death rates which are based on information from the two records are derived from the comparison data. Most of the comparisons yielded small discrepancies of inconsequential effect on the mortality rates. Some large inconsistencies, however, of potentially serious impact on the death rates were observed. The comparisons are examined and the implications of the results for the relevant mortality rates are discussed. In addition, age-specific death rates "corrected" for the disparities found in the age information on the two records are presented.

  18. 14C age of the "Museum Breccia" (Campi Flegrei) and its relevance for the origin of the Campanian Ignimbrite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lirer, L.; Rolandi, G.; Rubin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Field stratigraphic investigations and AMS 14C dating of carbon particles in paleosols has resulted in a framework of the sequence and age of the pyroclastic products in the Campi Flegrei area of Southern Italy. The Museum Breccia cannot be the early phase of the Campanian Ignimbrite, as was previously believed, but is from a smaller and later eruption with an age of approximately 17,900 y B.P. This date also precludes its correlation with the Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (12,000 y B.P.). ?? 1991.

  19. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterization of wines from four Spanish denominations of origin, aged in Spanish Rebollo (Quercus pyrenaica Willd.) oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam; Poveda, Pilar; Perez-Magariño, Silvia; Ortega-Heras, Miriam; González-Huerta, Carlos

    2008-10-01

    The evolution of almost 40 oak-related volatile compounds and the sensorial characteristics of red wines from four Spanish denominations of origin (DOs) (Bierzo, Toro, Ribera de Duero, and Rioja) during aging in barrels made of Rebollo oak wood, Quercus pyrenaica, were studied and compared to the same wines aged in American and French oak barrels. Each oak wood added unique and special characteristics to the wine, and in addition, each wine showed a different ability to extract the compounds, which result in these characteristics from the oak wood. In general, wines aged in Q. pyrenaica wood were characterized by high levels of eugenol, guaiacol, and other volatile phenols. In regards to compounds like cis-whiskylactone or maltol, the behavior of this wood is very similar to that of American oaks. When considering phenolic aldehydes and ketones, the levels of these compounds are intermediate between those of French and American woods and depend greatly on the type of wine. The type of oak, on the other hand, does not affect the chromatic characteristics of the wines. In sensory analysis, the biggest differences are found in the olfactory phase. Among the four DOs studied, wine aged in Q. pyrenaica presented the highest notes of wood, with more aromas of roasting, toasting, milky coffee, spices, or wine-wood interactions. The wines aged in barrels made of Q. pyrenaica wood were highly regarded, and preference was shown for them over those same wines when they had been aged in barrels of American or French oak.

  20. Ethnic identity and the academic adjustment of adolescents from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Witkow, Melissa; Garcia, Carla

    2005-09-01

    The association of adolescents' ethnic identification with their academic attitudes and achievement was examined among a sample of 589 ninth-grade students from Mexican, Chinese, and European backgrounds. Adolescents from all backgrounds chose a variety of ethnic labels to describe themselves, with those from Mexican, Chinese, and immigrant families incorporating more of their families' national origin and cultural background into their chosen ethnic labels. Nevertheless, the strength of adolescents' ethnic identification was more relevant to their academic adjustment than the specific labels that they chose, and it was most important for the extra motivation necessary for ethnic minority students to attain the same level of academic success as their European American peers.

  1. Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project--Ethnicity Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjervold, Christian K.; And Others

    The student booklet presents short case studies illustrating the ethnicity unit of the Minneapolis Multi-Ethnic Curriculum Project for secondary schools. Twelve brief chapters describe various aspects of the life, values, behavior, education, culture, and religious ceremonies and feelings of different ethnic groups in the United States. They…

  2. Hair and scalp disorders in ethnic populations.

    PubMed

    Rodney, Ife J; Onwudiwe, Oge C; Callender, Valerie D; Halder, Rebat M

    2013-04-01

    Human hair has been classified into 3 major groups, as determined by ethnic origin. In these populations, significant structural and biochemical variations of the hair follicle and shaft are seen, as well as unique hair grooming practices. These structural variations of the hair are closely linked to the common disorders of the hair and scalp, such as acquired trichorrhexis nodosa, seborrheic dermatitis, traction alopecia, central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, dissecting cellulitis, frontal fibrosing alopecia, and pseudofolliculitis barbae. PMID:23652889

  3. The company they keep and avoid: social goal orientation as a predictor of children's ethnic segregation.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Travis M; Rodkin, Philip C; Ryan, Allison M

    2014-04-01

    This study examined whether social goal orientation (i.e., demonstration-approach, demonstration-avoid, and social development goals) predicts changes in ethnic segregation among 4th and 5th grade African American and European American children (n = 713, ages 9-11 years) from fall to spring. Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in friendships, (b) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer group affiliations, and (c) cross-ethnicity dislike. Social goal orientation was asymmetrically associated with ethnic segregation for the 2 groups. Among African Americans, aspiring to achieve high social status predicted increases in same-ethnicity favoritism and cross-ethnicity dislike. Among European Americans, aspiring to achieve high social status predicted decreases in same-ethnicity favoritism.

  4. Plastic Surgery for Ethnic Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... Briefing Papers > Plastic Surgery for Ethnic Patients Briefing Paper: Plastic Surgery for Ethnic Patients More than 3. ... 2067-2071. Share Related Links Plastic Surgery Briefing Papers Menu Cosmetic Reconstructive Patient Safety Before & After Find ...

  5. Mean values of Arnett's soft tissue analysis in Maratha ethnic (Indian) population — A cephalometric study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shikha; Deshmukh, Sonali; Merani, Varsha; Rejintal, Neeta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article is to evaluate the mean cephalometric values for Arnett's soft tissue analysis in the Maratha ethnic (Indian) population. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalograms of 60 patients (30 males and 30 females) aged 18–26 years were obtained with the patients in the Natural Head Position (NHP), with teeth in maximum intercuspation and lips in the rest position. Moreover, hand tracings were also done. The statistical analysis was performed with the help of a statistical software, the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16, and Microsoft word and Excel (Microsoft office 2007) were used to generate the analytical data. Results: Statistical significance was tested atP level (1% and 5% level of significance). Statistical analysis using student's unpaired t-test were performed. Various cephalometric values for the Maratha ethnic (Indian) population differed from Caucasian cephalometric values such as nasolabial inclination, incisor proclination, and exposure, which may affect the outcome of the orthodontic and orthognathic treatment. Conclusion: Marathas have more proclined maxillary incisors, less prominent chin, less facial length, acute nasolabial angle, and all soft tissue thickness are greater in Marathas except lower lip thickness (in Maratha males and females) and upper lip angle (in Maratha males) than those of the Caucasian population. It is a fact that all different ethnic races have different facial characters. The variability of the soft tissue integument in people with different ethnic origin makes it necessary to study the soft tissue standards of a particular community and consider those norms when planning an orthodontic and orthognathic treatment for particular racial and ethnic patients. PMID:27583221

  6. On the origin and tectonic significance of the intra-plate events of Grenvillian-type age in South America: A discussion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordani, Umberto G.; Fraga, Leda Maria; Reis, Nelson; Tassinari, Colombo C. G.; Brito-Neves, Benjamim B.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to examine the available evidence of intra-plate tectonic episodes of "Grenvillian-type age", affecting the South-American continent, assessing their possible causal correlation with the tectonic processes occurring within the orogenic belts active at their margins. For the Amazonian Craton, the active margin is represented by the Rondonian-San Ignacio and Sunsas belts. However, active margins of similar age are not recognized for the São Francisco and the Rio de La Plata Cratons, and the intra-plate events over them could be reflections of the Kibaran, Irumide or Namaqua orogenic collisions in Africa. Grenvillian-type age events over the Amazonian Craton can be described in four different aspects: shearing and tectonic reactivation along zones of weakness, cratogenic granitic magmatism, alkaline ring complexes, and pervasive regional heating in some localized regions. The first of them may reflect the compressional stresses at active margins, however the others may have different origins. Within the type-region of the K'Mudku tectono thermal episode, mylonites and pseudotachylites cut across the regional granitoid and metamorphic rocks. These shear belts developed under low-to-moderate temperature conditions, that induced resetting of K-Ar and Rb-Sr mineral ages. In the São Francisco Craton, extensional and compressional events of Grenvillian-type age are well registered by the structural features exhibited by the sedimentary rocks of the Espinhaço Supergroup. For example, in Bahia state, an Appalachian-style structure is observed, with large synclines and anticlines extending along hundreds of kilometers. The major difference between the Amazonian and the Congo-São Francisco Cratons is related to heat originated from the Earth's interior. Amazonia exhibits very large areas heated up to 350-400 °C, where the K'Mudku thermo-tectonic episodes were detected. In addition, Amazonia comprises a large amount of cratogenic granitic

  7. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development.

  8. Association between Self-Rated Health and the Ethnic Composition of the Residential Environment of Six Ethnic Groups in Amsterdam

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuizen, Eleonore M.; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. Methods: We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50–1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Results: Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. Conclusions: In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations. PMID:26569282

  9. Caregiving and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glicksman, Allen

    This research examined the relationship between ethnicity and the psychological status and behavior of Jewish and non-Jewish caregivers in relation to the impaired elderly. It was hypothesized that Jewish caregivers would make significantly more use of formal services than non-Jewish (usually Christian) caregivers. Two separate data sets were…

  10. Ethnicity in Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Bear, Ray; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Poets Ray Young Bear (Mesquakie), James Mitsui (Japanese American), James McAuley (Irish-American), Alex Kuo (Chinese-America) and Elizabeth Cook-Lynn (Sioux) participated in this forum on the legacy of culture and the creative process. Genres, culture, and definitions of ethnicity were discussed; and an audience participation question-and-answer…

  11. Ethnic and gender divisions in the work force of Russia.

    PubMed

    Sacks, M P

    1995-01-01

    Like the former Soviet Union, Russia is home to many ethnic groups. The Russian Federal Treaty of March 1992 was signed by 18 ethnically-based republics and 17 non-Russian ethnic districts. Ethnic groups within Russia vary considerably in levels of socioeconomic achievement, with groups having had unequal access to political resources and differing in their ability to take advantage of economic opportunities. The author analyzed newly available occupational data from the 1989 census in his study of ethnic and gender differences in the work force of Russia. Measurements are presented showing differences between the occupations of Russians and the next largest 11 ethnic groups, producing a clear hierarchy of groups. The extent of occupational gender differences within each ethnic group is measured and contrasted with the level of differences between ethnic groups. These data are important for showing potential sources of group conflict and for providing a baseline to measure changing forms of inequality which have been promoted by post-Soviet developments. Preliminary findings point to the existence of highly significant differences between Russia's ethnic groups, with the level of the differences closely paralleling measures of socioeconomic achievement. To determine more precisely the significance of group differences in employment, detailed occupational categories must be examined more closely. Currently available data, however, do not permit more rigorous measurements of discrimination. It is nonetheless clear that ethnicity in contemporary Russia is strongly related to occupational differences. The aggregate segregation of men from women was found to be very stable despite the substantial socioeconomic and cultural differences between ethnic groups. As a group, Jews were found to have extremely high levels of educational and occupational achievement and a comparatively far older age structure.

  12. Ethnic Differences in Arterial Wave Reflection Are Mostly Explained by Differences in Body Height - Cross-Sectional Analysis of the HELIUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Eeftinck Schattenkerk, Daan W.; van Gorp, Jacqueline; Snijder, Marieke B.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Agyemang, Charles O.; Peters, Ron J. G.; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Differences in arterial wave reflection and central blood pressure (BP) have been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) in various populations and may contribute to ethnic differences in CVD. Whether ethnic differences in wave reflection and central BP can be explained by conventional risk factors for CVD or may result from physiological differences remains undetermined. Methods We examined ethnic differences in augmentation index (AIx) and central systolic BP and their determinants in a large multi-ethnic cohort study in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. A total of 8812 (46% male) participants aged 18–70 years of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese and Ghanaian origin were included. AIx and central BP were measured in duplicate using the Arteriograph system. Results AIx and central systolic BP were significantly higher in South-Asian Surinamese (35±17%, 126±22 mmHg), African Surinamese (33±17%, 129±23 mmHg) and Ghanaian (33±16%, 135±24 mmHg) as compared with Dutch (27±17%, 118±20 mmHg, all p<0.001). Correction for cardiovascular risk factors only slightly reduced the difference in AIx, whereas correction for body height attenuated age and gender corrected ethnic differences in AIx the most. Differences in central systolic BP were primarily determined by differences in AIx for South-Asian Surinamese and by differences in peripheral systolic BP for subjects of African origin. Conclusions Substantial differences in AIx and central BP exist across different ethnic groups that cannot be explained by differences in conventional risk factors for CVD. These findings may explain part of the underestimation of cardiovascular risk observed in populations of African and South-Asian descent. PMID:27472397

  13. Ethnic Conflict in Contemporary France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, James E.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the ethnic dimension in French society and politics, proposing to place it within a larger, introductory curriculum in French civilization. Specifically describes the ethnic cleavage in this society and the evolution of the ethnic "idea" in the nation's social and intellectual history since the Revolution. (Author/MES)

  14. Teaching about Ethnicities in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Caryn White

    2010-01-01

    A unit on China's ethnicities provides students rich opportunities to explore multiple themes in the social studies while helping them to develop a deeper understanding of recent events in western China. Studying China's ethnic minorities encompasses such topics as stereotyping, cultural diversity, the creation of ethnic identities, and key…

  15. Ethnicity and Children's TV Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eastman, Harvey A.; Liss, Marsha B.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of California intermediate-grade children revealed that Anglo and Hispanic children showed a strong preference for action/adventure shows, while Black children chose situation comedies at more than twice the rate of the other ethnic groups. Other differences were observed between ethnic groups and between sexes within ethnic groups. (GT)

  16. Ethnic Awareness Through Curriculum Revision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Michael Joseph

    This study compared the attitudes towards ethnic groups of high school students enrolled in a standard U.S. history course with the attitudes of students enrolled in a revised U.S. history course which emphasized ethnic awareness. A review of the literature indicated a need for ethnic awareness. The experimental group consisted of 16 students; the…

  17. Ethnic Studies Materials Analysis Instrument.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Science Education Consortium, Inc., Boulder, CO.

    An instrument for analyzing ethnic studies curriculum materials for grades K-12 is presented. The Social Science Education Consortium (SSEC), Inc. staff designed the analysis instrument to check ethnic accuracy of materials as an aid to classroom teachers who are preparing ethnic studies curriculum. The booklet is divided into two main sections.…

  18. Perceptions of parents' ethnic identities and the personal ethnic-identity and racial attitudes of biracial adults.

    PubMed

    Stepney, Cesalie T; Sanchez, Diana T; Handy, Phillip E

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of perceived parental closeness and parental ethnic identity on personal ethnic identity and colorblindness beliefs in 275 part-White biracial Americans (M age = 23.88). Respondents completed online measures of their personal ethnic identity (minority, White, and multiracial), perceived parental ethnic identity, parental closeness, and attitudes about the state of race relations and the need for social action in the United States. Using path modeling, results show that part-White biracial individuals perceive their ethnic identity to be strongly linked to their parental racial identities, especially when they had closer parental relationships. Moreover, stronger minority identity was linked to less colorblind attitudes, and greater White identity was linked to greater colorblind attitudes suggesting that patterns of identity may influence how biracial individuals view race-relations and the need for social action. Implications for biracial well-being and their understanding of prejudice and discrimination are discussed. PMID:25090151

  19. The rotational origin and state of the whole: its relation to growth, fertility, aging, death, and diseases.

    PubMed

    Pierpaoli, Walter

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of my report is to synthetically summarize the concept of the rotatory essence of the Whole and to bring evidence that while aging responds to a precise inner "program" of the mammalian and any other species' "brain," acceleration of aging and all diseases are simply the direct outcome of a desynchronization of our inner "clock" with respect to the precise periodicity and hormone-integrated rhythmicity of the solar system. Those neuroendocrine, hormonal derangements of our inner clock are easily detectable and inevitably anticipate even by decades the onset of all diseases (autoimmune, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, neoplastic). I will introduce those interventions capable of detecting early alterations and of restoring hormonal rhythmicity, which will consequently restore immunological surveillance in a positive cascade sequence. PMID:16399884

  20. Use of radium isotopes to determine the age and origin of radioactive barite at oil-field production sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Otton, J.K.; Budahn, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    Radium-bearing barite (radiobarite) is a common constituent of scale and sludge deposits that form in oil-field production equipment. The barite forms as a precipitate from radium-bearing, saline formation water that is pumped to the surface along with oil. Radioactivity levels in some oil-field equipment and in soils contaminated by scale and sludge can be sufficiently high to pose a potential health threat. Accurate determinations of radium isotopes (226Ra+228Ra) in soils are required to establish the level of soil contamination and the volume of soil that may exceed regulatory limits for total radium content. In this study the radium isotopic data are used to provide estimates of the age of formation of the radiobarite contaminant. Age estimates require that highly insoluble radiobarite approximates a chemically closed system from the time of its formation. Age estimates are based on the decay of short-lived 228Ra (half-life=5.76 years) compared to 226Ra (half-life=1600 years). Present activity ratios of 228Ra/226Ra in radiobarite-rich scale or highly contaminated soil are compared to initial ratios at the time of radiobarite precipitation. Initial ratios are estimated by measurements of saline water or recent barite precipitates at the site or by considering a range of probable initial ratios based on reported values in modern oil-field brines. At sites that contain two distinct radiobarite sources of different age, the soils containing mixtures of sources can be identified, and mixing proportions quantified using radium concentration and isotopic data. These uses of radium isotope data provide more description of contamination history and can possibly address liability issues. Copyright ?? 2000 .

  1. Occurrence and origin of minerals in a chamosite-bearing coal of Late Permian age, Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Chou, C.-L.

    2007-01-01

    The minerals found in the no.5 coal (Late Permian) from the Zhaotong Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been examined and found to consist mainly of kaolinite, pyrite, chamosite, quartz, and calcite, with trace amounts of illite and mixed-layer illite-smectite. The proportion of chamosite in clay minerals ranges from 32 to 56 wt%, with an average of 46 wt%. Chamosite is distributed not only in collodetrinite, but also occurs as cell fillings in fusinite, semifusinite, and telinite. The high content and mode of occurrence of chamosite in this mine indicate its formation by interaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. Except for a minor amount of terfigenous quartz, most quartz is of authigenic origin and formed from kaolinite desilication. The calcite content of the no. 5 coal is 1.4-6.3% (with an average of 3%) and is distributed in collodetrinite and as cell fillings of coal-forming plants. Calcite originated from seawater invasion during peat accumulation. Pyrite occurs in several ways: as massive, framboidal, isolated enhedral/ anhedral, and euhedral forms. In addition, the presence of a large amount of pyritized red algae provides strong evidence of seawater invasion during peat accumulation. The red algae may have played an important role in the enrichment of sulfur in the coal. The characteristic assemblage of minerals in this mine resulted from a unique basinal environment in which the mineral matter was derived from a basaltic source region, volcanic activity, and seawater transgression during coal formation.

  2. The unexpected outcomes of anti-aging, rejuvenation, and life extension studies: an origin of modern therapies.

    PubMed

    Stambler, Ilia

    2014-06-01

    The search for life-extending interventions has been often perceived as a purely academic pursuit, or as an unorthodox medical enterprise, with little or no practical outcome. Yet, in fact, these studies, explicitly aiming to prolong human life, often constituted a formidable, though hardly ever acknowledged, motivation for biomedical research and discovery. At least several modern biomedical fields have originated directly from rejuvenation and life extension research: (1) Hormone replacement therapy was born in Charles-Edouard Brown-Séquard's rejuvenation experiments with animal gland extracts (1889). (2) Probiotic diets originated in Elie Metchnikoff's conception of radically prolonged "orthobiosis" (c. 1900). (3) The development of clinical endocrinology owed much to Eugen Steinach's "endocrine rejuvenation" operations (c. 1910s-1920s). (4) Tissue transplantations in humans (allografts and xenografts) were first widely performed in Serge Voronoff's "rejuvenation by grafting" experiments (c. 1910s-1920s). (5) Tissue engineering was pioneered during Alexis Carrel's work on cell and tissue immortalization (c. 1900-1920). (6) Cell therapy (and particularly human embryonic cell therapy) was first widely conducted by Paul Niehans for the purposes of rejuvenation as early as the 1930s. Thus, the pursuit of life extension and rejuvenation has constituted an inseparable and crucial element in the history of biomedicine. Notably, the common principle of these studies was the proactive maintenance of stable, long-term homeostasis of the entire organism.

  3. The Relationship between Functional Capacity and Community Responsibilities in Middle-aged and Older Latinos of Mexican Origin with Chronic Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Cardenas, Veronica; Mausbach, Brent T.; Barrio, Concepcion; Bucardo, Jesus; Jeste, Dilip; Patterson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between scores on the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA), a performance-based measure of functional capacity, and level of patient community responsibilities (i.e., work for pay; volunteer work; attend school; household duties) in a Latino sample. Participants were 58 middle-aged and older Latinos of Mexican origin (mean age = 48.8 years) with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We conducted an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age, symptoms of psychosis, and participant language, to determine if greater participation in community responsibilities was associated with higher functional capacity, as measured by the UPSA. Results indicated significant group differences in UPSA scores (F = 5.11, df = 2,51; p = .009), with patients reporting only a single community responsibility having significantly higher UPSA scores than those reporting zero community responsibilities (p = .016) and those reporting two responsibilities scoring significantly higher than those reporting zero community responsibility (p = .008). There were no differences found between those reporting one and those reporting two community responsibilities (p= .256). In contrast, no group differences were observed on the Dementia Rating Scale, a global measure of cognitive functioning (F = 2.14, df = 2,51; p = .128). These results provide initial support for the validity of the UPSA in Latino patients of Mexican origin, and suggest that improvement in functional capacity (i.e., UPSA scores) may be associated with increased capacity for greater community involvement in this population. PMID:17936585

  4. The relationship between functional capacity and community responsibilities in middle-aged and older Latinos of Mexican origin with chronic psychosis.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Veronica; Mausbach, Brent T; Barrio, Concepcion; Bucardo, Jesus; Jeste, Dilip; Patterson, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between scores on the UCSD Performance-based Skills Assessment (UPSA), a performance-based measure of functional capacity, and level of patient community responsibilities (i.e., work for pay; volunteer work; attend school; household duties) in a Latino sample. Participants were 58 middle-aged and older Latinos of Mexican origin (mean age=48.8 years) with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. We conducted an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age, symptoms of psychosis, and participant language, to determine if greater participation in community responsibilities was associated with higher functional capacity, as measured by the UPSA. Results indicated significant group differences in UPSA scores (F=5.11, df=2, 51; p=.009), with patients reporting only a single community responsibility having significantly higher UPSA scores than those reporting zero community responsibilities (p=.016) and those reporting two responsibilities scoring significantly higher than those reporting zero community responsibility (p=.008). There were no differences found between those reporting one and those reporting two community responsibilities (p=.256). In contrast, no group differences were observed on the Dementia Rating Scale, a global measure of cognitive functioning (F=2.14, df=2, 51; p=.128). These results provide initial support for the validity of the UPSA in Latino patients of Mexican origin, and suggest that improvement in functional capacity (i.e., UPSA scores) may be associated with increased capacity for greater community involvement in this population.

  5. Investigating the Relationship between Ethnic Consciousness, Racial Discrimination and Self-Rated Health in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the ‘racial climate’. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  6. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  7. Investigating the relationship between ethnic consciousness, racial discrimination and self-rated health in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James; Rameka, Ruruhira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examine race/ethnic consciousness and its associations with experiences of racial discrimination and health in New Zealand. Racism is an important determinant of health and cause of ethnic inequities. However, conceptualising the mechanisms by which racism impacts on health requires racism to be contextualised within the broader social environment. Race/ethnic consciousness (how often people think about their race or ethnicity) is understood as part of a broader assessment of the 'racial climate'. Higher race/ethnic consciousness has been demonstrated among non-dominant racial/ethnic groups and linked to adverse health outcomes in a limited number of studies. We analysed data from the 2006/07 New Zealand Health Survey, a national population-based survey of New Zealand adults, to examine the distribution of ethnic consciousness by ethnicity, and its association with individual experiences of racial discrimination and self-rated health. Findings showed that European respondents were least likely to report thinking about their ethnicity, with people from non-European ethnic groupings all reporting relatively higher ethnic consciousness. Higher ethnic consciousness was associated with an increased likelihood of reporting experience of racial discrimination for all ethnic groupings and was also associated with fair/poor self-rated health after adjusting for age, sex and ethnicity. However, this difference in health was no longer evident after further adjustment for socioeconomic position and individual experience of racial discrimination. Our study suggests different experiences of racialised social environments by ethnicity in New Zealand and that, at an individual level, ethnic consciousness is related to experiences of racial discrimination. However, the relationship with health is less clear and needs further investigation with research to better understand the racialised social relations that create and maintain ethnic inequities in health in

  8. Quantifying Ethnic Rank and Ethnic Inequality. Working Papers in Migration and Ethnicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, William W.; Rahav, Michael

    This paper argues that ethnic status is a source of inequality conceptually independent from social class status. Many parallels exist between the development of measures and concepts for social class inequality and for ethnic inequality. Three measures of ethnic rank described in this paper correspond to dimensions of power, prestige, and wealth…

  9. AGE AND ORIGIN OF BASE- AND PRECIOUS-METAL VEINS OF THE COEUR D'ALENE MINING DISTRICT, IDAHO

    SciTech Connect

    Fleck, R J; Criss, R E; Eaton, G F; Cleland, R W; Wavra, C S; Bond, W D

    2000-11-07

    Ore-bearing quartz-carbonate veins of the Coeur d'Alene mining district yield {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios of 0.74 to >1.60 for low-Rb/Sr, carbonate gangue minerals, similar to current ranges measured in Middle Proterozoic, high-Rb/Sr rocks of the Belt Supergroup. Stable-isotope and fluid-inclusion studies establish a genetic relationship between vein formation and metamorphic-hydrothermal systems of the region. These extraordinary {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratios require accumulation of radiogenic {sup 87}Sr in a high Rb/Sr system over an extended period prior to incorporation of Sr into the veins by hydrothermal processes. Evaluation of the age and composition of potential sources of highly radiogenic Sr indicates that the ore-bearing veins of the Coeur d'Alene district formed within the last 200 Ma from components scavenged from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Belt Supergroup, the primary host-rocks of the district. These results are consistent with a Cretaceous or Early Tertiary age for these veins. Pb-Zn deposits that yield Pb isotope, K-Ar, and Ar-Ar results indicative of a Proterozoic age probably formed during deposition or diagenesis of the Belt Supergroup at 1350-1500 Ma, possibly as Sullivan-type syngenetic deposits. K-Ar and Rb-Sr apparent ages and {delta}{sup 18}O values of Belt Supergroup rocks decrease southward from the Coeur d'Alene district toward the Idaho batholith, normal to the trends of metamorphic isograds, fold axes, foliation, and the major reverse faults of the district. Isoclinal folding, thrust faulting, high-temperature metamorphism, granitic plutonism, and regional-scale metamorphic-hydrothermal activity is documented in the region between 140 Ma and 45 Ma, but no similar combination of events is recognized for Late Proterozoic time. Combined with Sr results from the veins, the evidence strongly favors formation of the ore-bearing carbonate veins of the district by fluids related to a complex metamorphic-hydrothermal system

  10. A Historical Analysis of the Quest for the Origins of Aging Macula Disorder, the Tissues Involved, and Its Terminology

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Although ocular tissues involved in aging macula disorder (AMD) were already known in 300 BC, the last type of photoreceptors was discovered only 10 years ago. The earliest descriptions of AMD appeared around 1850. It took over 150 years, till a clearer concept of AMD was formulated and even longer to grasp its pathophysiology. The uncertainty of researchers about the pathogenesis of AMD over the last century is reflected in its changing terminology. The evolution of this terminology is provided in a table to afford the reader a better insight into explanations proposed by researchers during this quest. PMID:27812291

  11. Isolation of Left Common Carotid Artery with Its Origin Proximal to Patent Ductus Arteriosus Presenting in Adult Age

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Anagha R.; Joshi, Saurabh; Kale, Kiran; Jain, Rahul; Bava, Jernail Singh

    2016-01-01

    Anomalies of aortic arch are a common occurrence. Such anomalies of right sided aortic arch with its various branching patterns are of clinical importance. Rarer anomalies include isolation (deficient connection) of either left subclavian artery or left common carotid artery; that is, they do not have their origin from aorta or its major branches. We present a case of an 18-year-old male who presented with gradual onset pulsatile swelling with bruit in neck on left side and was evaluated by CT brain and neck angiography. CT angiography revealed right sided aortic arch with aberrant left subclavian artery and isolated left common carotid artery. Very few cases of such an anomaly have been documented in the literature but none in an adult. PMID:27213071

  12. Occurrence and origin of minerals in a chamosite-bearing coal of Late Permian age, Zhaotong, Yunnan, China

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, S.; Chou, C.L.

    2007-08-15

    The minerals found in the no. 5 coal (Late Permian) from the Zhaotong Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been examined and found to consist mainly of kaolinite, pyrite, chamosite, quartz, and calcite, with trace amounts of illite and mixed-layer illite-smectite. The proportion of chamosite in clay minerals ranges from 32 to 56 wt%, with an average of 46 wt%. Chamosite is distributed not only in collodetrinite, but also occurs as cell fillings in fusinite, semifusinite, and telinite. The high content and mode of occurrence of chamosite in this mine indicate its formation by interaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. Except for a minor amount of terrigenous quartz, most quartz is of authigenic origin and formed from kaolinite desilication. The calcite content of the no. 5 coal is 1.4-6.3% (with an average of 3%) and is distributed in collodetrinite and as cell fillings of coal-forming plants. Calcite originated from seawater invasion during peat accumulation. Pyrite occurs in several ways: as massive, framboidal, isolated enhedral/anhedral, and euhedral forms. In addition, the presence of a large amount of pyritized red algae provides strong evidence of seawater invasion during peat accumulation. The red algae may have played an important role in the enrichment of sulfur in the coal. The characteristic assemblage of minerals in this mine resulted from a unique basinal environment in which the mineral matter was derived from a basaltic source region, volcanic activity, and seawater transgression during coal formation.

  13. Constraining the age of the NGC 4565 H I disk WARP: Determining the origin of gas WARPS

    SciTech Connect

    Radburn-Smith, David J.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne M.; De Jong, Roelof S.; Streich, David; Bell, Eric F.; Monachesi, Antonela; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Bailin, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    We have mapped the distribution of young and old stars in the gaseous H I warp of NGC 4565. We find a clear correlation of young stars (<600 Myr) with the warp but no coincident old stars (>1 Gyr), which places an upper limit on the age of the structure. The formation rate of the young stars, which increased ∼300 Myr ago relative to the surrounding regions, is (6.3{sub −1.5}{sup +2.5})×10{sup −5} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}. This implies a ∼60 ± 20 Gyr depletion time of the H I warp, similar to the timescales calculated for the outer H I disks of nearby spiral galaxies. While some stars associated with the warp fall into the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) region of the color-magnitude diagram, where stars could be as old as 1 Gyr, further investigation suggests that they may be interlopers rather than real AGB stars. We discuss the implications of these age constraints for the formation of H I warps and the gas fueling of disk galaxies.

  14. Health Care Access and Utilization Among Adults Aged 18-64, by Race and Hispanic Origin: United States, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Michael E; Ward, Brian W; Adams, Patricia F

    2015-07-01

    In 2014, U.S. adults could buy a private health insurance plan through the Health Insurance Marketplace or state-based exchanges established as part of the Affordable Care Act. Moreover, some states opted to expand Medicaid coverage to low-income adults. Data from the 2013 and 2014 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) are used to describe recent changes in health insurance coverage and selected measures of health care access and utilization for adults aged 18–64, by race and Hispanic origin.

  15. Commodification of transitioning ethnic enclaves.

    PubMed

    Terzano, Kathryn

    2014-09-29

    This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants' identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers). One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood's ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave's ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it.

  16. Commodification of transitioning ethnic enclaves.

    PubMed

    Terzano, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants' identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers). One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood's ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave's ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it. PMID:25431441

  17. Commodification of Transitioning Ethnic Enclaves

    PubMed Central

    Terzano, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This literature review examines the changing roles of ethnic enclaves, the question of their authenticity, and their value as commodified spaces, giving special attention to Little Italy neighborhoods in the United States. Understanding the roles of ethnic enclaves requires some understanding about immigrants’ identities. For some theorists, immigrants become blended into society over the course of generations; for other theorists, descendants of immigrants sometimes retain their cultural heritage and traits, helping form a multicultural or pluralist society. In the traditional sense, ethnic enclaves consist of both ethnic residents and ethnic businesses (such as restaurants, shops, and grocers). One way that ethnic enclaves change is when the area experiences a demographic shift, and people from outside the ethnic group move their residences and businesses to the neighborhood, resulting in the area becoming diversified in people and businesses. A second way that an ethnic enclave changes is when the ethnic group shrinks, but the shops and other businesses remain, resulting in the area becoming diversified in residents but not businesses. This latter situation may encourage commodification of the neighborhood’s ethnic identity, where a municipality or business association seeks to preserve an enclave’s ethnic reputation for tourism purposes. This commodification has implications for many individuals and groups within the enclave as well as outside of it. PMID:25431441

  18. Ethnic fertility differentials in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, A

    1996-01-01

    This study examined differences in residence, marriage age, and education among 6 language groups (Balochi-Brohi, Urdu, Siraiki, Punjabi, Sindhi, and Pushto) in Pakistan. Ethnic differences were reported for fertility preferences and family planning attitudes, knowledge, and practices. Data were obtained from the 1990-91 Pakistan Demographic and Health Survey among 6582 eligible ever-married women aged 15-30 and 31-49 years. 95% of Urdu and 50% of Balochi-Brohi speakers lived in urban areas. 73.4% of Siraiki speakers lived in rural areas. Urdu speakers were the best educated, with 31% having a secondary or higher education. Lack of formal education was 46.5% among Urdu, 68.4% among Punjabi, and 88% among Pushto women. Sindhi speakers had the lowest marriage age; the median age at first marriage was 15 years. Marriages at ages younger than 17 years were common among Balochi-Brohi-, Pushto-, and Siraiki-speaking women. Later age of marriage was more common among Urdu and Punjabi women. Fertility was highest among younger women speaking Balochi-Brohi, followed by those speaking Urdu. Fertility was lowest among younger Siraiki-speaking women. Among older women, fertility was highest among Siraiki speakers, followed by Balochi-Brohi and Pushto speakers. It was lowest among older Urdu-speaking women. 80% of Balochi-Brohi- and 76% of Siraiki-speaking women had no ideal family size. Over 25% of Urdu and Punjabi speakers desired 4 children. "Up to God" responses were strongest among Balochi-Brohi speakers, followed by Siraiki and Sindhi speakers. Current modern method use was 22.1 among Urdu speakers, 12.7% among those speaking a language other than the 6 groups studied, 11.7% among Punjabi speakers, 8.3% among Pushto speakers, 4.9% among Siraiki speakers, 3.4% among Sindhi speakers, and 3.3% among Balochi-Brohi speakers. PMID:12294612

  19. Childhood cancer and ethnic group in Britain: a United Kingdom children's Cancer Study Group (UKCCSG) study.

    PubMed Central

    Stiller, C. A.; McKinney, P. A.; Bunch, K. J.; Bailey, C. C.; Lewis, I. J.

    1991-01-01

    We present here the results of the largest study of childhood cancer and ethnic group in Britain, based on 7,658 children treated at paediatric oncology centres throughout the country. Incidence rates could not be calculated and so relative frequencies were analysed by the log-linear modelling method of Kaldor et al. (1990) with allowance made for regional variations in the ages and diagnostic groups of the children included in the study. Children of Asian (Indian sub-continent) and West Indian ethnic origin had similar patterns of incidence for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia to White Caucasians. There was a significant excess of Hodgkin's disease among Asian children compared with Caucasians with an estimated relative risk (RR) of 2.09; this excess was greatest in the 0-4 age group (RR = 6.67). There were significant deficits of Wilms' tumour and rhabdomyosarcoma among Asian children, each with a frequency around half that among Caucasians, whereas West Indians had a significant excess of Wilms' tumour (RR = 2.55). Asian and West Indian children each had a non-significant twofold RR for unilateral retinoblastoma. The results suggest that the incidence of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is associated with environmental determinants in the country of residence which are most likely to relate to lifestyle factors. The occurrence of retinoblastoma, Wilms' tumour and Hodgkin's disease in early childhood is apparently related more to ethnicity than to geographical location and may reflect genetic factors or environmental exposures specific to the lifestyle of particular ethnic groups. PMID:1654982

  20. The protective influence of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement for New Zealand Ma̅ori adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma̅ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3 measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Participants in the current study were 431 self-identified Ma̅ori (ages 10-15 years at Time 1). As expected, the variables of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and well-being were all positively related to each other. Results of a latent growth curve model showed that, following normative trends for adolescents of this age, well-being diminished over time for Ma̅ori youth; however, high levels of family connectedness were found to mitigate this general decline in well-being over time. Furthermore, in a longitudinal path analysis, ethnic engagement was found to exert a positive indirect effect on residualized Time 3 well-being through Time 2 ethnic identity. These findings indicate that the quality of family relationships and affiliation with one's ethnic group are important predictors of positive adjustment for Ma̅ori youth over time. These results are discussed in the context of positive youth development for ethnic minority and indigenous youth.

  1. Ethnic Identity and Offending Trajectories among Mexican American Juvenile Offenders: Gang Membership and Psychosocial Maturity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, George P.; Losoya, Sandra H.; Cho, Young Il; Chassin, Laurie; Williams, Joanna Lee; Cota-Robles, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    We examined the association of joint trajectories of ethnic identity and criminal offending to psychosocial maturity, gang membership, and Mexican American affiliation among 300 Mexican American male juvenile offenders from ages 14 to 22. There were two low-offending groups: one was the highest in ethnic identity and changing slightly with age and…

  2. Ethnic differences in beta-cell function, dietary intake and expression of the metabolic syndrome among UK adults of South Asian, black African-Caribbean and white-European origin at high risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goff, Louise M; Griffin, Bruce A; Lovegrove, Julie A; Sanders, Tom A; Jebb, Susan A; Bluck, Les J; Frost, Gary S

    2013-07-01

    A cross-sectional analysis of ethnic differences in dietary intake, insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function, using the intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT), was conducted on 497 healthy adult participants of the 'Reading, Imperial, Surrey, Cambridge, and Kings' (RISCK) study. Insulin sensitivity (Si) was significantly lower in African-Caribbean (AC) and South Asian (SA) participants [IVGTT-Si; AC: 2.13 vs SA: 2.25 vs white-European (WE): 2.84 (×10(-4) mL µU min)(2), p < 0.001]. AC participants had a higher prevalence of anti-hypertensive therapy (AC: 19.7% vs SA: 7.5%), the most cardioprotective lipid profile [total:high-density lipoprotein (HDL); AC: 3.52 vs SA: 4.08 vs WE: 3.83, p = 0.03] and more pronounced hyperinsulinaemia [IVGTT-acute insulin response (AIR)] [AC: 575 vs SA: 428 vs WE: 344 mL/µU/min)(2), p = 0.002], specifically in female participants. Intake of saturated fat and carbohydrate was lower and higher in AC (10.9% and 50.4%) and SA (11.1% and 52.3%), respectively, compared to WE (13.6% and 43.8%, p < 0.001). Insulin resistance in ACs is characterised by 'normal' lipid profiles but high rates of hypertension and pronounced hyperinsulinaemia.

  3. Mexican immigrant replenishment and the continuing significance of ethnicity and race.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Tomás R

    2008-05-01

    The literature on assimilation and ethnic identity formation largely assumes that the durability of ethnic boundaries is a function of the assimilation measures that sociologists commonly employ. But this literature fails to account adequately for the role of immigration patterns in explaining the durability and nature of ethnic boundaries. Using 123 in-depth interviews with later-generation Mexican Americans, this article shows that Mexican immigrant replenishment shapes ethnic boundaries and ethnic identity formation. The sizable immigrant population sharpens intergroup boundaries through the indirect effects of nativism and by contributing to the continuing significance of race in the lives of later-generation Mexican Americans. The presence of a large immigrant population also creates intragroup boundaries that run through the Mexican-origin population and that are animated by expectations about ethnic authenticity. The article illustrates the importance of immigrant replenishment to processes of assimilation and ethnic identity formation. PMID:19044142

  4. Mexican immigrant replenishment and the continuing significance of ethnicity and race.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Tomás R

    2008-05-01

    The literature on assimilation and ethnic identity formation largely assumes that the durability of ethnic boundaries is a function of the assimilation measures that sociologists commonly employ. But this literature fails to account adequately for the role of immigration patterns in explaining the durability and nature of ethnic boundaries. Using 123 in-depth interviews with later-generation Mexican Americans, this article shows that Mexican immigrant replenishment shapes ethnic boundaries and ethnic identity formation. The sizable immigrant population sharpens intergroup boundaries through the indirect effects of nativism and by contributing to the continuing significance of race in the lives of later-generation Mexican Americans. The presence of a large immigrant population also creates intragroup boundaries that run through the Mexican-origin population and that are animated by expectations about ethnic authenticity. The article illustrates the importance of immigrant replenishment to processes of assimilation and ethnic identity formation.

  5. Ethnicity, education, and blood pressure in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Ordunez, Pedro; Munoz, Jose Luis Bernal; Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo; Silva, Luis Carlos; Cooper, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15-74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational attainment was stratified at the median number of school years. Compared with White women, non-White women had higher blood pressures (3.0/1.7, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (24%, 95% confidence interval: 20, 28 vs. 15%, 95% confidence interval: 12, 18). Among men, no differences in blood pressure were observed by ethnicity. Men with a lower level of education had a 14% lower risk of hypertension compared with men above the median. However, women with a lower level of education had a 24% increase in risk. The effect of education was equally strong among Whites alone and when occupation was used for stratification. No variation was observed for body mass index or self-reported health behaviors by ethnicity or education. The narrower ethnic gradient in hypertension prevalence than seen in North America and the gender-specific social status effect, in the context of relatively equal living conditions, suggest that the influence of psychosocial stressors may be specific to cultural contexts.

  6. A macro analysis of population growth of China's ethnic groups in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Liu, W

    1992-06-01

    8% of China's population is comprised of the 55 identified ethnic groups in 1990. The growth rate of this population between 1982 and 1990 was very high at 38.7/1000, or an increase of 1.43 over the previous 18 years. Natural increase was 18/1000. The total fertility rate was 2.9 in 1990. The causes for such rapid growth are reaffirmation of ethnic identity, a high fertility rate, and intermarriage with Han residents. 59% of the increased population reflected a new classification as an ethnic minority. Intermarriage with Han accounted for 4.4% of the increase. Since the revolution of 1949, there has been a release from the former oppression and population declines. In 1978, preferential policies were mandated for ethnic groups, which encouraged ethnic recognition. Ethnic status was enhanced and national awareness of ethnic groups was increased. The visual display of the ethnic age pyramid is evidence that the shape is quite different from the Han population. There are greater numbers of teenagers and those in reproductive ages. This cluster will affect population growth after the century's end. Ethnic population growth due to reaffirmation of ethnic identity also is different from natural increase in regional migration. A rise in population density within a location is not apparent. Carrying capacity of the local economy, resources, or environment is unaffected by the increase. It is inappropriate to measure the population pressure of high ethnic population growth. Eventually, ethnic growth will affect the growth rate of the national population. In ethnic areas, population growth should be planned in concert with economic development, use of resources, and protection of the ecology. Thus, ethnic area income/capita will be increased, inequality will be erased, and national autonomy achieved. The social stability and prosperity of all China is dependent on respect for happiness among ethnic minorities and economic and social development.

  7. Ethnic Notions & Healthy Paranoias

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Colette Marie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To report the firsthand perspectives of older Black women within healthcare encounters that impact the trajectories of health seeking behavior; to examine their perceptions, expectations, and beliefs about the role of cultural difference within predominantly White (US) health care settings; and to explore how sharing personal experiences (theirs and others’) as a fund of knowledge influences ethnic notions. This research is aimed at the development of community resource partnerships and effective healthcare service delivery with intervention and promotion efforts targeting older Black women. Design Ethnographic data collected over a twenty-four month period (2003 – 2005) from fifty older Black women in Tucson, Arizona is discussed on three levels: (1) expectations and beliefs, (2) the use of ethnic notions in the form of healthy paranoias as part of individual and communal health advocacy, and (3) perceptions of interethnic communication within healthcare settings, including feeling uncared for by healthcare providers and support staff. Results Disparities in older Black women's health and well-being are often constructed and filtered through "non-clinical" influences, such as cultural differences, individual experiences, and beliefs about "race" or "being" a Black female. Conclusions Unfamiliarity with ethnic notions may cause misinterpretations and misunderstandings and may influence interactions between older Black women and healthcare providers. PMID:20694867

  8. Dermatoglyphics from all Chinese ethnic groups reveal geographic patterning.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Guo; Chen, Yao-Fong; Ding, Ming; Jin, Li; Case, D Troy; Jiao, Yun-Ping; Wang, Xian-Ping; Bai, Chong-Xian; Jin, Gang; Yang, Jiang-Ming; Wang, Han; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Chen, Ren-Biao

    2010-01-20

    Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry.

  9. Ethnic Differences in Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms: Disadvantage in Family Background, High School Experiences, and Adult Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsemann, Katrina M.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Geronimus, Arline T.

    2009-01-01

    Although research investigating ethnic differences in mental health has increased in recent years, we know relatively little about how mental health trajectories vary across ethnic groups. Do these differences occur at certain ages but not others? We investigate ethnic variation in trajectories of depressive symptoms, and we examine the extent to…

  10. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sleep Disturbances: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Rui; Zee, Phyllis; Lutsey, Pamela L.; Javaheri, Sogol; Alcántara, Carmela; Jackson, Chandra L.; Williams, Michelle A.; Redline, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: There is limited research on racial/ethnic variation in sleep disturbances. This study aimed to quantify the distributions of objectively measured sleep disordered breathing (SDB), short sleep duration, poor sleep quality, and self-reported sleep disturbances (e.g., insomnia) across racial/ethnic groups. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: Six US communities. Participants: Racially/ethnically diverse men and women aged 54–93 y in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis Sleep Cohort (n = 2,230). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: Information from polysomnography-measured SDB, actigraphy-measured sleep duration and quality, and self-reported daytime sleepiness were obtained between 2010 and 2013. Overall, 15.0% of individuals had severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 30); 30.9% short sleep duration (< 6 h); 6.5% poor sleep quality (sleep efficiency < 85%); and 13.9% had daytime sleepiness. Compared with Whites, Blacks had higher odds of sleep apnea syndrome (AHI ≥ 5 plus sleepiness) (sex-, age-, and study site-adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 1.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.20, 2.63), short sleep (OR = 4.95, 95% CI: 3.56, 6.90), poor sleep quality (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.00, 2.48), and daytime sleepiness (OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.38, 2.60). Hispanics and Chinese had higher odds of SDB and short sleep than Whites. Among non-obese individuals, Chinese had the highest odds of SDB compared to Whites. Only 7.4% to 16.2% of individuals with an AHI ≥ 15 reported a prior diagnosis of sleep apnea. Conclusions: Sleep disturbances are prevalent among middle-aged and older adults, and vary by race/ethnicity, sex, and obesity status. The high prevalence of sleep disturbances and undiagnosed sleep apnea among racial/ethnic minorities may contribute to health disparities. Citation: Chen X, Wang R, Zee P, Lutsey PL, Javaheri S, Alcántara C, Jackson CL, Williams MA, Redline S. Racial/ethnic differences in sleep disturbances: the Multi-Ethnic Study

  11. Age and origin of base and precious metal veins of the Coeur d'Alene mining district, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fleck, R.J.; Criss, R.E.; Eaton, G.F.; Cleland, R.W.; Wavra, C.S.; Bond, W.D.

    2002-01-01

    Ore-bearing quartz-carbonate veins of the Coeur d'Alene mining district yield 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.74 to >1.60 for low Rb/Sr, carbonate gangue minerals, similar to current ranges measured in Middle Proterozoic, high Rb/Sr rocks of the Belt Supergroup. Stable isotope and fluid inclusion studies establish a genetic relationship between vein formation and metamorphic-hydrothermal systems of the region. These extraordinary 87Sr/86Sr ratios require accumulation of radiogenic 87Sr in a high Rb/Sr system over an extended period prior to incorporation of Sr into the hydrothermal veins. Evaluation of the age and composition of potential sources of highly radiogenic Sr indicates that the ore-bearing veins of the Coeur d'Alene district formed during the Cretaceous from components scavenged from rocks of the Belt Supergroup, the primary host rocks of the district. Proterozoic Pb isotope ratios observed in galena from many Coeur d'Alene veins were established when Pb separated from uranium during deposition or diagenesis of the Belt Supergroup at 1400 to 1500 Ma, possibly as disseminated syngenetic deposits. K-Ar and Rb-Sr apparent ages and ??18O values of Belt Supergroup rocks decrease from the Coeur d'Alene district toward the Idaho and Kaniksu batholiths, approximately normal to the trends of metamorphic isograds, fold axes, foliation, and the major reverse faults of the district. Isoclinal folding, thrust faulting, high-temperature metamorphism, granitic plutonism, and regional-scale metamorphic-hydrothermal activity is documented in the region between 140 and 45 Ma, representing the only such combination of events in the Coeur d'Alene region subsequent to about 1300 Ma. The Sr and oxygen results and geologic evidence favor formation of the ore-bearing carbonate veins by fluids related to a complex metamorphic-hydrothermal system during the Cretaceous. Pb with Proterozoic isotopic compositions was probably mobilized and incorporated like other metals into the hydrothermal

  12. Differential HIV Risk for Racial/Ethnic Minority Trans*female Youths and Socioeconomic Disparities in Housing, Residential Stability, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yea-Hung; Arayasirikul, Sean; Fisher, Marla; Pomart, W. Andres; Le, Victory; Raymond, H. Fisher; McFarland, Willi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined HIV prevalence and risk behaviors of 282 trans*female youths aged 16 to 24 years participating in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, SHINE study from 2012 to 2013 to determine differences between racial/ethnic minority and White youths. Methods. We conducted the χ2 test to determine distributional differences between racial/ethnic minority and White participants in sociodemographic factors, HIV-related risk behaviors, and syndemic factors. Results. Of the trans*female youths, 4.8% were HIV positive. Racial/ethnic minority and White trans*female youths differed significantly in gender identity and sexual orientation. Racial/ethnic minority youths also had significantly lower educational attainment, were less likely to have lived with their parents of origin as a child, and were significantly more likely to engage in recent condomless anal intercourse than were Whites. Conclusions. Efforts to assess the impact of multiple-minority stress on racial/minority trans*female youths are needed imminently, and prevention efforts must address macrolevel disparities for trans*female youths, especially those from racial/ethnic minority groups, to reduce these disparities and prevent incident cases of HIV. PMID:25905826

  13. Origin and age of erosional gullies and ridges in loess of central Alaska--Evidence of ancient global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Pewe, T.L. . Geology Dept.)

    1992-01-01

    The lower and especially middle slopes of many of the rolling hills of the Yukon-Tanana Upland are blanketed with 3 to 20 m of olive gray, airfall, massive loess which is dissected by parallel gullies 10--15 m deep and 100--200 m long that trend downslope. The gullies and ridges occur over hundreds of square kilometers. It is believed the eroded and gullied loess topography originated during the last interglacial of 125 ka. The climatic warming led to: (1) melting of the ground ice in permafrost and thermokarst activity, and (2) to greatly reduced loess deposition. The author believes that most of the water to initiate loess cutting came from the melting of the great amount of ground ice in the permafrost. The last interglacial time was warm enough to melt the ground ice and initiate catastrophic thermokarst activity in easily erodible loess on hillsides. If the gullying had been in Holocene time, the ridges and gullies would be more sharp sided and the ridges relatively flat-topped, as is characteristic of trenched loess, even after centuries. On the other hand, gullies and ridges formed early during the Eva Interglacial would tend to be subdued by creep and solifluction during the 100,000 year Wisconsin cold interval. Such is illustrated by the downbending of loess and tephra on the sides of loess ridges. If the loess ridges were formed in Holocene time, they would include horizontal loess deposits of Wisconsin and perhaps early Holocene times inasmuch as they would be covering a nongullied topography. Examination reveals that there are no Wisconsin and Holocene loess deposits on the steep side slopes of the uppermost part of the ridges and other erosional remnants. The Subarctic Brown Forest soil is interglacial and, started to form anywhere from 10,000 to 8,000 years ago. The soil profile developed on the pre-soil ridge topography; therefore, the time of ridge and gully formation is pre-10,000 years.

  14. A reappraisal of the age, origin and structural setting of sulphide mineralisation in the UK North Pennines Orefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdsworth, Bob; Dempsey, Eddie; Selby, David; Le Cornu, Chris; Young, Brian

    2015-04-01

    The North Pennines Orefield (NPO) is centred on the Alston block, a structural high of fractured Carboniferous sedimentary rocks that unconformably overlie a Devonian age (ca. 399 Ma) granite pluton buried at shallow depths (<0.5 km). The orefield has long been considered to be a classic example of a Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) deposit where the source of the metals and sulphur are derived by hydrothermal leaching of the host sedimentary (carbonate-rich) rocks. The vein-hosted part of the orefield consists of linked systems of shear and tensile fractures with a variety of regionally recognised orientations (ESE-WNW Quarter Point, NE-SW, NW-SE Cross Veins). These are associated with lead (galena), iron (pyrite, pyrrhotite, marcasite), copper (chalcopyrite), zinc (sphalerite), fluorite, barite and quartz mineralization. New Rhenium-Osmium (Re-Os) isotope geochemical analysis of the vein-hosted pyrite mineralization suggests that: (i) the metalliferous ores of the NPO formed ca. 294Ma (earliest Permian); and (ii) that they carry an initial Os ratio indicative of a mantle source similar to that indicated by the initial Os ratio of the Whin Sill dolerite suite (emplacement ages ca. 297-294 Ma). New field observations and stress inversion analyses show that at least two regional deformation events are recognised in the Carboniferous host rocks of the NPO. A initial phase of Late Carboniferous ('Variscan') N-S compression pre-dates mineralisation and leads to formation of the NW-SE fractures, initiation of the Burtreeford Disturbance as a N-S fault and compressional reactivation of the previously extensional E-W Lunedale Fault. A later phase of dextral transtension (NNE-SSW extension, ESE-WNW compression) leads to the formation of the ESE-WNW and NE-SW veins, together with compressional reactivation of the Burtreeford Disturbance and Lunedale Fault. Field and microstructural analyses show that the transtensional deformation is synchronous with the main phases of NPO

  15. Dark-ages reionization & galaxy formation simulation VI: The origins and fate of the highest known redshift galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutch, Simon J.; Liu, Chuanwu; Poole, Gregory B.; Geil, Paul M.; Duffy, Alan R.; Trenti, Michele; Oesch, Pascal A.; Illingworth, Garth D.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.

    2016-09-01

    Using Hubble data, including new grism spectra, Oesch et al. (2016) recently identified GN-z11, a MUV=-21.1 galaxy at z=11.1 (just 400 Myr after the Big Bang). With an estimated stellar mass of ˜109 M⊙, this galaxy is surprisingly bright and massive, raising questions as to how such an extreme object could form so early in the Universe. Using MERAXES, a semi-analytic galaxy formation model developed as part of the Dark-ages Reionization And Galaxy-formation Observables from Numerical Simulations (DRAGONS) programme, we investigate the potential formation mechanisms and eventual fate of GN-z11. The volume of our simulation is comparable to that of the discovery observations and possesses two analogue galaxies of similar luminosity to this remarkably bright system. Existing in the two most massive subhaloes at z=11.1 (Mvir=1.4× 1011 M⊙ and 6.7× 1010 M⊙), our model analogues show excellent agreement with all available observationally derived properties of GN-z11. Although they are relatively rare outliers from the full galaxy population at high-z, they are no longer the most massive or brightest systems by z=5. Furthermore, we find that both objects possess relatively smooth, but extremely rapid mass growth histories with consistently high star formation rates and UV luminosities at z > 11, indicating that their brightness is not a transient, merger driven feature. Our model results suggest that future wide-field surveys with JWST may be able to detect the progenitors of GN-z11 analogues out to z ˜13-14, pushing the frontiers of galaxy-formation observations to the early phases of cosmic reionization and providing a valuable glimpse of the first galaxies to reionize the Universe on large scales.

  16. Preparing Students for Culturally Competent Practice among Ethnic Minority Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Colette V.; Mokuau, Noreen

    2008-01-01

    The increase in the nation's present and projected multicultural aged population is both dramatic and well documented. One result of this growth is a sharpened focus on racial and ethnic disparities in health, health care access, and utilization of services that impact aging adults. This paper presents work conducted by a university-community…

  17. Gold deposits of the Carolina Slate Belt, southeastern United States--Age and origin of the major gold producers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Nora K.; Ayuso, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    Gold- and iron sulfide-bearing deposits of the southeastern United States have distinctive mineralogical and geochemical features that provide a basis for constructing models of ore genesis for exploration and assessment of gold resources. The largest (historic) deposits, in approximate million ounces of gold (Moz Au), include those in the Haile (~ 4.2 Moz Au), Ridgeway (~1.5 Moz Au), Brewer (~0.25 Moz Au), and Barite Hill (0.6 Moz Au) mines. Host rocks are Late Proterozoic to early Paleozoic (~553 million years old) metaigneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Carolina Slate Belt that share a geologic affinity with the classic Avalonian tectonic zone. The inferred syngenetic and epithermal-subvolcanic quartz-porphyry settings occur stratigraphically between sequences of metavolcanic rocks of the Persimmon Fork and Uwharrie Formations and overlying volcanic and epiclastic rocks of the Tillery and Richtex Formations (and regional equivalents). The Carolina Slate Belt is highly prospective for many types of gold ore hosted within quartz-sericite-pyrite altered volcanic rocks, juvenile metasedimentary rocks, and in associated shear zones. For example, sheared and deformed auriferous volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits at Barite Hill, South Carolina, and in the Gold Hill trend, North Carolina, are hosted primarily by laminated mudstone and felsic volcanic to volcaniclastic rocks. The high-sulfidation epithermal style of gold mineralization at Brewer and low-sulfidation gold ores of the Champion pit at Haile occur in breccias associated with subvolcanic quartz porphyry and within crystal-rich tuffs, ash flows, and subvolcanic rhyolite. The Ridgeway and Haile deposits are primarily epithermal replacements and feeder zones within (now) metamorphosed crystal-rich tuffs, volcaniclastic sediments, and siltstones originally deposited in a marine volcanic-arc basinal setting. Recent discoveries in the region include (1) extensions of known deposits, such as at Haile where

  18. Ethnicity and etiology in burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Papp, Anthony; Haythornthwaite, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrieve data from the British Columbia Professional Firefighters Burn Unit registry, with a focus on ethnicity and how it is involved in burn trauma. It is hypothesized that mechanism, severity, and other patient characteristics are significantly different among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, it is believed that these data can be used to augment burn prevention strategies. Data for burn patients admitted from 1979 to 2009 were reviewed from the burn registry. The main focus was with differences seen among the four main ethnicities throughout the analysis, Caucasian, Aboriginal, Asian, and Indoasian, reflecting the population distribution of the region. Age and sex were also considered when looking at burn mechanism, severity, contributing and copresenting factors. Caucasians were the largest group (79.1%) and included the largest male:female ratio (3.3:1), with high numbers of flame injury (53.9%). Caucasians presented with the highest mortality (6.6% compared with 4.1% for all other ethnicities; P < .006). Asian patients (8.1%) showed significantly higher occurrences of urban (64%) and workplace (28.9%) injuries with a larger proportion of scald injury (38.9%). Indoasian patients included larger numbers of women (36.4%) and household scald injuries (33.9%) whereas Aboriginals suffered the most flame injuries (60.1%) in rural areas with more frequent contributing factors such as alcohol. The study found multiple significant differences in the burn injury population when segmented by ethnicity. Though the exact reasons for these differences are difficult to say with certainty, it allows a unique opportunity to focus communication and prevention efforts to specific communities. PMID:24503965

  19. Ethnicity and etiology in burn trauma.

    PubMed

    Papp, Anthony; Haythornthwaite, Jordan

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to retrieve data from the British Columbia Professional Firefighters Burn Unit registry, with a focus on ethnicity and how it is involved in burn trauma. It is hypothesized that mechanism, severity, and other patient characteristics are significantly different among different ethnic groups. Furthermore, it is believed that these data can be used to augment burn prevention strategies. Data for burn patients admitted from 1979 to 2009 were reviewed from the burn registry. The main focus was with differences seen among the four main ethnicities throughout the analysis, Caucasian, Aboriginal, Asian, and Indoasian, reflecting the population distribution of the region. Age and sex were also considered when looking at burn mechanism, severity, contributing and copresenting factors. Caucasians were the largest group (79.1%) and included the largest male:female ratio (3.3:1), with high numbers of flame injury (53.9%). Caucasians presented with the highest mortality (6.6% compared with 4.1% for all other ethnicities; P < .006). Asian patients (8.1%) showed significantly higher occurrences of urban (64%) and workplace (28.9%) injuries with a larger proportion of scald injury (38.9%). Indoasian patients included larger numbers of women (36.4%) and household scald injuries (33.9%) whereas Aboriginals suffered the most flame injuries (60.1%) in rural areas with more frequent contributing factors such as alcohol. The study found multiple significant differences in the burn injury population when segmented by ethnicity. Though the exact reasons for these differences are difficult to say with certainty, it allows a unique opportunity to focus communication and prevention efforts to specific communities.

  20. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D. K.; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2015-01-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3–S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m2. The level of DS was most prevalent at L4–L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3–L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5–S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in

  1. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D K; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-02-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3-S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2). The level of DS was most prevalent at L4-L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3-L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5-S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in facet

  2. An International Multicenter Study Assessing the Role of Ethnicity on Variation of Lumbar Facet Joint Orientation and the Occurrence of Degenerative Spondylolisthesis in Asia Pacific: A Study from the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium.

    PubMed

    Williams, Richard; Cheung, Jason Pui Yin; Goss, Ben; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Kawaguchi, Yoshiharu; Acharya, Shankar; Kawakami, Mamoru; Satoh, Shigenobu; Chen, Wen-Jer; Park, Chun-Kun; Lee, Chong-Suh; Foocharoen, Thanit; Nagashima, Hideki; Kuh, Sunguk; Zheng, Zhaomin; Condor, Richard; Ito, Manabu; Iwasaki, Motoki; Jeong, Je Hoon; Luk, Keith D K; Prijambodo, Bambang; Rege, Amol; Jahng, Tae-Ahn; Luo, Zhuojing; Tassanawipas, Warat; Acharya, Narayana; Pokharel, Rohit; Shen, Yong; Ito, Takui; Zhang, Zhihai; Aithala P, Janardhana; Kumar, Gomatam Vijay; Jabir, Rahyussalim Ahmad; Basu, Saumyajit; Li, Baojun; Moudgil, Vishal; Sham, Phoebe; Samartzis, Dino

    2016-02-01

    Study Design A multinational, multiethnic, cross-sectional image-based study was performed in 33 institutions, representing 10 countries, which were part of the AOSpine Asia Pacific Research Collaboration Consortium. Objective Lumbar facet joint orientation has been reported to be associated with the development of degenerative spondylolisthesis (DS). The role of ethnicity regarding facet joint orientation remains uncertain. As such, the following study was performed across a wide-ranging population base to assess the role of ethnicity in facet joint orientation in patients with DS in the Asia Pacific region. Methods Lateral standing X-rays and axial magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained for patients with lumbar DS. The DS parameters and facet joint angulations were assessed from L3-S1. Sex, age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity were also noted. Results The study included 371 patients with known ethnic origin (mean age: 62.0 years; 64% males, 36% females). The mean BMI was 25.6 kg/m(2). The level of DS was most prevalent at L4-L5 (74.7%). There were 28.8% Indian, 28.6% Japanese, 18.1% Chinese, 8.6% Korean, 6.5% Thai, 4.9% Caucasian, 2.7% Filipino, and 1.9% Malay patients. Variations in facet joint angulations were noted from L3 to S1 and between patients with and without DS (p < 0.05). No differences were noted with regards to sex and overall BMI to facet joint angulations (p > 0.05); however, increasing age was found to increase the degree of angulation throughout the lumbar spine (p < 0.05). Accounting for age and the presence or absence of DS at each level, no statistically significant differences between ethnicity and degree of facet joint angulations from L3-L5 were noted (p > 0.05). Ethnic variations were noted in non-DS L5-S1 facet joint angulations, predominantly between Caucasian, Chinese, and Indian ethnicities (p < 0.05). Conclusions This study is the first to suggest that ethnicity may not play a role in facet

  3. Simulating the multicellular homeostasis with a cell-based discrete receptor dynamics model: The non-mutational origin of cancer and aging.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yuting; Chen, Yu

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the multicellular homeostasis in epithelial tissues over very large timescales. Inspired by the receptor dynamics of IBCell model proposed by Rejniak et al. an on-grid agent-based model for multicellular system is constructed. Instead of observing the multicellular architectural morphologies, the diversity of homeostatic states is quantitatively analyzed through a substantial number of simulations by measuring three new order parameters, the phenotypic population structure, the average proliferation age and the relaxation time to stable homeostasis. Nearby the interfaces of distinct homeostatic phases in 3D phase diagrams of the three order parameters, intermediate quasi-stable phases of slow dynamics that features quasi-stability with a large spectrum of relaxation timescales are found. A further exploration on the static and dynamic correlations among the three order parameters reveals that the quasi-stable phases evolve towards two terminations, tumorigenesis and degeneration, which are respectively accompanied by rejuvenation and aging. With the exclusion of the environmental impact and the mutational strategies, the results imply that cancer and aging may share the non-mutational origin in the intrinsic slow dynamics of the multicellular systems. PMID:27196967

  4. Age, origin and significance of SKS splitting in SE Iberia: insights from mantle xenoliths from Neogene alkaline basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konc, Z.; Garrido, C. J.; Tommasi, A.; Padron Navarta, J. A.; Hidas, K.; Bosch, D.; Marchesi, C.; Szabó, Cs.

    2012-04-01

    The volcanic activity in the SE Iberian Volcanic Province (SE IVP) is the surface expression of magmatism in a complex geodynamic setting during the Cenozoic development of a Mediterranean-type back-arc basin in the Alboran realm. The late stage of this geodynamical evolution was characterized by Neogene alkaline basalt volcanism erupted at 2-3 Ma in the Tallante and Los Perez (Murcia) volcanic centers. This volcanism entrained numerous mantle xenoliths that provide a recent snapshot of the structure of the lithospheric mantle beneath this region. Xenoliths are spinel (± plagioclase ± amphibole) lherzolite, and minor harzburgite and wehrlite showing porphyroclastic to fine- to medium-grained granoblastic textures. Mantle xenoliths display a marked axial [100] pattern olivine Crystal Preferred Orientation (CPO) characterized by a strong alignment of olivine [100] axes near or parallel to the peridotite lineation and a girdle distribution of [010] axes with a maximum normal to the peridotite foliation. This CPO is consistent with dominant activation of the high temperature [100]{0kl} slip systems of olivine formed under a deformation regime dominated by simple shear or combinations of simple shear and pure shear with a transtensional component. The age of this deformation event is constrained by syn-tectonice composite xenoliths formed by reactive percolation of Si-rich melt/fluids with the lithospheric mantle during middle Miocene subduction/delamination of the paleo-iberian margin beneath the SE IVP. In order to investigate whether SKS anystropy recently measured beneath this region can be accounted by the olivine CPO of the lithospheric mantle, we have computed the theoretical seismic anisotropy of mantle xenoliths from their olivine CPOs and modal compositions. The averaged seismic properties of SE-IVP mantle xenoliths are characterized by fast propagation of P-waves and polarization of fast S-waves parallel to the peridotite lineation. The computed highest S

  5. Latino Adolescents' Ethnic Identity: Is There a Developmental Progression and Does Growth in Ethnic Identity Predict Growth in Self-Esteem?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A.; Guimond, Amy B.

    2009-01-01

    The current longitudinal study of 323 Latino adolescents (50.5% male; M age = 15.31 years) examined whether ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation demonstrated significant growth over a 4-year period and whether growth in ethnic identity predicted growth in self-esteem. Findings from multiple-group latent growth curve models…

  6. Romantic Relationships in Intra-Ethnic and Inter-Ethnic Adolescent Couples in Germany: The Role of Attachment to Parents, Self-Esteem, and Conflict Resolution Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bucx, Freek; Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2010-01-01

    We investigated romantic relationships in a sample of 380 adolescents who formed 190 heterosexual couples (mean age: females 17 years; males 18 years): 173 intra-ethnic (German) couples and 17 inter-ethnic couples. Factor analyses revealed two types of love experiences: (a) experiences of attraction and a passionate focus on the partner…

  7. Ethnic discrimination and health: the relationship between experienced ethnic discrimination and multiple health domains in Norway's rural Sami population

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-reported ethnic discrimination has been associated with a range of health outcomes. This study builds on previous efforts to investigate the prevalence of self-reported ethnic discrimination in the indigenous (Sami) population, and how such discrimination may be associated with key health indicators. Study design The study relies on data from the 2003/2004 (n=4,389) population-based study of adults (aged 36–79 years) in 24 rural municipalities of Central and North Norway (the SAMINOR study). Self-reported ethnic discrimination was measured using the question: “Have you ever experienced discrimination due to your ethnic background?” Health indicators included questions regarding cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic muscle pain, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported ethnic discrimination and health outcomes. Results The study finds that for Sami people living in minority areas, self-reported ethnic discrimination is associated with all the negative health indicators included in the study. Conclusion We conclude that ethnic discrimination affects a wide range of health outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring freedom from discrimination for the Sami people of Norway. PMID:25683064

  8. The Development of Cognitive, Language, and Cultural Skills from Age 3 to 6: A Comparison between Children of Turkish Origin and Children of Native-Born German Parents and the Role of Immigrant Parents' Acculturation to the Receiving Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Birgit; Klein, Oliver; Biedinger, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the longitudinal development of differences in academic skills between children of Turkish origin and children of native-born German parents from age 3 to 6 in Germany with a focus on the role of immigrant parents' acculturation to the receiving society. Growth curve models show that Turkish-origin children start with lower…

  9. Infectious disease prevalence in Los Angeles county--a comparison to national estimates, 1999-2004 birth rates for U.S. teenagers reach historic lows for all age and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Kruszon-Moran, Deanna; Porter, Kathryn S; McQuillan, Geraldine; Billioux, Veena Goud; Kim-Farley, Robert; Hirsch, Rosemarie

    2012-04-01

    This is the first time seroprevalence of antibody to these nine infectious diseases have been available for LAC. Differences in the race and ethnicity distribution of the United States and LAC were observed. Because disease prevalence varies by race and ethnicity, in some instances these demographic differences affected the population differences seen between the United States and LAC in the seroprevalence of the infectious diseases reported in this study. Seroprevalence for HAV was higher in LAC as compared with the United States among the total population and among the Mexican-American population. California is 1 of 11 states in which routine vaccination of children was recommended in 1999 by the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) because mean incidence rates in these states were at least twice the national mean from 1987–1997 (9). Seroprevalence to CMV and T. gondii have been shown to be higher among Mexican-American persons then other race and ethnicity groups (1,3). The higher seropositivity for CMV and T. gondii among persons from LAC is due to the higher proportion of Mexican-American persons in the LAC population. No differences in seropositivity were observed when comparing Mexican-American persons in the United States and LAC for these two outcomes. No significant differences in seroprevalence between the United States and LAC were seen for measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, HSV-1, and HSV-2. Estimates of seropositivity from immunization or disease for LAC may assist in policy development, program planning, and measuring health disparities. PMID:22617137

  10. Ethnicity, Race, and Nationality in Education: A Global Perspective. The Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimahara, N. Ken, Ed.; Holowinsky, Ivan Z., Ed.; Tomlinson-Clarke, Saundra, Ed.

    This volume contains 12 papers originally presented at the 14th Rutgers Invitational Symposium on Education in 1999. The symposium explored contemporary issues of ethnic, cultural, and national identities and their influence on the social construction of identity. Papers include: (1) "Reconceptualizing Ethnicity and Educational Achievement"…

  11. Ethnicity vs. National Culture in One Nationalized Educational Site: The Case of the Annual School Trip

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markovich, Dalya Yafa

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the interface between ethnicity and nationality in a nationalized educational site--the annual school trip--that took place in a Jewish high school in Israel that serves underprivileged ethnic groups. Based on ethnographic field work, I analyze how the Ashkenazi (central-eastern European origin) hegemonic national culture that…

  12. The influence of gender and ethnicity on children's peer collaborations.

    PubMed

    Leman, Patrick J; Macedo, Ana P; Bluschke, Annet; Hudson, Louise; Rawling, Charlotte; Wright, Hannah

    2011-03-01

    Gender and ethnicity are important aspects of children's everyday social relationships, yet little is known about how these social categories influence children's collaborative interactions. In the present study, 322 White (Caucasian) and South Asian boys and girls (mean age, 7.5 years) collaborated in pairs on easy and difficult versions of a model completion task. As expected, girls were less assertive than boys in conversation, yet this relation held only for all-Asian pairs (i.e., an Asian boy and girl in conversation). Also consistent with expectations, levels of conversational affiliation were lowest in cross-ethnic interaction. The influence of gender and ethnicity on conversations did not vary in light of contrasting cognitive demands of the tasks. Results are discussed in relation to work on effective peer collaboration and the potential role of contact in promoting positive ethnic and gender group attitudes. PMID:21288258

  13. Ethnic differentials in early childhood mortality in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Choe, M K; Retherford, R D; Gubhaju, B B; Thapa, S

    1989-04-01

    This paper investigates the association of early childhood mortality (between birth and second birthday) with ethnicity in Nepal, based on data from the 1976 Nepal Fertility Survey, which was part of the World Fertility Survey. The approach is through a series of hazard models, which incorporate ethnicity, year of birth, mother's illiteracy, father's illiteracy, rural-urban residence, region, sex, maternal age, survival of previous birth, previous birth interval, and breast-feeding as covariates. Ethnic differentials in early childhood mortality are not explained by the other socioeconomic and demographic covariates, except for a modest effect of illiteracy, but the remaining covariates explain a great deal of variability in early childhood mortality itself. Analysis using an improved specification of breast-feeding as an age-varying covariate indicates, on average, that breast-feeding, relative to not breast-feeding, reduces age-specific mortality risks during the first 2 years of life by 76%, a very large effect. PMID:2722918

  14. Age and speciation of iodine in groundwater and mudstones of the Horonobe area, Hokkaido, Japan: Implications for the origin and migration of iodine during basin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togo, Yoko S.; Takahashi, Yoshio; Amano, Yuki; Matsuzaki, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Yohey; Terada, Yasuko; Muramatsu, Yasuyuki; Ito, Kazumasa; Iwatsuki, Teruki

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports the concentration, speciation and isotope ratio (129I/127I) of iodine from both groundwater and host rocks in the Horonobe area, northern Hokkaido, Japan, to clarify the origin and migration of iodine in sedimentary rocks. Cretaceous to Quaternary sedimentary rocks deposited nearly horizontally in Tenpoku Basin and in the Horonobe area were uplifted above sea level during active tectonics to form folds and faults in the Quaternary. Samples were collected from the Pliocene Koetoi and late Miocene Wakkanai formations (Fms), which include diatomaceous and siliceous mudstones. The iodine concentration in groundwater, up to 270 μmol/L, is significantly higher than that of seawater, with the iodine enrichment factor relative to seawater reaching 800-1500. The iodine concentration in the rocks decreases from the Koetoi to Wakkanai Fms, suggesting that iodine was released into the water from the rocks of deeper formations. The iodine concentration in the rocks is sufficiently high for forming iodine-rich groundwater as found in this area. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analysis shows that iodine exists as organic iodine and iodide (I-) in host rocks, whereas it exists mainly as I- in groundwater. The isotope ratio is nearly constant for iodine in the groundwater, at [0.11-0.23] × 10-12, and it is higher for iodine in rocks, at [0.29-1.1] × 10-12, giving iodine ages of 42-60 Ma and 7-38 Ma, respectively. Some iodine in groundwater must have originated from Paleogene and even late Cretaceous Fms, which are also considered as possible sources of oil and gas, in view of the old iodine ages of the groundwater. The iodine ages of the rocks are older than the depositional ages, implying that the rocks adsorbed some iodine from groundwater, which was sourced from greater depths. The iodine concentration in groundwater decreases with decreasing chlorine concentration due to mixing of iodine-rich connate water and meteoric water. A likely scenario

  15. Racial and Ethnic Inequality in the United States, 1940 and 1950: The Impact of Geographic Location and Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschman, Charles; Kraly, Ellen Percy

    1990-01-01

    Analyzes male occupational stratification for 35 ethnic populations, defined by race and national origins. While racial and Spanish-origin minorities had average occupational statuses far below that of White males of native parentage, most European ethnics were equal to or only slightly below the majority population in 1940 and 1950. (AF)

  16. Individualism, collectivism and ethnic identity: cultural assumptions in accounting for caregiving behaviour in Britain.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rosalind

    2012-09-01

    Britain is experiencing the ageing of a large number of minority ethnic groups for the first time in its history, due to the post-war migration of people from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent. Stereotypes about a high level of provision of informal caregiving among minority ethnic groups are common in Britain, as in the US, despite quantitative studies refuting this assumption. This paper reports on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with older people from five different ethnic groups about their conceptualisation of their ethnic identity, and their attributions of motivations of caregiving within their own ethnic group and in other groups. It is argued that ethnic identity becomes salient after migration and becoming a part of an ethnic minority group in the new country. Therefore, White British people who have never migrated do not have a great sense of ethnic identity. Further, a strong sense of ethnic identity is linked with identifying with the collective rather than the individual, which explains why the White British participants gave an individualist account of their motivations for informal care, whereas the minority ethnic participants gave a collectivist account of their motivations of care. Crucially, members of all ethnic groups were providing or receiving informal care, so it was the attribution and not the behaviour which differed.

  17. Individualism, collectivism and ethnic identity: cultural assumptions in accounting for caregiving behaviour in Britain.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rosalind

    2012-09-01

    Britain is experiencing the ageing of a large number of minority ethnic groups for the first time in its history, due to the post-war migration of people from the Caribbean and the Indian subcontinent. Stereotypes about a high level of provision of informal caregiving among minority ethnic groups are common in Britain, as in the US, despite quantitative studies refuting this assumption. This paper reports on a qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews with older people from five different ethnic groups about their conceptualisation of their ethnic identity, and their attributions of motivations of caregiving within their own ethnic group and in other groups. It is argued that ethnic identity becomes salient after migration and becoming a part of an ethnic minority group in the new country. Therefore, White British people who have never migrated do not have a great sense of ethnic identity. Further, a strong sense of ethnic identity is linked with identifying with the collective rather than the individual, which explains why the White British participants gave an individualist account of their motivations for informal care, whereas the minority ethnic participants gave a collectivist account of their motivations of care. Crucially, members of all ethnic groups were providing or receiving informal care, so it was the attribution and not the behaviour which differed. PMID:22869345

  18. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Imbir, Kamil K.

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples. PMID:27486423

  19. Affective Norms for 4900 Polish Words Reload (ANPW_R): Assessments for Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability and, Age of Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Imbir, Kamil K

    2016-01-01

    In studies that combine understanding of emotions and language, there is growing demand for good-quality experimental materials. To meet this expectation, a large number of 4905 Polish words was assessed by 400 participants in order to provide a well-established research method for everyone interested in emotional word processing. The Affective Norms for Polish Words Reloaded (ANPW_R) is designed as an extension to the previously introduced the ANPW dataset and provides assessments for eight different affective and psycholinguistic measures of Valence, Arousal, Dominance, Origin, Significance, Concreteness, Imageability, and subjective Age of Acquisition. The ANPW_R is now the largest available dataset of affective words for Polish, including affective scores that have not been measured in any other dataset (concreteness and age of acquisition scales). Additionally, the ANPW_R allows for testing hypotheses concerning dual-mind models of emotion and activation (origin and subjective significance scales). Participants in the current study assessed all 4905 words in the list within 1 week, at their own pace in home sessions, using eight different Self-assessment Manikin (SAM) scales. Each measured dimension was evaluated by 25 women and 25 men. The ANPW_R norms appeared to be reliable in split-half estimation and congruent with previous normative studies in Polish. The quadratic relation between valence and arousal was found to be in line with previous findings. In addition, nine other relations appeared to be better described by quadratic instead of linear function. The ANPW_R provides well-established research materials for use in psycholinguistic and affective studies in Polish-speaking samples. PMID:27486423

  20. Validation of the SQUASH Physical Activity Questionnaire in a Multi-Ethnic Population: The HELIUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Gademan, M. G. J.; Snijder, M. B.; Engelbert, R. H. H.; Dijkshoorn, H.; Terwee, C. B.; Stronks, K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the reliability and validity of the SQUASH physical activity (PA) questionnaire in a multi-ethnic population living in the Netherlands. Methods We included participants from the HELIUS study, a population-based cohort study. In this study we included Dutch (n = 114), Turkish (n = 88), Moroccan (n = 74), South-Asian Surinamese (n = 98) and African Surinamese (n = 91) adults, aged 18–70 years. The SQUASH was self-administered twice to assess test-re-test reliability (mean interval 6–7 weeks) and participants wore an accelerometer and heart rate monitor (Actiheart) to enable assessment of construct validity. Results We observed low test-re-test reliability; Intra class correlation coefficients ranged from low (0.05 for moderate/high intensity PA in African Surinamese women) to acceptable (0.78 for light intensity PA in Moroccan women). The discrepancy between self-reported and measured PA differed on the basis of the intensity of activity: self-reported light intensity PA was lower than measured but self-reported moderate/high intensity PA was higher than measured, with wide limits of agreement. The discrepancy between questionnaire and Actiheart measures of moderate intensity PA did not differ between ethnic minority and Dutch participants with correction for relevant confounders. Additionally, the SQUASH overestimated the number of participants meeting the Dutch PA norm; Cohen’s kappas for the agreement were poor, the highest being 0.30 in Dutch women. Conclusion We found considerable variation in the test-re-test reliability and validity of self-reported PA with no consistency based on ethnic origin. Our findings imply that the SQUASH does not provide a valid basis for comparison of PA between ethnic groups. PMID:27575490