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Sample records for age ethnicity years

  1. Vocational interests in the United States: Sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects.

    PubMed

    Morris, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Vocational interests predict educational and career choices, job performance, and career success (Rounds & Su, 2014). Although sex differences in vocational interests have long been observed (Thorndike, 1911), an appropriate overall measure has been lacking from the literature. Using a cross-sectional sample of United States residents aged 14 to 63 who completed the Strong Interest Inventory assessment between 2005 and 2014 (N = 1,283,110), I examined sex, age, ethnicity, and year effects on work related interest levels using both multivariate and univariate effect size estimates of individual dimensions (Holland's Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional). Men scored higher on Realistic (d = -1.14), Investigative (d = -.32), Enterprising (d = -.22), and Conventional (d = -.23), while women scored higher on Artistic (d = .19) and Social (d = .38), mostly replicating previous univariate findings. Multivariate, overall sex differences were very large (disattenuated Mahalanobis' D = 1.61; 27% overlap). Interest levels were slightly lower and overall sex differences larger in younger samples. Overall sex differences have narrowed slightly for 18-22 year-olds in more recent samples. Generally very small ethnicity effects included relatively higher Investigative and Enterprising scores for Asians, Indians, and Middle Easterners, lower Realistic scores for Blacks and Native Americans, higher Realistic, Artistic, and Social scores for Pacific Islanders, and lower Conventional scores for Whites. Using Prediger's (1982) model, women were more interested in people (d = 1.01) and ideas (d = .18), while men were more interested in things and data. These results, consistent with previous reviews showing large sex differences and small year effects, suggest that large sex differences in work related interests will continue to be observed for decades. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Profiling the ethnic characteristics of domestic injuries in children younger than age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Oyetunji, Tolulope A; Stevenson, Adrienne A; Oyetunji, Aderonke O; Onguti, Sharon K; Ames, Sarah A; Haider, Adil H; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2012-04-01

    The home remains a very common location for deadly injuries among children younger than 5 years. The aim of this study is to describe the demographic and injury characteristics of domestic injuries in children younger than 5 years. The National Trauma Data Bank's National Sample Program data set was queried for children younger than 5 years with the injury site classified as home. Bivariate analysis was performed to determine unadjusted differences by ethnicity. Appropriate weight was applied to the sample to determine accurate national estimates. A total of 7,364 children, representing 32,033 children, were analyzed. Overall mortality was 1.6 per cent. Among whites, blacks, Hispanics, Asians, and Native Americans, intentional injuries accounted for 6.5, 12.8, 10.2, 5.2, and 19.0 per cent of all injuries by intent, respectively (P < 0.003). Burn injury was disproportionately higher in blacks (24.1%) followed by Native Americans and Asians (15.3 and 11.5%, P = 0.008). On multivariate analysis, black ethnicity was associated with increased length of stay. Intentional injuries were significantly higher in blacks and Native Americans with black patients sustaining a disproportionately higher proportion of burn injury. Therefore, greater attention is needed to provide more effective home safety interventions to children among high-risk ethnic groups.

  3. Inequality of Experience of Dental Caries between Different Ethnic Groups of Brazilians Aged 15 to 19 Years

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Methods Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Results Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24–1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02–3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Conclusions Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education

  4. Aging Differences in Ethnic Skin

    PubMed Central

    Buainain De Castro Maymone, Mayra; Kundu, Roopal V.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is an inevitable and complex process that can be described clinically as features of wrinkles, sunspots, uneven skin color, and sagging skin. These cutaneous effects are influenced by both intrinsic and extrinsic factors and often are varied based on ethnic origin given underlying structural and functional differences. The authors sought to provide updated information on facets of aging and how it relates to ethnic variation given innate differences in skin structure and function. Publications describing structural and functional principles of ethnic and aging skin were primarily found through a PubMed literature search and supplemented with a review of textbook chapters. The most common signs of skin aging despite skin type are dark spots, loss of elasticity, loss of volume, and rhytides. Skin of color has many characteristics that make its aging process unique. Those of Asian, Hispanic, and African American descent have distinct facial structures. Differences in the concentration of epidermal melanin makes darkly pigmented persons more vulnerable to dyspigmentation, while a thicker and more compact dermis makes facial lines less noticeable. Ethnic skin comprises a large portion of the world population. Therefore, it is important to understand the unique structural and functional differences among ethnicities to adequately treat the signs of aging. PMID:26962390

  5. Overweight at age two years in a multi-ethnic cohort (ABCD study): the role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight/obesity is a major public health problem worldwide which disproportionally affects specific ethnic groups. Little is known about whether such differences already exist at an early age and which factors contribute to these ethnic differences. Therefore, the present study assessed possible ethnic differences in overweight at age 2 years, and the potential explanatory role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors. Methods Data were derived from a multi-ethnic cohort in the Netherlands (the ABCD study). Weight and height data of 3,156 singleton infants at age 2 years were used. Five ethnic populations were distinguished: Dutch native (n = 1,718), African descent (n = 238), Turkish (n = 162), Moroccan (n = 245) and other non-Dutch (n = 793). Overweight status was defined by the International Obesity Task Force guidelines. The explanatory role of prenatal factors, birth outcomes and postnatal factors in ethnic disparities in overweight (including obesity) was assessed by logistic regression analysis. Results Compared to the native Dutch (7.1%), prevalence of overweight was higher in the Turkish (19.8%) and Moroccan (16.7%) group, whereas the prevalence was not increased in the African descent (9.2%) and other non-Dutch (8.8%) group. Although maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index partly explained the ethnic differences, the odds ratio (OR) of being overweight remained higher in the Turkish (OR: 2.66; 95%CI: 1.56-4.53) and Moroccan (OR: 2.11; 95%CI: 1.31-3.38) groups after adjusting for prenatal factors. The remaining differences were largely accounted for by weight gain during the first 6 months of life (postnatal factor). Maternal height, birth weight and gender were independent predictors for overweight at age 2 years, but did not explain the ethnic differences. Conclusion Turkish and Moroccan children in the Netherlands have 2- to 3-fold higher odds for being overweight at age 2 years, which is largely attributed to

  6. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  7. Perspectives on ageing, later life and ethnicity: ageing research in ethnic minority contexts.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Maria; Norris, Meriel

    2015-05-01

    This special issue focuses broadly upon questions and themes relating to the current conceptualisations, representations and use of 'ethnicity' (and ethnic minority experiences) within the field of social gerontology. An important aim of this special issue is to explore and address the issue of 'otherness' within the predominant existing frameworks for researching those who are ageing or considered aged, compounded by the particular constructions of their ethnicity and ethnic 'difference'. The range of theoretical, methodological and empirical papers included in this collection provide some critical insights into particular facets of the current research agendas, cultural understandings and empirical focus of ethnic minority ageing research. The main emphasis is on highlighting the ways in which ethnic cultural homogeneity and 'otherness' is often assumed in research involving older people from ethnic minority backgrounds, and how wider societal inequalities are concomitantly (re)produced, within (and through) research itself - for example, based on narrowly defined research agendas and questions; the assumed age and/or ethnic differences of researchers vis-à-vis their older research participants; the workings of the formalised ethical procedures and frameworks; and the conceptual and theoretical frameworks employed in the formulation of research questions and interpretation of data. We examine and challenge here the simplistic categorisations and distinctions often made in gerontological research based around research participants' ethnicity, age and ageing and assumed cultural differences. The papers presented in this collection reveal instead the actual complexity and fluidity of these concepts as well as the cultural dynamism and diversity of experiences within ethnic groups. Through an exploration of these issues, we address some of the gaps in existing knowledge and understandings as well as contribute to the newly emerging discussions surrounding the use of

  8. Obesity, age, ethnicity, and clinical features of prostate cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Victor J; Pang, Darren; Tang, Wendell W; Zhang, Xin; Li, Li; You, Zongbing

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 36.5% of the U.S. adults (≥ 20 years old) are obese. Obesity has been associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, stroke, and several types of cancer. The present study included 1788 prostate cancer patients who were treated with radical prostatectomy at the Ochsner Health System, New Orleans, Louisiana, from January, 2001 to March, 2016. The patient’s medical records were retrospectively reviewed. Body mass index (BMI), age, ethnicity (Caucasians versus African Americans), clinical stage, Gleason score, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were retrieved. The relative risk of the patients was stratified into low risk and high risk groups. Associative analyses found that BMI was associated with age, clinical stage, Gleason score, but not ethnicity, PSA levels, or the relative risk in this cohort. Age was associated with ethnicity, clinical stage, Gleason score, and PSA levels, as well as the relative risk. Ethnicity was associated with Gleason score and PSA levels as well as the relative risk, but not clinical stage. These findings suggest that obesity is associated with advanced prostate cancer with stage T3 or Gleason score ≥ 7 diseases, and age and ethnicity are important factors that are associated with the clinical features of prostate cancer patients. PMID:28337464

  9. QuickStats: Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years, by Race/Hispanic Ethnicity* - National Vital Statistics System, United States,(†) 2007 and 2015(§).

    PubMed

    2016-08-19

    From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.

  10. Aging in Multi-ethnic Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Tey, Nai Peng; Siraj, Saedah Binti; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah Binti; Chin, Ai Vyrn; Tan, Maw Pin; Sinnappan, Glaret Shirley; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Multiethnic Malaysia provides a unique case study of divergence in population aging of different sociocultural subgroups within a country. Malaysia represents 3 major ethnicities in Asia-the Malay, Chinese, and Indian. The 3 ethnic groups are at different stages of population aging, as they have undergone demographic transition at different pace amidst rapid social and economic changes. Between 1991 and 2010, the Malaysian population aged 60 and over has more than doubled from about 1 million to 2.2 million, and this is projected to rise to about 7 million or 17.6% of the projected population of 40 million by 2040. In 2010, the aging index ranged from 22.8% among the Bumiputera (Malays and other indigenous groups), to 31.4% among the Indians and 55.0% among the Chinese. Population aging provides great challenges for Malaysia's social and economic development. The increasing prevalence of noncommunicable diseases in older adults, coupled with the erosion of the traditional family support system has increased demands on health care services with an overwhelming need for multidisciplinary and specialized geriatric care. Following the adoption of the National Policy for the Elderly in 1995, issues of population aging have gained increasing attention, especially among researchers. There is an urgent need to increase public awareness, develop infrastructure, as well as support action oriented research that will directly translate to comprehensive and cohesive social strategies, policies, and legislation to protect not just the current older Malaysians but the future of all Malaysians.

  11. Birds of an Ethnic Feather? Ethnic Identity Homophily among College-Age Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Syed, Moin; Juan, Mary Joyce D.

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the degree to which pairs of friends report similar levels of ethnic identity. College-age friends (n=107 pairs; N=214 overall) completed measures of ethnic identity exploration and commitment, identity synthesis, relationship closeness, and frequency of talking to friends and family about ethnicity-related issues. Participants…

  12. Menopausal age in various ethnic groups in Israel.

    PubMed

    Neri, A; Bider, D; Lidor, Y; Ovadia, J

    1982-12-01

    The effects of various parameters on age at menopause have been investigated in five ethnic groups in Israel comprising East European, West European, North African, Israeli and other Middle Eastern (Mediterranean) women, respectively. The data were acquired by means of anonymous questionnaires and were programmed for 1770 women. Correlation coefficients between various variables and age at menopause revealed three variables which have a straight correlation, vis. obesity index, number of children, and years of amenorrhoea (during the reproductive years). The years-of-smoking variable has an inverse correlation with age at menopause. East Europeans have the highest age at menarche. Two-way analysis of variance has shown that the obesity index, years of amenorrhoea, number of children and years-of-smoking parameters are individually more important than ethnic origin. The finding that the age at menopause is highest in the North African group is explained by the higher incidence in this group of high parity, a greater number of amenorrhoea, obesity, and low cigarette consumption. Since many habits (such as smoking, diet, use of contraceptive pills, multiple partners and marital obligations) are subject to frequent change in the modern world, it is of the utmost importance to repeat such a study every few years.

  13. Reliability of the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test: Age and Ethnic Group Comparisons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Jerry S.; Jensen, C. Mark

    1981-01-01

    Reliabilities for the Raven Colored Progressive Matrices Test (CPM) are reported for three age groups (ages 5 1/2- 6 1/2, 6 1/2-7 1/2, and 7 1/2-8 1/2 years) and three ethnic groups (Anglo, Black, and Hispanic). Results indicate CPM is not equally reliable for all age groups, but appears equally reliable for the three ethnic groups. (Author)

  14. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants.

  15. Age at marriage, sex-ratios, and ethnic heterogamy.

    PubMed

    Stier, H; Shavit, Y

    1994-05-01

    "This paper focuses on the effects of age at marriage and the sex-ratio on patterns of ethnic homogamy among Israeli women. We hypothesize that later marriages are more likely than early marriages to be heterogamous as the 'marriage market' shifts from school to the work-place. By the same token, when facing severe marriage squeezes women will be forced to out-marry. Employing data from the 1983 census, we model mate selection of women from Afro-Asian and Euro-American origin in various birth-cohorts. The results do not fully support our hypotheses: we find that in and of itself, age at marriage does not enhance ethnic heterogamy."

  16. Analysis of mortality trends by specific ethnic groups and age groups in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan

    2014-07-01

    The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.

  17. Age of initial drug experimentation among white and non-white ethnics.

    PubMed

    Jackson, N; Carlisi, J; Greenway, C; Zalesnick, M

    1981-12-01

    Students in four cities completed a questionnaire regarding their ethnic background and drug use patterns. From this information, comparisons in age of initial drug experimentation among ethnic groups and races were made. The results indicated significant differences in actual age of experimentation among ethnic groups, as well as differences in other general pattern relating to age of first drug use. A comparison of Whites to non-Whites showed little difference in ages of initial drug experimentation. It was concluded that ethnicity, more so than mere race, was related to age of first use of drugs.

  18. Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity, 2003-04 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses school fall Enrollment of Montana based on race/ethnicity for the 2003-2004 school year. Sections include: (1) Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity Overview; and (2) Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity-2003-04 School Year. Fall enrollment data are collected by school, grade, gender, and race/ethnicity…

  19. Development of Ethnic, Racial, and National Prejudice in Childhood and Adolescence: A Multinational Meta-Analysis of Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In…

  20. The prevalence of multimorbidity in a geographically defined American population: patterns by age, sex, and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Walter A.; Boyd, Cynthia M.; Grossardt, Brandon R.; Bobo, William V.; Rutten, Lila J.; Roger, Véronique L.; Ebbert, Jon O.; Therneau, Terry M.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Sauver, Jennifer L. St.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the prevalence of multimorbidity involving 20 selected chronic conditions in a geographically defined US population, emphasizing age, sex, and ethnic differences. Patients and Methods Using the Rochester Epidemiology Project (REP) records-linkage system, we identified all residents of Olmsted County, MN on April 1, 2010, and we electronically extracted the International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision (ICD-9) codes associated with all healthcare visits made between April 1, 2005 and March 31, 2010 (5-year capture frame). Using these ICD-9 codes, we defined the 20 common chronic conditions recommended by the US Department of Health and Human Services. We counted only persons who received at least two codes for a given condition separated by more than 30 days, and calculated the age-, sex-, and ethnicity-specific prevalence of multimorbidity. Results Of the 138,858 study subjects, 52.4% were women, 38.9% had one or more conditions, 22.6% had two or more, and 4.9% had 5 or more conditions. The prevalence of multimorbidity (2 or more conditions) increased steeply with older age and reached 77.3% at ages 65 years and older. However, the absolute number of people affected by multimorbidity was higher in those younger than 65 years. Although the prevalence of multimorbidity was similar in men and women overall, the most common dyads and triads of conditions varied by sex. Compared to Whites, the prevalence of multimorbidity was slightly higher in Blacks and slightly lower in Asians. Conclusion Multimorbidity is common in the general population; it increases steeply with older age, has different patterns in men and women, and varies by ethnicity. PMID:25220409

  1. Religion, Ethnicity and Contraceptive Use among Reproductive age Women in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obasohan, Phillips Edomwonyi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Religion and Ethnicity are the two most important factors that shape the behavioral pattern especially health seeking behaviors of the people of Nigeria. This study seeks to examine the mediatory effects of the linkage between ethnicity and religion with selected socio-demographic variables on the current use of contraception (CUC) among women of reproductive age in Nigeria. Methods: Nationally representative sample of 39,948 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) in the 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was used. Chi-square was used to analyze the bivariate relationship between exposure variables and CUC. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the odds ratio with the 95% confidence interval. Results: The prevalence of CUC was generally low for women of reproductive age in Nigeria, highest among the Yoruba women and lowest among the Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi (HFKS) women; highest among other Christian women and lowest for Muslim women and highest for Yoruba/other religion and lowest for women of Hausa/Fulani/Kanuri/Seriberi/Islam. The odds ratios showed that disparity across ethno-religious boundaries is significant. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: Globally, and especially in sub-Saharan African countries, maternal mortality resulting from the abortion of unintended pregnancies pose a major challenge in health delivery system. In Nigeria, a cultural and religious heterogeneous society, current use of contraceptives by women of reproductive age is found not to be a matter of independent effects of ethnicity, religiosity and other socio-demographic variables but also dependent on the effects of interactions between the ethnicity and religion. PMID:27621987

  2. Ethnicity and Ethnically "Mixed" Identity in Belize: A Study of Primary School-Age Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haug, Sarah Woodbury

    1998-01-01

    Nationalism, as taught in Belize schools, is panethnic and multiethnic, but because the increasingly widespread practice of ethnic mixing is not acknowledged, there is a discrepancy between what is taught and the daily life of students. Research results from 161 elementary school children show that the ethnic self-identification of children is…

  3. Exploring the Influence of Ethnicity, Age, and Trauma on Prisoners' World Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Sandy

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the author explores world assumptions of prisoners, how these assumptions vary by ethnicity and age, and whether trauma history affects world assumptions. A random sample of young and old prisoners, matched for prison location, was drawn from the New Jersey Department of Corrections prison population. Age and ethnicity had…

  4. Age and Ethnic Variation in Children's Thinking about the Nature of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKown, Clark

    2004-01-01

    A content analysis of interviews with an ethnically diverse group of 202 children aged 6 to 10 describes what children think racism is, and examines associations between age, ethnicity, and children's thinking about racism. Children's narratives capture many dimensions of racism, including stereotypes, prejudice, discrimination, and ethnic…

  5. [Anthropometric indicators and psychodynamics in 20-54 year old ethnic Georgian men].

    PubMed

    Hadashvili, L A

    2009-01-01

    Aim of our research is establishing interrelation of anthropometric and psychodynamic indicators of ethnic Georgian men with normal physical development. Totally 125 men from 20 to 54 years old were observed. The were divided into 7 age groups. The anthropometric data were processed by mathematical statistics methods. For the research of character and temperament a questionnaire by Aizenk and scales of temperament by Sheldon were used. The types of mood were determined by D. Uznadze method. For determination of intellect the schemes and tests approved in England and USA were used. It was found that among ethnic Georgian men phlegmatic and sanguine persons prevail; the interconnection between of anthropometric data and temperament are 0.4-0.5. Correlation between of anthropometric data and forms of character (introversion) increases by 0.4-0.54; interrelation between the forms of intellect (mathematical, verbal) and of anthropometric data grow by 0.4-0.6; with the age interconnection between the types of mood and anthropometric data decreases by 0.1-0.2. Thus, it was established that ethnic Georgian men of normal physical development from 20 to 54 years old are mainly dolichomorphic, of sanguine temperament, extravert, they have average verbal (logical) intellect, by type of mood they are plastic-dynamic, constant-stable, with average excitement, which means they are harmonious constitutional types.

  6. Incidence, and Gender, Age and Ethnic Distribution of Sarcomas in the Republic of Suriname from 1980 to 2008

    PubMed Central

    Mans, DRA; Lall, AE Budhu; Macnack, VL; van Tholl, JA; Zandveld, EB; Vrede, MA

    2014-01-01

    Objective: We report on the incidence and the gender, age and ethnic distribution of sarcomas diagnosed between 1980 and 2008 in the multi-ethnic Republic of Suriname. Methods: Total and average yearly number of cases, crude rates, as well as relevant population data were derived from the records of the Pathologic Anatomy Laboratory and the General Bureau of Statistics, respectively, and stratified according to gender, age groups 0–19, 20–49 and 50+ years, and the largest ethnic groups (Hindustani, Creole, Javanese and Maroons). Results: Between 1980 and 2008, 258 sarcomas were diagnosed in Suriname, ie at a frequency of nine per year and an annual rate of two per 100 000. Overall, there was 0.9 male per female, two to four cases per year in each age group, and one to three patients in each ethnic group. Soft-tissue sarcomas comprised approximately 80% of overall cases, with a male/female ratio that was approximately 0.5; almost 90% of patients were older than 20 years; more than one-third was Creole. Leiomyosarcoma, fibrosarcoma and liposarcoma were most frequently encountered (90 cases), particularly above 20 years of age, while leiomyosarcomas seemed, additionally, more common in women and Creoles or Maroons. The most numerous bone tumours were primitive neuroectodermal tumour/Ewing tumour and osteosarcoma (37 cases). They were more common in males, the youngest age group, and Hindustanis and Creoles. Conclusions: The incidence of sarcomas in Suriname, and their gender, age and ethnic distribution in general, seemed comparable with international data. The main exception might be leiomyosarcoma which might have a predilection for Afro-Surinamese. PMID:25303244

  7. Income, neighborhood stressors, and harsh parenting: test of moderation by ethnicity, age, and gender.

    PubMed

    Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2014-12-01

    Family and neighborhood influences related to low-income were examined to understand their association with harsh parenting among an ethnically diverse sample of families. Specifically, a path model linking household income to harsh parenting via neighborhood disorder, fear for safety, maternal depressive symptoms, and family conflict was evaluated using cross-sectional data from 2,132 families with children ages 5-16 years from Chicago. The sample was 42% Mexican American, 41% African American, and 17% European American. Results provide support for a family process model where a lower income-to-needs ratio is associated with higher reports of neighborhood disorder, greater fear for safety, and more family conflict, which is in turn, associated with greater frequency of harsh parenting. Our tests for moderation by ethnicity/immigrant status, child gender, and child age (younger child vs. adolescent) indicate that although paths are similar for families of boys and girls, as well as for families of young children and adolescents, there are some differences by ethnic group. Specifically, we find the path from neighborhood disorder to fear for safety is stronger for Mexican American (United States born and immigrant) and European American families in comparison with African American families. We also find that the path from fear for safety to harsh parenting is significant for European American and African American families only. Possible reasons for such moderated effects are considered.

  8. Age as a Factor in Ethnic Accent Identification in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Ying Ying

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to answer two research questions. First, can listeners distinguish the ethnicity of the speakers on the basis of voice quality alone? Second, do demographic differences among the listeners affect discriminability? A simple but carefully designed and controlled ethnic identification test was carried out on 325 Singaporean…

  9. School context protective factors against peer ethnic discrimination across the high school years.

    PubMed

    Bellmore, Amy; Nishina, Adrienne; You, Ji-In; Ma, Ting-Lan

    2012-03-01

    Ethnically diverse high school contexts present unique social opportunities for youth to form interethnic relationships, but they may also subject students to certain social challenges such as peer ethnic discrimination. With a sample of 1,072 high school students (55% girls; 54% Latino, 20% African American, 14% Asian, 12% White) attending 84 high schools, school context factors that protect students' exposure to peer ethnic discrimination across the high school years were investigated with a three-level hierarchical linear model. Each spring for four consecutive years (grades 9-12), self-reported peer ethnic discrimination, interracial climate at school, and perceived school ethnic composition were assessed. At the school level, objective high school ethnic composition data were collected. Peer ethnic discrimination was found to decline slightly across the high school years. Above and beyond this decline, more positive perceptions of the school interracial climate and both objective and perceived numerical ethnic majority status predicted lower levels of peer ethnic discrimination. Taken together, the results highlight the significance of both objective (e.g., ethnic composition) and subjective (e.g., interracial climate) aspects of the school ethnic context to students' high school social experiences.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Differentials in Overweight and Obesity Among 3-Year-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Kimbro, Rachel Tolbert; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; McLanahan, Sara

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated racial/ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in a national sample of 3-year-olds from urban, low-income families and assessed possible determinants of differences. Methods. Survey, in-home observation, and interview data were collected at birth, 1 year, and 3 years. We used logistic regression analyses and adjusted for a range of covariates in examining overweight and obesity differentials according to race/ethnicity. Results. Thirty-five percent of the study children were overweight or obese. Hispanic children were twice as likely as either Black or White children to be overweight or obese. Although we controlled for a wide variety of characteristics, we were unable to explain either White–Hispanic or Black–Hispanic differences in overweight and obesity. However, birthweight, taking a bottle to bed, and mother’s weight status were important predictors of children’s overweight or obesity at age 3 years. Conclusions. Children’s problems with overweight and obesity begin as early as age 3, and Hispanic children and those with obese mothers are especially at risk. PMID:17194857

  11. Inequalities in dementia incidence between six racial and ethnic groups over 14 years

    PubMed Central

    Mayeda, Elizabeth Rose; Glymour, M Maria; Quesenberry, Charles P; Whitmer, Rachel A

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Reducing racial/ethnic disparities is a primary objective of the National Alzheimer’s Plan (NAPA), yet direct comparisons within large samples representing diversity of the United States are lacking. METHODS Dementia incidence from 1/1/2000-12/31/2013 and 25-year cumulative risk in 274,283 healthcare members aged 64+ (n=18,778 African-American, n=4,543 American Indian/Alaska Native (AIAN), n=21,000 Latino, n=440 Pacific Islander, n=206,490 White, n=23,032 Asian-Americans). Cox proportional hazard models were adjusted for age, sex, medical utilization, and comorbidities. RESULTS Dementia incidence (N=59,555) was highest for African-Americans (26.6/1,000 person-years) and AIANs (22.2/1,000 person-years); intermediate for Latinos (19.6/1,000 person-years), Pacific Islanders (19.6/1,000 person-years), and Whites (19.3/1,000 person-years); and lowest among Asian-Americans (15.2/1,000 person-years). Risk was 65% greater for African-Americans (hazard ratio=1.65; 95% confidence interval=1.58-1.72) versus Asian-Americans. Cumulative 25-year risk at age 65 was: 38% African-Americans, 35% AIANs, 32% Latino, 25% Pacific Islanders, 30% White, and 28% Asian-Americans. DISCUSSION Dementia rates varied over 60% between groups, providing a comprehensive benchmark for the NAPA goal of reducing disparities. PMID:26874595

  12. Living independently as an ethnic minority elder: a relational perspective on the issues of aging and ethnic minorities.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jung-Hye

    2014-06-01

    This study examines the residential experiences of Korean ethnic elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area, focusing on how patterns of social relationships that evolved around a geographical location and its urban infrastructure enabled the elders to achieve their desire for residential independence. Based on the theoretical concept of activity settings and social capital, the study suggests an integrated theoretical model where social capital is understood as an embedded asset of an activity setting. Methodologically, this study uses a combined method of qualitative interviews with 138 Korean elders in affordable housing in the greater Chicago area and a geographic analysis of their social relationships in order to present associations among social relationships, urban infrastructures, and the shared value of independence within their residential communities. The study findings indicate that the elders mobilized ethnic businesses, urban infrastructures, and the collective efficacy of groups to achieve the shared goal of maintaining residential independence. In each community, a cultural broker acted as an important bridge between the community of ethnic minorities and the larger social networks coexisting within the community boundary. The relational perspective as a potent ground for understanding and further solving the issues of aging and ethnicity is highlighted.

  13. Ethnic Identity and Career Development among First-Year College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Ryan D.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study explored the relation of ethnic identity achievement and career development progress among a sample of 2,432 first-year college students who completed the Career Decision Profile and Phinney's Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure. Among students of color, correlational analyses revealed a series of statistically significant, but…

  14. Vaccination coverage by race/ethnicity and poverty level among children aged 19-35 months -- United States, 1996.

    PubMed

    1997-10-17

    The Childhood Immunization Initiative (CII), implemented in 1993, is an intensive program to increase vaccination coverage among preschool-aged children and to reduce or eliminate vaccine-preventable diseases. In 1996, national coverage goals were achieved for 2-year-old children for the most critical doses of each routinely recommended vaccine. Disparities in vaccination coverage have been documented previously among different racial/ethnic groups. This report presents findings from CDC's National Immunization Survey (NIS), which document progress toward achieving the 1996 CII vaccination coverage goals by racial/ethnic group and by level of poverty. The findings indicate that, for each of five racial/ethnic groups, most of the national CII vaccination coverage goals were met and that, based on poverty level, all the goals were met for children living at or above the poverty level, and two of the five goals were met for children living below the poverty level.

  15. Racial Discrimination and Psychological Distress: The Impact of Ethnic Identity and Age Among Immigrant and United States–Born Asian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Tiffany; Gee, Gilbert C.; Takeuchi, David T.

    2009-01-01

    The association between racial and ethnic discrimination and psychological distress was examined among 2,047 Asians (18 to 75 years of age) in the National Latino and Asian American Study, the first-ever nationally representative study of mental health among Asians living in the United States. Stratifying the sample by age in years (i.e., 18 to 30, 31 to 40, 41 to 50, 51 to 75) and nativity status (i.e., immigrant vs. U.S.-born), ethnic identity was tested as either a protective or exacerbating factor. Analyses showed that ethnic identity buffered the association between discrimination and mental health for U.S.-born individuals 41 to 50 years of age. For U.S.-born individuals 31 to 40 years of age and 51 to 75 years of age, ethnic identity exacerbated the negative effects of discrimination on mental health. The importance of age and immigrant status for the association between ethnic identity, discrimination, and well-being among Asians in the United States is discussed. PMID:18473644

  16. Computer-aided bone age assessment for ethnically diverse older children using integrated fuzzy logic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Moin, Paymann; Zhang, Aifeng; Liu, Brent

    2010-03-01

    Bone Age Assessment (BAA) of children is a clinical procedure frequently performed in pediatric radiology to evaluate the stage of skeletal maturation based on the left hand x-ray radiograph. The current BAA standard in the US is using the Greulich & Pyle (G&P) Hand Atlas, which was developed fifty years ago and was only based on Caucasian population from the Midwest US. To bring the BAA procedure up-to-date with today's population, a Digital Hand Atlas (DHA) consisting of 1400 hand images of normal children of different ethnicities, age, and gender. Based on the DHA and to solve inter- and intra-observer reading discrepancies, an automatic computer-aided bone age assessment system has been developed and tested in clinical environments. The algorithm utilizes features extracted from three regions of interests: phalanges, carpal, and radius. The features are aggregated into a fuzzy logic system, which outputs the calculated bone age. The previous BAA system only uses features from phalanges and carpal, thus BAA result for children over age of 15 is less accurate. In this project, the new radius features are incorporated into the overall BAA system. The bone age results, calculated from the new fuzzy logic system, are compared against radiologists' readings based on G&P atlas, and exhibits an improvement in reading accuracy for older children.

  17. Age-Related Changes in Segmental Body Composition by Ethnicity and History of Weight Change across the Adult Lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Simiao; Morio, Béatrice; Denis, Jean-Baptiste; Mioche, Laurence

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed age-related changes in body composition (specifically in trunk fat and appendicular lean masses), with consideration of body mass index (BMI) at age 20 years (BMI reference age, “BMIref”), ethnicity and lifetime weight change history. A cross-sectional dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based dataset was extracted from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Only European-American and African-American subjects were used (2705 men, 2527 women). For each gender and ethnicity, 6 analytic cases were considered, based on three BMIref categories (normal, overweight and obese, being 22, 27 and 30 kg/m2, respectively) and two weight contexts (stable weight or weight gain across the lifespan). A nonparametric model was developed to investigate age-related changes in body composition. Then, parametric modelling was developed for assessing BMIref- and ethnicity-specific effects during aging. In the stable weight, both genders’ and ethnicities’ trunk fat (TF) increased gradually; body fat (BF) remained stable until 40 years and increased thereafter; trunk lean (TL) remained stable, but appendicular lean (APL) and body lean (BL) declined from 20 years. In the weight gain context, TF and BF increased at a constant rate, while APL, TL and BL increased until 40–50 years, and then declined slightly. Compared with European-American subjects of both genders, African-American subjects had lower TF and BF masses. Ethnic differences in body composition were quantified and found to remain constant across the lifespan. PMID:27529269

  18. Evaluating the Role of Birth Weight and Gestational Age on Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Risk Among Those of Hispanic Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Barahmani, Nadia; Dorak, M Tevfik; Forman, Michele R; Sprehe, Michael R; Scheurer, Michael E; Bondy, Melissa L; Okcu, M Fatih; Lupo, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    High birth weight is an established risk factor for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), especially in children younger than 5 years of age at diagnosis. The goal of this study was to explore the association between being born large for gestational age and the risk for ALL by race/ethnicity to determine if the role of this risk factor differed by these characteristics. The authors compared birth certificate data of 575 children diagnosed with ALL who were younger than 5 years and included in the Texas Cancer Registry, Texas Department of Health, between the years 1995 and 2003 with 11,379 controls matched by birth year. Stratified odds ratios were calculated for risk of ALL by birth weight for gestational age, categorized in 3 groups, small, appropriate, and large for gestational age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively), for each race/ethnicity group. The risk of developing ALL was higher among Hispanics who were LGA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.90, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34-2.68) compared with LGA non-Hispanic whites (OR = 1.27, 95% CI: 0.87-1.86) after adjusting for infant gender, year of birth, maternal age, birth order, and presence of Down syndrome. However, the difference was not statistically significant. These results suggest that there may be differences in the association between higher growth in utero and risk of childhood ALL among Hispanics versus non-Hispanic whites.

  19. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  20. Age and Ethnic Differences in Cold Weather and Contagion Theories of Colds and Flu

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with…

  1. Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Influenza Vaccination among Adults with Chronic Medical Conditions Vary by Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Degan; Qiao, Yanru; Brown, Natalie E.; Wang, Junling

    2017-01-01

    Background People living with chronic health conditions exhibit higher risk for developing severe complications from influenza according to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention. Although racial and ethnic disparities in influenza vaccination have been documented, it has not been comprehensively determined whether similar disparities are present among the adult population with at least one such condition. Objective To study if racial and ethnic disparities in relation to influenza vaccination are present in adults suffering from at least one chronic condition and if such inequalities differ between age groups. Methods The Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (2011–2012) was used to study the adult population (age ≥18) who had at least one chronic health condition. Baseline differences in population traits across racial and ethnic groups were identified using a chi-square test. This was conducted among various age groups. In addition, survey logistic regression was utilized to produce odds ratios of receiving influenza vaccination annually between racial and ethnic groups. Results The total sample consisted of 15,499 adults living with at least one chronic health condition. The numbers of non-Hispanic whites (whites), non-Hispanic blacks (blacks), and Hispanics were 8,658, 3,585, and 3,256, respectively. Whites (59.93%) were found to have a higher likelihood of self-reporting their receipt of the influenza vaccine in comparison to the black (48.54%) and Hispanic (48.65%) groups (P<0.001). When examining persons aged 50–64 years and ≥65 years, it was noted that the black (54.99%, 62.72%) and Hispanic (53.54%, 64.48%) population had lower rates of influenza vaccine coverage than the white population (59.22%, 77.89) (both P<0.0001). No significant differences between whites and the blacks or Hispanics were found among the groups among adults between 18 and 49 inclusive (P>0.05). After controlling for patient characteristics, the difference in influenza

  2. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    PubMed Central

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  3. Development of ethnic, racial, and national prejudice in childhood and adolescence: a multinational meta-analysis of age differences.

    PubMed

    Raabe, Tobias; Beelmann, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes 113 research reports worldwide (121 cross-sectional and 7 longitudinal studies) on age differences in ethnic, racial, or national prejudice among children and adolescents. Overall, results indicated a peak in prejudice in middle childhood (5-7 years) followed by a slight decrease until late childhood (8-10 years). In addition to differences for the various operationalizations of prejudice, detailed findings revealed different age-related changes in prejudice toward higher versus lower status out-groups and positive effects of contact opportunities with the out-group on prejudice development. Results confirm that prejudice changes systematically with age during childhood but that no developmental trend is found in adolescence, indicating the stronger influence of the social context on prejudice with increasing age.

  4. Online Learning across Ethnicity and Age: A Study on Learning Interaction Participation, Perception, and Learning Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ke, Fengfeng; Kwak, Dean

    2013-01-01

    This mixed-method study examined whether online learning interaction participation, perception, and learning satisfaction would be consistent across varied age and ethnicity groups. Data were collected from students enrolled in 28 online courses via content analysis with online interaction transcripts, structural equation modeling with the…

  5. Cultural Orientation in Asian American Adolescents: Variation by Age and Ethnic Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Yu-Wen; Han, Meekyung; Wong, Sandra L.

    2008-01-01

    The study assessed variation in cultural orientation among Asian American adolescents by age and ethnic density in the community. A total of 128 students at a public high school in Oakland, California, participated in the study. Of these early and middle adolescents, 86 were Chinese American and 42 were Southeast Asian American. They completed the…

  6. Ethnicity and Aging: A Bibliography. Checklists in the Humanities and Education: Series Number Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murguia, Edward, Comp.; And Others

    Literature on ethnicity and aging is listed in this bibliography, which is intended to assist researchers, teachers, and policymakers. The bibliography is divided into seven categories: (1) multiethnic and general studies; (2) Black Americans; (3) Hispanic Americans; (4) Native Americans; (5) Asian and Pacific Americans; (6) European origin ethnic…

  7. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns.

  8. Epidemiology of Fractures in the United Kingdom 1988-2012: Variation with age, sex, geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Elizabeth M; van der Velde, Robert; Moon, Rebecca J; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Geusens, Piet; de Vries, Frank; van Staa, Tjeerd P; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2016-01-01

    Summary Rates of fracture worldwide are changing. Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), age, and gender, geographical, ethnic and socioeconomic trends in fracture rates across the United Kingdom were studied over a 24 year period 1988-2012. Previously observed patterns in fracture incidence by age and fracture site were evident. New data on the influence of geographic location, ethnic group and socioeconomic status were obtained. Introduction With secular changes in age- and sex-specific fracture incidence observed in many populations, and global shifts towards an elderly demography, it is vital for health care planners to have an accurate understanding of fracture incidence nationally. We aimed to present up to date fracture incidence data in the UK, stratified by age, sex, geographic location, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Methods The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) contains anonymised electronic health records for approximately 6.9% of the UK population. Information comes from General Practitioners, and covers 11.3 million people from 674 practices across the UK, demonstrated to be representative of the national population. The study population consisted of all permanently registered individuals aged >=18 years. Validated data on fracture incidence were obtained from their medical records, as was information on socioeconomic deprivation, ethnicity and geographic location. Age and sex-specific fracture incidence rates were calculated. Results Fracture incidence rates by age and sex were comparable to those documented in previous studies and demonstrated a bimodal distribution. Substantial geographic heterogeneity in age and sex adjusted fracture incidence was observed, with rates in Scotland almost 50% greater than those in London and South East England. Lowest rates of fracture were observed in black individuals of both sexes; rates of fragility fracture in white women were 4.7 times greater than in black women. Strong

  9. Past 15-Year Trends in Adolescent Marijuana Use: Differences by Race/Ethnicity and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Renee M.; Fairman, Brian; Gilreath, Tamika; Xuan, Ziming; Rothman, Emily F.; Parnham, Taylor; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The potential for increases in adolescent marijuana use is an important concern given recent changes in marijuana policy. The purpose of this study was to estimate trends in marijuana use from 1999-2013 among a national sample of US high school students. We examine changes over time by race/ethnicity and sex. Methods Data are from the National Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS), which involves biennial, school-based surveys that generate nationally-representative data about 9th-12th grade students in the United States. Students self-reported sex, race/ethnicity, and marijuana use (i.e., lifetime use, current use, any use before age 13). We generated national estimates of the prevalence of marijuana use for the time period, and also tested for linear and quadratic trends (n=115,379). Results The prevalence of lifetime marijuana use decreased modestly from 1999 to 2009 (44% to 37%), and has increased slightly since 2009 (41%). Other marijuana use variables (e.g., past 30-day use) followed a similar pattern over time. The prevalence of past 30-day use from 1999-2013 for all groups and both sexes was 22.5%, and it was lowest among Asians and highest among American Indian/Alaska Natives. Although boys have historically had a higher prevalence of marijuana use, results indicate that male-female differences in marijuana use decreased over time. Conclusion Despite considerable changes in state marijuana policies over the past 15 years, marijuana use among high school students has largely declined. Continued surveillance is needed to assess the impact of policy changes on adolescent marijuana use. PMID:26361714

  10. Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in micronutrient intakes of US adults with and without diabetes.

    PubMed

    Vaccaro, Joan A; Huffman, Fatma G

    2013-03-01

    Race/ethnicity-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US adults ≥  21 years were assessed from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2008. The participants included Black non-Hispanics, Mexican-American and White non-Hispanics who signed an informed consent form for the interview and who completed the in-person 24-h recall. Micronutrient intakes were based on the Institute of Medicines' classifications of recommended dietary allowances specific for age and gender. Likelihood of many micronutrient insufficiencies was associated with being female, over 65 years, having diabetes and minority status. Younger and female adults had a greater likelihood of iron insufficiency than male and older adults. These findings demonstrate the importance of considering the intersection of age, gender and race in setting policies for micronutrient deficiency screening, particularly in young female adults and minorities.

  11. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  12. School Enrollment of 3- and 4-Year-Olds, by Race/Ethnic Category.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Gerald

    Based on data collected by the U.S. Bureau of the Census in its October 1980 Current Population Survey, this report examines school enrollment rates of 3- and 4-year-olds from three major ethnic groups (black, white, and Spanish origin) and relates this information to characteristics of the children's schools and households. Variables covered in…

  13. Race and Ethnicity: An 11-Year Content Analysis of "Counseling and Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Caroline A.; Bowen, Nikol V.; Butler, J. Yasmine; Shavers, Marjorie C.

    2013-01-01

    Using the Dimensions of Personal Identity Model proposed by Arredondo and Glauner (as cited in Arredondo et al., 1996), the authors reviewed the last 11 years of the Association for Spiritual, Ethical, and Religious Values in Counseling's journal, "Counseling and Values", specifically regarding the "A" dimensions of race and ethnicity. Twenty-five…

  14. Trends in SSBs and snack consumption among children by age, body weight and race/ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Bleich, Sara N.; Wolfson, Julia A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe national trends in discretionary calories from sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) and snacks by age-specific body weight categories and by age- and weight-specific race/ethnicity groups. Examining these sub-populations is important as population averages may mask important differences. Design and Methods We used 24-hour dietary recall data obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2010 among children aged 2 to 19 (N=14,092). Logistic and linear regression methods were used to adjust for multiple covariates and survey design. Results The number of calories from SSBs declined significantly for nearly all age-specific body weight groups. Among overweight or obese children, significant declines in the number of calories from SSBs were observed among Hispanic children aged 2 to 5 (117 kcal vs. 174 kcal) and white adolescents aged 12 to 19 (299 kcal vs. 365 kcal). Significant declines in the number of calories from salty snacks were observed among white children aged 2 to 5 (192 kcal to 134 kcal) and 6 to 11 (273 kcal vs. 200 kcal). Conclusions The decrease in SSB consumption and increase in snack consumption observed in prior research are not uniform when children are examined within sub-groups accounting for age, weight and race/ethnicity. PMID:25919923

  15. Age and ethnic differences in cold weather and contagion theories of colds and flu.

    PubMed

    Sigelman, Carol K

    2012-02-01

    Age and ethnic group differences in cold weather and contagion or germ theories of infectious disease were explored in two studies. A cold weather theory was frequently invoked to explain colds and to a lesser extent flu but became less prominent with age as children gained command of a germ theory of disease. Explanations of how contact with other people causes disease were more causally sophisticated than explanations of how cold weather causes it. Finally, Mexican American and other minority children were more likely than European American children to subscribe to cold weather theories, a difference partially but not wholly attributable to ethnic group differences in parent education. Findings support the value of an intuitive or naïve theories perspective in understanding developmental and sociocultural differences in concepts of disease and in planning health education to help both children and their parents shed misconceptions so that they can focus on effective preventive actions.

  16. Ethnic and Gender Trends for Cardiovascular Risk Behaviors in Anglo and Mexican American Children, Ages Four to Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, Philip R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined gender and ethnic trends in Mexican American and Anglo preschoolers at home and school using physical, physiological, dietary, activity, and socioenvironmental assessments. Height and total skinfolds showed significant ethnic differences, confirming that preschool represents an age of rapid habit and behavior development…

  17. Change in ethnic identity across the high school years among adolescents with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Baldelomar, Oscar A; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2010-06-01

    Changes in adolescents' ethnic identity (e.g., exploration, belonging) were examined over the 4 years of high school. Results from 541 adolescents (51% female) with Latin American, Asian, and European backgrounds suggest that, as a group, adolescents do not report developmental changes in their ethnic exploration and belonging over time. Yet, within-person analyses of change reveal that individual adolescents exhibited substantial fluctuation in ethnic identity across the years, and this fluctuation was associated with concurrent changes in family cohesion, proportion of same-ethnic peers, and ethnic centrality. The discussion focuses on the value of examining intraindividual change over at least several years in order to more fully understand processes of ethnic identity development during adolescence.

  18. The Day-to-Day Impact of Urogenital Aging: Perspectives from Racially/Ethnically Diverse Women

    PubMed Central

    Luft, Janis; Grady, Deborah; Kuppermann, Miriam

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Urogenital symptoms affect up to half of women after menopause, but their impact on women’s day-to-day functioning and wellbeing is poorly understood. METHODS Postmenopausal women aged 45 to 80 years reporting urogenital dryness, soreness, itching, or pain during sex were recruited to participate in in-depth focus groups to discuss the impact of their symptoms. Focus groups were homogenous with respect to race/ethnicity and stratified by age (for White or Black women) or language (for Latina women). Transcripts of sessions were analyzed according to grounded theory. RESULTS Six focus groups were conducted, involving 44 women (16 White, 14 Black, 14 Latina). Five domains of functioning and wellbeing affected by symptoms were identified: sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations. For some participants, symptoms primarily affected their ability to have and enjoy sex, as well as be responsive to their partners. For others, symptoms interfered with everyday activities, such as exercising, toileting, or sleeping. Participants regarded their symptoms as a sign that they were getting old or their body was deteriorating; women also associated symptoms with a loss of womanhood or sexuality. Additionally, participants reported feeling depressed, embarrassed, and frustrated about their symptoms, and expressed reluctance to discuss them with friends, family, or health care providers. CONCLUSIONS Urogenital symptoms can have a marked impact on sexual functioning, everyday activities, emotional wellbeing, body image, and interpersonal relations after menopause. Clinicians may need to question women actively about these symptoms, as many are reluctant to seek help for this problem. PMID:19908103

  19. Benefit/risk for adjuvant breast cancer therapy with tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitor use by age, and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Chlebowski, R T; Haque, R; Hedlin, H; Col, N; Paskett, E; Manson, J E; Kubo, J T; Johnson, K C; Wactawski-Wende, J; Pan, K; Anderson, G

    2015-12-01

    In early adjuvant breast cancer trial reports, aromatase inhibitors more effectively reduced breast recurrence with lower risk of thromboembolic events and endometrial cancer than tamoxifen, while aromatase inhibitors had higher fracture and cardiovascular disease risk. We used data from updated patient-level meta-analyses of adjuvant trials in analyses to summarize the benefits and risks of these agents in various clinical circumstances. Baseline incidence rates for health outcomes by age and race/ethnicity, absent aromatase inhibitor, or tamoxifen use were estimated from the Women's Health Initiative. Aromatase inhibitor and tamoxifen effects on distant recurrence were obtained from a meta-analysis of the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination (ATAC) and Breast International Group (Big-1-98) clinical trials. Impact on other health outcomes were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized trials comparing aromatase inhibitor to tamoxifen use and from placebo-controlled chemoprevention trials. All health outcomes were given equal weight when modeling net benefit/risk for aromatase inhibitor compared to tamoxifen use by breast cancer recurrence risk, age (decade), race/ethnicity, hysterectomy (yes/no), and by prior myocardial infarction. Over a 10-year period, the benefit/risk index was more favorable for aromatase inhibitor than for tamoxifen as adjuvant breast cancer therapy in almost all circumstances regardless of patient age, race/ethnicity, breast cancer recurrence risk, or presence or absence of a uterus. Only in older women with prior myocardial infarction and low recurrence risk was an advantage for tamoxifen seen. Using a benefit/risk index for endocrine adjuvant breast cancer therapy in postmenopausal women, benefit was higher for aromatase inhibitor use in almost all circumstances.

  20. Daily Intragroup Contact in Diverse Settings: Implications for Asian Adolescents' Ethnic Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Tiffany; Douglass, Sara; Shelton, J. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private regard among 132 Asian adolescents (mean age = 14 years) attending four high schools ranging in ethnic composition diversity. The data suggest a positive daily-level association between contact with same-ethnic others and ethnic private…

  1. Does Ethnicity Affect Where People with Cancer Die? A Population-Based 10 Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Koffman, Jonathan; Ho, Yuen King; Davies, Joanna; Gao, Wei; Higginson, Irene J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ageing is a growing issue for people from UK black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) groups. The health experiences of these groups are recognised as a ‘tracer’ to measure success in end of life patient-preferred outcomes that includes place of death (PoD). Aim To examine patterns in PoD among BAME groups who died of cancer. Material and Methods Mortality data for 93,375 cancer deaths of those aged ≥65 years in London from 2001–2010 were obtained from the UK Office for National Statistics (ONS). Decedent's country of birth was used as a proxy for ethnicity. Linear regression examined trends in place of death across the eight ethnic groups and Poisson regression examined the association between country of birth and place of death. Results 76% decedents were born in the UK, followed by Ireland (5.9%), Europe(5.4%) and Caribbean(4.3%). Most deaths(52.5%) occurred in hospital, followed by home(18.7%). During the study period, deaths in hospital declined with an increase in home deaths; trend for time analysis for those born in UK(0.50%/yr[0.36–0.64%]p<0.001), Europe (1.00%/yr[0.64–1.30%]p<0.001), Asia(1.09%/yr[0.94–1.20%]p<0.001) and Caribbean(1.03%/yr[0.72–1.30%]p<0.001). However, time consistent gaps across the geographical groups remained. Following adjustment hospital deaths were more likely for those born in Asia(Proportion ratio(PR)1.12[95%CI1.08–1.15]p<0.001) and Africa(PR 1.11[95%CI1.07–1.16]p<0.001). Hospice deaths were less likely for those born in Asia(PR 0.73 [0.68–0.80] p<0.001), Africa (PR 0.83[95%CI0.74–0.93]p<0.001), and ‘other’ geographical regions (PR0.90[95% 0.82–0.98]p<0.001). Home deaths were less likely for those born in the Caribbean(PR0.91[95%CI 0.85–0.98]p<0.001). Conclusions Location of death varies by country of birth. BAME groups are more likely to die in a hospital and less likely to die at home or in a hospice. Further investigation is needed to determine whether these differences result from

  2. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  3. Learning Disabilities Empirical Research on Ethnic Minority Students: An Analysis of 22 Years of Studies Published in Selected Refereed Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Artiles, Alfredo J.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study analyzed 2,378 empirical articles on ethnic minority students published in two learning disability and two special education journals over a 22-year period (1972-94). Studies focused on assessment and testing, sensory-perceptual processing, and placement issues. The majority also compared ethnic groups, used quantitative approaches, and…

  4. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  5. Patients' preferences for video cassette recorded information: effect of age, sex and ethnic group.

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Deary, A; Kaminski, E; Stockton, D; De Zueew, N

    1999-06-01

    The emotional turmoil patients endure following a diagnosis of cancer can impair their ability to retain complex treatment-related information. Manoeuvres which increase the intensity of information have been shown to increase the amount retained. Providing details of treatment in a video format is one method of intensifying information provision, but the attitudes of patients to this format have not previously been evaluated. In this pilot study, the attitudes of 300 patients to video directed information were evaluated via questionnaires, of which 210 (70%) were returned. Eighty-nine per cent had easy access to a video cassette player. A highly significant number felt that the video would be very helpful or helpful (78%) compared to not helpful, worrying or equivocal 21% (P < 0.0001). This trend was particularly strong in patients < 60 years (83% versus 17%) (P < 0.0001) and those from ethnic groups (95% versus 5%) (P < 0.0001). As a result of this trial, a 20-min film (HEP) has been commissioned. It describes details of the two main treatments for cancer after surgery, namely chemotherapy and radiotherapy, shows patients actually having treatment, and explains the common side-effects and ways to alleviate them. Patients satisfaction with the film and its effect on anxiety and depression are currently being evaluated in an international prospective randomized trial. If it proves advantageous for patients--in view of the ethnic group bias in this study--it will be translated into the ethnic languages of the UK.

  6. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Childhood Blood Lead Levels Among Children <72 Months of Age in the United States: a Systematic Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    White, Brandi M; Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Ellis, Charles

    2016-03-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a serious public health problem with long-term adverse effects. Healthy People 2020's environmental health objective aims to reduce childhood blood lead levels; however, efforts may be hindered by potential racial/ethnic differences. Recent recommendations have lowered the blood lead reference level. This review examined racial/ethnic differences in blood lead levels among children under 6 years of age. We completed a search of PubMed, CINAHL, and PsycINFO databases for published works from 2002 to 2012. We identified studies that reported blood lead levels and the race/ethnicity of at least two groups. Ten studies met inclusion criteria for the review. Blood lead levels were most frequently reported for black, white, and Hispanic children. Six studies examined levels between blacks, whites, and Hispanics and two between blacks and whites. Studies reporting mean lead levels among black, whites, and Hispanics found that blacks had the highest mean blood lead level. Additionally, studies reporting blood lead ranges found that black children were more likely to have elevated levels. Studies suggest that black children have higher blood lead levels compared to other racial/ethnic groups. Future studies are warranted to obtain ample sample sizes for several racial/ethnic groups to further examine differences in lead levels.

  7. Effects of age, sex, and ethnicity on bone health status of the elderly in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Kamaruddin, Alia Annessa Ain; Low, Nie Yen; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a significant health problem in the developing countries and its prevalence data are important for the estimation of health care burden and policy making. This study aimed to determine the age-related changes in bone health and the prevalence of osteoporosis in males and females aged 50 years or above living in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted between December 2014 and December 2015. Subjects answered a demographic questionnaire and underwent body anthropometric and bone health measurement. Assessment of bone health was performed using a quantitative ultrasound device that generated speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score based on stiffness index value as bone health indices. Results The prevalence of osteoporosis was 10.6% in males and 8.0% in females. Significant age-related decline of bone health indices (speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation, stiffness index, and T-score) and a concurrent increase in the prevalence of osteoporosis and osteopenia were observed in females (P<0.05) but not in males (P>0.05). Ethnic differences in bone health indices and prevalence of osteoporosis/osteopenia were not observed (P>0.05). Conclusion A significant proportion of males and females age 50 years or above have suboptimal bone health. Preventive measures such as early screening should be implemented to retard the progression of osteoporosis. PMID:27358558

  8. Elephants can determine ethnicity, gender, and age from acoustic cues in human voices

    PubMed Central

    McComb, Karen; Shannon, Graeme; Sayialel, Katito N.; Moss, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    Animals can accrue direct fitness benefits by accurately classifying predatory threat according to the species of predator and the magnitude of risk associated with an encounter. Human predators present a particularly interesting cognitive challenge, as it is typically the case that different human subgroups pose radically different levels of danger to animals living around them. Although a number of prey species have proved able to discriminate between certain human categories on the basis of visual and olfactory cues, vocalizations potentially provide a much richer source of information. We now use controlled playback experiments to investigate whether family groups of free-ranging African elephants (Loxodonta africana) in Amboseli National Park, Kenya can use acoustic characteristics of speech to make functionally relevant distinctions between human subcategories differing not only in ethnicity but also in sex and age. Our results demonstrate that elephants can reliably discriminate between two different ethnic groups that differ in the level of threat they represent, significantly increasing their probability of defensive bunching and investigative smelling following playbacks of Maasai voices. Moreover, these responses were specific to the sex and age of Maasai presented, with the voices of Maasai women and boys, subcategories that would generally pose little threat, significantly less likely to produce these behavioral responses. Considering the long history and often pervasive predatory threat associated with humans across the globe, it is likely that abilities to precisely identify dangerous subcategories of humans on the basis of subtle voice characteristics could have been selected for in other cognitively advanced animal species. PMID:24616492

  9. Personality Stability From Age 14 to Age 77 Years

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There is evidence for differential stability in personality trait differences, even over decades. The authors used data from a sample of the Scottish Mental Survey, 1947 to study personality stability from childhood to older age. The 6-Day Sample (N = 1,208) were rated on six personality characteristics by their teachers at around age 14. In 2012, the authors traced as many of these participants as possible and invited them to take part in a follow-up study. Those who agreed (N = 174) completed a questionnaire booklet at age 77 years, which included rating themselves and asking someone who knew them well to rate them on the same 6 characteristics on which they were rated in adolescence. Each set of 6 ratings was reduced to the same single underlying factor, denoted dependability, a trait comparable to conscientiousness. Participants’ and others’ older-age personality characteristic ratings were moderately correlated with each other, and with other measures of personality and wellbeing, but correlations suggested no significant stability of any of the 6 characteristics or their underlying factor, dependability, over the 63-year interval. However, a more complex model, controlling rater effects, indicated significant 63-year stability of 1 personality characteristic, Stability of Moods, and near-significant stability of another, Conscientiousness. Results suggest that lifelong differential stability of personality is generally quite low, but that some aspects of personality in older age may relate to personality in childhood. PMID:27929341

  10. Stimulation Activities: Age Birth to Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Dave

    This handbook provides a collection of stimulation activities that encourage a child's physical and mental growth from birth to five years of age. Emphasis is placed on making stimulation aids that are inexpensive or can be made from scrap materials. Advice is given about ways to carry out designated activities. All activities have been tried and…

  11. Bone mineral accrual across growth in a mixed-ethnic group of children: are Asian children disadvantaged from an early age?

    PubMed

    Burrows, Melonie; Baxter-Jones, Adam; Mirwald, Robert; Macdonald, Heather; McKay, Heather

    2009-05-01

    We investigated the contribution of ethnicity, physical activity, body composition, and calcium intake to bone accrual across 7 years of growth. We assessed 80 Caucasian and 74 Asian boys and 81 Caucasian and 64 Asian girls at baseline and retained 155 children across all 7 years. Ethnicity, physical activity, and calcium intake were assessed by questionnaire; fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral content (BMC) of the whole body (WB), lumbar spine (LS), total proximal femur (PF(TOT)), and femoral neck (FN) were measured using DXA (Hologic QDR 4500). We aligned children on peak height velocity and utilized multilevel modeling to assess bone mineral accrual. Height and lean mass accounted for 51.8% and 44.1% of BMC accrual in children. There was a significant difference in physical activity, calcium intake, and lean mass between Asians and Caucasian boys and girls at baseline and conclusion (p < 0.05). In boys, physical activity and ethnicity significantly predicted BMC accrual at the FN. In girls, Asians had significantly lower PF(TOT) and FN BMC. Calcium was a significant predictor of WB BMC accrual in boys and girls. In conclusion, our findings highlight the importance of accounting for ethnicity in pediatric studies. Physical activity, dietary calcium, and lean mass positively influence bone accrual and are lower in Asian compared to Caucasian children from a very young age.

  12. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson et al. (Counsellor Education & Supervision 41: 120-130, 1992) was administered at the end of a semester to counselling students engaged in different stages of a counsellor training program. No significant differences were found in regard to gender and age-group categories, but significant differences were found among ethnic groups. It was found that Asian and White students generally had similar and also lower counselling self-efficacy means than the other ethnic groups in the sample in regard to several counselling-specific categories. Implications for counsellor educators in training counselling students of diverse characteristics are discussed.

  13. Breast Cancer Before Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Anders, Carey K.; Johnson, Rebecca; Litton, Jennifer; Phillips, Marianne; Bleyer, Archie

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 7% of women with breast cancer are diagnosed before the age of 40 years, and this disease accounts for more than 40% of all cancer in women in this age group. Survival rates are worse when compared to those in older women, and multivariate analysis has shown younger age to be an independent predictor of adverse outcome. Inherited syndromes, specifically BRCA1 and BRCA2, must be considered when developing treatment algorithms for younger women. Chemotherapy, endocrine, and local therapies have the potential to significantly impact both the physiologic health—including future fertility, premature menopause, and bone health—and the psychological health of young women as they face a diagnosis of breast cancer. PMID:19460581

  14. 30-Year Trends in Stroke Rates and Outcome in Auckland, New Zealand (1981-2012): A Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Series of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Feigin, Valery L.; Krishnamurthi, Rita V.; Barker-Collo, Suzanne; McPherson, Kathryn M.; Barber, P. Alan; Parag, Varsha; Arroll, Bruce; Bennett, Derrick A.; Tobias, Martin; Jones, Amy; Witt, Emma; Brown, Paul; Abbott, Max; Bhattacharjee, Rohit; Rush, Elaine; Suh, Flora Minsun; Theadom, Alice; Rathnasabapathy, Yogini; Te Ao, Braden; Parmar, Priya G.; Anderson, Craig; Bonita, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Background Insufficient data exist on population-based trends in morbidity and mortality to determine the success of prevention strategies and improvements in health care delivery in stroke. The aim of this study was to determine trends in incidence and outcome (1-year mortality, 28-day case-fatality) in relation to management and risk factors for stroke in the multi-ethnic population of Auckland, New Zealand (NZ) over 30-years. Methods Four stroke incidence population-based register studies were undertaken in adult residents (aged ≥15 years) of Auckland NZ in 1981–1982, 1991–1992, 2002–2003 and 2011–2012. All used standard World Health Organization (WHO) diagnostic criteria and multiple overlapping sources of case-ascertainment for hospitalised and non-hospitalised, fatal and non-fatal, new stroke events. Ethnicity was consistently self-identified into four major groups. Crude and age-adjusted (WHO world population standard) annual incidence and mortality with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated per 100,000 people, assuming a Poisson distribution. Results 5400 new stroke patients were registered in four 12 month recruitment phases over the 30-year study period; 79% were NZ/European, 6% Māori, 8% Pacific people, and 7% were of Asian or other origin. Overall stroke incidence and 1-year mortality decreased by 23% (95% CI 5%-31%) and 62% (95% CI 36%-86%), respectively, from 1981 to 2012. Whilst stroke incidence and mortality declined across all groups in NZ from 1991, Māori and Pacific groups had the slowest rate of decline and continue to experience stroke at a significantly younger age (mean ages 60 and 62 years, respectively) compared with NZ/Europeans (mean age 75 years). There was also a decline in 28-day stroke case fatality (overall by 14%, 95% CI 11%-17%) across all ethnic groups from 1981 to 2012. However, there were significant increases in the frequencies of pre-morbid hypertension, myocardial infarction, and diabetes

  15. Assessing the Influence of Age and Ethnicity on the Association Between Iron Status and Lead Concentration in Blood: Results from the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007-2011).

    PubMed

    Ngueta, Gerard

    2016-06-01

    Inverse association has been reported between iron intake and blood lead concentration (PbB) in epidemiological studies. Data on this association at a low dose of lead exposure are scarce, and the potential influence of ethnicity and age has not been previously reported. This study aimed to estimate the relation between serum ferritin, haemoglobin, haematocrit, and mean corpuscular volume and PbB among 6-18-year-old individuals. Data from Canadian Health and Measures Survey (CHMS), cycle 1 (2007-2009) and cycle 2 (2009-2011), were accessed. A household interview followed by a physical examination (including collection of blood) was performed. The quantification of lead and trace elements in blood was performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The mean PbB was 0.79 μg/dL (95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.75-0.82). Except for haemoglobin levels, no association was found between PbB and any of the parameters of iron status, independently of age. A significant interaction was observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to PbB (p = 0.07). We found a little evidence of an association between iron status and PbB in the whole sample of subjects aged 6-18 years exposed to low levels of environmental lead. The significant interaction observed between ferritin levels and ethnicity in relation to BPb suggests that the influence of ferritin levels on lead uptake may change by ethnicity, even at low exposure.

  16. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  17. Investigation of Music Student Efficacy as Influenced by Age, Experience, Gender, Ethnicity, and Type of Instrument Played in South Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Norman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research study was to quantitatively examine South Carolina high school instrumental music students' self-efficacy as measured by the Generalized Self-Efficacy (GSE) instrument (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1993). The independent variables of age, experience, gender, ethnicity, and type of instrument played) were correlated with…

  18. Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

  19. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  20. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  1. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  2. Blood cadmium levels in women of childbearing age vary by race/ethnicity

    SciTech Connect

    Mijal, Renee S. Holzman, Claudia B.

    2010-07-15

    The heavy metal cadmium (Cd) is long-lived in the body and low-level cumulative exposure, even among non-smokers, has been associated with changes in renal function and bone metabolism. Women are more susceptible to the adverse effects of Cd and have higher body burdens. Due to increased dietary absorption of Cd in menstruating women and the long half-life of the metal, reproductive age exposures are likely important contributors to overall body burden and disease risk. We examined blood Cd levels in women of reproductive age in the US and assessed variation by race/ethnicity. Blood Cd concentrations were compared among female NHANES participants aged 20-44, who were neither pregnant nor breastfeeding. Sample size varied primarily based on inclusion/exclusion of smokers (n=1734-3121). Mean Cd concentrations, distributions and odds ratios were calculated using SUDAAN. For logistic regression Cd was modeled as high (the upper 10% of the distribution) vs. the remainder. Overall, Mexican Americans had lower Cd levels than other groups due to a lower smoking prevalence, smoking being an important source of exposure. Among never-smokers, Mexican Americans had 1.77 (95% CI: 1.06-2.96) times the odds of high Cd as compared to non-Hispanic Whites after controlling for age and low iron (ferritin). For non-Hispanic Blacks, the odds were 2.96 (CI: 1.96-4.47) times those of non-Hispanic Whites in adjusted models. Adjustment for relevant reproductive factors or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke had no effect. In this nationally representative sample, non-smoking Mexican American and non-Hispanic Black women were more likely to have high Cd than non-Hispanic White women. Additional research is required to determine the underlying causes of these differences.

  3. Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-07-12

    Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide.

  4. Contact Allergens Causing Hand Eczema in Ethnic Kashmiri Population: A Study of 7-years

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hand eczema is one of the commonest eczemas encountered in dermatology practice. Contact allergens responsible for causing hand eczema vary from one geographical area of the world to another. Aim: The study tries to identify the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. Material and Methods: A total of 800 patients were patch tested at a sole patch testing facility for the local population over a 7-year period out of which 278 were diagnosed with hand eczema. The morphological type of hand eczema was noted and the patch testing results were analyzed. Past or present relevance of the patch-test result to the clinical diagnosis was also analyzed. Results: Hand eczema was the most common type of eczema patch tested over the 7-year period, constituting 34.75% of the patch-tested population. A positive patch-test result was obtained in 135 patients (48.5%) out of which it was found to be clinically relevant in about 65% cases. Nickel and potassium dichromate were found to be the two commonest allergens causing hand eczema in our population with positive patch test reactions in 45 and 27 patients respectively. Females showed a much higher incidence of hand eczema as well as higher patch test positivity than males (54.1% vs. 38.1%). Conclusions: Hand eczema with a positive patch-test report was found to be much more common in females than males and nickel and potassium dichromate were seen to be the commonest allergens causing hand eczema in ethnic Kashmiri population. PMID:26955125

  5. Racial/Ethnic Differences in Sleep Disorders and Reporting of Trouble Sleeping Among Women of Childbearing Age in the United States.

    PubMed

    Amyx, Melissa; Xiong, Xu; Xie, Yiqiong; Buekens, Pierre

    2017-02-01

    Objectives Whether racial/ethnic differences in prevalence/reporting of sleep disorders exist in pregnant women/women of child-bearing age is unknown. Study objectives were to estimate prevalence of sleep disorders and to examine racial/ethnic differences in sleep disorders, reporting of sleep issues, and amount of sleep among women of child-bearing age (15-44 years) in the US. Methods Through a secondary analysis of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2010 (3175 non-pregnant, 432 pregnant women in main analysis), prevalence of sleep disorders, reporting of sleep disorders to a physician/health professional, and amount of sleep were estimated overall, by pregnancy status, and by race/ethnicity stratified by pregnancy status. Racial/ethnic differences in reporting of trouble sleeping by pregnancy status were examined using univariate and multivariate logistic regression. Results Prevalence of diagnosed sleep disorders among women of childbearing age was 4.9 % [3.9 % pregnant; 5.1 % non-pregnant (p < 0.01)]. Significantly fewer pregnant and non-pregnant minority women reported adequate sleep (7-8 h) than non-Hispanic white (white) women (p < 0.05). Among non-pregnant women, odds of report of trouble sleeping were significantly higher for white compared to black (aOR 0.47 [95 % CI 0.36, 0.61]) or Mexican-American women (aOR 0.29 [95 % CI 0.21, 0.41]); non-pregnant minority women were also significantly less likely to report trouble sleeping than white women when controlling for amount of sleep. Among pregnant women, these same trends were found. Discussion Compared to white women, minority women, despite reporting less adequate sleep, are less likely to report trouble sleeping, providing evidence of an important health disparity.

  6. Will the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Improve Racial/Ethnic Disparity of Eye Examination Among US Working-Age Population with Diabetes?

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Fonseca, Vivian; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Zhao, Yingnan; Nellans, Frank P; Luo, Qingyang; Shi, Lizheng

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the racial/ethnic disparity of eye examination rates among US adults with diabetes before and after the ACA. Working-age adults (18-64 years) with diabetes for years 2014-2017 were simulated by bootstrapping from the working-age diabetes patient sample of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component 2011. Insurance coverage rates were separately predicted for each racial/ethnic group based on the Congressional Budgeting Office (CBO) report in 2014 and the proportions of Medicaid eligibility. Eye examination rates were weighted to national estimates and compared between racial/ethnic groups. Confidence intervals were estimated using the bootstrap percentile method. Health insurance coverage after the ACA is projected to increase from 90.23 % in 2011 to 98.33 % in 2014 among non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), reaching 98.96 % in 2017. Minorities are forecasted to have about 15 % expansion of insurance coverage from 2011 (80.65 %) to 2014 (96.00 %), reaching 97.25 % in 2017. In 2011, 63.01 % of NHW had eye examinations with forecasted increase to 65.83 % in 2014 and 66.05 % in 2017, while the eye examination rate in the minorities will increase from 55.75 % in 2011 to 59.23 % in 2014 and remain at 59.48 % in 2017. Therefore, racial disparity in eye examination rates is forecasted to persist (ranging from 6.57 % in 2017 to 6.69 % in 2016). The ACA is projected to improve the eye examination rate along with the expansion in insurance coverage. Although predicted racial/ethnic disparities will improve, some differences will persist. Comprehensive strategies need to be developed to eliminate the disparity.

  7. The effect of ethnicity and age on palatal size and shape: a study in a northern Chilean healthy population.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; Colombo, A; Tartaglia, G M; Carvajal, R; Palomino, H

    2000-01-01

    Race and ethnicity influence the form of the human craniofacial complex in varying ways. The aim of the present investigation was to quantify the effects of ethnicity (mestizos, Aymara, non-Aymara), age (adolescents and adults), and sex on the form (size and shape) of the hard palate in normal Native American individuals. From the dental casts of 51 individuals with a complete permanent dentition, the x, y, and z coordinates of several standardized palatal landmarks were obtained with a computerized 3-dimensional digitizer. Palatal landmarks were used to derive a mathematical equation for palatal shape in the frontal and sagittal planes. Palatal width and length, frontal and sagittal heights, sagittal slope, and deviation of the raphe from the midline were also calculated. In the Aymara subjects, there was no effect of sex on palatal size, but there was an effect on palatal shape independent of size, especially with respect to male growth. Indeed, female palates apparently did not change their shape between adolescence and adulthood, while male palates increased their posterior "height." Overall, the 3 ethnic groups appeared to possess similar palatal size, with small significant differences. In the adult individuals, ethnicity did not seem to influence palatal shape. In contrast, adolescent males showed differences: non-Aymara subjects had the "highest" palatal shape, Aymara the "lowest," and mestizos an intermediate position. In conclusion, ethnicity does not seem to be a factor of major variability of human hard palate morphology, at least in the present 3 northern Chilean groups, as already found for dental arch shape. Age probably has a larger effect, particularly in the posterior part of the palate, where the eruption of the second and third molars between adolescence and young adulthood may play a role. A further development of the present investigation may involve larger samples of individuals from different ethnic groups.

  8. Ethnic inequalities in acute myocardial infarction hospitalization rates among young and middle-aged adults in Northern Italy: high risk for South Asians.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ugo; Cestari, Laura; Ferroni, Eliana; Avossa, Francesco; Saugo, Mario; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo

    2017-02-07

    The knowledge of ethnic-specific health needs is now essential to design effective health services and population-based prevention strategies. However, data on migrant populations living in Southern Europe are limited. The study is designed to investigate ethnic inequalities in hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the Veneto region (Italy). Hospital admissions for AMI in Veneto for the whole resident population aged 20-59 years during 2008-2013 were studied. Age and gender-specific AMI hospitalization rates for immigrant groups (classified by country of origin according to the United Nations geoscheme) and Italians were calculated. The indirect standardization method was used to estimate standardized hospitalization ratios (SHR) for each immigrant group, with rates of Italian residents as a reference. Overall, 8200 AMI events were retrieved, 648 among immigrants. The highest risk of AMI is seen in South Asians males (SHR 4.2, 95% CI 3.6-4.9) and females (SHR 2.5, 95% CI 1.4-4.5). AMI rates in South Asian males sharply increase in the 30-39 years age class. Other immigrant subgroups (Eastern Europe, North Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa, other Asian countries, Central-South America, high-income countries) displayed age- and gender-adjusted hospitalization rates similar to the native population. Present findings stress the urgent need for implementation of ethnic-specific health policies in Italy. The awareness about the high cardiovascular risk in subjects from South Asia must be increased among general practitioners and immigrant communities.

  9. Patterns in Recidivism and Discretionary Placement in Disciplinary Alternative Education: The Impact of Gender, Ethnicity, Age, and Special Education Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booker, Kimberly; Mitchell, Angela

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the probability of (a) being placed in a disciplinary alternative education setting for mandatory versus discretionary reasons and (b) returning within the same year among an ethnically diverse sample (African American, Caucasian, Hispanic) of middle and high school students (N=270). Participants were compared based on…

  10. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  11. Social Network Characteristics and College Adjustment among Racially and Ethnically Diverse First-Year Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen E.; Stryker, Sonia

    1996-01-01

    Examined social network characteristics of 218 college freshmen. Subjects were of European American descent or of ethnically and racially diverse backgrounds (African American, Hispanic, Native American and Asian American). The study associated social adjustment with family support characteristics for the racially and ethnically diverse students…

  12. Correlations between skeletal muscle mass and bone mass in children 6-18 years: influences of sex, ethnicity, and pubertal status.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Horlick, M; Thornton, J C; Levine, L S; Heymsfield, S B; Pierson, R N

    1999-01-01

    A constant sex-specific relationship between skeletal muscle mass and bone mass was observed in healthy adults based on TBK/TBCa, using TBK (total body potassium) by 40K counting and TBCa (total body calcium) by in-vivo neutron activation analysis (Ellis and Cohn, 1975). We revisited this topic in children by studying correlations between TBK and TBCa, and by comparing TBK/TBCa between sexes, pubertal groups (prepubertal and pubertal) and ethnic groups in 141 white, 101 black, and 62 Asian healthy children, aged 6 - 18 years, living in New York City. TBK was measured by 40K counting, and TBCa by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. TBK and TBCa were significantly correlated from 6 to 18 years (r > 0.93), but the correlation equations varied by gender and ethnicity. Boys had significantly more TBK and greater TBK/TBCa than girls at a given age and weight, reflecting greater skeletal muscle mass in boys from 6 years, the age at which the study started. TBK/TBCa in blacks was significantly smaller than whites and Asians in both sexes in prepuberty and puberty, and pubertal black girls had the smallest mean TBK/TBCa. No significant differences were found between whites and Asians. TBK/TBCa decreased as body weight increased in prepubertal girls, and decreased as body weight and age increased in pubertal girls, but did not change with body weight or age in boys of any subgroup. The inverse relationship between TBK/TBCa and age in pubertal girls suggests greater increase in TBCa compared to TBK than in other groups, while the constant TBK/TBCa in boys reflects proportional increases in TBK and TBCa. Thus TBK/TBCa can be used as an index of relative growth in skeletal muscle mass and bone mass in white, black, and Asian children according to sex, age and pubertal status.

  13. Predictors of 4-Year Retention among African American and White Community-Dwelling Participants in the UAB Study of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allman, Richard M.; Sawyer, Patricia; Crowther, Martha; Strothers, Harry S., III; Turner, Timothy; Fouad, Mona N.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To identify racial/ethnic differences in retention of older adults at 3 levels of participation in a prospective observational study: telephone, in-home assessments, and home visits followed by blood draws. Design and Methods: A prospective study of 1,000 community-dwelling Medicare beneficiaries aged 65 years and older included a…

  14. Comparison of TW1 and TW2 skeletal age differences in American black and white and in Mexican children 6-13 years of age.

    PubMed

    Malina, R M; Little, B B

    1981-01-01

    Differences in Tanner-Whitehouse (TW) skeletal ages as derived from the original (TW1) and revised (TW2) systems were compared in three ethnically different samples of children 6-13 years of age: mixed longitudinal samples of American White and Black children for Philadelphia, and a cross-sectional samples of Mexican children from Oaxaca in southern Mexico. TW2 skeletal ages are, on average, consistently lower than TW1 skeletal ages. Within a given chronological age and sex group, the differences are similar in terms of means and variation about the means in better-off children, both black and White in Philadelphia and in disadvantaged Mexican children.

  15. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and adolescent and adult recidivism: considerations with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Keira C; Olver, Mark E; Wong, Stephen C P

    2010-12-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health facility. The PCL: YV significantly predicted any general, nonviolent, and violent recidivism in the aggregate sample over a 7-year follow-up; however, when results were disaggregated by youth and adult outcomes, the PCL: YV consistently appeared to be a stronger predictor of youth recidivism. The PCL: YV predicted youth recidivism for subsamples of female and Aboriginal youths, and very few differences in the predictive accuracy of the tool were observed for younger vs. older adolescent groups. Both the 13-item (i.e., D. J. Cooke & C. Michie, 2001, 3-factor) and the 20-item (i.e., R. D. Hare, 2003, 4-factor) models appeared to predict various recidivism criteria comparably across the aggregate sample and within specific demographic subgroups (e.g., female and Aboriginal youth). The Antisocial facet contributed the most variance in the prediction of adult outcomes, whereas the 3-factor model contributed significant incremental variance in the prediction of youth recidivism outcomes. Potential implications concerning the use of the PCL: YV in clinical and forensic assessment contexts are discussed.

  16. Children's cross-ethnic relationships in elementary schools: concurrent and prospective associations between ethnic segregation and social status.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Travis M; Rodkin, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children (n = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity dislike. Social status measures were same- and cross-ethnicity peer nominations of acceptance, rejection, and cool. Among African Americans, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (European American) acceptance and same-ethnicity rejection, and increases in same-ethnicity acceptance and perceived coolness. For European American children, fall segregation predicted declines in cross-ethnicity (African American) acceptance and increases in cross-ethnicity rejection. Results indicate that segregation induces asymmetric changes in social status for African American and European American children.

  17. [Mortality of old-aged (60 years and older) population in Yakutia subject to data of prospective cohort seven-year study].

    PubMed

    Tatarinova, O V; Nikitin, Iu P; Shcherbakova, L V

    2014-01-01

    Level of total mortality and mortality from cardiovascular diseases was defined subsequent to the results of carried out novel prospective study of cohort of old-age population of the Republic. Subject to seven-year cohort study high indexes of mortality from all reasons (42,7%) and from cardiovascular diseases (28,4%) were registered for the population of Yakutia aged 60 years and older. Circulatory diseases comprise 68% of all died; ischemic heart diseases (59%) and cerebrovascular diseases (22%) are the main reasons among the cardiovascular pathology. In the studied cohort there were found no ethnic and gender differences in mortality levels. Total mortality and mortality from cardiovascular pathology, relative risk of fatal issue development increase statistically significant with the age. The growth rate of total and cardiovascular mortality are practically identical in both ethnic groups.

  18. Treatment-associated changes in body composition, health behaviors, and mood as predictors of change in body satisfaction in obese women: effects of age and race/ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Tennant, Gisèle A; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N = 246; M(age) = 43 years; M BMI = 39 kg/m(2)) initiating a 6-month cognitive-behaviorally based physical activity and nutrition treatment were assessed on possible predictors of body satisfaction change. At baseline, African American and younger women had significantly higher body satisfaction. The treatment was associated with significant within-group improvements in mood, health behaviors (physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake), and body composition (waist circumference). A multiple regression analysis indicated that mood, health behavior, and body composition changes explained a significant 27% of the variance in body satisfaction change. Of these predictors, changes in mood (β = -.36, p < .001) and health behaviors (β = .18, p = .01) made significant, unique contributions to the variance in change in body satisfaction that was accounted for, while only the measure of actual physiological change (body composition) did not. Neither age nor race/ethnicity was a significant moderator when each was entered separately into the multiple regression equation. Practical implications for leveraging manageable changes in behavioral factors for improving body satisfaction were discussed.

  19. Relationship of ethnicity, age, education, and reading level to speed and executive function among HIV+ and HIV- women: The WIHS Neurocognitive Substudy

    PubMed Central

    Manly, Jennifer J.; Smith, Clifford; Crystal, Howard A.; Richardson, Jean; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Young, Mary; Greenblatt, Ruth; Robison, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Use of neuropsychological tests to identify HIV-associated neurocognitive dysfunction must involve normative standards that are well-suited to the population of interest. Norms should be based on a population of HIV-uninfected individuals as closely matched to the HIV-infected group as possible, and must include examination of the potential effects of demographic factors on test performance. This is the first study to determine the normal range of scores on measures of psychomotor speed and executive function among a large group of ethnically and educationally diverse HIV-uninfected, high risk women, as well as their HIV-infected counterparts. Participants (n = 1653) were administered the Trailmaking Test Parts A and B (Trails A and Trails B), the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and the Wide Range Achievement Test-3 (WRAT-3). Among HIV-uninfected women, race/ethnicity accounted for almost 5% of the variance in cognitive test performance. The proportion of variance in cognitive test performance accounted for by age (13.8%), years of school (4.1%) and WRAT-3 score (11.5%) were each significant, but did not completely account for the effect of race (3%). HIV-infected women obtained lower scores than HIV-uninfected women on time to complete Trails A and B, SDMT total correct, and SDMT incidental recall score, but after adjustment for age, years of education, racial/ethnic classification, and reading level, only the difference on SDMT total correct remained significant. Results highlight the need to adjust for demographic variables when diagnosing cognitive impairment in HIV-infected women. Advantages of demographically adjusted regression equations developed using data from HIV-uninfected women are discussed. PMID:21950512

  20. I am really good at puzzles, but I don't get asked to play with others: age, gender, and ethnic differences in Head Start children's self-perceptions of competence.

    PubMed

    Mantzicopoulos, Panayota

    2004-03-01

    The author examined age, gender, and ethnic differences in the self-perceptions of 112 low-income children who were assessed with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance (PSPCSA) at Head Start and kindergarten. Children's self-ratings of competence were overly optimistic across the 4 subscales of the PSPCSA during the 2 years of the investigation. Contrary to the author's expectations, children's self-evaluations were significantly higher at the end of kindergarten across all subscales of the PSPCSA. Ethnic group differences also were found. African American children described their cognitive competence less favorably than did Caucasian children.

  1. The Contributions of Selected Diseases to Disparities in Death Rates and Years of Life Lost for Racial/Ethnic Minorities in the United States, 1999–2010

    PubMed Central

    Peace, Frederick; Howard, Virginia J.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Differences in risk for death from diseases and other causes among racial/ethnic groups likely contributed to the limited improvement in the state of health in the United States in the last few decades. The objective of this study was to identify causes of death that are the largest contributors to health disparities among racial/ethnic groups. Methods Using data from WONDER system, we measured the relative (age-adjusted mortality ratio [AAMR]) and absolute (difference in years of life lost [dYLL]) differences in mortality risk between the non-Hispanic white population and the black, Hispanic, American Indian/Alaska Native, and Asian/Pacific Islander populations for the 25 leading causes of death. Results Many causes contributed to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and blacks, led by assault (AAMR, 7.56; dYLL, 4.5 million). Malignant neoplasms were the second largest absolute contributor (dYLL, 3.8 million) to black–white disparities; we also found substantial relative and absolute differences for several cardiovascular diseases. Only assault, diabetes, and diseases of the liver contributed substantially to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics (AAMR ≥ 1.65; dYLL ≥ 325,000). Many causes of death, led by assault (AAMR, 3.25; dYLL, 98,000), contributed to disparities between non-Hispanic whites and American Indians/Alaska Natives; Asian/Pacific Islanders did not have a higher risk than non-Hispanic whites for death from any disease. Conclusion Assault was a substantial contributor to disparities in mortality among non-Asian racial/ethnic minority populations. Research and intervention resources need to target diseases (such as diabetes and diseases of the liver) that affect certain racial/ethnic populations. PMID:25078566

  2. Children's Implicit and Explicit Ethnic Group Attitudes, Ethnic Group Identification, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stephanie C.; Leman, Patrick J.; Barrett, Martyn

    2007-01-01

    An increasing amount of research explores how children distinguish different aspects of ethnic group attitudes. However, little work has focused on how these aspects tie in with other social and psychological processes. In the present study, 112 black and white children aged 5-, 7- and 9-years completed tests of implicit and explicit ethnic group…

  3. Differences in alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by age, gender, and race/ethnicity – United States, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Michael; Ayers, Amanda J.; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim No previous national study has reported the prevalence of alcohol brand consumption among underage youth by demographic characteristics. The aim of this study was to determine the alcohol brand preferences among underage drinkers in different demographic categories. Method We administered an online survey to a national sample of 1,031 underage youth, ages 13–20, who had consumed at least one drink of alcohol in the past 30 days. The sample was recruited from a previously established internet survey panel. The main outcome measure was the estimated 30-day consumption prevalence for each of 898 brands by age, gender, and race/ethnicity. Results Two beer brands—Bud Light and Budweiser—are uniformly popular among underage drinkers, regardless of age, gender, or race/ethnicity. There are several hard liquor brands whose use increases markedly with age. Two flavored alcoholic beverages sharing the names of hard liquor brands—Smirnoff and Bacardi—are more popular with older youth. Some flavored alcoholic beverages are about twice as popular among female underage drinkers. There are 12 alcohol brands that are uniquely popular among Black underage drinkers, and these brands are heavily promoted in urban music. Conclusion There are differential patterns of brand-specific alcohol use among underage drinkers. PMID:26557044

  4. Optic Nerve Head (ONH) Topographic Analysis by Stratus OCT in Normal Subjects: Correlation to Disc Size, Age, and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, Barbara C.; Cantor, Louis B.; WuDunn, Darrell; Hoop, Joni; Lipyanik, Jennifer; Patella, Vincent Michael; Budenz, Donald L.; Greenfield, David S.; Savell, Jonathan; Schuman, Joel S.; Varma, Rohit

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To study optic nerve head (ONH) topography parameters measured by Stratus optical coherence tomography (OCT) in normal subjects and to analyze ONH data for differences in relation to disc size, ethnicity, and age. Methods Three hundred sixty-seven normal subjects underwent Stratus optical coherence tomography ONH measurement using the fast optic disc scan protocol software package 3.0. Only ONH scans meeting specific qualification criteria were included for data analysis ensuring appropriate scan quality and reliability. ONH topographic parameters of qualified scans were analyzed for differences in regards to optic disc size, age, and ethnicity. Results Two hundred and twelve qualified ONH scans were included for data analysis. Mean disc area was 2.27±0.41 mm2 and optic cup area, rim area, and horizontal integrated rim width increased with disc size, whereas vertical integrated rim area did not. Vertical integrated rim area, horizontal integrated rim width, and rim area decreased and cup area increased with age. Mean optic disc area was larger in African-Americans as compared with Hispanics or Whites and this difference was statistically significant. Conclusions Optic cup area, rim area, and horizontal integrated rim width correlated to disc size. Vertical integrated rim area, horizontal integrated rim width, rim area, and cup area, changed with age. African-American optic discs had larger disc area measurements as compared with Whites optic discs and this difference was statistically significant. PMID:19855299

  5. Behavioural problems in Sri Lankan schoolchildren: associations with socio-economic status, age, gender, academic progress, ethnicity and religion.

    PubMed

    Prior, Margot; Virasinghe, Shanya; Smart, Diana

    2005-08-01

    Little is known about behavioural and emotional adjustment in children in Sri Lanka, and this study is the first attempt to assess mental health problems in this population. Using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (Goodman R (1994) A modified version of the Rutter parent questionnaire including items on children's strengths: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 35:1483-1494) with parent, teacher and child informants, in a large sample of 10- to 13-year-old school children from Colombo, we found rates and types of problems consistent with other international studies of child mental health. Problem rates were higher in boys and were associated with lower SES and poorer academic performance. Relationships between behavioural adjustment and Tamil ethnicity and Hindu religion emerged in this sample and could possibly be associated with the experience of longstanding ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka. The study confirms the need for development of child and adolescent health services in Sri Lanka.

  6. Performance of the Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool Among Women Aged 75 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Li, Vicky W.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Davis, Roger B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; McCarthy, Ellen P.; Rosner, Bernard A.; Chlebowski, Rowan T.; Rohan, Thomas E.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Marcantonio, Edward R.; Ngo, Long H.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Breast Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (BCRAT, “Gail model”) is commonly used for breast cancer prediction; however, it has not been validated for women age 75 years and older. Methods: We used Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) data beginning in 2004 and Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) data beginning in 2005 to compare BCRAT’s performance among women age 75 years and older with that in women age 55 to 74 years in predicting five-year breast cancer incidence. BCRAT risk factors include: age, race/ethnicity, age at menarche, age at first birth, family history, history of benign breast biopsy, and atypia. We examined BCRAT’s calibration by age by comparing expected/observed (E/O) ratios of breast cancer incidence. We examined discrimination by computing c-statistics for the model by age. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Seventy-three thousand seventy-two NHS and 97 081 WHI women participated. NHS participants were more likely to be non-Hispanic white (96.2% vs 84.7% in WHI, P < .001) and were less likely to develop breast cancer (1.8% vs 2.0%, P = .02). E/O ratios by age in NHS were 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.23, age 57–74 years) and 1.31 (95% CI = 1.18 to 1.45, age ≥ 75 years, P = .02), and in WHI 1.03 (95% CI = 0.97 to 1.09, age 55–74 years) and 1.10 (95% CI = 1.00 to 1.21, age ≥ 75 years, P = .21). E/O ratio 95% confidence intervals crossed one among women age 75 years and older when samples were limited to women who underwent mammography and were without significant illness. C-statistics ranged between 0.56 and 0.58 in both cohorts regardless of age. Conclusions: BCRAT accurately predicted breast cancer for women age 75 years and older who underwent mammography and were without significant illness but had modest discrimination. Models that consider individual competing risks of non–breast cancer death may improve breast cancer risk prediction for older women. PMID:26625899

  7. Racial/Ethnic Minority Vocational Research: A Content and Trend Analysis across 36 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Lisa Y.; Berkel, LaVerne A.; Nilsson, Johanna E.; Ojeda, Lizette; Jordan, Shiloh E.; Lynn, Ginger L.; Leal, Veronica M.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined 281 racial/ethnic minority (REM) career-related studies published in the "Journal of Vocational Behavior," "The Career Development Quarterly (CDQ)," the "Journal of Career Assessment (JCA)," and the "Journal of Career Development" between 1969 and 2004. Publication trends, article content and type, samples, and leading author…

  8. Ethnic Differences in Academic Retracking: A Four-Year Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyberg, Kenneth L.; McMillin, J. Daniel; O'Neill-Rood, Nora; Florence, Jane M.

    1997-01-01

    Investigated the impact of efforts to prepare average high school students for college admission, examining ethnic differences in academic retracking. A longitudinal evaluation of a school reform effort at four California high schools indicates that specific efforts to retrack general/vocational students into college-preparatory tracks offer…

  9. Race and Ethnicity in Empirical Counseling and Counseling Psychology Research: A 10-Year Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Galvan, Nallely; Maschino, Peggy; Rowland, Marcy

    2005-01-01

    This article examined 796 empirical studies published in the "Journal of Counseling Psychology," the "Journal of Counseling and Development," and "The Counseling Psychologist" from 1990 to 1999 and found that only 457 (57%) reported racial and ethnic characteristics of research participants. From this data, an overall picture was generated of the…

  10. Depression Interventions among Racial and Ethnic Minority Older Adults: A Systematic Review across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Dahlia; Aranda, María P.

    2012-01-01

    While there is strong evidence in support of geriatric depression treatments, much less is available with regard to older U.S. racial and ethnic minorities. The objectives of this review are to identify and appraise depression treatment studies tested with samples of U.S. racial and ethnic minority older adults. We include an appraisal of sociocultural adaptations made to the depression treatments in studies meeting our final criteria. Systematic search methods were utilized to identify research published between 1990 and 2010 that describe depression treatment outcomes for older adults by racial/ethnic group, or for samples of older adults that are primarily (i.e., >50%) racial/ethnic minorities. Twenty-three unduplicated articles included older adults and seven met all inclusion criteria. Favorable depression treatment effects were observed for older minorities across five studies based on diverse settings and varying levels of sociocultural adaptations. The effectiveness of depression care remains mixed although collaborative or integrated care shows promise for African Americans and Latinos. The degree to which the findings generalize to non-English-speaking, low acculturated, and low income older persons, and to other older minority groups (i.e., Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indian and Alaska Natives) remains unclear. Given the high disease burden among older minorities with depression, it is imperative to provide timely, accessible, and effective depression treatments. Increasing their participation in behavioral health research should be a national priority. PMID:22828202

  11. Activity and mortality among aged persons over an eight-year period.

    PubMed

    Lee, D J; Markides, K S

    1990-01-01

    The influence of level of activity examined with data from an eight-year (1976 to 1984) longitudinal study of 508 older Mexican Americans and Anglos. Over the study interval, 119 subjects were confirmed to have died. Activity was a significant predictor of mortality at the univariate level. However, when age, gender, education, marital status, ethnicity, and self-rated health were controlled for in the analysis, activity was not a significant predictor of mortality. The popular notion that an active life among elderly persons might lead to extended longevity was not supported by these data.

  12. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone

    PubMed Central

    Rothman, Mitchell S.

    2015-01-01

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE. PMID:26080417

  13. Early Bronze Age migrants and ethnicity in the Middle Eastern mountain zone.

    PubMed

    Rothman, Mitchell S

    2015-07-28

    The Kura-Araxes cultural tradition existed in the highlands of the South Caucasus from 3500 to 2450 BCE (before the Christian era). This tradition represented an adaptive regime and a symbolically encoded common identity spread over a broad area of patchy mountain environments. By 3000 BCE, groups bearing this identity had migrated southwest across a wide area from the Taurus Mountains down into the southern Levant, southeast along the Zagros Mountains, and north across the Caucasus Mountains. In these new places, they became effectively ethnic groups amid already heterogeneous societies. This paper addresses the place of migrants among local populations as ethnicities and the reasons for their disappearance in the diaspora after 2450 BCE.

  14. Ethnicity, Sex Work, and Incident HIV/STI Among Transgender Women in New York City: A Three Year Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Nuttbrock, Larry A; Hwahng, Sel J

    2016-08-08

    In conjunction with a 3-year prospective study of 199 transgender women from the New York City Area, we attempted to better understand why non-Whites are much more likely than Whites to become HIV infected. We first assessed associations of ethnicity with sex work, sexual risk behavior for HIV, and biologically-determined HIV/STI, and then assessed the extent to which these ethnic differences are explained by socioeconomic factors, immigration status, and sexual orientation. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations and Cox proportional hazards. As expected, compared to Whites, Blacks and Hispanics were more involved in the sex trade, more likely to report unprotected receptive anal intercourse, and as a result, more likely to become HIV/STI infected. All of these associations were mediated by androphilia, and to a lesser extent androphilia/gynephilia. Sexual orientation is a significant but little recognized factors associated with new cases of HIV/STI among transgender women of color.

  15. An exploratory examination of the relationships among emotional intelligence, elementary school science teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, race/ethnicity, gender, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okech, Allan P.

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in

  16. Increases in summer serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations in elderly subjects in São Paulo, Brazil vary with age, gender and ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Hypovitaminosis D is a common condition among elderly individuals in temperate-climate countries, with a clear seasonal variation on 25 hydroxyvitamin D levels, increasing after summer and decreasing after winter, but there are few data from sunny countries such as Brazil. Many factors can interfere on vitamin D cutaneous synthesis. We aimed at studying the 25OHD variations during winter and summer in an outdoor physically active elderly population living in São Paulo city, and analysed their determining factors. Methods Ninety-nine individuals (52 women and 47 men, from 55 to 83 years old) from different ethnic groups were selected from an outdoor physical activity group. Data are reported as Mean ± SD, and we used Pearson Linear Correlation, Student's t-test for non-related samples, Chi-square (χ²) test and One-way ANOVA for analysis. Results Mean 25OHD value for the whole group was 78.9 ± 30.9 nmol/L in the winter and 91.6 ± 31.7 nmol/L in the summer (p = 0.005). Mean winter serum 25OHD concentrations were not different between men and women (81.2 ± 30.1 nmol/L vs. 76.7 ± 31.8 nmol/L, respectively), and 19.2% of the individuals showed values < 50 nmol/L. In the summer, we noticed an increase only for men (107.6 ± 31.4 nmol/L) compared to women (76.7 ± 24.0 nmol/L), and 6.5% showed values < 50 nmol/L. A decrease in the mean PTH in the summer compared to the winter was noticed, with PTH levels showing a relationship with 25OHD concentrations only in the winter (r = -0.208, p = 0.041). White individuals showed an increase in mean serum 25OHD in the summer (p = 0.016) which was not noticed for other ethnic groups (Asians, native Brazilians and blacks). An increase in 25OHD values in the summer was observed in the age groups ranging from 51-60 and 61-70 years old (p < 0.05), but not in the age group from 71 years old on. Conclusions 25OHD values increased during the summer in elderly residents of São Paulo, but to different extents depending on

  17. Impact of sex, age, and ethnicity/race on the survival of patients with rectal cancer in the United States from 1988 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Martin D.; Yang, Dongyun; Sunakawa, Yu; Zhang, Wu; Ning, Yan; Matsusaka, Satoshi; Okazaki, Satoshi; Miyamoto, Yuji; Suenaga, Mitsukuni; Schirripa, Marta; Lenz, Annika Medea; Bohanes, Pierre; Barzi, Afsaneh; Figueiredo, Jane C.; Hanna, Diana L.; Lenz, Heinz-Josef

    2016-01-01

    Most studies report on colon and rectal cancers collectively, even though biologic and prognostic differences exist between these disease entities. Here, we investigated the effects of sex, age, and ethnicity/race on rectal cancer (RC) mortality by stage focusing on differences before and after 2004. Using the SEER database, we identified 105,511 patients diagnosed with RC from 1988-2012. Main outcomes were disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS). In patients with stage I-III RC, women achieved a longer DSS (HR 0.87, P < 0.001) than men, independent of age, from 1988-2012. In stage IV disease, the sex disparity favoring women was limited to the age 18-44 yr cohort (DSS HR 0.79, P < 0.001). The sex difference in DSS (Pinteraction = 0.009) was significantly reduced from 2004 to 2012 across all ages. Hispanics and Native Americans with locoregional RC had inferior DSS relative to Whites from 1988-2003, but these differences were not evident from 2004-2012 (Pinteraction = 0.001). Additionally, Asians with stage I-III RC had superior DSS from 2004 on compared to Whites. Mortality in African American patients improved modestly overall and remained significantly higher than other ethnicities/races across all stages. Sex disparities have narrowed in patients with metastatic RC, but persist in patients with stage I-III disease. These differences are most evident among young patients (18-44 years), where sex disparities have even widened in stage I-III disease. While outcomes have improved for Asians, Hispanics, and Native Americans with stage I-III rectal cancer, black-white disparities remain in all disease stages. PMID:27449091

  18. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    2 to 20 years: Boys NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # Mother’s Stature Date Age in cm 160 62 S 155 60 T 150 ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ...

  19. Are Constructs of the Transtheoretical Model for Physical Activity Measured Equivalently Between Sexes, Age Groups, and Ethnicities?

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Motl, Robert W.; McGee, Kelly; McCurdy, Dana; Matthai, Caroline Horwath; Dishman, Rod K.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Purpose Identifying mediators of physical activity change requires measurement instruments that are reliable, valid, and generalizable to multiple populations. Despite continued application of the transtheoretical model (TTM) to the study of physical activity, the structural components of the TTM measurement instruments have been understudied in diverse populations. Methods A multiethnic sample (N=700, Mage=47, 63% women, 38% Caucasian) of participants living in Hawaii completed TTM measures. The factor validity and measurement equivalence/invariance (ME/I) of decisional balance, barrier self-efficacy, temptations, and processes of change instruments were explored between men, women, age groups, and ethnicities. Results/Conclusions Measurement models of barrier self-efficacy and revised models of temptations and processes of change demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I among all subgroups. A revised model of decisional balance demonstrated sufficient evidence for ME/I between genders and among ethnicities, but not among age groups. Future research should examine the stability of these constructs across time. PMID:18607667

  20. Immigrant differences in school-age children's verbal trajectories: a look at four racial/ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, Tama; Xue, Yange; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2006-01-01

    This study explored inter- and intraindividual immigrant group differences in children's English verbal ability over ages 6-16 in 4 racial/ethnic groups-White Americans, Black Americans, Mexican Americans, and Puerto Ricans (N=2,136). Although all children's mean verbal scores increased with age, immigrant children (except for Black Americans) had lower scores than respective nonimmigrant children. In contrast, immigrant children (except for Mexican Americans) had more persistent verbal growth into adolescence than respective nonimmigrant children. Family resources moderately accounted for immigrant differences in children's mean verbal scores only. The findings support different theoretical models for understanding inter- and intraindividual immigrant differences in achievement. Mexican-American immigrants and Black American nonimmigrants were struggling and merit policy attention.

  1. Socioeconomic Status and Poor Health Outcome at 10 Years of Follow-Up in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Joao; Diez-Roux, Ana; Jorgensen, Neal W.; McClelland, Robyn L.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Objectives Predictors of healthy aging have not been well-studied using longitudinal data with demographic, clinical, subclinical, and genetic information. The objective was to identify predictors of poor health outcome at 10 years of follow-up in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Population-based sample from 6 U.S. communities. Participants 4,355 participants In the MESA Study. Measurements Poor health outcome at 10 years of follow-up was defined as having died or having clinical cardiovascular disease, depression, cognitive impairment, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, or cancer other than non-melanoma skin cancer. Absolute risk regression was used to estimate risk differences in the outcome adjusting for demographic variables, clinical and behavioral risk factors, subclinical cardiovascular disease, and ApoE genotype. Models were weighted to account for selective attrition. Results Mean age at 10 years of follow-up was 69.5 years; 1,480 participants had a poor health outcome, 2,157 participants were in good health, and 718 were unknown. Older age, smoking, not taking a statin, hypertension, diabetes, and higher coronary calcium score were associated with higher probability of poor health outcome. After multivariable adjustment, participants in the lowest income and educational categories had 7 to 14% greater absolute risk of poor health outcome at 10 years of follow-up compared to those in the next highest categories of income or education (P = 0.002 for both). Those in the lowest categories of both income and education had 21% greater absolute risk of poor health outcome compared to those in the highest categories of both income and education. Conclusions Low income and educational level predict poor health outcome at 10 years of follow-up in an aging cohort, independent of clinical and behavioral risk factors and subclinical cardiovascular disease. PMID:27875557

  2. Ethnic incongruence and the student-teacher relationship: the perspective of ethnic majority teachers.

    PubMed

    Thijs, Jochem; Westhof, Saskia; Koomen, Helma

    2012-04-01

    Among 36 ethnic-Dutch school teachers in the Netherlands, the present study examined the role of ethnic incongruence in perceived student-teacher relationship quality. Teachers rated their relationships with 59 Turkish-Dutch, 62 Moroccan-Dutch, and 109 ethnic-Dutch students attending grades 4 through 6 (M(age)=10.81 years, SD=1.05). On average, relationships were less favorable for the Moroccan-Dutch students only. However, the effects of ethnic incongruence were most pronounced among students with strong perceived inattention/hyperactivity and among teachers endorsing lower levels of multiculturalism (the view that different cultures deserve equal treatment). Results support the notion that ethnically incongruent relationships may be perceived as less favorable than ethnically congruent ones due to cultural misunderstandings and intergroup bias. Practical implications are discussed.

  3. Development and validation of a food frequency questionnaire for dietary intake assessment among multi-ethnic primary school-aged children

    PubMed Central

    Fatihah, Fadil; Ng, Boon Koon; Hazwanie, Husin; Norimah, A Karim; Shanita, Safii Nik; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Poh, Bee Koon

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION This study aimed to develop and validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess habitual diets of multi-ethnic Malaysian children aged 7–12 years. METHODS A total of 236 primary school children participated in the development of the FFQ and 209 subjects participated in the validation study, with a subsample of 30 subjects participating in the reproducibility study. The FFQ, consisting of 94 food items from 12 food groups, was compared with a three-day dietary record (3DR) as the reference method. The reproducibility of the FFQ was assessed through repeat administration (FFQ2), seven days after the first administration (FFQ1). RESULTS The results of the validation study demonstrated good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of macronutrients in FFQ1 and 3DR correlated well, although the FFQ intake data tended to be higher. Cross-classification of nutrient intake between the two methods showed that < 7% of subjects were grossly misclassified. Moderate correlations noted between the two methods ranged from r = 0.310 (p < 0.001) for fat to r = 0.497 (p < 0.001) for energy. The reproducibility of the FFQ, as assessed by Cronbach’s alpha, ranged from 0.61 (protein) to 0.70 (energy, carbohydrates and fat). Spearman’s correlations between FFQ1 and FFQ2 ranged from rho = 0.333 (p = 0.072) for protein to rho = 0.479 (p < 0.01) for fat. CONCLUSION These findings indicate that the FFQ is valid and reliable for measuring the average intake of energy and macronutrients in a population of multi-ethnic children aged 7–12 years in Malaysia. PMID:26702165

  4. Language Performance and Reading Ability at 8 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Rodney; Slaghuis, Walter

    1985-01-01

    Reports results from a detailed syntactic analysis of spoken language samples collected from poor and good readers at eight years of age. Results showed an undeniably strong association between reduced language comprehension and reading impairment at age eight, an association that appeared to strengthen by age nine. (SED)

  5. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans With and Without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or ethnicity, and Education

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51 and older from the 1998 to 2006 Health and Retirement Study. Multilevel models and a cohort-sequential design were applied to quantitatively depict the age norm of physical disability after age 50. Results: Adults with diabetes not only experience greater levels of physical disability but also faster rates of deterioration over time. This pattern is net of attrition, time-invariant sociodemographic factors, and time-varying chronic disease conditions. Differences in physical disability between adults with and without diabetes were more pronounced in women, non-White, and those of lower education. The moderating effects of gender and education remained robust even after controlling for selected covariates in the model. Implications: This study highlighted the consistently greater development of disability over time in adults with diabetes and particularly in those who are women, non-White, or adults of lower education. Future studies are recommended to examine the mechanisms underlying the differential effects of diabetes on physical disability by gender and education. PMID:20713455

  6. Multi-ethnic differences in HbA1c, blood pressure, and low-density-lipid cholesterol control among South Africans living with type 2 diabetes, after a 4-year follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Pinchevsky, Yacob; Shukla, Varada J; Butkow, Neil; Chirwa, Tobias; Raal, Frederick

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Our study set out to examine if disparities in control of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), blood pressure (BP), and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) existed among an urban multi-ethnic cohort of South Africans, living with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients and methods This longitudinal, retrospective study consisted of 261 men and women with previously diagnosed T2DM who attended Charlotte Maxeke Johannesburg Academic Hospital, South Africa across two time periods 2009 and 2013. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from consecutive medical records. The primary outcome was to determine achievements in HbA1c, BP, and LDL-C among ethnic groups using evidence-based goals. Results The mean age of the cohort was 64 (±10.6) years, females represented 55%, and the self-reported diabetes duration was 16 (±10.6) years as at 2013. Black Africans (42.9%, n=112 of 261) were more likely to reach the HbA1c target (<7%) and less likely to have had retinopathy, nephropathy, or cardiovascular disease. Over two-thirds of mixed-ancestry patients attained the BP target (<140/80 mmHg), while 90.2% of Caucasians achieved LDL-C goals (<2.5 mmol/L). Overall, across the ethnic groups studied, we found that HbA1c control deteriorated over time, although BP levels remained the same and LDL-C levels drastically improved. Conclusion There was poor control of HbA1c, BP, and LDL-C across all ethnic groups. Although a minority achieved recommended targets, some ethnic groups appeared to have worse control than others. Timely aggressive actions in particularly high-risk ethnic groups will prevent/delay the complications commonly associated with T2DM. PMID:27895508

  7. Marital happiness and sleep disturbances in a multi-ethnic sample of middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Wendy M; Buysse, Daniel J; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A

    2009-01-01

    Previous research suggests that divorced individuals, particularly women, have higher rates of sleep disturbances as compared to married individuals. Among the married, however, little is known about the association between relationship quality and sleep. The present study examined the association between marital happiness and self-reported sleep disturbances in a sample of midlife women drawn from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-site, multi-ethnic, community-based study (N = 2,148). Marital happiness was measured using a single item from the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, and sleep disturbance was assessed using 4 items from the Women's Health Initiative Insomnia Rating Scale (WHIIRS). After controlling for relevant covariates, maritally happy women reported fewer sleep disturbances, with the association evident among Caucasian women and to a lesser extent among African American women.

  8. Health needs of prisoners in England and Wales: the implications for prison healthcare of gender, age and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Harris, Francesca; Hek, Gill; Condon, Louise

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims to provide evidence of the healthcare needs of prisoners in relation to gender, age and ethnicity, drawing from a larger systematic overview of the policy and research literature concerning primary care nursing in prisons in England and Wales. The literature overview shaped the initial stages of a research project funded by the Department of Health to examine the views and perspectives of prisoners and nurses working in prisons, and to identify good primary care nursing in the prison environment. At total of 17 databases were searched using search terms related to primary healthcare in prisons (health, nurs*, primary care, healthcare, family medicine, prison*, offender*, inmate*) with terms truncated where possible in the different databases. Following this, a sifting phase was employed using inclusion/exclusion criteria to narrow and focus the literature perceived as relevant to the research questions. All papers were critically appraised for quality using standardised tools. Findings from the literature overview show that prisoners are more likely to have suffered some form of social exclusion compared to the rest of society, and there are significantly greater degrees of mental health problems, substance abuse and worse physical health in prisoners than in the general population. Women, young offenders, older prisoners and those from minority ethnic groups have distinct health needs compared to the prison population taken as a whole, with implications for the delivery of prison healthcare, and how these needs are met effectively and appropriately.

  9. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  10. Ethnic Diversity and the Potential for Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medora, Nilufer P.; And Others

    This study compared the potential for child abuse among three ethnic groups, when age, educational attainment, and marital status were controlled for in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income mothers residing in a large metropolitan area. Participants (n=195) were between 15 and 45 years and were enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children…

  11. Thirty Years of Racial/Ethnic Identity Development Research: An Examination of Black College Students Racial/Ethnic Identity Development and Acculturation and How It Affects Their Attitudes toward Professional Help-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbour, Edwanike C.

    2009-01-01

    After thirty years of racial/ethnic identity development (R/EID) studies, research has shown little other than how racial identity is a reflection of one's political affiliation with a racial group. Recent research has shown that R/EID of college students affects psychological well-being (Kwan & Sodowsky, 1997; Yoo & Lee, 2005). However, Black…

  12. Children's Cross-Ethnic Relationships in Elementary Schools: Concurrent and Prospective Associations between Ethnic Segregation and Social Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether ethnic segregation is concurrently (fall) and prospectively (fall to spring) associated with social status among 4th- and 5th-grade African American and European American children ("n" = 713, ages 9-11 years). Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism in peer affiliations and (b) cross-ethnicity…

  13. Suicide in young Singaporeans aged 10-24 years between 2000 to 2004.

    PubMed

    Loh, Cheryl; Tai, Bee-Choo; Ng, Wai-Yee; Chia, Audrey; Chia, Boon-Hock

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the features of young suicide in order to contribute to suicide prevention efforts. In this article, the demographic, clinical, and suicide-related features of all cases of young suicide (aged 10-24 years) in Singapore for the years 2000-2004 are described. We also compared those who sought mental health services to those who did not. Overall, the suicide rate was 5.7 per 100, 000, with gender ratio of 1:1 and higher rates among ethnic Indians. Psychosocial stressors and suicide by jumping from height were common. Mental health service use was associated with unemployment, previous suicide attempts, family history of suicide, more use of lethal methods, lack of identifiable stressor, and less suicide notes. Suicide prevention efforts should promote awareness of suicide risks and access to mental health services.

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening in US Seniors Ages 76-84 Years.

    PubMed

    Klabunde, Carrie N; Shapiro, Jean A; Kobrin, Sarah; Nadel, Marion R; Zapka, Jane M

    2015-08-01

    The US Preventive Services Task Force recommends patient-physician discussions about the appropriateness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among adults ages 76-84 years who have never been screened. In this study, we used data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey to examine patterns of CRC screening and provider recommendation among seniors ages 76-84 years, and made some comparisons to younger adults. Nationally-representative samples of 1379 adults ages 76-84 years and 8797 adults ages 50-75 years responded to questions about CRC screening status, receipt of provider recommendation, and discussion of test options; 22.7% (95% CI 20.1-25.3) of seniors ages 76-84 had never been tested for CRC and therefore were not up-to-date with guidelines; 3.9% (95% CI 2.0-7.6) of these individuals reported a recent provider recommendation for screening. In multivariate analyses, the likelihood of never having been tested was significantly greater for seniors of other/multiple race or Hispanic ethnicity; with high school or less education; without private health insurance coverage; who had ≤ 1 doctor visit in the past year; without recent screening for breast, cervical, or prostate cancer; with no or unknown CRC family history; or with ≤ 1 chronic disease. Among the minority of respondents ages 50-75 and 76-84 reporting a provider recommendation, 73.2% indicated that the provider recommended particular tests, which was overwhelmingly colonoscopy (≥ 89 %). Nearly one-quarter of adults 76-84 have never been screened for CRC, and rates of provider recommendation in this group are very low. Greater attention to informed CRC screening discussions with screening-eligible seniors is needed.

  15. The Effects of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Spinal Level on the Rate of Intervertebral Disc Degeneration. A review of 1712 Intervertebral Discs

    PubMed Central

    Siemionow, Krzysztof; An, Howard; Masuda, Koichi; Andersson, Gunnar; Cs-Szabo, Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    Study Design A gross anatomical and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration in fresh cadaveric lumbar spines. Objective The purpose of this study was to find the rate of IVD degeneration. Summary of Background Data Age, sex, race, and lumbar level are among some of the factors that play a role in IVD degeneration. The rate at which IVDs degenerate is unknown. Methods Complete lumbar spine segments (T11/12 to S1) were received within 24 hours of death. The nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus, cartilaginous and bony end-plate, and the peripheral verterbral body were assessed with MRI and IVD degeneration was graded by two observers from grade 1(nondegenerated) to grade 5(severely degenerated) based on a scale developed by Tanaka et al. The specimens were then sectioned and gross anatomical evaluation was performed according to Thompson et al. Results 433 donors and 1712 IVDs were analyzed. There were 366 Caucasians, 47 Africans, 16 Hispanics, 4 Asian. There were 306 males and 127 females. The age range was 14–81 years, (average 60.5+/−11.3). For donors greater than age 40, the L5/S1 IVD degenerated at a significantly faster rate of 0.043/year compared to 0.031, 0.034, 0.033, 0.027 for L12, L23, L34, L45, respectively. For donors younger than 40, L5/S1 IVD degenerated at a significantly faster rate of 0.141/year compared to 0.033,0.021, 0.031, 0.050 for L12, L23, L34, L45, respectively. Multiple regression analysis revealed that gender had no significant effect on IVD degeneration whereas African ethnicity was associated with lower Thompson score at L12, L23, L34, L45 when compared to Caucasians. Conclusions The relatively early degeneration at L5-S1 in all races and lower Thompson grade in donors of African ethnicity needs further investigation. Factors such as sagittal alignment, facet joint arthritis, and genetics potentially play a role in IVD degeneration. PMID:21217432

  16. Multi-ethnic reference values for spirometry for the 3-95-yr age range: the global lung function 2012 equations.

    PubMed

    Quanjer, Philip H; Stanojevic, Sanja; Cole, Tim J; Baur, Xaver; Hall, Graham L; Culver, Bruce H; Enright, Paul L; Hankinson, John L; Ip, Mary S M; Zheng, Jinping; Stocks, Janet

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the Task Force was to derive continuous prediction equations and their lower limits of normal for spirometric indices, which are applicable globally. Over 160,000 data points from 72 centres in 33 countries were shared with the European Respiratory Society Global Lung Function Initiative. Eliminating data that could not be used (mostly missing ethnic group, some outliers) left 97,759 records of healthy nonsmokers (55.3% females) aged 2.5-95 yrs. Lung function data were collated and prediction equations derived using the LMS method, which allows simultaneous modelling of the mean (mu), the coefficient of variation (sigma) and skewness (lambda) of a distribution family. After discarding 23,572 records, mostly because they could not be combined with other ethnic or geographic groups, reference equations were derived for healthy individuals aged 3-95 yrs for Caucasians (n=57,395), African-Americans (n=3,545), and North (n=4,992) and South East Asians (n=8,255). Forced expiratory value in 1 s (FEV(1)) and forced vital capacity (FVC) between ethnic groups differed proportionally from that in Caucasians, such that FEV(1)/FVC remained virtually independent of ethnic group. For individuals not represented by these four groups, or of mixed ethnic origins, a composite equation taken as the average of the above equations is provided to facilitate interpretation until a more appropriate solution is developed. Spirometric prediction equations for the 3-95-age range are now available that include appropriate age-dependent lower limits of normal. They can be applied globally to different ethnic groups. Additional data from the Indian subcontinent and Arabic, Polynesian and Latin American countries, as well as Africa will further improve these equations in the future.

  17. Exploring Experiences and Perceptions of Aging and Cognitive Decline Across Diverse Racial and Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, Holly; Sherzai, Dean; Belliard, Juan Carlos; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus groups (FGs) were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: (N = 75). Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a) personal expectations about aging, (b) societal value of older adults, (c) model of care preferred, and (d) community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes. PMID:26925436

  18. In retrospect: Forty years of linking orbits to ice ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslin, Mark

    2016-12-01

    In 1976, it was demonstrated that tiny wobbles in Earth's orbit led to the great ice-age cycles of the past few million years. This finding had wide implications for climate science and the details remain hotly debated today.

  19. Peptide regulation of aging: 35-year research experience.

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Anisimov, V N

    2009-07-01

    The authors sum up the results of many-year studies of mechanisms of aging and efficiency of peptide bioregulators in the prevention of age-specific diseases. Data on the effects of peptides, evaluated by the up-to-date methods, are presented. A molecular model of complementary interactions between short peptides and gene promotor sites, underlying the initiation of protein synthesis, is proposed. Prospects of peptide bioregulators in prevention of early aging are discussed.

  20. Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds among children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity among children aged 6-11 years. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was positively associated with the levels of selected metabolites of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, cyanide, and propylene oxide in a dose-response manner. Levels of the selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, toluene, and xylene decreased with increase in age. Levels of 1-bromopropane decreased with number of rooms in the house but the reverse was true for 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Levels of most of the 20 metabolites did not vary with gender. Non-Hispanic white children had higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) than non-Hispanic black children. Non-Hispanic white children had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA), trans, trans-Muconic acid (MU), and N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC) than non-Hispanic Asian children but statistically significantly lower levels of N-Acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (BPMA) than non-Hispanic Asian children. Non-Hispanic Asian children had the lowest levels of 13 of the 20 metabolites among four major racial/ethnic groups but highest levels for three metabolites. For selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile-vinyl chloride-ethylene oxide, benzene, 1,3-butadien, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylbenzene-styrene, and toluene, children had statistically significantly higher levels than nonsmoking adults. These results demonstrate how vulnerable children are to being exposed to harmful chemicals like VOCs in their own homes.

  1. Longitudinal changes in body composition associated with healthy ageing: men, aged 20-96 years.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Andrew S; Janssen, Ian; Sui, Xuemei; Church, Timothy S; Blair, Steven N

    2012-04-01

    Obesity and sarcopenia are health problems associated with ageing. The present study modelled the longitudinal changes in body composition of healthy men, aged from 20 to 96 years, and evaluated the fidelity of BMI to identify age-dependent changes in fat mass and fat-free mass. The data from 7265 men with multiple body composition determinations (total observations 38,328) were used to model the age-related changes in body mass, fat mass, fat-free mass, BMI and percentage of body fat. Changes in fat mass and fat-free mass were used to evaluate the fidelity of BMI and to detect body composition changes with ageing. Linear mixed regression models showed that all trajectories of body composition with healthy ageing were quadratic. Fat mass, BMI and percentage of body fat increased from age 20 years and levelled off at approximately 80 years. Fat-free mass increased slightly from age 20 to 47 years and then declined at a non-linear rate with ageing. Levels of aerobic exercise had a positive influence on fat mass and a slight negative effect on fat-free mass. BMI and percentage of body fat were sensitive in detecting the increase in fat mass that occurred with healthy ageing, but failed to identify the loss of fat-free mass that started at age 47 years.

  2. Sex, Age, and Race/Ethnicity Do Not Modify the Effectiveness of a Diet Intervention among Family Members of Hospitalized Cardiovascular Disease Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mochari-Greenberger, Heidi; Terry, Mary Beth; Mosca, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether effectiveness of a diet intervention for family members of cardiovascular disease patients varies by participant sex, race/ethnicity, or age because these characteristics have been associated with unique barriers to diet change. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting and Participants: University medical…

  3. The Impact of Developmental Mathematics Courses and Age, Gender, and Race and Ethnicity on Persistence and Academic Performance in Virginia Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfle, James D.; Williams, Mitchell R.

    2014-01-01

    This research study examined the 2006 cohort of First-Time-in-College students from all 23 community colleges in Virginia. The goal was to examine fall-to-fall persistence and success in the first college-level mathematics course. Predictor variables used were developmental status, age, gender, and race and ethnicity of the student. Interaction…

  4. Treatment-Associated Changes in Body Composition, Health Behaviors, and Mood as Predictors of Change in Body Satisfaction in Obese Women: Effects of Age and Race/Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annesi, James J.; Tennant, Gisèle A.; Mareno, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    A lack of satisfaction with one's body is common among women with obesity, often prompting unhealthy "dieting." Beyond typically slow improvements in weight and body composition, behavioral factors might also affect change in body satisfaction. Age and race/ethnicity (African American vs. White) might moderate such change. Obese women (N…

  5. It Takes Two: The Role of Partner Ethnicity and Age Characteristics on Condom Negotiations of Heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Amy G.; Barnhart, James E.

    2006-01-01

    To date, limited attention is paid to how partners influence the condom negotiation process. This study examined whether partner ethnicity and age were associated with condom negotiations (i.e., verbal-direct, verbal-indirect, nonverbal-direct, nonverbal-indirect) in heterosexual Chinese and Filipina American college women. Results from 181 women…

  6. Differences in Vigorous and Moderate Physical Activity by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, Age, Education, and Income among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad

    2007-01-01

    Background: Inconsistent findings exist regarding correlates of physical activity (PA) in the literature. Leisure-time physical activity among U.S. adults has declined for the last decade. Purpose: This article examines differences in vigorous-intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity by gender, race/ethnicity, age, education, and income…

  7. Examining the relationship of ethnicity, gender and social cognitive factors with the academic achievement of first-year engineering students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, Bruce Henry

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of social cognitive factors and their influence on the academic performance of first-year engineering students. The nine social cognitive variables identified were under the groupings of personal support, occupational self-efficacy, academic self-efficacy, vocational interests, coping, encouragement, discouragement, outcome expectations, and perceived stress. The primary student participants in this study were first-year engineering students from underrepresented groups which include African American, Hispanic American students and women. With this in mind, the researcher sought to examine the interactive influence of race/ethnicity and gender based on the aforementioned social cognitive factors. Differences in academic performance (university GPA of first-year undergraduate engineering students) were analyzed by ethnicity and gender. There was a main effect for ethnicity only. Gender was found not to be significant. Hispanics were not found to be significantly different in their GPAs than Whites but Blacks were found to have lower GPAs than Whites. Also, Pearson correlation coefficients were used to examine the relationship between and among the nine identified social cognitive variables. The data from the analysis uncovered ten significant correlations which were as follows: occupational self-efficacy and academic self-efficacy, occupational self-efficacy and vocational interest, occupational self-efficacy and perceived stress, academic self-efficacy and encouragement, academic self-efficacy and outcome expectations, academic self-efficacy and perceived stress, vocational interest and outcome expectations, discouragement and encouragement, coping and perceived stress, outcome expectations and perceived stress. Next, a Pearson correlation coefficient was utilized to examine the relationship between academic performance (college GPA) of first-year undergraduate engineering students and the nine identified

  8. The Influence of Ethnic Background, Gender and Age on Student Performance in Distance Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, James V.

    2005-01-01

    The role of distance learning in higher education has exploded in recent years. The Sloan Center for OnLine Education reports that the number of students taking online courses has been growing at approximately 20 percent per year and that more than 1.9 million students were taking an online course in the United States in Fall 2003 (Carlson, 2004).…

  9. Intake of lutein and zeaxanthin differ with age, sex, and ethnicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that are selectively taken up into the macula of the eye where they are thought to protect against age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Current dietary databases make it difficult to ascertain their individual roles in eye health because their concentrations ...

  10. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N.; Hoffmann, Thomas J.; Hesselson, Stephanie E.; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A.; Dispensa, Brad P.; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P.; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C.; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P.; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K.; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A.; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian–European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent–child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent–child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent–child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies. PMID:26092716

  11. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort.

    PubMed

    Banda, Yambazi; Kvale, Mark N; Hoffmann, Thomas J; Hesselson, Stephanie E; Ranatunga, Dilrini; Tang, Hua; Sabatti, Chiara; Croen, Lisa A; Dispensa, Brad P; Henderson, Mary; Iribarren, Carlos; Jorgenson, Eric; Kushi, Lawrence H; Ludwig, Dana; Olberg, Diane; Quesenberry, Charles P; Rowell, Sarah; Sadler, Marianne; Sakoda, Lori C; Sciortino, Stanley; Shen, Ling; Smethurst, David; Somkin, Carol P; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Walter, Lawrence; Whitmer, Rachel A; Kwok, Pui-Yan; Schaefer, Catherine; Risch, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Using genome-wide genotypes, we characterized the genetic structure of 103,006 participants in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California multi-ethnic Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging Cohort and analyzed the relationship to self-reported race/ethnicity. Participants endorsed any of 23 race/ethnicity/nationality categories, which were collapsed into seven major race/ethnicity groups. By self-report the cohort is 80.8% white and 19.2% minority; 93.8% endorsed a single race/ethnicity group, while 6.2% endorsed two or more. Principal component (PC) and admixture analyses were generally consistent with prior studies. Approximately 17% of subjects had genetic ancestry from more than one continent, and 12% were genetically admixed, considering only nonadjacent geographical origins. Self-reported whites were spread on a continuum along the first two PCs, indicating extensive mixing among European nationalities. Self-identified East Asian nationalities correlated with genetic clustering, consistent with extensive endogamy. Individuals of mixed East Asian-European genetic ancestry were easily identified; we also observed a modest amount of European genetic ancestry in individuals self-identified as Filipinos. Self-reported African Americans and Latinos showed extensive European and African genetic ancestry, and Native American genetic ancestry for the latter. Among 3741 genetically identified parent-child pairs, 93% were concordant for self-reported race/ethnicity; among 2018 genetically identified full-sib pairs, 96% were concordant; the lower rate for parent-child pairs was largely due to intermarriage. The parent-child pairs revealed a trend toward increasing exogamy over time; the presence in the cohort of individuals endorsing multiple race/ethnicity categories creates interesting challenges and future opportunities for genetic epidemiologic studies.

  12. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  13. Travel to School and Physical Activity Levels in 9–10 Year-Old UK Children of Different Ethnic Origin; Child Heart and Health Study in England (CHASE)

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Christopher G.; Nightingale, Claire M.; Rudnicka, Alicja R.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Ekelund, Ulf; Cook, Derek G.; Whincup, Peter H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Travel to school may offer a convenient way to increase physical activity levels in childhood. We examined the association between method of travel to school and physical activity levels in urban multi-ethnic children. Methods and Findings 2035 children (aged 9–10 years in 2006–7) provided data on their usual method of travel to school and wore an Actigraph-GT1M activity monitor during waking hours. Associations between method of travel and mean level of physical activity (counts per minute [CPM], steps, time spent in light, moderate or vigorous activity per day) were examined in models adjusted for confounding variables. 1393 children (69%) walked or cycled to school; 161 (8%) used public transport and 481 (24%) travelled by car. White European children were more likely to walk/cycle, black African Caribbeans to travel by public transport and South Asian children to travel by car. Children travelling by car spent less time in moderate to vigorous physical activity (−7 mins, 95%CI-9,-5), and had lower CPM (−32 CPM, 95%CI-44,-19) and steps per day (−813 steps, 95%CI,-1043,-582) than walkers/cyclists. Pupils travelling by public transport had similar activity levels to walkers/cyclists. Lower physical activity levels amongst car travellers' were especially marked at travelling times (school days between 8–9 am, 3–5 pm), but were also evident on weekdays at other times and at weekends; they did not differ by gender or ethnic group. Conclusion Active travel to school is associated with higher levels of objectively measured physical activity, particularly during periods of travel but also at other times. If children travelling by car were to achieve physical activity levels (steps) similar to children using active travel, they would increase their physical activity levels by 9%. However, the population increase would be a modest 2%, because of the low proportion of car travellers in this urban population. PMID:22319596

  14. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  15. Educating Other People's Children: Race, Class, Ethnicity, Aging, and the Politics of School Funding in Long Island, New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alan

    Long Island, New York, including Nassau and Suffolk Counties, is a patchwork of small ethnically, racially, and economically segregated towns organized into 126 school districts. School funding patterns and problems conform to racial, ethnic, and class lines. Predominantly minority school districts generally have higher property tax rates, fewer…

  16. The Couple that Prays Together: Race and Ethnicity, Religion, and Relationship Quality among Working-Age Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Christopher G.; Burdette, Amy M.; Wilcox, W. Bradford

    2010-01-01

    A substantial body of research has shown that relationship quality tends to be (a) lower among racial and ethnic minorities and (b) higher among more religious persons and among couples in which partners share common religious affiliations, practices, and beliefs. However, few studies have examined the interplay of race or ethnicity and religion…

  17. Re-Seeing Race in a Post-Obama Age: Asian American Studies, Comparative Ethnic Studies, and Intersectional Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlund-Vials, Cathy J.

    2011-01-01

    Focused on comparative ethnic studies and intersectionality, the author commences with a discussion about Barack Obama's historic inauguration and the Asian American literature classroom. This essay argues that courses, programs, and departments focused on ethnicity, race, gender, class, and sexuality remain important precisely because they…

  18. Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Spence, John C; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines were created in response to an urgent call from public health, health care, child care, and fitness practitioners for healthy active living guidance for the early years. The guideline development process was informed by the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument and the evidence assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between physical activity and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from an extensive on-line consultation process with input from over 900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guideline recommendations state that for healthy growth and development, infants (aged <1 year) should be physically active several times daily - particularly through interactive floor-based play. Toddlers (aged 1-2 years) and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) should accumulate at least 180 min of physical activity at any intensity spread throughout the day, including a variety of activities in different environments, activities that develop movement skills, and progression toward at least 60 min of energetic play by 5 years of age. More daily physical activity provides greater benefits.

  19. Nine-year aging behavior of the ceramic flatpack resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Beetley, D.E.

    1990-03-06

    GE has developed a multichannel, high precision aging{asterisk} measurement facility capable of high volume testing of resonators. Features of the facility considered unique for production aging systems test include: (1) Loran-C/disciplined time-frequency (DTF) oscillator frequency standard, (2) direct current power bus design, (3) measurement and switching techniques, and (4) high volume automatic precision resonator aging. Computer-controlled data acquisition is used for unattended operation. Facility requirements included frequency measurement with sufficient precision to allow 20- year extrapolation of resonator frequency shift using 30 data points. The frequency reference is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Long-term extrapolation required selection of a model which would most accurately reflect the major processes involved in aging. In order to verify the accuracy of model extrapolation, a group of resonators has been maintained in test for more than nine years. 9 refs., 16 figs.

  20. Emotional Experience Improves With Age: Evidence Based on Over 10 Years of Experience Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Laura L.; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Brooks, Kathryn P.; Nesselroade, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:20973600

  1. Height and age adjustment for cross sectional studies of lung function in children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Chinn, S; Rona, R J

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: No standard exists for the adjustment of lung function for height and age in children. Multiple regression should not be used on untransformed data because, for example, forced expiratory volume (FEV1), though normally distributed for height, age, and sex, has increasing standard deviation. A solution to the conflict is proposed. METHODS: Spirometry on representative samples of children aged 6.5 to 11.99 years in primary schools in England. After exclusion of children who did not provide two repeatable blows 910 white English boys and 722 girls had data on FEV1 and height. Means and standard deviations of FEV1 divided by height were plotted to determine whether logarithmic transformation of FEV1 was appropriate. Multiple regression was used to give predicted FEV1 for height and age on the transformed scale; back transformation gave predicted values in litres. Other lung function measures were analysed, and data on inner city children, children from ethnic minority groups, and Scottish children were described. RESULTS: After logarithmic (ln) transformation of FEV1 standard deviation was constant. The ratios of actual and predicted values of FEV1 were normally distributed in boys and girls. From the means and standard deviations of these distributions, and the predicted values, centiles and standard deviation scores can be calculated. CONCLUSION: The method described is valid because the assumption of stable variance for multiple regression was satisfied on the log scale and the variation of ratios of actual to predicted values on the original scale was well described by a normal distribution. The adoption of the method will lead to uniformity and greater ease of comparison of research findings. PMID:1440464

  2. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  3. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  4. Langerhans cell histiocytosis in children under 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Luna, R; Alter-Molchadsky, N; Cardenas-Cardos, R; Martínez-Guerra, G

    1996-05-01

    This is a retrospective study of 55 children under the age of 2 years diagnosed with Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). They were classified according to age and organ function and dysfunction following Lahey's criteria. The studied population was divided into four groups by age of diagnosis (0-6, 7-12, 13-18, and 19-24 months). Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in outcome between age groups, although the population under 6 months had a 81.3% fatality rate. The presence of organ dysfunction was a major cause of death in all age groups, being statistically significant in outcome (P > 0.005) compared with patients without organ dysfunction. The presence of thrombocytopenia and/or respiratory dysfunction was also highly associated with a fatal outcome. In the surviving population, no second malignancies have been reported. The late secondary effects of therapy include endocrine, orofacial, and osseous pathologies.

  5. Axone, an ethnic probiotic containing food, reduces age of sexual maturity and increases poultry production.

    PubMed

    Singh, Bhoj Raj; Singh, R K

    2014-06-01

    Axone (Akhuni) is a homemade synbiotic (Nagamese fermented soybean product) served as side dish in North Eastern India. In this study, effects of Axone feeding on growth, weight gain, sexual maturity and egg production on Vanaraja birds (a strain of poultry bird developed at PDP Hyderabad for villages and backyard poultry) were evaluated. Axone incorporation in commercial poultry feed at the rate of 5% (W/W) significantly improved growth rate (weight gain) both in male (p 0.001) and female (p 0.05) chicks, reduced age by 13 days at first egg laying (p 0.01), increased egg production (p ≤ 0.001) and improved egg weight (p ≤ 0.01). Microbiological analysis of Axone sample revealed that the major bacteria in Axone samples were Bacillus coagulans, well known for their probiotic value.

  6. [35-year experience in research of peptide regulation of aging].

    PubMed

    Khavinson, V Kh; Anisimov, V N

    2009-01-01

    The results of 35-year-long studies on mechanisms of aging and on efficacy of peptide bioregulators in prevention of age-related pathology are presented in this review paper. The data have been obtained with most advanced methods in collaboration with research laboratories of Russia, USA, UK, Germany, Italy, Spain, France. The molecular model of complementary interrelation of short peptides with promoter site of genes which is a background of protein biosynthesis initiation has been suggested. The prospects of clinical use of peptide bioregulators for prevention of premature aging of the active population in Russia are discussed.

  7. [Epidemiological characteristics of children aged 1-4 years without timely birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine vaccination in China, 2014].

    PubMed

    Wang, F Z; Zhang, G M; Shen, L P; Liu, J H; Zheng, H; Wang, F; Miao, N; Sun, X J; Liang, X F; Cui, F Q

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiological characteristics of the children aged 1-4 years without timely birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HepB(1)) vaccination. Methods: Based on the data from 160 disease surveillance points in 31 provinces of China, two-stage cluster random sampling was used to select the target population aged 1-4 years. A standard questionnaire was used to collect the information about the birth date, gender, ethnic group, place of birth, HepB immunization history of the children selected. A blood sample (3 ml) was taken from each subject for HBsAg testing. SAS software (Version 9.4) was used in our study. We analyzed the age, gender, ethnic group, area specific distributions of the children aged 1-4 years without timely HepB(1) vaccination and the influencing factors, and the relationship between the HepB(1) vaccination time and HBsAg prevalence rate. Results: A total of 12 587 children aged 1-4 years were analyzed and the non-timely HepB(1) vaccination rate was 10.12%. The place of birth, ethnic group, urban/rural area, eastern/central/western area, age were the main influencing factor of the non-timely HepB(1) vaccination. The non-timely HepB(1) vaccination rate was higher in 3-4 years old children (11.13%) than in 1-2 years old children (8.97%), in rural area (12.05%) than in urban area (8.19%), in western area (13.41%) than in central area (9.27%) and eastern area (7.72%), in minority ethnic group (18.06%) than in Han ethnic group (8.77%) and in children born outside hospital (57.66%) than in children born in hospital (9.27%). The HBsAg prevalence rate among 1-4 years children was 0.31%. The HBsAg prevalence rate of the children with timely HepB(1) vaccination (0.25%) was lower than that of the children without timely HepB(1) vaccination (0.89%). Conclusions: In China, the HBsAg prevalence rate among 1-4 years children with HepB vaccination decreased to <0.5% and the timely HepB(1) vaccination rate reached to 90%. We should strengthen the

  8. Ebstein's anomaly in adult patients over 50 years of age.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Shigeaki; Yoshitake, Kiyonobu; Matsuo, Atsutoshi; Tayama, Kei-Ichiro; Hida, Satoru; Mito, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Ebstein's anomaly (EA) is a rare congenital heart disease of the tricuspid valve, and less than 5% of patients with EA survive beyond the age of 50. We report two unoperated cases of EA in adult patients aged over 50 years. Two patients, a 70-year-old Japanese woman and a 59-year-old Chinese woman, were referred to us for tachyarrhythmias. Transthoracic echocardiography demonstrated apical displacement (>8 mm/m(2) body surface area) of the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve from the atrioventricular ring with tricuspid regurgitation in both patients. The former suddenly expired 20 months later after suffering from repetitive supraventricular tachyarrhythmias and/or heart failure, and the latter is alive with minimal signs of heart failure 12 months after the diagnosis of EA. Although the natural history of EA is extremely variable, these two patients are exceptional in that they tolerated EA well for over 50 years without any surgical intervention.

  9. NATIVITY AND YEARS IN THE RECEIVING CULTURE AS MARKERS OF ACCULTURATION IN ETHNIC ENCLAVES

    PubMed Central

    SCHWARTZ, SETH J.; PANTIN, HILDA; SULLIVAN, SUMMER; PRADO, GUILLERMO; SZAPOCZNIK, JOSÉ

    2006-01-01

    The current study was conducted to ascertain the validity of two commonly used markers of acculturation (nativity and years in the receiving culture) in an enclave context. Relationships between these markers and a bidimensional measure of acculturation were examined in a convenience sample of Hispanic immigrant adolescents and their caregivers in Miami. Nativity was examined using adolescent-reported data; approximately half of the youth were U.S.-born and half foreign-born, but all of the caregivers were foreign-born. Years in the receiving culture was examined using both adolescent and caregiver data. Results indicated that nativity was significantly associated with adoption of receiving-culture practices, with a small to moderate effect size. Years in the receiving culture was significantly associated with adoption of receiving-culture practices only for adolescent girls and for female caregivers who immigrated as youth. Neither nativity nor years in the receiving culture explained even moderate amounts of variance in retention or loss of culture-of-origin practices. PMID:16799700

  10. Gaps in College Readiness: ACT and SAT Differences by Ethnicity across 10 School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Donzel Wayne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the college-readiness rates of Black, Hispanic, White, and Asian graduates of public secondary schools in Texas using archival data from the Texas Education Agency Academic Excellence Indicator System. Data examined were the average ACT and SAT scores for the past 10 school years (i.e., 2001-2002…

  11. Maternal Teaching during Play with Four-Year-Olds: Variation by Ethnicity and Family Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Sze, Irene Nga-Lam; Ng, Florrie Fei-Yin; Kahana-Kalman, Ronit; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    Mothers' spontaneous teaching of their 4-year-olds was observed during block play in 230 dyads from low-income African American, Mexican, Dominican, and Chinese backgrounds. Blocks contained graphics that could be used to teach concepts in literacy, math, construction, or body/color. Coders noted how often mothers taught each of the concepts,…

  12. A Workshop on Ethnic and Cultural Awareness for Second-Year Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mao, Constance; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A workshop that uses videotaped vignettes, discussions, and role-playing exercises has become a required part of the Introduction to Clinical Medicine course for second-year medical students at the University of Southern California School of Medicine. Evaluation of the program compared pretest and posttest questionnaires. (Author/MLW)

  13. The age-testosterone relationship in black, white, and Mexican-American men, and reasons for ethnic differences.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies give contradictory findings regarding testosterone levels in white, black, and Hispanic men. Here, I present a cross-sectional reanalysis of serum testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) in 1637 males, aged 12-90, who participated in the morning examination of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) during the year 1988-1991. Testosterone and SHBG in males are described precisely over the age range 12 to 90 years. Testosterone and SHBG are not notably different in white and Mexican-American (MA) males. In the age range 20-69 years, black men average 0.39 ng/ml higher testosterone than white and MA men (p < 0.001). The higher testosterone in black men is partly explained by low marriage rate and low adiposity.

  14. Marine radiocarbon reservoir age simulations for the past 50000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butzin, Martin; Köhler, Peter; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    We present simulations of marine radiocarbon reservoir ages using the ocean general circulation model LSG-HAMOCC2s, and evaluate the results with Marine13 raw data records. Our model considers various climatic background states. Radiocarbon cycle boundary conditions are atmospheric Δ14C values according to IntCal13, a recent atmospheric CO2 reconstruction, and spatially variable concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from marine carbon cycle simulations. Our model reasonably agrees with glacial marine Δ14C records but indicates reservoir ages varying with time, different to the invariant reservoir age corrections applied to the observations and to Marine13. Modelled global-mean reservoir ages are in the range 400-800 years compared to the invariant Marine13 value of 405 years. Self-consistent simulations involving the Cariaco Basin record (which is the most continuous marine record contributing to IntCal13 for periods prior to about 30 kyears) amplify the temporal reservoir age variability with global-mean values of about 350-850 years, and improve the agreement with Δ14C observations in some areas.

  15. [Constrictive pericarditis in children under 2 years of age].

    PubMed

    Silva, Lia; Anjos, Rui; Martins, Fernando Maymone; Telo, Margarida

    2002-01-01

    Two cases of constrictive pericarditis, in children under 2 years of age, of non-tuberculosis aetiology, diagnosed from June 97 to May 98 are reported. This entity is rare in paediatrics and it may progress to severe condition. Surgical treatment has a low risk and is generally associated with good prognosis. Aetiology, clinic presentation, differential diagnosis with restrictive cardiomyopathy and treatment are discussed.

  16. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along ("hindsight bias"). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age…

  17. Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…

  18. Obesity Severity, Dietary Behaviors, and Lifestyle Risks Vary by Race/Ethnicity and Age in a Northern California Cohort of Children with Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Margaret C.; Gordon, Nancy P.; Howell, Amanda; Green, Cheryl E.; Greenspan, Louise C.; Chandra, Malini; Mellor, R. Grant; Lo, Joan C.

    2016-01-01

    Identification of modifiable behaviors is important for pediatric weight management and obesity prevention programs. This study examined obesogenic behaviors in children with obesity in a Northern California obesity intervention program using data from a parent/teen-completed intake questionnaire covering dietary and lifestyle behaviors (frequency of breakfast, family meals, unhealthy snacking and beverages, fruit/vegetable intake, sleep, screen time, and exercise). Among 7956 children with BMI ≥ 95th percentile, 45.5% were females and 14.2% were 3–5, 44.2% were 6–11, and 41.6% were 12–17 years old. One-quarter (24.9%) were non-Hispanic white, 11.3% were black, 43.5% were Hispanic, and 12.0% were Asian/Pacific Islander. Severe obesity was prevalent (37.4%), especially among blacks, Hispanics, and older children, and was associated with less frequent breakfast and exercise and excess screen time, and in young children it was associated with consumption of sweetened beverages or juice. Unhealthy dietary behaviors, screen time, limited exercise, and sleep were more prevalent in older children and in selected black, Hispanic, and Asian subgroups, where consumption of sweetened beverages or juice was especially high. Overall, obesity severity and obesogenic behaviors increased with age and varied by gender and race/ethnicity. We identified several key prevalent modifiable behaviors that can be targeted by healthcare professionals to reduce obesity when counseling children with obesity and their parents. PMID:26885385

  19. Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Cognitive Development in Children to Age 8 Years: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Blood, Emily; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood trauma exposure has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The influence of timing of exposure on the magnitude and persistence of deficits is not well understood. The impact of exposure in early development has been especially under-investigated. This study examined the impact of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) in the first years of life on childhood cognitive functioning. Methods Children (N = 206) participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study were assessed prospectively for exposure to IPT (physical or emotional abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing maternal partner violence) between birth and 64 months. Child intelligent quotient scores (IQ) were assessed at 24, 64, and 96 months of age. Race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home were also assessed. Results IPT was significantly associated with decreased cognitive scores at all time points, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home. IPT in the first two years appeared to be especially detrimental. On average, compared to children not exposed to IPT in the first two years, exposed children scored one-half standard deviation lower across cognitive assessments. Conclusion IPT in early life may have adverse effects on cognitive development. IPT during the first two years may have particular impact, with effects persisting at least into later childhood. PMID:22493459

  20. Psychomotor development in Argentinean children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Lejarraga, Horacio; Pascucci, María Cecilia; Krupitzky, Sara; Kelmansky, Diana; Bianco, Ana; Martínez, Elena; Tibaldi, Fabián; Cameron, Noel

    2002-01-01

    In Argentina, there is no information on ages of attainment of developmental milestones and very few data about environmental factors that influence them. A national survey on the psychomotor development of children under 6 years of age was carried out with the help of 129 paediatricians. Logistic regression was applied to a final sample of 3573 healthy, normal children in order to estimate selected centiles (25th, 50th, 75th and 90th), together with their respective confidence intervals, of the ages of attainment of 78 developmental items belonging to the following areas: personal-social (18 items), fine motor (19), language (18) and gross motor (23). The 50th centile obtained for each of the 43 comparable items was compared with those obtained in previously standardised tests: DDST, Denver II, Bayley and Chilean scales. Neither significant nor systematic differences were found between our results and those described in the tests used for comparison. Multiple logistic regressions showed that social class, maternal education and sex (female) were associated with earlier attainment of some selected developmental items, achieved at ages later than 1 year. Selected items achieved before the first year of life were not affected by any of the independent environmental variables studied. The information is useful in helping paediatricians in their daily practice for surveillance of development, as baseline information for epidemiological studies on development in our country and for cross-cultural analysis.

  1. Body build classification for ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18 years) and volleyball girls (aged 13-16 years).

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Stamm, Raini; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Slide

    2005-03-01

    The article describes two Estonian anthropometric cross-sectional studies of 1549 ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18) and 46 girls, who regularly practised volleyball (aged 13-16). Data are presented on 22 basic anthropometric measurements and 6 body composition characteristics (body mass index, mean skinfold, body density, relative mass of fat by Siri, absolute mass and relative mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue). All anthropometric variables were classified into five height-weight SD classes. Schoolgirls were divided into six age groups (7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18). Volleyballers were observed as one group as their age in SD classes did not differ significantly. The classification consisted of five categories: three height-weight concordant categories: I--small (small height, small weight), II--medium (medium height, medium weight), III large--(big height, big weight) and two height/weight discordant categories: IV--so-called pyknomorphs, V--so-called leptomorphs. To assess the differences between classes the Scheffé-test was used (alpha = 0.05). It proved likewise possible to comparatively systematize length, breadth and depth measurements, circumferences and body composition characteristics in all six age groups (7-18 years) of ordinary schoolgirls and in 13-16-year-old volleyballers as in their case the average age did not differ significantly between the classes.

  2. Racial and Ethnic Variation in the Association of Social Integration with Mortality: Ten-year Prospective Population-based US Study.

    PubMed

    Barger, Steven D; Uchino, Bert N

    2017-03-06

    Substantial data link social relationships with mortality but few studies have examined whether these associations are consistent across racial and ethnic groups. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the presence and form of the social relationship/mortality association in a representative sample of US Black (n = 4,201), non-Hispanic White (n = 20,217) and Hispanic (n = 5,097) groups. In models adjusted for age, sex, chronic disease, socioeconomic status and smoking social integration was inversely related to ten-year survival in all groups. However, among Whites the association was linear and graded whereas among Blacks the association was linear but was statistically significant only for the highest level of social integration (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.47-0.94). A threshold pattern was observed among Hispanics, in that lower mortality risk was found for all social integration categories above the lowest level (HRs from 0.58 to 0.52, P's < 0.01) and each of the higher social integration categories were in turn equivalent. Received social support was unrelated to mortality across all groups. Higher social integration is associated with a survival advantage for Blacks and Whites. For Hispanics, moderate and high levels of social integration were equally protective.

  3. Racial and Ethnic Variation in the Association of Social Integration with Mortality: Ten-year Prospective Population-based US Study

    PubMed Central

    Barger, Steven D.; Uchino, Bert N.

    2017-01-01

    Substantial data link social relationships with mortality but few studies have examined whether these associations are consistent across racial and ethnic groups. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the presence and form of the social relationship/mortality association in a representative sample of US Black (n = 4,201), non-Hispanic White (n = 20,217) and Hispanic (n = 5,097) groups. In models adjusted for age, sex, chronic disease, socioeconomic status and smoking social integration was inversely related to ten-year survival in all groups. However, among Whites the association was linear and graded whereas among Blacks the association was linear but was statistically significant only for the highest level of social integration (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.66, 95% confidence interval = 0.47–0.94). A threshold pattern was observed among Hispanics, in that lower mortality risk was found for all social integration categories above the lowest level (HRs from 0.58 to 0.52, P’s < 0.01) and each of the higher social integration categories were in turn equivalent. Received social support was unrelated to mortality across all groups. Higher social integration is associated with a survival advantage for Blacks and Whites. For Hispanics, moderate and high levels of social integration were equally protective. PMID:28262712

  4. 20-Year Trends in Dietary and Meal Behaviors Were Similar in U.S. Children and Adolescents of Different Race/Ethnicity123

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ashima K.; Graubard, Barry I.

    2011-01-01

    Recent survey data reveal persistent race/ethnic disparities in prevalence of adiposity in U.S. children and adolescents. We examined race/ethnic differentials in time trends in dietary behaviors of Americans 2–19 y of age to understand if these trends track those observed for body weight. We used dietary data from the NHANES 1988–1994, 1999–2002, and 2003–2008 (n = 24,131) to examine changes in reported energy intake, amount of foods and beverages, number of eating occasions, and percent of energy from foods and beverages, among non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American 2–19 y olds. Multivariable regression analyses appropriate for complex surveys were used to examine these associations. The secular increase in mean number of eating occasions was significant (P-trend < 0.0001) in all age and race/ethnic groups; however, a corresponding increase in the amount of foods and beverages, or total energy intake was not observed. In non-Hispanic black and Mexican American 2–5 and 12–19 y olds, the secular increase in number of eating occasions, and in non-Hispanic black 12–19 y olds, the increase in percent of energy from all beverages or non-nutritive beverages were greater relative to non-Hispanic whites. In conclusion, the observed race/ethnic differences in trajectory of changes in dietary behaviors over past 20 y were modest and were not accompanied by a significant increase in energy intake. Cautious interpretation is urged due to potential underreporting of dietary intake in national surveys. There was a suggestion of convergence in some race/ethnic differentials in dietary behaviors due to greater relative changes in possibly adverse behaviors in non-Hispanic blacks, especially adolescents. PMID:21865567

  5. Ethnic and Gender Differences in Drinking, Smoking and Drug Taking among Adolescents in England: A Self-Report School-Based Survey of 15 and 16 Year Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodham, Karen; Hawton, Keith; Evans, Emma; Weatherall, Rosamund

    2005-01-01

    Concern has been mounting about the increasing numbers of adolescents who (ab)use drugs, alcohol and cigarettes. The aim of this study was to establish the prevalence according to gender and ethnicity of drinking, smoking and drug-use in a representative sample of 15 and 16 year olds. The sample consisted of 6020 15- and 16-year-old pupils from 41…

  6. Sexual risk behaviors and HIV risk among Americans aged 50 years or older: a review.

    PubMed

    Pilowsky, Daniel J; Wu, Li-Tzy

    2015-01-01

    Although HIV-related sexual risk behaviors have been studied extensively in adolescents and young adults, there is limited information about these behaviors among older Americans, which make up a growing segment of the US population and an understudied population. This review of the literature dealing with sexual behaviors that increase the risk of becoming HIV-infected found a low prevalence of condom use among older adults, even when not in a long-term relationship with a single partner. A seminal study by Schick et al published in 2010 reported that the prevalence of condom use at last intercourse was highest among those aged 50-59 years (24.3%; 95% confidence interval, 15.6-35.8) and declined with age, with a 17.1% prevalence among those aged 60-69 years (17.1%; 95% confidence interval, 7.3-34.2). Studies have shown that older Americans may underestimate their risk of becoming HIV-infected. Substance use also increases the risk for sexual risk behaviors, and studies have indicated that the prevalence of substance use among older adults has increased in the past decade. As is the case with younger adults, the prevalence of HIV infections is elevated among ethnic minorities, drug users (eg, injection drug users), and men who have sex with men. When infected, older adults are likely to be diagnosed with HIV-related medical disorders later in the course of illness compared with their younger counterparts. Physicians are less likely to discuss sexual risk behaviors with older adults and to test them for HIV compared with younger adults. Thus, it is important to educate clinicians about sexual risk behaviors in the older age group and to design preventive interventions specifically designed for older adults.

  7. Distributions of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status in a representative sample of U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-09-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 19 urinary metabolites of 15 parent volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status. Smokers were found to have statistically significantly higher adjusted levels than nonsmokers for selected urinary metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, N,N-dimethylformamide, ethylbenzene-styrene, propylene oxide, styrene, and xylene. Female nonsmokers were found to have lower adjusted levels of selected metabolites of acrolein, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide than male nonsmokers but female smokers had higher levels of each of these metabolites than male smokers. In addition, female smokers also had higher adjusted levels of selected metabolites of 1,3-butadiene, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, and ethylbenzene-styrene. Thus, constituents other than VOCs in tobacco smoke affect excretion of certain VOC metabolites differently among males and females. Non-Hispanic whites (NHW) had higher adjusted levels than non-Hispanic blacks (NHB) for 8 metabolites. NHB had statistically significantly lower adjusted levels than Hispanics for 5 VOC metabolites and lower levels than non-Hispanic Asians (NHAS) for 6 metabolites. Hispanics had statistically significantly higher levels than NHAS for 5 metabolites. Levels of 11 of the 19 metabolites analyzed increased with increase in age. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home was associated with increased levels of 9 metabolites. Increase in the number of days tobacco products were used during the last five days was associated with increased levels of 12 of the 19 VOC metabolites.

  8. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  9. Associations between education and brain structure at age 73 years, adjusted for age 11 IQ

    PubMed Central

    Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A.; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Evans, Alan C.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. Methods: We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. Results: The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. Conclusions: The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. PMID:27664981

  10. Contextual influences on ethnic identity formation: a case study of second-generation Korean Americans Baby Boomers in midlife.

    PubMed

    Park, Linda S

    2015-03-01

    This paper details a study on ethnic identity in midlife, illuminating identity formation as a complex life course phenomenon. The study addresses the importance of ethnic identity in understanding the experiences of racial and ethnic Baby Boomers as both recipients of care and as caregivers to their aging parents (first generation immigrants). Using a case study of second-generation Korean American Baby Boomers, the primary aims of this study are: (a) to explore how the relationship between age and race/ethnicity influences identity formation, and (b) how contexts influence ethnic identity formation. Findings reveal that cumulative experiences over earlier developmental years resulted in resolutions to appreciate their ethnic identity at midlife. Increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the U.S., combined with the large number of aging Baby Boomers, necessitate recognition of the cultural and racial differences within the Baby Boomer generation.

  11. Stability and change in ethnic labeling among adolescents from Asian and Latin American immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Fuligni, Andrew J; Kiang, Lisa; Witkow, Melissa R; Baldelomar, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    An important question for the acculturation of adolescents from immigrant families is whether they retain ethnic labels that refer to their national origin (e.g., Mexican, Chinese) or adopt labels that are dominant in American society (e.g., Latino, Asian American, American). Approximately 380 adolescents from Asian and Latin American immigrant families selected ethnic labels during each of the 4 years of high school (age span = 14.87-17.82 years). Results indicated no normative trend either toward or away from identifying most closely with pan-ethnic or American ethnic labels. Significant numbers of adolescents changed their ethnic labels from year to year, however and these changes were associated with fluctuations in adolescents' ethnic affirmation and exploration and proficiency in their heritage languages.

  12. The multigroup ethnic identity measure-revised: measurement invariance across racial and ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Brown, Susan D; Unger Hu, Kirsten A; Mevi, Ashley A; Hedderson, Monique M; Shan, Jun; Quesenberry, Charles P; Ferrara, Assiamira

    2014-01-01

    The Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure-Revised (MEIM-R), a brief instrument assessing affiliation with one's ethnic group, is a promising advance in the ethnic identity literature. However, equivalency of its measurement properties across specific racial and ethnic groups should be confirmed before using it in diverse samples. We examined (a) the psychometric properties of the MEIM-R, including factor structure, measurement invariance, and internal consistency reliability, and (b) levels of and differences in ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups and subgroups. Asian (n = 630), Black/African American (n = 58), Hispanic (n = 240), multiethnic (n = 160), and White (n = 375) women completed the MEIM-R as part of the "Gestational diabetes' Effect on Moms" diabetes prevention trial in the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health care setting (N = 1,463; M age = 32.5 years, SD = 4.9). Multiple-groups confirmatory factor analyses provided provisional evidence of measurement invariance, i.e., an equal, correlated 2-factor structure, equal factor loadings, and equal item intercepts across racial and ethnic groups. Latent factor means for the 2 MEIM-R subscales, exploration and commitment, differed across groups; effect sizes ranging from small to large generally supported the notion of ethnic identity as more salient among people of color. Pending replication, good psychometric properties in this large and diverse sample of women support the future use of the MEIM-R. Preliminary evidence of measurement invariance suggests that the MEIM-R could be used to measure and compare ethnic identity across multiple racial and ethnic groups.

  13. Post-stroke Fractures in a Bi-ethnic Community

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda D; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Wing, Jeffrey J; Sanchez, Brisa N; Zahuranec, Darin B; Skolarus, Lesli E; Burke, James F; Kleerekoper, Michael; Smith, Melinda A; Brown, Devin L

    2010-01-01

    Background Mexican Americans have increased stroke risk and lower fracture risk compared with non-Hispanic whites, but little is known about post-stroke fracture risk in Mexican Americans. The objective was to describe post-stroke fracture risk in a bi-ethnic population and to compare risk by ethnicity. Methods In the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi Project, strokes were identified through hospital surveillance (2000–2004) and validated by neurologists (n=2,389). Inpatient claims for fractures were ascertained (2000–2004) and cross-referenced with strokes. Survival free from fracture (any and hip) post-stroke was estimated and compared by ethnicity. Cox regression was used to test the association of ethnicity and fracture risk adjusted for confounders. Interaction terms for ethnicity and age were considered. Results Mean age was 71 years (sd=13); 54% were Mexican American; 52% were women. Mean follow-up was 4 years. There were 105 fractures (hip 33%). Survival free of any fracture and of hip fracture did not differ by ethnicity in unadjusted analyses. Increasing age, female gender, intracerebral hemorrhage and greater stroke severity were associated with risk of any fracture, but ethnicity was not. Ethnicity was associated with risk of hip fracture but this association was modified by age (p=0.02), where Mexican Americans were protected from hip fractures at younger but not older ages. Conclusion Stroke patients were at high fracture risk, with a 10% risk at 5 years. Mexican Americans were protected from hip fractures at younger but not older ages. Both elderly Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic whites should be targeted for fracture prevention post-stroke. PMID:21334222

  14. Psychosocial Benefits of Cross-Ethnic Friendships in Urban Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Sandra; Munniksma, Anke; Juvonen, Jaana

    2014-01-01

    To examine the unique functions of same- and cross-ethnic friendships, Latino (n = 536) and African American (n = 396) sixth-grade students (M[subscript age] = 11.5 years) were recruited from 66 classrooms in 10 middle schools that varied in ethnic diversity. Participants reported on the number of same- and cross-ethnic friends, perceived…

  15. Influence of ethnic origin on the pattern of congenital heart defects in the first year of life.

    PubMed Central

    Sadiq, M.; Stümper, O.; Wright, J. G.; De Giovanni, J. V.; Billingham, C.; Silove, E. D.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence and patterns of congenital heart defects in infants requiring hospital admission in a defined population and to determine the differences in ethnic groups. DESIGN--A three year retrospective analysis of all hospital admissions for paediatric congenital heart defects in a single centre. SETTING--Tertiary referral centre for infant cardiac services in the West Midlands region, United Kingdom. PATIENTS AND METHODS--Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi and other individuals from the Indian subcontinent constitute 5.8% of the total population of the West Midlands region. Some 9% of infants, however, are Asian because of a high birth rate. All infants with confirmed congenital heart defects resident in this region who required hospital admission between April 1990 and March 1993 were classified as Asians and non-Asian, mainly white, infants. RESULTS--Of 1111 infants with congenital heart defects born in the West Midlands and admitted to the hospital, 17.0% were Asian, significantly more than the percentage of Asian infants in the population (P < 0.0001). Asian infants had a higher proportion of complex congenital heart disease (7% v 2.1%, P < 0.001), whereas coarctation of the aorta was more common in non-Asian (3% v 9.1%, P = 0.003). Persistent arterial duct seemed to be more common in Asian children (16% v 10%, NS), but this group included preterm infants admitted for duct ligation. There was no significant difference between the two groups in the other nine categories of congenital heart defects. CONCLUSIONS--The estimated prevalence of congenital heart defects requiring hospital admission was higher in Asian infants than in non-Asian (9.45 per 1000 v 4.56 per 1000, P < 0.0001). Complex congenital heart defects were more common in Asian infants whereas coarctation of the aorta was more common in non-Asian. PMID:7696029

  16. Developing movement efficiency between 7 and 9 years of age.

    PubMed

    Bosga-Stork, Ida Maria; Bosga, Jurjen; Meulenbroek R, G J

    2014-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the movement efficiency of typically developing children between 7 and 9 years of age by scrutinizing their movement amplitudes and frequencies as they settled into a loop-writing task in which both parameters were prescribed. It was hypothesized that during the first three grades at primary school children would show increasing efficiency in exploiting the inverse relationship between movement amplitude and frequency when adjusting their movement errors. Whereas a clear developmental trend showed increasing efficiency with respect to the way in which the primary school children met the amplitude constraints, a more variable pattern was found for the age-dependent adjustments to the frequency requirements. At the level of parameter-error corrections from one cycle to the next, a marginal developmental trend was observed. Results are discussed in terms of contrasting effects between educational targets and movement-efficiency principles.

  17. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along (hindsight bias). Here we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the lifespan. 194 participants aged 3 to 95 years completed three tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age groups demonstrated hindsight bias on all three tasks; however, preschoolers and the elderly exhibited more bias than older children and younger adults. Multinomial processing tree analyses of these data revealed that preschoolers’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them substituting the correct answer for their original answer in their recall (a qualitative error). Conversely, older adults’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them forgetting their original answer and recalling an answer closer to, but not equal to, the correct answer (a quantitative error). We discuss these findings in relation to mechanisms of memory, perspective-taking, theory of mind, and executive function. PMID:21299327

  18. Immunoglobulin patterns in humans over 95 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Radl, J; Sepers, J M; Skvaril, F; Morell, A; Hijmans, W

    1975-01-01

    Immunoglobulin patterns were investigated in seventy-three volunteers older than 95 years. An idiopathic paraproteinaemia was found in 19% of the cases. A restriction of heterogeneity and an imbalance in the kappa/lambda ratio of the immunoglobulins was seen in a number of other sera. Determinations of immunoglobulin levels in sera of individuals without paraproteinaemia showed an increase in IgA and IgG. The quantitations of the IgG subclasses demonstrated that an increase in the IgG1 and IgG3 subclasses is responsible for the elevated level of the IgG. The variation in the immunoglobulin levels increased significantly with age of IgM and for the three major IgG subclasses. No abnormalities were found in the urine or in the mixed saliva. These results indicate that selective changes in the extent of the antibody-immunoglobulin repertoire characterize the immunoglobulin pattern of ageing man. PMID:1212818

  19. Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S. Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Adamovich, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

  20. The Role of Ethnicity in School-Based Obesity Intervention for School-Aged Children: A Pilot Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karczewski, Sabrina A.; Carter, Jocelyn S.; DeCator, Draycen D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rates of obesity have risen disproportionately for ethnic minority youth in the United States. School-based programs may be the most comprehensive and cost-effective way to implement primary prevention in children. In this study we evaluated the effect of a school-based obesity prevention on the outcome of body mass index percentile…

  1. Differences in Access to and Preferences for Using Patient Portals and Other eHealth Technologies Based on Race, Ethnicity, and Age: A Database and Survey Study of Seniors in a Large Health Plan

    PubMed Central

    Hornbrook, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients are being encouraged to go online to obtain health information and interact with their health care systems. However, a 2014 survey found that less than 60% of American adults aged 65 and older use the Internet, with much lower usage among black and Latino seniors compared with non-Hispanic white seniors, and among older versus younger seniors. Objective Our aims were to (1) identify race/ethnic and age cohort disparities among seniors in use of the health plan’s patient portal, (2) determine whether race/ethnic and age cohort disparities exist in access to digital devices and preferences for using email- and Web-based modalities to interact with the health care system, (3) assess whether observed disparities in preferences and patient portal use are due simply to barriers to access and inability to use the Internet, and (4) learn whether older adults not currently using the health plan’s patient portal or website have a potential interest in doing so in the future and what kind of support might be best suited to help them. Methods We conducted two studies of seniors aged 65-79 years. First, we used administrative data about patient portal account status and utilization in 2013 for a large cohort of English-speaking non-Hispanic white (n=183,565), black (n=16,898), Latino (n=12,409), Filipino (n=11,896), and Chinese (n=6314) members of the Kaiser Permanente Northern California health plan. Second, we used data from a mailed survey conducted in 2013-2014 with a stratified random sample of this population (final sample: 849 non-Hispanic white, 567 black, 653 Latino, 219 Filipino, and 314 Chinese). These data were used to examine race/ethnic and age disparities in patient portal use and readiness and preferences for using digital communication for health-related purposes. Results Adults aged 70-74 and 75-79 were significantly less likely than 65-69 year olds to be registered to use the patient portal, and among those registered, to have used the

  2. Prader-Willi Syndrome after age 15 years.

    PubMed Central

    Laurance, B M; Brito, A; Wilkinson, J

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-four patients, all of them over 15 years, with the Prader-Willi syndrome are described. Obesity, often extreme, associated with an insatiable appetite, was their principal handicap and this was made worse by educational subnormality and hypogonadism. Three of the them developed diabetes. Each attended a special school or an adult training centre. Although most of them were of short stature and had scoliosis, 2 were tall but they even more severely mentally retarded than is usually the case. Nine other patients died aged between 3 and 23 years. The most common cause of death was cor pulmonale. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:7212756

  3. [Lumbar discal hernia after 65 years of age].

    PubMed

    Brunon, J; Duthel, R; Ollier, J; Riffat, G

    1984-01-01

    The authors make a retrospective study of a series of 200 patients who had been surgically treated, within a period of 26 months, for a lumbar discal pathology. Twenty of these (20%) were over 65 years old. A similar study was carried out in a rheumatological unit over a period of three years, and has included 266 patients, 21 of whom (7,8%) were older than 65. The comparison of both these series permits us to make some considerations concerning the frequency of this pathology after the age of 65, its clinical presentation and its treatment, which, as for the younger adult, must be surgical when the correct treatment fails and when a complication appears.

  4. Internalized Racism and Past-Year Major Depressive Disorder Among African-Americans: the Role of Ethnic Identity and Self-Esteem.

    PubMed

    James, Drexler

    2016-07-21

    Although a large body of research focuses on discrimination as a risk for depression among African-Americans, only a dearth of research focuses on internalized racism (i.e., endorsement of negative stereotypes of one's racial group) as a risk factor. In addition, no studies have yet to examine mediators and/or moderators of the relationship between internalized racism and depression. To this end, the present study examined the mediating and moderating roles of (a) self-esteem and (b) ethnic identity on the relationship between internalized racism and past-year major depressive disorder (MDD), in a nationally representative sample of African-American adults (N = 3570) from the National Survey of American Life. Results from this study revealed an indirect association between internalized racism and past-year MDD via self-esteem, but no indirect relationship via ethnic identity. Further, results show that both self-esteem and ethnic identity individually moderate the relationship between internalized racism and past-year MDD. Collectively, these findings suggest a need to further investigate mechanisms through which internalized racism impacts mental health and factors that strengthen and/or weaken the association between internalized racism and depression.

  5. A macro analysis of population growth of China's ethnic groups in the 1980s.

    PubMed

    Yang, S; Liu, W

    1992-06-01

    8% of China's population is comprised of the 55 identified ethnic groups in 1990. The growth rate of this population between 1982 and 1990 was very high at 38.7/1000, or an increase of 1.43 over the previous 18 years. Natural increase was 18/1000. The total fertility rate was 2.9 in 1990. The causes for such rapid growth are reaffirmation of ethnic identity, a high fertility rate, and intermarriage with Han residents. 59% of the increased population reflected a new classification as an ethnic minority. Intermarriage with Han accounted for 4.4% of the increase. Since the revolution of 1949, there has been a release from the former oppression and population declines. In 1978, preferential policies were mandated for ethnic groups, which encouraged ethnic recognition. Ethnic status was enhanced and national awareness of ethnic groups was increased. The visual display of the ethnic age pyramid is evidence that the shape is quite different from the Han population. There are greater numbers of teenagers and those in reproductive ages. This cluster will affect population growth after the century's end. Ethnic population growth due to reaffirmation of ethnic identity also is different from natural increase in regional migration. A rise in population density within a location is not apparent. Carrying capacity of the local economy, resources, or environment is unaffected by the increase. It is inappropriate to measure the population pressure of high ethnic population growth. Eventually, ethnic growth will affect the growth rate of the national population. In ethnic areas, population growth should be planned in concert with economic development, use of resources, and protection of the ecology. Thus, ethnic area income/capita will be increased, inequality will be erased, and national autonomy achieved. The social stability and prosperity of all China is dependent on respect for happiness among ethnic minorities and economic and social development.

  6. Ethnic Identity and Acculturation Attitudes among Indigenous Norwegian Sami and Ethnocultural Kven Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvernmo, Siv; Heyerdahl, Sonja

    2004-01-01

    Ethnic identity and acculturation attitudes were studied in indigenous Sami (earlier named Lapps) and ethnocultural Kvens (descendants of early Finnish-speaking immigrants from the northern part of Sweden and Finland) in Northern Norway. The sample consisted of 674 Sami and 347 Kven high school students ages 16 to 19 years. Ethnic identity was…

  7. Autonomy and Relatedness in Adolescent-Parent Disagreements: Ethnic and Developmental Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phinney, Jean S.; Kim-Jo, Tina; Osorio, Saloniki; Vilhjalmsdottir, Perla

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the way in which young people from diverse American ethnic backgrounds express autonomy and relatedness in their responses to disagreements with parents and the factors that influence their responses. Adolescents and emerging adults (N = 240) aged 14 to 22 years from four ethnic groups (European American, Mexican American,…

  8. The Company They Keep and Avoid: Social Goal Orientation as a Predictor of Children's Ethnic Segregation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Travis M.; Rodkin, Philip C.; Ryan, Allison M.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether social goal orientation (i.e., demonstration-approach, demonstration--avoid, and social development goals) predicts changes in ethnic segregation among 4th and 5th grade African American and European American children (n = 713, ages 9-11 years) from fall to spring. Segregation measures were (a) same-ethnicity favoritism…

  9. The significance of cross-racial/ethnic friendships: associations with peer victimization, peer support, sociometric status, and classroom diversity.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yoshito; Crick, Nicki R

    2011-11-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined the associations between cross-racial/ethnic friendships and relative changes in forms of peer victimization or peer support and the roles of classroom diversity and sociometric status (i.e., social preference) in these associations. A total of 444 children (age range: 9-10 years) from racially/ethnically diverse elementary schools participated in this study. Results demonstrated that cross-racial/ethnic friendships (but not same-racial/ethnic friendships) uniquely predicted relative decreases in relational victimization. Further, classroom diversity moderated the relations of cross-racial/ethnic friendships with relative decreases in physical victimization and relative increases in peer support, such that these relations were stronger for children in highly diverse classrooms. Finally, social preference mediated the association between cross-racial/ethnic friendships and relative decreases in relational victimization. The associations among cross-racial/ethnic friendships, same-racial/ethnic friendships, social experiences with peers, and classroom diversity are discussed.

  10. Ethnic identity, achievement, and psychological adjustment: Examining risk and resilience among youth from immigrant Chinese families in Canada.

    PubMed

    Costigan, Catherine L; Koryzma, Céline M; Hua, Josephine M; Chance, Lauren J

    2010-04-01

    Ethnic identity, achievement, and psychological adjustment were examined among 95 youth from immigrant Chinese families in Canada (mean age 12 years). Utilizing cross-sectional data, promotive effects of ethnic identity were observed; higher ethnic identity was associated with above average achievement and self-esteem and below average levels of depressive symptoms. Vulnerability effects of ethnic identity were fewer; lower ethnic identity was associated with above average depressive symptoms and, for males only, below average self-esteem. Findings also suggested that higher ethnic identity might buffer the stress of poor achievement, indicating a possible protective effect of ethnic identity. Although requiring replication, these preliminary findings illustrate the utility of adopting a risk and resilience framework and suggest the value of promoting strong ethnic identities.

  11. Tacrolimus ointment: utilization patterns in children under age 2 years.

    PubMed

    Housman, Tamara Salam; Norton, Amy B; Feldman, Steven R; Fleischer, Alan B; Simpson, Eric L; Hanifin, Jon M; Antaya, Richard J

    2004-07-15

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common eczematous skin condition; as many as 10-17 percent of all children are affected, and 35-60 percent of affected patients manifest symptoms manifest during the first year of life. Treatment principles for AD in young children involve conservative measures such as avoidance of hot water and environmental irritants, combined with liberal use of emollients after bathing. Low potency topical corticosteroids (TCS) are the current standard of therapy for AD in young children, reserving mid- and high-potency TCS for severe disease. However, complications of long-term use of TCS include skin atrophy, stria formation, telangiectasia, hypopigmentation, secondary infections, steroid acne, allergic contact dermatitis, and miliaria. The pediatric population is also at increased risk for systemic absorption because of their high ratio of skin surface to body mass. Systemic absorption may result in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis suppression and ultimately growth retardation. Although most topical and systemic corticosteroids are not approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in children less than 2 years of age, conservative treatment often fails in this age group and frequently patients are treated with TCS, antibiotics, and antihistamines.

  12. Ethnic and Gender Differences in First-Year College Students' Goal Orientation, Self-Efficacy, and Extrinsic and Intrinsic Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Lima, Gabrielle Maria; Winsler, Adam; Kitsantas, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    Critical ethnic and gender gaps exist in college retention and graduation rates. Early achievement motivation may play an important role in student persistence. A sample of undergraduates completed surveys tapping motivation at the beginning (n = 591) and end (n = 232) of their first semester in college. African American and Caucasian students…

  13. Caribbean International Undergraduates' "Resisting, Reframing and Reaffirming" of Their Ethnic Identity at a Four Year Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Zaria T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the ethnic identity experiences of Caribbean international students in the context of the over-generalized and homogenous aspects of their institutional discourse on international students. It also sought to consider their identification with their native backgrounds and the United States in view of their…

  14. Meta-analytic results of ethnic group differences in peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Vitoroulis, Irene; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2014-11-12

    Research on the prevalence of peer victimization across ethnicities indicates that no one group is consistently at higher risk. In the present two meta-analyses representing 692,548 children and adolescents (age 6-18 years), we examined ethnic group differences in peer victimization at school by including studies with (a) ethnic majority-minority group comparisons (k = 24), and (b) White and Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Aboriginal comparisons (k = 81). Methodological moderating effects (measure type, definition of bullying, publication type and year, age, and country) were examined in both analyses. Using Cohen's d, results indicated a null effect size for the ethnic majority-minority group comparison. Moderator analyses indicated that ethnic majority youth experienced more peer victimization than ethnic minorities in the US (d = .23). The analysis on multiple group comparisons between White and Black (d = .02), Hispanic (d = .08), Asian (d = .05), Aboriginal (d = -.02) and Biracial (d = -.05) groups indicated small effect sizes. Overall, results from the main and moderator analyses yielded small effects of ethnicity, suggesting that ethnicity assessed as a demographic variable is not an adequate indicator for addressing ethnic group differences in peer victimization. Although few notable differences were found between White and non-White groups regarding rates of peer victimization, certain societal and methodological limitations in the assessment of peer victimization may underestimate differences between ethnicities. Aggr. Behav. 9999:XX-XX, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Ethnic variations in parental ethnic socialization and adolescent ethnic identity: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Else-Quest, Nicole M; Morse, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Achievement of a positive ethnic identity has been linked to positive outcomes for ethnic minority youth and is fostered by parental ethnic socialization practices. In light of findings of variability in developmental trajectories and outcomes, we examined ethnic group variations in parents' ethnic socialization practices and adolescents' ethnic identity. Within a sample of 370 adolescents who self-identified as White, African American, Latino/a, or Asian American, and their parents, parental ethnic socialization practices (including preparation for bias, promotion of mistrust, and cultural socialization) and adolescent ethnic identity development (including identity exploration and commitment) were assessed at 10th and 11th grades. Consistent with predictions, African American youth reported higher levels of ethnic identity exploration and commitment than youth from other ethnic groups, and parents of African American youth tended to report higher levels of ethnic socialization than other parents. Parental cultural socialization significantly predicted adolescent ethnic identity exploration and commitment 1 year later; ethnicity did not moderate this link. Findings are discussed in the context of the schools and urban community from which the sample was recruited, highlighting the importance of sociocultural context in development.

  16. Ethnic Inequality

    PubMed Central

    Alesina, Alberto; Michalopoulos, Stelios; Papaioannou, Elias

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the consequences and origins of between-ethnicity economic inequality across countries. First, combining satellite images of nighttime luminosity with the historical homelands of ethnolinguistic groups we construct measures of ethnic inequality for a large sample of countries. We also compile proxies of overall spatial inequality and regional inequality across administrative units. Second, we uncover a strong negative association between ethnic inequality and contemporary comparative development; the correlation is also present when we condition on regional inequality, which is itself related to under-development. Third, we investigate the roots of ethnic inequality and establish that differences in geographic endowments across ethnic homelands explain a sizable fraction of the observed variation in economic disparities across groups. Fourth, we show that ethnic-specific inequality in geographic endowments is also linked to under-development. PMID:27330223

  17. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control.

  18. Carotid artery surgery in patients over 70 years of age.

    PubMed

    Benhamou, A C; Kieffer, E; Tricot, J F; Maraval, M; Lethoai, H; Benhamou, M; Boespflug, O; Natali, J

    1981-01-01

    Between 1965 and 1979, 934 patients underwent 1,057 operations for extracranial carotid stenosis at this institute, and over a recent 30-month period 463 patients underwent 511 operations of this type. This number is equal to the total of operations performed during the years 1965-1976. The increase in the frequency of carotid artery surgery has been more marked in patients of over 70 years. The percentage of elderly patients has increased from 17.5% to 27% in the recent period. In the latter group of 511 operations, results were good in 93.17% of cases, while there was a mortality rate of 1.95% (1% of which were directly related to the surgery), in 1.95% the neurologic condition deteriorated and in 3.13% there was no change. In the first period the mortality rate for patients over 70 years of age was 7.69%. In the second it was 3.27% (1.63% of which were due to non-neurologic causes), 4.09% deteriorated, in 2.18% there was no change and good results were obtained in 90.46%.

  19. Barriers to eye care among people aged 40 years and older with diagnosed diabetes, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Sherrod, Cheryl E; Zhang, Xinzhi; Barker, Lawrence E; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examine barriers to receiving recommended eye care among people aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 22 states (n = 27,699). Respondents who had not sought eye care in the preceding 12 months were asked the main reason why. We categorized the reasons as cost/lack of insurance, no need, no eye doctor/travel/appointment, and other (meaning everything else). We used multinomial logistic regression to control for race/ethnicity, education, income, and other selected covariates. RESULTS Among adults with diagnosed diabetes, nonadherence to the recommended annual eye examinations was 23.5%. The most commonly reported reasons for not receiving eye care in the preceding 12 months were "no need" and "cost or lack of insurance" (39.7 and 32.3%, respectively). Other reasons were "no eye doctor," "no transportation" or "could not get appointment" (6.4%), and "other" (21.5%). After controlling for covariates, adults aged 40-64 years were more likely than those aged ≥65 years (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.79; 95% CI 2.01-3.89) and women were more likely than men (RRR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.75-3.14) to report "cost or lack of insurance" as their main reason. However, people aged 40-64 years were less likely than those aged ≥65 years to report "no need" (RRR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67) as their main reason. CONCLUSIONS Addressing concerns about "cost or lack of insurance" for adults under 65 years and "no perceived need" among those 65 years and older could help improve eye care service utilization among people with diabetes.

  20. Barriers to Eye Care Among People Aged 40 Years and Older With Diagnosed Diabetes, 2006–2010

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Sherrod, Cheryl E.; Zhang, Xinzhi; Barker, Lawrence E.; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Crews, John E.; Saaddine, Jinan B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examine barriers to receiving recommended eye care among people aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 2006–2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 22 states (n = 27,699). Respondents who had not sought eye care in the preceding 12 months were asked the main reason why. We categorized the reasons as cost/lack of insurance, no need, no eye doctor/travel/appointment, and other (meaning everything else). We used multinomial logistic regression to control for race/ethnicity, education, income, and other selected covariates. RESULTS Among adults with diagnosed diabetes, nonadherence to the recommended annual eye examinations was 23.5%. The most commonly reported reasons for not receiving eye care in the preceding 12 months were “no need” and “cost or lack of insurance” (39.7 and 32.3%, respectively). Other reasons were “no eye doctor,” “no transportation” or “could not get appointment” (6.4%), and “other” (21.5%). After controlling for covariates, adults aged 40–64 years were more likely than those aged ≥65 years (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.79; 95% CI 2.01–3.89) and women were more likely than men (RRR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.75–3.14) to report “cost or lack of insurance” as their main reason. However, people aged 40–64 years were less likely than those aged ≥65 years to report “no need” (RRR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.39–0.67) as their main reason. CONCLUSIONS Addressing concerns about “cost or lack of insurance” for adults under 65 years and “no perceived need” among those 65 years and older could help improve eye care service utilization among people with diabetes. PMID:24009300

  1. Predictors of Obesity in a Cohort of Children Enrolled in WIC as Infants and Retained to 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, M A; Scheinmann, R; Hartel, D; McLeod, N; Sekhobo, J; Edmunds, L S; Findley, S

    2016-02-01

    This longitudinal study of children enrolled as infants in the New York State (NYS) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) examined predictors of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile) at 3 years of age. NYS WIC administrative data which included information from parent interviews and measured heights and weights for children were used. All 50,589 children enrolled as infants in WIC between July to December 2008 and July to December 2009 and retained in WIC through age three were included. At 3 years of age, 15.1% of children were obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that children of mothers who received the Full Breastfeeding Food Package when their infant was enrolled in WIC (adjusted OR = 0.52) and children with ≤2 h screen time daily at age 3 (adjusted OR = 0.88) were significantly less likely to be obese (p < 0.001) controlling for race/ethnicity, birth weight, and birthplace. In this cohort of NYS WIC participants, maternal receipt of the Full Breastfeeding Food Package (a surrogate measure of exclusive breastfeeding) is associated with lower levels of obesity in their children at age 3. The relationships between participation in WIC, exclusive breastfeeding, and obesity prevention merit further study.

  2. Milk Consumption after Age 9 Years Does Not Predict Age at Menarche123

    PubMed Central

    Carwile, Jenny L; Willett, Walter C; Wang, Molin; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Frazier, A Lindsay; Michels, Karin B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Regular milk consumption during childhood and adolescence is recommended for bone health. However, milk consumption increases circulating insulin-like growth factor I concentrations, and may also accelerate puberty. Objective: We prospectively investigated the association between milk consumption and age at menarche in the Growing Up Today Study. Methods: Study participants were 5583 US girls who were premenarcheal and ages 9–14 y in 1996. Girls were followed through 2001, at which time 97% of noncensored participants had reported menarche. Frequency of milk and meat consumption was calculated with the use of annual youth/adolescent food frequency questionnaires from 1996–1998. Intake of related nutrients was also measured. Age at menarche was self-reported annually through 2001. Results: During follow-up, 5227 girls attained menarche over 10,555 accrued person-years. In models adjusted for dietary and sociodemographic predictors of menarche, frequency of milk consumption did not predict age at onset of menarche (for >3 glasses of milk/d vs. 1.1–4 glasses/wk, HR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.83, 1.04). After additional adjustment for body size, premenarcheal girls consuming >3 glasses of milk daily were 13% less likely (95% CI: −3%, −23%; P-trend: <0.01) to attain menarche in the next month relative to those consuming 1.1–4 glasses/wk. Neither total meat nor red meat consumption was associated with age at menarche. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that regular consumption of milk in girls aged ≥9 y is unlikely to substantially affect age at onset of menarche. Studies assessing associations between diet in early childhood and pubertal timing may be more illuminating. PMID:26136590

  3. The protective influence of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement for New Zealand Ma̅ori adolescents.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Jaimee; Jose, Paul E

    2014-06-01

    The present study examined the associations among family connectedness, ethnic identity, and ethnic engagement on changes in well-being over time for the understudied population of Ma̅ori (indigenous New Zealand) youth. Data were collected as part of a longitudinal study of youth connectedness in New Zealand using self-report measures at 3 measurement occasions separated by 1 year each. Participants in the current study were 431 self-identified Ma̅ori (ages 10-15 years at Time 1). As expected, the variables of family connectedness, ethnic identity, and well-being were all positively related to each other. Results of a latent growth curve model showed that, following normative trends for adolescents of this age, well-being diminished over time for Ma̅ori youth; however, high levels of family connectedness were found to mitigate this general decline in well-being over time. Furthermore, in a longitudinal path analysis, ethnic engagement was found to exert a positive indirect effect on residualized Time 3 well-being through Time 2 ethnic identity. These findings indicate that the quality of family relationships and affiliation with one's ethnic group are important predictors of positive adjustment for Ma̅ori youth over time. These results are discussed in the context of positive youth development for ethnic minority and indigenous youth.

  4. Dynamics of resilience in forced migration: a 1-year follow-up study of longitudinal associations with mental health in a conflict-affected, ethnic Muslim population

    PubMed Central

    Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Abas, Melanie; Siribaddana, Sisira; Sumathipala, Athula; Stewart, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective The concept of ‘resilience’ is of increasing interest in studies of mental health in populations facing adversity. However, lack of longitudinal data on the dynamics of resilience and non-usage of resilience-specific measurements have prevented a better understanding of resilience-mental health interactions. Hence, the present study was conducted to investigate the stability of levels of resilience and its associations with sociodemographic and mental health exposures in a conflict-affected internal-migrant population in Sri Lanka. Design A prospective follow-up study of 1 year. Setting Puttalam district of North Western province in postconflict Sri Lanka (baseline in 2011, follow-up in 2012). Participants An ethnic Muslim population internally displaced 20 years ago (in 1990) from Northern Sri Lanka, aged 18 or above and currently in the process of return migration. Measures It was hypothesised that levels of resilience would be associated with mental health outcomes. Resilience was measured on both occasions using the 14-item Resilience Scale (RS-14), social support by the Multidimensional Social Support Scale and Lubben Social Network Scale and common mental disorders by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ). Results Of 450 participants interviewed at baseline in 2011, 338 (75.1%) were re-interviewed in 2012 after a 1-year follow-up. The mean resilience scores measured by RS-14 were 80.2 (95% CI 78.6 to 81.9) at baseline and 84.9 (83.5 to 86.3) at follow-up. At both time points, lower resilience was independently associated with food insecurity, lower social support availability and social isolation. At both time points, there were significant associations with common mental disorders (CMDs) in unadjusted analyses, but they only showed independence at baseline. The CMD prevalence, maintenance and incidence at follow-up was 8.3%, 28.2% and 2.2%, respectively. Conclusions In this displaced population facing a potential reduction in adversity

  5. Colectomy Rates for Ulcerative Colitis Differ between Ethnic Groups: Results from a 15-Year Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Alan; Arebi, Naila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Previous epidemiological studies suggest a higher rate of pancolonic disease in South Asians (SA) compared with White Europeans (WE). The aim of the study was to compare colectomy rates for ulcerative colitis (UC) in SA to those of WE. Methods. Patients with UC were identified from a national administrative dataset (Hospital Episode Statistics, HES) between 1997 and 2012 according to ICD-10 diagnosis code K51 for UC. The colectomy rate for each ethnic group was calculated as the proportion of patients who underwent colectomy from the total UC cases for that group. Results. Of 212,430 UC cases, 73,318 (35.3%) were coded for ethnicity. There was no significant difference in the colectomy rate between SA and WE (6.93% versus 6.90%). Indians had a significantly higher colectomy rate than WE (9.8% versus 6.9%, p < 0.001). Indian patients were 21% more likely to require colectomy for UC compared with WE group (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.04–1.42, and p = 0.001). Conclusions. Given the limitations in coding, the colectomy rate in this cohort was higher in Indians compared to WE. A prospectively recruited ethnic cohort study will decipher whether this reflects a more aggressive phenotype or is due to other confounding factors. PMID:28074174

  6. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  7. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  8. Naturalistic rapid deceleration data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Rogers, Kris; Boufous, Soufiane; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-12-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research manuscript "Predictors of older drivers' involvement in rapid deceleration events", which investigates potential predictors of older drivers' involvement in rapid deceleration events including measures of vision, cognitive function and driving confidence (A. Chevalier et al., 2016) [1]. In naturalistic driving studies such as this, when sample size is not large enough to allow crashes to be used to investigate driver safety, rapid deceleration events may be used as a surrogate safety measure. Naturalistic driving data were collected for up to 52 weeks from 182 volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Accelerometer data were recorded 32 times per second and Global Positioning System (GPS) data each second. To measure rapid deceleration behavior, rapid deceleration events (RDEs) were defined as having at least one data point at or above the deceleration threshold of 750 milli-g (7.35 m/s(2)). All events were constrained to a maximum 5 s duration. The dataset provided with this article contains 473 events, with a row per RDE. This article also contains information about data processing, treatment and quality control. The methods and data presented here may assist with planning and analysis of future studies into rapid deceleration behaviour using in-vehicle monitoring.

  9. Dietary Pattern Trajectories from 6 to 12 Months of Age in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Geraldine Huini; Toh, Jia Ying; Aris, Izzuddin M.; Chia, Ai-Ru; Han, Wee Meng; Saw, Seang Mei; Godfrey, Keith M.; Gluckman, Peter D.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Yap, Fabian; Lee, Yung Seng; Kramer, Michael S.; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the dietary patterns of Asian infants in the first year of life, nor of their associations with maternal socio-demographic factors. Based on the Growing Up in Singapore towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) mother-offspring cohort, cross-sectional dietary patterns were derived by factor analysis using 24-h recalls and food diaries of infants at 6-, 9- and 12-months of age. Dietary pattern trajectories were modeled by mapping similar dietary patterns across each age using multilevel mixed models. Associations with maternal socio-demographic variables, collected through questionnaires during pregnancy, were assessed using general linear models. In n = 486 infants, four dietary pattern trajectories were established from 6- to 12-months. Predominantly breastmilk: mainly breastmilk and less formula milk, Guidelines: rice porridge, vegetables, fruits and low-fat fish and meat, Easy-to-prepare foods: infant cereals, juices, cakes and biscuits and Noodles (in soup) and seafood: noodle and common accompaniments. In adjusted models, higher maternal education attainment was correlated with higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk, but lowest education attainment increased its adherence over time. Older mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods, but younger mothers had increased adherence over time. Chinese mothers had higher start scores on Predominantly breastmilk but greater adherence to Guidelines over time, while Indian mothers had higher start scores on Easy-to-prepare foods but greater adherence to Predominantly breastmilk with time (p < 0.05 for all). Changes in trajectories over time were small. Hence, dietary patterns established during weaning are strongly influenced by maternal socio-demographic factors and remain stable over the first year of life. PMID:27314387

  10. Loneliness Predicts Increased Blood Pressure: Five-Year Cross-Lagged Analyses in Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Thisted, Ronald A.; Masi, Christopher M.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Loneliness is a prevalent social problem with serious physiological and health implications. However, much of the research to date is based on cross-sectional data, including our own earlier finding that loneliness was associated with elevated blood pressure. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the effect of loneliness accumulates to produce greater increases in SBP over a four-year period than are observed in less lonely individuals. A population-based sample of 229 50–68 year-old White, Black, and Hispanic men and women in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study was tested annually for each of five consecutive years. Cross-lagged panel analyses revealed that loneliness at study onset predicted increases in SBP 2, 3, and 4 years later (B = 0.152, SE = 0.091, p < .05, one-tailed). These increases were cumulative such that higher initial levels of loneliness were associated with greater increases in SBP over a 4-year period. The effect of loneliness on SBP was independent of age, gender, race/ethnicity, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, health conditions, and the effects of depressive symptoms, social support, perceived stress, and hostility. PMID:20230134

  11. Predictors for Asthma at Age 7 Years for Low-Income Children Enrolled in the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Tamesis, Grace P; Covar, Ronina A; Strand, Matthew; Liu, Andrew H; Szefler, Stanley J.; Klinnert, Mary D

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify the predictive factors of early childhood wheezing in children of low socioeconomic status. Study design The Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) enrolled 177 low-income children (9–24 months old) with frequent wheezing. At age 7 years, presence of asthma was assessed through caregiver reports of physician diagnosis of asthma (CRPDA) and corroborated by assessment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). Lung function, inflammatory markers, and asthma symptom severity were compared for children with ±CRPDA, ±BHR, and asthma. Baseline predictors for CRPDA, BHR and asthma at 7 years of age were examined. Results Maternal symptom report strongly differentiated children with +CRPDA (50%) despite comparable airflow measurements (p<0.0001), and spirometric lung function measurements were different for +BHR (65%) vs. −BHR (p<0.005). Univariate analyses revealed different baseline predictors of +CRPDA and +BHR for children at age 7 years. Higher levels of maternal psychological resources were associated with +CRPDA, but not +BHR. Only 39% of children with a history of frequent wheezing met the conservative definition of asthma at age 7 years, with the following significant predictors found: low birth weight, baseline symptom severity and maternal psychological resources. Conclusions This low-income, multi-ethnic group of wheezing infants represents a unique population of children with distinct characteristics and risks for persistent asthma. Determination of asthma status at 7 years of age required objective measurement of BHR in addition to CRPDA. The association of maternal psychological resources with +CRPDA may represent a previously unrecognized factor in determination of asthma status among low-income groups. PMID:23036483

  12. [Pneumococcal meningitis in children under 15 years of age in Misiones (Argentina). Sixteen year's epidemiological surveillance].

    PubMed

    Grenón, Sandra L; Salvi Grabulosa, Marcelo C; Regueira, Mabel M; Fossati, María S; von Specht, Martha H

    2014-01-01

    We report the results of pneumococcal meningitis surveillance conducted at the Provincial Pediatric Hospital of Posadas, Misiones (Argentina), before the conjugate vaccine was introduced into the national vaccination schedule. Between January 1994 and December 2009, 167 cases of Streptococcus pneumoniae meningitis were diagnosed in children aged 1 month to 15 years. The attack rate/100,000 children ranged from 19.2 (1997) to 4.3 (2009), with a mean of 10.6 and a tendency to decrease (y=-0.689x+16.52). The number of cases per 100,000 children decreased from 146.6 to 34.8 and particularly involved the group of children aged 1 to 11 months (94/167, 56%). Thirty point seven percent (30.7%) (46/150) of the isolates were resistant to penicillin whereas 16.7% (25/150) were non-susceptible to cefotaxime. β-lactam resistance increased as from 1997 and began to decline in 2005. Nineteen serotypes were detected; type 14 was predominant and accounted for 32% (40/125). Eighty four point eight percent (84.8%) of the isolates were circumscribed to nine serotypes: 14, 5, 1, 7F, 18C, 6B, 9N, 9V and 4. Theoretical coverage for patients aged <2 years and >2 years was 84.1% (74/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 10-valent vaccine and 89.8 % (79/88) and 83.8% (31/37) for the 13-valent vaccine respectively. Penicillin resistance was restricted to 8 serotypes (14, 6B, 6A, 9V, 4, 23B, 19A1) and nonsusceptibility to cefotaxime was circumscribed to 3 serotypes (14, 9V and 1). This study will allow to evaluate the impact of the implementation of conjugate vaccines on our area.

  13. Bridging Multidimensional Models of Ethnic-Racial and Gender Identity Among Ethnically Diverse Emerging Adults.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Antoinette R; Leaper, Campbell

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to integrate and validate a multidimensional model of ethnic-racial identity and gender identity borrowing constructs and measures based on social identity and gender identity theories. Participants included 662 emerging adults (M age  = 19.86 years; 75 % female) who self-identified either as Asian American, Latino/a, or White European American. We assessed the following facets separately for ethnic-racial identity and gender identity: centrality, in-group affect, in-group ties, self-perceived typicality, and felt conformity pressure. Within each identity domain (gender or ethnicity/race), the five dimensions generally indicated small-to-moderate correlations with one another. Also, correlations between domains for each dimension (e.g., gender typicality and ethnic-racial typicality) were mostly moderate in magnitude. We also noted some group variations based on participants' ethnicity/race and gender in how strongly particular dimensions were associated with self-esteem. Finally, participants who scored positively on identity dimensions for both gender and ethnic-racial domains indicated higher self-esteem than those who scored high in only one domain or low in both domains. We recommend the application of multidimensional models to study social identities in multiple domains as they may relate to various outcomes during development.

  14. [Empathy in children aged 10 to 12 years].

    PubMed

    Garaigordobil, Maite; García de Galdeano, Patricia

    2006-05-01

    The objectives of this research were: 1) to determine whether there were differences in empathy according to gender; 2) to analyze the relationships between empathy and social behaviour, self-concept, emotional stability, social interaction strategies, capacity to analyze emotions, intelligence, and creativity; and 3) to identify predicting variables of empathy. The sample consisted of 139 participants aged 10 to 12 years. ANOVA results showed gender differences in empathy, with significantly higher scores in females. Pearson coefficients suggest that participants with high empathy showed many positive social behaviours (prosocial, assertive, consideration, self-control, leadership), few negative social behaviors (passive, aggressive, antisocial, withdrawal) and many assertive strategies of social interaction; that they were named as prosocial classmates; and that they had high self-concept, high capacity to analyze negative emotions, high emotional stability and many behaviors and traits of creative personality. Multiple regression analyses permitted identification of the following predicting variables of empathy: high level of prosocial behaviour, low level of aggressive behaviour and high self-concept.

  15. Alcohol use in women 65 years of age and older.

    PubMed

    Sedlak, C A; Doheny, M O; Estok, P J; Zeller, R A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depression, codependency, self-coherence, and alcohol use and health outcomes in women 65 years of age and older. The framework is Erikson's ego-development theory. A convenience sample of 238 women was obtained from women attending flu shot clinics. This cross-sectional field study used survey methodology. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory, Codependency Assessment Tool, Self-Coherence Survey Form C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Use Questionnaire, Self-Rated Health Tool, Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, Functional Ability Scale, Illness Prevention Screening Behaviors Checklist, and Sociodemographic Data. Results indicate a low consumption and little variation in use of alcohol. There were no significant associations between alcohol consumption and the dependent variables. Depression was significantly related to all the health outcomes; codependency was significantly related to all health outcomes except perceived quality of life; and self-coherence was significantly related to all health outcomes except illness prevention behavior. These findings have important implications for those providing care for older women.

  16. Development of racial-ethnic identity among First Nation children.

    PubMed

    Corenblum, Barry

    2014-03-01

    Elements of racial-ethnic identity, often found among adolescents from racial-ethnic minority groups, have their origins in middle childhood and pre-adolescence. The present study explored the developmental trajectory of some of those components among Native Canadian children living on relatively remote First Nation communities. Children and young adolescents (N = 414,209 female) between the ages of 6-11 completed measures assessing their level of racial-ethnic identity, concrete operational thought, implicit and explicit self-esteem, implicit and explicit in-group attitudes, and the importance of their racial-ethnic identity each year for 5 years. Consistent with predictions from cognitive developmental theory, trajectory modeling revealed significant increases over time in explicit and implicit in-group attitudes, level of concrete operational thought and the importance of children's racial-ethnic identity. However, level of racial-ethnic identity remained unchanged over time. The results are discussed in terms of cognitive-developmental theory, and the influence of living in a racially homogeneous environment on the development of racial-ethnic identity among minority group children. Studies are also suggested for future research.

  17. The second-language vocabulary trajectories of Turkish immigrant children in Norway from ages five to ten: the role of preschool talk exposure, maternal education, and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood.

    PubMed

    Rydland, Veslemøy; Grøver, Vibeke; Lawrence, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    Little research has explored how preschools can support children's second-language (L2) vocabulary development. This study keenly followed the progress of twemty-six Turkish immigrant children growing up in Norway from preschool (age five) to fifth grade (age ten). Four different measures of preschool talk exposure (amount and diversity of teacher-led group talk and amount and diversity of peer talk), as well as the demographic variables of maternal education and co-ethnic concentration in the neighborhood, were employed to predict the children's L2 vocabulary trajectories. The results of growth analyses revealed that maternal education was the only variable predicting children's vocabulary growth during the elementary years. However, teacher-led talk, peer talk, and neighborhood predicted children's L2 vocabulary skills at age five, and these differences were maintained up to age ten. This study underscores the importance of both preschool talk exposure (teacher-led talk and peer talk) and demographic factors on L2 learners' vocabulary development.

  18. Ethnic Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: Results from a Multi-Ethnic Population-Based Survey in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Guallar, Eliseo; Bulgiba, Awang; Mohamed, Rosmawati; Rahmat, Ramlee; Arif, Mohamad Taha; Rampal, Lekhraj

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing disproportionately among the different ethnicities in Asia compared to the rest of the world. This study aims to determine the differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome across ethnicities in Malaysia, a multi-ethnic country. Methods In 2004, we conducted a national cross-sectional population-based study using a stratified two-stage cluster sampling design (N = 17,211). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the International Diabetes Federation/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute/American Heart Association (IDF/NHLBI/AHA-2009) criteria. Multivariate models were used to study the independent association between ethnicity and the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. Results The overall mean age was 36.9 years, and 50.0% participants were female. The ethnic distribution was 57.0% Malay, 28.5% Chinese, 8.9% Indian and 5.0% Indigenous Sarawakians. The overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 27.5%, with a prevalence of central obesity, raised triglycerides, low high density lipoprotein cholesterol, raised blood pressure and raised fasting glucose of 36.9%, 29.3%, 37.2%, 38.0% and 29.1%, respectively. Among those <40 years, the adjusted prevalence ratios for metabolic syndrome for ethnic Chinese, Indians, and Indigenous Sarawakians compared to ethnic Malay were 0.81 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.96), 1.42 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.69) and 1.37 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.73), respectively. Among those aged ≥40 years, the corresponding prevalence ratios were 0.86 (95% CI 0.79 to 0.92), 1.25 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.36), and 0.94 (95% CI 0.80, 1.11). The P-value for the interaction of ethnicity by age was 0.001. Conclusions The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Malaysia was high, with marked differences across ethnicities. Ethnic Chinese had the lowest prevalence of metabolic syndrome, while ethnic Indians had the highest. Indigenous Sarawakians showed a marked increase in metabolic syndrome at young

  19. Brief report: Contextual predictors of African American adolescents' ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and resistance to peer pressure.

    PubMed

    Derlan, Chelsea L; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined whether contextual factors (i.e., familial cultural socialization, percentage of same-ethnicity friends in high school, and neighborhood ethnic-racial composition) predicted ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging and, in turn, resistance to peer pressure to engage in problem behavior. Participants were 250 African American adolescents (M age = 15.57 years; SD = 1.22). Consistent with ecological theory, findings indicated that familial cultural socialization and percentage of same-ethnicity friends predicted greater ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging. Furthermore, consistent with notions from social identity theory, youth who reported higher ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging also reported greater resistance to peer pressure. Findings highlight the significance of the family and school context, as well as the importance of ethnic-racial identity affirmation-belonging, for African American youths' positive development.

  20. OTC Cough and Cold Products: Not for Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cold Products: Not For Infants and Children Under 2 Years of Age Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it ... and cold products for infants and children under 2 years of age? A. FDA strongly recommends that ...

  1. Latino adolescents' ethnic identity: is there a developmental progression and does growth in ethnic identity predict growth in self-esteem?

    PubMed

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Gonzales-Backen, Melinda A; Guimond, Amy B

    2009-01-01

    The current longitudinal study of 323 Latino adolescents (50.5% male; M age = 15.31 years) examined whether ethnic identity exploration, resolution, and affirmation demonstrated significant growth over a 4-year period and whether growth in ethnic identity predicted growth in self-esteem. Findings from multiple-group latent growth curve models revealed that exploration, resolution, and affirmation all increased significantly from middle to late adolescence for Latina girls. For Latino boys, only affirmation increased significantly. Furthermore, only growth in exploration predicted growth in boys' and girls' self-esteem. This research indicates that patterns of growth in ethnic identity vary by adolescent sex. Furthermore, findings underscore the need to examine the unique contributions of each ethnic identity component, rather than using a composite ethnic identity score.

  2. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed.

  3. The Antecedents and Consequences of Racial/Ethnic Discrimination during Adolescence: Does the Source of Discrimination Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Aprile D.; Graham, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the precursors and consequences of discrimination for 876 Latino, African American, and Asian American adolescents (M[subscript age] = 16.9 years, SD = 0.43). The race/ethnic characteristics of schools and neighborhoods influenced adolescents' perceptions of the race/ethnic climates of these contexts. In turn,…

  4. Primiparity at very advanced maternal age (≥ 45 years).

    PubMed

    Glasser, Saralee; Segev-Zahav, Aliza; Fortinsky, Paige; Gedal-Beer, Debby; Schiff, Eyal; Lerner-Geva, Liat

    2011-06-30

    This study describes maternal and birth outcomes of primiparae aged ≥ 45. High rates of pregnancy complications and poor birth outcomes were found, stressing that the personal risks and ramifications to the health system should be taken into account in establishing obstetric health policy regarding primiparity at advanced maternal age.

  5. The World Assembly on Aging--Three Years Later.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nusberg, Charlotte

    1985-01-01

    Examines the world response to population aging. Discusses national, regional, and international activities, such as conferences, campaigns to promote an active aging, employment projects, and community alternatives to institutional care. Policy responses are considered, involving employment, income, health, housing, family, consumerism,…

  6. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  7. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  8. Whole-grain food consumption in Singaporean children aged 6-12 years.

    PubMed

    Neo, Jia En; Binte Mohamed Salleh, Saihah; Toh, Yun Xuan; How, Kesslyn Yan Ling; Tee, Mervin; Mann, Kay; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Seal, Chris J; Brownlee, Iain A

    2016-01-01

    Public health bodies in many countries are attempting to increase population-wide habitual consumption of whole grains. Limited data on dietary habits exist in Singaporean children. The present study therefore aimed to assess whole grain consumption patterns in Singaporean children and compare these with dietary intake, physical activity and health parameters. Dietary intake (assessed by duplicate, multipass, 24-h food recalls), physical activity (by questionnaire) and anthropometric measurements were collected from a cross-section of 561 Singaporean children aged 6-12 years. Intake of whole grains was evaluated using estimates of portion size and international food composition data. Only 38·3 % of participants reported consuming whole grains during the dietary data collection days. Median intake of whole grains in consumers was 15·3 (interquartile range 5·4-34·8) g/d. The most commonly consumed whole-grain food groups were rice (29·5 %), wholemeal bread (28·9 %) and ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (18·8 %). A significantly lower proportion of Malay children (seven out of fifty-eight; P < 0·0001) consumed whole grains than children of other ethnicities. Only 6 % of all children consumed the amount of whole grains most commonly associated with improved health outcomes (48 g/d). There was no relationship between whole grain consumption patterns and BMI, waist circumference or physical activity but higher whole grain intake was associated with increased fruit, vegetable and dairy product consumption (P < 0·001). These findings demonstrate that consumption of whole grain foods is low at a population level and infrequent in Singaporean children. Future drives to increase whole-grain food consumption in this population are likely to require input from multiple stakeholders.

  9. The Addicted-Self Model of addictive behavior cessation: does it predict recovery for gender, ethnic, age and drug preference populations?

    PubMed

    Fiorentine, Robert; Hillhouse, Maureen P

    2004-01-01

    Although previous research provided empirical support for the main assumptions of the Addicted-Self (A-S) Model of recovery, it is not known whether the model predicts recovery for various gender, ethnic, age, and drug preference populations. It may be that the model predicts recovery only for some groups of addicts and should not be viewed as a general theory of the recovery process. Addressing this concern using data from the Los Angeles Target Cities Drug Treatment Enhancement Project, it was determined that only trivial population differences exist in the primary variables associated with the A-S Model. The A-S Model predicts abstinence with about the same degree of accuracy and parsimony for all populations. The findings indicate that the A-S Model is a general theory of drug and alcohol addictive behavior cessation.

  10. Risk factors for eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age: A 6-year longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth H; Adamson, Ashley J; Basterfield, Laura; Le Couteur, Ann; Reilly, Jessica K; Reilly, John J; Parkinson, Kathryn N

    2017-01-01

    Eating disorders pose risks to health and wellbeing in young adolescents, but prospective studies of risk factors are scarce and this has impeded prevention efforts. This longitudinal study aimed to examine risk factors for eating disorder symptoms in a population-based birth cohort of young adolescents at 12 years. Participants from the Gateshead Millennium Study birth cohort (n = 516; 262 girls and 254 boys) completed self-report questionnaire measures of eating disorder symptoms and putative risk factors at age 7 years, 9 years and 12 years, including dietary restraint, depressive symptoms and body dissatisfaction. Body mass index (BMI) was also measured at each age. Within-time correlates of eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were greater body dissatisfaction for both sexes and, for girls only, higher depressive symptoms. For both sexes, higher eating disorder symptoms at 9 years old significantly predicted higher eating disorder symptoms at 12 years old. Dietary restraint at 7 years old predicted boys' eating disorder symptoms at age 12, but not girls'. Factors that did not predict eating disorder symptoms at 12 years of age were BMI (any age), girls' dietary restraint at 7 years and body dissatisfaction at 7 and 9 years of age for both sexes. In this population-based study, different patterns of predictors and correlates of eating disorder symptoms were found for girls and boys. Body dissatisfaction, a purported risk factor for eating disorder symptoms in young adolescents, developed concurrently with eating disorder symptoms rather than preceding them. However, restraint at age 7 and eating disorder symptoms at age 9 years did predict 12-year eating disorder symptoms. Overall, our findings suggest that efforts to prevent disordered eating might beneficially focus on preadolescent populations.

  11. Ethnic Differences in Trajectories of Depressive Symptoms: Disadvantage in Family Background, High School Experiences, and Adult Characteristics*

    PubMed Central

    Walsemann, Katrina M.; Gee, Gilbert C.; Geronimus, Arline T.

    2009-01-01

    Although research investigating ethnic differences in mental health has increased in recent years, we know relatively little about how mental health trajectories vary across ethnic groups. Do these differences occur at certain ages, but not others? We investigate ethnic variations in trajectories of depressive symptoms, and examine the extent to which disadvantage in family background, high school experiences, and adult characteristics explain these differences. Employing random-coefficient modeling using the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, we find that blacks and Hispanics experience higher symptom levels in early adulthood in comparison to whites, but equivalent levels by middle-age. Ethnic differences remained in early adulthood after including all covariates, but were eliminated by middle-age for Hispanics after controlling for demographics only and for blacks after accounting for the age-varying relationship between income and depressive symptoms. These results highlight the importance of integrating a life-course perspective when investigating ethnic variations in mental health. PMID:19413136

  12. Associations between air pollution and socioeconomic characteristics, ethnicity and age profile of neighbourhoods in England and the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fecht, Daniela; Fischer, Paul; Fortunato, Léa; Hoek, Gerard; de Hoogh, Kees; Marra, Marten; Kruize, Hanneke; Vienneau, Danielle; Beelen, Rob; Hansell, Anna

    2015-03-01

    Air pollution levels are generally believed to be higher in deprived areas but associations are complex especially between sensitive population subgroups. We explore air pollution inequalities at national, regional and city level in England and the Netherlands comparing particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations and publicly available population characteristics (deprivation, ethnicity, proportion of children and elderly). We saw higher concentrations in the most deprived 20% of neighbourhoods in England (1.5 μg/m(3) higher PM10 and 4.4 μg/m(3) NO2). Concentrations in both countries were higher in neighbourhoods with >20% non-White (England: 3.0 μg/m(3) higher PM10 and 10.1 μg/m(3) NO2; the Netherlands: 1.1 μg/m(3) higher PM10 and 4.5 μg/m(3) NO2) after adjustment for urbanisation and other variables. Associations for some areas differed from the national results. Air pollution inequalities were mainly an urban problem suggesting measures to reduce environmental air pollution inequality should include a focus on city transport.

  13. Change in ethnic identity across the college transition.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Kim M; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    This article examined changes in ethnic identity as a function of college type and residential status and whether differences due to college type could be explained by involvement in extracurricular activities and college ethnic composition. Although no changes in ethnic labeling or belonging were found, there was a normative decrease in ethnic search, independent of residential status. Moreover, the decline in ethnic search was significantly greater at 2- than 4-year colleges, and this difference was mediated by higher rates of participation in extracurricular activities at 4-year colleges. Ethnic identity did not vary by college ethnic composition. There were no ethnic or generation differences in ethnic identity change; however, women were more likely to include an American term in their ethnic label than were men, over time. Averaging across time, students at 4-year colleges also had a greater preference for the American term in their ethnic labels. Findings illuminate the importance of context in shaping ethnic identity.

  14. Differences in perceptions of beauty and cosmetic procedures performed in ethnic patients.

    PubMed

    Talakoub, Lily; Wesley, Naissan O

    2009-06-01

    The United States has become progressively more multicultural, with the ethnic population growing at record rates. The US Census Bureau projects that, by the year 2056, greater than 50% of the US population will be of non-Caucasian descent. Ethnic patients have different cosmetic concerns and natural features that are unique. The cosmetic concerns of ethnic patients also differ as the result of differences in skin pathophysiology, mechanisms of aging, and unique anatomic structure. There is no longer a single standard of beauty. We must now adapt to the more diverse population and understand how to accommodate the diversity of beauty in the United States. Ethnic patients do not necessarily want a Westernized look because what constitutes beauty is determined by racial, cultural, and environmental influences. We as leaders in skin care must understand these differences and adapt our practices accordingly. This article will focus on the differences in aging in different ethnic populations and highlight procedures unique to skin of color.

  15. Trends in racial/ethnic disparities in medical and oral health, access to care, and use of services in US children: has anything changed over the years?

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The 2010 Census revealed the population of Latino and Asian children grew by 5.5 million, while the population of white children declined by 4.3 million from 2000-2010, and minority children will outnumber white children by 2020. No prior analyses, however, have examined time trends in racial/ethnic disparities in children’s health and healthcare. The study objectives were to identify racial/ethnic disparities in medical and oral health, access to care, and use of services in US children, and determine whether these disparities have changed over time. Methods The 2003 and 2007 National Surveys of Children’s Health were nationally representative telephone surveys of parents of 193,995 children 0-17 years old (N = 102,353 in 2003 and N = 91,642 in 2007). Thirty-four disparities indicators were examined for white, African-American, Latino, Asian/Pacific-Islander, American Indian/Alaskan Native, and multiracial children. Multivariable analyses were performed to adjust for nine relevant covariates, and Z-scores to examine time trends. Results Eighteen disparities occurred in 2007 for ≥1 minority group. The number of indicators for which at least one racial/ethnic group experienced disparities did not significantly change between 2003-2007, nor did the total number of specific disparities (46 in 2007). The disparities for one subcategory (use of services), however, did decrease (by 82%). Although 15 disparities decreased over time, two worsened, and 10 new disparities arose. Conclusions Minority children continue to experience multiple disparities in medical and oral health and healthcare. Most disparities persisted over time. Although disparities in use of services decreased, 10 new disparities arose in 2007. Study findings suggest that urgent policy solutions are needed to eliminate these disparities, including collecting racial/ethnic and language data on all patients, monitoring and publicly disclosing disparities data annually, providing

  16. Ethnic discrimination and health: the relationship between experienced ethnic discrimination and multiple health domains in Norway's rural Sami population

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Ketil Lenert

    2015-01-01

    Objective Self-reported ethnic discrimination has been associated with a range of health outcomes. This study builds on previous efforts to investigate the prevalence of self-reported ethnic discrimination in the indigenous (Sami) population, and how such discrimination may be associated with key health indicators. Study design The study relies on data from the 2003/2004 (n=4,389) population-based study of adults (aged 36–79 years) in 24 rural municipalities of Central and North Norway (the SAMINOR study). Self-reported ethnic discrimination was measured using the question: “Have you ever experienced discrimination due to your ethnic background?” Health indicators included questions regarding cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic muscle pain, metabolic syndrome and obesity. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported ethnic discrimination and health outcomes. Results The study finds that for Sami people living in minority areas, self-reported ethnic discrimination is associated with all the negative health indicators included in the study. Conclusion We conclude that ethnic discrimination affects a wide range of health outcomes. Our findings highlight the importance of ensuring freedom from discrimination for the Sami people of Norway. PMID:25683064

  17. Ethnic Identity Development of Second-Generation Indian American Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maira, Sunaina

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 7 second-generation Indian American students between 17 and 21 years of age to study their ethnic identity formation. Respondents were college students who came from families that represented the earlier waves of post-1965 Indian immigrants, highly educated middle- and upper-class professionals. The…

  18. The vulnerability of middle-aged and older adults in a multiethnic, low-income area: contributions of age, ethnicity, and health insurance.

    PubMed

    Walker, Kara Odom; Steers, Neil; Liang, Li-Jung; Morales, Leo S; Forge, Nell; Jones, Loretta; Brown, Arleen F

    2010-12-01

    This community-partnered study was developed and fielded in partnership with key community stakeholders and describes age- and race-related variation in delays in care and preventive service utilization between middle-aged and older adults living in South Los Angeles. The survey sample included adults aged 50 and older who self-identified as African American or Latino and lived in ZIP codes of South Los Angeles (N=708). Dependent variables were self-reported delays in care and use of preventive services. Insured participants aged 50 to 64 were more likely to report any delay in care (adjusted predicted percentage (APP)=18%, 95% confidence interval (CI)=14-23) and problems obtaining needed medical care (APP=15%, 95% CI=12-20) than those aged 65 and older. Uninsured participants aged 50 to 64 reported even greater delays in care (APP=45%, 95% CI=33-56) and problems obtaining needed medical (APP=33%, 95% CI=22-45) and specialty care (APP=26%, 95% CI=16-39) than those aged 65 and older. Participants aged 50 to 64 were generally less likely to receive preventive services, including influenza and pneumococcal vaccines and colonoscopy than older participants, but women were more likely to receive mammograms. Participants aged 50 to 64 had more problems obtaining recommended preventive care and faced more delays in care than those aged 65 and older, particularly if they were uninsured. Providing insurance coverage for this group may improve access to preventive care and promote wellness.

  19. Impact of age on transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes: a comparison of patients aged ≤ 80 years versus patients > 80 years

    PubMed Central

    van der Kley, Frank; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Katsanos, Spyridon; Kamperidis, Vasileios; Marsan, Nina A; Karalis, Ioannis; de Weger, Arend; Palmen, Meindert; Bax, Jeroen J; Schalij, Martin J; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the procedural outcomes and the long-term survival of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and compare study results of patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old. Methods A total of 240 patients treated with TAVI were divided into two groups according to age ≤ 80 years (n = 105; 43.8%) and > 80 years (n = 135; 56.2%). The baseline characteristics and the procedural outcomes were compared between these two groups of patients. Results With the exception of peripheral artery disease and hypercholesterolemia, which were more frequently observed in the older age group, baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. Complication rates did not differ significantly between patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years. There were no differences in 30-day mortality rates between patients aged ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old (9.5% vs. 7.4%, respectively; P = 0.557). After a median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range: 16–42 months), 50 (47.6%) patients aged ≤ 80 years died compared to 57 (42%) deaths in the group of patients > 80 years old (P = 0.404). Conclusion The results of the present single center study showed that age did not significantly impact the outcomes of TAVI. PMID:26918010

  20. Body Mass Index (BMI) and child temperament: ethnic and gender differences among 3 and 4 year olds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited early research suggests that children with a more difficult temperament (i.e., withdrawing, high intensity, predominate negative mood) by ages 4-5 are more likely to have excessive weight gain by ages 8-9 compared with children with opposite temperaments. We examined this relationship among ...

  1. Intergenerational transmission of ethnic identity and life satisfaction of Roma minority adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Radosveta; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Trost, Kari

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates intergeneration transmission of ethnic identity as a resource for life satisfaction of Roma adolescents and their parents. Historically, Roma represent the largest ethnic minority in Europe. They have been exposed to severe discrimination, social exclusion, and poverty. Therefore, identifying resources for their life satisfaction is theoretically and practically important. The present study included 1093 participants, of which there were 171 Roma adolescents (age: M = 14.96 years, SD = 1.85), 155 mothers (age: M = 36.16 years, SD = 5.77) and 123 fathers (age: M = 39.68 years, SD = 6.06). Further, a comparison group of 248 mainstream adolescents with their mothers (n = 221) and fathers (n = 175) was also included in the study. Adolescents and their parents provided data on ethnic identity (MEIM; Phinney, 1992) and life satisfaction (SWLS; Diener, Emmons, Larsen, & Griffin, 1985). Results indicated that Roma youth were lower on endorsement of ethnic identity and average on life satisfaction compared to their mainstream peers. A structural equation model showed that ethnic identity was a positive predictor of life satisfaction for both adolescents and their Roma parents. Furthermore, parents' ethnic identity was a predictor of adolescent life satisfaction. We concluded that for Roma youth and their parents, ethnic identity represents a salient source for life satisfaction and an intergenerational continuity of identity and life satisfaction exists.

  2. Acne and its management beyond the age of 35 years.

    PubMed

    Marks, Ronnie

    2004-01-01

    Although acne is not usually considered to be a disorder that affects the elderly, the disorder occurs sufficiently often in mature individuals to be noteworthy. The variety known as 'persisting acne' is, as its name suggests, ordinary acne that continues into adult life. 'Chin acne' is a curious type that occurs premenstrually in mature women, while 'sporadic acne' describes the sudden development of significant acne in later life for no apparent reason. When acne develops in an individual outside the usual susceptible age group precipitating causes such as exposure to comedogenic substances or drugs must be excluded. Similarly, endocrine causes such as androgen-secreting tumors and the administration of anabolic steroids need to be considered. All inflammatory processes are decreased in the elderly and this may be one reason for the persistence and intransigence of acne lesions in older age groups. The principles of treatment of acne in the elderly do not differ from those in other age groups, although the emphasis during counseling needs to focus on explanation and reassurance rather than prognosis. Topical retinoids and benzoyl peroxide easily irritate elderly skin, so azelaic acid and even sulfur preparations are preferable. Low-dose systemic isotretinoin is reported to be helpful to patients in this age group and is certainly worth a trial.

  3. The fate of cognition in very old age: six-year longitudinal findings in the Berlin Aging Study (BASE).

    PubMed

    Singer, Tania; Verhaeghen, Paul; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lindenberger, Ulman; Baltes, Paul B

    2003-06-01

    The authors report full-information longitudinal age gradients in 4 intellectual abilities on the basis of 6-year longitudinal changes in 132 individuals (mean age at T1 = 78.27, age range = 70-100) from the Berlin Aging Study. Relative to the cross-sectional parent sample (N = 516, mean age at T1 = 84.92 years), this sample was positively selected because of differential mortality and experimental attrition. Perceptual speed, memory, and fluency declined with age. In contrast, knowledge remained stable up to age 90, with evidence for decline thereafter. Age gradients were more negative in old old (n = 66, mean age at T1 = 83.04) than in old (n = 66, mean age at T1 = 73.77) participants. Rates of decline did not differ reliably between men and women or between participants with high versus low life-history status. They conclude that intellectual development after age 70 varies by distance to death, age, and intellectual ability domain.

  4. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  5. Family Ethnic Socialization and Ethnic Identity: A Family-Driven, Youth-Driven, or Reciprocal Process?

    PubMed Central

    Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal associations between family ethnic socialization and youths’ ethnic identity among a sample of Mexican-origin youth (N = 178, Mage = 18.17, SD = .46). Findings from multiple-group cross lagged panel models over a two year period indicated that for U.S.-born youth with immigrant parents, the process appeared to be family-driven: Youths’ perceptions of family ethnic socialization in late adolescence were associated with significantly greater ethnic identity exploration and resolution in emerging adulthood, while youths’ ethnic identity during late adolescence did not significantly predict youths’ future perceptions of family ethnic socialization. Conversely, for U.S.-born youth with U.S. born parents, youths’ ethnic identity significantly predicted their future perceptions of family ethnic socialization but perceptions of family ethnic socialization did not predict future levels of youths’ ethnic identity, suggesting a youth-driven process. Findings were consistent for males and females. PMID:23421841

  6. An Examination of the RCMAS-2 Scores across Gender, Ethnic Background, and Age in a Large Asian School Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ang, Rebecca P.; Lowe, Patricia A.; Yusof, Noradlin

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the factor structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity, and U.S. norms of the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale, Second Edition (RCMAS-2; C. R. Reynolds & B. O. Richmond, 2008a) scores in a Singapore sample of 1,618 school-age children and adolescents. Although there were small…

  7. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  8. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  9. Ethnic Hairdressing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Flora B.

    The practical aspects of ethnic hairdressing for the beginning student in the field of Cosmetology are presented in this manual. Lessons and review questions are provided to give the student a knowledge of the problems encountered in dealing with the many different variations in hair, as well as to serve as a foundation for more complex material.…

  10. The Development of Ethnic Identity during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Sabine Elizabeth; Seidman, Edward; Allen, LaRue; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2006-01-01

    The development of ethnic identity is a critical facet of adolescence, particularly for adolescents of color. In order to examine the developmental trajectory of ethnic identity, African American, Latino American, and European American early and middle adolescents (N=420) were assessed over 3 years. Two components of ethnic identity were…

  11. Lung Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out ... individual years. Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex From 1999–2013, the rate of people dying ...

  12. Colorectal Cancer Rates by Race and Ethnicity

    MedlinePlus

    ... and ethnicity. Incidence Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex “Incidence rate” means how many people out ... individual years. Death Rates by Race/Ethnicity and Sex From 1999–2013, the rate of people dying ...

  13. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  14. Otitis Media and Language Development at 1 Year of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Ina F.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Fifteen 1-year-olds without otitis media were compared to 12 babies who were otitis positive. No significant differences were detected on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development or the Sequenced Inventory of Communication Development (SICD) Receptive scale. However, the otitis-positive group exhibited lower SICD Expressive scores than the…

  15. Differential Aging of Cerebral White Matter in Middle-Aged and Older Adults: A Seven-Year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Andrew R.; Völkle, Manuel C.; Raz, Naftali

    2015-01-01

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effects models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age = 65.4, SD = 9.0 years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the last-in-first-out hypothesis of brain aging. PMID:26481675

  16. Prevalence and risk factors for adult paternity among adolescent females ages 14 through 16 years.

    PubMed

    Castrucci, Brian C; Clark, Jamie; Lewis, Kayan; Samsel, Rachel; Mirchandani, Gita

    2010-11-01

    To investigate sociodemographic factors associated with adolescent females ages 14-16 years having children fathered by males age 20 years or older and identify differences in correlates across rural, urban, and border areas. The method section was a cross-sectional study using Texas birth record data. From 2000 through 2004, there were 29,186 births to adolescent females aged 14-16 years with valid paternal age. Prevalence of and adjusted odds of paternal age of 20 years or older were identified by paternal and maternal factors. The Results section Having both parents born outside of the U.S. was associated with a 5.29 (95% CI: 4.82, 5.80) times increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older as compared to having both parents born in the U.S. Parental place of birth was associated with greater odds of paternal age of 20 years or older in urban areas compared to rural or border areas. Compared to those with average or high educational attainment relative to age, low educational attainment relative to age was associated with an increase in the odds of paternal age of 20 years or older. This association was present whether maternal or paternal educational attainment was low relative to age. Messages are needed to help adolescent females avoid pregnancy with adult males. In addressing this specific prevention challenge, it is important to consider maternal/paternal place of birth and its association with adolescent births with adult males.

  17. Renal transplantation in children less than 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Rizzoni, G; Malekzadeh, M H; Pennisi, A J; Ettenger, R B; Uittenbogaart, C H; Fine, R N

    1980-01-01

    19 young children (less than 5 years old) have received 31 renal transplants from 4 live relatives and 27 cadaver donors. The 2-year allograft survival rate for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from the 4 live donors was 75 +/- 22% while for the patients receiving their 1st allograft from 15 cadaver donors was 26 +/- 11%. 10 children are currently surviving with functioning allographs (7 cadavers and 3 live relatives); 4 have died and 5 are undergoing dialysis after the loss of at least one allograft. Despite the poor allograft survival rate the fact that 7 children are surviving with cadaver allografts indicates that the lack of a living related donor should not prevent transplants in young children. PMID:7002060

  18. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D) by its very terms is available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though all...

  19. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D) by its very terms is available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though all...

  20. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D) by its very terms is available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though all...

  1. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Minors 16 years of age or under. 780.321 Section 780.321... 13(a)(6) Statutory Provisions § 780.321 Minors 16 years of age or under. Section 13(a)(6)(D) by its very terms is available only to employees 16 years of age or under. Accordingly, even though all...

  2. [Correlation between self-reported gingival bleeding and type 2 diabetes mellitus in aged ≥18 years adults in China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Li, Z X; Yang, Y; Wang, C X; Wang, L M; Wang, L H

    2017-03-10

    Objective: To understand the correlation between self-reported gingival bleeding and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in adults in China. Methods: The database of China' s 2010 Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance (CCDRFS) survey among people aged ≥18 years was used to analyze the demographic characteristics of subjects with self-reporting gingival bleeding and the prevalence of major chronic diseases among adults. Correlation and interaction analyses were conducted on the relationships between frequent gingival bleeding and T2DM, hypertension and dyslipidemia, and interaction of age and gingival bleeding, age and hypertension, age and dyslipidemia, age and gender on the prevalence of T2DM. Results: Among 93 647 adults surveyed, 87.4% were in Han ethnic group. The incidence of frequent gingival bleeding was higher in females (63.6%) than in males (36.4%). The incidence of frequent gingival bleeding was highest (30.1%) in adults with middle school education level. Among the adults aged 45-60 years, 12.8%(2 839/22 179) had T2MD but no gingival bleeding, 15.6% (163/1 044) had both frequent gingival bleeding and T2DM, frequent gingival bleeding was correlated with T2DM (OR=1.29, 95%CI: 1.08-1.54) and the interaction with age had influence on T2DM (P<0.005). In males, frequent gingival bleeding was correlated with T2DM (OR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.08-1.56, P=0.005). In hypertension group, frequent gingival bleeding was correlated with T2DM (OR=1.25, 95% CI: 1.07-1.46), and interaction of hypertension and gingival bleeding had influence on T2DM (P<0.05). Conclusions: The positive correlation between frequent gingival bleeding and T2DM was observed in adults surveyed, and the interaction of age and hypertension had influence on prevalence of T2DM. Frequent gingival bleeding was correlated with T2DM in males either.

  3. Update on herpes zoster vaccine: licensure for persons aged 50 through 59 years.

    PubMed

    2011-11-11

    Herpes zoster vaccine (Zostavax, Merck & Co., Inc.) was licensed and recommended in 2006 for prevention of herpes zoster among adults aged 60 years and older. In March 2011, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of Zostavax in adults aged 50 through 59 years. In June 2011, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) declined to recommend the vaccine for adults aged 50 through 59 years and reaffirmed its current recommendation that herpes zoster vaccine be routinely recommended for adults aged 60 years and older.

  4. A developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years is associated with increased schizotypal personality at age 23 years.

    PubMed

    Peskin, Melissa; Raine, Adrian; Gao, Yu; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2011-11-01

    Although allostatic load has been investigated in mood and anxiety disorders, no prior study has investigated developmental change in allostatic load as a precursor to schizotypal personality. This study employed a multilevel developmental framework to examine whether the development of increased allostatic load, as indicated by impaired sympathetic nervous system habituation from ages 3 to 11 years, predisposes to schizotypal personality at age 23 years. Electrodermal activity to six aversive tones was recorded in 995 subjects at age 3 years and again at 11 years. Habituation slopes at both ages were used to create groups who showed a developmental increase in habituation (decreased allostatic load), and those who showed a developmental decrease in habituation (increased allostatic load). Children who showed a developmental increase in allostatic load from ages 3 to 11 years had higher levels of schizotypal personality at 23 years. A breakdown of total schizotypy scores demonstrated specificity of findings to cognitive-perceptual features of schizotypy. Findings are the first to document a developmental abnormality in allostasis in relation to adult schizotypal personality. The relative failure to develop normal habituation to repeated stressors throughout childhood is hypothesized to result in an accumulation of allostatic load and consequently increased positive symptom schizotypy in adulthood.

  5. The formative years: medical ethics comes of age.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alastair V

    2015-01-01

    When the Journal of Medical Ethics first appeared in April 1975, the prospects of success seemed uncertain. There were no scholars specialising in the field, the readership could not be guaranteed, and the medical profession itself seemed, at the very least, ambivalent about a subject thought by many to be the province of doctors alone, to be acquired through an apprenticeship model, and certainly not taught or examined in any formal sense. However, change was afoot, fresh scandals created an awareness that outside help was needed to think through the new challenges facing the profession, and the success of the medical groups revealed a clear way forward through multidisciplinary and critically reflective discussion of the host of emerging ethical and legal issues. In this article the formative years of the journal are recaptured, with a claim that the core principles on which it was founded must endure if it is to continue to 'do good medical ethics' over the next 40 years.

  6. Comparative clinicopathological and outcome analysis of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged below 60 years and above 60 years

    PubMed Central

    AL-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; Tunio, Mutahir A; Asiri, Mushabbab Al; Bayoumi, Yasser; Balbaid, Ali; Aljohani, Naji J; Fatani, Hanadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged above 60 years. Materials and methods Comparative analysis was performed in 252 patients aged 46–60 years (Group A) and 118 patients aged above 60 years (Group B), who had thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine-131, and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy between July 2000 and December 2012. Different clinicopathological features, treatment, complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were compared. Results Mean age of patients in Group A was 51.9 years (range: 46–60), and mean age of those in Group B was 68.6 years (range: 62–97). Group B patients had higher positive lymph nodes (43.2%), P=0.011. The frequency of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, and lymphovascular space invasion was seen more in Group B than in Group A. Postsurgical complications (permanent hypoparathyroidism, bleeding, and wound infections) were also seen more in Group B (P=0.043, P=0.011, and P=0.021, respectively). Group B patients experienced more locoregional recurrences (11.0%, P=0.025); similarly, more distant metastases were observed in Group B (15.3%, P=0.003). The 10-year disease-free survival rates were 87.6% in Group A and 70.8% in Group B (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients aged above 60 years are more aggressive biologically and associated with a worse prognosis, and the morbidity is significantly high as compared to patients aged below 60 years. PMID:27621604

  7. Patterns and Trends in Elder Homicide Across Race and Ethnicity, 1985-2009

    PubMed Central

    Feldmeyer, Ben; Steffensmeier, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    In this report, we assess total and race/ethnicity-disaggregated patterns and temporal trends in elderly homicide (age 55-74) compared with younger age groups for the 1985-to-2009 period. To do this, we use California arrest statistics that provide annual homicide figures by race and ethnicity (including a Hispanic identifier) and by age. Major aims of our analysis are to establish whether (a) elderly homicide rates are different/similar across race/ethnic comparisons; (b) the elderly share of homicide and age-homicide distributions more generally differ across race/ethnicity; and (c) elderly rates of homicide and the share of elderly homicide relative to younger age groups is similar or different now as compared with 20 to 30 years ago. Our analysis is important and timely because some commentators have suggested that elderly homicide levels have been rising over the past one to two decades and because there is a virtual absence of research of any sort on elderly homicide trends that involve comparisons by race and ethnicity. Key findings are that elderly shares of homicide offending relative to younger ages have not increased (or decreased), that elder homicides continue to account for a small fraction of all homicides, and that these patterns persist across race/ethnicity comparisons. PMID:25598653

  8. Mammography Prevalence within 2 Two Years (Age 40+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For mammography, a woman 40 years of age or older must have reported having at least one mammography in her life. Furthermore, she should have had the most recent one within the last two years by the time of interview.

  9. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  10. Vision screening in children: Is 7-9 years of age a threshold for visual impairment?

    PubMed Central

    Ertekin, Yusuf Haydar; Tekin, Murat; Uludag, Aysegul; Arikan, Sedat; Sahin, Erkan Melih

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of decreased visual acuity, strabismus, and spectacle wear in children aged 5 to 13 years. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in primary education schools. A total of 1938 participants, including 940 females (48.5%) and 998 males (51.5%) with a mean age 8.96 ± 2.31 (5-13 years old), were screened. The comparisons were performed with gender, age, and age groups. The children attended to vision screening were assigned to three age groups as 5-6 years, 7-9 years, and 10-13 years. Results: The prevalence of the parameters was detected as decreased visual acuity 12.4%, strabismus 2.2%, and spectacle wear 6.9%. The prevalence of decreased visual acuity was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.013, p < 0.001). The prevalence of spectacle wear was significantly higher in girls and in children aged 7-9 years old (p = 0.019, p < 0.001). There was a visual acuity decrease in 33 of 106 (31.1%) children despite wearing own spectacle. There was no significant difference among three age groups for strabismus. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of decreased visual acuity, as well as the higher frequency of spectacle wear in children at ages of 7-9 years old may point out a threshold for visual impairment. PMID:27882020

  11. 2000 years of parallel societies in Stone Age Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Bollongino, Ruth; Nehlich, Olaf; Richards, Michael P; Orschiedt, Jörg; Thomas, Mark G; Sell, Christian; Fajkosová, Zuzana; Powell, Adam; Burger, Joachim

    2013-10-25

    Debate on the ancestry of Europeans centers on the interplay between Mesolithic foragers and Neolithic farmers. Foragers are generally believed to have disappeared shortly after the arrival of agriculture. To investigate the relation between foragers and farmers, we examined Mesolithic and Neolithic samples from the Blätterhöhle site. Mesolithic mitochondrial DNA sequences were typical of European foragers, whereas the Neolithic sample included additional lineages that are associated with early farmers. However, isotope analyses separate the Neolithic sample into two groups: one with an agriculturalist diet and one with a forager and freshwater fish diet, the latter carrying mitochondrial DNA sequences typical of Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. This indicates that the descendants of Mesolithic people maintained a foraging lifestyle in Central Europe for more than 2000 years after the arrival of farming societies.

  12. Assessment of Working Memory Components at 6 Years of Age as Predictors of Reading Achievements a Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-01-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6 years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97…

  13. Occupational Health and Safety Experiences among Self-Identified Immigrant Workers Living or Working in Somerville, MA by Ethnicity, Years in the US, and English Proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Panikkar, Bindu; Woodin, Mark A.; Brugge, Doug; Desmarais, Anne Marie; Hyatt, Raymond; Goldman, Rose; Pirie, Alex; Goldstein-Gelb, Marcy; Galvão, Heloisa; Chianelli, Monica; Vasquez, Ismael; McWhinney, Melissa; Dalembert, Franklin; Gute, David M.

    2012-01-01

    In this community based research initiative, we employed a survey instrument predominately developed and administered by Teen Educators to assess occupational health risks for Haitian, Salvadoran, and Brazilian immigrants (n = 405) in Somerville, MA, USA. We demonstrate that a combined analysis of ethnicity, years in the US, and English proficiency better characterized the occupational experience of immigrant workers than considering these variables individually. While years in the US (negatively) and English proficiency (positively) explained the occurrence of health risks, the country of origin identified the most vulnerable populations in the community. Brazilians, Salvadorans, and other Hispanic, all of whom who have been in the US varying length of time, with varying proficiency in English language had twice the odds of reporting injuries due to work compared to other immigrants. Although this observation was not significant it indicates that years in the US and English proficiency alone do not predict health risks among this population. We recommend the initiation of larger studies employing c community based participatory research methods to confirm these differences and to further explore work and health issues of immigrant populations. This study is one of the small number of research efforts to utilize a contemporaneous assessment of occupational health problems in three distinct immigrant populations at the community level within a specific Environmental Justice context and social milieu. PMID:23222180

  14. Loneliness and Ethnic Composition of the School Class: A Nationally Random Sample of Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Katrine Rich; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab; Rubin, Mark; Jervelund, Signe Smith; Lasgaard, Mathias; Walsh, Sophie; Stevens, Gonneke G W J M; Holstein, Bjørn E

    2016-07-01

    Loneliness is a public health concern that increases the risk for several health, behavioral and academic problems among adolescents. Some studies have suggested that adolescents with an ethnic minority background have a higher risk for loneliness than adolescents from the majority population. The increasing numbers of migrant youth around the world mean growing numbers of heterogeneous school environments in many countries. Even though adolescents spend a substantial amount of time at school, there is currently very little non-U.S. research that has examined the importance of the ethnic composition of school classes for loneliness in adolescence. The present research aimed to address this gap by exploring the association between loneliness and three dimensions of the ethnic composition in the school class: (1) membership of ethnic majority in the school class, (2) the size of own ethnic group in the school class, and (3) the ethnic diversity of the school class. We used data from the Danish 2014 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey: a nationally representative sample of 4383 (51.2 % girls) 11-15-year-olds. Multilevel logistic regression analyses revealed that adolescents who did not belong to the ethnic majority in the school class had increased odds for loneliness compared to adolescents that belonged to the ethnic majority. Furthermore, having more same-ethnic classmates lowered the odds for loneliness. We did not find any statistically significant association between the ethnic diversity of the school classes and loneliness. The study adds novel and important findings to how ethnicity in a school class context, as opposed to ethnicity per se, influences adolescents' loneliness.

  15. Case Finding and Medical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes among Different Ethnic Minority Groups: The HELIUS Study

    PubMed Central

    Agyemang, Charles; Peters, Ron J.; Stronks, Karien; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanna K.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We included 4,541 Dutch, 3,032 South-Asian Surinamese, 4,109 African Surinamese, 2,323 Ghanaian, 3,591 Turkish, and 3,887 Moroccan participants (aged 18–70 y) from the HELIUS study. The prevalence of diabetes was analysed by sex, ethnicity, and 10-year age groups. Ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes were studied by logistic regression. Results. From the age of 31–40 years and older, the prevalence of diabetes was 3 to 12 times higher among ethnic minority groups than that among the Dutch host population. Awareness and medical treatment of diabetes were 2 to 5 times higher among ethnic minorities than that among Dutch. Among those medically treated, only 37–53% had HbA1c levels on target (≤7.0%); only Dutch men had HbA1c levels on target more often (67%). Conclusions. Our results suggest that the age limit for case finding among ethnic minority groups should be lower than that for the general population. Importantly, despite higher awareness and treatment among ethnic minorities, glycemic control was low, suggesting a need for increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of treatment in these groups. PMID:28154830

  16. Case Finding and Medical Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes among Different Ethnic Minority Groups: The HELIUS Study.

    PubMed

    Snijder, Marieke B; Agyemang, Charles; Peters, Ron J; Stronks, Karien; Ujcic-Voortman, Joanna K; van Valkengoed, Irene G M

    2017-01-01

    Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We included 4,541 Dutch, 3,032 South-Asian Surinamese, 4,109 African Surinamese, 2,323 Ghanaian, 3,591 Turkish, and 3,887 Moroccan participants (aged 18-70 y) from the HELIUS study. The prevalence of diabetes was analysed by sex, ethnicity, and 10-year age groups. Ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes were studied by logistic regression. Results. From the age of 31-40 years and older, the prevalence of diabetes was 3 to 12 times higher among ethnic minority groups than that among the Dutch host population. Awareness and medical treatment of diabetes were 2 to 5 times higher among ethnic minorities than that among Dutch. Among those medically treated, only 37-53% had HbA1c levels on target (≤7.0%); only Dutch men had HbA1c levels on target more often (67%). Conclusions. Our results suggest that the age limit for case finding among ethnic minority groups should be lower than that for the general population. Importantly, despite higher awareness and treatment among ethnic minorities, glycemic control was low, suggesting a need for increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of treatment in these groups.

  17. Gender, age, and ethnicity in HIV vaccine-related research and clinical trials: report from a WHO-UNAIDS consultation, 26-28 August 2004. Lausanne, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    2005-11-18

    This report summarizes the presentations and recommendations from a consultation held in Lausanne, Switzerland (26-28 August 2004) organized by the joint World Health Organization (WHO) - United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) HIV Vaccine Initiative. The consultation discussed issues related to gender, ethnicity, and age in HIV vaccine research and clinical trial recruitment. A special focus of the meeting was the participation of women and adolescents in clinical trials. Also discussed were the experiences and lessons from various research programs, trials, and studies in different countries. Implementing the recommendations from this meeting will require prioritization and active participation from the research community, funders of research, local and national governments, non-governmental organizations, and industry, as well as the individuals and communities participating in clinical trials. This report contains the collective views of an international group of experts, and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated policy of the WHO. The contribution of the co-chairs (R. Macklin and F. Mhalu) and the rapporteurs (H. Lasher, M. Klein, M. Ackers, N. Barsdorf, A. Smith Rogers, E. Levendal, T. Villafana and M. Warren) during the consultation and in the preparation of this report is much appreciated. S. Labelle and J. Otani are also acknowledged and thanked for their efficient assistance in the preparation of the consultation and the report.

  18. Relationship of Second-Year College Student Wellness Behaviors to Academic Achievement by Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Cheryl A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate second-year college student wellness behaviors and their relationship to academic achievement. The ten constructs of wellness within Hettler's model of wellness are physical fitness, nutrition, self-care and safety, environmental wellness, social awareness, emotional awareness and sexuality, emotional…

  19. Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

    1996-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

  20. Blood folate concentrations among women of childbearing age by race/ethnicity and acculturation, NHANES 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Marchetta, Claire M; Hamner, Heather C

    2016-01-01

    Hispanic women have higher rates of neural tube defects and report lower total folic acid intakes than non-Hispanic white (NHW) women. Total folic acid intake, which is associated with neural tube defect risk reduction, has been found to vary by acculturation factors (i.e. language preference, country of origin, or time spent in the United States) among Hispanic women. It is unknown whether this same association is present for blood folate status. The objective of this research was to assess the differences in serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations between NHW women and Mexican American (MA) women and among MA women by acculturation factors. Cross-sectional data from the 2001-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used to investigate how blood folate concentrations differ among NHW or MA women of childbearing age. The impact of folic acid supplement use on blood folate concentrations was also examined. MA women with lower acculturation factors had lower serum and RBC folate concentrations compared with NHW women and to their more acculturated MA counterparts. Consuming a folic acid supplement can minimize these disparities, but MA women, especially lower acculturated MA women, were less likely to report using supplements. Public health efforts to increase blood folate concentrations among MA women should consider acculturation factors when identifying appropriate interventions.

  1. The Assessment of Metacognition in Children Aged 4-16 Years: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascoine, Louise; Higgins, Steve; Wall, Kate

    2017-01-01

    This article presents the results of a systematic review of methods that have been used to measure or assess metacognition in children aged 4-16 years over a 20-year period (1992-2012). It includes an overview of the types of tool and methods used linked with the ages of the participants targeted and how metacognition and associated concepts are…

  2. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  3. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  4. 25 CFR 117.3 - Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. 117.3... CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY § 117.3 Payment of taxes of Indians under 21 years of age. All taxes assessed... direct to the collector from the rents and income derived from such lands, and the balance, if any,...

  5. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  6. Meta-analytic results of ethnic group differences in peer victimization.

    PubMed

    Vitoroulis, Irene; Vaillancourt, Tracy

    2015-03-01

    Research on the prevalence of peer victimization across ethnicities indicates that no one group is consistently at higher risk. In the present two meta-analyses representing 692,548 children and adolescents (age 6-18 years), we examined ethnic group differences in peer victimization at school by including studies with (a) ethnic majority-minority group comparisons (k = 24), and (b) White and Black, Hispanic, Asian, and Aboriginal comparisons (k = 81). Methodological moderating effects (measure type, definition of bullying, publication type and year, age, and country) were examined in both analyses. Using Cohen's d, results indicated a null effect size for the ethnic majority-minority group comparison. Moderator analyses indicated that ethnic majority youth experienced more peer victimization than ethnic minorities in the US (d = .23). The analysis on multiple group comparisons between White and Black (d = .02), Hispanic (d = .08), Asian (d = .05), Aboriginal (d = -.02) and Biracial (d = -.05) groups indicated small effect sizes. Overall, results from the main and moderator analyses yielded small effects of ethnicity, suggesting that ethnicity assessed as a demographic variable is not an adequate indicator for addressing ethnic group differences in peer victimization. Although few notable differences were found between White and non-White groups regarding rates of peer victimization, certain societal and methodological limitations in the assessment of peer victimization may underestimate differences between ethnicities. Aggr. Behav. Aggr. Behav. 42:149-170, 2015. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  8. The Effect of Cooperative Learning on Inter Ethnic Relations in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Philip; De Amicis, Leyla; Gilligan, Robbie

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to synthesize all existing empirical evidence on the effects of Cooperative Learning on inter-ethnic relations in school settings. The review is: (1) Systematic including published and unpublished research; (2) Up-to-date; (3) Inclusive of all school going age groups (4 to 18 years of age); and (4) Inclusive of only school…

  9. Radiocarbon ages and age models for the past 30,000 years in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Kaufman, D.S.; Dean, W.E.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses of pollen, ostracodes, and total organic carbon (TOC) provide a reliable chronology for the sediments deposited in Bear Lake over the past 30,000 years. The differences in apparent age between TOC, pollen, and carbonate fractions are consistent and in accord with the origins of these fractions. Comparisons among different fractions indicate that pollen sample ages are the most reliable, at least for the past 15,000 years. The post-glacial radiocarbon data also agree with ages independently estimated from aspartic acid racemization in ostracodes. Ages in the red, siliclastic unit, inferred to be of last glacial age, appear to be several thousand years too old, probably because of a high proportion of reworked, refractory organic carbon in the pollen samples. Age-depth models for five piston cores and the Bear Lake drill core (BL00-1) were constructed by using two methods: quadratic equations and smooth cubic-splinefits. The two types of age models differ only in detail for individual cores, and each approach has its own advantages. Specific lithological horizons were dated in several cores and correlated among them, producing robust average ages for these horizons. The age of the correlated horizons in the red, siliclastic unit can be estimated from the age model for BL00-1, which is controlled by ages above and below the red, siliclastic unit. These ages were then transferred to the correlative horizons in the shorter piston cores, providing control for the sections of the age models in those cores in the red, siliclastic unit. These age models are the backbone for reconstructions of past environmental conditions in Bear Lake. In general, sedimentation rates in Bear Lake have been quite uniform, mostly between 0.3 and 0.8 mm yr-1 in the Holocene, and close to 0.5 mm yr-1 for the longer sedimentary record in the drill core from the deepest part of the lake. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  10. The emergence, structure and development of ethnic identity during childhood: the case of Roma identity.

    PubMed

    Pnevmatikos, Dimitris; Geka, Maria; Divane, Maria

    2010-12-01

    This study investigates the emergence, development and structure of ethnic identity during childhood. Forty Roma children living in Greece aged between 2.8 and 11.9 years answered questions about their awareness/recognition of four aspects of their ethnic identity-namely place of habitation, traditional costumes, the Roma language, and early betrothal of children-their identity and their sense of stability and constancy. The study also investigates how the children feel about the abandonment of those four aspects. The evidence from the current data supports the hypothesis that awareness of ethnic identity emerges before the age of 4. Moreover, this study offers direct empirical evidence of the multidimensionality of ethnic identity. A model of three concentric rings is proposed, extending from a core containing the most highly valued aspects of ethnic identity to the outer annulus that comprises the nonpermanent and nonstable aspects of ethnic identity. The aspects in each annulus differ in terms of the development of the sense of stability and constancy and the feelings associated with loss of the aspects in question. Even the youngest participants considered the aspects in the core to be stable and constant as well as emotionally charged; and even the 11-year-olds did not consider the aspects contained in the outer, more fluid annulus as stable and constant aspects of their ethnic identity. The development of an aspect is determined by what the majority of adults in a society, at a particular time in history, consider to be most important.

  11. Prevalence of Past-Year Sexual Assault Victimization Among Undergraduate Students: Exploring Differences by and Intersections of Gender Identity, Sexual Identity, and Race/Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Coulter, Robert W S; Mair, Christina; Miller, Elizabeth; Blosnich, John R; Matthews, Derrick D; McCauley, Heather L

    2017-02-17

    A critical step in developing sexual assault prevention and treatment is identifying groups at high risk for sexual assault. We explored the independent and interaction effects of sexual identity, gender identity, and race/ethnicity on past-year sexual assault among college students. From 2011 to 2013, 71,421 undergraduate students from 120 US post-secondary education institutions completed cross-sectional surveys. We fit multilevel logistic regression models to examine differences in past-year sexual assault. Compared to cisgender (i.e., non-transgender) men, cisgender women (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] = 2.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.29, 2.68) and transgender people (AOR = 3.93; 95% CI 2.68, 5.76) had higher odds of sexual assault. Among cisgender people, gays/lesbians had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals for men (AOR = 3.50; 95% CI 2.81, 4.35) but not for women (AOR = 1.13; 95% CI 0.87, 1.46). People unsure of their sexual identity had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals, but effects were larger among cisgender men (AOR = 2.92; 95% CI 2.10, 4.08) than cisgender women (AOR = 1.68; 95% CI 1.40, 2.02). Bisexuals had higher odds of sexual assault than heterosexuals with similar magnitude among cisgender men (AOR = 3.19; 95% CI 2.37, 4.27) and women (AOR = 2.31; 95% CI 2.05, 2.60). Among transgender people, Blacks had higher odds of sexual assault than Whites (AOR = 8.26; 95% CI 1.09, 62.82). Predicted probabilities of sexual assault ranged from 2.6 (API cisgender men) to 57.7% (Black transgender people). Epidemiologic research and interventions should consider intersections of gender identity, sexual identity, and race/ethnicity to better tailor sexual assault prevention and treatment for college students.

  12. The role of Hispanic ethnicity in pediatric Wilms' tumor survival.

    PubMed

    Amirian, E Susan

    2013-05-01

    Wilms' tumors (WT) constitute approximately 6-14% of all childhood cancers and about 95% of all pediatric renal malignancies. While prognostic factors for this malignancy are relatively well-defined, few studies have specifically examined the role of Hispanic ethnicity in pediatric WT survival. The purpose of this study was to compare WT survival among non-Hispanic white (NHW), non-Hispanic black (NHB), and Hispanic cases using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. WT cases (ICD-O-3 histological code 8960) under age 20 were isolated from a recent subset of the SEER dataset (1990-2009). Demographics and tumor characteristics were compared by race/ethnicity, and 5- and 10-year survival probabilities were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the effects of race/ethnicity on WT survival, adjusting for relevant covariates. Hispanic ethnicity was significantly associated with WT-specific mortality hazard, controlling for age, sex, diagnosis/treatment era, laterality, SEER stage, cancer-directed surgery, and radiation therapy (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.02-2.25). The results of this study suggest that Hispanic pediatric WT cases may have a higher risk of WT-related death, compared to NHW cases. Additional research on racial/ethnic disparities in WT survival is warranted.

  13. Duration of sleep at 3 years of age is associated with fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age: the Southampton Women’s Survey

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Janis; Hill, Catherine; Harvey, Nicholas C.; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Sian; Godfrey, Keith; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel

    2016-01-01

    Summary Many studies have shown that shorter sleep duration in childhood is associated with higher body mass index and proposed that it is due to an effect of sleep on adiposity. There is little evidence about the association of sleep with fat-free mass. This study examined the association between child’s sleep duration at age 3 years and fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age in a prospective cohort study of 302boys and 285 girls. Study participants were taking part in the Southampton Women’s Survey, a longitudinal study of mothers and children from preconception onwards. Total sleep duration at age 3 years was derived from parental report of night sleep and nap duration. Body composition was assessed by DXA at 4 years. Mean total sleep duration was 11.5 hours. In linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially confounding factors (maternal educational attainment, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, child’s gestational age at birth, age at DXA, sex, age last breastfed, dietary quality at 3 years, TV watching and hours actively on the move and parental social class) shorter sleep in hours was associated with higher BMI (kg/m2) (β=-0.2340, 95% CI -0.373, -0.096), a greater fat mass index (kg) (β=-0.1182 (-0.218, -0.018)) and a greater fat-free mass index (kg) (β=-0.100 (-0.185, -0.015)). Previous research suggested that the association between shorter sleep and higher body mass index is due to an effect on adiposity. Our findings are novel suggesting that the relationship between sleep and BMI is also determined by an effect on muscle. PMID:26909889

  14. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  15. The physical activity profiles of South Asian ethnic groups in England

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Townsend, Nick; Shaw, Alison; Foster, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify what types of activity contribute to overall physical activity in South Asian ethnic groups and how these vary according to sex and age. We used the White British ethnic group as a comparison. Methods Self-reported physical activity was measured in the Health Survey for England 1999 and 2004, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that boosted ethnic minority samples in these years. We merged the two survey years and analysed data from 19 476 adults. The proportions of total physical activity achieved through walking, housework, sports and DIY activity were calculated. We stratified by sex and age group and used analysis of variances to examine differences between ethnic groups, adjusted for the socioeconomic status. Results There was a significant difference between ethnic groups for the contributions of all physical activity domains for those aged below 55 years, with the exception of walking. In women aged 16–34 years, there was no significant difference in the contribution of walking to total physical activity (p=0.38). In the 35–54 age group, Bangladeshi males have the highest proportion of total activity from walking (30%). In those aged over 55 years, the proportion of activity from sports was the lowest in all South Asian ethnic groups for both sexes. Conclusions UK South Asians are more active in some ways that differ, by age and sex, from White British, but are similarly active in other ways. These results can be used to develop targeted population level interventions for increasing physical activity levels in adult UK South Asian populations. PMID:26677257

  16. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, AC

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  17. Bidirectional Associations between Parenting Practices and Conduct Problems in Boys from Childhood to Adolescence: The Moderating Effect of Age and African-American Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardini, Dustin A.; Fite, Paula J.; Burke, Jeffrey D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the bidirectional relationship between parent and teacher reported conduct problems in youth and parenting practices using a longitudinal sample of boys assessed from 6 to 16 years of age. Analyses tested whether these bidirectional associations changed across development and whether the nature of these associations varied…

  18. Physical performance characteristics of high-level female soccer players 12-21 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vescovi, J D; Rupf, R; Brown, T D; Marques, M C

    2011-10-01

    Performance assessment has become an invaluable component of monitoring player development and within talent identification programs in soccer, yet limited performance data are available for female soccer players across a wide age range. The aim of this study was to describe the physical performance characteristics of female soccer players ranging in age from 12 to 21 years. High-level female soccer players (n=414) were evaluated on linear sprinting (36.6 m with 9.1 m splits), countermovement jump (CMJ), and two agility tests. Separate one-way ANOVAs were used to compare performance characteristics between (1) each year of chronological age and (2) three age groups: 12-13 years, n=78, 14-17 years, n=223, and 18-21 years, n=113. Mean linear sprint speed over 9.1 m was similar across all chronological ages, however sprint speed over the final 9.1 m, CMJ height and agility scores improved until approximately 15-16 years. Outcomes from the group data indicated better performance on all tests for the 14-17-year-old group compared with the 12-13-year-old group. Additionally, sprint speed on the second and fourth 9.1 m splits and 36.6 m sprint speed as well as performance on the Illinois agility test was better in the 18-21-year-old group compared with the 14-17-year-old group. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements of high intensity short duration work occur up until 15-16 years. Smaller gains in performance were observed beyond 16 years of age as evidenced by better performance on 36.6 m sprint speed, several sprint splits and the Illinois agility test in the college aged players (i.e., 18-21-year-old group).

  19. Folate Insufficiency Due to Celiac Disease in a 49-Year-Old Woman of Southeast Asian-Indian Ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Datta Mitra, Ananya; Gupta, Asha; Jialal, Ishwarlal

    2016-08-01

    The clinical presentation of celiac disease has evolved from chronic diarrhea and malnutrition to mild nutrient insufficiencies. Recently diagnosed adults with celiac disease should be assessed for micronutrient deficiencies because early institution of a gluten-free diet (GFD) prevents morbidity and reduces the incidence of gastrointestinal malignant neoplasms and osteoporosis. In this report, we present the case of a 49-year-old woman of Southeast Asian-Indian descent living in the United States who had folate insufficiency, as manifested by low serum and red blood cell (RBC) folate levels. Further investigation, including serologic testing and intestinal biopsy, confirmed a diagnosis of celiac disease and other nutrient deficiencies. Managing the condition of this patient with folate supplements and implementation of a recommended GFD reversed the folate insufficiency. In conclusion, when serum and/or RBC levels are low in a person of Southeast Asian-Indian descent living in a country with folate fortification of the grain supply, such as the United States, the medical team needs to look for an organic cause, as in our patient, to diagnose and manage celiac disease early and, hopefully, forestall complications.

  20. Safety and efficacy of vismodegib in patients aged ≥65 years with advanced basal cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chang, Anne Lynn S; Lewis, Karl D; Arron, Sarah T; Migden, Michael R; Solomon, James A; Yoo, Simon; Day, Bann-Mo; McKenna, Edward F; Sekulic, Aleksandar

    2016-11-15

    Because many patients with unresectable basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are aged ≥65 years, this study explores the efficacy and safety of vismodegib in these patients with locally advanced (la) or metastatic (m) basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the ERIVANCE BCC trial and the expanded access study (EAS).We compared patients aged ≥65 years to patients aged <65 years taking vismodegib 150 mg/day, using descriptive statistics for response and safety. Patients aged ≥65 years (laBCC/mBCC) were enrolled in ERIVANCE BCC (33/14) and EAS (27/26). Investigator-assessed best overall response rate in patients ≥65 and <65 years was 46.7%/35.7% and 72.7%/52.6% (laBCC/mBCC), respectively, in ERIVANCE BCC and 45.8%/33.3% and 46.9%/28.6%, respectively, in EAS. These differences were not clinically meaningful. Safety was similar in both groups, although those aged ≥65 years had a higher percentage of grade 3-5 adverse events than those aged <65 years. Vismodegib demonstrated similar clinical activity and adverse events regardless of age.

  1. Safety and efficacy of vismodegib in patients aged ≥65 years with advanced basal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Anne Lynn S.; Lewis, Karl D.; Arron, Sarah T.; Migden, Michael R.; Solomon, James A.; Yoo, Simon; Day, Bann-Mo; McKenna, Edward F.; Sekulic, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Because many patients with unresectable basal cell carcinoma (BCC) are aged ≥65 years, this study explores the efficacy and safety of vismodegib in these patients with locally advanced (la) or metastatic (m) basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in the ERIVANCE BCC trial and the expanded access study (EAS).We compared patients aged ≥65 years to patients aged <65 years taking vismodegib 150 mg/day, using descriptive statistics for response and safety. Patients aged ≥65 years (laBCC/mBCC) were enrolled in ERIVANCE BCC (33/14) and EAS (27/26). Investigator-assessed best overall response rate in patients ≥65 and <65 years was 46.7%/35.7% and 72.7%/52.6% (laBCC/mBCC), respectively, in ERIVANCE BCC and 45.8%/33.3% and 46.9%/28.6%, respectively, in EAS. These differences were not clinically meaningful. Safety was similar in both groups, although those aged ≥65 years had a higher percentage of grade 3-5 adverse events than those aged <65 years. Vismodegib demonstrated similar clinical activity and adverse events regardless of age. PMID:27764798

  2. Sex differences in cognition are stable over a 10-year period in adulthood and old age.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Nilsson, Lars-Göran; Herlitz, Agneta

    2006-01-01

    Sex differences in declarative memory and visuospatial ability are robust in cross-sectional studies. The present longitudinal study examined whether sex differences in cognition were present over a 10-year period, and whether age modified the magnitude of sex differences. Tests assessing episodic and semantic memory, and visuospatial ability were administered to 625 nondemented adults (initially aged 35-80 years), participating in the population-based Betula study at two follow-up occasions. There was stability of sex differences across five age groups and over a 10-year period. Women performed at a higher level than men on episodic recall, face and verbal recognition, and semantic fluency, whereas men performed better than women on a task-assessing, visuospatial ability. Sex differences in cognitive functions are stable over a 10-year period and from 35 to 90 years of age.

  3. Buttock Reshaping With Intramuscular Gluteal Augmentation in an Asian Ethnic Group: A Six-Year Experience With 130 Patients.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Hwan; Whang, Kwi Whan

    2016-09-01

    Although the definition of what constitutes "beautiful buttocks" has been changing with time, the buttocks are generally perceived as an important element of sexual attraction and beauty in every culture. In Asian culture, "beautiful buttocks" are defined by an aggregate of the following 4 components: S-shaped curvature from the lower back to the buttocks, sufficient muscle volume, sufficient fat volume, and appropriate skin elasticity. The goal of our gluteal augmentation was therefore to restore the back curvature, provide sufficient hip volume (projection), and reposition the point of maximal gluteal projection to be higher than the pubic hair. The purpose of this study was to review the authors' 6-year (2008-2014) experience with intramuscular gluteal augmentation techniques using an oval-shaped smooth-surface silicon elastomer. After intergluteal fusiform incisions were made, we bluntly dissected the subcutaneous tissue deep down to the gluteus maximus muscle by using the xyz method introduced by Dr. Gonzalez. Most of the patients in this case series underwent additional procedures at the time of the gluteal augmentation, whereas 90% of patients underwent concomitant liposuction. The results were assessed objectively using serial photography and subjectively according to patients' assessment on a 5-score scale.The mean rating for patient satisfaction with the procedure was 4.6 of 5, whereas consensus ratings by 2 independent plastic surgeons showed a mean score of 4.2 of 5. The intramuscular gluteal augmentation technique using an oval-shaped smooth surface silicon elastomer resulted in excellent cosmetic outcomes and permitted successful reshaping of the buttocks.

  4. Emotional well-being years post-treatment for breast cancer: prospective, multi-ethnic, and population-based analysis

    PubMed Central

    Janz, Nancy K.; Friese, Christopher R.; Li, Yun; Graff, John J.; Hamilton, Ann S.; Hawley, Sarah T.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study investigated factors associated with declines in emotional well-being (EWB) over time in breast cancer survivors. Methods Women with breast cancer (Stages I-III) residing in Los Angeles, CA or Detroit, MI and reported to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registries between June 2005-February 2007 completed surveys at 9 months and 4 years after diagnosis. EWB was measured by the Functional Assessment of Cancer Treatment-Breast. Using a stress coping framework, logistic regression models assessed associations between personal, social, and clinical correlates, appraisal (e.g., worry about recurrence) and coping factors (e.g., emotional support) to EWB declines. Results Among eligible women who completed primary breast cancer treatment, 772 completed both surveys and 192 (24.9%) experienced EWB declines over time. Women with past or current depression were more likely to report EWB decline (p<.01). Survivors who perceived they did not receive enough information about risk of breast cancer recurrence during primary treatment were more likely to have EWB decline (OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.87). Greater perceived likelihood of recurrence (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.01-5.29) and increased worry about recurrence (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.10-1.72) were associated with EWB decline. Higher spirituality beliefs and practices were associated with EWB decline. Conclusions A considerable number of breast cancer patients report emotional well-being declines over time. Early identification of women who are vulnerable, such as women with past depression, is crucial to improve quality of care. Women would benefit from education about cancer recurrence and tailored strategies to manage worry about recurrence over time. Implication for Cancer Survivors Understanding actual risk of recurrence and managing worry about recurrence is important for cancer survivors. Emotional concerns are common for individuals with cancer so survivors should feel free to reach out and discuss

  5. Social-Cognitive Correlates of Physical Activity in a Multi-Ethnic Cohort of Middle-School Girls: Two-year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Andrea L.; Sallis, James F.; Vandenberg, Robert J.; Pratt, Charlotte A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The study examined social-cognitive correlates of physical activity in a multi-ethnic cohort of girls from six regions of the United States who participated in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls during their 6th and 8th grade school years. Methods Girls completed validated questionnaires and wore accelerometers that measured weekly physical activity in the spring of 2002 and 2005. Results In 8th grade, self-efficacy and perceived social support had indirect relations with physical activity mediated through perceived barriers, which was inversely related to physical activity. Self-efficacy also had a direct relation with physical activity. Conclusions Correlations were smaller than those obtained in studies that measured physical activity by self-reports, suggesting that previous estimates were inflated by common method artifact. Nonetheless, physical activity trials among girls during early adolescence might focus on increasing self-efficacy for overcoming barriers to physical activity and on ways by which perceived barriers can otherwise be reduced. PMID:19468040

  6. Socioeconomic Inequalities and Multi-Disability among the Population Aged 15–64 Years from 1987 to 2006 in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhenjie; Chen, Gong; Guo, Chao; Pang, Lihua; Zheng, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities associated with multiple disabilities have not been explored in China. This is the first study to explore changes in multiple disabilities among persons aged 15–64 years in China. Data were derived from the 1987 and 2006 China National Sample Surveys on Disability, which are nationally representative population-based surveys. Both surveys used multistage, stratified, cluster random sampling with probability proportional to size to derive nationally representative samples. We used standard weighting procedures to construct sample weights considering the multistage stratified cluster sampling survey scheme. The impact of socioeconomic inequalities on multiple disabilities was examined by using logistic regression. Higher prevalence rates among rural residents than urban residents were observed. Male was more vulnerable than female in the present study. Minority ethnicity did increase the risk of multiple disabilities, but this association inversed in the logistic regression model. The widening discrepancy between urban and rural areas indicates that the most important priorities of disability prevention in China are to reinforce health promotion and to improve health services in rural communities. PMID:27775678

  7. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  8. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  9. Association between ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 S18Y variant and risk of Parkinson's disease: the impact of ethnicity and onset age.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chen, Yan-Yan; Liu, Hui; Yao, Ci-Jiang; Zhu, Xiao-Xia; Chen, Dao-Jun; Yang, Jin; Lu, You-Jin; Cao, Ji-Yu

    2015-02-01

    The Ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCHL1) is a candidate risk gene for Parkinson' disease (PD), and a function SNP (rs5030732) in the coding region of this gene has been studied for the association with the disease extensively among worldwide populations, but the results were inconsistent and controversial. Here, to estimate the association between UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism and risk of PD in general population, we conducted a systematic meta-analysis by combining all available case-control subjects in Asian, European, and American populations, with a total of 7742 PD cases and 8850 healthy controls, and the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism and PD were calculated using the Mantel-Haenszel method with a fixed- or random-effects model. Subgroup analysis was also performed in different onset age-matched groups. Among high-quality studies, UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism was moderately associated with the risk of PD (allele contrasts, OR = 1.063, 95% CI 1.008-1.122; p = 0.024; regressive genetic model, OR = 1.078, 95% CI 1.005-1.157; p = 0.035). When stratifying for ethnicity, none association were observed in subgroups. Analysis of early-onset PD (EOPD) and late-onset PD (LOPD) revealed that the polymorphism was not associated with the risk of PD. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggests that UCHL1 S18Y polymorphism is moderately associated with susceptibility to PD, and more studies are needed to confirm our conclusion.

  10. 6-n-Propylthiouracil sensitivity and obesity status among ethnically diverse children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective was to examine the relationship of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) sensitivity to BMI while statistically controlling for demographic characteristics in two age groups of children: 9-10 years and 17-18 years (n 1551). Cross-sectional design with a multi-ethnic (White, African-American, Hispani...

  11. Anthropology: Focus Upon Ethnic Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of General Education Curriculum Development.

    This course syllabus is designed to serve as the basis for a one-semester, 12th grade anthropology course or a one-year, 12th grade ethnic studies course. As such it can be used as the culminating course in a kindergarten-grade 12 sequence. The ethnic studies component is based on data collected by an Italo-American Curriculum Studies Project and…

  12. Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-10-01

    Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing.

  13. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years after Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik Olsson, M.; Lundström, S.; Westerlund, J.; Giacobini, M. B.; Gillberg, C.; Fernell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated--34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with…

  14. Who Receives Speech/Language Services by 5 Years of Age in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Farkas, George; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Maczuga, Steve; Cook, Michael; Morano, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We sought to identify factors predictive of or associated with receipt of speech/language services during early childhood. We did so by analyzing data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort (ECLS-B; Andreassen & Fletcher, 2005), a nationally representative data set maintained by the U.S. Department of Education. We addressed two research questions of particular importance to speech-language pathology practice and policy. First, do early vocabulary delays increase children's likelihood of receiving speech/language services? Second, are minority children systematically less likely to receive these services than otherwise similar White children? Method Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed for a population-based sample of 9,600 children and families participating in the ECLS-B. Results Expressive vocabulary delays by 24 months of age were strongly associated with and predictive of children's receipt of speech/language services at 24, 48, and 60 months of age (adjusted odds ratio range = 4.32–16.60). Black children were less likely to receive speech/language services than otherwise similar White children at 24, 48, and 60 months of age (adjusted odds ratio range = 0.42–0.55). Lower socioeconomic status children and those whose parental primary language was other than English were also less likely to receive services. Being born with very low birth weight also significantly increased children's receipt of services at 24, 48, and 60 months of age. Conclusion Expressive vocabulary delays at 24 months of age increase children’s risk for later speech/language services. Increased use of culturally and linguistically sensitive practices may help racial/ethnic minority children access needed services. PMID:26579989

  15. Relative improvements in endurance performance with age: evidence from 25 years of Hawaii Ironman racing.

    PubMed

    Lepers, Romuald; Rüst, Christoph A; Stapley, Paul J; Knechtle, Beat

    2013-06-01

    Despite of the growth of ultra-endurance sports events (of duration >6 h) over the previous few decades, the age-related declines in ultra-endurance performance have drawn little attention. The aim of the study was to analyse the changes in participation and performance trends of older (>40 years of age) triathletes between 1986 and 2010 at the Hawaii Ironman triathlon consisting of 3.8 km swimming, 180 km cycling and 42 km running. Swimming, cycling, running and total times of the best male and female triathletes between 18 and 69 years of age who competed in the Hawaii Ironman triathlon were analysed. The relative participation of master triathletes increased during the 1986-2010 period, while the participation of triathletes younger than 40 years of age decreased. Linear regression showed that males older than 44 years and females older than 40 years significantly improved their performances in the three disciplines and in the total time taken to complete the race. Gender differences in total time performance significantly decreased in the same time period for all age groups between the 40-44 and 55-59 years ones. The reasons for these relative improvements of Ironman athlete performances in older age groups remain, however, unknown. Further studies investigating training regimes, competition experience or sociodemographic factors are needed to gain better insights into the phenomenon of increasing participation and improvement of ultra-endurance performance with advancing age.

  16. Life Expectancies in Hawai‘i: A Multi-ethnic Analysis of 2010 Life Tables

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Kathryn; Onaka, Alvin T; Horiuchi, Brian Y; Tottori, Caryn J; Wilkens, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to examine longevity disparities in Hawai‘i by race/ethnicity and gender based on age-specific death rates in 2010. Abridged life tables for Chinese, Japanese, Filipino, Hawaiians, and Caucasians in Hawai‘i are presented for the age groups: <1, 1–4, every 5-year interval from 5–84, and 85+ years for the year of 2010. Death data were provided by the Hawai‘i Department of Health Office of Health Status Monitoring, and population data were based on 2010 Census modified based on ethnicity estimates from the Hawai‘i Health Survey. Life expectancy at birth in Hawai‘i has increased consistently from 69.5 years in 1950 to 82.4 years in 2010. Longevity disparities seen in past decades continue to persist between the longest-living groups, Japanese and Chinese, and the shortest-living group, Native Hawaiians, with a gap of approximately 10 years. In addition, females lived 6 years longer than males on average. Racial/ethnic disparities in longevity can be partially explained by differences in socioeconomic status, health behaviors, health care access, and racism. Native Hawaiians continue to have the shortest life expectancy of the ethnic groups examined, requiring expanded efforts to address Native Hawaiian health across the life course. Our findings also support more ethnic-specific research to understand the health care needs and utilization patterns of each group. PMID:28090398

  17. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health.

  18. Concurrent and Predictive Validity of Parent Reports of Child Language at Ages 2 and 3 Years

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Thomas F.; Kurs-Lasky, Marcia; Rockette, Howard E.; Dale, Philip S.; Colborn, D. Kathleen; Paradise, Jack L.

    2005-01-01

    The MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventories (CDI; Dale, 1996; Fenson et al., 1994), parent reports about language skills, are being used increasingly in studies of theoretical and public health importance. This study (N = 113) correlated scores on the CDI at ages 2 and 3 years with scores at age 3 years on tests of cognition and receptive language and measures from parent–child conversation. Associations indicated reasonable concurrent and predictive validity. The findings suggest that satisfactory vocabulary scores at age 2 are likely to predict normal language skills at age 3, although some children with limited skills at age 3 will have had satisfactory scores at age 2. Many children with poor vocabulary scores at 2 will have normal skills at 3. PMID:16026501

  19. Incidence of psychotic illness in London: comparison of ethnic groups.

    PubMed Central

    King, M.; Coker, E.; Leavey, G.; Hoare, A.; Johnson-Sabine, E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare annual incidences of psychosis in people from different ethnic groups as defined in the 1991 census. SETTING--Catchment area of district psychiatric hospital. DESIGN--All people aged 16 to 54 years who made contact with a wide range of community and hospital services between 1 July 1991 and 30 June 1992 were screened for psychotic symptoms. Patients with such symptoms were interviewed face to face to collect information on demography, ethnic group, psychiatric history and symptoms, drug use, and how care had been sought. A key informant, usually a close relative, was also interviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Age standardised incidence of schizophrenia and non-affective psychosis according to the ninth edition of the International Classification of Diseases in each ethnic group. RESULTS--Ninety three patients took part, of whom 38 were assigned a certain or very likely diagnosis of schizophrenia (15 in white population, 14 in black, seven in Asian, and two in others). The age standardised annual incidence of schizophrenia was 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2.9) per 10,000 of the population. The incidence ratio for schizophrenia in all ethnic minority groups compared with the white population was 3.6 (1.9 to 7.1); the corresponding figure for non-affective psychosis was 3.7 (2.2 to 6.2). CONCLUSIONS--Raised incidences of schizophrenia were not specific to the African Caribbeans, which suggests that the current focus on schizophrenia in this population is misleading. Members of all ethnic minority groups were more likely to develop a psychosis but not necessarily schizophrenia. The personal and social pressures of belonging to any ethnic minority group in Britain are important determinants in the excess of psychotic disorders found. PMID:7755702

  20. [Predictive value of Ages & Stages Questionnaires for cognitive performance at early years of schooling].

    PubMed

    Schonhaut B, Luisa; Pérez R, Marcela; Castilla F, Ana María; Castro M, Sonia; Salinas A, Patricia; Armijo R, Iván

    2017-02-01

    The Ages and Stages questionnaires (ASQ) has been recently validated in our country for developmental screening. The objective of this study is evaluate the validity of ASQ to predict low cognitive performance in the early years of schooling.

  1. Hospitalizations of adults ≥60 years of age with venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, Hussain R; Reyes, Nimia; Zhang, Qing C; Okoroh, Ekwutosi M; Siddiqi, Azfar-E-Alam; Tsai, James

    2014-03-01

    We assessed the rates, trends, and factors associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE) diagnosis among hospitalizations of adults ≥60 years of age during the period 2001 to 2010. Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey were used for this study. During the period 2001 to 2010, the estimated annual number of hospitalizations in which a VTE diagnosis was recorded, among adults ≥ 60 years of age, ranged from approximately 2 70 000 in 2001 to 4 23 000 in 2010. The rate of such hospitalizations per 1 00 000 US population ≥60 years of age ranged from 581 in 2001 to 739 in 2010. During the period 2001 to 2004, there was a significant increasing trend in the rate of hospitalizations with VTE among women ≥60 years of age. The factors positively associated with an increased risk of VTE diagnosis were female sex, summer and autumn seasons (compared with spring), venous catheterization, cancer, and greater length of hospital stay.

  2. How Special Education Preschool Graduates Finish: Status at 19 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Dale, Philip S.; Mills, Paulette E.; Cole, Kevin N.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the academic and special education status of 129 graduates of special education preschools at 19 years of age. Participants had been randomly assigned to either direct instruction or mediated learning preschool classrooms. At age 19, their achievement was approximately one standard deviation below average. Consistent with…

  3. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  4. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  5. Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

    The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

  6. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  7. Avoidable mortality measured by years of potential life lost (YPLL) aged 5 before 65 years in Kyrgyzstan, 1989-2003.

    PubMed

    Bozgunchievz, Maratbek; Ito, Katsuki

    2007-01-01

    There is considerable willingness in the entire medical society of Kyrgyzstan, which was directly involved in the reform process, to obtain reliable information about changes in population health that have occurred in the last decade, as well as about changes in mortality, which is the basic component of population health. The objective of this paper is to introduce the Year of Potential Life Lost (YPLL) in Kyrgyzstan caused by avoidable mortality in the population between 5 and 65 years of age during 1989-2003, and to provide a basis for setting the priorities for the reducing YPLL in the coming years. YPLL was calculated using data from the annual mortality tables according to causes of deaths and age for 1989, 1996, 1999 and 2003. YPLL is defined as the summation of the difference between 65 years of age and the age at death from the age of 5 and before 65. In 2003, the total number of YPLL due to avoidable mortality among those who died was 216,860, which represents a decline of 5.0% in comparison with 228,266 in 1989. During the study years, the largest proportion of YPLL in the population between 5 and 65 years of age resulted from injury and poisoning. In 2003, this proportion represented 41.5% of the total amount of YPLL due to all the causes studied here, followed by infections and parasitic diseases (12.0%), circulatory disturbance of the brain (11.5%), chronic liver diseases and cirrhosis (11.4%), diseases of the respiratory system (9.2%), and malignant neoplasm of the upper airways and digestive tract (4.6%). The decline in avoidable mortality caused by injury and poisoning, infections disease, malignant neoplasm of the female breast and uterus has to be priority-driven direction for developing Health Policy in the coming years in Kyrgyzstan. Attention also has to be given to reducing of avoidable mortality caused by malignant neoplasm of the female breast by implementing screening programs.

  8. Reduced Disparities in Birth Rates Among Teens Aged 15-19 Years - United States, 2006-2007 and 2013-2014.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lisa; Pazol, Karen; Warner, Lee; Cox, Shanna; Kroelinger, Charlan; Besera, Ghenet; Brittain, Anna; Fuller, Taleria R; Koumans, Emilia; Barfield, Wanda

    2016-04-29

    Teen childbearing can have negative health, economic, and social consequences for mothers and their children (1) and costs the United States approximately $9.4 billion annually (2). During 1991-2014, the birth rate among teens aged 15-19 years in the United States declined 61%, from 61.8 to 24.2 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded (3). Nonetheless, in 2014, the teen birth rate remained approximately twice as high for Hispanic and non-Hispanic black (black) teens compared with non-Hispanic white (white) teens (3), and geographic and socioeconomic disparities remain (3,4), irrespective of race/ethnicity. Social determinants associated with teen childbearing (e.g., low parental educational attainment and limited opportunities for education and employment) are more common in communities with higher proportions of racial and ethnic minorities (4), contributing to the challenge of further reducing disparities in teen births. To examine trends in births for teens aged 15-19 years by race/ethnicity and geography, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System (NVSS) data at the national (2006-2014), state (2006-2007 and 2013-2014), and county (2013-2014) levels. To describe socioeconomic indicators previously associated with teen births, CDC analyzed data from the American Community Survey (ACS) (2010-2014). Nationally, from 2006 to 2014, the teen birth rate declined 41% overall with the largest decline occurring among Hispanics (51%), followed by blacks (44%), and whites (35%). The birth rate ratio for Hispanic teens and black teens compared with white teens declined from 2.9 to 2.2 and from 2.3 to 2.0, respectively. From 2006-2007 to 2013-2014, significant declines in teen birth rates and birth rate ratios were noted nationally and in many states. At the county level, teen birth rates for 2013-2014 ranged from 3.1 to 119.0 per 1,000 females aged 15-19 years; ACS data indicated unemployment was higher, and education attainment and family income were lower in

  9. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  10. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  11. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  12. Ethnic Differences in Presentation and Severity of Alcoholic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Durbin-Johnson, Blythe; Halsted, Charles H.; Medici, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    Background The frequency of alcoholic liver disease (ALD), including alcoholic steatosis, hepatitis and cirrhosis, varies significantly by ethnicity. Methods With the goal to assess the role of ethnicity in determining the age of onset and severity of ALD and to compare the risk factors for its progression among ethnic groups, we conducted a retrospective chart review of all patients with ALD who were admitted or were followed as outpatients at University of California Davis Medical Center between 2002 and 2010. After excluding HBsAg and HIV positive subjects, we reviewed the charts of 791 ALD patients including 130 with alcoholic fatty liver, 154 with alcoholic hepatitis, and 507 with alcoholic cirrhosis. Results When controlling for all variables in the model, Hispanic patients presented at significantly 4-10 years younger ages than White/Caucasian patients, in each of the three disease severity categories and the results were confirmed after excluding HCV Ab/RNA positive subjects. There were more obese Hispanic patients than White/Caucasian patients, whereas the proportion of patients with hepatitis C was significantly greater in African/American subjects with alcoholic hepatitis and the proportion of patients with diabetes mellitus was significantly lower in White/Caucasian subjects than in Hispanic subjects with cirrhosis. The proportion of subjects with severe alcoholic hepatitis was similar in Hispanic and White/Caucasian patients, but lower in African/American subjects. Conclusion Ethnicity is a major factor affecting the age and severity of presentation of different subtypes of ALD. PMID:25702770

  13. Differences in diffusion of FDA antidepressant risk warnings across racial-ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    DePetris, Andrea Elizabeth; Cook, Benjamin L

    2013-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Numerous articles have identified that medical technologies diffuse more rapidly among non-Latino whites compared with other racial-ethnic groups. However, whether health risk warnings also diffuse differentially across racial-ethnic minority groups is uncertain. This study assessed racial-ethnic variation in children's antidepressant use before and after the 2004 black-box warning concerning risks of antidepressants for youths. METHODS Data consisted of responses for white, black, and Latino youths ages five through 17 from the 2002-2008 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (N=44,422). The dependent variable was any antidepressant use in the prior year. Independent variables were race-ethnicity, year, psychological impairment, income, insurance status, region, and parents' education level. Logistic regression models were used to assess antidepressant use conditional on race-ethnicity, time, interaction between race-ethnicity and time, need, socioeconomic status, and Institute of Medicine-concordant estimates of disparities in predicted antidepressant use before and after the warning. RESULTS The warnings affected antidepressant use differentially for whites, blacks, and Latinos. Usage rates among whites decreased from 3.3 to 2.1 percentage points between prewarning and postwarning, whereas usage rates remained steady among Latinos and increased among blacks. Findings were significant in multiple regression analyses, in which predictions were adjusted for need. CONCLUSIONS The findings indicate that health safety information on antidepressant usage among children diffused faster among whites than nonwhites, suggesting the need to improve infrastructure for delivering important health messages to racial-ethnic minority populations.

  14. Cardiac Mortality Among 200 000 Five-Year Survivors of Cancer Diagnosed at 15 to 39 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Henson, Katherine E.; Reulen, Raoul C.; Winter, David L.; Bright, Chloe J.; Fidler, Miranda M.; Frobisher, Clare; Guha, Joyeeta; Wong, Kwok F.; Kelly, Julie; Edgar, Angela B.; McCabe, Martin G.; Whelan, Jeremy; Cutter, David J.; Darby, Sarah C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Survivors of teenage and young adult cancer are acknowledged as understudied. Little is known about their long-term adverse health risks, particularly of cardiac disease that is increased in other cancer populations where cardiotoxic treatments have been used. Methods: The Teenage and Young Adult Cancer Survivor Study cohort comprises 200 945 5-year survivors of cancer diagnosed at 15 to 39 years of age in England and Wales from 1971 to 2006, and followed to 2014. Standardized mortality ratios, absolute excess risks, and cumulative risks were calculated. Results: Two thousand sixteen survivors died of cardiac disease. For all cancers combined, the standardized mortality ratios for all cardiac diseases combined was greatest for individuals diagnosed at 15 to 19 years of age (4.2; 95% confidence interval, 3.4–5.2) decreasing to 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.1–1.3) for individuals aged 35 to 39 years (2P for trend <0.0001). Similar patterns were observed for both standardized mortality ratios and absolute excess risks for ischemic heart disease, valvular heart disease, and cardiomyopathy. Survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma, acute myeloid leukaemia, genitourinary cancers other than bladder cancer, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, leukaemia other than acute myeloid, central nervous system tumour, cervical cancer, and breast cancer experienced 3.8, 2.7, 2.0, 1.7, 1.7, 1.6, 1.4, 1.3 and 1.2 times the number of cardiac deaths expected from the general population, respectively. Among survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma aged over 60 years, almost 30% of the total excess number of deaths observed were due to heart disease. Conclusions: This study of over 200 000 cancer survivors shows that age at cancer diagnosis was critical in determining subsequent cardiac mortality risk. For the first time, risk estimates of cardiac death after each cancer diagnosed between the ages of 15 and 39 years have been derived from a large population-based cohort with prolonged

  15. Chiropractic treatment of patients younger than 18 years of age: Frequency, patterns and chiropractors’ beliefs

    PubMed Central

    Durant, Claire L; Verhoef, Marja J; Conway, Phil J; Sauve, Reg S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To explore how and when chiropractors are involved in the care of patients younger than 18 years of age, and to examine chiropractors’ beliefs about treating paediatric patients. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of a random sample of 140 chiropractors practising in Alberta. Data were collected by means of a mailed questionnaire, which elicited practice information and chiropractors’ beliefs, and included closed-and open-ended questions related to six vignettes of paediatric health problems. RESULTS: Fifty-seven per cent of chiropractors responded to the questionnaire. All chiropractors indicated that they treat patients younger than 18 years of age. Nine per cent of respondents do not treat patients younger than age two years, and 4% do not treat patients from ages six to 11 years. On average, 13% of chiropractors’ total patient load over the month preceding the completion of the questionnaires consisted of patients younger than the age of 18 years. With increasing age, patients are more likely to present with musculoskeletal problems (23% of patients younger than age two years, 84% of those aged 14 to 17 years). Chiropractors reported that they provided musculoskeletal treatment regardless of the cause of the problem. A high percentage of chiropractors refer to physicians and reported that they would like to provide concomitant care with physicians. CONCLUSION: The present study has shown that chiropractors do treat children and that their opinions about this practice vary by specific condition. In addition, substantial percentages of chiropractors indicated that they would like to work with physicians in treating patients with nonmusculoskeletal conditions. PMID:20107550

  16. Colorectal cancer in patients under 50 years of age: A retrospective analysis of two institutions' experience

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Elizabeth A; Feingold, Daniel L; Forde, Kenneth A; Arnell, Tracey; Jang, Joon Ho; Whelan, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of colorectal cancer (CRC) in patients under 50 years of age across two institutions. METHODS: Records of patients under age 50 years of age who had CRC surgery over a 16 year period were assessed at two institutions. The following documents where reviewed: admission notes, operative notes, and discharge summaries. The main study variables included: age, presenting symptoms, family history, tumor location, operation, stage/differentiation of disease, and post operative complications. Stage of disease was classified according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer TNM staging system: tumor depth; node status; and metastases. RESULTS: CRC was found in 180 patients under age 50 years (87 females, 93 males; mean age 41.4 ± 6.2 years). Young patients accounted for 11.2% of cases during a 6 year period for which the full data set was available. Eight percent had a 1st degree and 12% a 2nd degree family CRC history. Almost all patients (94%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; common symptoms included: bleeding (59%), obstruction (9%), and abdominal/rectal pain (35%). Evaluation was often delayed and bleeding frequently attributed to hemorrhoids. Advanced stage CRC (Stage 3 or 4) was noted in 53% of patients. Most tumors were distal to the splenic flexure (77%) and 39% involved the rectum. Most patients (95%) had segmental resections; 6 patients had subtotal/total colectomy. Poorly differentiated tumors were noted in 12% and mucinous lesions in 19% of patients of which most had Stage 3 or 4 disease. Twenty-two patients (13%) developed recurrence and/or progression of disease to date. Three patients (ages 42, 42 and 49 years) went on to develop metachronous primary colon cancers within 3 to 4 years of their initial resection. CONCLUSION: CRC was common in young patients with no family history. Young patients with symptoms merit a timely evaluation to avoid presentation with late stage CRC. PMID:24039357

  17. Assessment of Intima-Media Thickness in Healthy Children Aged 1 to 15 Years

    PubMed Central

    Baroncini, Liz Andréa Villela; Sylvestre, Lucimary de Castro; Filho, Roberto Pecoits

    2016-01-01

    Background Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) has been shown to be increased in children and adolescents with traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, hypertension, and chronic kidney disease, compared with those of healthy children. Objective To assess the influence of sex, age and body mass index (BMI) on the CIMT in healthy children and adolescents aged 1 to 15 years. Methods A total of 280 healthy children and adolescents (males, n=175; mean age, 7.49±3.57 years; mean BMI, 17.94±4.1 kg/m2) were screened for CIMT assessment. They were divided into 3 groups according to age: GI, 1 to 5 years [n=93 (33.2%); males, 57; mean BMI, 16±3 kg/m2]; GII, 6 to 10 years [n=127 (45.4%); males, 78; mean BMI, 17.9±3.7 kg/m2], and GIII, 11 to 15 years [n=60 (21.4%); males, 40; mean BMI, 20.9±4.5 kg/m2]. Results There was no significant difference in CIMT values between male and female children and adolescents (0.43±0.06 mm vs. 0.42±0.05 mm, respectively; p=0.243). CIMT correlated with BMI neither in the total population nor in the 3 age groups according to Pearson correlation coefficient. Subjects aged 11 to 15 years had the highest CIMT values (GI vs. GII, p=0.615; GI vs. GIII, p=0.02; GII vs. GIII, p=0.004). Conclusions CIMT is constant in healthy children younger than 10 years, regardless of sex or BMI. CIMT increases after the age of 10 years. PMID:26959401

  18. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    PubMed

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  19. PROP taster status, food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among 6-year-old ethnically diverse children.

    PubMed

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Bouthoorn, Selma H; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Jansen, Pauline W; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Raat, Hein

    2017-04-01

    A healthy diet is important for optimal growth and development in children. Food preferences are a main determinant of children's intake. The aim of this study was to examine the associations of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) taster status (taste sensitivity to PROP) with children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages among ethnically diverse children. We analysed data from 5585 6-year-old children enrolled in the Generation R Study, a birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. PROP taster status was evaluated using a suprathreshold screening solution. Food preferences of the children were assessed by a two-stage protocol using photographs of eight food items (candy, chocolate, mayonnaise, whipped cream, soup, potato chips, carrot and bread), yielding both hedonic ratings (1-3) and rank order scores (1-8). Univariate and multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses were performed, using tasters as the reference group. Non-tasters had a slightly higher preference for carrots (β: -0.07; 95% CI: -0.13, -0.02 and β: -0.15; 95% CI: -0.27, -0.02 for hedonic ratings and rank order scores, respectively) and bread (hedonic ratings; β: -0.06; 95% CI: -0.11, -0.01) compared with tasters. No differences were found in children's preference for sweet, fat or salty food items. Furthermore, there were no associations of PROP taster status with the consumption of high-calorie snacks ≥ 2 times/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.91,1.24) or sweet beverages ≥ 3 glasses/day (aOR: 1.06; 95% CI: 0.92,1.23). Other factors relating to the family food environment may be more important for young children's food preferences and consumption of high-calorie snacks and sweet beverages than their innate taste sensitivity.

  20. Prevalence of cataract in adult Down's syndrome patients aged 28 to 83 years

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Background Age-related cataract is the major cause of blindness in humans throughout the world. The majority of previous studies of cataract in Down's syndrome (which usually results from trisomy 21) have reported that the prevalence of this ocular abnormality is higher for a given age range than in the general population. The objective of the present study was to study the prevalence of cataract in a well-defined population of adults with Down's syndrome. Methods An in-patient population of 68 adults (35 males and 33 females) with Down's syndrome, aged between 28.9 and 83.3 years, underwent ophthalmological examination for the presence of cataracts. Results Overall, the prevalence of cataract was 16.2%, with no significant difference in the prevalence between males (17.1%) and females (15.2%). In those aged between 45 and 64 years, the prevalence was 16.7%, rising in those aged between 65 and 75 years to 28.6%. Conclusion Compared with the general population, the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome was raised in those aged 45 to 64, but not in those aged 65 to 75 years; the latter might be a function of the relatively small number of patients in this age group. The increased prevalence of cataract found in those in the 45- to 64-year-old age group may be the result of increased levels of the copper- and zinc-containing superoxide dismutase enzyme (CuZnSOD), in turn resulting from the location of the associated five exons of SOD1 on chromosome 21. These elevated levels of superoxide dismutase may give rise to increased levels of reactive species, including hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals, which may increase the risk of cataractogenesis. It is suggested that nutritional supplementation with antioxidants may therefore help reduce the prevalence of cataract in Down's syndrome. PMID:18034878

  1. Otitis Media in Early Childhood and Cognitive, Academic, and Behavior Outcomes at 12 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Joanne E.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined the association between otitis media with effusion (OME) during the first 3 years of life and cognitive, academic performance, and behavior outcomes at 12 years of age. Results indicated that OME during early childhood was not related to intellectual performance, academic achievement, behavior, and attention. Suggests that generalizations…

  2. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

  3. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For Pap smear test, a woman 18 years of age or older must have reported having at least one Pap smear test in her life. Furthermore, she should have had one within the last three years by the time of interview.

  4. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  5. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  6. Elective shoulder arthroplasty in patients older than ninety years of age.

    PubMed

    Churchill, R Sean

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the outcome of elective shoulder arthroplasty for glenohumeral osteoarthritis or rotator cuff arthropathy in patients aged older than 90 years. The study included 7 shoulders in 6 patients with an average age of 93 years 5 months, (range, 91 years 0 months to 97 years 4 months). Average follow-up was 2.2 years, (range, 1-4 years). Preoperative range of motion, Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, and Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) scores were obtained and compared with postoperative values at 3 and 6 months and yearly thereafter. Average forward elevation improved from 87 degrees to 137 degrees (P < .00001), and external rotation to the side improved from 0 degrees to 50 degrees (P < .0001). The SST scores improved from a preoperative average of 2.0 to 6.1 at 3 months (P < .0001), 6.9 at 6 months (P < .0001), 8.0 at 1 year (P < .00001), and 7.4 at 2 years (P < .0001). Significant improvements occurred in 6 of 8 SF-36 domains: Mental Health (P < .05), Vitality (P < .01), Role limitations due to emotional problems (P < .05), Social Function (P < .001), Role limitations due to physical health (P < .001), and Comfort (P < .00001). No patient had worse pain or function postoperatively. These data suggest that elective shoulder arthroplasty can be performed in patients 90 years of age and older, providing excellent pain relief, improved functional outcome, and enhanced general health status.

  7. The Pre-Retirement Years: Five Years in the Work Lives of Middle-Aged Men. Volume 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parnes, Herbert S.; And Others

    This volume examines a number of facets of the labor market experience and behavior of middle-aged men. It is based on a unique set of longitudinal data collected by personal interviews among the same sample of men in 1966, 1967, 1969, and 1971. The data contain a complete record of the labor market activity of the men over a five-year period,…

  8. Factors influencing survival in hemodialysis patients aged older than 75 years: 2.5-year outcome study.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, P; Combe, C; Laville, M; Fouque, D; Azar, R; Cano, N; Canaud, B; Roth, H; Leverve, X; Aparicio, M

    2001-05-01

    The incidence of malnutrition is widely held to be greater in the elderly, but this specific factor has not been extensively studied in elderly dialysis patients. In a 30-month follow-up prospective study, we evaluated the role of nutrition on the outcome of 290 stable hemodialysis (HD) outpatients aged older than 75 years followed up in 20 French HD centers (167 men, 123 women; age, 79.8 +/- 4.2 years; previous time on dialysis, 41 +/- 38 months). On the same day in January 1996, predialysis and postdialysis blood samples were collected according to recommended procedures for dialysis quantification. Normalized protein catabolic rate, dialysis adequacy parameters, and estimation of lean body mass (LBM; expressed as observed/expected LBM values [obs/exp LBM]) were computed from predialysis and postdialysis urea and creatinine levels. Overall survival rates were 80% and 65% after 1 and 2 years of follow-up, respectively, and were significantly less in patients with the lower quartile of obs/exp LBM. In univariate analysis using the Cox proportional hazards model, survival was significantly influenced by age, albumin level, prealbumin level, body mass index, and diabetes, but not by sex, Kt/V, duration of dialysis, cholesterol level, hemoglobin level, or obs/exp LBM. In multivariate analysis, no variable remained significant. Cardiovascular mortality accounted for 52.1% of the patient deaths. We conclude that in elderly HD patients, malnutrition influences overall survival despite adequate dialysis treatment.

  9. North Atlantic circulation and reservoir age changes over the past 41,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stern, Joseph V.; Lisiecki, Lorraine E.

    2013-07-01

    on the timing of Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) changes during the last deglaciation are fundamental to understanding the climate's rapid response to insolation forcing. However, uncertainty about high-latitude North Atlantic (HLNA) radiocarbon reservoir ages has previously precluded robust age model development for this critical region. HLNA reservoir ages also serve as a proxy for AMOC strength. We present regionally averaged HLNA reservoir ages for 0 to 41 thousand years before the present (kyr BP) based on over 500 radiocarbon dates from 33 North Atlantic cores. An early deglacial increase to >1000 14C yr reservoir ages between 18.5 and 16.5 kyr BP suggests reduced AMOC before peak Heinrich Stadial 1 (HS1) ice-rafted debris (IRD). A rapid decrease in reservoir ages coincident with the IRD maximum at 16 kyr BP indicates strong stratification of the upper water column caused by massive freshwater release.

  10. Lung function in children in relation to ethnicity, physique and socioeconomic factors.

    PubMed

    Lum, Sooky; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Sonnappa, Samatha; Wade, Angie; Cole, Tim J; Harding, Seeromanie; Wells, Jonathan C K; Griffiths, Chris; Treleaven, Philip; Bonner, Rachel; Kirkby, Jane; Lee, Simon; Raywood, Emma; Legg, Sarah; Sears, Dave; Cottam, Philippa; Feyeraband, Colin; Stocks, Janet

    2015-12-01

    Can ethnic differences in spirometry be attributed to differences in physique and socioeconomic factors?Assessments were undertaken in 2171 London primary schoolchildren on two occasions 1 year apart, whenever possible, as part of the Size and Lung function In Children (SLIC) study. Measurements included spirometry, detailed anthropometry, three-dimensional photonic scanning for regional body shape, body composition, information on ethnic ancestry, birth and respiratory history, socioeconomic circumstances, and tobacco smoke exposure.Technically acceptable spirometry was obtained from 1901 children (mean (range) age 8.3 (5.2-11.8) years, 46% boys, 35% White, 29% Black-African origin, 24% South-Asian, 12% Other/mixed) on 2767 test occasions. After adjusting for sex, age and height, forced expiratory volume in 1 s was 1.32, 0.89 and 0.51 z-score units lower in Black-African origin, South-Asian and Other/mixed ethnicity children, respectively, when compared with White children, with similar decrements for forced vital capacity (p<0.001 for all). Although further adjustment for sitting height and chest width reduced differences attributable to ethnicity by up to 16%, significant differences persisted after adjusting for all potential determinants, including socioeconomic circumstances.Ethnic differences in spirometric lung function persist despite adjusting for a wide range of potential determinants, including body physique and socioeconomic circumstances, emphasising the need to use ethnic-specific equations when interpreting results.

  11. Ethnic Differences in ST Height in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Vikram K; Gapstur, Susan M.; Prineas, Ronald; Colangelo, Laura A.; Ouyang, Pamela; Kadish, Alan H

    2008-01-01

    Background ST elevation in precordial leads has been associated with genetic syndromes of arrhythmias and sudden death. ST height data in different ethnic groups are limited. Methods ST height was determined in 4612 African American, Chinese, Hispanic and non-Hispanic white men and women aged 45–84 years in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. For leads I, II and V1 to V6, ST height, measured at the J point and 60ms after the J point, adjusted for covariates were compared between non-Hispanic white and other ethnic groups using ANCOVA. Results Among men, ST height was significantly different across all ethnic groups at both time points for all leads (p < 0.01), except at the J point for limb lead II (p=0.2). Among women, differences were also significant at the J point and 60 ms past the J point (p<0.01). ST height was lowest for non-Hispanic whites in all leads and at both time points. At the J point, Chinese had the highest ST height for leads V1 and V2, whereas African Americans had the greatest ST height for leads I and V3 to V6. At 60 ms past the J point, Chinese men had the greatest ST height for lead I and V1 to V6; and Chinese women had greatest ST height for leads V1 to V3. Conclusions There were significant differences in ST height among ethnic groups in all ECG leads. The physiological mechanisms and clinical significance of these differences and the possible association with arrhythmias require further study. PMID:18973491

  12. Assessing Self-Regulation in the Classroom: Validation of the BIS-11 and the BRIEF in Low-Income, Ethnic Minority School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles McCoy, Dana L.; Raver, C. Cybele; Lowenstein, Amy E.; Tirado-Strayer, Nicole

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: At present, few resources are available to researchers, teachers, and practitioners who wish to quickly and reliably assess children's self-regulation within the classroom context, and particularly within settings serving low-income and ethnic minority children. This paper explores the psychometric properties of a teacher-report…

  13. Sociodemographic, home environment and parental influences on total and device-specific screen viewing in children aged 2 years and below: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Si Ning; Teh, Long Hua; Tay, Wei Rong; Anantharaman, Saradha; van Dam, Rob M; Tan, Chuen Seng; Chua, Hwee Ling; Wong, Pey Gein; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate total and device-specific screen viewing (SV) and its determinants in children aged 2 years and below. Design Cross-sectional study conducted in February 2014. Setting Well-child clinics in Singapore national polyclinics. Participants Parents of children (Singapore citizens or permanent residents) aged 2 years and below were enrolled during routine clinic visits. Out of 794 eligible parent–child dyads, 725 (91.3%) provided informed consent and were included in the analysis. Main outcome measures Device-specific information on SV and determinants was ascertained using interviewer-administered survey questionnaires. The prevalence and duration of aggregate and device-specific SV were reported. Associations with potential determinants were investigated using multiple logistic regression analysis. A p value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The prevalence of daily SV and SV ≥2 h/day constituted 53.5% and 16.3%, respectively. The majority of children aged 18–24 months (88.2%) engaged in daily SV. TVs and mobile devices were the most commonly used screen devices, followed by computers and video consoles. In multivariable analysis, younger child age, Chinese ethnicity and setting rules on time of SV were strongly and consistently associated with lower levels of any SV and SV ≥2 h/day. Parental knowledge of SV recommendations and less parental SV were additionally associated with lower levels of SV ≥2 h/day. The number of screen devices was not associated with children's SV. Conclusions In contrast to recommendations, SV prevalence in children aged less than 2 years is high and appears to increase steadily across age groups. TVs and mobile devices are most frequently used. Improving parental knowledge of SV recommendations, reducing parental SV and especially the implementation of strict rules on SV time could be successful strategies to reduce SV in young children. PMID

  14. Prevalence and Predictors of Malnutrition among Guatemalan Children at 2 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Gippetti, James; Wager, Stefan; Chavez, Alejandro; Wise, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To identify the prevalence and predictors of malnutrition among 2-year old children in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Methods Prospective cohort of 852 Guatemalan children in San Lucas Toliman, Guatemala followed from birth to age 2 from May 2008 to December 2013. Socio-demographic, anthropometric, and health data of children was collected at 2 month intervals. Results Among the 402 males and 450 females in the cohort, mean weight-for-age Z-score (WAZ) declined from -0.67 ± 1.01 at 1 year to -1.07 ± 0.87 at 2 years, while mean height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) declined from -1.88 ± 1.19 at 1 year to -2.37 ± 0.99 at 2 years. Using multiple linear regression modeling, number of children <5 years old, vomiting in the past week, fever in the past week, and WAZ at 1 year were significant predictors of WAZ at 2 years. Significant predictors of HAZ at 2 years included household size, number of children <5 years old, diarrhea in the past week, WAZ at 1 year, and HAZ at 1 year. Vomiting in the past week and WAZ at 1 year were significant predictors of weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) at 2 years. Conclusions Number of children <5 years old, symptoms such as vomiting or diarrhea in the previous week, and prior nutritional status were the most significant predictors of malnutrition in this cohort. Future research may focus on the application of models to develop predictive algorithms for mobile device technology, as well as the identification of other predictors of malnutrition that are not well characterized such as the interaction of environmental exposures with protein consumption and epigenetics. PMID:27806066

  15. Eribulin Monotherapy in Patients Aged 70 Years and Older With Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Javier; Vahdat, Linda T.; Cardoso, Fatima; Twelves, Chris; Wanders, Jantien; Dutcus, Corina E.; Yang, Jay; Seegobin, Seth; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Following the demonstrated efficacy and safety of eribulin mesylate in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer, an exploratory analysis was performed to investigate the effect of age in these patients. Methods. Data were pooled from two single-arm phase II studies and one open-label randomized phase III study in which patients received eribulin mesylate at 1.4 mg/m2 as 2- to 5-minute intravenous infusions on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. The effect of age on median overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), and incidence of adverse events (AEs) was calculated for four age groups (<50 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, ≥70 years). Results. Overall, 827 patients were included in the analysis (<50 years, n = 253; 50–59 years, n = 289; 60–69 years, n = 206; ≥70 years, n = 79). Age had no significant impact on OS (11.8 months, 12.3 months, 11.7 months, and 12.5 months, respectively; p = .82), PFS (3.5 months, 2.9 months, 3.8 months, and 4.0 months, respectively; p = .42), ORR (12.7%, 12.5%, 6.3%, and 10.1%, respectively), or CBR (20.2%, 20.8%, 20.4%, and 21.5%, respectively). Although some AEs had higher incidence in either the youngest or the oldest subgroup, there was no overall effect of age on the incidence of AEs (including neuropathy, neutropenia, and leukopenia). Conclusion. Eribulin monotherapy in these selected older patients with good baseline performance status led to OS, PFS, ORR, CBR, and tolerability similar to those of younger patients with metastatic breast cancer. The benefits and risks of eribulin appear to be similar across age groups. PMID:24682463

  16. Bladder Symptoms and Attitudes In An Ethnically Diverse Population

    PubMed Central

    Dessie, Sybil G.; Adams, Sonia R.; Modest, Anna M.; Hacker, Michele R.; Elkadry, Eman A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to assess pelvic floor symptoms and attitudes in an ethnically diverse population. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of women presenting to two community-based, ethnically diverse gynecology clinics. Prior to being seen by a provider, participants were asked to complete a questionnaire. Results A total of 312 women were included: 32.7% Caucasian, 50.3% African American, and 17.0% Hispanic. Other racial/ethnic groups were excluded secondary to small samples size. The median age was 34.0 years (27.0-44.0). The groups differed with respect to most demographic characteristics, such as income, education, and nation of origin. Nocturia and urinary frequency were the most commonly reported symptoms. African American respondents were more likely to report nocturia than Caucasian respondents (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.8). Respondents' views of normal urinary function generally did not vary by race/ethnicity. However, Hispanic respondents were less likely than Caucasian respondents to agree that it is normal to leak urine after having children (OR 0.28, 95% CI 0.11-0.68). Among women who reported at least one symptom, 46.7% reported that at least one symptom bothered them, and this did not differ with respect to race/ethnicity (p≥0.59). African American respondents were more likely than Caucasians to report their urinary leakage to their doctors (p=0.006). Conclusions Our study demonstrates that, with few exceptions, bladder symptoms and attitudes are similar among reproductive-age women of various racial/ethnic groups in a community setting. PMID:26516809

  17. [Bolsa Família: food and nutrition insecurity of children under five years of age].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Flávia; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; da Costa, Islandia Bezerra; Almeida, Claudia Choma Bettega; Matuda, Nívea da Silva

    2014-05-01

    This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of the population base conducted in the town of Colombo in the state of Paraná. The objectives were to identify the prevalence of food insecurity in families that are beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program and the factors related to this condition, and describe the nutritional status of children under five years of age. Analyses of association were performed using Fisher's exact test. The sample included 442 families, of which 168 have children under five years of age. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale was applied to evaluate food insecurity and the nutritional status of the 199 children evaluated was determined by the height-for-age, weight-for-age and body mass-for-age indices in accordance with the WHO reference values for 2006. The prevalence of food insecurity was 81.6%. Overweight and stunting among children coexisted. Food insecurity was found to be associated with the height-for-age index among children under two years of age. The per capita income and food deficits influenced the situation of food insecurity significantly.

  18. Herpes zoster vaccine awareness among people ≥ 50 years of age and its implications on immunization.

    PubMed

    Javed, Saba; Javed, Fatima; Mays, Rana M; Tyring, Stephen K

    2012-08-15

    Herpes zoster (HZ) vaccine was recently approved for adults ≥ 50 years of age and has been shown to reduce the incidence of zoster, postherpetic neuralgia (PHN), and associated healthcare costs. However, currently HZ immunization is sub-optimal. We examined awareness of HZ and of the HZ vaccine. Information was gathered via a one-page survey given to patients ≥ 50 years of age presenting at the dermatology clinic. From the surveyed population of 1000 individuals, the HZ vaccination rate was 11.9 percent. Vaccination coverage was highest for the ≥ 70 age group (18.3%), followed by age groups 60-69 (8.9%) and 50-59 (1.4%). Individuals with female gender, older age (≥ 70 years), higher level of education (college and beyond), retired employment status, memory of chickenpox, knowledge of shingles, and history of shingles and influenza vaccination in the past year all were more likely to have heard of and have received the HZ vaccine (except female gender, education level, and awareness of shingles). Our study suggests lack of awareness to be a significant factor in non-immunization with zoster vaccine. Targeting adults in younger age groups and minorities would be beneficial towards increasing zoster vaccine awareness and thus preventing herpes zoster and its many complications.

  19. Height, weight and menarcheal age of Oslo schoolchildren during the last 60 years.

    PubMed

    Brundtland, G H; Liestøl, K; Walløe, L

    1980-01-01

    Every 5th year since 1920 the heights and weights of all Oslo schoolchildren (aged 7 to 18 years) have been measured, and the measurements processed centrally. For ages between 8 and 14 the mean height increased by about 4 cm per decade between 1920 and 1940 for both sexes. A drop of about 1.5 cm occurred during World War II, followed by a rapid catch-up. Since 1950, height has increased only moderately. A weight increase of between 1.5 kg (8 years old) and 3.5 kg (13 years old) per decade before 1940 was followed by a drop during the war equivalent to somewhat less than one decade's gain. A rapid catch-up after the war was followed by a slight decrease since 1950, especially for ages above puberty. A stable difference in the social composition of the eastern and western districts of Oslo allowed comparison of the trends for lower and higher social strata. Before the war, children from higher strata were taller than children from lower strata, but this difference has now practically disappeared. Children from the higher strata weighed more until about 1955, but later those from the lower strata weighed markedly more, especially during adolescence. The difference in menarcheal age between social strata was examined in 1928, 1952, 1970 and 1975. The time trend parallels that for weight: menarcheal age was lowest among higher strata until the 1950s, but after that the lower strata experienced the lowest menarcheal age.

  20. Oxidative Stress Function in Women over 40 Years of Age, Considering Their Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves Mota, Maria Paula; Santos, Zirlene; Soares, Jorge; Pereira, Ana; Fonseca, Sandra; Peixoto, Francisco; Gaivão, Isabel; Oliveira, Maria

    2017-01-01

    Aging is dependent on biological processes that determine the aging of the organism at the cellular level. The Oxidative Stress Theory of Aging might explain some of the age-related changes in cell macromolecules. Moreover, exposome and lifestyle may also induce changes in cell damage induced by oxidative stress. The aim of the present study was to analyze the related redox changes in lymphocyte function of healthy women over 40 years old. Three groups: younger (YG: 40–49 years), middle aged (MAG: 50–59 years), and older (OG: ≥60 years) were evaluated on anthropometric variables, blood pressure, cardiovascular fitness, lifestyle habits, perceived stress, DNA damage, malondialdehyde, catalase activity, and total antioxidant capacity. Physical activity and cardiovascular fitness were significantly higher in YG and MAG as compared to the OG. Systolic blood pressure increased significantly with group age. Frequency and total amount of alcohol intake were lower in the OG and higher in the MAG. No significant differences were observed between the three groups in oxidative stress parameters. Only alcohol consumption was associated with the higher DNA FPG-sensitive sites, and only in the YG (p < 0.05). Healthy lifestyle is critical to avoiding major ailments associated with aging. This may be inferred from the lack of significant differences in the various oxidative stress parameters measured in the healthy women over the age of 40 who took part in the study. Conscious lifestyle behaviors (decrease in alcohol and smoking habits) could have impaired the expected age-related oxidative stress increase. PMID:28360887

  1. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  2. Ethnic differences in prediabetes and diabetes in the Suriname Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Nahar-van Venrooij, Lenny M

    2016-01-01

    Background Diabetes is increasing worldwide, and information on risk factors to develop targeted interventions is limited. Therefore, we analyzed data of the Suriname Health Study to estimate the prevalence of prediabetes and diabetes. We also explored whether ethnic differences in prediabetes or diabetes risk could be explained by biological, demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, and metabolic risk factors. Method The study was designed according to the WHO Steps guidelines. Fasting blood glucose levels were measured in 3393 respondents, aged 15–65 years, from an Amerindian, Creole, Hindustani, Javanese, Maroon or Mixed ethnic background. Prediabetes was defined by fasting blood glucose levels between 6.1 and 7.0 mmol/L and diabetes by fasting blood glucose levels ≥7.0 mmol/L or ‘self-reported diabetes medication use.’ For all ethnicities, we analyzed sex, age, marital status, educational level, income status, employment, smoking status, residence, physical activity, body mass index, waist circumference, hypertension, and the levels of triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Results The prevalence of prediabetes was 7.4%, while that of diabetes was 13 0%. From these diabetes cases, 39.6% were not diagnosed previously. No ethnic differences were observed in the prevalence of prediabetes. For diabetes, Hindustanis (23.3%) had twice the prevalence compared to other ethnic groups (4.7–14.2%). The associations of the risk factors with prediabetes or diabetes varied among the ethnic groups. The differences in the associations of ethnic groups with prediabetes or diabetes were partly explained by these risk factors. Conclusions The prevalence of diabetes in Suriname is high and most elevated in Hindustanis. The observed variations in risk factors among ethnic groups might explain the ethnic differences between these groups, but follow-up studies are needed to explore this in more

  3. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  4. Ethnic Differences in Adolescent Lung Function

    PubMed Central

    Whitrow, Melissa J.; Harding, Seeromanie

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: The relative contribution of body proportion and social exposures to ethnic differences in lung function has not previously been reported in the United Kingdom. Objectives: To examine ethnic differences in lung function in relation to anthropometry and social and psychosocial factors in early adolescence. Methods: The subjects of this study were 3,924 pupils aged 11 to 13 years, of whom 80% were ethnic minorities with satisfactory lung function measures. Data were collected on economic disadvantage, psychological well-being, tobacco exposure, height, FEV1, and FVC. Measurements and Main Results: The lowest FEV1 was observed for Black Caribbean/African children after adjusting for standing height (SH) (white boys: 2.475 L; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.442–2.509; white girls: 2.449 L; 95% CI, 2.464–2.535]; Black Caribbean boys: −14% [95% CI, −16 to −12]; Black Caribbean girls: −13% [95% CI, −16 to −11]; Black African boys: −15% [95% CI, −17 to −13]; Black African girls: −17% [95% CI, −19 to −14]; Indian boys: −13% [95% CI, −16 to −11]; Indian girls: −11% [95% CI, −14 to −8]; Pakistani/Bangladeshi boys: −7% [95% CI, −9 to −5]; Pakistani/Bangladeshi girls: −9% [95% CI, −11 to −6]). Adjustment for upper body segment instead of SH achieved a further reduction in ethnic differences of 41 to 51% for children of Black African origin and 26 to 39% for the other groups. Overcrowding (boys) and poor psychological well-being (boys and girls) were independent correlates of FEV1, explaining up to a further 10% of ethnic differences. Similar patterns were observed for FVC. Social exposures were also related to height components. Conclusions: Differences in upper body segment explained more of the ethnic differences in lung function than SH, particularly among Black Caribbeans/African subjects. Social correlates had a smaller but significant impact. Future research needs to consider how differential development of

  5. Velopharyngeal function from the age of three to eight years in cleft palate patients.

    PubMed

    Pulkkinen, J; Haapanen, M L; Paaso, M; Laitinen, J; Ranta, R

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study changes of velopharyngeal function between the ages of 3 and 8 years. The subjects were 65 (30 girls and 35 boys) Finnish-speaking non-syndromic children with isolated cleft palate (CP, n = 35) and with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP, n = 30) operated primarily at the age of 1.0-2.0 years. Before the age of 8 years, 16 children required velopharyngoplasty (VPP, ad modum Hoenig). The children were followed up for speech at the age of 3, 6 and 8 years. The perceptual speech characteristics nasal air emission, hypernasality, weakness of pressure consonants and compensatory articulations were registered. Indications for a velopharyngeal flap (by VPP) were identified on the basis of perceptual speech characteristics and confirmed by instrumental examinations. The results indicated that the method and timing of primary palatoplasty and sex did not correlate with the quality of velopharyngeal function. It was good both in children treated conservatively or with VPP at the age of 8 years. The children with a flap required speech therapy significantly more often than other children. No child with VPP and only 12% of the children without VPP had simultaneous nasal air emissions and hypernasality. Compensatory articulation was completely eliminated and weakness of pressure consonants was diagnosed only in 1 child without VPP. The CP children required significantly more often a velopharyngeal flap than the UCLP children. In conclusion, the CP and UCLP children develop a similar velopharyngeal function but in a different way.

  6. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  7. Unraveling Cultural Threads: A Qualitative Study of Culture and Ethnic Identity among Urban Southwestern American Indian Youth Parents and Elders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Laura E.; Stiffman, Arlene R.; Brown, Eddie

    2006-01-01

    We utilized qualitative methods to explore ethnic and cultural identity among urban Southwestern American Indian youth, parents, and elders. Twenty-four respondents ranging in age from approximately 13 to 90 years were interviewed in focus groups divided by age. Six major themes and seventeen sub-themes related to tribal and pan-American Indian…

  8. Age-associated losses of brain volume predict longitudinal cognitive declines over 8 to 20 years.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Patrick; Ibrahim, Said; Lunn, Mary; Scott, Marietta; Thacker, Neil; Hutchinson, Charles; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Jackson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Absolute differences in global brain volume predict differences in cognitive ability among healthy older adults. However, absolute differences confound lifelong differences in brain size with amounts of age-related shrinkage. Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume were made to estimate age-related shrinkage in 93 healthy volunteers aged 63 to 86 years. Their current levels of brain shrinkage predicted their amounts of decline over the previous 8 to 20 years on repeated assessments during a longitudinal study on the Cattell "Culture Fair" Intelligence Test, on two tests of information processing speed, and marginally on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1981), but not on three memory tests. Loss of brain volume is an effective marker both for current cognitive status and for amounts and rates of previous age-related cognitive losses.

  9. Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

    2012-08-01

    We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially

  10. "American" or "Multiethnic"? Family Ethnic Identity Among Transracial Adoptive Families, Ethnic-Racial Socialization, and Children's Self-Perception.

    PubMed

    Pinderhughes, Ellen E; Zhang, Xian; Agerbak, Susanne

    2015-12-01

    Drawing on a model of ethnic-racial socialization (E-RS; Pinderhughes, 2013), this study examined hypothesized relations among parents' role variables (family ethnic identity and acknowledgment of cultural and racial differences), cultural socialization (CS) behaviors, and children's self-perceptions (ethnic self-label and feelings about self-label). The sample comprised 44 U.S.-based parents and their daughters ages 6 to 9 who were adopted from China. Correlation analyses revealed that parents' role variables and CS behaviors were related, and children's ethnic self-label was related to family ethnic identity and CS behaviors. Qualitative analyses point to complexities in children's ethnic identity and between family and children's ethnic identities. Together, these findings provide support for the theoretical model and suggest that although ethnic identity among international transracial adoptees (ITRAs) has similarities to that of nonadopted ethnic minority children, their internal experiences are more complex.

  11. Discrimination, ethnic identity, and academic outcomes of Mexican immigrant children: the importance of school context.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N=204, 19 schools, mean age=9years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes about the value of diversity in predicting immigrant youth's attitudes and experiences. Results indicated that Latino immigrant children in this White community held positive and important ethnic identities and perceived low overall rates of discrimination. As expected, however, school and teacher characteristics were important in predicting children's perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity, and moderated whether perceptions of discrimination and ethnic identity were related to attitudes about school and academic performance.

  12. Prevalence and Correlates of Pain in People Aged 60 Years and above in Singapore: Results from the WiSE Study

    PubMed Central

    Satghare, Pratika; Chong, Siow Ann; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Picco, Louisa; Abdin, Edimansyah; Chua, Boon Yiang; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2016-01-01

    Background. Although pain is experienced among people of all ages, there is a need to study its risk factors and impact among older adults. Aims. The study sought to determine the prevalence, sociodemographics, and clinical correlates of pain along with association of pain with disability among older adults in Singapore. Methods. The WiSE study was a comprehensive cross-sectional, single phase, epidemiological survey conducted among the elderly aged 60 years and above and used a nationally representative sample of three main ethnic groups in Singapore: Chinese, Malays, and Indians. The survey administered 10/66 protocol pain questionnaire, sociodemographic questionnaire, health status questionnaire, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale (WHODAS 2.0), and Geriatric Mental State (GMS) examination. Results. A total of 2565 respondents completed the study giving a response rate of 65.5%. The prevalence of pain among the elderly aged 60 years and above is 19.5 %. Females, incomplete primary education Indians, and those diagnosed with any chronic health condition were associated with risk of pain and disability. Conclusion. Study findings showed that disability related to pain among the elderly is considerable making it a priority to reduce the morbidity and disability among the elderly with pain. PMID:27445628

  13. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis-related years of potential life lost before age 65 years - United States, 1968-2006.

    PubMed

    2009-12-25

    Coal workers' pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a preventable, slowly progressive parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation and deposition of coal mine dust in the lungs. The incidence and rate of CWP progression is related to the amount of respirable coal dust to which miners were exposed during their working lifetime. Early pneumoconiosis can be asymptomatic, but advanced disease often leads to disability and premature death. To characterize the impact of premature mortality attributed to CWP in the United States, CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) analyzed annual underlying cause of death data from 1968-2006, the most recent years for which complete data were available. Years of potential life lost before age 65 years (YPLL), and mean YPLL were calculated using standard methodology. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicate that during 1968-2006, a total of 22,625 YPLL were attributed to CWP (mean per decedent: 5.7). Annual YPLL attributed to CWP decreased 91.2%, from an average of 1,484 YPLL per year during 1968-1972 to 154 per year during 2002-2006. However, annual YPLL from CWP have been increasing since 2002, from 135 in that year to 169 YPLL in 2006, suggesting a need for strengthening CWP prevention measures. CDC intends to maintain surveillance of CWP deaths to determine future trends and promote safer work environments.

  14. Pregnancy and labor in Tanzanian primigravidae aged 15 years and under.

    PubMed

    Arkutu, A A

    The outcome of pregnancy and labor in 259 Tanzanian primigravidae 15 years and under is compared with that of 377 primigravidae between the ages of 21 and 25. The risk of antenatal complications, such as anemia, and premature labor and low birth weight babies was much higher in the younger age group. There was no difference in the incidence of preeclampsia or complications during labor between the two groups. The younger women had a lower perinatal mortality rate than the controls.

  15. Childhood leukaemia incidence below the age of 5 years near French nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Laurier, D; Hémon, D; Clavel, J

    2008-09-01

    A recent study indicated an excess risk of leukaemia among children under the age of 5 years living in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in Germany. We present results relating to the incidence of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear power plants in France for the same age range. These results do not indicate an excess risk of leukaemia in young children living near French nuclear power plants.

  16. Changes in condylar path inclination during maximum protrusion between the ages of 6 and 12 years.

    PubMed

    Baqaien, M A; Al-Salti, F M; Muessig, D

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to quantify the changes in sagittal condylar path inclination during mandibular protrusion between the ages of 6 and 12 years. A total of 172 children (82 males and 90 females) ranging in age from 6.5 to 12.9 years were divided according to their chronological age into five subgroups with mean ages of 7.1, 8, 9, 10 and 11.4 years respectively. The control group consisted of 41 adults with a mean age of 28 years. All subjects had a normal temporomandibular joint function and neutral occlusion. Five maximum protrusion-retrusion movements were recorded with six degrees of freedom in each subject using an ultrasound (JMA) jaw-tracking system. Initially, condylar path inclination angle (CPIA) was calculated stepwise for each millimetre distance, for the first 10 mm of protrusive tracing path on both sides. A single mean value was then assigned for the entire protrusive path. One-way analysis of variance proved to be significant among the five subgroups of children. Linear regression analysis showed that condylar path had a tendency to become steeper with age, although it was statistically weak. The data indicated that the mean CPIA is 43 degrees -44 degrees at the age of seven, increases annually by 1.2 degrees -1.3 degrees and reaches an average of 49 degrees -50 degrees by the age of 12 at which time it attains around 83-85% of its adult level. In subgroup V, the female population had significantly steeper condylar path on the left-hand side than the male population. Condylar path inclinations indicated a symmetrical growth pattern of the articular eminence.

  17. Doxylamine pharmacokinetics following single dose oral administration in children ages 2-17 years.

    PubMed

    Balan, Guhan; Thompson, Gary A; Gibb, Roger; Li, Lijuan; Hull, David; Seeck, Molly

    2013-11-01

    To characterize doxylamine pharmacokinetics in children. This study was conducted in 41 subjects, ages 2-17 years. Doxylamine succinate doses based on age/weight ranged from 3.125 to 12.5 mg. A single oral dose was administered with 2 to 4 oz. of water or decaffeinated beverages ∼2 hours after a light breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 72 hours after dosing and analyzed for doxylamine using HPLC MS/MS. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using non-compartmental methods and relationships with age were assessed using linear regression. Over the fourfold dose range, Cmax was similar while AUC increased only 60%, although not statistically significant (P-value = 0.0517). As expected due to increasing body size, CLo and Vz /F increased with age. Due to a similar increase with age for Clo and Vz /F, no age-related differences in t1/2,z were observed (∼16 hours). Allometric scaling indicated no maturation related changes in CLo ; although Vz /F remained age-dependent, the predicted range decreased ∼70%. Overall, the single doses were well tolerated. Somnolence was the most common reported AE with no apparent differences in incidence noted with age. An age/weight dosing nomogram utilizing a fourfold range of doses achieves similar Cmax , whereas AUC increases only 60%.

  18. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  19. [Anesthetic maintenance during myocardial revascularization in patients over 70 years of age].

    PubMed

    Trekova, N A; Aksel'rod, B A; Shmyrin, M M; Zaĭtseva, S V; Aleksandrova, E N

    2010-01-01

    The authors performed a comparative retrospective analysis of preoperative and intraoperative periods in 50 patients aged 70-83 years with coronary heart disease (CHD). A control group comprised the similar patients aged 40-59 years. The geriatric patients showed a higher incidence of arterial hypertension, respiratory and central nervous system diseases, cardiac arrhythmias, and anemia as an outcome. In CHD patients aged 70-80 years, balanced general anesthesia based on lower-dose midazolam and fentanyl, on subnarcotic-dose ketamine during the metered use of isoflurane and adequate infusion therapy provided reasonable hemodynamic stability during the induction of anesthesia and the preperfiusion period without administering cardiotonic agents. Intraoperatively, there was a more pronounced reduction in pulmonary oxygenizing function, body temperature and more needs for cardiotonic and diuretic therapy and erythrocyte mass after the basic stage of surgery.

  20. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  1. Relationships between children's exposure to ethnic produce and their dietary behaviors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiong; Goto, Keiko; Wolff, Cindy; Zhao, Yanling

    2015-04-01

    The current study examined relationships between children's ethnic produce exposure and healthy dietary practices among Latino, Hmong and non-Hispanic white children. One hundred Latino, 100 Hmong, and 92 non-Hispanic white parents of children ages 5-8 years old in northern California completed a cross-sectional survey. Children's exposure to ethnic produce from Hmong and Latino cultures, overall fruit and vegetable consumption, and fast food and ethnic restaurant use were measured. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare variables across different ethnic groups. Spearman's correlation was used to assess the relationship between variables. Children's overall ethnic produce exposure, as well as exposure to produce from other cultures, was significantly correlated with overall fruit and vegetable consumption. There was a marginal (p = 0.053) negative association between ethnic produce exposure and fast food restaurant use among Latino children. These findings suggest that promoting ethnic produce is an effective strategy for enhancing healthy dietary practices among children.

  2. Acquisition of cross-ethnic friends by recent immigrants in Canada: a longitudinal approach.

    PubMed

    Martinovic, Borja; van Tubergen, Frank; Maas, Ineke

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the development of inter-ethnic friendships between immigrants and Canadians. It uses longitudinal data from three waves of the Canadian LSIC survey, in which newly arrived immigrants were followed during the first 4 years of settlement. It is found that pre-migration characteristics play an important role in the development of inter-ethnic friendships: immigrants who arrive at a younger age and for economic reasons, as well as those who are highly educated and have a cross-ethnic partner at the moment of arrival, establish more inter-ethnic friendships over time. In addition, post-migration characteristics affect the formation of inter-ethnic friendships. Such friendships are more common among immigrants who embrace Canadian traditions and acquire the host-country language, as well as among those who work in international settings and inhabit ethnically mixed neighborhoods. The effects of pre-migration characteristics are partially mediated by post-migration characteristics. Our findings point out that economic, cultural, and spatial integration are all conducive to inter-ethnic friendships.

  3. Ethnic enclaves and gestational diabetes among immigrant women in New York City.

    PubMed

    Janevic, T; Borrell, L N; Savitz, D A; Echeverria, S E; Rundle, A

    2014-11-01

    Previous research has shown that immigrants living in their own ethnic enclave are at decreased risk of poor health outcomes, but this question has not been studied in relation to gestational diabetes, an important early marker of lifecourse cardiovascular health. We ascertained gestational diabetes, census tract of residence, and individual-level covariates for Sub-Saharan African, Chinese, South Central Asian, Non-Hispanic Caribbean, Dominican, Puerto Rican, Mexican, and Central and South American migrant women using linked birth-hospital discharge data for 89,703 singleton live births in New York City for the years 2001-2002. Using 2000 census data, for each immigrant group we defined a given census tract as part of an ethnic enclave based on the population distribution for the corresponding ethnic group. We estimated odds ratios for associations between living in an ethnic enclave and risk of gestational diabetes adjusted for neighborhood deprivation, percent commercial space, education, age, parity, and insurance status, using multilevel logistic regression. Overall, we found no effect of ethnic enclave residence on gestational diabetes in most immigrant groups. Among South Central Asian and Mexican women, living in a residential ethnic enclave was associated with an increased odds of gestational diabetes. Several explanations are proposed for these findings. Mechanisms explaining an increased risk of gestational diabetes in South Central Asian and Mexican ethnic enclaves should be examined.

  4. Heart rate responses of women aged 23–67 years during competitive orienteering

    PubMed Central

    Bird, S; George, M; Balmer, J; Davison, R

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To compare the heart rate responses of women orienteers of different standards and to assess any relation between heart rate responses and age. Methods: Eighteen competitive women orienteers completed the study. They were divided into two groups: eight national standard orienteers (ages 23–67 years); 10 club standard orienteers (ages 24–67 years). Each participant had her heart rate monitored during a race recognised by the British Orienteering Federation. Peak heart rate (HRPEAK), mean heart rate (HRMEAN), standard deviation of her heart rate during each orienteering race (HRSD), and mean change in heart rate at each control point (ΔHRCONTROL) were identified. The data were analysed using analysis of covariance with age as a covariate. Results: National standard orienteers displayed a lower within orienteering race standard deviation in heart rate (6 (2) v 12 (2) beats/min, p<0.001) and a lower ΔHRCONTROL (5 (1) v 17 (4) beats/min, p<0.001). The mean heart rate during competition was higher in the national standard group (170 (11) v 158 (11) beats/min, p = 0.025). The HRMEAN for the national and club standard groups were 99 (8)% and 88 (9)% of their age predicted maximum heart rate (220-age) respectively. All orienteers aged >55 years (n = 4) recorded HRMEAN greater than their age predicted maximum. Conclusions: The heart rate responses indicate that national and club standard women orienteers of all ages participate in the sport at a vigorous intensity. The higher ΔHRCONTROL of club standard orienteers is probably due to failing to plan ahead before arriving at the controls and this, coupled with slowing down to navigate or relocate when lost, produced a higher HRSD. PMID:12782552

  5. Ethnic and Gender Disparities in Premature Adult Mortality in Belize 2008-2010

    PubMed Central

    Hambleton, Ian R.; Unwin, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on disparities in mortality within low and middle income countries are limited, with little published data from the Caribbean or Central America. Our aim was to investigate disparities in overall and cause specific premature adult mortality in the multi-ethnic middle income country of Belize. Methods Mortality data from Belize 2008–2010 classified using the International Classification of Diseases 10 and the 2010 census stratified by age and ethnicity were used to calculate age, sex, and ethnic specific mortality rates for those 15–59 years, and life table analysis was used to estimate the probability of death between the ages of 15 and 59 (45q15). Results The probability of death among those aged 15 to 59 years was 18.1% (women 13.5%, men 22.7%). Creole and Garifuna ethnic groups have three times the 45q15 probability of death compared to Mayan and Mestizo groups (Creole 31.2%, Garifuna 31.1%, Mayan 10.2%, Mestizo 12.0%). This pattern of ethnic disparity existed in both sexes but was greater in men. The probability of death from injuries was 14.8% among Creole men, more than twice the rate of other ethnicities and peaks among young Creole men. These deaths are dominated by homicides and unspecified deaths involving firearms Conclusions Marked disparities in mortality between ethnic groups exist in this Central American/Caribbean country, from rates that are typical of high-income countries to those of low-income countries. The pattern of these extreme differences likely suggests that they reflect underlying social determinants rooted in the country’s colonial past. PMID:27643696

  6. Eating habits and caloric intake of physically active young boys, ages 10 to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Thomson, M J; Cunningham, D A; Wearring, G A

    1980-03-01

    Eating habits of 104 male participants (ages 10 to 14 years) in organized ice hockey were compared across age groups and levels of competition. The boys were members of either a highly skilled and intensively active competitive league group (CL) or a less skilled, moderately active house league group (HL). Eating habits were recorded during a school day from a 24 hour recall questionnaire administered by a trained interviewer. The types and amounts of foods eaten were recorded and caloric intake was calculated. The total caloric intakes were not significantly different by age or competitive group. The boys had higher caloric intakes by age (200 kcal day-1) than reported by other studies but the caloric intake by kilogram of body weight was similar. There was a trend towards larger caloric intake by the CL boys (ages 10 and 11 years), however when divided by body weight the differences were not significant suggesting that this trend was due to a greater body weight of the CL boys and not a significantly increased caloric expenditure. The types of foods eaten (fruit, vegetables, dairy, meat, bread or "empty calories") were similar for the two activity groups and across ages 10 to 14 years. The caloric intakes of dairy and meat products of both groups were significantly higher than for the other food groups.

  7. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%.

  8. Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since July 2004, routine varicella vaccination is recommended by the German Standing Vaccination Committee in Germany. Health Insurance Funds started to cover vaccination costs at different time points between 2004 and 2006 in the Federal States. Nationwide representative data on vaccination coverage against varicella of children under two years of age are not available. We aimed to determine varicella vaccination coverage in statutory health insured children under two years of age in twelve German Federal States using data from associations of statutory health insurance physicians (ASHIPs), in order to investigate the acceptance of the recommended routine varicella vaccination programme. Methods We analysed data on varicella vaccination from 13 of 17 ASHIPs of the years 2004 to 2007. The study population consisted of all statutory health insured children under two years of age born in 2004 (cohort 2004) or 2005 (cohort 2005) in one of the studied regions. Vaccination coverage was determined by the number of children vaccinated under 2 years of age within the study population. Results Varicella vaccination coverage of children under two years of age with either one dose of the monovalent varicella vaccine or two doses of the measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella vaccine increased from 34% (cohort 2004) to 51% (cohort 2005) in the studied regions (p < 0.001). More than half of the vaccinated children of cohort 2004 and two third of cohort 2005 were immunised at the recommended age 11 to 14 months. The level of vaccination coverage of cohort 2004 was significantly associated with the delay in introduction of cost coverage since the recommendation of varicella vaccination (p < 0.001). Conclusions Our study shows increasing varicella vaccination coverage of young children, indicating a growing acceptance of the routine varicella vaccination programme by the parents and physicians. We recommend further monitoring of vaccination coverage using data from

  9. Clinical aspects of pregnancy after the age of 35 years: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    van Katwijk, C; Peeters, L L

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this report is to provide an update of our current knowledge about the impact of maternal age on pregnancy outcome. Pregnancy in women > or =35 years old is associated with a higher maternal and perinatal mortality. The older gravida also has a higher chance of being delivered by Caesarean section. Most of the complications associated with older age are caused by age-related confounders such as leiomyomas, type II diabetes, hypertension and multiparity. Diabetes and hypertension increase almost linearly with age. Pregnant women with diabetes or hypertension are at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcome irrespective of age. The currently available literature indicates that premenopausal pregnant women of advanced age who are in good health do not need special care besides the normal obstetric practice. At present, establishing pregnancy in postmenopausal women is more an ethical than a medical issue, partly because the information reported on pregnancy in postmenopausal women is insufficient to determine a reliable risk profile. In these women cardiovascular ageing accelerates. Therefore, until proven otherwise, postmenopausal women should be considered particularly at increased risk for vascular complications during pregnancy. This risk is likely to increase progressively with the number of years elapsed since the onset of postmenopause.

  10. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  11. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  12. Pregnancy and Obstetrical Outcomes in Women Over 40 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Dietl, A.; Cupisti, S.; Beckmann, M. W.; Schwab, M.; Zollner, U.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Delayed childbearing is increasing, and advanced maternal age has been associated with an increased risk of obstetrical complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pregnancy outcomes in women with advanced maternal age (≥ 40 years). Methods: Maternal and obstetrical data were collected from the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the University of Wuerzburg for the period from 2006 to 2011. In this retrospective analysis we compared the outcomes for women aged ≥ 40 years (n = 405) with those of three younger subgroups (I: < 30 y; II: 30–34 y; III: 35–39 y). Results: Pregnant women older than 40 years had more chronic diseases such as hypertension, needed medical treatment more frequently and had a higher thrombosis risk. Pregnancy-induced diseases such as gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and pregnancy-associated hypertension occurred more often in women ≥ 40 years of age. Compared to mothers who were younger than 30 years, primiparous women ≥ 40 years had a more than four times higher overall cesarean section rate and four times higher elective cesarean section rate. Furthermore, they required longer hospital stays, both after cesarean section and after vaginal delivery. The preterm birth rate (≤ 32 weeks of gestation) was similar across the different age groups. Conclusions: The outcomes of pregnancy and childbirth and for newborns born to women ≥ 40 years did not vary significantly from those of younger women if the following conditions were met: a) pre-existing chronic diseases were treated medically and dietetically; b) pregnancy-induced morbidity was monitored regularly and controlled medically; c) women attended regular prenatal check-ups; d) a healthy lifestyle was adhered to during pregnancy, and e) delivery occurred in a perinatal center. PMID:26366002

  13. Similarity of the CDC and WHO weight-for-length growth charts in predicting risk of obesity at age 5 years.

    PubMed

    Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Kleinman, Ken; Taveras, Elsie M

    2012-06-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 weight-for-length (WFL) or BMI growth charts are now recommended as the new standard for children under 24 months. The objective of this study was to examine associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months, based on the older Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and WHO cutpoints, with risk of obesity at age 5 years. From well-child visits to a Massachusetts multi-site group practice during 1980-2008, we studied 15,488 children with length/height and weight measurements at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months, and at 5 years. The main exposures were ever being overweight during 1-24 months using each of three cutpoints: CDC WFL ≥ 95th percentile, WHO WFL or BMI ≥ 97.7th percentile. The main outcome was obesity at 5 years (CDC BMI ≥ 95th percentile). We calculated multivariable odds ratios (ORs), adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and year. At 5 years, 10.8% of participants were obese. During 1-24 months, 21.3, 18.3, and 20.2% were ever overweight using CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints, respectively. ORs (95% confidence interval (CI)) for associations of ever being overweight during 1-24 months with obesity at 5 years were 6.0 (5.4, 6.6), 6.3 (5.7, 7.0), and 6.0 (5.4, 6.7), respectively. Ever being overweight in the first 2 years of life is a strong predictor of obesity at 5 years. CDC WFL, WHO WFL, and WHO BMI cutpoints for overweight in early childhood provided similar estimates of later obesity risk.

  14. Crossing boundaries: nativity, ethnicity, and mate selection.

    PubMed

    Qian, Zhenchao; Glick, Jennifer E; Batson, Christie D

    2012-05-01

    The influx of immigrants has increased diversity among ethnic minorities and indicates that they may take multiple integration paths in American society. Previous research on ethnic integration has often focused on panethnic differences, and few have explored ethnic diversity within a racial or panethnic context. Using 2000 U.S. census data for Puerto Rican-, Mexican-, Chinese-, and Filipino-origin individuals, we examine differences in marriage and cohabitation with whites, with other minorities, within a panethnic group, and within an ethnic group by nativity status. Ethnic endogamy is strong and, to a lesser extent, so is panethnic endogamy. Yet, marital or cohabiting unions with whites remain an important path of integration but differ significantly by ethnicity, nativity, age at arrival, and educational attainment. Meanwhile, ethnic differences in marriage and cohabitation with other racial or ethnic minorities are strong. Our analysis supports that unions with whites remain a major path of integration, but other paths of integration also become viable options for all ethnic groups.

  15. Exploring Ethnic Variation in Preadolescent Aggressive Girls' Social, Psychological, and Academic Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Jamilia J.; Lease, A. Michele; Turner, Terez L.; Outley, Corliss

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined whether the adjustment patterns of socially and overtly aggressive preadolescent girls, ages 9 to 11 years, from rural communities differed by ethnicity. Students were administered a series of questionnaires to assess the degree to which girls engaged in various forms of aggression and to assess aggressive girls' social,…

  16. Differences in Body Fat of British Children from Various Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Michael J.; Woodfieldand, Lorayne; Al-Nakeeb, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed the percent body fatness of British secondary school children and examined any variation in fatness according to school year, gender and ethnicity. 782 children aged 11 to 14 participated in the study. Body fatness was assessed using skinfold measures and obesity was classified using child-specific cut-off points. Results from…

  17. Discrimination, Ethnic Identity, and Academic Outcomes of Mexican Immigrant Children: The Importance of School Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christia Spears; Chu, Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic identity, perceptions of discrimination, and academic attitudes and performance of primarily first- and second-generation Mexican immigrant children living in a predominantly White community (N = 204, 19 schools, mean age = 9 years). The study also examined schools' promotion of multiculturalism and teachers' attitudes…

  18. Ethnic Disparities in School-Based Behavioral Health Service Use for Children with Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Jill; Kang-Yi, Christina D.; Pellecchia, Melanie; Marcus, Steven; Hadley, Trevor; Mandell, David S.

    2017-01-01

    Background: We examined racial/ethnic disparities in school-based behavioral health service use for children with psychiatric disorders. Methods: Medicaid claims data were used to compare the behavioral healthcare service use of 23,601 children aged 5-17 years by psychiatric disorder (autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD],…

  19. Effects of Appearance-Related Testing on Ethnically Diverse Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoo, Jeong-Ju; Johnson, Kim K. P.

    2007-01-01

    The primary research question in this study was whether adolescents' experiences of and responses to teasing were related to the content of a tease and to particular ethnicity. Caucasian (n = 27) and African American adolescents (n = 22) between 12 to 17 years of age were asked to write about an experience of being teased regarding an aspect of…

  20. Vulnerable Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Prevention Knowledge among Ethnic Tribal Male Youth in Bangladesh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamal, S. M. Mostafa

    2012-01-01

    This study examines sexuality and HIV/AIDS prevention knowledge among minority ethnic male youth of Bangladesh. A cross-sectional survey was conducted through a self-administered questionnaire on 800 young males aged 15-24 years in the Chittagong Hill Tracts region in 2009. Of the respondents, almost one-third were sexually active and of them…

  1. Cultural Socialization and Ethnic Pride among Mexican-Origin Adolescents during the Transition to Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernández, Maciel M.; Conger, Rand D.; Robins, Richard W.; Bacher, Kelly Beaumont; Widaman, Keith F.

    2014-01-01

    The relation between cultural socialization and ethnic pride during the transition to middle school was examined for 674 fifth-grade students (50% boys; M[subscript age] = 10.4 years) of Mexican origin. The theoretical model guiding the study proposes that parent-child relationship quality is a resource in the transmission of cultural values from…

  2. Race and Ethnic Differences and Human Figure Drawings: Clinical Utility of the DAP:SPED

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matto, Holly C.; Naglieri, Jack A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined race and ethnic differences on the Draw A Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance (DAP:SPED; Naglieri, McNeish, & Bardos, 1991) for youths 6 though 17 years of age for 2 matched samples. Samples were drawn from the DAP:SPED nationally representative standardization sample and matched on gender, grade, and…

  3. Educational Encouragement, Parenting Styles, Gender and Ethnicity as Predictors of Academic Achievement among Special Education Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Aqeel; Ahmad, Roslee; Hamdan, Abdul Rahim; Mustaffa, Mohamed Sharif

    2014-01-01

    Current study examines the predictors of academic achievement: role of parenting styles, educational encouragement, gender and ethnicity among special education students. Participants of this study consisted 200 special education students (N = 105 boys and N = 95 girls) age varies 14 to 19 years from one school located at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.…

  4. The association of obesity with hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years.

    PubMed

    Üçler, Rıfkı; Turan, Mahfuz; Garça, Fatih; Acar, İsmail; Atmaca, Murat; Çankaya, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    An elevation in hearing thresholds and decrease in hearing sensitivity in adults, particularly due to aging, are quite common. Recent studies have shown that, apart from aging, various other factors also play a role in auditory changes. Studies on the association of hearing loss (HL) with obesity are limited in advanced age cases and present contradictions. In this study, the association between obesity and hearing thresholds in women aged 18-40 years has been assessed. Forty women diagnosed with obesity (mean age, 31.8 years) and 40 healthy non-obese female controls (mean age, 30.5 years) were included in this prospective study. Each subject was tested with low (250, 500, 1000 and 2000 Hz) and high (4000, 6000 and 8000 Hz) frequency audiometry. In the case and control groups, the average hearing thresholds at low frequencies were 16.03 ± 4.72 and 16.15 ± 2.72 (p = 0.885) for the right ear, respectively, and 16.15 ± 5.92 and 14.71 ± 3.18 (p = 0.180) for the left ear, respectively. The average hearing threshold levels at high frequencies were 20.70 ± 10.23 and 15.33 ± 3.87 (p = 0.003), respectively, for the right ear, and 22.91 ± 15.54 and 15.87 ± 4.35 (p = 0.007), respectively, for the left ear with statistical significance. This is the first report on the association of obesity with hearing threshold in women aged 18-40 years. We have demonstrated that obesity may affect hearing function, particularly that related to high frequencies. Hearing loss can be prevented by avoidance or control of obesity and its risk factors. Moreover, an auditory screening of obese cases at an early stage may provide early diagnosis of HL and may also contribute to their awareness in the fight against obesity.

  5. Charnley low-frictional torque arthroplasty in patients under the age of 51 years. Follow-up to 33 years.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, B M; Siney, P D; Fleming, P A

    2002-05-01

    Between November 1962 and December 1990 a group of 1092 patients, 668 women and 424 men, under the age of 51 years at the time of surgery, underwent 1434 primary Charnley low-frictional torque arthroplasties and are being followed up indefinitely. Their mean age at operation was 41 years (12 to 51). At the latest review in June 2001 the mean follow-up had been for 15 years 1 month. Of the 1092 patients 54 (66 hips) could not be traced, 124 (169 hips) were known to have died and 220 (248 hips) had had a revision procedure. At a mean follow-up of 17 years and 5 months, 759 patients (951 hips) are still attending. In this group satisfaction with the outcome is 96.2%. The incidence of deep infection for the whole group was 1.67%. It was more common in patients who had had previous surgery (hemi- and total hip arthroplasties excluded), 2.2% compared with 1.5% in those who had not had previous surgery, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.4). There were fewer cases of deep infection if gentamicin-containing cement was used, 0.9% compared with 1.9% in those with plain acrylic cement, but this was not also statistically significant (p = 0.4). There was a significantly higher rate of revision in patients who had had previous hip surgery, 24.8% compared with 14.1% in those who had not had previous surgery (p < 0.001). At the latest review, 1.95% are known to have had at least one dislocation and 0.4% have had a revision for dislocation. The indication for revision was aseptic loosening of the cup (11.7%), aseptic loosening of the stem (4.9%), a fractured stem (1.7%), deep infection (1.5%) and dislocation (0.4%). With revision for any indication as the endpoint the survivorship was 93.7% (92.3 to 95.0) at ten years, 84.7% (82.4 to 87.1) at 15 years, 74.3% (70.5 to 78.0) at 20 years and 55.3% (45.5 to 65.0) at 27 years, when 55 hips remained 'at risk'.

  6. Soft tissue thickness values for black and coloured South African children aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Briers, N; Briers, T M; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2015-07-01

    In children, craniofacial changes due to facial growth complicate facial approximations and require specific knowledge of soft tissue thicknesses (STT). The lack of South African juvenile STT standards of particular age groups, sex and ancestry is problematic. According to forensic artists in the South African Police Service the use of African-American values to reconstruct faces of Black South African children yields poor results. In order to perform a facial approximation that presents a true reflection of the child in question, information regarding differences in facial soft tissue at different ages, sexes and ancestry groups is needed. The aims of this study were to provide data on STT of South African Black and Coloured children and to assess differences in STT with respect to age, sex and ancestry. STT was measured using cephalograms of South African children (n=388), aged 6-13 years. After digitizing the images, STT measurements were taken at ten mid-facial landmarks from each image using the iTEM measuring program. STT comparisons between groups per age, sex and ancestry were statistically analyzed. The results showed that STT differences at lower face landmarks are more pronounced in age groups per ancestry as opposed to differences per age and sex. Generally, an increase in STT was seen between 6-10 year old groups and 11-13 year old groups, regardless of ancestry and sex, at the midphiltrum, labiale inferius, pogonion, and beneath chin landmarks. This research created a reference dataset for STT of South African children of Black and Coloured ancestry per age and sex that will be useful for facial reconstruction/approximation of juvenile remains.

  7. Trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish national birth cohort at ages 7 and 11 years.

    PubMed

    Sudan, Madhuri; Olsen, Jørn; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kheifets, Leeka

    2016-11-01

    We prospectively examined trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Cell phone use was assessed at ages 7 and 11 years, and we examined use patterns by age, by year of birth, and in relation to specific individual characteristics. There was an increase in cell phone use from age 7 (37%) to 11 years (94%). There was a clear pattern of greater reported cell phone use among children at age 7 years with later birth year, but this trend disappeared at age 11. Girls and those who used phones at age 7 talked more often and for longer durations at age 11 years. Low socio-economic status and later year of birth were associated with voice calls at age 7 but not at age 11 years. At age 11 most used cell phones for texting and gaming more than for voice calls. Further, children who started using cell phones at age 7 years were more likely to be heavy cell phone voice users at age 11 years, making early use a marker for higher cumulative exposure regardless of year of birth. As cell phone technology continues to advance, new use patterns will continue to emerge, and exposure assessment research among children must reflect these trends.

  8. Rethinking Ethnic Conflict: Somalia and Fiji.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFerson, Hazel M.

    1996-01-01

    Compares and contrasts the recent years of ethnic conflict in Somali and Fiji. The widely divergent reactions of both populations dispels the belief that ethnic pluralism is both a necessary and sufficient condition for violent conflict in a society. Provides succinct portraits of both societies and their cultures. (MJP)

  9. Perinatal air pollution exposure and development of asthma from birth to age 10 years.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution exposure affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school age" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65,254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until age 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and age-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between exposure to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5 years) and school age (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school age periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal age and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years.

  10. Ethnic variations in five lower gastrointestinal diseases: Scottish Health and Ethnicity Linkage Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhopal, Raj S; Cezard, Genevieve; Bansal, Narinder; Ward, Hester J T; Bhala, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to augment the limited evidence mainly from local, clinical studies of ethnic differences in gastrointestinal disorders. Our question was: are there ethnic variations in hospitalisation/death for lower gastrointestinal disorders in Scotland? Setting Scotland. Population This retrospective-cohort linked 4.65 (of 4.9) million people in the 2001 census of Scotland (providing data on ethnicity, country of birth and indicators of socioeconomic deprivation) to 9 years of National Health Service hospitalisation and death records. Primary and secondary outcome measures and analysis For appendicitis, we studied all ages; for irritable bowel syndrome, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and diverticular disease, we included those ≥20 years. Using Poisson regression (robust variance) we calculated, by ethnic group and sex, first-hospitalisation/death age-adjusted rates per 100 000 person-years, and relative risks (RRs) with 95% CIs multiplied by 100, so the White Scottish reference population had an RR=100. Results There were ethnic variations; for example, for irritable bowel syndrome, RRs (95% CIs) were comparatively high in Other White British women (128.4 (111.0 to 148.6)), and low in Pakistani women (75.1 (60.6 to 93.1)). For appendicitis, RRs were high in men in Other White British (145.2 (127.8 to 164.9)), and low in most non-White groups, for example, Pakistanis (73.8 (56.9 to 95.6)). For ulcerative colitis, RRs were high in Indian (169.8 (109.7 to 262.7)) and Pakistani (160.8 (104.2 to 248.2)) men. For Crohn's disease, the RR was high in Pakistani men (209.2 (149.6 to 292.6)). For diverticular disease, RRs were high in Irish men (176.0 (156.9 to 197.5)), and any Mixed background women (144.6 (107.4 to 194.8)), and low in most non-White groups, for example, Chinese men (47.1 (31.0 to 71.6) and women (46.0 (30.4 to 69.8)). Conclusions Appendicitis and diverticular disease were comparatively low in most non-White groups, while

  11. Assessment of working memory components at 6years of age as predictors of reading achievements a year later.

    PubMed

    Nevo, Einat; Breznitz, Zvia

    2011-05-01

    The ability of working memory skills (measured by tasks assessing all four working memory components), IQ, language, phonological awareness, literacy, rapid naming, and speed of processing at 6years of age, before reading was taught, to predict reading abilities (decoding, reading comprehension, and reading time) a year later was examined in 97 children. Among all working memory components, phonological complex memory contributed most to predicting all three reading abilities. A capacity measure of phonological complex memory, based on passing a minimum threshold in those tasks, contributed to the explained variance of decoding and reading comprehension. Findings suggest that a minimal ability of phonological complex memory is necessary for children to attain a normal reading level. Adding assessment of phonological complex memory, before formal teaching of reading begins, to more common measures might better estimate children's likelihood of future academic success.

  12. Do social interactions explain ethnic differences in psychological distress and the protective effect of local ethnic density? A cross-sectional study of 226 487 adults in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Kolt, Gregory S

    2013-01-01

    Background A frequently proposed, but under-researched hypothesis is that ethnic density benefits mental health through increasing social interactions. We examined this hypothesis in 226 487 adults from 19 ethnic groups aged 45 years and older in Australia. Methods Multilevel logit regression was used to measure the association between ethnicity, social interactions, own-group ethnic density and scores of 22+ on the Kessler scale of psychological distress. Self-reported ancestry was used as a proxy for ethnicity. Measures of social interactions included a number of times in the past week were (i) spent with friends or family participants did not live with; (ii) talked to someone on the telephone; (iii) attended meetings of social groups and (iv) how many people could be relied upon outside their home, but within 1 h of travel. Per cent own-group ethnic density was measured at the Census Collection District scale. Results Psychological distress was reported by 11% of Australians born in Australia. The risk of experiencing psychological distress varied among ethnic minorities and by country of birth (eg, 33% for the Lebanese born in Lebanon and 4% for the Swiss born in Switzerland). These differences remained after full adjustment. Social interactions varied between ethnic groups and were associated with lower psychological distress and ethnic density. Ethnic density was associated with reduced psychological distress for some groups. This association, however, was explained by individual and neighbourhood characteristics and not by social interactions. Conclusions Social interactions are important correlates of mental health, but fully explain neither the ethnic differences in psychological distress nor the protective effect of own-group density. PMID:23645917

  13. Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

    2009-10-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention.

  14. Head Circumference Charts for Turkish Children Aged Five to Eighteen Years

    PubMed Central

    KARA, Bülent; ETİLER, Nilay; AYDOĞAN UNCUOĞLU, Ayşen; MARAŞ GENÇ, Hülya; ULAK GÜMÜŞLÜ, Esen; GÖKÇAY, Gülbin; FURMAN, Andrezej

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Most head circumference growth references are useful during the first years of life, but they are also useful for older children when screening for developmental, neurological, and genetic disorders. We aimed to develop head circumference growth reference charts for age, height, and waist circumference for Turkish children aged 5–18 years. Methods Head circumference, height, and waist circumference measurements were obtained from 5079 students aged 5–18 years from İzmit, Kocaeli Province, Turkey. The LMS method was used to construct reference centile curves. Results Head circumference measurements were strongly correlated with height (r=0.74), weight (r=0.76), and waist circumference (r=0.68). The mean head circumference values for boys were larger than those for girls at all ages. Compared with data from the United States, the World Health Organization, and other studies from Turkey, our data showed a decrease in head circumference at all ages for both sexes. Conclusion Local growth charts can be used to evaluate head circumference growth in older Turkish children and adolescents. PMID:28360767

  15. The development of fine-grained sensitivity to eye contact after 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mark D; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-06-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the left/right or upward/downward and judged whether the model's gaze was direct or averted to the left/right or upward/downward. The horizontal range of fixation positions leading to the perception of direct gaze (the cone of gaze) was more than 50% larger in 6-year-olds than in adults, but it was adult-like and smaller than the vertical cone of gaze by 8 years of age. The vertical cone of gaze was large and statistically adult-like by age 6, with only a small linear reduction thereafter. In all age groups, the horizontal cone of gaze was centered on the bridge of the participant's nose and the vertical cone was centered slightly below the participant's eye height. These findings indicate that until after age 6, relatively poor sensitivity to direct versus averted gaze limits children's ability to use gaze cues to make social judgments.

  16. The Development of Skin Conductance Fear Conditioning in Children from Ages 3 to 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2009-01-01

    Although fear conditioning is an important psychological construct implicated in behavioral and emotional problems little is known about how it develops in early childhood. Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, this longitudinal study assessed skin conductance conditioned responses in 200 children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Results demonstrated that in both boys and girls: (1) fear conditioning increased across age, particularly from ages 5 to 6 years, (2) the three components of skin conductance fear conditioning that reflect different degrees of automatic and controlled cognitive processes exhibited different developmental profiles, and (3) individual differences in arousal, orienting, and the unconditioned response were associated with individual differences in conditioning, with the influence of orienting increasing at later ages. This first longitudinal study of the development of skin conductance fear conditioning in children both demonstrates that children as young as age 3 years evidence fear conditioning in a difficult acquisition paradigm, and that different sub-components of skin conductance conditioning have different developmental trajectories. PMID:20121876

  17. Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group.

  18. Racial/Ethnic-Specific Reference Intervals for Common Laboratory Tests: A Comparison among Asians, Blacks, Hispanics, and White.

    PubMed

    Lim, Eunjung; Miyamura, Jill; Chen, John J

    2015-09-01

    Reference intervals (RIs) for common clinical laboratory tests are usually not developed separately for different subpopulations. The aim of this study was to investigate racial/ethnic differences in RIs of common biochemical and hematological laboratory tests using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2011-2012 data. This current study included 3,077 participants aged 18-65 years who reported their health status as "Excellent," "Very good," or "Good," with known race/ethnicity as white, black, Hispanic, or Asian. Quantile regression analyses adjusted for sex were conducted to evaluate racial/ethnic differences in the normal ranges of 38 laboratory tests. Significant racial/ethnic differences were found in almost all laboratory tests. Compared to whites, the normal range for Asians significantly shifted to higher values in globulin and total protein and to lower values in creatinine, hematocrit, hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin, mean cell hemoglobin concentration, and mean platelet volume. These results indicate that racial/ethnic subpopulations have unique distributions in the labortoary tests and race/ethnicity may need to be incorporated in the development of their RIs. Establishment of racial/ethnic-specific RIs may have significant clinical and public health implication for more accurate disease diagnosis and appropriate treatment to improve quality of patient care, especially for a state with diverse racial/ethnic subpopuations such as Hawai'i.

  19. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  20. Psychiatric Disorders in Extremely Preterm Children: Longitudinal Finding at Age 11 Years in the EPICure Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Hollis, Chris; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children. Method: All babies born less than 26 weeks gestation in the United Kingdom and Ireland from March through December 1995 were recruited to the EPICure Study. Of 307 survivors at 11 years of age, 219 (71%) were assessed alongside 153…

  1. Preventing Dental Caries in Children from Birth Through Age Five Years

    MedlinePlus

    ... Force) has issued a final recommendation statement on Prevention of Dental Caries in Children From Birth Through Age Five Years. ... Children’ s Oral Health ( Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) Tooth Decay — Early Childhood ( MedlinePlus) May 2014 Task Force FINAL ...

  2. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  3. Developing and Instituting a Parenting Course for Parents of Children Ages 3 through 14 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innes, Ruth S.

    A licensed counselor working in a privately owned mental health facility implemented a practicum study designed to improve the parenting skills and quality of family communication in families with children between 3 and 14 years of age. Practicum goals were to: (1) give parents information that would improve their parenting skills; and (2)…

  4. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…

  5. Anticipatory Action Planning Increases from 3 to 10 Years of Age in Typically Developing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jongbloed-Pereboom, Marjolein; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, Maria W. G.; Saraber-Schiphorst, Nicole; Craje, Celine; Steenbergen, Bert

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the development of action planning in a group of typically developing children aged 3 to 10 years (N = 351). The second aim was to assess reliability of the action planning task and to relate the results of the action planning task to results of validated upper limb motor performance tests. Participants…

  6. Correlates of Depressive Disorders in the Quebec General Population 6 to 14 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Lise; Valla, Jean-Pierre; Smolla, Nicole; Piche, Genevieve; Berthiaume, Claude; St.-Georges, Marie

    2007-01-01

    There are relatively few community-based epidemiological studies in which correlates of depressive disorders were identified through multivariate analyses in children and adolescents aged 6-14 years. Moreover, several family characteristics (e.g., parent-child relationship) have never been explored in this regard. The purpose of this study was…

  7. Holistic Face Processing Is Mature at 4 Years of Age: Evidence from the Composite Face Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Heering, Adelaide; Houthuys, Sarah; Rossion, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Although it is acknowledged that adults integrate features into a representation of the whole face, there is still some disagreement about the onset and developmental course of holistic face processing. We tested adults and children from 4 to 6 years of age with the same paradigm measuring holistic face processing through an adaptation of the…

  8. Developmental Norms of Children Aged 2 1/2-5 Years: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muralidharan, Rajalakshmi

    1969-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study, aside from collection of developmental data on 38 nursery school children aged 2 1/2 to 5 years, was (1) to develop, modify and adapt the testing equipment used in Gesell's Developmental Schedule, in the field of motor, adaptive, language, and personal-social development; (2) to develop elaborate, exhaustive,…

  9. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  10. Problems of Children of School Age (5-9 Years): Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This report presents the proceedings of a working group convened in Copenhagen in November 1975 by the World Health Organization to discuss the problems of children 5 to 9 years. The report focuses on a survey of the general problems of European children of this particular age, individual risk factors, and individual groups at risk, and suggests…

  11. 24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. 24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. 24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  15. 24 CFR 100.304 - Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing for persons who are 55 years of age or older. 100.304 Section 100.304 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR EQUAL OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT OF...

  16. Rejuvenating immunity: “anti-aging drug today” eight years later

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 year ended with celebration: Everolimus, a rapamycin analog, was shown to improve immunity in old humans, heralding ‘a turning point’ in research and new era in human quest for immortality. Yet, this turning point was predicted a decade ago. But what will cause human death, when aging will be abolished? PMID:25844603

  17. The Five to Seven Year Shift: The Age of Reason and Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J., Ed.; Haith, Marshall M.

    This book reviews the contemporary state of knowledge on developmental transitions between 5 and 7 years. Contributions are: (1) "Interpreting Developmental Transitions" (Arnold Sameroff; Marshall Haith); (2) "The Child's Entry into the 'Age of Reason'" (Sheldon White); (3) "Is There a Neural Basis for Cognitive…

  18. The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

  19. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  20. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  1. Ten Years Later: A Follow-Up Study of Professors Still Working after Age 70

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorfman, Lorraine T.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of the end of mandatory retirement on professors over the long term. This follow-up study investigated the ten-year experience of professors who chose not to retire from a major research university after the elimination of the age 70 mandatory retirement in 1994. The initial interview study was conducted in 1998…

  2. Culture and diet among Chinese American children aged 9–13 years: A qualitative study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined Chinese American children's behaviors, food preferences, and cultural influences on their diet. Qualitative individual interviews were conducted with twenty-five Chinese American children aged 9-13 years in community centers and Chinese schools in Houston, TX using constructs fro...

  3. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  4. Comprehension of a Colon Cancer Pamphlet among American Adults at Least 50 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chiung-ju

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify determinants of comprehension of an educational pamphlet on colon cancer, by adults at least 50 years of age living in the United States. Design: Data were analysed from the "2003 National Assessment of Adult Literacy" survey. The survey was designed to assess functional English…

  5. Malocclusions in children at 3 and 7 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Dimberg, Lillemor; Lennartsson, Bertil; Söderfeldt, Björn; Bondemark, Lars

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this longitudinal study was to compare the prevalence of malocclusion at ages 3 and 7 years in a sample of children, exploring the hypothesis that prevalence of malocclusion is higher at 3 than at 7 years of age and may be influenced by sucking habits. The study sample comprised 386 children (199 girls and 187 boys), aged 3 years at study start, sourced from three Public Dental Service clinics in Sweden. Malocclusion was diagnosed by clinical examination, using a specific protocol. Data on allergy, traumatic injuries, sucking habits, and breathing pattern including nocturnal breathing disturbances were obtained by means of a questionnaire answered by child and parent in conjunction with the initial and final clinical examination. The overall prevalence of malocclusion decreased significantly, from 70 to 58% (P < 0.0001): predominantly anterior open bite, excessive overjet, and Class III malocclusion. Although high rates of spontaneous correction were also noted for deep bite, Class II malocclusion and posterior and anterior crossbites, new cases developed at almost the same rate; thus, the prevalence was unchanged at the end of the observation period. Anterior open bite and posterior crossbite were the only conditions showing significant associations with sucking habits. The results confirm the hypothesis of higher prevalence of malocclusion at 3 years of age and clearly support the strategy of deferring orthodontic correction of malocclusion until the mixed dentition stage.

  6. Development of Allocentric Spatial Memory Abilities in Children from 18 months to 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ribordy, Farfalla; Jabes, Adeline; Lavenex, Pamela Banta; Lavenex, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memories for autobiographical events that happen in unique spatiotemporal contexts are central to defining who we are. Yet, before 2 years of age, children are unable to form or store episodic memories for recall later in life, a phenomenon known as infantile amnesia. Here, we studied the development of allocentric spatial memory, a…

  7. Position of the American Dietetic Association: Nutrition Guidance for Health Children Ages 2 to 11 Years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is the position of the American Dietetic Association that children ages 2 to 11 years should achieve optimal physical and cognitive development, attain a healthy weight, enjoy food, and reduce the risk of chronic disease through appropriate eating habits and participation in regular physical acti...

  8. Psychopathic Traits and Physiological Responses to Aversive Stimuli in Children Aged 9-11 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Pan; Baker, Laura A.; Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Lozano, Dora Isabel

    2012-01-01

    Atypical electrodermal and cardiovascular response patterns in psychopathic individuals are thought to be biological indicators of fearless and disinhibition. This study investigated the relationship between psychopathic traits and these autonomic response patterns using a countdown task in 843 children (aged 9-10 years). Heart rate (HR) and…

  9. Longitudinal posturography and rotational testing in children 3-9 years of age: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Sparto, Patrick J; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Fall, Patricia A.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To obtain normative longitudinal vestibulo-ocular and balance test data in children from ages 3 to 9 with normal middle-ear status. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Three-year-old children were entered and tested yearly. Subjects underwent earth vertical axis rotation testing using sinusoidal and constant velocity stimuli and performed the Sensory Organization Test. Results One hundred forty-eight children were entered and usable data were collected on 127 children. A linear increase in the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as children aged was found, without a change in the phase of the response. An age-related linear increase in Equilibrium Scores, indicating reduced postural sway, was also observed. Conclusion These normative data can be used in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders in children. PMID:20416461

  10. Efficacy, Safety, and Tolerability of Herpes Zoster Vaccine in Persons Aged 50–59 Years

    PubMed Central

    Schmader, Kenneth E.; Levin, Myron J.; Gnann, John W.; McNeil, Shelly A.; Vesikari, Timo; Betts, Robert F.; Keay, Susan; Stek, Jon E.; Bundick, Nickoya D.; Su, Shu-Chih; Zhao, Yanli; Li, Xiaoming; Chan, Ivan S. F.; Annunziato, Paula W.

    2012-01-01

    (See the Editorial Commentary by Li et al, on pages 929–30.) Background. Herpes zoster (HZ) adversely affects individuals aged 50–59, but vaccine efficacy has not been assessed in this population. This study was designed to determine the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of zoster vaccine for preventing HZ in persons aged 50–59 years. Methods. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 22 439 subjects aged 50–59 years conducted in North America and Europe. Subjects were given 1 dose of licensed zoster vaccine (ZV) (Zostavax; Merck) and followed for occurrence of HZ for ≥1 year (mean, 1.3 years) postvaccination until accrual of ≥96 confirmed HZ cases (as determined by testing lesions swabs for varicella zoster virus DNA by polymerase chain reaction). Subjects were followed for all adverse events (AEs) from day 1 to day 42 postvaccination and for serious AEs (SAEs) through day 182 postvaccination. Results. The ZV reduced the incidence of HZ (30 cases in vaccine group, 1.99/1000 person-years vs 99 cases in placebo group, 6.57/1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy for preventing HZ was 69.8% (95% confidence interval, 54.1–80.6). AEs were reported by 72.8% of subjects in the ZV group and 41.5% in the placebo group, with the difference primarily due to higher rates of injection-site AEs and headache. The proportion of subjects reporting SAEs occurring within 42 days postvaccination (ZV, 0.6%; placebo, 0.5%) and 182 days postvaccination (ZV, 2.1%; placebo, 1.9%) was similar between groups. Conclusions. In subjects aged 50–59 years, the ZV significantly reduced the incidence of HZ and was well tolerated. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT00534248. PMID:22291101

  11. Gradual improvement in fine-grained sensitivity to triadic gaze after 6 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vida, Mark D; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-02-01

    The current research compared the ability of adults and children to determine where another person is looking in shared visual space (triadic gaze). In Experiment 1, children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults viewed photographs of a model fixating a series of positions separated by 1.6° along the horizontal plane. The task was to indicate whether the model was looking to the left or right of one of three target positions (midline, 6.4° left, or 6.4° right). By 6 years of age, thresholds were quite small (M=1.94°) but were roughly twice as large as those of adults (M=1.05°). Thresholds decreased to adult-like levels around 10 years of age. All age groups showed the same pattern of higher sensitivity for central targets than peripheral targets and of misjudging gaze toward peripheral targets as farther from midline than it really was. In subsequent experiments, we evaluated possible reasons for the higher thresholds in 6- and 8-year-olds. In Experiment 2, the thresholds of 6-year-olds did not improve when the range of deviations from the target position that the model fixated covered a much wider range. In Experiment 3, 8-year-olds were less sensitive than adults to small shifts in eye position even though the task required only matching faces with the same eye position and not determining where the person was looking. These findings suggest that by 6 years of age, children are quite sensitive to triadic gaze, which may support inferences about others' interests and intentions. Subsequent improvements in sensitivity involve, at least in part, an increase in sensitivity to eye position.

  12. Sixty years old is the breakpoint of human frontal cortex aging.

    PubMed

    Cabré, Rosanna; Naudí, Alba; Dominguez-Gonzalez, Mayelin; Ayala, Victòria; Jové, Mariona; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Piñol-Ripoll, Gerard; Gil-Villar, Maria Pilar; Rué, Montserrat; Portero-Otín, Manuel; Ferrer, Isidre; Pamplona, Reinald

    2017-02-01

    Human brain aging is the physiological process which underlies as cause of cognitive decline in the elderly and the main risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Human neurons are functional throughout a healthy adult lifespan, yet the mechanisms that maintain function and protect against neurodegenerative processes during aging are unknown. Here we show that protein oxidative and glycoxidative damage significantly increases during human brain aging, with a breakpoint at 60 years old. This trajectory is coincident with a decrease in the content of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I-IV. We suggest that the deterioration in oxidative stress homeostasis during aging induces an adaptive response of stress resistance mechanisms based on the sustained expression of REST, and increased or decreased expression of Akt and mTOR, respectively, over the adult lifespan in order to preserve cell neural survival and function.

  13. Between 21 and 34 years of age, aging alters the catecholamine responses to supramaximal exercise in endurance trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Zouhal, H; Gratas-Delamarche, A; Rannou, F; Granier, P; Bentue-Ferrer, D; Delamarche, P

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aging and training on the adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA) responses during the Wingate-test in three age groups of subjects: 21 year old untrained subjects (21U), 21 year old endurance trained (21T) (national elite runners), 34 year old endurance trained (34T) (national elite runners). Performances during the test were judged using the usual parameters of peak power (Wmax) and mean power (W) expressed in absolute or relative values. A and NA responses were measured at rest (A0 and NA0) immediately at the end of the exercise (Amax and NAmax) and after 5 minutes recovery (A5 and NA5). Plasma maximal lactate (La(max)) was determined 3 minutes after the end of the exercise. Wmax, W and La(max) were always significantly lower in 34T compared to 21T and 21U. The catecholamine responses were similar in 21T and 21U. Inversely, a significantly lower value of Amax was observed in 34T (2.01 +/- 0.5 nmol x l(-1)) compared to 21U (3.62 +/- 0.3 nmol x l(-1)) associated with a significantly higher value of NA(max) in 34T versus 21T and 21U. Thus, the Amax/NA(max) ratio was found to be significantly lower in the older subjects versus both 21T and 21U. All these findings indicated that endurance training did not affect the sympathoadrenergic responses to a supramaximal exercise and suggested that only one decade may reduce the capacity of the medulla to secrete adrenaline and therefore the adrenal medulla responsiveness to the sympathetic nervous activity.

  14. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    PubMed Central

    Shenkin, S; Starr, J; Pattie, A; Rush, M; Whalley, L; Deary, I; PHARAOH, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.
METHODS—Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932.Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449of these children.
RESULTS—Mean score on Moray House Test increased from 30.6 at a birth weight of <2500 g to 44.7 at 4001-4500 g, after correcting for gestational age, maternal age, parity, social class, and legitimacy of birth. Multiple regression showed that 15.6% of the variance in Moray House Test score is contributed by a combination of social class (6.6%), birth weight (3.8%), child's exact age (2.4%), maternal parity (2.0%), and illegitimacy (1.5%). Structural equation modelling confirmed the independent contribution from each of these variables in predicting cognitive ability. A model in which birth weight acted as a mediator of social class had poor fit statistics.
CONCLUSION—In this 1921 birth cohort, social class and birth weight have independent effects on cognitive function at age 11. Future research will relate these childhood data to health and cognition in old age.

 PMID:11517097

  15. Does baseline innate immunity change with age? A multi-year study in great tits.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Anke; Eens, Marcel; Van Dongen, Stefan; Müller, Wendt

    2017-03-16

    Throughout their life animals progressively accumulate mostly detrimental changes in cells, tissues and their functions, causing a decrease in individual performance and ultimately an increased risk of death. The latter may be amplified if it also leads to a deterioration of the immune system which forms the most important protection against the permanent threat of pathogens and infectious diseases. Here, we investigated how four baseline innate immune parameters (natural antibodies, complement activity, concentrations of haptoglobin and concentrations of nitric oxide) changed with age in free-living great tits (Parus major). We applied both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches as birds were sampled for up to three years of their lives. Three out of the four selected innate immune parameters were affected by age. However, the shape of the response curves differed strongly among the innate immune parameters. Natural antibody levels increased during early life until mid-age to decrease thereafter when birds aged. Complement activity was highest in young birds, while levels slightly decreased with increasing age. Haptoglobin levels on the other hand, showed a linear, but highly variable increase with age, while nitric oxide concentrations were unaffected by age. The observed differences among the four studied innate immune traits not only indicate the importance of considering several immune traits at the same time, but also highlight the complexity of innate immunity. Unraveling the functional significance of the observed changes in innate immunity is thus a challenging next step.

  16. What makes age diverse teams effective? Results from a six-year research program.

    PubMed

    Wegge, J; Jungmann, F; Liebermann, S; Shemla, M; Ries, B C; Diestel, S; Schmidt, K-H

    2012-01-01

    Based on a new model of productivity in age diverse tams, findings from a six-year research program are reported in which data from more than 745 natural teams with 8,848 employees in three different fields (car production, administrative work, financial services) were collected. Moreover, central assumptions of this model were tested with a representative survey of the German workforce (N = 2,000). Results support both significant advantages and disadvantages for age-mixed teams. Based on the findings, the following preconditions for the effectiveness of age diverse teams are identified: high task complexity, low salience and high appreciation of age diversity, a positive team climate, low age-discrimination, ergonomic design of work places, and the use of age differentiated leadership. Based on these insights, we developed a new training for supervisors, which addresses the aforementioned aspects and seeks to improve team performance and health of team members. It was found that the training reduces age stereotypes, team conflicts and enhances innovation. Thus, we can conclude that effective interventions for a successful integration of elderly employees in work groups are available and that combinations of measures that address ergonomic design issues, team composition and leadership are to be strongly recommended for practice.

  17. Nonsurgical management of solid abdominal organ injury in patients over 55 years of age.

    PubMed

    Falimirski, M E; Provost, D

    2000-07-01

    Age greater than 55 is often stated to be a contraindication to nonoperative management of intraperitoneal solid organ injury, based upon failures in early experiences of nonoperative therapy. Refinements in the criteria for nonoperative management of hepatic and splenic injuries have yielded improved success rates compared with those in initial reports, raising questions as to the validity of an age-related contraindication. A retrospective chart review of patients more than 55 years of age sustaining blunt hepatic and/or splenic injury at two urban Level I trauma centers was performed. Patients were stratified into three groups in which selection criteria could not consistently be determined: those managed nonoperatively, those managed operatively, and those who died within 24 hours. The purpose of this review is to identify whether age is a determinant for nonoperative management of abdominal solid organ injury. Eighty-eight patients were identified (mean age, 68.7 +/- 9.8), 17 of whom died in the emergency department or after operative intervention. Of the remaining 71 patients, 37 were originally managed nonoperatively (mean age 69.9 +/- 9.1, mean Injury Severity Score 19.9), 24 sustained hepatic injuries (grades I-IV), 12 sustained splenic injuries (grades I-III), and one patient sustained both organ injuries. Three patients with multisystem trauma died from complications unrelated to their solid organ injury (one brain death, one septic death, and one respiratory arrest). A single patient, with a grade I liver injury, required delayed exploration (for a persistent, unexplained metabolic acidosis) and underwent a nontherapeutic celiotomy. All but one of the 37 patients were successfully treated nonoperatively, for a 97 per cent success rate. We conclude that hemodynamically stable patients more than 55 years of age sustaining intra-abdominal injury can be observed safely. Age alone should no longer be considered an exclusion criterion for nonoperative

  18. Normative values for mandibular mobility in Scandinavian individuals 4-17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Stoustrup, P; Kristensen, K D; Küseler, A; Herlin, T; Pedersen, T K

    2016-08-01

    Assessment of mandibular mobility is an important part of the clinical oro-facial examination of paediatric and adolescent patients. The aims of the present cross-sectional study were to establish age-related normative values for mandibular mobility in a Scandinavian paediatric and adolescent cohort and to assess the validity of universal cut-off values for lower 'normal' mandibular ranges of motion. A total of 1114 Danish individuals between 4-17 years of age were included. Maximal mouth opening capacity and laterotrusion capacity were assessed, in each individual, according to a standardised measurement protocol. The mean maximal mouth opening capacity gradually increased from 38 mm (SD 6·1 mm) at age 4 to 54·5 mm (SD 6·8 mm) at age 17. No inter-gender difference in maximal mouth opening capacity was observed (P > 0·15). The mean maximal laterotrusion capacity gradually increased from 7·4 mm (SD. 1·1 mm) at age four to 10·1 mm (SD 1·9 mm) at age 17. A statistical significant inter-gender difference of 0·8 mm (SD 0·4 mm) was observed in relation to the total laterotrusion capacity; however, the clinical relevance of this significant difference is questionable. Normative values of mandibular function was established in individuals 4-17 years of age. Our findings oppose the use of a single universal cut-off value for 'normal' range of motion in paediatric and adolescent patients. Instead, we recommend to use the age-related normative values of mandibular range of motion as basis for the assessment of the development of oro-facial function.

  19. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort

  20. Common carotid intima-media thickness relates to cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years.

    PubMed

    Eikendal, Anouk L M; Groenewegen, Karlijn A; Anderson, Todd J; Britton, Annie R; Engström, Gunnar; Evans, Greg W; de Graaf, Jacqueline; Grobbee, Diederick E; Hedblad, Bo; Holewijn, Suzanne; Ikeda, Ai; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Kitamura, Akihiko; Lonn, Eva M; Lorenz, Matthias W; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Okazaki, Shuhei; O'Leary, Daniel H; Polak, Joseph F; Price, Jacqueline F; Robertson, Christine; Rembold, Christopher M; Rosvall, Maria; Rundek, Tatjana; Salonen, Jukka T; Sitzer, Matthias; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Hoefer, Imo E; Peters, Sanne A E; Bots, Michiel L; den Ruijter, Hester M

    2015-04-01

    Although atherosclerosis starts in early life, evidence on risk factors and atherosclerosis in individuals aged <45 years is scarce. Therefore, we studied the relationship between risk factors, common carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), and first-time cardiovascular events in adults aged <45 years. Our study population consisted of 3067 adults aged <45 years free from symptomatic cardiovascular disease at baseline, derived from 6 cohorts that are part of the USE-IMT initiative, an individual participant data meta-analysis of general-population-based cohort studies evaluating CIMT measurements. Information on risk factors, CIMT measurements, and follow-up of the combined end point (first-time myocardial infarction or stroke) was obtained. We assessed the relationship between risk factors and CIMT and the relationship between CIMT and first-time myocardial infarction or stroke using a multivariable linear mixed-effects model and a Cox proportional-hazards model, respectively. During a follow-up of 16.3 years, 55 first-time myocardial infarctions or strokes occurred. Median CIMT was 0.63 mm. Of the risk factors under study, age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index, total cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol related to CIMT. Furthermore, CIMT related to first-time myocardial infarction or stroke with a hazard ratio of 1.40 per SD increase in CIMT, independent of risk factors (95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.76). CIMT may be a valuable marker for cardiovascular risk in adults aged <45 years who are not yet eligible for standard cardiovascular risk screening. This is especially relevant in those with an increased, unfavorable risk factor burden.

  1. The Family Environment in Early Childhood Has a Long-Term Effect on Self-Esteem: A Longitudinal Study From Birth to Age 27 Years.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich

    2017-02-09

    A better understanding is needed of the factors that shape the development of individual differences in self-esteem. Using a prospective longitudinal design, this research tested whether the family environment in early childhood predicts self-esteem in later developmental periods. Data came from a nationally representative U.S. sample of 8,711 participants, who reported on their self-esteem biannually from age 8 to 27 years. Moreover, during the participants' first 6 years of life, biannual assessments of their mothers provided information on the quality of the home environment (covering quality of parenting, cognitive stimulation, and physical home environment), quality of parental relationship, presence of father, maternal depression, and poverty status of the family. The analyses were conducted using nonlinear regression analyses of age-dependent correlation coefficients, which were controlled for the effects of child gender and ethnicity. The results suggested that the family environment in early childhood significantly predicted self-esteem as the children grew up. Although the effects became smaller with age, the effects were still present during young adulthood. The largest effects emerged for quality of home environment. Moreover, the results suggested that the effects of home environment, presence of father, and poverty are enduring, as indicated by a nonzero asymptote in the time course of effects from age 8 to 27 years. Finally, quality of home environment partially accounted for the effects of the other predictors. The findings suggest that the home environment is a key factor in early childhood that influences the long-term development of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Validation of the Children's Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 3 year old children of a multi-ethnic Asian population: The GUSTO cohort study.

    PubMed

    Quah, Phaik Ling; Cheung, Yin Bun; Pang, Wei Wei; Toh, Jia Ying; Saw, Seang-Mei; Godfrey, Keith M; Yap, Fabian; Chong, Yap Seng; Mary, Chong Foong-Fong

    2017-02-20

    The Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was developed to measure eating behaviors related to obesity risk in children. However, this questionnaire has not been validated for use in South East Asia, where parenting practices are different from those in western countries and child obesity rates are increasing. The aim of this study was to examine the validity of the CEBQ administered to mothers of children aged 3 years in Singapore. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine if the original 35-item, 8-factor model was supported in our cohort. Participants were 636 mother-child dyads (mean (SD) child age = 36.7 (1.6) months), from the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes (GUSTO) birth cohort in which the mothers were characterized in pregnancy and children were followed up to age 3 years. The CFA showed a poor model fit; RMSEA = 0.072 (PCLOSE<0.001), SRMR = 0.094, CFI = 0.826, and TLI = 0.805. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 35 item, 7-factor structure (factor loadings ≥ 0.35): enjoyment of food, food fussiness, emotional overeating, desire to drink, emotional under eating, satiety responsiveness and slowness in eating. Cronbach's alpha estimates ranged from 0.70 to 0.88 for the 7 subscales. Convergent validity tests via correlation analysis revealed that emotional under eating (r = -0.14), slowness in eating (r = -0.16) and satiety responsiveness (r = -0.11) were negatively correlated with BMI z-score at 3 years, while enjoyment of food (r = 0.12) was positively correlated, p < 0.05. In conclusion, we found a revised 7-factor structure of the CEBQ more appropriate for examining eating behavior in 3 year old children in the Singapore setting. Further replication studies in a separate cohort study are warranted before further use of these factor structures generated.

  3. Teacher Ethnicity, Student Ethnicity, and Student Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert

    2015-01-01

    A review of the empirical literature was conducted to establish the relation between teacher and student ethnicity, and cognitive and noncognitive student outcomes. It was hypothesized that ethnic teacher-student congruence results in more favorable outcomes for especially minority students. A total of 24 quantitative studies focusing on primary…

  4. Ethnic Identity, Bicultural Identity Integration, and Psychological Well-Being Among Transracial Adoptees: A Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Laura; Rosnati, Rosa; Manzi, Claudia; Benet-Martínez, Verònica

    2015-12-01

    The ethnic identity development plays a crucial role in adolescence and emerging adulthood and may be more complex for adoptees who do not share their ethnic identity with their adoptive families. Evidence from the studies was mixed, with strong ethnic identity not always found to be indicative of improved psychological adjustment. Recently research carried out on ethnic minorities has highlighted that the relation between ethnic identity and well-being could be influenced by Bicultural Identity Integration (BII) (Benet-Martínez et al., 2002): It reflects how individuals who experience more than one culture organize and combine their dual cultural backgrounds. These results are consistent also among adoptees (Manzi, Ferrari, Rosnati, & Benet-Martínez, 2013) but need to be further explored. A longitudinal study was conducted to investigate whether and the extent to which ethnic identity, national identity, and BII are protective factors for adoptees' psychological well-being. A self-report questionnaire was administered to 79 Italian transracial adoptees, aged between 15 and 25, at two time points, one year apart. In line with predictions, longitudinal analyses showed the crucial role of BII that turned out to increase higher levels of well-being one year later. Results are discussed in relation to implications for intervention with adoptive parents and children.

  5. Heart rate responses of male orienteers aged 21-67 years during competition.

    PubMed

    Bird, S; George, M; Theakston, S; Balmer, J; Davison, R C R

    2003-03-01

    Orienteering is a sport in which it is common for most participants to be aged over 40 years, but research into the demands of the sport has focused almost exclusively on elite participants aged 21-35 years. The aim of the present study was to examine the heart rate responses of older male orienteers. Thirty-nine competitive male orienteers were divided into three groups: group 1 (international competitive standard, n = 11, age 21-67 years), group 2 (national competitive standard, n = 15, age 24-66 years) and group 3 (club competitive standard, n = 13, age 23-60 years). Each participant had his heart rate monitored during two orienteering races of contrasting technical difficulty. The results were analysed using analysis of covariance, with age as a covariate, and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients to determine whether age was related to the observed heart rate responses. The groups did not differ in their peak (175 +/- 12 beats x min(-1), P = 0.643) or mean (159 +/- 13 beats x min(-1), P = 0.171) heart rates during the races. There was a decline of 6 beats x min(-1) x decade(-1) (P = 0.001) for peak heart rate and 5 beats x min(-1) x decade(-1) (P < 0.001) for mean heart rate. Mean heart rates were 86 +/- 6% of the participants' maximal heart rates and were not associated with age. The orienteers in group 1 displayed a lower (P < 0.005) within-race standard deviation in heart rate (6 +/- 2 beats x min(-1)) than those in groups 2 and 3 (10 +/- 3 and 10 +/- 4 beats x min(-1), respectively). In conclusion, the mean heart rates indicated that all three groups of orienteers ran at a relative high intensity and the international competitive standard orienteers displayed a less variable heart rate, which may have been related to fewer instances of slowing down to relocate and being able to navigate while running at relatively high speeds.

  6. Eating Healthy Ethnic Food

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Tipsheet: Eating Healthy Ethnic Food Trying different ethnic cuisines to give yourself a ... Looking for tips on how to order healthy foods when dining out? The Aim for a Healthy ...

  7. The prevalence of hepatitis A, B and C infection among different ethnic groups in Belize.

    PubMed

    Craig, P G; Bryan, J P; Miller, R E; Reyes, L; Hakre, S; Jaramillo, R; Krieg, R E

    1993-10-01

    Little is known about the prevalence of infection with hepatitis viruses in Belize, Central America. We conducted a serologic survey among members of the Belize Defence Force (BDF), which is composed of the five major ethnic groups in Belize, to estimate prevalence rates of hepatitis A, B, and C among military-aged men and women in Belize. Of approximately 600 men and women in the BDF, 492 (82%) completed a questionnaire and blood collection. Antibody to hepatitis A was found in 94%, with similar rates by age, sex, rank, and ethnicity. Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) was found in 31%. Rates of anti-HBc varied significantly among the ethnic groups with the lowest rates in Mestizo (5%) and Mayan Indians (9%), and significantly higher rates among Creoles (30%) and Garifuna (56%). Rates increased with increasing age from 28% in those 18-24 years old to 35% in those > or = 35 years old (P = 0.07, by chi-square test for trend). Hepatitis B surface antigen was found in 21 (4%) overall. Antibody to hepatitis C was found in two (0.4%). In this young healthy population, exposure to hepatitis A before the age of 18 is almost universal, while exposure to hepatitis B is related to age and ethnic origin.

  8. Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an 'eating in the absence of hunger' paradigm, children's energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother-child dyads (16 boys, Median child age=4.4years, Inter-quartile range=3.7-4.5years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight (at age 3.5-4years) were sourced from existing NOURISH trial data. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to examine longitudinal relationships. Satiety responsiveness and Slowness in eating were inversely associated with energy intake of the lunch meal (partial r=-.40, p=.023, and partial r=-.40, p=.023) and the former was also negatively associated with BMI-for-age Z score (partial r=-.42, p=.015). Food responsiveness and Enjoyment of food were not related to energy intake or BMI Z score. None of the eating behaviours were significantly associated with energy intake of the snacks (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger). The small and predominantly 'healthy weight' sample of children may have limited the ability to detect some hypothesized effects. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence for the predictive validity of two eating behaviours and future research with a larger and more diverse sample should be able to better evaluate the predictive validity of other children's early eating behaviour styles.

  9. Racial and Ethnic Differences in Self-Reported Periodontal Disease in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Weatherspoon, Darien J.; Borrell, Luisa N.; Johnson, Craig W.; Mujahid, Mahasin S.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Adar, Sara D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Racial and ethnic disparities in periodontal disease exist in the United States. This study examined the prevalence of self-reported periodontal disease, and the extent to which racial/ethnic disparities in the reported disease were reduced or eliminated after controlling for various risk factors in a multi-ethnic study population of older adults. Materials and Methods Information from the baseline examination (July 2000–August 2002) of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) was used. Study participants (N=6,256) were age 45–84 years, and identified themselves as either: White, Black, Hispanic, or Chinese. Periodontal disease was assessed by self-report, and demographic, socioeconomic status (SES) indicators, biomedical risk factors, and psychosocial stress factors were used as predictors of self-reported periodontal disease. Results Chinese displayed the highest prevalence of self-reported periodontal disease (39.8%), followed by blacks (32.0%) and whites (26.0%), with Hispanics displaying the lowest prevalence (17.4%). Chinese and black participants had a significantly higher prevalence of disease compared to whites that persisted after adjusting for demographic, SES indicators, biomedical risk factors, and psychosocial stress factors. Hispanics did not differ significantly from whites in their reporting of disease, after such adjustment. Conclusion Racial/ethnic disparities in self-reported periodontal disease persisted after adjusting for all study covariates. This study highlights the need for continued research into the determinants of racial/ethnic disparities in periodontal disease in order to better target interventions aimed at reducing the burden of disease in all segments of our population. PMID:26870845

  10. Modeling the durability of ZOSTAVAX® vaccine efficacy in people ≥60 years of age.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jane H; Betts, Robert F; Morrison, Vicki A; Xu, Ruifeng; Itzler, Robbin F; Acosta, Camilo J; Dasbach, Erik J; Pellissier, James M; Johnson, Gary R; Chan, Ivan S F

    2015-03-17

    Since 2006, the vaccine, ZOSTAVAX(®), has been licensed to prevent herpes zoster. Only limited clinical follow-up data are available to evaluate duration of protection, an important consideration when developing HZ vaccination policy recommendations. Four Poisson regression models were developed based on an integrated analysis of data from the Shingles Prevention Study and its Short Term Persistence extension to estimate the effects of years-since-vaccination and chronological-age on vaccine efficacy among people ≥60 years old. The models included number of HZ cases parsed into categories by chronological-age and time-since-vaccination as the dependent variable with different explanatory variables in each model. In all models, the interaction between vaccine-group and chronological-age was statistically significant indicating that vaccine efficacy decreases with the expected effects of advancing age but the interaction between vaccine-group and time-since-vaccination was not statistically significant indicating that much of the reduction in vaccine efficacy over time-since-vaccination can be explained by increasing age.

  11. Longitudinal patterns of change in eye-hand coordination in children aged 8-16 years.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Lennon J; Telford, Rohan M; Cunningham, Ross B; Semple, Stuart J; Telford, Richard D

    2015-10-01

    Enhanced eye-hand coordination (EHC) is associated with greater participation in physical activity. No longitudinal studies have examined the change in throw-catch EHC from childhood to mid-adolescence. We investigated the development of EHC with an object control test from childhood to mid-adolescence in boys and girls. Evaluated at age 8, 10, 12 and 16 years, EHC was measured as the aggregate success rate of a throw and wall-rebound catch test. The test involved 40 attempts of progressive increasing difficulty, as determined by increased distances from a wall and transitions from two-handed to one-handed catches. Outcomes were treated as quasi-binomial and modelled by generalised linear mixed logistic regression analysis. EHC improved with age from childhood to mid-adolescence, although boys were more adept at each age (p<0.001). The patterns of change in EHC with increasing age varied according to the degree of difficulty of the task (p<0.001); throw and two-handed catch proficiency developing earlier than throw and one-handed catch in both sexes. Boys' EHC was better than girls' as early as age 8 years and male proficiency was maintained through to mid-adolescence. The proficiency of throw and two-handed catch rates developed faster than throw and one-handed catch rates for both sexes.

  12. A Validated Normative Model for Human Uterine Volume from Birth to Age 40 Years

    PubMed Central

    Ginbey, Eleanor; Chowdhury, Moti M.; Bath, Louise E.; Anderson, Richard A.; Wallace, W. Hamish B.

    2016-01-01

    Transabdominal pelvic ultrasound and/or pelvic Magnetic Resonance Imaging are safe, accurate and non-invasive means of determining the size and configuration of the internal female genitalia. The assessment of uterine size and volume is helpful in the assessment of many conditions including disorders of sex development, precocious or delayed puberty, infertility and menstrual disorders. Using our own data from the assessment of MRI scans in healthy young females and data extracted from four studies that assessed uterine volume using transabdominal ultrasound in healthy females we have derived and validated a normative model of uterine volume from birth to age 40 years. This shows that uterine volume increases across childhood, with a faster increase in adolescence reflecting the influence of puberty, followed by a slow but progressive rise during adult life. The model suggests that around 84% of the variation in uterine volumes in the healthy population up to age 40 is due to age alone. The derivation of a validated normative model for uterine volume from birth to age 40 years has important clinical applications by providing age-related reference values for uterine volume. PMID:27295032

  13. Risk Factors for Dementia in a Senegalese Elderly Population Aged 65 Years and Over

    PubMed Central

    Toure, K.; Coume, M.; Ndiaye, M.; Zunzunegui, M. V.; Bacher, Y.; Diop, A. G.; Ndiaye, M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background With the aging of the population, dementia is increasing worldwide. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for dementia in an elderly population utilizing a primary health care service in Dakar, Senegal. Methods Through a cross-sectional study conducted from March 2004 to December 31, 2005, 507 elderly patients aged ≥65 years who came to the Social and Medical Center of IPRES, Dakar, Senegal, were first screened with the screening interview questionnaire ‘Aging in Senegal’. Those who were cognitively impaired underwent a clinical examination to detect dementia. Univariate, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were done. Results The whole population had a mean age of 72.4 years (±5.2) and was mostly male, married, and non-educated. Hypertension, arthritis, and gastrointestinal diseases were the main health conditions reported in the past medical history. Smoking was important while alcohol consumption was rare. Social network was high. Forty-five patients (8.87%) had dementia. In the multivariate model, only advanced age, education, epilepsy, and family history of dementia were independently associated with dementia. Conclusion The risk factors identified are also found in developed countries confirming their role in dementia. It is important to take dementia into consideration in Senegal and to sensitize the community for prevention. PMID:22590476

  14. The Role of Ethnic School Segregation for Adolescents' Religious Salience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van der Bracht, Koen; D'hondt, Fanny; Van Houtte, Mieke; Van de Putte, Bart; Stevens, Peter A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Public concerns over the possible effects of school segregation on immigrant and ethnic majority religiosity have been on the rise over the last few years. In this paper we focus on (1) the association between ethnic school composition and religious salience, (2) intergenerational differences in religious salience and (3) the role of ethnic school…

  15. ADL abilities and vocational competencies: Blue-collar workers aged 45 years and over.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, E

    1995-01-01

    A questionnaire composed of 55 items that addressed activities of daily living (ADL) abilities and 13 basic vocational competencies, such as memory and muscular power, was completed by 48 nondisabled male workers aged ≥45 years. The workers were all engaged in the manufacturing industry. All respondents found the following five tasks easy to do: wring a towel, put arms through sleeves, open and shut a door, turn a tap on and off, and open and shut a sliding door. Among basic vocational competencies, the highest performance, with but a small standard deviation, occurred with the muscular power competency; a low performance with a large standard deviation (P=0.05) occurred with concentration. No age difference was discerned in planning ability, cooperativeness, muscular power, staying power, manual adeptness, and sense of equilibrium, whereas in learning ability, agility, and concentration, people aged ≥65 years showed significantly lower performance (P=0.05). The characteristics of vocational competencies in manufacturing industry workers aged ≥45 years were fond to be linked to ADL abilities, and the effectiveness of the ADL abilities survey, prepared on an experimental basis, was confirmed for the evaluation of vocational competencies.

  16. Optic Nerve Head Parameters in a Turkish Population Over Forty Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Niyaz, Leyla; Yıldırım, Nilgün; Musmul, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the optic disc area and cup area in a normal population over 40 years of age. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was performed in Eskişehir. Fundus photographs were obtained using a nonmydriatic fundus camera. Planimetric measurements of the optic disc and cup area were performed with VK-2 digital imaging software. Optic nerve parameters were then compared between sex and age groups. Results: A total of 3,038 subjects were evaluated. Mean age was 56.6±10.4 years (range 40-91 years). The median disc area of the subjects was 2.87 (2.53-3.23) mm2 in the right eyes and 2.89 (2.55-3.25) mm2 in the left eyes (p<0.001). The median cup area of the subjects was 0.46 mm2 (0.33-0.64 mm2) in the right eyes and 0.44 mm2 (0.33-0.61 mm2) in the left eyes (p<0.001). The differences in disc and cup area between male and female subjects were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusion: We report the normal distribution of disc area and cup area measurements and their association with age and sex. PMID:28058153

  17. PTA scale for children aged 4 to 7 years: Selecting developmentally valid and reliable items.

    PubMed

    Lah, Suncica; David, Pamela; Donohue, Hayley; Epps, Adrienne; Tate, Robyn; Brookes, Naomi

    2017-04-07

    The aim of this study was to select developmentally valid and reliable items for inclusion in criterion-referenced (pass > 90%) posttraumatic amnesia (PTA) scale for children aged 4 to 7 years in a prospective cohort study. Fifty-two typically developing children (26 male/26 female) aged 4 to 7 years were administered a set of 10 items (5 orientation, 5 memory) over 3-4 days. The total score obtained on the set of 10 items had poor developmental validity and test-retest reliability. Nevertheless, individual item analysis identified five items (three orientation and two memory items) that were consistently passed by >90% of the children on each day of testing. For these five items the total scores did not differ significantly either between age groups or between days of testing. Test-retest was extremely high (close to 1). The five items had excellent developmental validity and test-retest reliability. This study identified 5 (3 orientation and 2 memory) items that met our selection criterion and form a new PTA scale, the Sydney PTA scale (SYPTAS), for children aged 4 to 7 years.

  18. Interventions to reduce inequalities in vaccine uptake in children and adolescents aged <19 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Crocker-Buque, Tim; Edelstein, Michael; Mounier-Jack, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    Background In high-income countries, substantial differences exist in vaccine uptake relating to socioeconomic status, gender, ethnic group, geographic location and religious belief. This paper updates a 2009 systematic review on effective interventions to decrease vaccine uptake inequalities in light of new technologies applied to vaccination and new vaccine programmes (eg, human papillomavirus in adolescents). Methods We searched MEDLINE, Embase, ASSIA, The Campbell Collaboration, CINAHL, The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Eppi Centre, Eric and PsychINFO for intervention, cohort or ecological studies conducted at primary/community care level in children and young people from birth to 19 years in OECD countries, with vaccine uptake or coverage as outcomes, published between 2008 and 2015. Results The 41 included studies evaluated complex multicomponent interventions (n=16), reminder/recall systems (n=18), outreach programmes (n=3) or computer-based interventions (n=2). Complex, locally designed interventions demonstrated the best evidence for effectiveness in reducing inequalities in deprived, urban, ethnically diverse communities. There is some evidence that postal and telephone reminders are effective, however, evidence remains mixed for text-message reminders, although these may be more effective in adolescents. Interventions that escalated in intensity appeared particularly effective. Computer-based interventions were not effective. Few studies targeted an inequality specifically, although several reported differential effects by the ethnic group. Conclusions Locally designed, multicomponent interventions should be used in urban, ethnically diverse, deprived populations. Some evidence is emerging for text-message reminders, particularly in adolescents. Further research should be conducted in the UK and Europe with a focus on reducing specific inequalities. PMID:27535769

  19. Gender and ethnic health disparities among the elderly in rural Guangxi, China: estimating quality-adjusted life expectancy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tai; Shi, Wuxiang; Huang, Zhaoquan; Gao, Dong; Guo, Zhenyou; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnic health inequalities for males and females among the elderly have not yet been verified in multicultural societies in developing countries. The aim of this study was to assess the extent of disparities in health expectancy among the elderly from different ethnic groups using quality-adjusted life expectancy. Design A cross-sectional community-based survey was conducted. A total of 6,511 rural elderly individuals aged ≥60 years were selected from eight different ethnic groups in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region of China and assessed for health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The HRQoL utility value was combined with life expectancy at age 60 years (LE60) data by using Sullivan's method to estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy at age 60 years (QALE60) and loss in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for each group. Results Overall, LE60 and QALE60 for all ethnic groups were 20.9 and 18.0 years in men, respectively, and 24.2 and 20.3 years in women. The maximum gap in QALE60 between ethnic groups was 3.3 years in males and 4.6 years in females. The average loss in QALY was 2.9 years for men and 3.8 years for women. The correlation coefficient between LE60 and QALY lost was −0.53 in males and 0.12 in females. Conclusion Women live longer than men, but they suffer more; men have a shorter life expectancy, but those who live longer are healthier. Attempts should be made to reduce suffering in the female elderly and improve longevity for men. Certain ethnic groups had low levels of QALE, needing special attention to improve their lifestyle and access to health care. PMID:27814777

  20. Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3-5 Years, United States 2012.

    PubMed

    Kit, Brian K; Akinbami, Lara J; Isfahani, Neda Sarafrazi; Ulrich, Dale A

    2017-02-14

    Objective Gross motor development in early childhood is important in fostering greater interaction with the environment. The purpose of this study is to describe gross motor skills among US children aged 3-5 years using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Methods We used 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) data, which included TGMD-2 scores obtained according to an established protocol. Outcome measures included locomotor and object control raw and age-standardized scores. Means and standard errors were calculated for demographic and weight status with SUDAAN using sample weights to calculate nationally representative estimates, and survey design variables to account for the complex sampling methods. Results The sample included 339 children aged 3-5 years. As expected, locomotor and object control raw scores increased with age. Overall mean standardized scores for locomotor and object control were similar to the mean value previously determined using a normative sample. Girls had a higher mean locomotor, but not mean object control, standardized score than boys (p < 0.05). However, the mean locomotor standardized scores for both boys and girls fell into the range categorized as "average." There were no other differences by age, race/Hispanic origin, weight status, or income in either of the subtest standardized scores (p > 0.05). Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of US children aged 3-5 years, TGMD-2 mean locomotor and object control standardized scores were similar to the established mean. These results suggest that standardized gross motor development among young children generally did not differ by demographic or weight status.