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Sample records for age examination year

  1. Examining Relative Age Effects in Fundamental Skill Proficiency in British Children Aged 6-11 Years.

    PubMed

    Birch, Samantha; Cummings, Laura; Oxford, Samuel W; Duncan, Michael J

    2016-10-01

    Birch, S, Cummings, L, Oxford, SW, and Duncan, MJ. Examining relative age effects in fundamental skill proficiency in British children aged 6-11 years. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2809-2815, 2016-The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that there is a clustering of birth dates just after the cutoff used for sports selection in age-grouped sports and that in such circumstances, relatively older sportspeople may enjoy maturational and physical advantages over their younger peers. Few studies have examined this issue in nonselective groups of children, and none have examined whether there is evidence of any RAE in skill performance. The aim of this study was to assess whether there were differences in fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency within children placed in age groups according to the school year. Six FMS (sprint, side gallop, balance, jump, catch, and throw) were assessed in 539 school children (258 boys and 281 girls) aged 6-11 years (mean age ± SD = 7.7 ± 1.7 years). We examined differences in these FMS between gender groups and children born in different quarters of the year after controlling for age and body mass index (BMI). For balance, chronological age was significant as a covariate (p = 0.0001) with increases in age associated with increases in balance. Boys had significantly higher sprint mastery compared with girls (p = 0.012), and increased BMI was associated with poorer sprint mastery (p = 0.001). Boys had higher catching mastery than girls (p = 0.003), and children born in Q1 had significantly greater catching mastery than those born in Q2 (p = 0.015), Q3 (p = 0.019), and Q4 (p = 0.01). Results for throwing mastery also indicated higher mastery in boys compared with girls (p = 0.013) and that children born in Q1 had higher throwing proficiency than those born in Q4 (p = 0.038). These results are important if coaches are basing sport selection on measures of skilled performance, particularly in object-control skills. Categorizing children

  2. Routine Eye Examinations for Persons 20-64 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    - stage (early ARM) and a late-stage (AMD). AMD is the leading cause of blindness in developed countries. The prevalence of AMD increases with increasing age. It is estimated that 1% of people 55 years of age, 5% aged 75 to 84 years and 15% 80 years of age and older have AMD. ARM can be diagnosed during fundoscopy (ophthalmoscopy) which is a visual inspection of the retina by a physician or optometrist, or from a photograph of the retina. There is no cure or prevention for ARM. Likewise, there is currently no treatment to restore vision lost due to AMD. However, there are treatments to delay the progression of the disease and further loss of vision. The Technology A periodic oculo-visual assessment is defined “as an examination of the eye and vision system rendered primarily to determine if a patient has a simple refractive error (visual acuity assessment) including myopia, hypermetropia, presbyopia, anisometropia or astigmatism.” This service includes a history of the presenting complaint, past medical history, visual acuity examination, ocular mobility examination, slit lamp examination of the anterior segment, ophthalmoscopy, and tonometry (measurement of IOP) and is completed by either a physician or an optometrist. Review Strategy The Medical Advisory Secretariat conducted a computerized search of the literature in the following databases: OVID MEDLINE, MEDLINE, In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, EMBASE, INAHTA and the Cochrane Library. The search was limited to English-language articles with human subjects, published from January 2000 to March 2006. In addition, a search was conducted for published guidelines, health technology assessments, and policy decisions. Bibliographies of references of relevant papers were searched for additional references that may have been missed in the computerized database search. Studies including participants 20 years and older, population-based prospective cohort studies, population-based cross-sectional studies when

  3. Death Anxiety across the Adult Years: An Examination of Age and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russac, R. J.; Gatliff, Colleen; Reece, Mimi; Spottswood, Diahann

    2007-01-01

    Two studies examined death anxiety across the adult years. In the first study, 304 men and women between 18 and 87 years completed the Collett-Lester Fear of Death scale. Death anxiety peaked in both men and women during their 20s and declined significantly thereafter. However, women displayed a secondary spike during their 50s not seen in men. In…

  4. Hearing levels in US adults aged 20-69 Years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, William J.; Themann, Christa L.; Franks, John R.

    2005-04-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a nationally representative, population-based survey designed to assess the health and nutritional status of the civilian, non-institutionalized US population. Data were collected through a personal interview regarding health history and through physical examination. Earlier NHANES surveys were conducted on a periodic basis; however, in 1999, NHANES began collecting data on a continuing, annual basis. During NHANES I, which ran from 1971-1975, audiometric testing was conducted on adults aged 25-74 years. No subsequent testing of adults was conducted in the NHANES program until 1999, when NHANES began audiometric testing of adults aged 20-69 years. This report examines the hearing levels for adults in the United States and compares them with the hearing data from NHANES I. Hearing levels are grouped by age and are grouped by ethnicity and gender.

  5. Necessity of Periodic Ophthalmological Examinations in Binocular B Class Driving Licence Holders Over 50 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Kurt, Ali; Öktem, Çağlar; Karabıçak Acer, Ayşe; Kocamış, Özkan; Taşdemir, Sedat

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether binocular B class driving licence (BBCDL) holders over 50 years old are in compliance with the BBCDL criteria for visual acuity, to determine the age-based prevalence of ophthalmological disorders reducing visual acuity in this group, and to investigate whether periodic ophthalmological examinations are needed in licence holders over 50 years of age. Materials and Methods: This prospective study enrolled 451 adults over 50 years old having a BBCDL. The study subjects were categorized into 3 age groups as group 1 (51-60 years), group 2 (61-70 years), and group 3 (over 71 years). Results: The mean age of the subjects was 60.02±7.27 years; 338 (74.9%) were male and 113 (25.1%) were female. The BBCDL criteria were met by 353 (78.3%) subjects whereas 98 (21.7%) subjects did not meet them. Eighty-four (85.7%) of 98 patients not meeting BBCDL criteria still drove. The mean age of the subjects meeting BBCDL criteria (58.82±6.77 years) was significantly lower than the subjects not meeting them (64.34±7.40 years) (p<0.001). The most common pathologies in the individuals still driving despite not meeting BBCDL criteria were senile cataract (38.5%) and diabetic retinopathy (23.1%) in group 1, senile cataract (55.3%) and diabetic retinopathy (14.9%) in group 2, and senile cataract (63.6%) and senile macular degeneration+senile cataract (18.2%) in group 3. Conclusion: More than a fifth of individuals over 50 years old did not meet the BBCDL criteria, due predominantly to senile cataract, and the majority of these individuals continue to drive. Therefore, we believe that individuals over 50 years old who have a BBCDL should undergo periodic ophthalmological examinations.

  6. Examining Student-Adult Relationships during K-12 School Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappi, Shelly J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between dependent and independent variables and the effects relationships have on K-12 students as they struggle through life stressors. Thus, the research study was based upon this over arching question: How does having positive student-adult relationships impact a student's ability to cope with life…

  7. First incident hospitalisation for Australian women aged 70 and beyond: A 10 year examination using competing risks.

    PubMed

    Harris, Melissa L; Dolja-Gore, Xenia; Kendig, Hal; Byles, Julie E

    2016-01-01

    There are increasing concerns regarding high hospital use among older adults and the capacity to manage the economic impact of the ageing population trend on healthcare systems. First hospitalisation in old age may act as a catalyst for ongoing intensification of health problems and acute care use. This study examined factors associated with first incident hospitalisation in women aged over 70, accounting for the health inequalities associated with geographic location. Survey data from 3780 women from the 1921 to 1926 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health were matched with the Admitted Patients Data Collection and National Death Index. Days to first event (hospitalisation or death) were modelled using competing risks methods. A total of 3065 (80.3%) women had at least one hospital admission. More than half of the top 15 reasons for first hospitalisation were related to cardiovascular disease, with atrial fibrillation the most common. Proportional subdistribution hazards models showed that first hospital admission was driven by enabling and need factors including asthma/bronchitis diagnosis (HR=1.16; p=0.047), private health insurance (HR=1.16; p=0.004) more than two prescribed medications in previous month (HR=1.31; p=0.001), more than four general practitioner visits in previous year (HR=1.50; p=0.034), lower physical functioning (HR=0.99; p<0.001) and living in an inner regional area (HR=1.17; p=0.003). First overnight hospitalisation was primarily related with potentially preventable and treatable chronic diseases. Primary and secondary strategies aimed at chronic disease generally, and better chronic disease management particularly for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, may play a vital role in disease prevention or delay in readmissions among this population.

  8. Attitude toward own aging in midlife and early old age over a 12-year period: examination of measurement equivalence and developmental trajectories.

    PubMed

    Miche, Martina; Elsässer, Valerie C; Schilling, Oliver K; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2014-09-01

    The Attitude Toward Own Aging Subscale (ATOA) is a frequently used measure of subjective aging. Although ATOA in midlife might assume a preparatory role for psychosocial adjustment in old age, research has been dominated by a focus on older adults. To enable a comparison of developmental trajectories of ATOA between middle-aged and young-old adults, we tested measurement invariance between age groups and over a 12-year study period. In addition, personality variables, health dimensions, and sociodemographic variables were investigated as predictors of developmental trajectories of ATOA. Data came from the Interdisciplinary Longitudinal Study of Adult Development (ILSE) with 2 birth cohorts (1930-1932: n = 500; 1950-1952: n = 501) followed over 12 years. Data analyses were conducted with confirmatory factor analysis for ordered-categorical variables and latent growth models. Support for the assumption of partial measurement invariance of ATOA was found in each age group, but not between age groups. Latent growth models revealed a steady decline in ATOA for young-old individuals, whereas ATOA trajectories in midlife were characterized by interindividual variation. Health variables predicted level of ATOA in the young-old. In midlife ATOA were shaped by a variety of factors. Future studies should be conducted with an awareness of differential item functioning of the ATOA scale across age groups. Furthermore, our results point to a greater modifiability of aging attitudes in middle-aged compared with young-old individuals, thus highlighting the importance of the midlife years in shaping developmental trajectories into old age.

  9. Cardiorespiratory fitness levels among US adults 20-49 years of age: findings from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chia-Yih; Haskell, William L; Farrell, Stephen W; Lamonte, Michael J; Blair, Steven N; Curtin, Lester R; Hughes, Jeffery P; Burt, Vicki L

    2010-02-15

    Data from the 1999-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to describe the distribution of cardiorespiratory fitness and its association with obesity and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) for adults 20-49 years of age without physical limitations or indications of cardiovascular disease. A sample of 7,437 adults aged 20-49 years were examined at a mobile examination center. Of 4,860 eligible for a submaximal treadmill test, 3,250 completed the test and were included in the analysis. The mean maximal oxygen uptake ( max) was estimated as 44.5, 42.8, and 42.2 mL/kg/minute for men 20-29, 30-39, and 40-49 years of age, respectively. For women, it was 36.5, 35.4, and 34.4 mL/kg/minute for the corresponding age groups. Non-Hispanic black women had lower fitness levels than did non-Hispanic white and Mexican-American women. Regardless of gender or race/ethnicity, people who were obese had a significantly lower estimated maximal oxygen uptake than did nonobese adults. Furthermore, a positive association between fitness level and LTPA participation was observed for both men and women. These results can be used to track future population assessments and to evaluate interventions. The differences in fitness status among population subgroups and by obesity status or LTPA can also be used to develop health policies and targeted educational campaigns.

  10. Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate according to the Pulmonary Function of Korean Adults Aged 40 Years and Over: Analysis of the Fifth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Influenza vaccination is an effective strategy to reduce morbidity and mortality, particularly for those who have decreased lung functions. This study was to identify the factors that affect vaccination coverage according to the results of pulmonary function tests depending on the age. In this cross-sectional study, data were obtained from 3,224 adults over the age of 40 who participated in the fifth National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and underwent pulmonary function testing in 2012. To identify the factors that affect vaccination rate, logistic regression analysis was conducted after dividing the subjects into two groups based on the age of 65. Influenza vaccination coverage of the entire subjects was 45.2%, and 76.8% for those aged 65 and over. The group with abnormal pulmonary function had a higher vaccination rate than the normal group, but any pulmonary dysfunction or history of COPD did not affect the vaccination coverage in the multivariate analysis. The subjects who were 40-64 years-old had higher vaccination coverage when they were less educated or with restricted activity level, received health screenings, and had chronic diseases. Those aged 65 and over had significantly higher vaccination coverage only when they received regular health screenings. Any pulmonary dysfunction or having COPD showed no significant correlation with the vaccination coverage in the Korean adult population. PMID:27134491

  11. Awareness of Federal Dietary Guidance in persons aged 16 years and older: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006.

    PubMed

    Wright, Jacqueline D; Wang, Chia-Yih

    2011-02-01

    The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2006 included questions on awareness of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA), the Food Guide Pyramid, and the 5 A Day for Better Health Program. Prevalence of awareness of federal dietary guidance was estimated and differences were tested across demographic traits, health characteristics, and diet-related attitudes and behavior. The continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey uses a nationally representative cross-sectional sample design. The analytic sample consisted of 5,499 persons aged 16 years and older with complete data. Among persons aged 16 years and older, 83.8% had heard of at least one of the initiatives: 49.2% had heard of the DGA, 80.6% had heard of the Food Guide Pyramid, and 51.2% had heard of the 5 A Day program. There was a linear trend of decreasing awareness of at least one of the guidance efforts with increasing age. Differences by sex, race/ethnicity, education, and income were also observed. Differences by body mass index were not statistically significant; however, significant differences were seen with fatalistic beliefs about body weight. Differences by smoking, self-assessed diet quality, and eating out frequency were not statistically significant after adjustment for sex, age, race/ethnicity, education, and income. These results may be useful in promotion of the upcoming edition of the DGA and to suggest population groups that may benefit from strengthened and more innovative education efforts at the public health program level and at the clinic level. PMID:21272706

  12. Normal weight obesity and mortality in United States subjects ≥60 years of age (from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey).

    PubMed

    Batsis, John A; Sahakyan, Karine R; Rodriguez-Escudero, Juan P; Bartels, Stephen J; Somers, Virend K; Lopez-Jimenez, Francisco

    2013-11-15

    Current body mass index (BMI) strata likely misrepresent the accuracy of true adiposity in older adults. Subjects with normal BMI with elevated body fat may metabolically have higher cardiovascular and overall mortality than previously suspected. We identified 4,489 subjects aged ≥60 years (BMI = 18.5 to 25 kg/m(2)) with anthropometric and bioelectrical impedance measurements from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys III (1988 to 1994) and mortality data linked to the National Death Index. Normal weight obesity (NWO) was classified in 2 ways: creation of tertiles with highest percentage of body fat and body fat percent cutoffs (men >25% and women >35%). We compared overall and cardiovascular mortality rates, models adjusted for age, gender, smoking, race, diabetes, and BMI. The final sample included 1,528 subjects, mean age was 70 years, median (interquartile range) follow-up was 12.9 years (range 7.5 to 15.3) with 902 deaths (46.5% cardiovascular). Prevalence of NWO was 27.9% and 21.4% in men and 20.4% and 31.3% in women using tertiles and cutoffs, respectively. Subjects with NWO had higher rates of abnormal cardiovascular risk factors. Lean mass decreased, whereas leptin increased with increasing tertile. There were no gender-specific differences in overall mortality. Short-term mortality (<140 person-months) was higher in women, whereas long-term mortality (>140 person-months) was higher in men. We highlight the importance of considering body fat in gender-specific risk stratification in older adults with normal weight. In conclusion, NWO in older adults is associated with cardiometabolic dysregulation and is a risk for cardiovascular mortality independent of BMI and central fat distribution.

  13. Association between Socioeconomic Status and Cancer Screening in Koreans over 40 Years in Age Based on the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cancer screening in a Korean population aged 40 years or older. Methods This cross-sectional study included 12,303 participants (5,284 men and 7,019 women) who participated in the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported questionnaires were used to assess participant's SES (household income, occupational, and educational status) and cancer screening behavior. Results Compared to the lowest household income group, the odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for overall cancer screening of the highest income group were 2.113 (1.606–2.781) in men and 1.476 (1.157–1.883) in women; those for private cancer screening of the highest income group were 2.446 (1.800–3.324) in men and 2.630 (2.050–3.373) in women, while those for National Cancer Screening Programs (NCSP) in the highest income group were 1.076 (0.805–1.439) in men and 0.492 (0.388–0.623) in women. Compared to manual workers, ORs (95% CIs) for private cancer screening of office workers were 1.300 (1.018–1.660) in men and 0.822 (0.616–1.098) in women. In comparison to the least educated men, OR (95% CI) for private cancer screening of the most educated men was statistically significant (1.530 [1.117–2.095]). Conclusion Higher economic status was associated with higher rates of overall and private cancer screening in both sexes and a lower rate of NCSP in women. Male office workers and more educated individuals underwent private cancer screening at a higher rate than manual workers and less educated individuals, respectively. PMID:27688862

  14. Association between Socioeconomic Status and Cancer Screening in Koreans over 40 Years in Age Based on the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Young

    2016-01-01

    Background We investigated the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and cancer screening in a Korean population aged 40 years or older. Methods This cross-sectional study included 12,303 participants (5,284 men and 7,019 women) who participated in the 2010–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Self-reported questionnaires were used to assess participant's SES (household income, occupational, and educational status) and cancer screening behavior. Results Compared to the lowest household income group, the odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for overall cancer screening of the highest income group were 2.113 (1.606–2.781) in men and 1.476 (1.157–1.883) in women; those for private cancer screening of the highest income group were 2.446 (1.800–3.324) in men and 2.630 (2.050–3.373) in women, while those for National Cancer Screening Programs (NCSP) in the highest income group were 1.076 (0.805–1.439) in men and 0.492 (0.388–0.623) in women. Compared to manual workers, ORs (95% CIs) for private cancer screening of office workers were 1.300 (1.018–1.660) in men and 0.822 (0.616–1.098) in women. In comparison to the least educated men, OR (95% CI) for private cancer screening of the most educated men was statistically significant (1.530 [1.117–2.095]). Conclusion Higher economic status was associated with higher rates of overall and private cancer screening in both sexes and a lower rate of NCSP in women. Male office workers and more educated individuals underwent private cancer screening at a higher rate than manual workers and less educated individuals, respectively.

  15. An Examination on the Quality of Contents of the Cartoons That Children Aged 3-6 Years Preferred to Watch: "The Cartoon I Like Most"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiliçgün, Müge Yurtsever

    2015-01-01

    In this study it was aimed to examine the content quality of cartoons preferred to watch by 3-6 years children. The content quality of the cartoons in current study was investigated under two titles: "themes and futures of characters". Themes of the cartoons were analyzed under three subtitles: reality status, contents and types of…

  16. The California High School Proficiency Examination Six Years After Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Cynthia L.; Padia, William L.

    In 1975 California became the first state to offer an "early exit" proficiency test from high school to persons 16 years of age or older (California law normally requires young persons to attend school until they reach 18 or graduate regularly from high school). More than 87,000 persons have passed the early exit examination; a pass rate of…

  17. Low Economic Status Is Identified as an Emerging Risk Factor for Diabetes Mellitus in Korean Men Aged 30 to 59 Years in Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Bo Kyung; Kim, Sang Wan; Yi, Ka Hee

    2015-01-01

    Background We compared the association between economic status and the prevalence of diabetes mellitus (DM) using large nationwide datasets covering the previous 10 years in Korea. Methods We analyzed the association between economic status and DM using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) data from 2001 to 2010 weighted to represent the Korean population between 30 and 59 years of age. The economic status of participants was classified into quartiles according to monthly family income with an equivalence scale. Results In men, the prevalence of diabetes in the lowest income quartile (Q1) was significantly higher than that in the other quartiles in 2008 (age and body mass index-adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.846; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.126 to 3.027; P=0.015), 2009 (OR, 1.706; 95% CI, 1.094 to 2.661; P=0.019), and 2010 (OR, 1.560; 95% CI, 1.024 to 2.377; P=0.039) but not in 2001 or 2005. The data indicated that classification in the lowest economic status was an independent risk factor for diabetes even after adjusting for abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and education level in men of KNHANES 2008 to 2010. Although economic status was significantly associated with abdominal obesity, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension in women (P<0.001), there was no significant association between economic status and DM in women. Conclusion Korean men between 30 and 59 years of age with the lowest economic status had a significantly higher prevalence of DM in 2008 to 2010 even after adjusting for other risk factors. PMID:25922808

  18. Gendered Perceptions of Aging: An Examination of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; von Rohr, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Few studies examine how the gendered nature of aging impacts young adults--shaping their images of later life, attitudes toward elderly persons, aging anxieties, and conceptions of the start of "old age." We examine gender differences in young adults' views of elders and the aging process using a survey of college students and content analysis of…

  19. Using Dental Age to Estimate Chronological Age in Czech Children Aged 3-18 Years.

    PubMed

    Ginzelová, Kristina; Dostálová, Taťjana; Eliášová, Hana; Vinšů, Alex; Buček, Antonín; Bučková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The Demirjian methods to determine dental age are based on analysis of orthopantograms. The dental age estimation is based on establishing the tooth development stages. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of estimation of dental age by Demirjian in the use of all of his four methods. 505 Czech healthy boys and girls aged 3 to 18 years were examined radiographically at the Department of Stomatology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It was mentioned the factors of underlying diseases influence the accuracy of the dental age estimation. For statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics was used to compare deviations of the mean values of chronological and dental age in each age group. The resulting difference between dental age and chronological age is not significant in both genders only when using both Demirjian 7-teeth methods of 1973 and 1976. Therefore these may be most appropriately used for forensic age estimation. There are shown standard deviation differences in different countries. Demirjian's original 7-teeth method from 1973 and Demirjian's revised 4-teeth method from 1976 appear to be the best methods for calculating the dental age of healthy Czech children of both genders. PMID:26093668

  20. Gendered perceptions of aging: an examination of college students.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anne E; von Rohr, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Few studies examine how the gendered nature of aging impacts young adults--shaping their images of later life, attitudes toward elderly persons, aging anxieties, and conceptions of the start of "old age." We examine gender differences in young adults' views of elders and the aging process using a survey of college students and content analysis of student-drawn sketches of elders (N = 391). Results indicate that both genders hold more positive images of elderly women than men; however, they view "old age" as beginning at a younger age for women. In addition, we find that, compared with men, women report later starts of "old age" for both genders and more favorable attitudes toward elders, but also greater aging anxiety.

  1. Association between Body Mass Index, Waist Circumference and Prevalence of Microalbuminuria in Korean Adults of Age 30 Years and Older without Diabetes, Hypertension, Renal Failure, or Overt Proteinuria: The 2013 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Woo-Jeong; Lee, Gong-Myung; Hwang, Ji-Hye; Lee, Mi-Na

    2016-01-01

    Background Microalbuminuria and obesity markers are known risk factors for cardiovascular or renal disease. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of microalbuminuria according to body mass index (BMI) and abdominal obesity criteria. Methods The study subjects included 3,979 individuals aged 30 years or older who did not have diabetes, hypertension, renal failure, or overt proteinuria, from among those who participated in The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in 2013, a cross-sectional, nationally representative, stratified survey. Microalbuminuria was defined as a urinary albumin to creatinine ratio of 30 to 300 mg/g. BMI and waist circumference were classified according to the Asia-Pacific criteria. Results The prevalence of microalbuminuria was found to be 5.1%. In the normoalbuminuria group, 3.4%, 41.7%, 24%, 27.6%, and 3.2% of participants were included in the underweight, normal, overweight, obesity 1, and obesity 2 groups, respectively. These percentages in the microalbuminuria group were 7.1%, 34.5%, 19.2%, 28.6%, and 10.6%, respectively (P<0.001). The waist circumference in men was 21.4% in the normoalbuminuria group and 36.5% in the microalbuminuria group (P=0.004). Logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the relationship between the presence of microalbuminuria and BMI or waist circumference groups. The risk of microalbuminuria was significant only in the underweight group (odds ratio, 13.22; 95% confidence interval, 2.55–68.63; P=0.002) after adjusting for confounding factors, abdominal obesity was not significantly associated with microalbuminuria. Conclusion The prevalence of microalbuminuria in a general population in Korea was associated with underweight in men and was not associated with waist circumference in either men or women. PMID:26885324

  2. Teenagers (15-17 years of age)

    MedlinePlus

    ... until 18-21 years of age. Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ... up mentally healthy and drug-free. Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ...

  3. Psychology and Aging: The First 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Zacks, Rose T.; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Haley, William E.

    2006-01-01

    This article provides a review of the first 20 years of Psychology and Aging, the American Psychological Association’s first and only scholarly journal devoted to the topic of aging. The authors briefly summarize its history, its contributions to the study of aging, and its broader status as a scholarly publication. One theme highlighted in our review is the diversity of content in the journal throughout its history. Another is the strong impact that articles published in the journal have had on both basic and applied topics in aging. Efforts to encompass the breadth of topics and methodologies in aging research while retaining excellent quality remain the exciting but essential challenge for Psychology and Aging. PMID:16594786

  4. Psychology and Aging: the first 20 years.

    PubMed

    Zacks, Rose T; Blanchard-Fields, Fredda; Haley, William E

    2006-03-01

    This article provides a review of the first 20 years of Psychology and Aging, the American Psychological Association's first and only scholarly journal devoted to the topic of aging. The authors briefly summarize its history, its contributions to the study of aging, and its broader status as a scholarly publication. One theme highlighted in our review is the diversity of content in the journal throughout its history. Another is the strong impact that articles published in the journal have had on both basic and applied topics in aging. Efforts to encompass the breadth of topics and methodologies in aging research while retaining excellent quality remain the exciting but essential challenge for Psychology and Aging.

  5. Managing Age Discrimination: An Examination of the Techniques Used when Seeking Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Ellie D.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines the age-related management techniques used by older workers in their search for employment. Design and Methods: Data are drawn from interviews with individuals aged 45-65 years (N = 30). Results: Findings indicate that participants develop "counteractions" and "concealments" to manage perceived age discrimination.…

  6. Examining Play among Young Children in Single-Age and Multi-Age Preschool Classroom Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youhne, Mia Song

    2009-01-01

    Advocates for multi-age classrooms claim multi-age groupings benefit children (Brynes, Shuster, & Jones, 1994). Currently, there is a lack of research examining play among students in multi-age classrooms. If indeed there is a positive benefit of play among children, research is needed to examine these behaviors among and between young children in…

  7. Stimulation Activities: Age Birth to Five Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloomgarden, Dave

    This handbook provides a collection of stimulation activities that encourage a child's physical and mental growth from birth to five years of age. Emphasis is placed on making stimulation aids that are inexpensive or can be made from scrap materials. Advice is given about ways to carry out designated activities. All activities have been tried and…

  8. Brief Report: Pregnant by Age 15 Years and Substance Use Initiation among US Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.; Krauss, Melissa J.; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Schootman, Mario; Cottler, Linda B.; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2012-01-01

    We examined substance use onset and associations with pregnancy by age 15 years. Participants were girls ages 15 years or younger (weighted n = 8319) from the 1999-2003 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBS). Multivariable logistic regression examined pregnancy as a function of substance use onset (i.e., age 10 years or younger, 11-12,…

  9. ‘It’s on your conscience all the time’: a systematic review of qualitative studies examining views on obesity among young people aged 12–18 years in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Rebecca W; Caird, Jenny; Dickson, Kelly; Vigurs, Carol; Thomas, James

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the perspectives of young people in the UK on obesity, body size, shape and weight. Design Systematic review of qualitative studies using thematic synthesis. Data sources Sensitive searches of 18 electronic databases from 1997 to February 2010 supplemented by grey literature searches. Study selection Studies produced since 1997 using qualitative methods to collect perspectives of people aged 12–18 years in the UK, reporting methods for data collection or analysis. Studies of people with eating disorders and those rated low in reliability and usefulness were excluded. Results Searches identified 30 studies involving over 1400 young people from a range of contexts. Young people of all sizes placed considerable emphasis on personal responsibility, and on the social, rather than health implications of being overweight. Young people with experience of obesity described severe, unrelenting, size-related abuse and isolation. Regardless of their own size, young people were judgemental of individuals who were overweight, but those with experience of obesity described an environment that contained multiple barriers to weight loss. Only one study asked young people directly what might support them to have a healthy body size. Study findings were configured under three main themes, labelled with quotes from included studies: general perceptions of size and society's responses (‘It's on your conscience all the time’); the experiences of young people who were overweight (‘If I had the choice I wouldn't be this size’) and these larger young people's experiences of trying to loose weight and suggestions for action (‘Make sure, even when it's hard, you've got people there’). Conclusions The perspectives of young people in the UK, when synthesised across the spectrum of body sizes, paint a picture of a stigmatising and abusive social world. Research and policy need to engage young people actively so as to address the social implications of obesity

  10. Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years).

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Leblanc, Allana G; Carson, Valerie; Choquette, Louise; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Dillman, Carrie; Duggan, Mary; Gordon, Mary Jane; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Kho, Michelle E; Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Leblanc, Claire; Murumets, Kelly; Okely, Anthony D; Reilly, John J; Stearns, Jodie A; Timmons, Brian W; Spence, John C

    2012-04-01

    The Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology (CSEP), with assistance from multiple partners, stakeholders, and researchers, developed the first Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0-4 years). These national guidelines are in response to a call from health and health care professionals, child care providers, and fitness practitioners for guidance on sedentary behaviour in the early years. The guideline development process followed the Appraisal of Guidelines for Research Evaluation (AGREE) II framework. The recommendations are informed by evidence from a systematic review that examined the relationships between sedentary behaviour (predominantly screen time) and health indicators (healthy body weight, bone and skeletal health, motor skill development, psychosocial health, cognitive development, and cardio-metabolic disease risk factors) for three age groups (infants aged <1 year; toddlers aged 1-2 years; preschoolers aged 3-4 years). Evidence from the review was assessed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. The new guidelines include a preamble to provide context, followed by the specific recommendations. The final guidelines benefitted from extensive on-line consultations with input from >900 domestic and international stakeholders, end-users, and key informants. The final guidelines state: for healthy growth and development, caregivers should minimize the time infants (aged <1 year), toddlers (aged 1-2 years), and preschoolers (aged 3-4 years) spend being sedentary during waking hours. This includes prolonged sitting or being restrained (e.g., stroller, high chair) for more than 1 h at a time. For those under 2 years, screen time (e.g., TV, computer, electronic games) is not recommended. For children 2-4 years, screen time should be limited to under 1 h per day; less is better.

  11. Ageing horses by an examination of their incisor teeth: an (im)possible task?

    PubMed

    Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Lauwers, H

    1996-03-30

    It is generally considered that the age of a horse can be determined by examining its incisor teeth. However, the criteria used to determine age from dental configurations differ widely. The existence of this variety of rules and guidelines was the challenge for the present examination. Detailed descriptions of the incisor teeth of 212 horses of registered age were recorded and the results were compared with the age criteria of various authors. The time at which teeth were shed and the appearance of dental stars seemed to be more reliable features than the disappearance of the cups. The disappearance of the marks occurred four years later than usually stated. Other criteria, such as the presence of the seven-year notch and Galvayne's groove, were too variable and inconsistent to be reliable for the determination of age. PMID:8730689

  12. Ageing horses by an examination of their incisor teeth: an (im)possible task?

    PubMed

    Muylle, S; Simoens, P; Lauwers, H

    1996-03-30

    It is generally considered that the age of a horse can be determined by examining its incisor teeth. However, the criteria used to determine age from dental configurations differ widely. The existence of this variety of rules and guidelines was the challenge for the present examination. Detailed descriptions of the incisor teeth of 212 horses of registered age were recorded and the results were compared with the age criteria of various authors. The time at which teeth were shed and the appearance of dental stars seemed to be more reliable features than the disappearance of the cups. The disappearance of the marks occurred four years later than usually stated. Other criteria, such as the presence of the seven-year notch and Galvayne's groove, were too variable and inconsistent to be reliable for the determination of age.

  13. New reference data on bone mineral density and the prevalence of osteoporosis in Korean adults aged 50 years or older: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Shik; Bae, Su-Hyun; Lee, Seung Hwa; Lee, Jungun; Lee, Dong Ryul

    2014-11-01

    This cross-sectional study was performed to investigate the reference values for bone mineral density (BMD) measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the prevalence of osteoporosis in the Korean population by applying domestic reference data. In total, 25,043 Korean adults ≥20 yr of age (11,792 men and 13,251 women) participated in the study. The BMDs of the total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine were measured by DXA (Discovery-W, Hologic Inc.), and subjects with a BMD - 2.5 standard deviations or lower than the mean BMD for young adults (20-29 yr old) were considered to have osteoporosis. When applying the new reference values determined in this study from Korean subjects, the overall prevalence of osteoporosis increased in men aged ≥50 yr compared with that provided by the DXA manufacturer from Japanese subjects (12.2% vs. 7.8%, P<0.001) and decreased in postmenopausal women aged ≥50 yr (32.9% vs. 38.7%, P<0.001). According to the findings of this study, use of the reference values provided by the DXA manufacturer has resulted in the underdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean men and the overdiagnosis of osteoporosis in Korean women. Our data will serve as valuable reference standards for the diagnosis and management for osteoporosis in the Korean population.

  14. Examining age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task.

    PubMed

    Czaja, S J; Sharit, J; Ownby, R; Roth, D L; Nair, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task by using a simulated real-world task typical of those performed by customer service representatives. The study also investigated the influence of task experience and the relationships between cognitive abilities and task performance. One hundred seventeen participants from 3 age groups, younger (20-39 years). middle-aged (40-59 years), and older (60-75 years), performed the task for 3 days. Significant age differences were found for all measures of task performance with the exception of navigational efficiency and number of problems correctly navigated per attempt. There were also effects of task experience. The findings also indicated significant direct and indirect relations between component cognitive abilities and task performance.

  15. Examining age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task.

    PubMed

    Czaja, S J; Sharit, J; Ownby, R; Roth, D L; Nair, S

    2001-12-01

    This study examined age differences in performance of a complex information search and retrieval task by using a simulated real-world task typical of those performed by customer service representatives. The study also investigated the influence of task experience and the relationships between cognitive abilities and task performance. One hundred seventeen participants from 3 age groups, younger (20-39 years). middle-aged (40-59 years), and older (60-75 years), performed the task for 3 days. Significant age differences were found for all measures of task performance with the exception of navigational efficiency and number of problems correctly navigated per attempt. There were also effects of task experience. The findings also indicated significant direct and indirect relations between component cognitive abilities and task performance. PMID:11766912

  16. An Examination of Compulsory School Attendance Ages and High School Dropout and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Rebecca N.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly popular, but underresearched, initiative aimed at reducing high school dropout is raising the compulsory school attendance age. This study used a national data set from academic years 2001-02 to 2005-06 to examine the grade level at which students drop out, rates of dropout over time, and high school completion by state, region of…

  17. An Examination of the Relative Age Effect in Developmental Girls' Hockey in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Kristy L.; Weir, Patricia L.

    2013-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) suggests that athletes may be provided with greater opportunities for success depending on the position of their birthdate in a sport's selection year. While the effect has been well established in men's sports, less is known about women's sports. This study examined the RAE in developmental girls'…

  18. Mammography in asymptomatic women aged 40-49 years

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Flávio Xavier; Katz, Leila; Souza, Alex Sandro Rolland; Amorim, Melania Maria Ramos

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To assess findings of mammography of and interventions resulting from breast cancer screening in women aged 40-49 years with no increased risk (typical risk) of breast cancer. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated women aged 40-49 years who underwent mammography screening in a mastology reference center in Recife, PE, Northeastern Brazil, between January 2010 and October 2011. Women with breast-related complaints, positive findings in the physical examination, or high risk of breast cancer were excluded. RESULTS The 1,000 mammograms performed were classified into the following Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) categories BI-RADS 0, 232; BI-RADS 1, 294; BI-RADS 2, 294; BI-RADS 3, 16; BI-RADS 4A, 2; BI-RADS 5, 1. There was one case of grade II invasive ductal carcinoma and various interventions, including 469 ultrasound scans, 53 referrals to mastologists, 11 cytological examinations, and 8 biopsies. CONCLUSIONS Mammography screening in women aged 40-49 years with typical risk of breast cancer led to the performance of other interventions. However, it also resulted in increased costs without demonstrable efficacy in decreasing mortality. PMID:26039396

  19. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations. PMID:21404978

  20. Health maintenance in school-aged children: Part I. History, physical examination, screening, and immunizations.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Locke, Amy B; Skye, Eric P

    2011-03-15

    The goals of the well-child examination in school-aged children (kindergarten through early adolescence) are promoting health, detecting disease, and counseling to prevent injury and future health problems. A complete history should address any concerns from the patient and family and screen for lifestyle habits, including diet, physical activity, daily screen time (e.g., television, computer, video games), hours of sleep per night, dental care, and safety habits. School performance can be used for developmental surveillance. A full physical examination should be performed; however, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against routine scoliosis screening and testicular examination. Children should be screened for obesity, which is defined as a body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex, and resources for comprehensive, intensive behavioral interventions should be provided to children with obesity. Although the evidence is mixed regarding screening for hypertension before 18 years of age, many experts recommend checking blood pressure annually beginning at three years of age. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends vision and hearing screening annually or every two years in school-aged children. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening for dyslipidemia in children of any age, or screening for depression before 12 years of age. All children should receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily, with higher doses indicated in children with vitamin D deficiency. Children who live in areas with inadequate fluoride in the water (less than 0.6 ppm) should receive a daily fluoride supplement. Age-appropriate immunizations should be given, as well as any missed immunizations.

  1. Age at exposure versus years of exposure.

    PubMed

    Seidman, H

    1985-05-01

    The pattern of incidence rates according to age for many forms of cancer has been found to be in reasonable accord with the equation or some modification of it: It = btk, where It is the incidence rate at age t, and b and k are constants. An alternative equation postulates that the risk of cancer is determined not by the age of a person but by the length of time exposed to a carcinogenic agent: It = b(t-w)k, where t-w represents the "effective exposure" between first exposure and clinical evidence of cancer. Mesothelioma rates in asbestos insulation workers were strongly related to time from onset of exposure regardless of age at first exposure. However, the same pattern was not evident for lung cancer mortality in the same workers compared with blue collar worker controls from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study I. Lung cancer mortality by attained rates and by duration of smoking were shown for current smokers of cigarettes only for the Cancer Society study, classified by age at which they started smoking. Lung cancer results were also given for men who never smoked regularly.

  2. The age associations of blood pressure, cholesterol and glucose: analysis of health examination surveys from international populations

    PubMed Central

    Pelizzari, Pamela M; Lin, John K; Cowan, Melanie J; Stevens, Gretchen A; Farzadfar, Farshad; Khang, Young-Ho; Lu, Yuan; Riley, Leanne M; Lim, Stephen S; Ezzati, Majid

    2014-01-01

    Background The age-association of cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be partially because its metabolic risk factors tend to rise with age. Few studies have analyzed age-associations of multiple metabolic risks in the same population, especially in nationally representative samples. We examined worldwide variations in the age associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP), total cholesterol (TC), and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Methods and Results We used individual records from 83 nationally or sub-nationally representative health examination surveys in 52 countries to fit a linear model to risk factor data between ages 30-64 years for SBP and FPG, and between 30-54 years for TC. We report the cross-country variation of the slope and intercept of this relationship. We also assessed non-linear associations in older ages. Between 30 and 64 years of age, SBP increased by 1.7-11.6 mmHg per ten years of age and FPG increased by 0.8-20.4 mg/dL per ten years of age in different countries and in the two sexes. Between 30 and 54 years of age, TC increased by 0.2-22.4 mg/dL per ten years of age in different surveys and in the two sexes. For all risk factors and in most countries, risk factor levels rose more steeply among women than among men, especially for TC. On average, there was a flattening of age-SBP relationship in older ages; TC and FPG age associations reversed in older ages, leading to lower levels in older ages than in middle ages. Conclusions The rise with age of major metabolic CVD risk factors varies substantially across populations, especially for FPG and TC. TC rises more steeply in high-income countries and FPG in the Oceania countries, the Middle East, and the US. The SBP age association had no specific income or geographical pattern. PMID:22492580

  3. Re-Examining the Relationship between Age and Voluntary Turnover

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Thomas W. H.; Feldman, Daniel C.

    2009-01-01

    In their quantitative review of the literature, Healy, Lehman, and McDaniel [Healy, M. C., Lehman, M., & McDaniel, M. A. (1995). Age and voluntary turnover: A quantitative review. "Personnel Psychology, 48", 335-345] concluded that age is only weakly related to voluntary turnover (average r = -0.08). However, with the significant changes in…

  4. EXAMINING THE EFFECT OF SMILE INTENSITY ON AGE PERCEPTIONS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ze; He, Xin; Liu, Fan

    2015-08-01

    Research has demonstrated the positive effects of smiles on interpersonal perceptions of attractiveness, likability, and friendliness. A possible mechanism underlying the effects of smiles is babyfacedness. Four studies were conducted with 1,235 participants. In Study 1, 646 participants were assigned to one of the six levels of smile intensity and responded to the measures of age perception and perceived babyfacedness. Compared to the neutral expression, the maximal smile reduced age estimations and this effect was mediated by perceived babyfacedness. In Study 2, 59 respondents' responses indicated that a maximal smile reduced the perception of age. In Study 3, 318 respondents estimated the age of models in different sex and levels of smile intensity. Maximal smiles reduced age estimations. In Study 4, 125 students and 87 non-students were randomly assigned to one of the three levels of smile intensity and provided age estimations. Replicating previous findings, maximal smiles reduced age estimations. Consistent results emerged from the various contexts, models, and samples, as well as in a pooled analysis.

  5. Physical activity in Dublin children aged 7–9 years

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, J; Gormley, J; Bell, C

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To investigate the amount of regular activity and time spent in sedentary occupations in children aged 7–9 years. Sex differences in levels of activity and time and facilities for physical education at school were also examined. Methods—A 10% sample of Dublin National Schools were selected. Parents of children in second class were surveyed. The questionnaire used was a modification of the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents. Teachers of second class were questioned about the time and facilities for physical education in schools. Results—Some 39% of children were participating in hard exercise for at least 20 minutes three or more times a week, with fewer girls (28%) than boys (53%) contributing to this result. A further 57% of children were engaging in at least 20 minutes of light exercise three or more times a week, with no sex differences. Estimated energy expenditure in regular activity was higher in boys than girls. Most (78%) of the children were spending one to three hours a day sedentary in front of a screen. Conclusions—This study provides comprehensive data on physical activity levels in Dublin schoolchildren aged 7–9 years. The amount of inactivity is of concern. Even at this young age, boys are reported to participate in more physical activity than girls. Key Words: physical activity; exercise; children PMID:11477025

  6. Examining genotypic variation in autism spectrum disorder and its relationship to parental age and phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Geier, David A; Kern, Janet K; Sykes, Lisa K; Geier, Mark R

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies on genetic testing of chromosomal abnormalities in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) found that ~80% have negative genetic test results (NGTRs) and ~20% have positive genetic test results (PGTRs), of which ~7% were probable de novo mutations (PDNMs). Research suggests that parental age is a risk factor for an ASD diagnosis. This study examined genotypic variation in ASD and its relationship to parental age and phenotype. Methods Phenotype was derived from detailed clinical information, and genotype was derived from high-resolution blood chromosome and blood whole-genome copy number variant genetic testing on a consecutive cohort (born: 1983–2009) of subjects diagnosed with ASD (N=218). Results Among the subjects examined, 80.3% had NGTRs and 19.7% had PGTRs, of which 6.9% had PDNMs. NGTR subjects were born more recently (the risk of PDNMs decreasing by 12% per more recent birth year) and tended to have an increased male–female ratio compared to PDNM subjects. PDNM subjects had significantly increased mean parental age and paternal age at subject’s birth (the risk of a PDNM increasing by 7%–8% per year of parental or paternal age) compared to NGTR subjects. PGTR and NGTR subjects showed significant improvements in speech/language/communication with increasing age. PGTR subjects showed significant improvements in sociability, a core feature of an ASD diagnosis, with increasing age, whereas NGTR subjects showed significant worsening in sociability with increasing age. Conclusion This study helps to elucidate different phenotypic ASD subtypes and may even indicate the need for differential diagnostic classifications. PMID:27555794

  7. [The new legal marriage age: 21 years].

    PubMed

    Tallon, F

    1992-12-01

    In Rwanda, Presidential Decree No. 102/05 of March 13, 1992 executed Law No. 42/1988, which was not enforced after its passage in October 1988. Its principal provisions relate to civil marriage. Only monogamous civil marriage is recognized by law. Civil marriage is the voluntary union of a man and woman. A man and woman younger than 21 cannot marry except for grave reasons. Consanguineous marriages down to the seventh line of the family tree are prohibited. Other prohibited marriages include marriages between a person and his/her parents-in-law, an adoptive parent and the adopted child, an adoptive parent and descendants of the adopted child, the spouse of an adoptive parent and the adopted child, adopted children of the same adoptive parent, and an adopted child and a child of the adoptive parent. No one can remarry before annulment or dissolution of the preceding marriage. The wife cannot remarry before 300 days have passed since the end of the preceding marriage in case of pregnancy. At the end of the 300 days, she must have a medical certificate established by an ad hoc commission attesting that she is or is not pregnant. Before the wedding, the civil service officer posts at the civil state bureau information on future spouses and where the wedding will take place. The most important issue to emerge from this law is the legal marriage age being 21 rather than 18. The legislator set it at 21 as a means to realize objectives of the population policy. It favors a fertility slow-down. Some persons will say that this new law will have little effect on fertility. It is perhaps true since the last population census shows that the mean age at first union is almost 23 and civil marriage is only one of three existing forms of union.

  8. Aging in Place in a Retirement Community: 90+ Year Olds.

    PubMed

    Paganini-Hill, Annlia

    2013-01-01

    Aging in place, an image of growing old in one's home and maintaining one's daily routine, is desired by most older adults. To identify variables promoting such independent living in the oldest-old, we examined the association between living situation of a population-based cohort of 90+ year olds with health and lifestyle variables. Of 1485 participants, 53% still lived in their home at a retirement community designed to foster wellness. Those living at home tended to be healthier, with smaller proportions having chronic diseases or hospitalizations in the preceding year and a greater proportion having normal functional ability. Dementia was the chronic disease most significantly related to living situation. In addition to not having dementia, not using a wheelchair or bath aid, receiving meals on wheels, and being married were jointly related to living at home. With the help of family and friends and with a medical and social support system, many 90+ year olds can age in place. This is often because they have a caregiving spouse or paid caregiver.

  9. Examining Strategies to Build and Sustain Healthy Aging Programming Collaboratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altpeter, Mary; Schneider, Ellen Caylor; Whitelaw, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Background: Community collaboratives provide a means to build local capacity, reduce service fragmentation and duplication, maximize efficiency, and create synergies for "systems change". But what are the collaborative practices that aging services providers and other stakeholders employ for "system change" and…

  10. Examining the Relation between Hearing Loss and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefferly, Michael

    2009-01-01

    A decline in social engagement has a negative impact on numerous elements considered critical for successful aging. Because many social and productive activities require effective communication skills for individuals to remain fully engaged, it was hypothesized that self-perceived hearing problems limit the frequency of engagement in social and…

  11. Pregnancy Outcome of Multiparous Women Aged over 40 Years.

    PubMed

    Ates, Seda; Batmaz, Gonca; Sevket, Osman; Molla, Taner; Dane, Cem; Dane, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of maternal age on prenatal and obstetric outcome in multiparaous women. Materials and Methods. A retrospective case control study was conducted, including women aged 40 years and over (study group, n = 97) who delivered at 20 week's gestation or beyond and women aged 20-29 years (control group, n = 97). Results. The mean age of women in the study group was 41.2 ± 1.7 years versus 25.4 ± 2.3 years in the control group. Advanced maternal age was associated with a significantly higher rate of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, fetal complication, and 5-minute Apgar scores <7 (P < 0.05). Caeserean section rate, incidence of placental abruption, preterm delivery, and neonatal intensive care unit admission were more common in the older group, but the differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions. Advanced maternal age is related to maternal and neonatal complications.

  12. Age differences in health care spending, fiscal year 1977.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R M; Fisher, C R

    1979-01-01

    This report of health care spending in fiscal year 1977 reveals that of the $142.6 billion spent by the Nation for personal health care in fiscal year 1977, 29 percent was spent for those aged 65 or older, 59 percent for those aged 19-64, and 13 percent for those below age 19. The average health bill reached $1,745 for the aged, $661 for the intermediate age group, and $253 for the young. Public funds financed 67 percent of the health expenses of the aged, with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 61 percent. More than two-thirds of the health expenses of the young and 71 percent of the expenses of those aged 19-64 were paid by private sources. Third-party payments met 68 percent of the health expenditures of all those under age 65. PMID:107600

  13. Association between energy-dense food consumption at 2 years of age and diet quality at 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Vilela, Sofia; Oliveira, Andreia; Ramos, Elisabete; Moreira, Pedro; Barros, Henrique; Lopes, Carla

    2014-04-14

    The present study aimed to evaluate the association between the consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age and the consumption of foods and diet quality at 4 years of age. The sample included 705 children evaluated at 2 and 4 years of age, as part of the population-based birth cohort Generation XXI (Porto, Portugal). Data on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors of both children and mothers were collected by face-to-face interviews. The weight and height of children were measured by trained professionals. Based on FFQ, four energy-dense food groups were defined: soft drinks; sweets; cakes; salty snacks. A healthy eating index was developed using the WHO dietary recommendations for children (2006) aged 4 years. The associations were evaluated through Poisson regression models. After adjustment for maternal age and education, child's carer, child's siblings and child's BMI, higher consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was found to be associated with higher consumption of the same foods 2 years later. An inverse association was found between the intake (≥ median) of soft drinks (incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 0.74, 95% CI 0.58, 0.95), salty snacks (IRR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.65, 1.00) and sweets (IRR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.58, 0.91) at 2 years of age and the consumption of fruit and vegetables at 4 years of age (≥ 5 times/d). Weekly and daily consumption of energy-dense foods at 2 years of age was associated with a lower healthy eating score at 4 years of age (IRR = 0.75, 95% CI 0.58, 0.96; IRR = 0.56, 95% CI 0.41, 0.77, respectively). The consumption of energy-dense foods at young ages is negatively associated with the diet quality of children a few years later.

  14. Early Learning Left Out: An Examination of Public Investments in Education and Development by Child Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Charles; Elias, Victor; Stein, Debbie; Schaefer, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the most comprehensive picture, to date, of public investments in the education and development of children by three age groupings--the early learning years (roughly 0-5), the school-aged years (roughly 6-18), and the college-aged years (roughly 19-23). It is based upon detailed analysis of state, federal, and school district…

  15. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The results of structural evaluations on several parachute systems were examined to determine if any trends could be found that would indicate significant aging in the materials. All of the parachutes were more than 20 years old. Five 64 ft diameter parachutes were evaluated along with three 16.5 ft diameter ribbon parachutes and one 4 ft diameter guide surface parachute. Another group included six 48 ft diameter ribbon parachutes, two 4 ft diameter guide surface parachutes, and two 16.5 ft diameter extraction ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Data were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. Generally speaking, after 25 years the material properties of the 64 ft parachutes were within specifications. The same generalization cannot be made for the 48 ft parachutes which were about 23 years old. The explanation for their differences may lie in their respective histories. 10 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Age differences in health care spending, fiscal year 1976.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R M; Mueller, M S; Fisher, C R

    1977-08-01

    Of the $120.4 billion spent by the Nation for personal health care in fiscal year 1976, 29% was spent for those aged 65 or older, 15% for those under age 19, and the remaining 56% for those aged 19-64. The average health bill reached $1,521 for the aged, $547 for the intermediate age group, and $249 for the young. Public funds financed 68% of the health expenses of the aged with Medicare and Medicaid together accounting for 59%. Private sources paid 74% of the health expenses of the young and 70% of the expenses of those aged 19-64. Third-party payments met 65% of the health expenditures of all those under age 65. PMID:408934

  17. The stability of intelligence from age 11 to age 90 years: the Lothian birth cohort of 1921.

    PubMed

    Deary, Ian J; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M

    2013-12-01

    As a foundation for studies of human cognitive aging, it is important to know the stability of individual differences in cognitive ability across the life course. Few studies of cognitive ability have tested the same individuals in youth and old age. We examined the stability and concurrent and predictive validity of individual differences in the same intelligence test administered to the same individuals (the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1921, N = 106) at ages 11 and 90 years. The correlation of Moray House Test scores between age 11 and age 90 was .54 (.67 when corrected for range restriction). This is a valuable foundation for estimating the extent to which cognitive-ability differences in very old age are accounted for by the lifelong stable trait and by the causes of cognitive change across the life course. Moray House Test scores showed strong concurrent and predictive validity with "gold standard" cognitive tests at ages 11 and 90.

  18. Multimodal Transcription of Video: Examining Interaction in Early Years Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Video is an increasingly popular data collection tool for those undertaking social research, offering a temporal, sequential, fine-grained record which is durable, malleable and sharable. These characteristics make video a valuable resource for researching Early Years classrooms, particularly with regard to the study of children's interaction in…

  19. Placental measurements associated with intelligence quotient at age 7 years.

    PubMed

    Misra, D P; Salafia, C M; Charles, A K; Miller, R K

    2012-06-01

    We hypothesized that placental villous branching that is measured by disk chorionic plate expansion and disk thickness is correlated with factors also involved in regulation of branching growth of other fetal viscera (e.g. lung, kidney) including neuronal dendrites, and thus may be associated with variation in childhood intelligence quotient (IQ). IQ at age 7 years was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Placental measures [placental weight (g), thickness (mm), chorionic plate surface diameters (cm), area (cm2), shape, and cord length and cord eccentricity] were independent variables in regression analyses of age 7-year IQ in 12,926 singleton term live born infants with complete placental data. Analyses were stratified on gender with adjustment for socioeconomic status, race, parity, gestational age, exact age at testing and centered parental ages. After adjustment for covariates, placental measurements were independently associated with IQ at age 7 years but results varied by gender. Chorionic plate diameters were only associated with higher IQ in girls. Placental thickness was positively associated with higher IQ for boys and girls. We have previously shown that placental measures affect age 7-year body mass index and diastolic blood pressure. Here we demonstrate that specific measures, placental chorionic plate diameters in girls and disk thickness, independent of gender, are correlated with age 7-year IQ. Further exploration of the possible interaction of these factors on the placental villous arborization reflected by the chorionic plate expansion and placental thickness that correlate with age 7-year IQ, as well as other age 7 somatic features as previously addressed, is indicated.

  20. Young Teens (12-14 years of age)

    MedlinePlus

    ... until 18-21 years of age. Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ... up mentally healthy and drug-free. Choose My Plate- Preschoolers The U.S. Department of Agriculture provides information ...

  1. Six-Year Change in Affect Optimization and Affect Complexity Across the Adult Life Span: A Further Examination

    PubMed Central

    Labouvie-Vief, Gisela; Diehl, Manfred; Jain, Elizabeth; Zhang, Fang

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the life course of 2 independent components of adult affective development, 1 aimed at differentiation and complexity, the other aimed at optimization and positive emotional balance. These 2 components are predicted to have different developmental trajectories over the adult life span and to become related in a compensatory fashion under conditions of resource restrictions, such as those related to late life. Using individual growth curve estimation, we modeled 6-year longitudinal changes in the 2 components in a total sample of 388 individuals ranging in age from 15 to 88 years. As predicted, initial level of affect optimization was positively associated with age up to late middle age with a subsequent leveling off; individual rates of change were found to decelerate with age up to age 60 years and accelerate again around age 80 years. For affect complexity, initial level of affect complexity was positively associated with age up to age 45 years and negatively associated with age from then on, whereas individual rates of change were negatively associated with age, and this association tended to get stronger with age. PMID:18179294

  2. Adult Learner Perceptions: Perspectives from Beginning Musicians (Ages 60-86 Years)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugos, Jennifer A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine adult learning perceptions of a model music program with group piano instruction and group percussion ensemble for beginning-level musicians (ages 60-86 years). Participants were matched by age and education to two 16-week music programs. Forty participants completed a post-training questionnaire related…

  3. Evaluation of age estimation in forensic medicine by examination of medial clavicular ossification from thin-slice computed tomography images.

    PubMed

    Gurses, Murat Serdar; Inanir, Nursel Turkmen; Gokalp, Gokhan; Fedakar, Recep; Tobcu, Eren; Ocakoglu, Gokhan

    2016-09-01

    Forensic age estimation, a recent topic of research in forensic medicine, is of primary importance to criminal and civil law. Previous studies indicate that the observation of medial clavicular ossification allows for age discrimination along the completed 18th and 21st years of life. Experts recommend that the Schmeling and Kellinghaus methods be used together. In this study, we used these staging methods to retrospectively analyze 725 case studies (385 males, 340 females) of thin-slice computed tomography (CT) images, ranging from 0.6 to 1 mm in thickness, from individuals aged 10 to 35 years. Stage 1 was found at 18 years of age maximum for males, whereas it was found at 17 years of age for females. Stage 2a was found at 18 years of age maximum for both genders. Stage 3c was initially observed at 18 years for both genders. Stage 4 was initially found at 21 years for males and 20 years for females. Stage 5 was initially observed at 25 years for both genders. Of note, stage 3c was found close to 19 years of age for both genders (18.92 years for male, 18.99 years for female), and it may be employed to differentiate along the age majority cutoff. The data obtained from our study were consistent with previous studies. We believe that such a comprehensive database will greatly contribute to future studies focusing on medial clavicular ossification based on thin-slice CT. Moreover, we also recommend that if medial clavicular ossification based on CT is to be examined for forensic age estimation, both methods should be employed together.

  4. Working memory training in old age: an examination of transfer and maintenance effects.

    PubMed

    Borella, Erika; Carretti, Barbara; Zanoni, Giulia; Zavagnin, Michela; De Beni, Rossana

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the efficacy of a verbal working memory (WM) training program in old-old individuals (over 75 years of age). Thirty-six adults aged 75-87 took part in the study: 18 were randomly assigned to receive training and the remainder served as active controls. Specific training gains in a verbal WM task (criterion task), and transfer effects on measures of visuospatial WM, short-term memory, inhibition, processing speed, and fluid intelligence were examined. The trained old-old adults performed better than the controls in the criterion task, and this benefit persisted after 8 months; they also showed an increase in the efficiency of inhibitory mechanisms at follow-up compared with pretest. The results of this study suggest that the present WM training program produces benefits maintained over time even in old-old adults. These findings confirm that there is still room for plasticity in the basic mechanisms of cognition in advance old age.

  5. Individual differences in phonological development: ages one and three years.

    PubMed

    Vihman, M M; Greenlee, M

    1987-12-01

    This paper reports the results of a study of the persistence of individual differences in the phonological development of 10 normally developing children observed at age 1 year and again at age 3 years. Data were based on 1/2-hr audio and video recordings of weekly spontaneous mother-child interaction sessions in the home between 9 and 17 months and at 36 months. In addition, phonological and cognitive probes were administered at age 3. At age 1 the children were compared at four times selected on the basis of the number of different word types used in a session. Preferences for particular phonological categories (fricatives, liquids, final consonants) were found not to correspond to relative mastery of those categories at age 3. Based on both babble and words, high use of vocalizations containing true consonants was found to be predictive of greater phonological advance at age 3. Phonological errors of two kinds were distinguished for age 3: those resulting from difficulty with specific segments and those more typical of younger children, involving the rearrangement, assimilation, or deletion of segments or syllables (prosodic errors). The children differed in intelligibility and in specific segment substitutions and cluster reductions. They also differed in the proportion of prosodic errors made and in consistency in segmental errors. Lastly, aspects of cognitive or learning style as expressed in phonological organization were found to be recognizable at both age 1 and age 3.

  6. Longitudinal Examination of Age-Predicted Symptom-Limited Exercise Maximum Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Na; Suarez, Jose; Sidney, Steve; Sternfeld, Barbara; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Lewis, Cora E.; Crow, Richard S.; Bouchard, Claude; Haskell, William; Jacobs, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the association of age with maximal heart rate (MHR). Methods Data were obtained in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. Participants were black and white men and women aged 18-30 in 1985-86 (year 0). A symptom-limited maximal graded exercise test was completed at years 0, 7, and 20 by 4969, 2583, and 2870 participants, respectively. After exclusion 9622 eligible tests remained. Results In all 9622 tests, estimated MHR (eMHR, beats/minute) had a quadratic relation to age in the age range 18 to 50 years, eMHR=179+0.29*age-0.011*age2. The age-MHR association was approximately linear in the restricted age ranges of consecutive tests. In 2215 people who completed both year 0 and 7 tests (age range 18 to 37), eMHR=189–0.35*age; and in 1574 people who completed both year 7 and 20 tests (age range 25 to 50), eMHR=199–0.63*age. In the lowest baseline BMI quartile, the rate of decline was 0.20 beats/minute/year between years 0-7 and 0.51 beats/minute/year between years 7-20; while in the highest baseline BMI quartile there was a linear rate of decline of approximately 0.7 beats/minute/year over the full age of 18 to 50 years. Conclusion Clinicians making exercise prescriptions should be aware that the loss of symptom-limited MHR is much slower at young adulthood and more pronounced in later adulthood. In particular, MHR loss is very slow in those with lowest BMI below age 40. PMID:20639723

  7. Anthropometric measurements of Saudi boys aged 6-14 years.

    PubMed

    al-Hazzaa, H M

    1990-01-01

    Anthropometric measurements of 1169 Saudi school boys between the ages of 6 and 14 years are reported. The boys were randomly selected from primary schools in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Measurements of height, weight, grip strength, chest, triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses as well as biacromial, chest, bi-iliac, knee, and elbow breadths were taken. Saudi boys have slightly lower values for body weight and height than American boys (NCHS standards). Values of skinfold measurements increased with age up to age 11 where they plateaued and took then a sharp increase by age 14. Means of triceps and subscapular skinfolds of the Saudi boys are also lower than some standards from U.S.A. throughout age 13. At age 14, however, the Saudi boys have higher means than the U.S.A. boys.

  8. The effects of male age on sperm analysis by motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study aimed to investigate the influence of age on sperm quality, as analysed by motile sperm organelle morphology examination (MSOME). Methods Semen samples were collected from 975 men undergoing evaluation or treatment for infertility. Sperm cells were evaluated at 8400× magnification using an inverted microscope equipped with Nomarski (differential interference contrast) optics. Two forms of spermatozoa were considered: normal spermatozoa and spermatozoa with large nuclear vacuoles (LNV, defined as vacuoles occupying > 50% of the sperm nuclear area). At least 200 spermatozoa per sample were evaluated, and the percentages of normal and LNV spermatozoa were determined. The subjects were divided into three groups according to age: Group I, less than or equal to 35 years; Group II, 36-40 years; and Group III, greater than or equal to 41 years. Results There was no difference in the percentages of normal sperm between the two younger (I and II) groups (P >0.05). The percentage of normal sperm in the older group (III) was significantly lower than that in the younger (I and II) groups (P < 0.05). There was no difference in the percentage of LNV spermatozoa between the younger (I and II) groups (P >0.05). The percentage of LNV spermatozoa was significantly higher in the older group (III) than in the younger (I and II) groups (P < 0.05). Regression analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in the incidence of normal sperm with increasing age (P < 0.05; r = -0.10). However, there was a significant positive correlation between the percentage of spermatozoa with LNV and male age (P < 0.05, r = 0.10). Conclusion The results demonstrated a consistent decline in semen quality, as reflected by morphological evaluation by MSOME, with increased age. Considering the relationship between nuclear vacuoles and DNA damage, these age-related changes predict that increased paternal age should be associated with unsuccessful or abnormal pregnancy as a consequence of

  9. Differences in American and Korean Evaluations of One-Year Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Tae-Seop; Giles, Howard

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which a one-year difference in age can influence college students' reported communicative behaviours in both the USA and South Korea. Korean students differentiated themselves far more than their American counterparts from other students one-year older or younger than themselves. The former reported that students…

  10. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review*

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  11. Leprosy among children under 15 years of age: literature review.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcela Bahia Barretto de; Diniz, Lucia Martins

    2016-04-01

    Leprosy is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae, representing a public health issue in some countries. Though more prevalent in adults, the detection of new cases in children under 15 years of age reveals an active circulation of bacillus, continued transmission and lack of disease control by the health system, as well as aiding in the monitoring of the endemic. Among patients under 15 years of age, the most affected age group is children between 10 and 14 years of age, although cases of patients of younger than 1 year of age have also been reported. Household contacts are the primary source of infection, given that caretakers, such as babysitters and others, must be considered in this scenario. Paucibacillary forms of the disease prevailed, especially borderline-tuberculoid leprosy, with a single lesion in exposed areas of the body representing the main clinical manifestation. Reactional states: Lepra reactions are rare, although some authors have reported high frequencies of this phenomenon, the most frequent of which is Type 1 Lepra Reaction. Peripheral nerve involvement has been described at alarming rates in some studies, which increases the chance of deformities, a serious problem, especially if one considers the age of these patients. The protective effect of BCG vaccination was found in some studies, but no consensus has been reached among different authors. Children must receive the same multidrug therapy regimen and the doses should, ideally, be calculated based on the child´s weight. Adverse reactions to this therapy are rare within this age group. This article aims to review epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of leprosy in patients under 15 years of age. PMID:27192519

  12. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years. Antisocial/aggressive and hyperactive-inattentive measures were collected at age 8, while social adversity was assessed at age 3. Results Poor electrodermal fear conditioning from ages 3 to 8 years was associated with aggressive behavior at age 8 in both males and females. Conclusions Results indicate that the relationship between poor fear conditioning and aggression occurs early in childhood. Enhanced electrodermal fear conditioning may protect children against future aggressive/violent behavior. Abnormal amygdala functioning, as indirectly assessed by fear conditioning, may be one of the factors influencing the development of childhood aggression. PMID:19788551

  13. Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakao, Kayoko C.; Damron-Rodriguez, JoAnn; Lawrance, Frances P.; Volland, Patricia J.

    2013-01-01

    Using graduate social work students' data ("n" = 481) in the Hartford Partnership Program for Aging Education (HPPAE) in the United States, the study examined psychometric properties of the Knowledge of Aging for Social Work Quiz (KASW), a revision of the Facts on Aging Quiz, to evaluate biopsychosocial knowledge relevant to social…

  14. 500,000-year temperature record challenges ice age theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snow, K. Mitchell

    1994-01-01

    Just outside the searing heat of Death Valley lies Devils Hole (fig. 1), a fault-created cave that harbors two remnants of the Earth's great ice ages. The endangered desert pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) has long made its home in the cave. A 500,000-year record of the planet's climate that challenges a widely accepted theory explaining the ice ages also has been preserved in Devils Hole.

  15. Examining Dynamic Links between Perceived Control and Health: Longitudinal Evidence for Differential Effects in Midlife and Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Infurna, Frank J.; Gerstorf, Denis; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Perceived control and health are often closely linked in adulthood and old age. Little is known, however, about their time-ordered interplay at various phases of adult life. By applying dynamic models to four waves of data over 15.5 years from the Americans' Changing Lives Study, we examined time-ordered relations between perceived control and…

  16. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  17. Does age at first treatment episode make a difference in outcomes over 11 years?

    PubMed

    Chi, Felicia W; Weisner, Constance; Grella, Christine E; Hser, Yih-Ing; Moore, Charles; Mertens, Jennifer

    2014-04-01

    This study examines the associations between age at first substance use treatment entry and trajectory of outcomes over 11 years. We found significant differences in individual and treatment characteristics between adult intakes first treated during young adulthood (25 years or younger) and those first treated at an older age. Compared to their first treated older age counterparts matched on demographics and dependence type, those who entered first treatment during young adulthood had on average an earlier onset for substance use but a shorter duration between first substance use and first treatment entry; they also had worse alcohol and other drug outcomes 11 years post treatment entry. While subsequent substance use treatment and 12-step meeting attendance are important for both age groups in maintaining positive outcomes, relationships varied by age group. Findings underline the importance of different continuing care management strategies for those entering first treatment at different developmental stages. PMID:24462221

  18. Marine radiocarbon reservoir age simulations for the past 50000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butzin, Martin; Köhler, Peter; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-04-01

    We present simulations of marine radiocarbon reservoir ages using the ocean general circulation model LSG-HAMOCC2s, and evaluate the results with Marine13 raw data records. Our model considers various climatic background states. Radiocarbon cycle boundary conditions are atmospheric Δ14C values according to IntCal13, a recent atmospheric CO2 reconstruction, and spatially variable concentrations of dissolved inorganic carbon derived from marine carbon cycle simulations. Our model reasonably agrees with glacial marine Δ14C records but indicates reservoir ages varying with time, different to the invariant reservoir age corrections applied to the observations and to Marine13. Modelled global-mean reservoir ages are in the range 400-800 years compared to the invariant Marine13 value of 405 years. Self-consistent simulations involving the Cariaco Basin record (which is the most continuous marine record contributing to IntCal13 for periods prior to about 30 kyears) amplify the temporal reservoir age variability with global-mean values of about 350-850 years, and improve the agreement with Δ14C observations in some areas.

  19. Breast Cancer Subtypes in Patients Aged 70 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Königsberg, Robert; Pfeiler, Georg; Hammerschmid, Nicole; Holub, Oliver; Glössmann, Kerstin; Larcher-Senn, Julian; Dittrich, Christian

    2016-05-27

    Recurrence and survival pattern in breast cancer (bc) patients (pts) ≥ 70 years subcategorized according to subtype and age are still an area of uncertainty. Tumor characteristics, patient demographics, therapies applied, and recurrence pattern were compared between luminal A (LA), luminal B (LB), Her2/neu overexpressing (Her+) and triple-negative (TN) bc subtypes and the age subcategories 70-74, 75-79, ≥80 years. Based on univariate Cox-regression-analyses distant-disease-free-survival (DDFS) differed significantly for bc subtypes (p = 0.0002), notably for Her+ vs. LA (p = 0.0014), TN vs. LA (p < 0.001), and TN vs. LB (p = 0.0086). Not age, but Her+ and TN represented prognostic factors for DDFS. PMID:27215407

  20. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along ("hindsight bias"). Here, we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the life span. One hundred ninety-four participants aged 3 to 95 years completed 3 tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age…

  1. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  2. Examination of DNA methylation status of the ELOVL2 marker may be useful for human age prediction in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Zbieć-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Makowska, Żanetta; Spas, Anna; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; Płoski, Rafał; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation in forensic investigations may complement the prediction of externally visible characteristics and the inference of biogeographical ancestry, thus allowing a better description of an unknown individual. Multiple CpG sites that show linear correlation between age and degree of DNA methylation have been identified in the human genome, providing a selection of candidates for age prediction. In this study, we optimized an assay based on bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of 7 CpG sites located in the ELOVL2 gene. Examination of 303 blood samples collected from individuals aged 2-75 years allowed selection of the most informative site, explaining 83% of variation in age. The final linear regression model included two CpG sites in ELOVL2 and enabled age prediction with R(2)=0.859, prediction error=6.85 and mean absolute deviation MAD=5.03. Examination of a testing set of 124 blood samples (MAD=5.75) showed that 68.5% of samples were correctly predicted, assuming that chronological and predicted ages matched ± 7 years. It was found that the ELOVL2 methylation status in bloodstains had not changed significantly after 4 weeks of storage in room temperature conditions. Analysis of 45 bloodstains deposited on tissue paper after 5, 10 and 15 years of storage in room conditions indicated that although a gradual decrease of positive PCR results was observed, the general age prediction success rate remained similar and equaled 60-78%. The obtained results show that the ELOVL2 locus provides a very good source of information about human chronological age based on analysis of blood, including bloodstains, and it may constitute a powerful and reliable predictor in future forensic age estimation models.

  3. Body build classification for ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18 years) and volleyball girls (aged 13-16 years).

    PubMed

    Kaarma, Helje; Stamm, Raini; Kasmel, Jaan; Koskel, Slide

    2005-03-01

    The article describes two Estonian anthropometric cross-sectional studies of 1549 ordinary schoolgirls (aged 7-18) and 46 girls, who regularly practised volleyball (aged 13-16). Data are presented on 22 basic anthropometric measurements and 6 body composition characteristics (body mass index, mean skinfold, body density, relative mass of fat by Siri, absolute mass and relative mass of subcutaneous adipose tissue). All anthropometric variables were classified into five height-weight SD classes. Schoolgirls were divided into six age groups (7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 13-14, 15-16, 17-18). Volleyballers were observed as one group as their age in SD classes did not differ significantly. The classification consisted of five categories: three height-weight concordant categories: I--small (small height, small weight), II--medium (medium height, medium weight), III large--(big height, big weight) and two height/weight discordant categories: IV--so-called pyknomorphs, V--so-called leptomorphs. To assess the differences between classes the Scheffé-test was used (alpha = 0.05). It proved likewise possible to comparatively systematize length, breadth and depth measurements, circumferences and body composition characteristics in all six age groups (7-18 years) of ordinary schoolgirls and in 13-16-year-old volleyballers as in their case the average age did not differ significantly between the classes.

  4. Lung cancer in patients under the age of 40 years

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarczyk, Grzegorz; Porębska, Irena; Szmygin-Milanowska, Katarzyna; Gołecki, Marcin

    2012-01-01

    Aim of the study In the paper clinical cases of individuals diagnosed with lung cancer below the age of 40 years have been analyzed. Material and methods The analysis included: sex, age, clinical symptoms found before and at the moment of diagnosis, character of changes visible in radiological imaging, time that passed from the first symptoms to reporting to a doctor and to establishing a diagnosis, type of diagnostic method used in establishing the final diagnosis, histopathologic type of cancer, degree of cancer progression. Results The results have been compared with a peer group who had been diagnosed 20 years earlier. Currently 7% of patients were diagnosed at the age of 25 or younger, whereas in the previous cohort patients in this age constituted 2%. The predominant pathological type was adenocarcinoma (currently 33%, previously 4%) in contrast to the earlier group in which 57% of patients had small cell lung cancer (57%). The incidence is equally distributed between both sexes, although there is an evident increase in female lung cancer cases. In the majority of patients the clinical presentation is a peripheral mass on chest X-ray. 20% of patients present pleural effusion on diagnosis. Patients reported the following complaints: breathlessness, chest pain, weight loss and fatigue. The majority of cases were diagnosed in advanced stages on the basis of a bronchoscopy acquired specimen. Time course from symptoms to diagnosis tends to be shorter than 20 years ago. PMID:23788919

  5. Social Interaction, Age, and Ethnicity: An Examination of the "Double Jeopardy" Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowd, James J.; Bengston, Vern L.

    This paper explores the relationships among ethnicity, age and inherent social dilemmas. The study examines selected dependent variables (economic and health indicators, social interaction, and life satisfaction items) in an effort to determine the extent to which different configurations of age, ethnicity and socioeconomic status produce varying…

  6. Examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates in male youth ice-hockey players.

    PubMed

    Lemez, S; Baker, J; Horton, S; Wattie, N; Weir, P

    2014-12-01

    The relative age effect suggests that athletes born in the first two quartiles of a given selection year experience a selection advantage and therefore a greater opportunity for success. We describe two studies examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates of Ontario Minor Hockey Association male ice-hockey players from ages 10 to 15 years (n = 14 325). In Study 1, dropout was highest among players born in quartiles three and four [χ(2) (3) = 16.32, P < 0.05; w = 0.06], while Study 2 found dropped out players to have less movement between competition levels compared to retained players. This study confirms a relationship between relative age and dropout from ice-hockey and adds further depth to our understanding of this persistent phenomenon. PMID:24118622

  7. Examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates in male youth ice-hockey players.

    PubMed

    Lemez, S; Baker, J; Horton, S; Wattie, N; Weir, P

    2014-12-01

    The relative age effect suggests that athletes born in the first two quartiles of a given selection year experience a selection advantage and therefore a greater opportunity for success. We describe two studies examining the relationship between relative age, competition level, and dropout rates of Ontario Minor Hockey Association male ice-hockey players from ages 10 to 15 years (n = 14 325). In Study 1, dropout was highest among players born in quartiles three and four [χ(2) (3) = 16.32, P < 0.05; w = 0.06], while Study 2 found dropped out players to have less movement between competition levels compared to retained players. This study confirms a relationship between relative age and dropout from ice-hockey and adds further depth to our understanding of this persistent phenomenon.

  8. 29 CFR 2520.104-50 - Short plan years, deferral of accountant's examination and report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Short plan years, deferral of accountant's examination and... Reporting and Disclosure Requirements § 2520.104-50 Short plan years, deferral of accountant's examination... year begins is changed. (b) Deferral of accountant's report. A plan administrator is not required...

  9. 29 CFR 2520.104-50 - Short plan years, deferral of accountant's examination and report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Short plan years, deferral of accountant's examination and... Reporting and Disclosure Requirements § 2520.104-50 Short plan years, deferral of accountant's examination... year begins is changed. (b) Deferral of accountant's report. A plan administrator is not required...

  10. 25 Years after age-1: Genes, Interventions and the Revolution in Aging Research

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    This communication will briefly review more than 30 years of research on aging using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (“The Worm”) as carried out in the labs of Tom Johnson. We will highlight research directions initiated in the 1980’s, which were exciting for those of us trying to turn over a new leaf in aging research. In this narrative, I will discuss primarily the science that I and my lab have been involved with for the last 30 years. This area has been fascinating to those studying the sociology of science as modern aging research has moved to replace the simplistic, poorly controlled and outright fictitious approaches seen in much of the previous aging research. PMID:23466302

  11. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years. PMID:23433452

  12. Modifiable diarrhoea risk factors in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A M; Mohammady, H El; Shabrawi, M El; Shabaan, S Y; Zekri, M Abou; Nassar, M; Salem, M E; Mostafa, M; Riddle, M S; Klena, J D; Messih, I A Abdel; Levin, S; Young, S Y N

    2013-12-01

    By conducting a case-control study in two university hospitals, we explored the association between modifiable risk behaviours and diarrhoea. Children aged <5 years attending outpatient clinics for diarrhoea were matched by age and sex with controls. Data were collected on family demographics, socioeconomic indicators, and risk behaviour practices. Two rectal swabs and a stool specimen were collected from cases and controls. Samples were cultured for bacterial pathogens using standard techniques and tested by ELISA to detect rotavirus and Cryptosporidium spp. Four hundred cases and controls were enrolled between 2007 and 2009. The strongest independent risk factors for diarrhoea were: presence of another household member with diarrhoea [matched odds ratio (mOR) 4.9, 95% CI 2.8-8.4] in the week preceding the survey, introduction to a new kind of food (mOR 3, 95% CI 1.7-5.4), and the child being cared for outside home (mOR 2.6, 95% CI 1.3-5.2). While these risk factors are not identifiable, in some age groups more easily modifiable risk factors were identified including: having no soap for handwashing (mOR 6.3, 95% CI 1.2-33.9) for children aged 7-12 months, and pacifier use (mOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5) in children aged 0-6 months. In total, the findings of this study suggest that community-based interventions to improve practices related to sanitation and hygiene, handwashing and food could be utilized to reduce the burden of diarrhoea in Egyptian children aged <5 years.

  13. The Development of Fine-Grained Sensitivity to Eye Contact after 6 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida, Mark D.; Maurer, Daphne

    2012-01-01

    Adults use eye contact as a cue to the mental and emotional states of others. Here, we examined developmental changes in the ability to discriminate between eye contact and averted gaze. Children (6-, 8-, 10-, and 14-year-olds) and adults (n=18/age) viewed photographs of a model fixating the center of a camera lens and a series of positions to the…

  14. FINE ROOT TURNOVER IN PONDEROSA PINE STANDS OF DIFFERENT AGES: FIRST-YEAR RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Root minirhizotron tubs were installed in two ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) Stands of different ages to examine patterns of root growth and death. The old-growth site (OS) consists of a mixture of old (>250 years) and young trees (ca.45 yrs)< and is located near clamp S...

  15. The Conception of Risk in Minority Young Adolescents Aged 12-14 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leblanc, Raymond; Drolet, Marie; Ducharme, Daphne; Arcand, Isabelle; Head, Robert; Alphonse, Jean R.

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the conceptualization of risk behavior held by 26 Franco-Ontarian young adolescents (12-14 years of age) who participated in Lions Quest, a program specially designed to promote physical and mental health and to prevent drug and alcohol use. More specifically, it seeks to better understand the participating adolescents'…

  16. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  17. General paediatric surgery for patients aged under 5 years: a 5-year experience at a district general hospital.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C-S; Gordon, A C

    2016-09-01

    Introduction The gradual shift of general paediatric surgery (GPS) provision from district general hospitals (DGH) to specialised units is well recognised in the UK. The consequences of centralisation include a reduction in exposure to GPS for current surgical trainees. The GPS practice of a DGH is examined here. Methods All operations performed on children aged under 5 years over a 5-year period were identified using the local electronic operation database. Electronic hospital records and clinic letters were accessed to collect data on demographics, operations performed and outcome measures. Results 472 GPS operations were performed on children between the age of 22 days and 5 years between 2009 and 2014, of which 43 were on an emergency basis and 105 were performed on patients aged less than 1 year. Three patients were admitted following day case surgery. Six patients were readmitted within 30 days. Complication rates for all procedures and the four most common procedures were similar to those found in published literature. Conclusions GPS for patients aged less than 5 years is comparatively safe in the DGH setting. The training opportunities available at DGHs are invaluable to surgical trainees and vital for sustaining the future provision of GPS by such hospitals. PMID:27269243

  18. Peer Exclusion Is Linked to Inhibition with Familiar but Not Unfamiliar Peers at Two Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazelle, Heidi; Faldowski, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the extent that inhibition among familiar peers was related to inhibition among unfamiliar peers versus exclusion by familiar peers at 2?years of age. Peer inhibition at 2?years of age was assessed by both mothers and teachers on versions of the Behavioral Inhibition Questionnaire and the Preschool Play Behavior Scale (N?=?141…

  19. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (R(PACA)) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either R(PACA) or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of R(PACA) were all negative; i.e., an increase in R(PAC) is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., β -0.29%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial R(PACA) with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher R(PACA) from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., β 4.37%; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk.

  20. Perceived age is associated with bone status in women aged 25-93 years.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Barbara Rubek; Linneberg, Allan; Christensen, Kaare; Schwarz, Peter

    2015-12-01

    Higher perceived age (PA) is reported to be associated with age-related diseases. Because osteoporosis is considered an age-related disease, we hypothesized that age perceived from photographs is associated with bone mineral density (BMD)/trabecular bone score (TBS) when controlled for chronological age. This is a cross-sectional study of 460 women aged 25-93 years. BMD/TBS was measured. Twenty physicians assessed age from facial and whole-body photographs. Residual PA (R(PACA)) was calculated from the regression of PA on chronological age. Participants were divided into "looking old" (LO) or "looking young" (LY). Linear mixed models and general linear models fitted with BMD/TBS as outcome and either R(PACA) or LO/LY as an independent variable, considering chronological age. Estimates of R(PACA) were all negative; i.e., an increase in R(PAC) is associated with lower BMD, consistent with the hypothesis (e.g., β -0.29%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55, 0.03). Statistical significance of the association of age-adjusted facial R(PACA) with BMD was found. Adjusted for body mass index (BMI), menopause, and hormone replacement therapy, higher R(PACA) from all photographic presentations were significantly associated with lower BMD based on statistical significance. BMD/TBS was in all analyses higher in the group LY compared with LO, when adjusted for age and BMI (e.g., β 4.37%; 95 CI 0.62, 8.26), but statistical significance was obtained only from the BMD analyses. A higher PA was significantly associated with a lower BMD/TBD, and the size of association in older women indicates that it might have value as part of the clinical assessment of osteoporotic risk. PMID:26486892

  1. Age-associated differences on structural brain MRI in nondemented individuals from 71 to 103 years.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zixuan; Wen, Wei; Jiang, Jiyang; Crawford, John D; Reppermund, Simone; Levitan, Charlene; Slavin, Melissa J; Kochan, Nicole A; Richmond, Robyn L; Brodaty, Henry; Trollor, Julian N; Sachdev, Perminder S

    2016-04-01

    Successful brain aging in the oldest old (≥90 years) is underexplored. This study examined cross-sectional brain morphological differences from 8th to 11th decades of life in nondemented individuals by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Two hundred seventy-seven nondemented community-dwelling participants (71-103 years) from Sydney Memory and Ageing Study and Sydney Centenarian Study comprised the sample, including a subsample of 160 cognitively high-functioning elders. Relationships between age and magnetic resonance imaging-derived measurements were studied using general linear models; and structural profiles of the ≥90 years were delineated. In full sample and the subsample, significant linear negative relationship of gray matter with age was found, with the greatest age effects in the medial temporal lobe and parietal and occipital cortices. This pattern was further confirmed by comparing directly the ≥90 years to the 71-89 years groups. Significant quadratic age effects on total white matter and white matter hyperintensities were observed. Our study demonstrated heterogeneous differences across brain regions between the oldest old and young old, with an emphasis on hippocampus, temporoposterior cortex, and white matter hyperintensities. PMID:26973107

  2. Play Opportunities for School-Age Children, 6 to 14 Years of Age. Advisory Document.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada Mortgage and Housing Corp., Ottawa (Ontario).

    Suggestions for the planning and design of playgrounds to meet the needs of children between 6 to 14 years of age living in medium- and high-density residential areas are offered in this document. The first and second chapters briefly focus on the child's right to play and present an overview of the developmental characteristics of children at…

  3. Physical Inactivity Among Adults Aged 50 Years and Older - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Watson, Kathleen B; Carlson, Susan A; Gunn, Janelle P; Galuska, Deborah A; O'Connor, Ann; Greenlund, Kurt J; Fulton, Janet E

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity can help delay, prevent, or manage many of the chronic diseases for which adults aged ≥50 years are at risk (1-3). These diseases can impact the length and quality of life, as well as the long-term ability to live independently.* All adults aged ≥50 years, with or without chronic disease, gain health benefits by avoiding inactivity (2,3). To examine the prevalence of inactivity by selected demographic characteristics and chronic disease status in mid-life and older adults, CDC analyzed data on adults aged ≥50 years from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Overall, 27.5% of adults aged ≥50 years reported no physical activity outside of work during the past month. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with increasing age and was 25.4% among adults aged 50-64 years, 26.9% among those aged 65-74 years, and 35.3% among those aged ≥75 years. Inactivity prevalence was significantly higher among women than men, among Hispanics and non-Hispanic blacks than among non-Hispanic whites, and among adults who reported ever having one or more of seven selected chronic diseases than among those not reporting one. Inactivity prevalence significantly increased with decreasing levels of education and increasing body mass index. To help adults with and without chronic disease start or maintain an active lifestyle, communities can implement evidence-based strategies, such as creating or enhancing access to places for physical activity, designing communities and streets to encourage physical activity, and offering programs that address specific barriers to physical activity. PMID:27632143

  4. Hindsight Bias from 3 to 95 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Daniel M.; Erdfelder, Edgar; Meltzoff, Andrew N.; Peria, William; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2011-01-01

    Upon learning the outcome to a problem, people tend to believe that they knew it all along (hindsight bias). Here we report the first study to trace the development of hindsight bias across the lifespan. 194 participants aged 3 to 95 years completed three tasks designed to measure visual and verbal hindsight bias. All age groups demonstrated hindsight bias on all three tasks; however, preschoolers and the elderly exhibited more bias than older children and younger adults. Multinomial processing tree analyses of these data revealed that preschoolers’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them substituting the correct answer for their original answer in their recall (a qualitative error). Conversely, older adults’ enhanced hindsight bias resulted from them forgetting their original answer and recalling an answer closer to, but not equal to, the correct answer (a quantitative error). We discuss these findings in relation to mechanisms of memory, perspective-taking, theory of mind, and executive function. PMID:21299327

  5. Noise increment detection in children 1 to 3 years of age.

    PubMed

    Berg, K M; Boswell, A E

    2000-05-01

    Studies using burst comparison procedures to examine age-related changes in intensity discrimination have reported that the ability to discriminate differences in intensity does not reach maturity until late childhood. In the present study, developmental changes in intensity discrimination were examined in 1- to 3-year-old children, using an increment detection paradigm. Children and adults detected increments in a continuous standard presented at three levels ranging from 35 to 55 dB SPL. Adults were also tested at lower levels of the standard in order to permit age comparisons at equivalent sensation levels. Standard stimuli were two-octave bands of noise centered at either 400 or 4000 Hz, and increments were 200 msec in duration. Discrimination performance improved significantly with both age and level of the standard. For all age groups, performance was significantly better for high- than for low-frequency stimuli, but frequency-dependent differences in increment thresholds did not vary reliably with age. Age differences were largest at low levels of the standard. At the highest level (approximately 30 dB nHL), children's difference limens for both low- and high-frequency noise bands were adultlike by 3 years of age. These results suggest that the developmental time course of increment detection is more rapid than that previously reported in burst comparison studies.

  6. [Suicide attempts in children under 12 years of age].

    PubMed

    Stordeur, C; Acquaviva, E; Galdon, L; Mercier, J-C; Titomanlio, L; Delorme, R

    2015-03-01

    Suicide attempts (SA) in children are often considered rare and poorly studied. The aim of this study was to explore the clinical characteristics of SA in children under 12 years of age. A retrospective assessment was conducted in 30 consecutive SAs reported in children under 12 years of age admitted to the emergency department at the Robert-Debré University Hospital (Paris, France) from 2007 to 2010 and the Regional University Hospital (Besançon, France) from 2000 to 2008. All suicide attempters were directly assessed at the somatic and psychiatric level. Patients were 8-11 years old (mean, 10.2±0.8). The sex ratio was 0.9 boys for 1 girl. The leading SA methods were poisoning by medication (53.3%), hanging or strangulation (23.3%), jumping from a height (16.7%), poisoning by chemicals (3.3%), and lesions inflicted by sharp objects (3.3%). In addition, SAs were characterized by high lethality (43.7%) contrasting with their low to moderate suicidal intentionality (43.8% and 56.2%, respectively). In conclusion, we reported that SA in children differs from those of adolescents by their greater lethality related to the methods used, but contrasting with the low intentionality mentioned by these patients.

  7. Prostate Brachytherapy in Men {>=}75 Years of Age

    SciTech Connect

    Merrick, Gregory S. Wallner, Kent E.; Galbreath, Robert W.; Butler, Wayne M.; Brammer, Sarah G.; Allen, Zachariah A.; Adamovich, Edward

    2008-10-01

    Purpose: To evaluate cause-specific survival (CSS), biochemical progression-free survival (bPFS), and overall survival (OS) in prostate cancer patients aged {>=}75 years undergoing brachytherapy with or without supplemental therapies. Methods and Materials: Between April 1995 and August 2004, 145 consecutive patients aged {>=}75 years underwent permanent prostate brachytherapy. Median follow-up was 5.8 years. Biochemical progression-free survival was defined by a prostate-specific antigen level {<=}0.40 ng/mL after nadir. Patients with metastatic prostate cancer or hormone-refractory disease without obvious metastases who died of any cause were classified as dead of prostate cancer. All other deaths were attributed to the immediate cause of death. Multiple clinical, treatment, and dosimetric parameters were evaluated for impact on survival. Results: Nine-year CSS, bPFS, and OS rates for the entire cohort were 99.3%, 97.1%, and 64.5%, respectively. None of the evaluated parameters predicted for CSS, whereas bPFS was most closely predicted by percentage positive biopsies. Overall survival and non-cancer deaths were best predicted by tobacco status. Thirty-seven patients have died, with 83.8% of the deaths due to cardiovascular disease (22 patients) or second malignancies (9 patients). To date, only 1 patient (0.7%) has died of metastatic prostate cancer. Conclusions: After brachytherapy, high rates of CSS and bPFS are noted in elderly prostate cancer patients. Overall, approximately 65% of patients are alive at 9 years, with survival most closely related to tobacco status. We believe our results support an aggressive locoregional approach in appropriately selected elderly patients.

  8. Elective shoulder arthroplasty in patients older than ninety years of age.

    PubMed

    Churchill, R Sean

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the outcome of elective shoulder arthroplasty for glenohumeral osteoarthritis or rotator cuff arthropathy in patients aged older than 90 years. The study included 7 shoulders in 6 patients with an average age of 93 years 5 months, (range, 91 years 0 months to 97 years 4 months). Average follow-up was 2.2 years, (range, 1-4 years). Preoperative range of motion, Simple Shoulder Test (SST) scores, and Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36) scores were obtained and compared with postoperative values at 3 and 6 months and yearly thereafter. Average forward elevation improved from 87 degrees to 137 degrees (P < .00001), and external rotation to the side improved from 0 degrees to 50 degrees (P < .0001). The SST scores improved from a preoperative average of 2.0 to 6.1 at 3 months (P < .0001), 6.9 at 6 months (P < .0001), 8.0 at 1 year (P < .00001), and 7.4 at 2 years (P < .0001). Significant improvements occurred in 6 of 8 SF-36 domains: Mental Health (P < .05), Vitality (P < .01), Role limitations due to emotional problems (P < .05), Social Function (P < .001), Role limitations due to physical health (P < .001), and Comfort (P < .00001). No patient had worse pain or function postoperatively. These data suggest that elective shoulder arthroplasty can be performed in patients 90 years of age and older, providing excellent pain relief, improved functional outcome, and enhanced general health status.

  9. The challenge of maintaining successful aging at 87 years old: the Octabaix study two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Alburquerque, Jesus; Fernández-Quevedo, Manuel; Royo, Cristina; Pujol, Ramón

    2012-12-01

    Preserving physical and cognitive function is crucial to successful aging. The objective of this study is to determine how many 87-year-old community-dwelling subjects continued to age successfully, according to a definition using a quantitative approach, and to assess the predictive value of certain factors evaluated 2 years previously. A total of 162 participants were assessed. Sociodemographic variables, the Barthel Index (BI), the Spanish version of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MEC), the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), the Charlson Index, the Gait Rating Scale, social risk, quality of life, prevalent chronic diseases, and chronic drug prescription were collected. All subjects with scores over 90 points on the BI and above 23 points on the MEC were compared with the rest of the participants. A multiple regression analysis was performed. With the selected criteria, 90 (61.6%) community-dwelling subjects continued to age successfully. The multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the following were significantly associated with continued successful aging: A higher level of studies (p<0.02, odds ratio [OR] 3.223, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.158-8.975), better MEC scores (p<0.01, OR 1.204, 95% CI 1.046-1.386) and Tinetti gait scale scores (p<0.01, OR 1.433, 95% CI 1.013-2.027), and fewer chronic drug prescriptions (p<0.001, OR 0.768, 95% CI 0.655-0.899). In conclusion, more than half of the individuals continued to age successfully. In subjects aged 87 years, the factors associated with continued successful aging were longer schooling, better cognition scores, lower risk of falls, and fewer chronic drug prescriptions at baseline evaluation.

  10. Trisomy 13 in a female over 5 years of age.

    PubMed Central

    Mankinen, C B; Sears, J W

    1976-01-01

    A case of simple trisomy 13, confirmed by G-banded chromosome analysis, is reported in a Caucasian female over 5 years of age. There is no cytogenetic evidence available for mosaicism in the propositus or her parents. The patient's salient clinical features are: profound mental and motor retardation; microcephaly with trigonocephaly; ear malformations; small, sunken eyes; unusual eyebrows; cleft lip and palate; bulbar nose; coloboma iris; polydactyly; unusual dermatoglyphic patterns; large adductor thumbs; enlarged great toes; multiple capillary haemangiomas; club feet; inguinal and umbilical hernias; hyperconvexed fingernails; and seizure disorder. Images PMID:933114

  11. Future time perspective and awareness of age-related change: Examining their role in predicting psychological well-being.

    PubMed

    Brothers, Allyson; Gabrian, Martina; Wahl, Hans-Werner; Diehl, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    This study examined how 2 distinct facets of perceived personal lifetime-future time perspective (FTP) and awareness of age-related change (AARC)-are associated with another, and how they may interact to predict psychological well-being. To better understand associations among subjective perceptions of lifetime, aging, and well-being, we tested a series of models to investigate questions of directionality, indirect effects, and conditional processes among FTP, AARC-Gains, AARC-Losses, and psychological well-being. In all models, we tested for differences between middle-aged and older adults, and between adults from the United States and Germany. Analyses were conducted within a structural equation modeling framework on a cross-national, 2.5-year longitudinal sample of 537 community-residing adults (age 40-98 years). Awareness of age-related losses (AARC-Losses) at Time 1 predicted FTP at Time 2, but FTP did not predict AARC-Gains or AARC-Losses. Furthermore, future time perspective mediated the association between AARC-Losses and well-being. Moderation analyses revealed a buffering effect of awareness of age-related gains (AARC-Gains) in which perceptions of more age-related gains diminished the negative effect of a limited future time perspective on well-being. Effects were robust across age groups and countries. Taken together, these findings suggest that perceived age-related loss experiences may sensitize individuals to perceive a more limited future lifetime which may then lead to lower psychological well-being. In contrast, perceived age-related gains may function as a resource to preserve psychological well-being, in particular when time is perceived as running out. (PsycINFO Database Record

  12. Summary of aging effects on 25-year old nylon parachutes

    SciTech Connect

    Tadios, E.L.

    1988-01-01

    Structural evaluations were conducted on several parachute systems to determine the effects of aging on parachute materials. Most of the parachutes were 25 years old. Five 64 ft parachutes were evaluated along with one 4 ft guide surface parachute and three 16.5 ft ribbon parachutes. The parachute systems used in the study were all fabricated from nylon materials. Results were obtained for several material properties such as tensile strength, air permeability and melting point. Military specifications were used as zero-time data base due to lack of raw material data. The results indicate that over a period of about 25 years, parachute nylon materials do not degrade to unacceptable levels. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Homicide rates among persons aged 10-24 years - United States, 1981-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-07-12

    Homicide disproportionately affects persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and consistently ranks in the top three leading causes of death in this age group, resulting in approximately 4,800 deaths and an estimated $9 billion in lost productivity and medical costs in 2010. To investigate trends in homicide among persons aged 10-24 years for the period 1981-2010, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data on deaths caused by homicide of persons in this age group and examined trends by sex, age, race/ethnicity, and mechanism of injury. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that homicide rates varied substantially during the study period, with a sharp rise from 1985 to 1993 followed by a decline that has slowed since 1999. During the period 2000-2010, rates declined for all groups, although the decline was significantly slower for males compared with females and for blacks compared with Hispanics and persons of other racial/ethnic groups. By mechanism of injury, the decline for firearm homicides from 2000 to 2010 was significantly slower than for nonfirearm homicides. The homicide rate among persons aged 10-24 years in 2010 was 7.5 per 100,000, the lowest in the 30-year study period. Primary prevention strategies remain critical, particularly among groups at increased risk for homicide.

  14. Effects of Age and Life Transitions on Alcohol and Drug Treatment Outcome Over Nine Years

    PubMed Central

    Satre, Derek D.; Chi, Felicia W.; Mertens, Jennifer R.; Weisner, Constance M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of age, common life transitions, treatment, and social support on outcomes 5–9 years after alcohol and other drug (AOD) treatment intake. Method: Participants were patients from a large outpatient AOD treatment program in an integrated health plan. There were 1,951 participants interviewed at intake, of whom 1,646 (84%) completed one or more telephone follow-up interviews at 5, 7, and 9 years. Measures included AOD use based on the Addiction Severity Index; treatment; and changes in marital, employment, and health status in the years between each follow-up. We compared participants by age group (18–39, 40–54, and >55 years old at intake) and examined factors (time invariant and time varying) associated with outcomes at 5, 7, and 9 years by fitting mixed-effects logistic random intercept models. Results: Changes in marital, employment, and health status varied significantly by age. Factors associated with remission across Years 5–9 included being in the middle-aged versus younger group (p < .001); female gender (p < .001); not losing a partner to separation, divorce, or death (p < .001); not experiencing a decline in health (p = .021); having any close friends supportive of recovery (p < .001); and not having any close friends who encourage AOD use (p < .001). Additional predictors, including employment changes, varied by drug versus alcohol abstinence outcome measures. Conclusions: Negative life transitions vary by age and are associated with worse outcomes. Older age and social support are associated with long-term AOD remission and abstinence. Findings inform treatment strategies to enhance recovery across the life span. PMID:22456251

  15. Disparities in Age-Appropriate Child Passenger Restraint Use Among Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Resnicow, Ken; Freed, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Observed racial disparities in child safety seat use have not accounted for socioeconomic factors. We hypothesized that racial differences in age-appropriate restraint use would be modified by socioeconomic status and child passenger safety information sources. METHODS: A 2-site, cross-sectional tablet-based survey of parents seeking emergency care for their 1- to 12-year-old child was conducted between October 2011 and May 2012. Parents provided self-report of child passenger safety practices, demographic characteristics, and information sources. Direct observation of restraint use was conducted in a subset of children at emergency department discharge. Age-appropriate restraint use was defined by Michigan law. RESULTS: Of the 744 eligible parents, 669 agreed to participate and 601 provided complete responses to key variables. White parents reported higher use of car seats for 1- to 3-year-olds and booster seats for 4- to 7-year-olds compared with nonwhite parents. Regardless of race, <30% of 8- to 12-year-old children who were ≤4 feet, 9 inches tall used a booster seat. White parents had higher adjusted odds (3.86, 95% confidence interval 2.27–6.57) of reporting age-appropriate restraint use compared with nonwhite parents, controlling for education, income, information sources, and site. There was substantial agreement (82.6%, κ = 0.74) between parent report of their child’s usual restraint and the observed restraint at emergency department discharge. CONCLUSIONS: Efforts should be directed at eliminating racial disparities in age-appropriate child passenger restraint use for children <8 years. Booster seat use, seat belt use, and rear seating represent opportunities to improve child passenger safety practices among older children. PMID:24420814

  16. Effects of Smoking on Menopausal Age: Results From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Jung; Suh, Pae Sun; Kim, Soo Jeong; Lee, Soon Young

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Decreased fertility and impaired health owing to early menopause are significant health issues. Smoking is a modifiable health-related behavior that influences menopausal age. We investigated the effects of smoking-associated characteristics on menopausal age in Korean women. Methods: This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Menopausal age in relation to smoking was analyzed as a Kaplan-Meier survival curve for 11 510 women (aged 30 to 65 years). The risk of entering menopause and experiencing early menopause (before age 48) related to smoking were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The menopausal age among smokers was 0.75 years lower than that among non-smokers (p<0.001). The results of the Cox proportional hazards model showed pre-correction and post-correction risk ratios for entering menopause related to smoking of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.46) and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.47), respectively, and pre-correction and post-correction risk ratios for experiencing early menopause related to smoking of 1.36 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.80) and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.85), respectively. Conclusions: Smokers reached menopause earlier than non-smokers, and their risk for experiencing early menopause was higher. PMID:26265667

  17. The Examination of the Validity and Reliability of the Teacher School-Age Temperament Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons-Thomas, Juliette; McClowry, Sandee G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Teacher School-Age Temperament Inventory (T-SATI) which is an adaptation of a parent version of the tool. A principal factor analysis using varimax rotation was performed on data provided by 143 teachers who reported on their 261 elementary school students. The results…

  18. The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: Contributing Data on Aging and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Vicki L.; Harris, Tamara

    1994-01-01

    Describes third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III), noting that upper age limit was removed and that older black, Mexican American, and white populations were oversampled. Sees NHANES III component for older adults providing multidimensional overview of physical and functional health status (osteoporosis; arthritis;…

  19. Assessing Pupils at the Age of 16 in England--Approaches for Effective Examinations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Qingping; Opposs, Dennis; Glanville, Matthew; Lampreia-Carvalho, Fatima

    2015-01-01

    In England, pupils aged 16 take the General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) examinations for a range of subjects. The current assessment models for GCSE include a two-tier structure for some subjects and a non-tier model for the others. The tiered subjects have a higher tier designed for high achieving pupils and a lower tier for low…

  20. Age-Related Differences in Emotion Regulation Strategies: Examining the Role of Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R.; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2016-01-01

    Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and…

  1. Birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years: the Scottish Mental Survey 1932

    PubMed Central

    Shenkin, S; Starr, J; Pattie, A; Rush, M; Whalley, L; Deary, I; PHARAOH, E. P.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS—To examine the relation between birth weight and cognitive function at age 11 years, and to examine whether this relation is independent of social class.
METHODS—Retrospective cohort study based on birth records from 1921 and cognitive function measured while at school at age 11 in 1932.Subjects were 985 live singletons born in the Edinburgh Royal Maternity and Simpson Memorial Hospital in 1921. Moray House Test scores from the Scottish Mental Survey 1932 were traced on 449of these children.
RESULTS—Mean score on Moray House Test increased from 30.6 at a birth weight of <2500 g to 44.7 at 4001-4500 g, after correcting for gestational age, maternal age, parity, social class, and legitimacy of birth. Multiple regression showed that 15.6% of the variance in Moray House Test score is contributed by a combination of social class (6.6%), birth weight (3.8%), child's exact age (2.4%), maternal parity (2.0%), and illegitimacy (1.5%). Structural equation modelling confirmed the independent contribution from each of these variables in predicting cognitive ability. A model in which birth weight acted as a mediator of social class had poor fit statistics.
CONCLUSION—In this 1921 birth cohort, social class and birth weight have independent effects on cognitive function at age 11. Future research will relate these childhood data to health and cognition in old age.

 PMID:11517097

  2. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control. PMID:27294182

  3. Naturalistic speeding data: Drivers aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Anna; Chevalier, Aran John; Clarke, Elizabeth; Wall, John; Coxon, Kristy; Brown, Julie; Ivers, Rebecca; Keay, Lisa

    2016-09-01

    The data presented in this article are related to the research article entitled "A longitudinal investigation of the predictors of older drivers׳ speeding behavior" (Chevalier et al., 2016) [1], wherein these speed events were used to investigate older drivers speeding behavior and the influence of cognition, vision, functional decline, and self-reported citations and crashes on speeding behavior over a year of driving. Naturalistic speeding behavior data were collected for up to 52 weeks from volunteer drivers aged 75-94 years (median 80 years, 52% male) living in the suburban outskirts of Sydney. Driving data were collected using an in-vehicle monitoring device. Global Positioning System (GPS) data were recorded at each second and determined driving speed through triangulation of satellite collected location data. Driving speed data were linked with mapped speed zone data based on a service-provider database. To measure speeding behavior, speed events were defined as driving 1 km/h or more, with a 3% tolerance, above a single speed limit, averaged over 30 s. The data contains a row per 124,374 speed events. This article contains information about data processing and quality control.

  4. Corporal Punishment and Child Behavioural and Cognitive Outcomes through 5?Years of Age: Evidence from a Contemporary Urban Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKenzie, Michael J.; Nicklas, Eric; Waldfogel, Jane; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and determinants of spanking of children at 3?years of age and the associations between spanking and externalizing behaviour and receptive verbal ability at age 5?years. Overall, we find maternal spanking rates of 55.2% and paternal rates of 43.2% at age 3?years. Mothers facing greater stress and those who…

  5. Aerobic and anaerobic power in relation to age and physical activity in 354 men aged 20-88 years.

    PubMed

    Kostka, T; Drygas, W; Jegier, A; Zaniewicz, D

    2009-03-01

    We examined simultaneously the influence of age as well as both current and historical habitual physical activity (PA) on aerobic (physical working capacity - PWC) and anaerobic (Pmax) power in 354 men aged 20.2-87.6 yrs. All the participants performed the graded aerobic exercise test and 8-second explosive power tests on a bicycle ergometer. Current leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and lifetime historical LTPA were assessed. The decline in Pmax/kg (10.3% per decade) was higher than in PWC/kg (7.5% per decade). Correlation coefficients for current LTPA and aerobic indices were higher than for current LTPA and anaerobic indices. In a multiple stepwise regression, current LTPA had the main effect on PWC/kg, whereas age had the main effect on Pmax/kg. Aerobic power was related to all measures of historical PA questionnaire, while anaerobic power - only to those historical measures which pertained to adolescence and younger years of adulthood. We conclude that the age-associated decline in anaerobic power is steeper than that of aerobic power. Habitual endurance-type LTPA increases aerobic but not anaerobic fitness throughout the adult lifespan. Anaerobic fitness indices are higher in young active vs sedentary men but this difference is not discernible as early as in the middle age.

  6. A methodology for examining the plausibility of accelerated aging protocols for UHMWPE components.

    PubMed

    Lewis, G; Nyman, J S; Trieu, H H

    1998-01-01

    In light of the time-intensive nature of using real-time shelf-aged specimens in research into property changes of ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE), accelerated thermal diffusion oxidative aging (usually referred to as accelerated aging) is frequently resorted to. A number of such aging protocols have been reported in the literature, with various claims for their producing changes in the properties of the polymer being the same as or similar to those seen in real-time shelf-aged samples. The thrust of the present work is the presentation of a methodology for examining such claims. The methodology is applied to six properties (% crystallinity, melting temperature, oxidation index, ultimate tensile strength, ultimate tensile elongation, and tensile toughness) of 4150HP UHMWPE grade, sterilized using six different methods, prior to and following the use of a specific accelerated aging protocol (oxygen gas at 70 degrees C and 507 kPa pressure; 14 d.). These six properties have been identified in the literature as being strongly correlated with the clinical wear of UHMWPE articular components. It is shown that the claim for the protocol used in the present work (in terms of the simulated equivalent shelf aging time) is plausible. It needs to be emphasized, however, that this conclusion is tentative given the paucity of the relevant literature results that are currently available and which are vital to the application of the methodology.

  7. Developmental antecedents of political ideology: a longitudinal investigation from birth to age 18 years.

    PubMed

    Fraley, R Chris; Griffin, Brian N; Belsky, Jay; Roisman, Glenn I

    2012-01-01

    The study reported here examined the developmental antecedents of conservative versus liberal ideologies using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development and a follow-up study conducted when the sample was 18 years old. Specifically, we examined variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies at age 18 years as a function of parenting attitudes and child temperament during the first 5 years of life. Consistent with long-standing theories on the development of political attitudes, our results showed that parents' authoritarian attitudes assessed when children were 1 month old predicted conservative attitudes in those children more than 17 years later. Consistent with the findings of Block and Block (2006), our results also showed that early childhood temperament predicted variation in conservative versus liberal ideologies.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Elderly Patients Aged over 80 Years.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Laurent; Cazaubon, Yoann; Debeurme, Guillaume; Loue, Constance; Ducher, Michel; Goutelle, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Since the 1950s, vancomycin has remained a reference treatment for severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Vancomycin is a nephrotoxic and ototoxic drug mainly eliminated through the kidneys. It has a large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which justifies monitoring its plasma concentrations in patients. This is especially important in patients aged over 80 years, who frequently have renal impairment. However, the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in this population is very poorly described in the literature. The objective of this work was to propose a model able to predict the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in very elderly people. First, a population pharmacokinetic model was carried out using the algorithm NPAG (nonparametric adaptive grid) on a database of 70 hospitalized patients aged over 80 years and treated with vancomycin. An external validation then was performed on 41 patients, and the predictive capabilities of the model were assessed. The model had two compartments and six parameters. Body weight and creatinine clearance significantly influenced vancomycin volume of distribution and body clearance, respectively. The means (± standard deviations) of vancomycin volume of distribution and clearance were 36.3 ± 15.2 liter and 2.0 ± 0.9 liter/h, respectively. In the validation group, the bias and precision were -0.75 mg/liter and 8.76 mg/liter for population predictions and -0.39 mg/liter and 2.68 mg/liter for individual predictions. In conclusion, a pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin in a very elderly population has been created and validated for predicting plasma concentrations of vancomycin.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Elderly Patients Aged over 80 Years.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, Laurent; Cazaubon, Yoann; Debeurme, Guillaume; Loue, Constance; Ducher, Michel; Goutelle, Sylvain

    2016-08-01

    Since the 1950s, vancomycin has remained a reference treatment for severe infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Vancomycin is a nephrotoxic and ototoxic drug mainly eliminated through the kidneys. It has a large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which justifies monitoring its plasma concentrations in patients. This is especially important in patients aged over 80 years, who frequently have renal impairment. However, the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in this population is very poorly described in the literature. The objective of this work was to propose a model able to predict the pharmacokinetics of vancomycin in very elderly people. First, a population pharmacokinetic model was carried out using the algorithm NPAG (nonparametric adaptive grid) on a database of 70 hospitalized patients aged over 80 years and treated with vancomycin. An external validation then was performed on 41 patients, and the predictive capabilities of the model were assessed. The model had two compartments and six parameters. Body weight and creatinine clearance significantly influenced vancomycin volume of distribution and body clearance, respectively. The means (± standard deviations) of vancomycin volume of distribution and clearance were 36.3 ± 15.2 liter and 2.0 ± 0.9 liter/h, respectively. In the validation group, the bias and precision were -0.75 mg/liter and 8.76 mg/liter for population predictions and -0.39 mg/liter and 2.68 mg/liter for individual predictions. In conclusion, a pharmacokinetic model of vancomycin in a very elderly population has been created and validated for predicting plasma concentrations of vancomycin. PMID:27185796

  10. Medical Student Examination Questions for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery of Almost 60 Years Ago.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Gon

    2016-08-01

    Medical student examination questions of 60 years ago are very rare to find irrespective of medical specialty. Recently, medical student examination questions for thoracic and cardiovascular surgery were found, which were presented between 1957 and 1959 at Seoul National University Medical College. All examination questions were hand-written in six pages by a professor as examiner. Among the six pages, four examination papers were dated and/or the target grade was identified, while the remaining two did not offer any information. These materials are thought to have a valuable historical meaning for the Korean medical community as well as the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery at Seoul National University Hospital.

  11. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development.

  12. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: an 8-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Song, Shuang; Su, Mengmeng; Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2015-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred and sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  13. Tracing children's vocabulary development from preschool through the school-age years: An 8-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Cuiping; Liu, Hongyun; Zhang, Yuping; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Li, Hong; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang; Shu, Hua

    2014-01-01

    In this 8-year longitudinal study, we traced the vocabulary growth of Chinese children, explored potential precursors of vocabulary knowledge, and investigated how vocabulary growth predicted future reading skills. Two hundred sixty-four (264) native Chinese children from Beijing were measured on a variety of reading and language tasks over 8 years. Between the ages of 4 to 10 years, they were administered tasks of vocabulary and related cognitive skills. At age 11, comprehensive reading skills, including character recognition, reading fluency, and reading comprehension were examined. Individual differences in vocabulary developmental profiles were estimated using the intercept-slope cluster method. Vocabulary development was then examined in relation to later reading outcomes. Three subgroups of lexical growth were classified, namely high-high (with a large initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate), low-high (with a small initial vocabulary size and a fast growth rate) and low-low (with a small initial vocabulary size and a slow growth rate) groups. Low-high and low-low groups were distinguishable mostly through phonological skills, morphological skills and other reading-related cognitive skills. Childhood vocabulary development (using intercept and slope) explained subsequent reading skills. Findings suggest that language-related and reading-related cognitive skills differ among groups with different developmental trajectories of vocabulary, and the initial size and growth rate of vocabulary may be two predictors for later reading development. PMID:24962559

  14. Prevalence of myopia and refractive changes in students from 3 to 17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Matsumura, H; Hirai, H

    1999-10-01

    We investigated changes in the prevalence of myopia and mean changes in refractive errors in Japanese students from 3 to 17 years old from 1984 to 1996. Mass ophthalmologic surveys were performed annually during the course of the study. The age-specific frequency distribution of refractive errors remained similar for 6-year-old students (defined in this study as students in the first grade of primary school) during the 13-year period, but the distribution became gradually skewed toward myopia for 12-year-old students (defined in this study as students in the first grade of junior high school). Comparisons between 1984 and 1996 examinations showed a considerable increase in the incidence of myopia among those 7 years of age or older, and changes in mean refractive errors also demonstrated a greater shift toward myopia, especially in students older than 10 years, for whom the changes were statistically significant. In this 13-year period, the prevalence of myopia increased from 49.3% to 65.6% in 17-year-old students. In addition to the annual mass ophthalmologic examinations, we also performed a longitudinal 6-year study of 346 students who entered junior high school in 1989, 1990, or 1991. Among these students, the prevalence of myopia increased from 43.5% at 12 years of age to 66.0% at 17 years of age. These 346 students were divided into the following eight groups according to their refractive error (spherical power [D]) at 12 years of age: +1 D, 0 D, -1 D, -2 D, -3 D, -4 D, -5 D, and -6 D. Mean progressions of myopia in these students were as follows: for the +1 D group, -0.14 D/year; for the 0 D group, -0.25 D/year; for the -1 D group, -0.37 D/year; for the -2 D group, -0.40 D/year; for the -3 D group, -0.29 D/year; for the -4 D group, -0.25 D/year; for the -5 D group, -0.14 D/year; and for the -6 D group, -0.22 D/year. Boys and girls demonstrated a statistically significant difference in mean changes in refractive errors at the 6-year follow-up examination: the

  15. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the

  16. Efficacy of the Herpes Zoster Subunit Vaccine in Adults 70 Years of Age or Older.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Lal, Himal; Kovac, Martina; Chlibek, Roman; Hwang, Shinn-Jang; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Godeaux, Olivier; Levin, Myron J; McElhaney, Janet E; Puig-Barberà, Joan; Vanden Abeele, Carline; Vesikari, Timo; Watanabe, Daisuke; Zahaf, Toufik; Ahonen, Anitta; Athan, Eugene; Barba-Gomez, Jose F; Campora, Laura; de Looze, Ferdinandus; Downey, H Jackson; Ghesquiere, Wayne; Gorfinkel, Iris; Korhonen, Tiina; Leung, Edward; McNeil, Shelly A; Oostvogels, Lidia; Rombo, Lars; Smetana, Jan; Weckx, Lily; Yeo, Wilfred; Heineman, Thomas C

    2016-09-15

    Background A trial involving adults 50 years of age or older (ZOE-50) showed that the herpes zoster subunit vaccine (HZ/su) containing recombinant varicella-zoster virus glycoprotein E and the AS01B adjuvant system was associated with a risk of herpes zoster that was 97.2% lower than that associated with placebo. A second trial was performed concurrently at the same sites and examined the safety and efficacy of HZ/su in adults 70 years of age or older (ZOE-70). Methods This randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial was conducted in 18 countries and involved adults 70 years of age or older. Participants received two doses of HZ/su or placebo (assigned in a 1:1 ratio) administered intramuscularly 2 months apart. Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia was assessed in participants from ZOE-70 and in participants pooled from ZOE-70 and ZOE-50. Results In ZOE-70, 13,900 participants who could be evaluated (mean age, 75.6 years) received either HZ/su (6950 participants) or placebo (6950 participants). During a mean follow-up period of 3.7 years, herpes zoster occurred in 23 HZ/su recipients and in 223 placebo recipients (0.9 vs. 9.2 per 1000 person-years). Vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 89.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.2 to 93.7; P<0.001) and was similar in participants 70 to 79 years of age (90.0%) and participants 80 years of age or older (89.1%). In pooled analyses of data from participants 70 years of age or older in ZOE-50 and ZOE-70 (16,596 participants), vaccine efficacy against herpes zoster was 91.3% (95% CI, 86.8 to 94.5; P<0.001), and vaccine efficacy against postherpetic neuralgia was 88.8% (95% CI, 68.7 to 97.1; P<0.001). Solicited reports of injection-site and systemic reactions within 7 days after injection were more frequent among HZ/su recipients than among placebo recipients (79.0% vs. 29.5%). Serious adverse events, potential immune-mediated diseases, and deaths occurred with similar frequencies in the

  17. Kicking Back Cognitive Ageing: Leg Power Predicts Cognitive Ageing after Ten Years in Older Female Twins

    PubMed Central

    Steves, Claire J.; Mehta, Mitul M.; Jackson, Stephen H.D.; Spector, Tim D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many observational studies have shown a protective effect of physical activity on cognitive ageing, but interventional studies have been less convincing. This may be due to short time scales of interventions, suboptimal interventional regimes or lack of lasting effect. Confounding through common genetic and developmental causes is also possible. Objectives We aimed to test whether muscle fitness (measured by leg power) could predict cognitive change in a healthy older population over a 10-year time interval, how this performed alongside other predictors of cognitive ageing, and whether this effect was confounded by factors shared by twins. In addition, we investigated whether differences in leg power were predictive of differences in brain structure and function after 12 years of follow-up in identical twin pairs. Methods A total of 324 healthy female twins (average age at baseline 55, range 43-73) performed the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) at two time points 10 years apart. Linear regression modelling was used to assess the relationships between baseline leg power, physical activity and subsequent cognitive change, adjusting comprehensively for baseline covariates (including heart disease, diabetes, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, lipids, diet, body habitus, smoking and alcohol habits, reading IQ, socioeconomic status and birthweight). A discordant twin approach was used to adjust for factors shared by twins. A subset of monozygotic pairs then underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The relationship between muscle fitness and brain structure and function was assessed using linear regression modelling and paired t tests. Results A striking protective relationship was found between muscle fitness (leg power) and both 10-year cognitive change [fully adjusted model standardised β-coefficient (Stdβ) = 0.174, p = 0.002] and subsequent total grey matter (Stdβ = 0.362, p = 0.005). These effects were robust in discordant

  18. Vision Test Validation Study for the Health Examination Survey Among Youths 12-17 years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jean

    A validation study of the vision test battery used in the Health Examination Survey of 1966-1970 was conducted among 210 youths 12-17 years-old who had been part of the larger survey. The study was designed to discover the degree of correspondence between survey test results and clinical examination by an opthalmologist in determining the…

  19. Prediction of Cognitive Abilities at the Age of 5 Years Using Developmental Follow-Up Assessments at the Age of 2 and 3 Years in Very Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potharst, Eva S.; Houtzager, Bregje A.; van Sonderen, Loekie; Tamminga, Pieter; Kok, Joke H.; Last, Bob F.; van Wassenaer, Aleid G.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: This study investigated prediction of separate cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years by cognitive development at the ages of both 2 and 3 years, and the agreement between these measurements, in very preterm children. Methods: Preterm children (n=102; 44 males; 58 females) with a gestational age less than 30 weeks and/or birthweight less…

  20. Evolution of groundwater age in a mountain watershed over a period of thirteen years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, Andrew H.; Clark, Jordan F.; Diaz, Stephanie H.; Rademacher, Laura K.; Earman, Sam; Niel Plummer, L.

    2012-08-01

    We compile a unique 13-year record of groundwater age for 11 springs in Sagehen basin, a watershed in the Sierra Nevada Mountains of California, USA. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and tritium (3H) data collected in prior studies from 1997 to 2003 are re-interpreted and combined with new data collected in 2009 and 2010. The age record is analyzed to explore the potential value of groundwater age monitoring for (1) providing additional constraints on the age distribution in mixed-age samples, and (2) identifying temporal changes in groundwater recharge. Motivation for this study is provided by a lack of knowledge of how groundwater recharge and discharge (stream baseflow) in mountain watersheds might respond to climate change, and a resulting need to better understand mountain aquifer residence times, storage, and recharge. Piston-flow ages for the springs generally range from 10 to 50 yr. The plausibility of different age mixing models is tested by comparing observed temporal variations in age with those simulated using simple numerical models, and by examining plots comparing the concentrations of different age tracers. We find that most spring waters are best characterized by a bimodal mixing model consisting of a new (<1 yr old) fraction and a fraction that is older, but still modern (recharged after 1950). Identification of this mixing model would not have been possible without data from multiple age tracers and data from multiple years. Computed mean ages vary substantially (often by 3-7 yr) between sampling events for most springs, including those with ages of 20-50 yr. Mean age variations are likely controlled by variations in the magnitude of the new fraction, which is positively correlated with annual snowpack water content. Most springs show overall upward trends in mean age for the sampling period, consistent with decreasing recharge rates in response to diminishing snowpack. Groundwater age monitoring appears to be a potentially

  1. Longitudinal study exploring factors associated with neck/shoulder pain at 52 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Hesselman Borg, Johanna; Westerståhl, Maria; Lundell, Sara; Madison, Guy; Aasa, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the ability of work-related measurements, body composition, physical activity, and fitness levels to predict neck/shoulder pain (upper body pain, UBP) at the age of 52 years. Another aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationships between UBP, work-related factors, and individual factors at the age of 52 years. Methods We followed a randomly selected cohort of 429 adolescents that was recruited in 1974 (baseline), when they were 16 years old. The participants completed physical fitness tests, questions about sociodemographic and lifestyle factors at 16, 34, and 52 years of age, and questions about work-related factors and pain in the follow-ups. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the associations between UBP and the other variables. Results Univariate logistic regression analyses showed that high body mass index and the work-related factors, low control, and low social support at the age of 34 years were related to UBP at the age of 52 years. For social support, there was an interaction between men and women where the relationship between low social support and the experience of pain was more evident for women. Among women, body mass index and social support remained significantly related in the multivariate analyses. For men, social support remained significantly related. Cross-sectional relationships at the age of 52 differed from the longitudinal in the sense that measures of joint flexibility and work posture were also significantly associated with UBP. Conclusion The fact that the cross-sectional differed from the longitudinal relationships strengthens the importance of performing longitudinal studies when studying factors that might influence the initiation of pain. UBP preventative measures might need to include both lifestyle (such as dietary habits and physical activity to ensure that the individuals are not becoming overweight) and work-related factors such as social support. PMID:27307762

  2. Changes in Acoustic Characteristics of the Voice across the Life Span: Measures from Individuals 4-93 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stathopoulos, Elaine T.; Huber, Jessica E.; Sussman, Joan E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation was to examine acoustic voice changes across the life span. Previous voice production investigations used small numbers of participants, had limited age ranges, and produced contradictory results. Method: Voice recordings were made from 192 male and female participants 4-93 years of age. Acoustic…

  3. An Examination of the Perceptions of Older Americans on Successful Aging and Adult Education Programs to Meet Their Aging Needs in Southeast Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Ileeia Anjale

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the personal perceptions of older Americans in regards to the aging process and the characteristics of successful aging. In addition, the study aimed to determine individual perceptions of adult education programs and resources necessary in aging successfully. The study examined current resources, services…

  4. Age at Menarche: 50-Year Socioeconomic Trends Among US-Born Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Kiang, Mathew V.; Kosheleva, Anna; Waterman, Pamela D.; Chen, Jarvis T.; Beckfield, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated 50-year US trends in age at menarche by socioeconomic position (SEP) and race/ethnicity because data are scant and contradictory. Methods. We analyzed data by income and education for US-born non-Hispanic Black and White women aged 25 to 74 years in the National Health Examination Survey (NHES) I (1959–1962), National Health Examination and Nutrition Surveys (NHANES) I–III (1971–1994), and NHANES 1999–2008. Results. In NHES I, average age at menarche among White women in the 20th (lowest) versus 80th (highest) income percentiles was 0.26 years higher (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.09, 0.61), but by NHANES 2005–2008 it had reversed and was −0.33 years lower (95% CI = −0.54, −0.11); no socioeconomic gradients occurred among Black women. The proportion with onset at younger than 11 years increased only among women with low SEP, among Blacks and Whites (P for trend < .05), and high rates of change occurred solely among Black women (all SEP strata) and low-income White women who underwent menarche before 1960. Conclusions. Trends in US age at menarche vary by SEP and race/ethnicity in ways that pose challenges to several leading clinical, public health, and social explanations for early age at menarche and that underscore why analyses must jointly include data on race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position. Future research is needed to explain these trends. PMID:25033121

  5. The Same... But Different: Examining Background Characteristics among Black Males in Public Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, J. Luke

    2013-01-01

    This study examined background characteristics among Black males in public two-year and four-year institutions. This study sought to uncover whether significant differences existed among this sub-group by institutional type. Data were derived from 533 Black male students participating in the Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study. The…

  6. Geographic Characteristics and First-Year Retention: An Examination of the Linkages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Mingchu; Williams, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Enrollment practitioners commonly discuss the effect of geographic factors on retention at rural or small-city institutions. This study examined the correlations between geographic characteristics of first-year college students' home location and their retention to the second year at a university located in a small city. The dimension of…

  7. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates.

    PubMed

    VanderVeen, Deborah K; Allred, Elizabeth N; Wallace, David K; Leviton, Alan

    2016-03-01

    Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks' gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks' gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥ 30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions.

  8. Awareness of Age-Related Change: Examination of a (Mostly) Unexplored Concept

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2010-01-01

    This theoretical article discusses the emerging concept of awareness of age-related change (AARC). We propose that a focus on AARC extends the research traditions on subjective age experiences and age identity and that examination of this concept can serve a stimulating role in social gerontology. After defining and contrasting AARC against similar concepts, several reasons for the relevance of this mostly unexplored construct are provided. The sample domains of health and physical functioning, cognitive functioning, and interpersonal relations are used to illustrate the relevance of AARC. Based on this review, we then provide a heuristic framework that describes antecedents, processes, and outcomes related to AARC. Overall, we argue that research on AARC should become an integral part of social gerontological research. PMID:20008026

  9. Perinatal air pollution exposure and development of asthma from birth to age 10 years.

    PubMed

    Sbihi, Hind; Tamburic, Lillian; Koehoorn, Mieke; Brauer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Within-city variation in air pollution has been associated with childhood asthma development, but findings have been inconsistent. We examined whether perinatal air pollution exposure affected asthma onset during "pre-school and "school age" periods in a population-based birth cohort.65,254 children born between 1999 and 2002 in the greater Vancouver metropolitan region were followed until age 10 years using linked administrative health databases. Asthma cases were sex- and age-matched to five randomly chosen controls. Associations between exposure to air pollutants estimated with different methods (interpolation (inverse-distance weighted (IDW)), land use regression, proximity) and incident asthma during the pre-school (0-5 years) and school age (6-10 years) periods were estimated with conditional logistic regression.6948 and 1711 cases were identified during the pre-school and school age periods, respectively. Following adjustment for birthweight, gestational period, household income, parity, breastfeeding at discharge, maternal age and education, asthma risk during the pre-school years was increased by traffic pollution (adjusted odds ratio using IDW method per interquartile increase (95% CI): nitric oxide 1.06 (1.01-1.11), nitrogen dioxide 1.09 (1.04-1.13) and carbon monoxide 1.05 (1.01-1.1)). Enhanced impacts were observed amongst low-term-birthweight cases. Associations were independent of surrounding residential greenness.Within-city air pollution variation was associated with new asthma onset during the pre-school years.

  10. Fetal exposure to propoxur and abnormal child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ostrea, Enrique M.; Reyes, Alexis; Villanueva-Uy, Esterlita; Pacifico, Rochelle; Benitez, Bernadette; Ramos, Essie; Bernardo, Rommel C.; Bielawski, Dawn M.; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Chiodo, Lisa; Janisse, James J.; Ager, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Our aim was to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids, on child neurodevelopment at 2 years of age. Patients and Methods Mothers were prospectively recruited during mid-pregnancy in Bulacan, Philippines where multiple pesticides including propoxur, cyfluthrin, chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, pretilachlor, bioallethrin, malathion, diazinon and transfluthrin are used. To detect prenatal exposure to these pesticides, maternal hair and blood, infant’s hair, cord blood, and meconium were analyzed for the pesticides by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Infants were examined at 2 years of age with 95.1% follow up rate and their neurodevelopment outcome was assessed by the Griffiths Mental Developmental Scale (N=754). Results Meconium analysis was the most sensitive method to detect fetal exposure to pesticides and exposure was highest for propoxur (21.3%) and the grouped pyrethroids (2.5% - bioallethrin, transfluthrin, cyfluthrin and cypermethrin). Path analysis modeling was performed to determine the effects of fetal exposure to propoxur and pyrethroids on the child’s neurodevelopment at 24 months of age while controlling for confounders. Only singletons and those with complete data for the path analysis were included (N=696). Using a path analysis model, there was a significant negative (β= −0.14, p<0.001) relationship between prenatal pesticide exposure to propoxur and motor development at 2 years of age after controlling for confounders, e.g., infant gender, socioeconomic status, maternal intelligence, home stimulation (HOME), postnatal exposure to propoxur and blood lead level at 2 years of age. Conclusion At 2 years of age, prenatal exposure to propoxur was associated with poorer motor development in children. PMID:22155319

  11. Acute promyelocytic leukemia in patients aged >70 years: the cure beyond the age.

    PubMed

    Finsinger, Paola; Breccia, Massimo; Minotti, Clara; Carmosino, Ida; Girmenia, Corrado; Chisini, Marta; Volpicelli, Paola; Vozella, Federico; Romano, Angela; Montagna, Chiara; Colafigli, Gioia; Cimino, Giuseppe; Avvisati, Giuseppe; Petti, Maria Concetta; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Foà, Roberto; Latagliata, Roberto

    2015-02-01

    All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) has made acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) a very curable disease also in patients aged >60 years; however, there are only few case reports in very elderly APL patients. To address this issue, we reviewed treatment results in 13 patients aged >70 years with newly diagnosed APL followed at our institution from January 1991 to December 2008. According to Sanz score, seven patients were at low risk, five at intermediate risk, and one at high risk. Induction therapy consisted of ATRA + idarubicin in nine patients (3/9 with reduced idarubicin dosage) and ATRA alone in four patients; in this latter group, however, 2/4 needed to add chemotherapy (CHT) due to hyperleukocytosis during ATRA treatment. All patients achieved both morphological and molecular complete remission (CR) after a median time of 51 [interquartile range (IR) 43-55] and 114 (IR 74-155) days, respectively. Infective complications were observed in 10/13 patients, APL differentiation syndrome in 3/13 patients. Twelve patients received consolidation therapy, followed by maintenance treatment in nine patients. Five patients relapsed after 7, 8, 11, 35, and 56 months. At present, seven patients are still alive, five died due to disease progression (four) or senectus while in CR (one), and one was lost to follow-up while in CR. The 5-year event-free survival was 56.1 % (95 % CI, 26.0-86.2); the 5-year overall survival (OS) was 64.5 % (95 % CI, 35.6-93.4). ATRA-based treatment of APL is safe and effective also in very elderly patients, with long-lasting disease-free OS. PMID:25186786

  12. Association between umbilical cord glucocorticoids and blood pressure at age 3 years

    PubMed Central

    Huh, Susanna Y; Andrew, Ruth; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Kleinman, Ken P; Seckl, Jonathan R; Gillman, Matthew W

    2008-01-01

    Background Animal data show that decreased activity of placental 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), which potently inactivates glucocorticoids (e.g. cortisol) to inert forms (cortisone), allows increased access of maternal glucocorticoids to the fetus and 'programs' hypertension. Data in humans are limited. We examined in humans the association between venous umbilical cord blood glucocorticoids, a potential marker for placental 11β-HSD2 enzyme activity, and blood pressure at age 3 years. Methods Among 286 newborns in Project Viva, a prospective pre-birth cohort study based in eastern Massachusetts, we measured cortisol (F) and cortisone (E) in venous cord blood and used the ratio of F/E as a marker for placental 11β-HSD2 activity. We measured blood pressure (BP) when the offspring reached age 3 years. Using mixed effects regression models to control for BP measurement conditions, maternal and child characteristics, we examined the association between the F/E ratio and child BP. Results At age 3 years, each unit increase in the F/E ratio was associated with a 1.6 mm Hg increase in systolic BP (95% CI 0.0 to 3.1). The F/E ratio was not associated with diastolic blood pressure or birth weight for gestational age z-score. Conclusion A higher F/E ratio in umbilical venous cord blood, likely reflecting reduced placental 11β-HSD2 activity, was associated with higher systolic blood pressure at age 3 years. Our data suggest that increased fetal exposure to active maternal glucocorticoids may program later systolic blood pressure. PMID:18755017

  13. Examining Trends in Parent-Child Communication in Europe over 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabak, Izabela; Mazur, Joanna; Granado Alcon, Maria del Carmen; Orkenyi, Agota; Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Aasvee, Katrin; Moreno, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze changes in communication with parents about matters of concern to 11- and 13-year olds. Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) surveys conducted in Austria, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Lithuania, Latvia, Norway, Poland, Russia, Slovakia, Sweden, and…

  14. Perceptions of Body Image and Psychosocial Development: An Examination of First-Year Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Jennifer Lynne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to help higher education practitioners and researchers better understand the role that body image plays in first-year traditional-aged college females' development of physical competence and also provide new insights regarding the role that body image plays in the psychosocial development of first-year…

  15. Inter-examiner variation in the assessment of age-related factors in teeth.

    PubMed

    Borrman, H; Solheim, T; Magnusson, B; Kvaal, S I; Stene-Johansen, W

    1995-01-01

    Inter-observer variations in the registration of dental age-related characteristics have not previously been studied. Examination and registration were made by 6 dentists with varying experience in age estimation. A total of 13 age-related dental characteristics in 30 teeth extracted from adults were assessed macroscopically, by stereomicroscope and from radiographs. The measurements were analysed in a microcomputer, using the SPSS/PC+ statistical package. The results showed that, except for the score on surface roughness, significant differences were found between some of the observers for all types of measurements, when a paired t-test analysis was made. The correlation coefficients between the observers varied and were rather weak for the surface roughness score. The study revealed systematic differences among the observers as well as differences in interpreting the definitions of the scores for the different parameters. Thus age estimation using statistical methods is seen to be dependent upon the experience of the individual observer and interpretation. Care should therefore be taken not to rely too much upon the results of an odontological age estimation. The possible implications of these results for forensic work are also discussed.

  16. Unintentional Injury Risk in School-Age Children: Examining Interrelations between Parent and Child Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Melissa; Morrongiello, Barbara A.; Kane, Alexa

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research on children's risk of injury reveals that parent and child factors are often interrelated. This study examined relations between children's risk taking, parent appraisal of this risk taking, and children's rate of injury in youth 8 and 9 years old. Methods: Responses to questionnaires and laboratory tasks were used to examine…

  17. Causes of Death in Children Aged < 15 Years in the Inner Mongolia Region of China, 2008-2012

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Du, Maolin; Hao, Zhihui; Zhang, Hairong; Zhang, Qing; Hao, Wenli; Xi, Lei; Sun, Juan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to identify the causes of death in children <15 years of age in Inner Mongolia and to examine the age-specific causes of death. Study data from 2008–2012 were obtained from the Death Registry System that is maintained by the Inner Mongolia Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The mortality rate (per 100,000) for children <15 years of age was calculated and stratified by age in different years. We computed the proportion of age-specific causes of death for children <15 years that occurred between 2008 and 2012 across eight monitoring points in Inner Mongolia. We used a log-linear model to analyze the year and age effects on childhood mortality. From 2008-2012, the standardized mortality of children <15 years of age was 42.78/100,000. The mortality rate was not significantly different from 2008 to 2012 (p>0.05); the mortality rate was the highest in the <1-year age group (p<0.05); and the mortality rate of the <1-year age group was higher in 2012 compared to that in 2009 (p<0.05), 2010 (p<0.05), and 2011 (p<0.05). In children aged 1-14 years, the leading cause of death was injuries, among which transport accident injuries were the most prevalent. To reduce the childhood mortality rate in Inner Mongolia, China, we should focus on the prevention of perinatal deaths in infants <1 year of age and on the prevention of transport accident injuries among older children (1-14 years). PMID:27157187

  18. Siblings, Theory of Mind, and Executive Functioning in Children Aged 3-6 Years: New Longitudinal Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAlister, Anna R.; Peterson, Candida C.

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data were obtained from 157 children agedyears 3 months to 5 years 6 months at Time 1. At Time 2 these children had aged an average of 12 months. Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) were measured at both time points. Results suggest that Time 1 ToM scores predict Time 2 EF scores. Detailed examination of sibling…

  19. The Relationship between Starting Age of Music Instruction and Years of Participation in a String Program outside School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Hsin-Yi; Costa-Giomi, Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    It is not uncommon for very young children to start music instruction on string instruments. Previous studies have examined the relationship between starting age of formal music instruction and years of study (Duke, Flowers & Wolfe, 1997; Hartley, 1996; Hartley & Porter, 2009). Duke et al. (1997) found that students who took more years of…

  20. Usefulness of a normal coronary angiogram in patients aged ≥65 years to foretell survival.

    PubMed

    Moreyra, Abel E; Charalambous, Marinos; Cosgrove, Nora M; Rajaei, Sheeva; Cullen, Kathryn; Cheng, Jerry Q; David, Alice; Kostis, William J; Kostis, John B

    2015-11-15

    A normal coronary angiogram (CA) has been reported to confer a good prognosis. However, how this applies to patients aged ≥65 years is not well known. From 1986 to 1996, 11,625 patients aged ≥65 underwent coronary angiography. We identified 271 patients with either normal (NORM, n = 160) CA or <30% diameter stenosis disease (NEAR-NORM, n = 111). Using the Myocardial Infarction Data Acquisition System, we examined the probability of survival and the risk of developing an ischemic event or undergoing a revascularization procedure during an average of 15.1 ± 6.2 years (range 0.5 to 25.8 years). Matched actuarial subjects were used to compare survival to the general population. The incidence of an ischemic event was low (2.0 events per 100 persons/year for the NORM and 2.8 patients per 100 persons/year for the NEAR-NORM group, p = NS). Rates of revascularization were higher in the NEAR-NORM group compared to the NORM group (1 per 100 persons/year vs 0.5 per 100 persons/year, p = 0.04). During the 25.8-year follow-up, there were 77 deaths (48.4%) for the NORM and 64 (57.1%) for the NEAR-NORM group (χ2 = 1.7, NS). The NORM group survived 6,789 days, 1,517 more days than the actuarial subjects (95% confidence interval [CI] 1,072 to 1,956; p <0.0001) and the NEAR-NORM group survived 5,922 days, 875 more days (95% CI 368 to 1,376; p <0.005). In conclusion, patients with normal or near-normal CA at age ≥65 years have a low rate of myocardial ischemic events and have significantly longer survival than matched subjects from the general population. PMID:26411358

  1. Childhood Parasomnias and Psychotic Experiences at Age 12 Years in a United Kingdom Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Helen L.; Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Thompson, Andrew; Lewis, Glyn; Zammit, Stanley; Wolke, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine associations between specific parasomnias and psychotic experiences in childhood. Design: Birth cohort study. Information on the presence of frequent nightmares in children was obtained prospectively from mothers during multiple assessments conducted when children were aged between 2.5 and 9 y. Children were interviewed at age 12 y about nightmares, night terrors, sleepwalking, and psychotic experiences (delusions, hallucinations, and thought interference) occurring in the previous 6 mo. Setting: Assessments were completed in participants' homes or a University clinic within the UK. Patients or Participants: There were 6,796 children (3,462 girls, 50.9%) who completed the psychotic experiences interview. Measurements and Results: Children who were reported by their mothers as experiencing frequent nightmares between 2.5 and 9 y of age were more likely to report psychotic experiences at age 12 y, regardless of sex, family adversity, emotional or behavioral problems, IQ and potential neurological problems (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, [95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.00, 1.35], P = 0.049). Children reporting any of the parasomnias at age 12 y also had higher rates of concurrent psychotic experiences than those without such sleeping problems, when adjusting for all confounders (OR = 3.62 [95% CI = 2.57, 5.11], P < 0.001). Difficulty getting to sleep and night waking were not found to be associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 y when controlling for confounders. Conclusion: Nightmares and night terrors, but not other sleeping problems, in childhood were associated with psychotic experiences at age 12 years. These findings tentatively suggest that arousal and rapid eye movement forms of sleep disorder might be early indicators of susceptibility to psychotic experiences. Citation: Fisher HL; Lereya ST; Thompson A; Lewis G; Zammit S; Wolke D. Childhood parasomnias and psychotic experiences at age 12 years in a United Kingdom birth cohort

  2. Age differences in physique of adult males aged 30 to 86 years in Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2000-07-01

    In the Pacific Region, some adult populations have shown a steady rise in overweight and obesity across the 1970s and into the 1990s. While younger adults have been shown to have lower body mass index (BMI) than older ones in both the least and most modernised Samoan populations, among intermediately modernised Samoan populations, BMI has been found to be higher in younger adults than in older ones. A survey in the Cook Islands carried out in 1966 showed no age group differences in height, weight and BMI among adult males, but significantly higher mean weight and BMI among adult males aged 30 years and above. The present analysis gives mean height, weight, BMI and skinfolds of adult males above 30 years of age on Rarotonga in 1996, and examines whether the BMI-age group relationship now shows a similar transitional pattern to that observed on American Samoa. In addition, the 1996 values are compared with values obtained in 1986, to determine whether changes in physique have taken place across this time. In the 1996 volunteer sample of 142 male Cook Islanders, older adults are significantly shorter, lighter, with lower BMI than younger adults. Furthermore, the younger adults of the 1996 survey are significantly heavier, with greater BMI than the 1986 sample. This suggests that the adult male Rarotongan population is in an intermediate position with respect to lifestyle transition, the secular trend in body size and increasing prevalence of obesity, and that there has been a rapid increase in body fatness prevalence among younger adults. PMID:11027034

  3. Longitudinal patterns of change in eye-hand coordination in children aged 8-16 years.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Lennon J; Telford, Rohan M; Cunningham, Ross B; Semple, Stuart J; Telford, Richard D

    2015-10-01

    Enhanced eye-hand coordination (EHC) is associated with greater participation in physical activity. No longitudinal studies have examined the change in throw-catch EHC from childhood to mid-adolescence. We investigated the development of EHC with an object control test from childhood to mid-adolescence in boys and girls. Evaluated at age 8, 10, 12 and 16 years, EHC was measured as the aggregate success rate of a throw and wall-rebound catch test. The test involved 40 attempts of progressive increasing difficulty, as determined by increased distances from a wall and transitions from two-handed to one-handed catches. Outcomes were treated as quasi-binomial and modelled by generalised linear mixed logistic regression analysis. EHC improved with age from childhood to mid-adolescence, although boys were more adept at each age (p<0.001). The patterns of change in EHC with increasing age varied according to the degree of difficulty of the task (p<0.001); throw and two-handed catch proficiency developing earlier than throw and one-handed catch in both sexes. Boys' EHC was better than girls' as early as age 8 years and male proficiency was maintained through to mid-adolescence. The proficiency of throw and two-handed catch rates developed faster than throw and one-handed catch rates for both sexes.

  4. Free Thyroxine Levels After Very Preterm Birth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Scratch, Shannon E.; Hunt, Rodney W.; Thompson, Deanne K.; Ahmadzai, Zohra M.; Doyle, Lex W.; Inder, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Preterm infants commonly have transient hypothyroxinemia of prematurity after birth, which has been associated with deficits in general intellectual functioning, memory, attention, and academic achievement. However, research has predominantly focused on thyroxine levels in the first 2 weeks of life and outcomes are limited to the preschool period. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between free thyroxine (fT4) levels over the first 6 weeks after very preterm (VPT) birth with cognitive functioning and brain development at age 7 years. METHODS: A total of 83 infants born VPT (<30 weeks’ gestation) had fT4 concentrations measured postnatally and 2- and 6-week area under the curve (AUC) summary measures were calculated. Follow-up at age 7 years included a neuropsychological assessment and brain MRI. Univariable and multivariable regression modeling was used where AUC for fT4 was the main predictor of neurodevelopmental outcome at age 7 years. RESULTS: Multivariable modeling revealed that higher, not lower, postnatal fT4 levels (2-week AUC) were associated with poorer cognitive performances at age 7 years on tasks of verbal learning (P = .02), verbal memory (P = .03), and simple reaction time (P < .001). A similar pattern of results was found when the 6-week AUC was examined. No significant associations between postnatal fT4 levels and brain volumes at age 7 years were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Results are contradictory to previous observations and suggest that after adjustment for confounders, higher postnatal fT4 levels in VPT infants, rather than lower levels, may be a marker of adverse neuropsychological development in childhood. PMID:24685955

  5. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  6. Compulsive buying--a growing concern? An examination of gender, age, and endorsement of materialistic values as predictors.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Helga

    2005-11-01

    Compulsive buying is an understudied, but growing, dysfunctional consumer behaviour with harmful psychological and financial consequences. Clinical perspectives treat it as a psychiatric disorder, whereas recent proposals emphasize the increasing endorsement of materialistic values as a cause of uncontrolled buying (e.g. Dittmar, 2004b; Kasser & Kanner, 2004). The present research aims to improve understanding of compulsive buying through examining gender, age, and endorsement of materialistic values as key predictors in three UK questionnaire studies, which sampled individuals who had contacted a self-help organization and residentially matched 'controls' (N = 330), consumer panelists from a multinational corporation (N = 250), and 16- to 18-year-old adolescents (N = 195). The results confirmed previously documented gender differences, and showed that younger people are more prone to compulsive buying. The central findings were that materialistic value endorsement emerged as the strongest predictor of individuals' compulsive buying, and that it significantly mediated the observed age differences.

  7. Quality of Life in Rural and Urban Adults 65 Years and Older: Findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baernholdt, Marianne; Yan, Guofen; Hinton, Ivora; Rose, Karen; Mattos, Meghan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The proportion of people over 65 years of age is higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and their numbers are expected to increase in the next decade. This study used Andersen's behavioral model to examine quality of life (QOL) in a nationally representative sample of community-dwelling adults 65 years and older according to…

  8. Medical Student Examination Questions for Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery of Almost 60 Years Ago

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Gon

    2016-01-01

    Medical student examination questions of 60 years ago are very rare to find irrespective of medical specialty. Recently, medical student examination questions for thoracic and cardiovascular surgery were found, which were presented between 1957 and 1959 at Seoul National University Medical College. All examination questions were hand-written in six pages by a professor as examiner. Among the six pages, four examination papers were dated and/or the target grade was identified, while the remaining two did not offer any information. These materials are thought to have a valuable historical meaning for the Korean medical community as well as the Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery at Seoul National University Hospital. PMID:27525247

  9. Individual Differences in Phonological Development: Ages One and Three Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vihman, Marilyn May; Greenlee, Mel

    1987-01-01

    The persistence of individual differences in phonological development of 10 normally developing children observed at age one and again at age three was studied. The children differed considerably in rate of vocabulary acquisition and relative phonological maturity and also in their general approach to learning. (Author/JDD)

  10. Inspection Time and Cognitive Abilities in Twins Aged 7 to 17 Years: Age-Related Changes, Heritability and Genetic Covariance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Caroline J.; Isaacs, Elizabeth B.; Visscher, Peter M.; Rogers, Mary; Lanigan, Julie; Singhal, Atul; Lucas, Alan; Gringras, Paul; Denton, Jane; Deary, Ian J.

    2008-01-01

    We studied the age-related differences in inspection time and multiple cognitive domains in a group of monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) twins aged 7 to 17 years. Data from 111 twin pairs and 19 singleton siblings were included. We found clear age-related trends towards more efficient visual information processing in older participants. There…

  11. Age-related pregnancy results and further examination of bitches after aglepristone treatment of pyometra.

    PubMed

    Jurka, P; Max, A; Hawryńska, K; Snochowski, M

    2010-06-01

    The cystic endometrial hyperplasia and pyometra complex is one of the most common uterine diseases in bitches. The appearance of pharmacological preparations containing anti-progestagens created new possibilities for pyometra treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the curative effect of the anti-progestagen aglepristone treatment of pyometra in bitches of different ages. Twenty four bitches of different breeds, aged from 0.8 to 9.5 years (21-48 kg) exhibiting clinical pyometra symptoms (two groups - I < or = 5 years, n = 14 and II >5 years, n = 10) were evaluated. Information about the general reproductive health was collected up to 54 months after anti-progestagen treatment. Remission of clinical symptoms and return of blood chemistry results and total leucocyte count to referential values were achieved in all cases within 14 days of treatment. Bitches were naturally mated at the first, and when unsuccessful, the second oestrus after treatment. In group I, no recurrence of pyometra symptoms was observed during following cycle(s). Eight bitches (57.1%) had a full-term pregnancy and the number of newborn pups ranged from 1 to 12. None of the bitches from the group II became pregnant. In conclusion, the basic indication for conservative pharmacological treatment of pyometra is preserving female fertility and obtaining offspring. The important conditions for successful aglepristone treatment are: the young age (up to 5 years) and the lack of detectible ovarian cysts. It seems necessary to mate bitches in the first or second oestrus after finishing treatment. The efficacy of treatment can be measured by the after-treatment pregnancy rate. PMID:19055567

  12. DRAWING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH NEURODEVELOPMENTAL DELAY AGED 2-5 YEARS.

    PubMed

    Morović, Maja Lang; Matijević, Valentina; Divljaković, Kristina; Kraljević, Marija; Dimić, Zdenka

    2015-06-01

    In typically developing children, drawing development occurs in stages from uncontrolled strokes to complex drawing. In this study, we examined drawing development in children with neurodevelopmental delay (NDD). In order to do so, we observed the influence of age, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and gender on the development of drawing skills. The sample consisted of 52 children with NDD, aged 2 years and 6 months to 5 years. All children were hospitalized for multidisciplinary team monitoring and developmental support. The evaluation of drawing development was administered by giving each child a blank A4 paper and the instruction to draw anything they wanted. All of the drawings were scored satisfactory or unsatisfactory. Descriptive statistics was employed on all relevant data to show results in frequencies and percentages. In order to determine differences between groups, the χ2-test was administered. The results showed greatest difference in drawing in children aged from 3 years to 3 years and 11 months. Children with lower IVH had better drawing scores than children with higher IVH levels. According to gender dissimilarities, a difference was found showing girls to have better drawing skills than boys. All study results pointed to the importance of early rehabilitation and continuous structured work with children with NDD. PMID:26415307

  13. Prenatal Perfluoroalkyl Substance Exposure and Child Adiposity at 8 Years of Age: The HOME Study

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Joseph M.; Chen, Aimin; Romano, Megan E.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Webster, Glenys M.; Yolton, Kimberly; Lanphear, Bruce P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine relationships between prenatal perfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) exposure and adiposity in children born to women who lived downstream from a fluoropolymer manufacturing plant. Methods Data are from a prospective cohort in Cincinnati, OH (HOME Study). We measured perfluorooctanoic (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic (PFOS), perfluorononanoic (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic (PFHxS) acids in prenatal serum samples. We estimated differences in body mass index z-scores (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat at 8 years of age (n=204) and BMI between 2–8 years of age (n=285) according to PFAS concentrations. Results Children born to women in the top two PFOA terciles had greater adiposity at 8 years than children in the 1st tercile. For example, waist circumference (cm) was higher among children in the 2nd (4.3; 95% CI:1.7, 6.9) and 3rd tercile (2.2; 95% CI:−0.5, 4.9) compared to children in the 1st tercile. Children in the top two PFOA terciles also had greater BMI gains from 2–8 years compared to children in the 1st tercile (p<0.05). PFOS, PFNA and PFHxS were not associated with adiposity. Conclusions In this cohort, higher prenatal serum PFOA concentrations were associated with greater adiposity at 8 years and a more rapid increase in BMI between 2–8 years. PMID:26554535

  14. Using age-stratified incidence data to examine the transmission consequences of pertussis vaccination.

    PubMed

    Blackwood, J C; Cummings, D A T; Iamsirithaworn, S; Rohani, P

    2016-09-01

    Pertussis is a highly infectious respiratory disease that has been on the rise in many countries worldwide over the past several years. The drivers of this increase in pertussis incidence remain hotly debated, with a central and long-standing hypothesis that questions the ability of vaccines to eliminate pertussis transmission rather than simply modulate the severity of disease. In this paper, we present age-structured case notification data from all provinces of Thailand between 1981 and 2014, a period during which vaccine uptake rose substantially, permitting an evaluation of the transmission impacts of vaccination. Our analyses demonstrate decreases in incidence across all ages with increased vaccine uptake - an observation that is at odds with pertussis case notification data in a number of other countries. To explore whether these observations are consistent with a rise in herd immunity and a reduction in bacterial transmission, we analyze an age-structured model that incorporates contrasting hypotheses concerning the immunological and transmission consequences of vaccines. Our results lead us to conclude that the most parsimonious explanation for the combined reduction in incidence and the shift to older age groups in the Thailand data is vaccine-induced herd immunity. PMID:27663785

  15. Cross-Sectional Study of Gender Role Conflict Examining College-Aged and Middle-Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournoyer, Robert J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    College-aged (n=88) and middle-aged (n=89) men completed 5 measures that assess gender role conflict and psychological well-being. Results indicate that, compared with college-aged men, middle-aged men were less conflicted about success, power, and competition, but were more conflicted about work and family responsibilities. The discussion focuses…

  16. An Examination of First-to Second-Year Persistence of First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guyer, Kimberly Denise

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation uses a mixed-methods design to examine persistence into the second year by students' parental education level. The institution selected for this dissertation is Temple University, a large, urban, public university in the Northeast. Using Tinto's (1993) model of student departure as a conceptual framework, the…

  17. Beyond the Common Core: Examining 20 Years of Literacy Priorities and Their Impact on Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Jack; Ortlieb, Evan; Grote-Garcia, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    Researchers utilized a historical context of the "What's Hot, What's Not" expert surveys over the last 20 years to examine literacy priorities and possible impacts. The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) were recently recognized as the hottest topic in the field of literacy education. Perhaps one of the unintended consequences of this…

  18. Examining Perceived Control Level and Instability as Predictors of First-Year College Students' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupnisky, Robert H.; Perry, Raymond P.; Hall, Nathan C.; Guay, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the intraindividual level and instability of perceived academic control (PC) among first-year college students, and their predictive effects on academic achievement. Two studies were conducted measuring situational (state) PC on different schedules: Study 1 (N = 242) five times over a 6-month period and…

  19. Examining Genetic and Environmental Effects on Social Aggression: A Study of 6-Year-Old Twins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Dionne, Ginette; Girard, Alain; Boivin, Michel; Vitaro, Frank; Prusse, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Using a genetic design of 234 six-year-old twins, this study examined (a) the contribution of genes and environment to social versus physical aggression, and (b) whether the correlation between social and physical aggression can be explained by similar genetic or environmental factors or by a directional link between the phenotypes. For social…

  20. Examinations in the Final Year of Transition to Mathematical Methods Computer Algebra System (CAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh-Lancaster, David; Les, Magdalena; Evans, Michael

    2010-01-01

    2009 was the final year of parallel implementation for Mathematical Methods Units 3 and 4 and Mathematical Methods (CAS) Units 3 and 4. From 2006-2009 there was a common technology-free short answer examination that covered the same function, algebra, calculus and probability content for both studies with corresponding expectations for key…

  1. Examining the Evidence from TIMSS: Gender Differences in Year 8 Science Achievement in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Sue

    2008-01-01

    Australia's continuing participation in international science studies such as TIMSS provides a useful lens through which to monitor achievement in science over time. Gender differences in science were not evident in the early years of TIMSS but appear to be growing. This article examines gender differences in science achievement in early secondary…

  2. Examining the Role of Advanced Placement[R] Exam Participation in 4-Year College Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chajewski, Michael; Mattern, Krista D.; Shaw, Emily J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between Advanced Placement (AP) exam participation and enrollment in a 4-year postsecondary institution. A positive relationship was expected given that the primary purpose of offering AP courses is to allow students to engage in college-level academic work while in high school, and…

  3. The Counseling Opportunity Structure: Examining Correlates of Four-Year College-Going Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engberg, Mark E.; Gilbert, Aliza J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between the normative and resource dimensions of a high school counseling department and four-year college-going rates. Utilizing data from the High School Longitudinal Study of 2009 (HSLS: 09), we employ multiple regression and latent class analysis to identify salient factors related to the college-going…

  4. Examining Student Digital Artifacts during a Year-Long Technology Integration Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Prisca M.; Frey, Chris; Dawson, Kara; Liu, Feng; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2012-01-01

    This study was situated within a year-long, statewide technology integration initiative designed to support technology integration within science, technology, engineering, and math classrooms. It examined the elements used in student artifacts in an attempt to investigate trends in digital artifact creation. Among several conclusions, this…

  5. Predictors of dental rehabilitation in children aged 3–12 years

    PubMed Central

    Gopinath, Vellore Kannan; Awad, Manal A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the proportion of completed treatments and to study the factors affecting the full mouth dental rehabilitation in pediatric patients treated by undergraduate students at the College of Dental Medicine Teaching Clinics, University of Sharjah. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 270 children aged less than 12 years (mean age 7.6, SD 2.04). Comprehensive dental rehabilitation reports of child patients that were completed by final year dental undergraduate students from the year 2009 to 2011 were reviewed. Data on complete history, oral examination, dental charting, and treatment plan were collected from pediatric dentistry case sheet. Dental caries was charted using WHO 1997 criteria. Dental treatment needs and completion of dental care delivered to children involved in this study were assessed using DMFT/deft scores. Results: Percentages of treatment provided included completed restorations (94%) and space management (84%) in primary dentition, whereas 98% of restoration and 94% of required sealants were completed in permanent dentition. The percentage of completed dental treatment including sealant placement was 61%. Age of the child and the number of decayed teeth present before the start of the treatment significantly correlated with the children in the incomplete treatment category (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Therefore, a worthy dental care was provided in a holistic approach to the children attending College of Dental Medicine training clinics. Age of the child and the number of decayed teeth were the factors affecting dental rehabilitation in children aged 3–12 years. PMID:26236683

  6. Alzheimer Lesions in the Autopsied Brains of People 30 to 50 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Pletnikova, Olga; Rudow, Gay L.; Hyde, Thomas M.; Kleinman, Joel E.; Ali, Sabeen Z.; Bharadwaj, Rahul; Gangadeen, Salina; Crain, Barbara J.; Fowler, David R.; Rubio, Ana I.; Troncoso, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that asymptomatic Alzheimer disease lesions may appear before 50 years of age. Background Alzheimer disease has an asymptomatic stage during which people are cognitively intact despite having substantial pathologic changes in the brain. While this asymptomatic stage is common in older people, how early in life it may develop has been unknown. Methods We microscopically examined the postmortem brains of 154 people aged 30-39 years (n = 59) and 40-50 years (n = 95) for specific Alzheimer lesions: beta-amyloid plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and tau-positive neurites. We genotyped DNA samples for the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE). Results We found beta-amyloid lesions in 13 brains, all of them from people aged 40 to 49 with no history of dementia. These plaques were of the diffuse type only and appeared throughout the neocortex. Among these 13 brains, 5 had very subtle tau lesions in the entorhinal cortex and/or hippocampus. All individuals with beta-amyloid deposits carried 1 or 2 APOE4 alleles. Among the individuals aged 40 to 50 with genotype APOE3/4, 10 (36%) had beta-amyloid deposits but 18 (64%) had none. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that beta-amyloid deposits in the cerebral cortex appear as early as 40 years of age in APOE4 carriers, suggesting that these lesions may constitute a very early stage of Alzheimer disease. Future preventive and therapeutic measures for this disease may have to be stratified by risk factors like APOE genotype and target people in their 40s or even earlier. PMID:26413742

  7. Mental health and bullying in the United States among children aged 6 to 17 years.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Frances Turcotte; Vivier, Patrick M; Gjelsvik, Annie

    2015-03-01

    This article examines the association between mental health disorders and being identified as a bully among children between the ages of 6 and 17 years. Data from the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health were examined. A total of 63,997 children had data for both parental reported mental health and bullying status. Bivariate analysis and logistic regression was performed to assess the association between mental health status and being identified as a bully with an age-stratified analysis and sub-analysis by type of mental health disorder. In 2007, 15.2% of U.S. children ages 6 to 17 years were identified as bullies by their parent or guardian. Children with a diagnosis of depression, anxiety, or depression had a threefold increased odds of being a bully. The diagnosis of depression is associated with a 3.31 increased odds (95% CI = [2.7, 4.07]) of being identified as a bully. Children with anxiety and attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) had similar odds. The diagnosis of a mental health disorder is strongly associated with being identified as a bully. In particular, depression, anxiety, and ADHD are strongly associated with being identified as a bully. These findings emphasize the importance of providing psychological support to not only victims of bullying but bullies as well. Understanding the risk profile of childhood bullies is essential in gaining a better grasp of this public health problem and in creating useful and appropriate resources and interventions to decrease bullying.

  8. Development of age-specific Japanese head phantoms for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi-Kawaura, C; Fujii, K; Akahane, K; Yamauchi, M; Narai, K; Aoyama, T; Katsu, T; Obara, S; Imai, K; Ikeda, M

    2015-02-01

    In this study, the authors developed age-specific physical head phantoms simulating the physique of Japanese children for dose evaluation in paediatric head computed tomography (CT) examinations. Anatomical structures at 99 places in 0-, 0.5-, 1- and 3-y-old Japanese patients were measured using DICOM viewer software from CT images, and the head phantom of each age was designed. For trial manufacture, a 3-y-old head phantom consisting of acrylic resin and gypsum was produced by machine processing. Radiation doses for the head phantom were measured with radiophotoluminescence glass dosemeters and Si-pin photodiode dosemeters. To investigate whether the phantom shape was suitable for dose evaluation, organ doses in the same scan protocol were compared between the 3-y-old head and commercially available anthropomorphic phantoms having approximately the same head size. The doses of organs in both phantoms were equivalent. The authors' designed paediatric head phantom will be useful for dose evaluation in paediatric head CT examinations.

  9. Age-related differences in emotion regulation strategies: Examining the role of contextual factors.

    PubMed

    Schirda, Brittney; Valentine, Thomas R; Aldao, Amelia; Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya

    2016-09-01

    Increasing age is characterized by greater positive affective states. However, there is mixed evidence on the implementation of emotion regulation strategies across the life span. To clarify the discrepancies in the literature, we examined the modulating influence of contextual factors in understanding emotion regulation strategy use in older and young adults. Forty-eight older adults and forty-nine young adults completed a retrospective survey inquiring about the use of emotion regulation strategies in emotion-eliciting situations experienced over the preceding 2 weeks. We used factor analysis to establish clusters of emotion regulation strategies, resulting in cognitive strategies, acceptance, and maladaptive strategies. Overall, we found context-dependent age-related differences in emotion regulation strategy use. Specifically, older adults reported greater use of acceptance than young adults in situations of moderate intensity and in situations that evoke anxiety and sadness. In addition, older adults reported using maladaptive strategies to a lesser extent in high- and moderate-intensity situations and in situations that elicit anxiety and sadness when compared with young adults. There were no age-related differences in the use of cognitive strategies across contexts. Older adults, compared to young adults, reported less use of maladaptive strategies and greater use of acceptance than young adults, which suggests that the enhanced emotional functioning observed later in life may be due to a shift in strategy implementation. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570980

  10. Television viewing through ages 2-5 years and bullying involvement in early elementary school

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background High television exposure time at young age has been described as a potential risk factor for developing behavioral problems. However, less is known about the effects of preschool television on subsequent bullying involvement. We examined the association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in the first grades of elementary school. We hypothesized that high television exposure increases the risk of bullying involvement. Method TV viewing time was assessed repeatedly in early childhood using parental report. To combine these repeated assessments we used latent class analysis. Four exposure classes were identified and labeled “low”, “mid-low”, “mid-high” and “high”. Bullying involvement was assessed by teacher questionnaire (n = 3423, mean age 6.8 years). Additionally, peer/self-report of bullying involvement was obtained using a peer nomination procedure (n = 1176, mean age 7.6 years). We examined child risk of being a bully, victim or a bully-victim (compared to being uninvolved in bullying). Results High television exposure class was associated with elevated risks of bullying and victimization. Also, in both teacher- and child-reported data, children in the high television exposure class were more likely to be a bully-victim (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.42-3.13 and OR = 3.68, 95% CI: 1.75-7.74 respectively). However, all univariate effect estimates attenuated and were no longer statistically significant once adjusted for maternal and child covariates. Conclusions The association between television viewing time through ages 2-5 and bullying involvement in early elementary school is confounded by maternal and child socio-demographic characteristics. PMID:24520886

  11. Falls Among Persons Aged ≥65 Years With and Without Severe Vision Impairment - United States, 2014.

    PubMed

    Crews, John E; Chou, Chiu-Fung; Stevens, Judy A; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2016-05-06

    In 2014, an estimated 2.8 million persons aged ≥65 years in the United States reported severe vision impairment* defined as being blind or having severe difficulty seeing, even with eyeglasses. Good vision is important for maintaining balance as well as for identifying low-contrast hazards, estimating distances, and discerning spatial relationships. Conversely, having poor vision increases the risk for falls (1,2). Falls among older adults are common and can cause serious injuries, disabilities, and premature death (1,3). To date, no state-level investigations have examined the annual prevalence of falls among persons with and without severe vision impairment. CDC analyzed data from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to estimate the state-specific annual prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years with and without self-reported severe vision impairment. Overall, 46.7% of persons with, and 27.7% of older adults without, self-reported severe vision impairment reported having fallen during the previous year. The state-specific annual prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years with severe vision impairment ranged from 30.8% (Hawaii) to 59.1% (California). In contrast, the prevalence of falls among persons aged ≥65 years without severe vision impairment ranged from 20.4% (Hawaii) to 32.4% (Alaska). Developing fall-prevention interventions intended for persons with severe vision impairment will help states manage the impact of vision impairment and falls on health care resources, and can inform state-specific fall prevention initiatives.

  12. Prevalence of Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Population Aged 15 Years or Older, Vietnam, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Giang, Kim Bao; Nga, Pham Thi Quynh; Hai, Phan Thi; Minh, Nguyen Thac; Hsia, Jason

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking is increasing globally and is associated with adverse outcomes requiring tobacco control interventions. We estimated the prevalence of waterpipe tobacco use among adult populations in Vietnam in 2010 and examined its association with sociodemographic factors. Methods We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) conducted in Vietnam in 2010. GATS surveyed a national representative sample of adults aged 15 years or older from 11,142 households by using a 2-phase sampling design analogous to a 3-stage stratified cluster sampling. Descriptive statistical analyses and multivariate logistic regression modeling were conducted. Results A total of 6.4% of Vietnamese aged 15 years or older (representing about 4.1 million adult waterpipe smokers) reported current waterpipe tobacco smoking. The prevalence of waterpipe tobacco smoking was significantly higher among men than women (13% vs 0.1%). Area of residence (rural or urban), age group, asset-based wealth quintile, and geographic region of residence were significantly associated with waterpipe tobacco smoking among men. The significant correlates of current waterpipe tobacco smoking among men were lower education levels, being middle-aged (45–54 years), lower asset-based wealth levels, living in rural areas, not living in the South East and the Mekong River Delta geographic regions, and the belief that smoking does not causes diseases. Conclusion Rural dwellers who are poor should be targeted in tobacco control programs. Further studies are needed that examine perceptions of the adverse health effects and the cultural factors of waterpipe tobacco smoking. PMID:23597395

  13. Vitamin B12 Levels of Subjects Aged 0-24 Year(s) in Konya, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yavuz, Haluk; Bodur, Said; Kiyici, Aysel

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research reports indicate that vitamin B12 levels show racial differences, which suggests that using the reference ranges of varied populations may lead to inaccurate results. This study aimed to determine normal serum levels of vitamin B12 among children and young people in the Konya region of Turkey. It evaluated 1,109 samples; 54 were from cord-blood and 1,055 were from healthy subjects aged 0-24 year(s), who were admitted to primary healthcare centres. The normal reference levels obtained for vitamin B12 at 2.5-97.5 percentile (P2.5-P97.5) range were 127-606 pg/mL for girls, 127-576 pg/mL for boys, and 127-590 pg/mL for the entire study group. The reported reference values for vitamin B12 in other studies were higher than the current results. Vitamin B12 levels vary from country to country; comparisons between countries may not be valid, and normal levels for each population should be obtained. PMID:25895195

  14. Influenza vaccination: the persuasiveness of messages among people aged 65 years and older.

    PubMed

    Prati, Gabriele; Pietrantoni, Luca; Zani, Bruna

    2012-01-01

    About 90% of all influenza-related deaths occur among people aged 65 years and older. Vaccination remains the primary option for preventing influenza infection. This study examined the efficacy of messages designed to increase the uptake of influenza vaccination. Two messages, narrative and didactic, were created based on the Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM). The study employed a one-factor between-subjects experimental design with participants assigned randomly to three conditions: no message, didactic communication, and narrative communication. Participants were 311 Italian people aged 65 years or older. The results showed that, compared to no message and didactic communication, narrative communication was related to higher risk perception of influenza, to higher perception of the efficacy of the vaccine, and to self-efficacy related to vaccination, controlling for social trust, previous flu shot, and demographic variables. There were no differences among the three conditions with respect to the intention to receive the influenza vaccine. Findings suggest that narrative communication based on EPPM may have a persuasive effect on people aged 65 years or older.

  15. Prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in Wukro, northern Ethiopia.

    PubMed Central

    Kassaye, T.; Receveur, O.; Johns, T.; Becklake, M. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years in northern Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out and the data were analysed for 824 (61.5%) of 1339 eligible children for whom there was complete information on biochemical vitamin A status, dietary vitamin A intake, ocular examination for xerophthalmia, and anthropometry. FINDINGS: The prevalence of xerophthalmia was 5.8%; serum retinol levels were below 0.35 mumol/l and between 0.35 and 0.70 mumol/l in 8.4% and 51.1% of the children respectively. The liver vitamin A reserve (modified relative dose response ratio > or = 0.06) was low in 41.0% of the children. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of severe vitamin A deficiency in children aged 6-9 years indicates the need to reevaluate the practice of targeting vitamin A supplementation programmes on children under 6 years of age in areas where vitamin A deficiency is endemic. PMID:11417037

  16. METHODOLOGY FOR EXAMINING SYSTEM AGING DUE TO INTERACTIONS BETWEEN CHEMICALLY INCOMPATIBLE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    J. DENINGER; J. TANSKI

    1999-04-01

    We start with a stored and unused population of fielded engineered units that are composed of chemically incompatible materials. The units age primarily through heterogeneous chemical reactions between the materials resulting in possible degradation in performance. The engineered units are unused in storage, but may be called into actual service at any time. We sample several units from the population per year and perform a number of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) techniques, such as radiography, low-frequency vibration analysis, and ultrasonic imaging on the selected units. From those units, some are selected for destructive testing (D-test) involving disassembly and testing of internal parts and components. Chemical analyses, mechanical properties measurements and other tests are performed. All of the above steps provide information that is used in the system simulation mathematical model. The system simulation model incorporates chemical reactions and gas-solid transport processes, along with changes in both the surface and bulk properties of the solids. Model results are used to suggest improvements in NDE analyses of the units and improvements in component and material analyses. Model results give trending indications of individual component and overall system changes over time, plus some understanding of the mechanisms involved which allow science-based predictions of the aged state of the units in future times. The NDE, D-test, and model results can also be used to assess statistically the reliability and performance of the overall aging population of units.

  17. Determinants of maximal instantaneous muscle power in women aged 50-75 years.

    PubMed

    De Vito, G; Bernardi, M; Forte, R; Pulejo, C; Macaluso, A; Figura, F

    1998-06-01

    The present study aimed at analysing the age-related decline in maximal muscle power (W) in 52 sedentary healthy women aged between 50 and 75 years to determine whether force or velocity is the major determinant. Maximal muscle power was estimated from two types of vertical jumps, squatting (SJ) and countermovement (CmJ), performed on a force platform. It was obtained by measuring the vertical force (F(opt)) applied to the body centre of gravity and calculating the corresponding vertical velocity (v(opt)). An age-related decline in absolute W was statistically significant in all the conditions examined and in both peak W and average power (W) values. The decrease in v(opt) was also statistically significant. Also F(opt) declined but this reduction was not statistically significant with the exception of the average value in CmJ. Not surprisingly the highest W were obtained in CmJ, and the difference in power production between the two types of jump showed an age-related decrement only in W. The main finding of the study was the demonstration that v(opt) was the critical determinant of the age-related decline in W in healthy elderly women.

  18. Consumption of dairy products and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Wang, Jie Jin; Burlutsky, George; Rochtchina, Elena; Mitchell, Paul

    2014-05-01

    Habitual consumption of dairy products has been shown to play an important role in the prevention of several chronic diseases. We aimed to prospectively assess the relationship between the change in dairy product consumption (both regular fat and low/reduced fat) and the 15-year incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In the Blue Mountains Eye Study, 2037 participants aged 49 years or above at baseline were re-examined at follow-up in 1997-9, 2002-4 and/or 2007-9. AMD was assessed from retinal photographs. Dietary data were collected using a semi-quantitative FFQ, and servings of dairy product consumption calculated. Over the 15-year follow-up, there were 352, 268 and eighty-four incident cases of any, early and late AMD, respectively. After adjusting for age, sex, current smoking, white cell count and fish consumption, a significant linear trend (P for trend = 0·003) was observed with decreasing consumption of total dairy foods and the 15-year incidence of late AMD, comparing the lowest v. highest quintile of intake (OR 2·80, 95 % CI 1·21, 3·04). Over the 15 years, decreased consumption of reduced-fat dairy foods was associated with an increased risk of incident late AMD, comparing the lowest to highest quintile of intake (OR 3·10, 95 % CI 1·18, 8·14, P for trend = 0·04). Decreasing total dietary Ca intake over the 15 years was also associated with an increased risk of developing incident late AMD (multivariable-adjusted P for trend = 0·03). A lower consumption of dairy products (regular and low fat) and Ca was independently associated with a higher risk of developing incident late AMD in the long term. Additional cohort studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  19. Impact of age on transcatheter aortic valve implantation outcomes: a comparison of patients aged ≤ 80 years versus patients > 80 years

    PubMed Central

    van der Kley, Frank; van Rosendael, Philippe J; Katsanos, Spyridon; Kamperidis, Vasileios; Marsan, Nina A; Karalis, Ioannis; de Weger, Arend; Palmen, Meindert; Bax, Jeroen J; Schalij, Martin J; Delgado, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the procedural outcomes and the long-term survival of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and compare study results of patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old. Methods A total of 240 patients treated with TAVI were divided into two groups according to age ≤ 80 years (n = 105; 43.8%) and > 80 years (n = 135; 56.2%). The baseline characteristics and the procedural outcomes were compared between these two groups of patients. Results With the exception of peripheral artery disease and hypercholesterolemia, which were more frequently observed in the older age group, baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. Complication rates did not differ significantly between patients ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years. There were no differences in 30-day mortality rates between patients aged ≤ 80 years and patients > 80 years old (9.5% vs. 7.4%, respectively; P = 0.557). After a median follow-up of 28 months (interquartile range: 16–42 months), 50 (47.6%) patients aged ≤ 80 years died compared to 57 (42%) deaths in the group of patients > 80 years old (P = 0.404). Conclusion The results of the present single center study showed that age did not significantly impact the outcomes of TAVI. PMID:26918010

  20. Injuries from batteries among children aged <13 years--United States, 1995-2010.

    PubMed

    2012-08-31

    Injuries to children caused by batteries have been documented in the medical literature and by poison control centers for decades. Of particular concern is the ingestion of button batteries, especially those ≥20 mm in diameter (coin size), which can lodge in the esophagus, leading to serious complications or death. To estimate the number of nonfatal battery injuries among children aged <13 years, U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) staff analyzed 1997-2010 data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). To identify fatal battery exposures, other CPSC databases covering 1995-2010 were examined, including the 1) Injury and Potential Injury Incident File; 2) Death Certificate Database (DTHS); and 3) In-Depth Investigation File (INDP). From 1997 to 2010, an estimated 40,400 children aged <13 years were treated in hospital emergency departments (EDs) for battery-related injuries, including confirmed or possible battery ingestions. Nearly three quarters of the injuries involved children aged ≤4 years; 10% required hospitalization. Battery type was reported for 69% of cases, and of those, button batteries were implicated in 58%. Fourteen fatal injuries were identified in children ranging in age from 7 months to 3 years during 1995-2010. Battery type was reported in 12 of these cases; all involved button batteries. CPSC is urging the electronics industry and battery manufacturers to develop warnings and industry standards to prevent serious injuries and deaths from button batteries. Additionally, public health and health-care providers can encourage parents to keep button batteries and products containing accessible button batteries (e.g., remote controls) away from young children.

  1. Contextualizing change in marital satisfaction during middle age: an 18-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gorchoff, Sara M; John, Oliver P; Helson, Ravenna

    2008-11-01

    To address the need for longitudinal marital research that takes contextual factors into account, we investigated change in women's marital satisfaction over 18 years of middle age. We examined not only whether marital satisfaction changed, but also why and how it changed. Marital satisfaction increased in middle age, and increased marital, but not life, satisfaction was linked to the transition to an empty nest. More specifically, the transition to an empty nest increased marital satisfaction via an increase in women's enjoyment of time with their partners, but not via an increase in the quantity of that time with partners. Also, increasing marital satisfaction was not attributable to changing partners. Taken together, these findings support the utility of applying a contextualized approach focused on major life transitions to the study of long-term change in marital satisfaction.

  2. Predictors and Characteristics of Successful Aging among Men: A 48-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westermeyer, Jerry F.

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult…

  3. The Four Ages of Reading Philosophy and Pedagogy: A Framework for Examining Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turbill, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Outlines recent and past debates on literacy pedagogy. Contends that more students are more highly literate today than ever before. Describes the following literacy pedagogy "ages": the age of reading as decoding; the age of reading as meaning making; the age of reading-writing connections; and the age of reading for social purpose. Concludes that…

  4. Examining the sexual function and related attitudes among aged women: A cross- sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Jamali, Safieh; Rahmanian, Afifeh; Javadpour, Shohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sexual function and its subsequent satisfaction are among the most important aspects of women’s life. However, this instinct could be influenced by some factors such as diseases, drug using, aging, and hormonal and physiologic changes associated with menopause, and sexual behavior. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe the prevalence rates of sexual dysfunction, and related attitudes among aged women in Jahrom, Iran. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 746 postmenopausal women aged between 50 and 89 years old who had referred to obstetric and gynecologic clinic in Jahrom, from April to October 2014. Female Sexual Function Index questionnaire was used order to assess the sexual function. The cases were classified into three categories according to the attitude scores: negative (17-32), medium (33-38), and positive (39-48). One-way ANOVA test was used to determine the relationship between FSFI and attitude scores. Results: The participants’ mean±SD age was 60.10±6.89 years and the total mean score of FSFI was 19.31±8.5. In addition, 81.5% of the women had sexual dysfunction (FSFI< 26.55) and only 147 women (18.5%) had normal sexual function (FSFI> 26.55). Almost 62.1% the women displayed a negative attitude towards sexuality and only 18.8% women had positive attitude. Feeling of dyspareunia (p= 0.02), lubrication (p< 0.0001), orgasm (p= 0.002) and satisfaction (p= 0.002) were significantly different between three categories of attitudes regarding sexuality, respectively Conclusion: Our data showed that sexual disorders were highly prevalent among postmenopausal women. The most affected problems were arousal, dyspareunia, and lubrication. More than half of the women had negative attitude towards sexual function consequently this could affect their sexual function. So, it seems screening of sexual dysfunction for finding the causes in women should be the main sexual health program. Also, it would be important

  5. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  6. Ten years of Nature Physics: Numerical models come of age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gull, E.; Millis, A. J.

    2015-10-01

    When Nature Physics celebrated 20 years of high-temperature superconductors, numerical approaches were on the periphery. Since then, new ideas implemented in new algorithms are leading to new insights.

  7. Rotavirus gastroenteritis in children less than five years of age in primary care settings in Bulgaria: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Tiholova, Mayda; Gopala, Kusuma; Berberova, Magda; Strokova-Stoilova, Margarita; Tafalla, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Background Rotavirus (RV) causes a high proportion of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases, especially among children under the age of five years old. This surveillance study was undertaken to study the incidence and severity of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in primary care settings in Bulgaria over a one-year period. Methods In this prospective, observational study of AGE cases in children under five years of age presenting in the primary care setting over a one year period, stool samples were collected and tested for RV using a rapid visual immunochromatographic test kit. After the first visit, parents monitored their child for about two weeks and reported the symptoms experienced by the child during the follow-up period to the physician in a follow-up phone call. The percentage of RVGE cases among AGE was calculated and the severity of AGE (according to the 20-point Vesikari scale) was assessed by the physician based on the symptoms reported by the parents. The seasonality of RVGE was also studied. Results The proportion of RVGE among the 624 AGE cases examined was 25.5%. Severe AGE was experienced by 81.8% RV-positive and 54.6% RV-negative children (p-value <0.001) and a third of all severe AGE cases occurred in RV-positive patients. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the determinants of hospitalization indicated that severity of disease and RV-positivity were the statistically significant variables explaining hospitalization of AGE cases; even controlling for severity, RV-positive patients were more often hospitalized than RV-negative ones. RVGE cases occurred throughout the year, with peaks during August and September. Conclusion Our study emphasizes that RV is an important cause of AGE in children under five presenting in primary care settings in Bulgaria and a disproportionately high proportion of severe AGE cases may be attributed to RV infections. Trial registration number NCT01733849

  8. Rotavirus gastroenteritis in children less than five years of age in primary care settings in Bulgaria: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Tiholova, Mayda; Gopala, Kusuma; Berberova, Magda; Strokova-Stoilova, Margarita; Tafalla, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Background Rotavirus (RV) causes a high proportion of acute gastroenteritis (AGE) cases, especially among children under the age of five years old. This surveillance study was undertaken to study the incidence and severity of rotavirus gastroenteritis (RVGE) in primary care settings in Bulgaria over a one-year period. Methods In this prospective, observational study of AGE cases in children under five years of age presenting in the primary care setting over a one year period, stool samples were collected and tested for RV using a rapid visual immunochromatographic test kit. After the first visit, parents monitored their child for about two weeks and reported the symptoms experienced by the child during the follow-up period to the physician in a follow-up phone call. The percentage of RVGE cases among AGE was calculated and the severity of AGE (according to the 20-point Vesikari scale) was assessed by the physician based on the symptoms reported by the parents. The seasonality of RVGE was also studied. Results The proportion of RVGE among the 624 AGE cases examined was 25.5%. Severe AGE was experienced by 81.8% RV-positive and 54.6% RV-negative children (p-value <0.001) and a third of all severe AGE cases occurred in RV-positive patients. A multivariate logistic regression analysis of the determinants of hospitalization indicated that severity of disease and RV-positivity were the statistically significant variables explaining hospitalization of AGE cases; even controlling for severity, RV-positive patients were more often hospitalized than RV-negative ones. RVGE cases occurred throughout the year, with peaks during August and September. Conclusion Our study emphasizes that RV is an important cause of AGE in children under five presenting in primary care settings in Bulgaria and a disproportionately high proportion of severe AGE cases may be attributed to RV infections. Trial registration number NCT01733849 PMID:27622162

  9. Dental Age Estimation: A Test of the Reliability of Correctly Identifying a Subject Over 18 Years of Age Using the Gold Standard of Chronological Age as the Comparator.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Victoria S; Andiappan, Manoharan; McDonald, Fraser; Roberts, Graham

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to test the reliability of using the third molars to demarcate between child and adult status. A total of 2000 dental panoramic tomographs were used for assessment of the calculated age using the 8-stage system of tooth development and applied to all four third molars. The LL8 was also assessed using this 8-stage system. For each tooth development stage, the Normal distribution and percentile summary data were estimated. The calculated dental age compared with the chronological age was statistically significantly different (p < 0.001) for both females and males giving underestimates of the true age. Comparison of single tooth dental age and chronological age was only slightly different. The most important finding is that the assignment to above or below the 18-year threshold, in the age range 17 years to 19 years, could be wrong on up to 50% of occasions.

  10. Risk of Developmental Delay Increases Exponentially as Gestational Age of Preterm Infants Decreases: A Cohort Study at Age 4 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerstjens, Jorien M.; de Winter, Andrea F.; Bocca-TJeertes, Inger F.; Bos, Arend F.; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of decreasing gestational age on the risk of developmental delay in various domains at age 4 years among children born at a wide range of gestational ages. Method: In a community-based cohort, the parents of 1439 preterm-born children (24 0/7 to 35 6/7wks) and 544 term-born children (38 0/7 to…

  11. Food Hypersensitivity in Patients Over 14 Years of Age Suffering from Atopic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Čelakovská, Jarmila; Ettler, K; Ettlerová, K; Vaněčková, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients suffering from atopic dermatitis often describe food hypersensitivity. Rising prevalence of food hypersensitivity and severe allergic reactions to foods have been reported, but the data are scarce. Aims and Objectives: Evaluation of food hypersensitivity reactions in patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Materials and Methods: The dermatological examination was performed in patients of age 14 years and above and the detailed history was taken concerning the food hypersensitivity. Results: A total of 228 patients were examined-72 men, 156 women, average age 26.2 (SD 9.5) years. The food hypersensitivity reactions were recorded in 196 patients from 228 (86%), no reactions were recorded in 32 patients (24%). Foods with the most often recorded reactions are: Nuts (in 35% of patients), tomatoes (in 20%), and kiwi (in 17, 5%), apples and spices (in 16%), tangerines and oranges (in 15%), capsicum (in 13%), fishes (in 12%), celery (in 9%), and chocolate (in 7%). Conclusion: Food hypersensitivity reactions are recorded in 86% of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. Nuts, tomatoes, and pollen–associated foods play a role in the majority of patients suffering from atopic dermatitis. PMID:24891679

  12. Older workers in the construction industry: results of a routine health examination and a five year follow up.

    PubMed Central

    Arndt, V; Rothenbacher, D; Brenner, H; Fraisse, E; Zschenderlein, B; Daniel, U; Schuberth, S; Fliedner, T M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the health status of older construction workers and the occurrence of early retirement due to disability or of mortality within a five year follow up. METHODS: Firstly, a cross sectional study was performed among 4958 employees in the German construction industry, aged 40-64 years, who underwent standardised routine occupational health examinations in 1986-8. The study population included plumbers, carpenters, painters/varnishers, plasterers, unskilled workers, and white collar workers (control group). Job specific prevalence and age adjusted relative prevalence were calculated for hearing loss, abnormal findings at lung auscultation, reduced forced expiratory volume, increased diastolic blood pressure, abnormalities in the electrocardiogram, increased body mass index, hypercholesterolaemia, increased liver enzymes, abnormal findings in an examination of the musculoskeletal system, and abnormalities of the skin. Secondly, follow up for disability and all cause mortality was ascertained between 1992 and 1994 (mean follow up period = 4.5 y). Job specific crude rates were calculated for the occurrence of early retirement due to disability and for all cause mortality. With Cox's proportional hazards model, job specific relative risks, adjusted for age, nationality, and smoking were obtained. RESULTS: Compared with the white collar workers, a higher prevalence of hearing deficiencies, signs of obstructive lung diseases, increased body mass index, and musculoskeletal abnormalities were found among the construction workers at the baseline exam. During the follow up period, 141 men died and 341 men left the labour market due to disability. Compared with white collar workers, the construction workers showed a 3.5 to 8.4-fold increased rate of disability (P < 0.05 for all occupational groups) and a 1.2 to 2.1-fold increased all cause mortality (NS). CONCLUSIONS: This study shows the need and possibilities for further health promotion in workers

  13. Reduced Electrodermal Fear Conditioning from Ages 3 to 8 Years Is Associated with Aggressive Behavior at Age 8 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Dawson, Michael E.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Poor fear conditioning characterizes adult psychopathy and criminality, but it is not known whether it is related to aggressive/antisocial behavior in early childhood. Methods: Using a differential, partial reinforcement conditioning paradigm, electrodermal activity was recorded from 200 male and female children at ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and…

  14. Cranial muscle markers: a preliminary examination of size, sex, and age effects.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2010-02-01

    Most muscle marker research consists of post-cranial analyses, but some researchers examine crania to reconstruct activities. Regardless of bones examined, anthropologists know of some of the complexities surrounding muscle marker development. Here, posterior cranial muscle markers are analyzed to determine whether they are useful in reconstructing activities by examining effects that may hinder reconstructions. Additionally, upper limb muscle markers and humeral cross-sectional robusticity variables are correlated with cranial muscle markers to determine if robust individuals are generally robust due to the synergistic effects of muscle use. Cranial muscle markers of 65 prehistoric California Amerinds are scored using a five-point observer rating scale. Body mass is calculated from femoral head size; maximum cranial length and breadth are measured with a spreading caliper; and age and sex are determined through standard procedures. Upper limb muscle markers are scored on seven sites using two dimensions within a seven-point scale. Cross-sectional properties are calculated from biplanar humeral radiographs. Aggregates are created for cranial muscle markers, upper limb muscle markers, and cross-sectional robusticity. Cranial muscle markers correlate significantly with cranial length, r=0.25 and cross-sectional robusticity of humerus, r=0.29; P's<0.05. All variables differed between sexes (Mann-Whitney=31.00-307.50, P's<0.01). Results imply that some differences in cranial muscle markers are related to size; however, individuals with well-developed cranial muscle markers have greater upper limb robusticity possibly due to activity patterns. Sex differences remained after size controls and may relate to activity differences.

  15. Stereopsis Results at 4.5 Years of Age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, E. Eugenie; Stout, Ann U.; Lynn, Michael J.; Yen, Kimberly G.; Kruger, Stacey J.; Lambert, Scott R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether stereopsis of infants treated for monocular cataracts varies with the type of optical correction used. Design Randomized prospective clinical trial Methods The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study randomized 114 patients with unilateral cataracts at age 1 to 7 months to either primary intraocular lens (IOL) or contact lens correction. At 4.5 years of age a masked examiner assessed stereopsis on these patients using three different tests: 1) Frisby; 2) Randot Preschool; and 3) Titmus fly. Results Twenty-eight patients (25%) had a positive response to at least one of the stereopsis tests. There was no statistically significant difference in stereopsis between the two treatment groups. Frisby (contact lens, 6 (11%); IOL, 7 (13%); p=0.99), Randot (contact lens, 3 (6%); IOL, 1 (2%); p=0.62) or Titmus: (contact lens, 8 (15%); IOL, 13 (23%); p=0.34). The median age at surgery for patients with stereopsis was younger than for those without stereopsis (1.2 versus 2.4 months; p=0.002). The median visual acuity for patients with stereopsis was better than for those without stereopsis (20/40 vs. 20/252; p=0.0003). Conclusion The type of optical correction did not influence stereopsis outcomes. However, two other factors did: age at surgery and visual acuity in the treated eye at age 4.5 years. Early surgery for unilateral congenital cataract and the presence of visual acuity better than or equal to 20/40 appear to be more important than the type of initial optical correction used for the development of stereopsis. PMID:25261241

  16. Maternal fever at birth and non-verbal intelligence at age 9 years in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Dammann, Olaf; Drescher, Johannes; Veelken, Norbert

    2003-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that characteristics of perinatal infection are associated with long-term cognitive limitations among preterm infants, we analyzed data from 294 infants (142 females, 152 males) < or = 1500 g birthweight and <37 completed weeks of gestation who were examined at age 9 years. We identified 47 children (20 females, 27 males) who had a non-verbal Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children (K-ABC) scale standard value below 70, i.e. more than 2 SDs below the age-adjusted mean. The 247 children (122 females, 125 males) with a score > or = 70 served as control participants. Maternal nationality and education, and low gestational age were significantly associated with a K-ABC non-verbal standard value <70. Both neonatal brain damage (intraventricular hemorrhage) and long-term sequelae (cerebral palsy [CP], diagnosed at age 6 years) were significantly associated with a below-normal non-verbal K-ABC score. Maternal fever at birth was present in five cases (11%) and eight controls (3%; odds ratio 3.6, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 11.4). Clinical chorioamnionitis and preterm labor and/or premature rupture of membranes (as opposed to toxemia and other initiators of preterm delivery) were also more common among cases than control participants. When adjusting for potential confounders such as gestational age, maternal education and nationality, and CP, the risk estimate for maternal fever remained unchanged (3.8, 0.97 to 14.6). We conclude that perinatal infection might indeed contribute to an increased risk for long-term cognitive deficits in preterm infants. PMID:12613769

  17. Suicide trends among persons aged 10-24 years--United States, 1994-2012.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Erin M; Annest, Joseph L; Simon, Thomas R; Luo, Feijun; Dahlberg, Linda L

    2015-03-01

    Suicide is the second leading cause of death among persons aged 10-24 years in the United States and accounted for 5,178 deaths in this age group in 2012. Firearm, suffocation (including hanging), and poisoning (including drug overdose) are the three most common mechanisms of suicide in the United States. Previous reports have noted that trends in suicide rates vary by mechanism and by age group in the United States, with increasing rates of suffocation suicides among young persons. To test whether this increase is continuing and to determine whether it varies by demographic subgroups among persons aged 10-24 years, CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System mortality data for the period 1994-2012. Trends in suicide rates were examined by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, region of residence, and mechanism of suicide. Results of the analysis indicated that, during 1994-2012, suicide rates by suffocation increased, on average, by 6.7% and 2.2% annually for females and males, respectively. Increases in suffocation suicide rates occurred across demographic and geographic subgroups during this period. Clinicians, hotline staff and others who work with young persons need to be aware of current trends in suffocation suicides in this group so that they can accurately assess risk and educate families. Media coverage of suicide incidents and clusters should follow established guidelines to avoid exacerbating risk for "suicide contagion" among vulnerable young persons.* Suicide contagion is a process by which exposure to the suicide or suicidal behavior of one or more persons influences others who are already vulnerable and thinking about suicide to attempt or die by suicide. Early prevention strategies are needed to reduce the likelihood of young persons developing suicidal thoughts and behavior.

  18. Time knowledge acquisition in children aged 6 to 11 years and its relationship with numerical skills.

    PubMed

    Labrell, Florence; Mikaeloff, Yann; Perdry, Hervé; Dellatolas, Georges

    2016-03-01

    Acquisition of time knowledge (TK; the correct representation and use of time units) is linked to the development of numerical abilities, but this relationship has not been investigated in children. The current study examined the acquisition of TK and its association with numerical skills. A total of 105 children aged 6 to 11 years were interviewed with our Time Knowledge Questionnaire (TKQ), developed for purposes of this study, and the Zareki-R, a battery for the evaluation of number processing and mental calculation. The TKQ assessed conventional time knowledge (temporal orientation, temporal sequences, relationships between time units, and telling the time on a clock), estimation of longer durations related to birthday and life span, and estimation of the duration of the interview. Time knowledge increased with age, especially from 6 to 8 years, and was strongly linked to numerical skills. Regression analyses showed that four numerical components were implicated in TK: academic knowledge of numbers and number facts (e.g., reading Arabic numerals, mental calculation), number line estimation (e.g., correspondence between a number and a distance), contextual estimation (e.g., many/few leaves on a tree, children in a family), and numerical tasks involving verbal working memory (e.g., comparison of numbers presented orally). Numerical correlations with TK varied according to children's age; subtests based on academic knowledge of numbers, working memory, and number line estimation were linked with TK in the younger children, but only contextual estimation was associated with TK in the older children. PMID:26590852

  19. Four-year stability, change, and multidirectionality of well-being in very-old age.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Markus; Schilling, Oliver K; Reidick, Ortrun; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2015-09-01

    We examined stability, change, and dedifferentiation of well-being in 124 participants with a baseline age between 87 and 97 years (M = 90.56, SD = 2.92) across 7 measurement occasions over 4 years. Measures of hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, environmental mastery), as well as indicators of mental distress (depressive symptoms, attitudes toward death and dying, disease phobia) were included. Average levels indicated high well-being at all measurement occasions in the majority of indicators analyzed. However, mean numbers of depressive symptoms were close to the cutoff point of clinical depression. Analyses of intra-individual correlations revealed high loadings of depressive symptoms, positive affect, and environmental mastery on a common factor. However, several well-being indicators were not substantially interrelated on the intra-individual level, suggesting their trajectories were rather independent of each other. Acceptance of death and dying was surprisingly high and even increased, whereas mean levels in fear of death were very low and declined over time. Overall, our findings do not suggest late-life dedifferentiation of well-being trajectories in very-old age. Our results rather support the need to consider indicators of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, as well as mental distress, to understand the multifaceted and multidirectional dynamics of well-being in very-old age. PMID:26098169

  20. Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Laura L; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Brooks, Kathryn P; Nesselroade, John R

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory.

  1. Four-year stability, change, and multidirectionality of well-being in very-old age.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, Markus; Schilling, Oliver K; Reidick, Ortrun; Wahl, Hans-Werner

    2015-09-01

    We examined stability, change, and dedifferentiation of well-being in 124 participants with a baseline age between 87 and 97 years (M = 90.56, SD = 2.92) across 7 measurement occasions over 4 years. Measures of hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect and negative affect) and eudaimonic well-being (autonomy, purpose in life, self-acceptance, environmental mastery), as well as indicators of mental distress (depressive symptoms, attitudes toward death and dying, disease phobia) were included. Average levels indicated high well-being at all measurement occasions in the majority of indicators analyzed. However, mean numbers of depressive symptoms were close to the cutoff point of clinical depression. Analyses of intra-individual correlations revealed high loadings of depressive symptoms, positive affect, and environmental mastery on a common factor. However, several well-being indicators were not substantially interrelated on the intra-individual level, suggesting their trajectories were rather independent of each other. Acceptance of death and dying was surprisingly high and even increased, whereas mean levels in fear of death were very low and declined over time. Overall, our findings do not suggest late-life dedifferentiation of well-being trajectories in very-old age. Our results rather support the need to consider indicators of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being, as well as mental distress, to understand the multifaceted and multidirectional dynamics of well-being in very-old age.

  2. Emotional experience improves with age: evidence based on over 10 years of experience sampling.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, Laura L; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R; Brooks, Kathryn P; Nesselroade, John R

    2011-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:20973600

  3. Emotional Experience Improves With Age: Evidence Based on Over 10 Years of Experience Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Laura L.; Turan, Bulent; Scheibe, Susanne; Ram, Nilam; Ersner-Hershfield, Hal; Samanez-Larkin, Gregory R.; Brooks, Kathryn P.; Nesselroade, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that emotional well-being improves from early adulthood to old age. This study used experience-sampling to examine the developmental course of emotional experience in a representative sample of adults spanning early to very late adulthood. Participants (N = 184, Wave 1; N = 191, Wave 2; N = 178, Wave 3) reported their emotional states at five randomly selected times each day for a one week period. Using a measurement burst design, the one-week sampling procedure was repeated five and then ten years later. Cross-sectional and growth curve analyses indicate that aging is associated with more positive overall emotional well-being, with greater emotional stability and with more complexity (as evidenced by greater co-occurrence of positive and negative emotions). These findings remained robust after accounting for other variables that may be related to emotional experience (personality, verbal fluency, physical health, and demographic variables). Finally, emotional experience predicted mortality; controlling for age, sex, and ethnicity, individuals who experienced relatively more positive than negative emotions in everyday life were more likely to have survived over a 13 year period. Findings are discussed in the theoretical context of socioemotional selectivity theory. PMID:20973600

  4. Prevalence of Malaria from Blood Smears Examination: A Seven-Year Retrospective Study from Metema Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Ferede, Getachew; Worku, Abiyu; Getaneh, Alemtegna; Ahmed, Ali; Haile, Tarekegn; Abdu, Yenus; Tessema, Belay; Wondimeneh, Yitayih; Alemu, Abebe

    2013-01-01

    Background. Malaria is a major public health problem in Ethiopia where an estimated 68% of the population lives in malarious areas. Studying its prevalence is necessary to implement effective control measures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine seven-year slide positive rate of malaria. Methods. A retrospective study was conducted at Metema Hospital from September 2006 to August 2012. Seven-year malaria cases data had been collected from laboratory registration book. Results. A total of 55,833 patients were examined for malaria; of these, 9486 (17%) study subjects were positive for malaria. The predominant Plasmodium species detected was P. falciparum (8602) (90.7%) followed by P. vivax (852) (9%). A slide positive rate of malaria within the last seven years (2006–2012) was almost constant with slight fluctuation. The age groups of 5–14 years old were highly affected by malariainfection (1375) (20.1%), followed by 15–29 years old (3986) (18.5%). High slide positive rate of malaria occurred during spring (September–November), followed by summer (June–August). Conclusion. Slide positive rate of malaria was high in study area. Therefore, health planners and administrators should give intensive health education for the community. PMID:24455415

  5. Development of skin conductance orienting, habituation, and reorienting from ages 3 to 8 years: a longitudinal latent growth curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Dawson, Michael E; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2007-11-01

    Little is known about the development of the skin conductance orienting response (SCOR) in childhood. This longitudinal study examines the effects of age on initial SCOR, habituation, and reorienting. Skin conductance responses to nonsignal auditory stimuli were recorded from 200 male and female children at five different time points (ages 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8 years). Longitudinal latent growth curve analyses were used to determine the trajectory of each SCOR measure during this period. Results indicated that (a) initial SCOR is present at age 3, increases thereafter to peak at age 6, and then levels off, (b) habituation is absent at age 3, but becomes apparent at age 4 years and increases thereafter with increasing age, (c) SC reorienting is absent from ages 3 to 8, and (d) boys and girls do not exhibit different developmental trajectories. Results suggest that from age 3 to 8 years, the transition from the functionally immature to mature neural network underlying orienting and habituation is a continuous process and may be related to children's cognitive development during this period.

  6. Corneal Epithelium Thickness Profile in 614 Normal Chinese Children Aged 7–15 Years Old

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yingyan; He, Xiangui; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Lu, Lina; Zhu, Jianfeng; Zou, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to describe the values and distribution of corneal epithelium thickness (CET) in normal Chinese school-aged children, and to explore associated factors with CET. CET maps were measured by Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (FD-OCT) in normal Chinese children aged 7 to 15 years old from two randomly selected schools in Shanghai, China. Children with normal intraocular pressure were further examined for cycloplegic autorefraction, corneal curvature radius (CCR) and axial length. Central (2-mm diameter area), para-central (2- to 5-mm diameter area), and peripheral (5- to 6-mm diameter area) CET in the superior, superotemporal, temporal, inferotemporal, inferior, inferonasal, nasal, superonasal cornea; minimum, maximum, range, and standard deviation of CET within the 5-mm diameter area were recorded. The CET was thinner in the superior than in the inferior and was thinner in the temporal than in the nasal. The maximum CET was located in the inferior zone, and the minimum CET was in the superior zone. A thicker central CET was associated with male gender (p = 0.009) and older age (p = 0.037) but not with CCR (p = 0.061), axial length (p = 0.253), or refraction (p = 0.351) in the multiple regression analyses. CCR, age, and gender were correlated with para-central and peripheral CET. PMID:27004973

  7. The Dynamics of Free Recall and Their Relation to Rehearsal between 8 and 10 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Martin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2010-01-01

    The present study longitudinally examined changes in recall in children between the ages of 8 and 10 years. Given the increasingly sophisticated use of memory strategies during this developmental period, correspondences between study and recall dynamics were of particular interest. Seventy-six children performed free-recall tasks on 5 occasions…

  8. Factors Influencing Childcare Workers' Promotion of Physical Activity in Children Aged 0-4 Years: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilke, Sarah; Opdenakker, Claudia; Kremers, Stef P. J; Gubbels, Jessica S

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the factors influencing childcare workers' promotion of physical activity (PA) among children aged 0-4?years, a particularly interesting context because of the increasing number of children attending childcare. Twenty Dutch childcare workers were interviewed. The interviews revealed some important barriers to the…

  9. Obesity and Developmental Functioning among Children Aged 2-4 Years. National Poverty Center Working Paper Series #08-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawley, John; Spiess, C. Katharina

    2008-01-01

    In developed countries, obesity tends to be associated with worse labor market outcomes. One possible reason is that obesity leads to less human capital formation early in life. This paper investigates the association between obesity and the developmental functioning of children at younger ages (2-4 years) than ever previously examined. Data from…

  10. What Helps Middle-Aged Widows with Their Psychological and Social Adaptation Several Years after Their Loss?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungar, Lea; Florian, Victor

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the factors contributing to middle-aged widows' adaptation to their husbands' death due to physical illness, 1 to 5 years after the initial loss. Ninety-three widows and 93 married women, who served as controls, filled out questionnaires assessing their experience of stress and strain, their Sense of Coherence level, the social…

  11. Student Characteristics and Behaviors at Age 12 Predict Occupational Success 40 Years Later over and above Childhood IQ and Parental Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spengler, Marion; Brunner, Martin; Damian, Rodica I.; Lüdtke, Oliver; Martin, Romain; Roberts, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on a 2-wave longitudinal sample spanning 40 years from childhood (age 12) to middle adulthood (age 52), the present study was designed to examine how student characteristics and behaviors in late childhood (assessed in Wave 1 in 1968) predict career success in adulthood (assessed in Wave 2 in 2008). We examined the influence of parental…

  12. Inhibited and Aggressive Preschool Children at 23 Years of Age: Personality and Social Transitions into Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asendorpf, Jens B.; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; van Aken, Marcel A. G.

    2008-01-01

    In a 19-year longitudinal study, the 15% most inhibited and the 15% most aggressive children at ages 4-6 years were followed up until age 23 years and were compared with controls who were below average in preschool inhibition or aggressiveness. As adults, inhibited boys and girls were judged as inhibited by their parents and showed a delay in…

  13. Effects of 8-Week Training on Aerobic Capacity and Swimming Performance of Boys Aged 12 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarzeczny, Ryszard; Kuberski, Mariusz; Deska, Agnieszka; Zarzeczna, Dorota; Rydz, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Anna; Balchanowski, Tomasz; Bosiacki, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the effects of 8-week endurance training in swimming on work capacity of boys aged 12 years. Material and methods: The following groups of schoolboys aged 12 years were studied: untrained control (UC; n = 14) and those training swimming for two years. The latter ones were subjected to 8-week training in classical style (CS; n…

  14. Effects of Age on Maximal Work Capacity in Women Aged 18-48 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, G. Harley; And Others

    Fifty-six healthy nontrained women aged 18 to 48 were tested for maximal work capacity on a bicycle ergometer. The women were divided into three age groups. A continuous step-increment bicycle ergometer work test was administered with the workload starting at 150 kpm (kilometers per minute) and 50 pedal rpm (revolutions per minute). The workload…

  15. Differential aging of cerebral white matter in middle-aged and older adults: A seven-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bender, Andrew R; Völkle, Manuel C; Raz, Naftali

    2016-01-15

    The few extant reports of longitudinal white matter (WM) changes in healthy aging, using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), reveal substantial differences in change across brain regions and DTI indices. According to the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging late-developing WM tracts may be particularly vulnerable to advanced age. To test this hypothesis we compared age-related changes in association, commissural and projection WM fiber regions using a skeletonized, region of interest DTI approach. Using linear mixed effect models, we evaluated the influences of age and vascular risk at baseline on seven-year changes in three indices of WM integrity and organization (axial diffusivity, AD, radial diffusivity, RD, and fractional anisotropy, FA) in healthy middle-aged and older adults (mean age=65.4, SD=9.0years). Association fibers showed the most pronounced declines over time. Advanced age was associated with greater longitudinal changes in RD and FA, independent of fiber type. Furthermore, older age was associated with longitudinal RD increases in late-developing, but not early-developing projection fibers. These findings demonstrate the increased vulnerability of later developing WM regions and support the "last-in-first-out" hypothesis of brain aging.

  16. Outcome of Silicone Ring Vertical Gastroplasty in Patients Aged 50 Years and Older.

    PubMed

    Kyzer; Ramadan; Avraham; Belavsky; Hopp; Chaimoff

    1996-08-01

    BACKGROUND: The authors studied the results Of silicone ring vertical gastroplasty (SRVG) in Patients aged 50 years and older. METHODS: The early and late Postoperative results in 28 patients aged.50 Years or older undergoing SRVG were reviewed retrospectively, The results were compared to those of 370 Patients Younger than 50 years operated during the same period. RESULTS: There was no Postoperative mortality among patients aged 50 years and older. There was a significantly higher incidence Of Pulmonary embolus and wound infection among patients aged 50 years and older (P < 0.05). The weight loss did not differ significantly between the two studied age groups. CONCLUSION: SRVG may performed on patients aged 50 years or older with acceptable complication rate and favorable postoperative results. PMID:10729875

  17. Do Effects of Early Child Care Extend to Age 15 Years? Results from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandell, Deborah Lowe; Belsky, Jay; Burchinal, Margaret; Steinberg, Laurence; Vandergrift, Nathan

    2010-01-01

    Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4 1/2 years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1,364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15, with…

  18. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  19. Blood Lead Levels Among Children Aged <6 Years - Flint, Michigan, 2013-2016.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Chinaro; Yard, Ellen; Dignam, Timothy; Buchanan, Sharunda; Condon, Suzanne; Brown, Mary Jean; Raymond, Jaime; Rogers, Helen Schurz; Sarisky, John; de Castro, Rey; Arias, Ileana; Breysse, Patrick

    2016-07-01

    During April 25, 2014-October 15, 2015, approximately 99,000 residents of Flint, Michigan, were affected by changes in drinking water quality after their water source was switched from the Detroit Water Authority (DWA), sourced from Lake Huron, to the Flint Water System (FWS), sourced from the Flint River.* Because corrosion control was not used at the FWS water treatment plant, the levels of lead in Flint tap water increased over time. Adverse health effects are associated with lead exposure (1). On January 2, 2015, a water advisory was issued because of detection of high levels of trihalomethanes, byproducts of disinfectants.(†)(,)(§) Studies conducted by local and national investigators detected an increase in the prevalence of blood lead levels (BLLs) ≥5 µg/dL (the CDC reference level) among children aged <5 years living in Flint (2) and an increase in water lead levels after the water source switch (3). On October 16, 2015, the Flint water source was switched back to DWA, and residents were instructed to use filtered tap water for cooking and drinking. During that time, pregnant and breastfeeding women and children aged <6 years were advised to consume bottled water.(¶) To assess the impact on BLLs of consuming contaminated drinking water, CDC examined the distribution of BLLs ≥5 µg/dL among children aged <6 years before, during, and after the switch in water source. This analysis enabled determination of whether the odds of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL before the switch differed from the odds during the switch to FWS (before and after the January 2, 2015, water advisory was issued), and after the switch back to DWA. Overall, among 9,422 blood lead tests in children aged <6 years, 284 (3.0%) BLLs were ≥5 µg/dL during April 25, 2013-March 16, 2016. The adjusted probability of having BLLs ≥5 µg/dL was 46% higher during the period after the switch from DWA to FWS (and before the January 2, 2015, water advisory) than during the period before the

  20. "Older is always better": Age-related differences in vocabulary scores across 16 years.

    PubMed

    Ben-David, Boaz M; Erel, Hadas; Goy, Huiwen; Schneider, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies of cognitive aging compare age groups at 1 time point. It is unclear from such studies whether age-related cognitive differences remain stable across time. We present a cross-sectional investigation of vocabulary scores of 2,000 younger and older adults collected across 16 years, using the same laboratory and protocol. We found a steady decrease with year of testing and an advantage for older adults. An additive relation between age group and year of testing implied that age-related differences in vocabulary are independent of changes over time, suggesting that younger and older adults are similarly affected by changes in word usage.

  1. Multi-Year Analysis Examines Costs, Benefits, and Impacts of Renewable Portfolio Standards

    SciTech Connect

    2016-01-01

    As states consider revising renewable portfolio standard (RPS) programs or developing new ones, careful assessments of the costs, benefits, and other impacts of existing policies will be critical. RPS programs currently exist in 29 states and Washington, D.C. Many of these policies, which were enacted largely during the late 1990s and 2000s, will reach their terminal targets by the end of this decade. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) are engaged in a multi-year project to examine the costs, benefits, and other impacts of state RPS polices both retrospectively and prospectively. This fact sheet overviews this work.

  2. Periodontitis prevalence in adults ≥ 65 years of age, in the USA.

    PubMed

    Eke, Paul I; Wei, Liang; Borgnakke, Wenche S; Thornton-Evans, Gina; Zhang, Xingyou; Lu, Hua; McGuire, Lisa C; Genco, Robert J

    2016-10-01

    The older adult population is growing rapidly in the USA and it is expected that by 2040 the number of adults ≥ 65 years of age will have increased by about 50%. With the growth of this subpopulation, oral health status, and periodontal status in particular, becomes important in the quest to maintain an adequate quality of life. Poor oral health can have a major impact, leading to tooth loss, pain and discomfort, and may prevent older adults from chewing food properly, often leading to poor nutrition. Periodontitis is monitored in the USA at the national level as part of the Healthy People 2020 initiative. In this report, we provide estimates of the overall burden of periodontitis among adults ≥ 65 years of age and after stratification according to sociodemographic factors, modifiable risk factors (such as smoking status), the presence of other systemic conditions (such as diabetes) and access to dental care. We also estimated the burden of periodontitis within this age group at the state and local levels. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009/2010 and 2011/2012 cycles were analyzed. Periodontal measures from both survey cycles were based on a full-mouth periodontal examination. Nineteen per cent of adults in this subpopulation were edentulous. The mean age was 73 years, 7% were current smokers, 8% lived below the 100% Federal Poverty Level and < 40% had seen a dentist in the past year. Almost two-thirds (62.3%) had one or more sites with ≥ 5 mm of clinical attachment loss and almost half had at least one site with probing pocket depth of ≥ 4 mm. We estimated the lowest prevalence of periodontitis in Utah (62.3%) and New Hampshire (62.6%) and the highest in New Mexico, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia each with a prevalence of higher than 70%. Overall, periodontitis is highly prevalent in this subpopulation, with two-thirds of dentate older adults affected at any geographic level. These findings provide an

  3. Examination of Martian sedimentary rocks to understand possible paleo-ocean and its age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, T.

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that the terrestrial marine sediments have large cerium anomaly on their chondrite-normalized REE pattern. Siliceous shale and calcaleous sediments have negative Ce-anomaly. Ferromanganese nodule have positive or negative Ce-anomaly. The Ce-anomaly is considered to be a result of tetravalent state of cerium rather than common trivalent. Ferromanganese nodule which formed under reducing condition has negative Ce-anomaly. Then, combined study of Ce-anomaly with Ce isotopes is expected to play an important role in geochemistry. La-138 decays to Ce-138 and Ba-138 with a total half life of about 1 x 10 to the 11th years. Cerium anomalies (positive or negative) are expected in Martian paleo-ocean and in sediments as observed in the terrestrial environment. A list of things to be examined is given.

  4. Perceived resilience: Examining impacts of the deepwater horizon oil spill one-year post-spill.

    PubMed

    Shenesey, Jessica W; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Scant research has focused on resilient responding to disasters such as oil spills a year or more after the event. One year after the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this study assessed perceived resilience, relations between resiliency and psychological symptoms, and the degree to which self-reported resiliency was associated with reduced psychological symptoms after accounting for differences in economic impact sustained by Gulf Coast residents. Participants were 812 adults (64% women, mean age 50) of 2 Alabama coastal communities. Participants were administered a telephone survey 1-year post-spill assessing self-perceptions of impact factors (e.g., economic and social), resilience, coping, and depressive and PTSD symptoms. Most participants perceived themselves as resilient (n = 739). As expected, lower perceived resilience was associated with greater ongoing depressive and PTSD symptoms. Spill-related economic impact predicted greater depressive and PTSD symptoms; however, perceived resilience predicted significant variance in psychological symptoms after taking into account spill-related economic impact. Improving individuals' sense of resiliency may help mitigate psychosocial and mental health effects over time. PMID:25961118

  5. Perceived resilience: Examining impacts of the deepwater horizon oil spill one-year post-spill.

    PubMed

    Shenesey, Jessica W; Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer

    2015-05-01

    Scant research has focused on resilient responding to disasters such as oil spills a year or more after the event. One year after the BP Deepwater Horizon oil spill, this study assessed perceived resilience, relations between resiliency and psychological symptoms, and the degree to which self-reported resiliency was associated with reduced psychological symptoms after accounting for differences in economic impact sustained by Gulf Coast residents. Participants were 812 adults (64% women, mean age 50) of 2 Alabama coastal communities. Participants were administered a telephone survey 1-year post-spill assessing self-perceptions of impact factors (e.g., economic and social), resilience, coping, and depressive and PTSD symptoms. Most participants perceived themselves as resilient (n = 739). As expected, lower perceived resilience was associated with greater ongoing depressive and PTSD symptoms. Spill-related economic impact predicted greater depressive and PTSD symptoms; however, perceived resilience predicted significant variance in psychological symptoms after taking into account spill-related economic impact. Improving individuals' sense of resiliency may help mitigate psychosocial and mental health effects over time.

  6. Intertrochanteric fractures in adults younger than 40 years of age.

    PubMed

    Hwang, L C; Lo, W H; Chen, W M; Lin, C F; Huang, C K; Chen, C M

    2001-01-01

    This study reviewed 66 intertrochanteric fractures in patients younger than 40 years old (average 33.0 years old; range 17-40 years old). In contrast to the usual population with intertrochanteric fractures, the factors male predominance (46/66), less pre-injury comorbidity (9/66), more outdoor high energy trauma (47/66), and more associated injuries (32/66) were evident. The distribution of associated injuries was wide. Some of them were life threatening. According to Boyd's classification, 20 were type I, 24 were type II, 13 were type III, and 9 were type IV. Twenty-nine were stable, and 37 were unstable. Stratified by the mechanism of injury, the difference in distribution between the subgroups was significant (p = 0.027, two-tail Fisher's exact test). Simple falls only caused Boyd type I and II fractures. Boyd type III or IV fractures were found more often after vehicular trauma or falls from a height. All the intertrochanteric fractures healed on average 70.5 days (range 31-213 days) after operation. The fractures resulting from vehicular trauma or fall from a height healed significantly more slowly (p = 0.02, univariant log-rank test). There were 6 intertrochanteric fracture-related complications. The mechanism of injury determines the character of intertrochanteric fractures in young adults. Given tougher bone stock, better healing ability, and less co-morbidity, proper management can lead to healing of all intertrochanteric fractures. The extent of functional recovery was also determined by the associated injuries.

  7. Recovery of birth weight z-score within two years of diagnosis is positively associated with pulmonary status at age six years in children with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Lai, HuiChuan J.; Shoff, Suzanne M.; Farrell, Philip M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective We recently reported that 60% of newly diagnosed CF children who had pancreatic insufficiency (PI) responded to treatment initiation and achieved catch-up weight gain to a level comparable to their birth weight Z-score within 2 years of diagnosis (“responders”), while the remaining 40% failed to do so (“non-responders”). The present study examined the impact of this early weight recovery on subsequent growth pattern and pulmonary status at age 6 years. Patients and Methods Sixty-three children with CF who had PI but no meconium ileus, and were enrolled in the Wisconsin CF Neonatal Screening Project, were studied. “Responders” were defined by a recovery of weight Z-score comparable to that at birth within 2 years of diagnosis. During ages 2–6, growth was evaluated with the combination of height and body mass index. Pulmonary status was evaluated by symptoms, spirometry, quantitative chest radiography and respiratory microbiology. Results The majority (71%) of the responders maintained their early weight recovery through age 6 years while only 32% of the non-responders achieved substantial growth improvement during age 2 to 6 years. Proportionately fewer responders reported cough symptoms (10% daytime cough, p =0.02; 22% nighttime cough, p=0.05) compared to non-responders (41% daytime cough, 45% nighttime cough) at age 6. Percent predicted FEV1 (%FEV1) at age 6 was 11% higher in responders (99.5 ± 13.9%) compared to non-responders (88.3 ± 18.5%), p = 0.015. Responders had significantly better Brasfield (20.1 ± 1.4, p = 0.01) and Wisconsin chest radiographic scores (8.3 ± 3.3, p = 0.04) compared to non-responders (Brasfield 18.9 ± 1.8, Wisconsin 12.3 ± 8.3). Respiratory microbiology was not significantly different. Multiple regression analyses indicated that the positive association between responder and %FEV1 at age 6 years remained statistically significant after controlling for infections with Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphlococcus

  8. A Longitudinal Examination of 10-year Change in Vocational and Educational Activities for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Center, Vanderbilt Kennedy; Mailick, Marsha R.

    2014-01-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been shown to be a time of amplified risk for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is unknown, however, whether problems in educational attainment and employment in the years after high school exit represent “momentary perturbations” in development or a “turning point” with long-lasting effects throughout adulthood. The present study addressed this question by examining 10-year trajectories of vocational and educational activities for adults with ASD, as well as the personal characteristics and environmental resources that predicted these activities. Participants were 161 adults with ASD (ages 18-52 at the start of the study, M=30.9 years) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at 6 time points over a 10-year period. Results indicated significant declines in the level of independence and engagement in vocational/educational activities over the study period, particularly for women. Greater independence in vocational activities was found for those with more independence in activities of daily living. Net of personal characteristics, receipt of more services was marginally related to greater improvement in vocational independence. PMID:24001150

  9. A longitudinal examination of 10-year change in vocational and educational activities for adults with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Mailick, Marsha R

    2014-03-01

    The transition from adolescence to adulthood has been shown to be a time of amplified risk for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). It is unknown, however, whether problems in educational attainment and employment in the years after high school exit represent momentary perturbations in development or a turning point with long-lasting effects throughout adulthood. The present study addressed this question by examining 10-year trajectories of vocational and educational activities for adults with ASD, as well as the personal characteristics and environmental resources that predicted these activities. Participants were 161 adults with ASD (ages 18-52 years at the start of the study; M = 30.9) who were part of a larger longitudinal study. Data were collected at 6 time points over a 10-year period. Results indicated significant declines in the level of independence and engagement in vocational/educational activities over the study period, particularly for women. Greater independence in vocational activities was found for those with more independence in activities of daily living. After controlling for personal characteristics, receipt of more services was marginally related to greater improvement in vocational independence.

  10. Examination of ossification of the distal radial epiphysis using magnetic resonance imaging. New insights for age estimation in young footballers in FIFA tournaments.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, S; Vieth, V; Timme, M; Dvorak, J; Schmeling, A

    2015-03-01

    Alongside a variety of clinical and forensic issues, age determination in living persons also plays a decisive role in the field of professional sport. Only methods of determining skeletal age which do not expose individuals to ionizing radiation are suitable for this purpose. The present study examines whether MRI diagnosis of the distal radial epiphysis can be utilised to monitor internationally relevant age limits in professional football. The wrist area of 152 male footballers aged 18 to 22 years belonging to regional clubs was prospectively examined using MRI. The ossification stage of the distal radial epiphysis was subsequently determined on the basis of established criteria used in determining the maturity of the medial clavicular epiphysis. For the first time, we ascertained evidence of an increase in the prevalence of the phenomenon of threefold linear stratification (hypointense line, hyperintense line, and hypointense line) in the representation of the fused epiphyseal plate of the radius using magnetic resonance imaging with increasing chronological age. Within our study population, test persons with an ossified epiphyseal plate without any verifiable epiphyseal scar were not represented. The presumably high minimum age of entry into this final stage of development (>22 years) must be verified in the course of further studies. According to the results of the present study, the fused epiphyseal plate of the distal radius provides potential maturation criteria which appear suitable for reliable monitoring of all relevant age limits in international football with the aid of magnetic resonance imaging.

  11. Comparative clinicopathological and outcome analysis of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged below 60 years and above 60 years

    PubMed Central

    AL-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; Tunio, Mutahir A; Asiri, Mushabbab Al; Bayoumi, Yasser; Balbaid, Ali; Aljohani, Naji J; Fatani, Hanadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged above 60 years. Materials and methods Comparative analysis was performed in 252 patients aged 46–60 years (Group A) and 118 patients aged above 60 years (Group B), who had thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine-131, and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy between July 2000 and December 2012. Different clinicopathological features, treatment, complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were compared. Results Mean age of patients in Group A was 51.9 years (range: 46–60), and mean age of those in Group B was 68.6 years (range: 62–97). Group B patients had higher positive lymph nodes (43.2%), P=0.011. The frequency of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, and lymphovascular space invasion was seen more in Group B than in Group A. Postsurgical complications (permanent hypoparathyroidism, bleeding, and wound infections) were also seen more in Group B (P=0.043, P=0.011, and P=0.021, respectively). Group B patients experienced more locoregional recurrences (11.0%, P=0.025); similarly, more distant metastases were observed in Group B (15.3%, P=0.003). The 10-year disease-free survival rates were 87.6% in Group A and 70.8% in Group B (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients aged above 60 years are more aggressive biologically and associated with a worse prognosis, and the morbidity is significantly high as compared to patients aged below 60 years. PMID:27621604

  12. Comparative clinicopathological and outcome analysis of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged below 60 years and above 60 years

    PubMed Central

    AL-Qahtani, Khalid Hussain; Tunio, Mutahir A; Asiri, Mushabbab Al; Bayoumi, Yasser; Balbaid, Ali; Aljohani, Naji J; Fatani, Hanadi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate the treatment outcomes of differentiated thyroid cancer in Saudi patients aged above 60 years. Materials and methods Comparative analysis was performed in 252 patients aged 46–60 years (Group A) and 118 patients aged above 60 years (Group B), who had thyroidectomy, radioactive iodine-131, and thyroid-stimulating hormone suppression therapy between July 2000 and December 2012. Different clinicopathological features, treatment, complications, disease-free survival, and overall survival rates were compared. Results Mean age of patients in Group A was 51.9 years (range: 46–60), and mean age of those in Group B was 68.6 years (range: 62–97). Group B patients had higher positive lymph nodes (43.2%), P=0.011. The frequency of extrathyroidal extension, multifocality, and lymphovascular space invasion was seen more in Group B than in Group A. Postsurgical complications (permanent hypoparathyroidism, bleeding, and wound infections) were also seen more in Group B (P=0.043, P=0.011, and P=0.021, respectively). Group B patients experienced more locoregional recurrences (11.0%, P=0.025); similarly, more distant metastases were observed in Group B (15.3%, P=0.003). The 10-year disease-free survival rates were 87.6% in Group A and 70.8% in Group B (P<0.0001). Conclusion Differentiated thyroid cancer in patients aged above 60 years are more aggressive biologically and associated with a worse prognosis, and the morbidity is significantly high as compared to patients aged below 60 years.

  13. Measuring years of inactivity, years in retirement, time to retirement, and age at retirement within the Markov model.

    PubMed

    Skoog, Gary R; Ciecka, James E

    2010-08-01

    Retirement-related concepts are treated as random variables within Markov process models that capture multiple labor force entries and exits. The expected number of years spent outside of the labor force, expected years in retirement, and expected age at retirement are computed-all of which are of immense policy interest but have been heretofore reported with less precisely measured proxies. Expected age at retirement varies directly with a person s age; but even younger people can expect to retire at ages substantially older than those commonly associated with retirement, such as age 60, 62, or 65. Between 1970 and 2003, men allocated most of their increase in life expectancy to increased time in retirement, but women allocated most of their increased life expectancy to labor force activity. Although people can exit and reenter the labor force at older ages, most 65-year-old men who are active in the labor force will not reenter after they eventually exit. At age 65, the probability that those who are inactive will reenter the labor force at some future time is .38for men and .27 for women. Life expectancy at exact ages is decomposed into the sum of the expected time spent active and inactive in the labor force, and also as the sum of the expected time to labor force separation and time in retirement.

  14. Birth Dates and Death Dates: An Examination of Two Baseline Procedures and Age at Time of Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Albert A.; Kroll, Neal E. A.

    1990-01-01

    Examined birth and death dates of males listed in "Who Was Who in America." Found that, compared to men aged 71 and younger, men aged 72 and older were more likely to die on the eve of their birthdays or on their birthdays themselves. Compared to younger subjects, older subjects' death dip began at earlier point in time. (Author/NB)

  15. Screening for breast cancer and mortality reduction among women 40-49 years of age.

    PubMed

    Kopans, D B

    1994-07-01

    The recent withdrawal of screening support for women ages 40-49 years is not scientifically supported. The subgroup analyses that have been used severely compromise the statistical power of the trials. None of the trials has the statistical power to be able to provide clear proof of benefit for screening women ages 40-49 years because none of the trials involved sufficient numbers of women in these age groups. Despite having not been designed to evaluate women ages 40-49 years as a separate group, five of the eight randomized, controlled trials have demonstrated mortality reductions for these women that range from 22% to 49%. In addition, data from other nonrandomized trials show that there is no difference in survival for women ages 40-49 years than for women ages 50-59 years. The detection rate for small, early cancers, using modern mammography, is similar for women in both decades. There is no scientific reason to believe that there is a sudden change in detection or cure at age 50 years, or even at menopause. The available data suggest that women ages 40-49 years can benefit from screening, just as can women ages 50-59 years.

  16. Perinatal outcomes in women over 40 years of age compared to those of other gestations

    PubMed Central

    Canhaço, Evandro Eduardo; Bergamo, Angela Mendes; Lippi, Umberto Gazi; Lopes, Reginaldo Guedes Coelho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To clarify if older pregnant women were more likely to have adverse perinatal outcomes when compared to women at an ideal age to have a child. Methods The groups were divided according to age groups: under 20 years, ≥20 to <40 years, and ≥40 years. Results During the period from January 1st, 2008, to December 31st, 2008, there were 76 births from patients younger than 20 years and 91 births from patients aged 40 years or over. To form a third group with intermediate age, the data of 92 patients aged 20 to 40 years were obtained, totaling 259 patients. Patients aged 40 or older had a statistically greater number of cesarean sections and less use of forceps or normal deliveries (p<0.001). The use of spinal anesthesia was statistically higher among those aged 40 years or more (p<0.001). The frequency of male newborns was statistically higher in older patients, a group with statistically fewer first pregnancies (p<0.001). The frequency of premature newborns was statistically higher in patients aged 40 years or more (p=0.004). Conclusion It is crucial to give priority to aged women, so that prenatal care will be appropriate, minimizing maternal complications and improving perinatal outcomes in this unique group. PMID:25993070

  17. Weighing the Benefits and Burdens of Mammography Screening Among Women Age 80 Years or Older

    PubMed Central

    Schonberg, Mara A.; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Marcantonio, Edward R.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To examine outcomes of mammography screening among women ≥ 80 years to inform decision making. Patients and Methods We conducted a cohort study of 2,011 women without a history of breast cancer who were age ≥ 80 years between 1994 and 2004 and who received care at one academic primary care clinic or two community health centers in Boston, MA. Medical record data were abstracted on all screening and diagnostic mammograms, breast ultrasounds and biopsies performed, all breast cancers diagnosed through December 31, 2006, and on sociodemographics. Date and cause of death were confirmed using the National Death Index. Results The majority of patients (78.6%) were non-Hispanic white and 51.4% (n = 1,034) had been screened with mammography since age 80 years. Among women who were screened, eight were diagnosed with ductal carcinoma in situ, 16 with early stage disease (1.5%), two with late stage disease, and one died as a result of breast cancer. Many (110; 11%) experienced a false-positive screening mammogram that led to 19 benign breast biopsies, eight refused work-up, and three experienced a false-negative screening mammogram; 97 were screened within 2 years of their death from other causes. There were no significant differences in the rate, stage, recurrence rate, or deaths due to breast cancer between women who were screened and those who were not screened. Conclusion The majority of women ≥ 80 years are screened with mammography yet few benefit. Meanwhile, 12.5% experience a burden from screening. The data from this study can be used to inform elderly women's decision making and potentially lead to more rational use of screening. PMID:19255318

  18. Mammography Prevalence within 2 Two Years (Age 40+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For mammography, a woman 40 years of age or older must have reported having at least one mammography in her life. Furthermore, she should have had the most recent one within the last two years by the time of interview.

  19. Blood carbon monoxide levels in persons 3 to 74 years of age: United States, 1976-1980

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, E.P.; Drizd, T.A.

    1982-03-17

    This report presents national estimates of the distribution of carbon monoxide levels in the blood of persons ages 3 to 74 years in the United States by age, smoking status, race, urbanization status of residence, annual family income, and season of the year. These findings will be described and analyzed further in a report in the Vital and Health Statistics series (in preparation). In this report the relative contributions of the four principal sources of carbon monoxide (smoking, ambient or outdoor exposures, occupational exposures, and indoor exposures) to COHb levels are examined. Of these, smoking is the most significant and widespread, although in special circumstances each of the other contributors assumes some importance.

  20. Potential risk factors for development of postmenopausal osteoporosis--examined over a 12-year period.

    PubMed

    Hansen, M A; Overgaard, K; Riis, B J; Christiansen, C

    1991-02-01

    In a longitudinal study, we investigated the influence of risk factors on bone mass at menopause and postmenopausal bone loss in 121 healthy postmenopausal women. These women had completed a 2-year prospective study in 1979 and a follow-up examination in 1989. Measurements of the bone mineral content in the distal forearm (single photon absorptiometry) were performed 9 times during the initial study and once at the follow-up examination. Bone mass at menopause (initial measurement), rate of early postmenopausal bone loss, and the subsequent rate of bone loss over 10 years were thus determined. In addition, the bone mineral density of the lumbar spine and proximal femur was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in 1989. Information about risk factors was assessed by standardized questionnaires and included reproductive history and lifestyle factors (intake of calcium and vitamin D supplements, consumption of alcohol and caffeine, smoking habits, and physical activity). Lactation, oral contraceptive use, and dietary calcium intake above 1500 mg per day was associated with significantly increased bone mass at menopause. The number of pregnancies reduced the rate of early postmenopausal bone loss, whereas moderate alcohol consumption reduced the subsequent rate of bone loss. Smoking significantly reduced femoral bone mineral density. In conclusion, the present prospective study showed that some of the examined putative risk factors positively influenced bone mass at menopause, especially calcium intake, whereas the postmenopausal bone loss was virtually unaffected. Assessment of risk factors in postmenopausal women thus seems to have limited value for reducing future risk of osteoporosis.

  1. Sex-Related and Age-Related Differences in Knee Strength of Basketball Players Ages 11-17 Years.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Patricia A.; Vardaxis, Vassilios G.

    2003-09-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players ages 11-13 and 15-17 years. DESIGN AND SETTING: This cross-sectional study occurred during the 2000 American Youth Basketball Tour National Tournament. We investigated whether sex- or age-related strength differences existed among study participants. SUBJECTS: Forty-one tournament participants (22 girls, 19 boys; 11-13 or 15-17 years old) who reported no history of knee sprain or surgery were recruited. MEASUREMENTS: We used a Cybex II dynamometer to obtain isokinetic concentric peak torques relative to body mass (Nm/kg) at 60 degrees /s for hamstrings and quadriceps bilaterally. From average peak torques, we determined ipsilateral hamstrings:quadriceps and homologous muscle-group ratios. RESULTS: Correlations between hamstrings and quadriceps strength measures ranged from 0.78 to 0.97. Players 15-17 years old had greater relative hamstrings and quadriceps strength than 11- to 13-year-old athletes. Age and sex interacted significantly for quadriceps strength. The quadriceps strength of 15- to 17-year-old girls did not differ from that of 11- to 13-year-old girls, whereas 15- to 17-year-old boys had stronger quadriceps than 11- to 13-year-old boys. Boys 15-17 years old had greater quadriceps strength than girls 15-17 years old. CONCLUSIONS: This study is unique in providing normative data for the hamstrings and quadriceps strength of basketball players 11-13 and 15-17 years old. Age-related strength differences did not occur consistently between the sexes, as girls 11-13 and 15-17 years old had similar relative quadriceps strength.

  2. Penetration rates over 30 years in the space age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonnell, J. A. M.; Baron, J. M.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental data from spacecraft providing impact penetration rates and cratering for metallic targets is reviewed. Data includes NASA Explorers 16 and 23 and the Pegasus series, the second US-UK satellite Ariel 2, Space Shuttle STS-3 (MFE), recovered surfaces on Solar Max Satellite, The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and EuReCa TiCCE. Factors concerning exposure to the environment are considered and, especially, material properties which affect the penetration resistance. Reference to a common material, Aluminum alloy 2024-T3, is effected and the data then compared to define firstly an average impact flux over the period. The data is examined, in the context of possible satellite and space debris growth rates, to determine the constancy of the flux. This also provides strong constraints on the current space debris component. It is found that the impact data are consistent with domination by natural meteoroid sources. Growth rates are not evident within the period 1980-1990 and Eureca TiCCE fluxes in 1993, for particles penetrating foils of around 10 microns thickness, supports the constancy of the flux. At larger dimensions the 1993 Eureca TiCCE fluxes show an 8-fold increase but this is considered not inconsistent with the selective exposure to meteoroid streams of a satellite stabilized in heliocentric co-ordinates for an 11 month period.

  3. Assessment of first-year veterinary students' clinical skills using objective structured clinical examinations.

    PubMed

    Hecker, Kent; Read, Emma K; Vallevand, Andrea; Krebs, Gord; Donszelmann, Darlene; Muelling, Christoph K W; Freeman, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    The DVM program at the University of Calgary offers a Clinical Skills course each year for the first three years. The course is designed to teach students the procedural skills required for entry-level general veterinary practice. Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) were used to assess students' performance on these procedural skills. A series of three OSCEs were developed for the first year. Content was determined by an exam blueprint, exam scoring sheets were created, rater training was provided, a mock OSCE was performed with faculty and staff, and the criterion-referencing Ebel method was used to set cut scores for each station using two content experts. Each station and the overall exam were graded as pass or fail. Thirty first-year DVM students were assessed. Content validity was ensured by the exam blueprint and expert review. Reliability (coefficient α) of the stations from the three OSCE exams ranged from 0.0 to 0.71. The three exam reliabilities (Generalizability Theory) were, for OSCE 1, G=0.56; OSCE 2, G=0.37; and OSCE 3, G=0.32. Preliminary analysis has suggested that the OSCEs demonstrate face and content validity, and certain stations demonstrated adequate reliability. Overall exam reliability was low, which reflects issues with first-time exam delivery. Because this year was the first that this course was taught and this exam format was used, work continues in the program on the teaching of the procedural skills and the development and revision of OSCE stations and scoring checklists.

  4. Aging Versus Postmenopausal Osteoporosis: Bone Composition and Maturation Kinetics at Actively-Forming Trabecular Surfaces of Female Subjects Aged 1 to 84 Years.

    PubMed

    Paschalis, Eleftherios P; Fratzl, Peter; Gamsjaeger, Sonja; Hassler, Norbert; Brozek, Wolfgang; Eriksen, Erik F; Rauch, Frank; Glorieux, Francis H; Shane, Elizabeth; Dempster, David; Cohen, Adi; Recker, Robert; Klaushofer, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Bone strength depends on the amount of bone, typically expressed as bone mineral density (BMD), determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and on bone quality. Bone quality is a multifactorial entity including bone structural and material compositional properties. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether bone material composition properties at actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces in health are dependent on subject age, and to contrast them with postmenopausal osteoporosis patients. To achieve this, we analyzed by Raman microspectroscopy iliac crest biopsy samples from healthy subjects aged 1.5 to 45.7 years, paired biopsy samples from females before and immediately after menopause aged 46.7 to 53.6 years, and biopsy samples from placebo-treated postmenopausal osteoporotic patients aged 66 to 84 years. The monitored parameters were as follows: the mineral/matrix ratio; the mineral maturity/crystallinity (MMC); nanoporosity; the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content; the lipid content; and the pyridinoline (Pyd) content. The results indicate that these bone quality parameters in healthy, actively-forming trabecular bone surfaces are dependent on subject age at constant tissue age, suggesting that with advancing age the kinetics of maturation (either accumulation, or posttranslational modifications, or both) change. For most parameters, the extrapolation of models fitted to the individual age dependence of bone in healthy individuals was in rough agreement with their values in postmenopausal osteoporotic patients, except for MMC, lipid, and Pyd content. Among these three, Pyd content showed the greatest deviation between healthy aging and disease, highlighting its potential to be used as a discriminating factor.

  5. Perceptions of five-year competitive categories: model of how relative age influences competitiveness in masters sport.

    PubMed

    Medic, Nikola; Young, Bradley W; Grove, J Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contrasting perceptions of masters swimmers related to the first and fifth constituent years of a 5-year age category. Swimmers aged between 35 and 93 years (154 male, 184 female) were surveyed at the 2008 FINA World Masters Championships. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the existence of the following five factors considered important for preparation, attendance, and success at masters competitions: awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity. One sample t-tests showed that masters swimmers are conscious of advantages that 5-year age categories afford to relatively-younger cohorts (i.e., those who are in the first year of any age category). They also perceive that, in the first compared to the fifth year of an age category, they have greater physiological capacity, engage in more training, have higher expectations to perform well, and are more motivated (all ps < .001). Findings point to perceived psycho-social and physical factors that potentially explain why relatively younger masters athletes are more likely to perform better and to participate in masters competitions than relatively older masters athletes. Key PointsThere are at least five psycho-social and physical factors (i.e., awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity) that may explain why relatively younger masters athletes are more likely to perform better and to participate more in masters competitions than relatively older masters athletes.Masters athletes are conscious of the advantage that 5-year age categories afford to relatively younger cohorts of athletes.Differential perceptions associated with the 5-year age categories might compromise masters athletes' continuity of sport competitiveness and underlying training.

  6. Perceptions of Five-Year Competitive Categories: Model of How Relative Age Influences Competitiveness in Masters Sport

    PubMed Central

    Medic, Nikola; Young, Bradley W.; Grove, J. Robert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contrasting perceptions of masters swimmers related to the first and fifth constituent years of a 5-year age category. Swimmers aged between 35 and 93 years (154 male, 184 female) were surveyed at the 2008 FINA World Masters Championships. Exploratory factor analysis indicated the existence of the following five factors considered important for preparation, attendance, and success at masters competitions: awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity. One sample t-tests showed that masters swimmers are conscious of advantages that 5-year age categories afford to relatively-younger cohorts (i.e., those who are in the first year of any age category). They also perceive that, in the first compared to the fifth year of an age category, they have greater physiological capacity, engage in more training, have higher expectations to perform well, and are more motivated (all ps < .001). Findings point to perceived psycho-social and physical factors that potentially explain why relatively younger masters athletes are more likely to perform better and to participate in masters competitions than relatively older masters athletes. Key Points There are at least five psycho-social and physical factors (i.e., awareness of advantages, expectancy, motivation, training, and physiological capacity) that may explain why relatively younger masters athletes are more likely to perform better and to participate more in masters competitions than relatively older masters athletes. Masters athletes are conscious of the advantage that 5-year age categories afford to relatively younger cohorts of athletes. Differential perceptions associated with the 5-year age categories might compromise masters athletes’ continuity of sport competitiveness and underlying training. PMID:24421732

  7. In Search of Emerging Same-Sex Sexuality: Romantic Attractions at Age 13 Years.

    PubMed

    Li, Gu; Hines, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    Sex-typed behavior in childhood is significantly related to sexual orientation in adulthood. In addition, same-sex attractions in early adolescence are more non-exclusive than in adulthood and can differ from later same-sex orientations. However, little research has focused on romantic attractions as they emerge during early adolescence. Drawing a sample from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (197 girls, 204 boys), the current study examined whether same-sex romantic attractions at age 13 years were exclusive, and whether they were predicted by sex-typed behavior at age 3.5 years. No young adolescents in this sample reported exclusive same-sex attractions, and increased same-sex attractions were not significantly related to reduced other-sex sexualities. Childhood sex-typed behavior did not significantly predict early same-sex attractions, suggesting that early same-sex attractions differ from later same-sex orientations. The current study highlights the importance of studying the development of sexuality beginning prior to adulthood.

  8. Fish oil supplementation during lactation: effects on cognition and behavior at 7 years of age.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Carol L; Nerhammer, Anne Sofie; Asserhøj, Marie; Michaelsen, Kim F; Lauritzen, Lotte

    2011-07-01

    Early accumulation of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) in the brain may contribute to differences in later cognitive abilities. In this study, our objective was to examine whether fish oil (FO) supplementation during lactation affects processing speed, working memory, inhibitory control, and socioemotional development at 7 years. Danish mothers (n = 122) were randomized to FO [1.5 g/d n-3 LCPUFA] or olive oil (OO) supplementation during the first 4 months of lactation. The trial also included a high-fish intake (HFI) reference group (n = 53). Ninety-eight children were followed-up with an assessment of processing speed, an age-appropriate Stroop task, and the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at 7 year. A group effect of the intervention (FO vs. OO) was found in prosocial behavior scores; this negative effect was carried by the boys. Exploratory analyses including all participants revealed the speed of processing scores were predicted by maternal n-3 LCPUFA intake during the intervention period (negative relation) and maternal education (positive relation). Stroop scores indicative of working memory and inhibitory control were predicted by infant erythrocyte DHA status at 4 months of age (negative relation). Early fish oil supplementation may have a negative effect on later cognitive abilities. Speed of processing and inhibitory control/working memory are differentially affected, with speed of processing showing effects of fish oil intake as a whole, whereas inhibitory control/working memory was related more specifically to DHA status.

  9. Does the Animal Fun program improve motor performance in children aged 4-6 years?

    PubMed

    Piek, J P; McLaren, S; Kane, R; Jensen, L; Dender, A; Roberts, C; Rooney, R; Packer, T; Straker, L

    2013-10-01

    The Animal Fun program was designed to enhance the motor ability of young children by imitating the movements of animals in a fun, inclusive setting. The efficacy of this program was investigated through a randomized controlled trial using a multivariate nested cohort design. Pre-intervention scores were recorded for 511 children aged 4.83 years to 6.17 years (M=5.42 years, SD=3.58 months). Six control and six intervention schools were compared 6 months later following the intervention, and then again at 18 months after the initial testing when the children were in their first school year. Changes in motor performance were examined using the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency short form. Data were analyzed using multi-level-mixed effects linear regression. A significant Condition×Time interaction was found, F(2,1219)=3.35, p=.035, demonstrating that only the intervention group showed an improvement in motor ability. A significant Sex×Time interaction was also found, F(2,1219)=3.84, p=.022, with boys improving over time, but not girls. These findings have important implications for the efficacy of early intervention of motor skills and understanding the differences in motor performance between boys and girls. PMID:23186610

  10. Interpersonal Trauma Exposure and Cognitive Development in Children to Age 8 Years: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Egeland, Byron; Blood, Emily; Wright, Robert O.; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood trauma exposure has been associated with deficits in cognitive functioning. The influence of timing of exposure on the magnitude and persistence of deficits is not well understood. The impact of exposure in early development has been especially under-investigated. This study examined the impact of interpersonal trauma exposure (IPT) in the first years of life on childhood cognitive functioning. Methods Children (N = 206) participating in a longitudinal birth cohort study were assessed prospectively for exposure to IPT (physical or emotional abuse or neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing maternal partner violence) between birth and 64 months. Child intelligent quotient scores (IQ) were assessed at 24, 64, and 96 months of age. Race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home were also assessed. Results IPT was significantly associated with decreased cognitive scores at all time points, even after controlling for sociodemographic factors, maternal IQ, birth complications, birthweight, and cognitive stimulation in the home. IPT in the first two years appeared to be especially detrimental. On average, compared to children not exposed to IPT in the first two years, exposed children scored one-half standard deviation lower across cognitive assessments. Conclusion IPT in early life may have adverse effects on cognitive development. IPT during the first two years may have particular impact, with effects persisting at least into later childhood. PMID:22493459

  11. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  12. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  13. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  14. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  15. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  16. 29 CFR 780.321 - Minors 16 years of age or under.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... years of age and the employer must pay to such an employee the applicable statutory minimum wage unless..., although section 13(a)(6)(D) provides a minimum wage and overtime exemption for minors 16 years of age...

  17. Stand age affects fertilizer nitrogen response in first-year corn following alfalfa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The amount of N that alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) provides to subsequent first-year corn (Zea mays L.) depends, in part, on the age of alfalfa at termination. Our objective was to determine how alfalfa stand age affects N availability and fertilizer N requirements for first-year corn. Fertilizer N w...

  18. 29 CFR 570.33 - Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibited occupations for minors 14 and 15 years of age... minors 14 and 15 years of age. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 28448, May 20, 2010. This subpart... revised text is set forth as follows: § 570.33 Occupations that are prohibited to minors 14 and 15...

  19. How Do African American Young Adult Females (AAYAF) over 16 Years of Age Make Career Decisions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Nancy Mathea

    2010-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The overall purpose of the study was to describe the perceptions regarding how AAYAF over 16 years of age plan and make career decisions. The study participants included ten AAYAF over 16 years of age. The young women were interviewed fact-to-face using a semi-structured open-ended questionnaire. The questionnaire was…

  20. Rerouting Urban Waters: A Historic Examination of the Age of Imperviousness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, K. G.; Bain, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    From the 1600's to the 1900's landscapes along the Eastern United States underwent dramatic changes, including transitions from forest to production agriculture and eventually urban development. Legacy effects from decisions on sewer and water infrastructure built during the early 1900's are emerging today in degraded urban waterways. Impervious cover is often a factor used to predict water impairment. However, does imperviousness age or change through the course of landscape evolution? This study reconstructs the history of imperviousness in the Panther Hollow watershed (161 ha, Pittsburgh, PA) to examine these changes. We reconstruct the importance of factors influencing effective imperviousness from the 1800's to present including; (1) pipe and road network technological transitions, (2) land cover changes, particularly the loss of forest cover, and (3) modifications to local topography. Analysis reveals effective imperviousness (impervious area in the basin directly connected to stream channels) increased dramatically after 1900. Prior to 1900, water and sewer infrastructure was very limited. Local drainage networks generally followed the natural topography and households accessed water supplies from wells, precipitation harvesting or surface water. Road networks were sparse and predominantly dirt or aggregate surfaces. Forests and large family farms dominated land cover. Around 1910 public water supply expanded, significantly increasing effective imperviousness due to installation of brick and ceramic sewer infrastructure that routed waste waters directly to stream channels. Road networks also expanded and began transitioning from dirt roads to brick and eventually asphalt. Shifting to impervious paving materials required the installation of stormwater drainage. New drainage systems altered historic flow paths by re-routed large quantities of water through macro-pore sewer networks to local waterways. While this improvement prevented flooding to roadways, it

  1. Radiocarbon ages and age models for the past 30,000 years in Bear Lake, Utah and Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colman, Steven M.; Rosenbaum, J.G.; Kaufman, D.S.; Dean, W.E.; McGeehin, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Radiocarbon analyses of pollen, ostracodes, and total organic carbon (TOC) provide a reliable chronology for the sediments deposited in Bear Lake over the past 30,000 years. The differences in apparent age between TOC, pollen, and carbonate fractions are consistent and in accord with the origins of these fractions. Comparisons among different fractions indicate that pollen sample ages are the most reliable, at least for the past 15,000 years. The post-glacial radiocarbon data also agree with ages independently estimated from aspartic acid racemization in ostracodes. Ages in the red, siliclastic unit, inferred to be of last glacial age, appear to be several thousand years too old, probably because of a high proportion of reworked, refractory organic carbon in the pollen samples. Age-depth models for five piston cores and the Bear Lake drill core (BL00-1) were constructed by using two methods: quadratic equations and smooth cubic-splinefits. The two types of age models differ only in detail for individual cores, and each approach has its own advantages. Specific lithological horizons were dated in several cores and correlated among them, producing robust average ages for these horizons. The age of the correlated horizons in the red, siliclastic unit can be estimated from the age model for BL00-1, which is controlled by ages above and below the red, siliclastic unit. These ages were then transferred to the correlative horizons in the shorter piston cores, providing control for the sections of the age models in those cores in the red, siliclastic unit. These age models are the backbone for reconstructions of past environmental conditions in Bear Lake. In general, sedimentation rates in Bear Lake have been quite uniform, mostly between 0.3 and 0.8 mm yr-1 in the Holocene, and close to 0.5 mm yr-1 for the longer sedimentary record in the drill core from the deepest part of the lake. Copyright ?? 2009 The Geological Society of America.

  2. An examination of the impact of a first year experience course on STEM persistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welchert, Tammy S.

    A review of STEM literature indicates that increased attention is being paid to STEM initiatives particularly with K-12 teachers and programs designed to foster interest in STEM fields at the secondary education level, both of which feed the STEM pipeline. The President of the United States, Barack Obama, Presidents of Higher Education Institutions, and an increased global awareness of the shortfall of workers in the STEM pipeline are driving the increased attention. Recognition that an inability to meet STEM workforce demands may jeopardize the position of the United States as a world leader is significant. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a first year experience course, Biology 115: First Year Seminar, specifically with regards to academic performance and retention, and to evaluate how the impact changes when course instruction was delivered in a 16-week versus an 8-week model. Three sample groups (N = 596) consisting of first time college freshmen declared as biology majors from 2005-2012 at the University of Missouri-Kansas City were selected for participation. Data was collected from student's high school and college transcripts and college applications by the Office of Institutional Research. A three phase analysis including descriptive statistics and t-tests, principle component analysis, and binary logistic regression were performed using a hierarchical model informed by Alexander Astins' Input-Environment-Output model. The majority of students were female, residents of the State of Missouri, and White. Analysis results indicated that students enrolled in the Biology 115 course earned higher grade point averages, were in better academic standing, and were retained at a higher level than the control group. Additionally, students enrolled in the course in the 8-Week model earned higher grade point averages and had higher retention from Year 1 to Year 2 and retention as biology majors over the 16-week model.

  3. Examining the literacy component of science literacy: 25 years of language arts and science research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yore, Larry D.; Bisanz, Gay L.; Hand, Brian M.

    2003-06-01

    This review, written to celebrate the 25th anniversary of the International Journal of Science Education, revealed a period of changes in the theoretical views of the language arts, the perceived roles of language in science education, and the research approaches used to investigate oral and written language in science, science teaching, and learning. The early years were dominated by behavioralist and logico-mathematical interpretations of human learning and by reductionist research approaches, while the later years reflected an applied cognitive science and constructivist interpretations of learning and a wider array of research approaches that recognizes the holistic nature of teaching and learning. The early years focus on coding oral language into categories reflecting source of speech, functional purpose, level of question and response, reading research focused on the readability of textbooks using formulae and the reader's decoding skills, and writing research was not well documented since the advocates for writing in service of learning were grass roots practitioners and many science teachers were using writing as an evaluation technique. The advent of applied cognitive science and the constructivist perspectives ushered in interactive-constructive models of discourse, reading and writing that more clearly revealed the role of language in science and in science teaching and learning. A review of recent research revealed that the quantity and quality of oral interactions were low and unfocused in science classrooms; reading has expanded to consider comprehension strategies, metacognition, sources other than textbooks, and the design of inquiry environments for classrooms; and writing-to-learn science has focused on sequential writing tasks requiring transformation of ideas to enhance science learning. Several promising trends and future research directions flow from the synthesis of this 25-year period of examining the literacy component of science literacy

  4. Examining executive function in the second year of life: coherence, stability, and relations to joint attention and language.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stephanie E; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Several theories of executive function (EF) propose that EF development corresponds to children's ability to form representations and reflect on represented stimuli in the environment. However, research on early EF is primarily conducted with preschoolers, despite the fact that important developments in representation (e.g., language, gesture, shared joint attention) occur within the 1st years of life. In the present study, EF performance and the relationship between EF and early representation (i.e., joint attention, language) were longitudinally examined in 47 children at 14 and 18 months of age. Results suggest that the 2nd year of life is a distinct period of EF development in which children exhibit very little coherence or stability across a battery of EF tasks. However, by 18 months, a subset of child participants consistently passed the majority of EF tasks, and superior EF performance was predicted by 14-month representational abilities (i.e., language comprehension and some episodes of initiating joint attention). This research suggests that the transition from foundational behavioral control in infancy to the more complex EF observed in preschool is supported by representational abilities in the 2nd year of life.

  5. Student Pharmacists’ Perceptions of a Composite Examination in Their First Professional Year

    PubMed Central

    Alford, Elizabeth L.; Finks, Shannon W.; Parker, Robert B.; Chisholm-Burns, Marie A.; Phelps, Stephanie J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess first-year (P1) pharmacy students’ studying behaviors and perceptions after implementation of a new computerized “composite examination” (CE) testing procedure. Methods. Student surveys were conducted to assess studying behavior and perceptions about the CE before and after its implementation. Results. Surveys were completed by 149 P1 students (92% response rate). Significant changes between survey results before and after the CE included an increase in students’ concerns about the limited number of questions per course on each examination and decreased concerns about the time allotted and the inability to write on the CEs. Significant changes in study habits included a decrease in cramming (studying shortly before the test) and an increase in priority studying (spending more time on one course than another). Conclusion. The CE positively changed assessment practice at the college. It helped overcome logistic challenges in computerized testing and drove positive changes in study habits. PMID:26941430

  6. Trends and variability in blood lead concentrations among US adults aged 20-64 years and senior citizens aged ≥65 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2016-07-01

    Using data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the period 2003-2012, the objective of this study was to evaluate trends in blood lead levels (BLL) among adults aged 20-64 years (adults) and seniors aged ≥65 years (seniors). In addition, the contribution of other factors like gender, race/ethnicity, smoking, and exposure to secondhand smoke at home in explaining variability in BLL was also evaluated by fitting regression models with log10 transformed values of BLL as dependent variables. BLL decreased over 2003-2012 (p < 0.01). Irrespective of gender, race/ethnicity, and smoking status, seniors were found to have higher BLL than adults. Based on the magnitude of differences between the 5th and 95th percentiles, variability in the levels of blood lead was found to be substantially higher among seniors than among adults. Males had statistically significantly higher adjusted BLL than females (2.32 vs. 1.76 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.66 vs. 1.13 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). Non-Hispanic whites had statistically significantly lower adjusted BLL than non-Hispanic blacks (1.99 vs. 2.42 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.22 vs. 1.42 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). When compared with non-smokers, smokers had statistically significantly higher BLL (2.19 vs. 1.86 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.54 vs. 1.22 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). Non-obese had statistically significantly higher BLL than obese individuals (2.11 vs. 1.93 μg/dL for seniors, p < 0.01 and 1.48 vs. 1.27 μg/dL for adults, p < 0.01). Exposure to secondhand smoke at home (SHS) was associated with statistically significantly higher BLL than when there was no exposure to SHS (β = 0.0683, p = 0.03 for seniors; β = 0.034, p = 0.034, p < 0.01 for adults). PMID:27044289

  7. Prediction of correlates of daily physical activity in Spanish children aged 8-9 years.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, J M; Escalante, Y; Domínguez, A M; García-Hermoso, A; Hernández-Mocholí, M A

    2014-06-01

    The aims of the study were (a) to examine the associations between the daily physical activity (PA) of 8- to 9-year-old children and their parents, and (b) to examine what effect the child's daily PA has on its cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The sample consisted of 1021 persons [351 children (8.73 ± 0.69 years in age) and 670 parents]. Pedometers were used to evaluate PA in parents and their children over the course of 4 days (Thursday-Sunday), with the instructions on how to wear the pedometers for 24 h a day. Also evaluated were height, weight, BMI, CRF (via the maximal multistage 20-m shuttle run test), and HRQoL (via the EQ-5D-Y questionnaire). Associations between these variables were studied using path model techniques. The father's PA predicts his child's daily PA. This in turn predicts the child's lower BMI, CRF, and perceived quality of life. The findings suggest that the role model of a physically active father positively influences the child's PA habits, and hence that the family environment can have an important part to play in promoting health.

  8. A cross-cultural examination of the relationship between ages at menarche, marriage, and first birth.

    PubMed

    Udry, J R; Cliquet, R L

    1982-02-01

    Recent work with samples of black and white urban American women showed a clear behavioral sequence relating age at menarche to age at first intercourse to age at first birth. This paper shows that the linking of ages at menarche, intercourse, marriage, and first birth is a pattern which occurs in very diverse cultures. We present confirmatory data from the United States, Belgium, and Pakistan, and from Malay and Chinese women in Malaysia. We interpret our findings as indicating a biological process leading to (a) social interpretations of readiness for reproduction, and (b) persisting biological differences between early and late maturing women. PMID:7067870

  9. Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds among children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity among children aged 6-11 years. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was positively associated with the levels of selected metabolites of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, cyanide, and propylene oxide in a dose-response manner. Levels of the selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, toluene, and xylene decreased with increase in age. Levels of 1-bromopropane decreased with number of rooms in the house but the reverse was true for 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Levels of most of the 20 metabolites did not vary with gender. Non-Hispanic white children had higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) than non-Hispanic black children. Non-Hispanic white children had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA), trans, trans-Muconic acid (MU), and N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC) than non-Hispanic Asian children but statistically significantly lower levels of N-Acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (BPMA) than non-Hispanic Asian children. Non-Hispanic Asian children had the lowest levels of 13 of the 20 metabolites among four major racial/ethnic groups but highest levels for three metabolites. For selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile-vinyl chloride-ethylene oxide, benzene, 1,3-butadien, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylbenzene-styrene, and toluene, children had statistically significantly higher levels than nonsmoking adults. These results demonstrate how vulnerable children are to being exposed to harmful chemicals like VOCs in their own homes. PMID:26257031

  10. Levels of selected urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds among children aged 6-11 years.

    PubMed

    Jain, Ram B

    2015-10-01

    Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the years 2011-2012 were used to evaluate variability in the observed levels of 20 urinary metabolites of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) by age, gender, and race/ethnicity among children aged 6-11 years. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was positively associated with the levels of selected metabolites of acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, cyanide, and propylene oxide in a dose-response manner. Levels of the selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylonitrile, 1,3-butadiene, styrene, toluene, and xylene decreased with increase in age. Levels of 1-bromopropane decreased with number of rooms in the house but the reverse was true for 1,3-butadiene, carbon-disulfide, and N,N-dimethylformamide. Levels of most of the 20 metabolites did not vary with gender. Non-Hispanic white children had higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)-L-cysteine (DHBMA), N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC), and phenylglyoxylic acid (PGA) than non-Hispanic black children. Non-Hispanic white children had statistically significantly higher adjusted levels of N-Acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA), trans, trans-Muconic acid (MU), and N-Acetyl-S-(N-methylcarbamoyl)-L-cysteine (AMCC) than non-Hispanic Asian children but statistically significantly lower levels of N-Acetyl-S-(n-propyl)-L-cysteine (BPMA) than non-Hispanic Asian children. Non-Hispanic Asian children had the lowest levels of 13 of the 20 metabolites among four major racial/ethnic groups but highest levels for three metabolites. For selected metabolites of acrolein, acrylamide, acrylonitrile-vinyl chloride-ethylene oxide, benzene, 1,3-butadien, crotonaldehyde, cyanide, ethylbenzene-styrene, and toluene, children had statistically significantly higher levels than nonsmoking adults. These results demonstrate how vulnerable children are to being exposed to harmful chemicals like VOCs in their own homes.

  11. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Worby, Colin J.; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic’s peak. We found children aged 11–12y, 13–14y and 8–10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak’s ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11–12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak’s ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8–10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8–14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation. PMID:26278132

  12. An Examination of Group-Based Treatment Packages for Increasing Elementary-Aged Students' Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begeny, John C.; Silber, Jennifer M.

    2006-01-01

    Reading fluency has been described as one of the essential ingredients for ensuring that students become successful readers. Unfortunately, a large number of elementary-aged students in this country do not fluently read age-appropriate material. Because of this, small-group interventions are practical and more time efficient than individualized…

  13. Examining the role of different age groups, and of vaccination during the 2012 Minnesota pertussis outbreak.

    PubMed

    Worby, Colin J; Kenyon, Cynthia; Lynfield, Ruth; Lipsitch, Marc; Goldstein, Edward

    2015-08-17

    There is limited information on the roles of different age groups during pertussis outbreaks. Little is known about vaccine effectiveness against pertussis infection (both clinically apparent and subclinical), which is different from effectiveness against reportable pertussis disease, with the former influencing the impact of vaccination on pertussis transmission in the community. For the 2012 pertussis outbreak in Minnesota, we estimated odds ratios for case counts in pairs of population groups before vs. after the epidemic's peak. We found children aged 11-12y, 13-14y and 8-10y experienced the greatest rates of depletion of susceptible individuals during the outbreak's ascent, with all ORs for each of those age groups vs. groups outside this age range significantly above 1, with the highest ORs for ages 11-12y. Receipt of the fifth dose of DTaP was associated with a decreased relative role during the outbreak's ascent compared to non-receipt [OR 0.16 (0.01, 0.84) for children aged 5, 0.13 (0.003, 0.82) for ages 8-10y, indicating a protective effect of DTaP against pertussis infection. No analogous effect of Tdap was detected. Our results suggest that children aged 8-14y played a key role in propagating this outbreak. The impact of immunization with Tdap on pertussis infection requires further investigation.

  14. Re-Examination of Anomalous I-Xe Ages: Orgueil and Murchison Magnetites and Allegan Feldspar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohenberg, Charles M.; Pravdivtseva, Olga V.; Meshik, Alex P.

    2000-01-01

    Old I-Xe age for Orgueil (and Murchison) magnetite is not confirmed. New results show closure 2.8 Ma after Shallowater/Bjurbole standard, 10.3 Ma later than previously reported. The anomalously old I-Xe age of Allegan feldspar is attributed to shock.

  15. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  16. Barriers to eye care among people aged 40 years and older with diagnosed diabetes, 2006-2010.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chiu-Fang; Sherrod, Cheryl E; Zhang, Xinzhi; Barker, Lawrence E; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Crews, John E; Saaddine, Jinan B

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We examine barriers to receiving recommended eye care among people aged ≥40 years with diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed 2006-2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 22 states (n = 27,699). Respondents who had not sought eye care in the preceding 12 months were asked the main reason why. We categorized the reasons as cost/lack of insurance, no need, no eye doctor/travel/appointment, and other (meaning everything else). We used multinomial logistic regression to control for race/ethnicity, education, income, and other selected covariates. RESULTS Among adults with diagnosed diabetes, nonadherence to the recommended annual eye examinations was 23.5%. The most commonly reported reasons for not receiving eye care in the preceding 12 months were "no need" and "cost or lack of insurance" (39.7 and 32.3%, respectively). Other reasons were "no eye doctor," "no transportation" or "could not get appointment" (6.4%), and "other" (21.5%). After controlling for covariates, adults aged 40-64 years were more likely than those aged ≥65 years (relative risk ratio [RRR] = 2.79; 95% CI 2.01-3.89) and women were more likely than men (RRR = 2.33; 95% CI 1.75-3.14) to report "cost or lack of insurance" as their main reason. However, people aged 40-64 years were less likely than those aged ≥65 years to report "no need" (RRR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.39-0.67) as their main reason. CONCLUSIONS Addressing concerns about "cost or lack of insurance" for adults under 65 years and "no perceived need" among those 65 years and older could help improve eye care service utilization among people with diabetes. PMID:24009300

  17. Predictors and characteristics of successful aging among men: a 48-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Jerry F

    2013-01-01

    To explore dimensions of successful aging, 71 men were selected for healthy adjustment and were prospectively studied in young adulthood (average age 20) and reassessed in 32-year and 48-year follow-ups. Despite an increase of medical problems, most men maintained healthy adjustment in early old age. At both follow-ups, successful young adult predictors of favorable overall outcome included good peer social adjustment, an absence of troubled parental discipline, and an absence of immature defensive behaviors when angry. However, young adult factors were more predictive of outcomes in middle age than in early old age, as predictor effect sizes decreased between the first follow-up and the second follow-up 16 years later. Findings support the possibility of both favorable and unfavorable changes in the second half of life that may diminish the impact of some young adult characteristics and family environments on adjustment in early old age. PMID:23855185

  18. Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposure in the First Year of Life and Behavioral Scores at 7 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Patrick; LeMasters, Grace; Levin, Linda; Bernstein, David; Hershey, Gurjit K. Khurana; Lockey, James E.; Villareal, Manuel; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey; Sucharew, Heidi; Dietrich, Kim N.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is increasing concern about the potential effects of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) on the developing brain. The impact of TRAP exposure on childhood behavior is not fully understood because of limited epidemiologic studies. Objective: We explored the association between early-life exposure to TRAP using a surrogate, elemental carbon attributed to traffic (ECAT), and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms at 7 years of age. Methods: From the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study (CCAAPS) birth cohort we collected data on exposure to ECAT during infancy and behavioral scores at 7 years of age. Children enrolled in CCAAPS had at least one atopic parent and a birth residence either < 400 m or > 1,500 m from a major highway. Children were followed from infancy through 7 years of age. ECAT exposure during the first year of life was estimated based on measurements from 27 air sampling sites and land use regression modeling. Parents completed the Behavioral Assessment System for Children, 2nd Edition, when the child was 7 years of age. ADHD-related symptoms were assessed using the Hyperactivity, Attention Problems, Aggression, Conduct Problems, and Atypicality subscales. Results: Exposure to the highest tertile of ECAT during the child’s first year of life was significantly associated with Hyperactivity T-scores in the “at risk” range at 7 years of age, after adjustment [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.7; 95% CI: 1.0, 2.7]. Stratification by maternal education revealed a stronger association in children whose mothers had higher education (aOR = 2.3; 95% CI: 1.3, 4.1). Conclusions: ECAT exposure during infancy was associated with higher Hyperactivity scores in children; this association was limited to children whose mothers had more than a high school education. PMID:23694812

  19. Health Insurance Status and Psychological Distress among US Adults Aged 18-64 Years.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Martinez, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and aspects of health insurance status, including lack of coverage, types of coverage and disruption in coverage, among US adults. Data from the 2001-2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to conduct analyses representative of the US adult population aged 18-64 years. Multivariate analyses regressed psychological distress on health insurance status while controlling for covariates. Adults with private or no health insurance coverage had lower levels of psychological distress than those with public/other coverage. Adults who recently (≤1 year) experienced a change in health insurance status had higher levels of distress than those who had not recently experienced a change. An interaction effect indicated that the relationship between recent change in health insurance status and distress was not dependent on whether an adult had private versus public/other coverage. However, for adults who had not experienced a change in status in the past year, the average absolute level of distress is higher among those with no coverage versus private coverage. Although significant relationships between psychological distress and health insurance status were identified, their strength was modest, with other demographic and health condition covariates also being potential sources of distress. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  20. Longitudinal association of dentition status with dietary intake in Japanese adults aged 75 to 80 years.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, M; Yoshihara, A; Ogawa, H; Sato, M; Muramatsu, K; Watanabe, R; Ansai, T; Miyazaki, H

    2016-10-01

    Limited information is available on the temporal association between dentition status and dietary intake. The aim of this 5-year prospective cohort study was to investigate whether impaired dentition was associated with subsequent decline in dietary intake in older Japanese adults. Two hundred and eighty-six community-dwelling Japanese individuals, all aged 75 years at baseline, were included in the study. Functional tooth units (FTUs), defined as a pair of opposing natural or prosthetic teeth excluding third molars (range: 0-14), were counted on the basis of baseline dental examinations. Individuals with ≤5 FTUs were defined as having impaired dentition. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and 5 years later, using a validated dietary questionnaire. Robust regression analyses were used to evaluate the differences in change in dietary intake between participants with and without impaired functional dentition, after adjustment for potential confounders. Sixty-one study participants (21·3 %) were defined as having impaired dentition. Overall, mean values for all estimated dietary variables (energy, nutrients and food groups) declined over time. Notably, individuals with impaired dentition demonstrated a significantly (P < 0·05) greater degree of decline in the intake of multiple nutrients (protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin E and dietary fibre) and food groups (vegetable and meat) than those without impaired dentition, after adjusting for potential confounders. The results of this study describe the temporal association of impaired dentition with the decline in selected nutrient and food group intake among older Japanese adults.

  1. Longitudinal association of dentition status with dietary intake in Japanese adults aged 75 to 80 years.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, M; Yoshihara, A; Ogawa, H; Sato, M; Muramatsu, K; Watanabe, R; Ansai, T; Miyazaki, H

    2016-10-01

    Limited information is available on the temporal association between dentition status and dietary intake. The aim of this 5-year prospective cohort study was to investigate whether impaired dentition was associated with subsequent decline in dietary intake in older Japanese adults. Two hundred and eighty-six community-dwelling Japanese individuals, all aged 75 years at baseline, were included in the study. Functional tooth units (FTUs), defined as a pair of opposing natural or prosthetic teeth excluding third molars (range: 0-14), were counted on the basis of baseline dental examinations. Individuals with ≤5 FTUs were defined as having impaired dentition. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and 5 years later, using a validated dietary questionnaire. Robust regression analyses were used to evaluate the differences in change in dietary intake between participants with and without impaired functional dentition, after adjustment for potential confounders. Sixty-one study participants (21·3 %) were defined as having impaired dentition. Overall, mean values for all estimated dietary variables (energy, nutrients and food groups) declined over time. Notably, individuals with impaired dentition demonstrated a significantly (P < 0·05) greater degree of decline in the intake of multiple nutrients (protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin E and dietary fibre) and food groups (vegetable and meat) than those without impaired dentition, after adjusting for potential confounders. The results of this study describe the temporal association of impaired dentition with the decline in selected nutrient and food group intake among older Japanese adults. PMID:27545519

  2. Aging process on spectrally determined spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Jean-Pierre; Cerutti, Catherine; Mpio, Ignace; Ducher, Michel

    2007-09-01

    The interindividual age-related decrease in baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) was reported in many cross-sectional studies. However, the long-term intraindividual decrease in BRS has never been confirmed by longitudinal studies. Data obtained from a 5-year prospective study designed to assess the 5-year stress effects on blood pressure (BP) provided the opportunity to assess longitudinal aging process on spectrally determined BRS (S-BRS) using the cross spectral analysis. This analysis was carried out in 205 men aged between 18 and 50 years who had 2 valid beat to beat BP recordings (Finapress) at a mean 5-year interval. At inclusion and at end of follow-up, S-BRS was significantly correlated with age (r=-0.50, P<0.001, r=-0.33, P<0.001 respectively). Interestingly, the slopes and the intercepts were not significantly different at a 5-year interval. This result is in favor of the good reproducibility of S-BRS. The attenuation with age of S-BRS was calculated at 3.6% a year. This decrease was slightly higher than the one obtained with the baseline data (2.3% per year). This longitudinal study provided, for the first time, an estimate of the slope of the age-related physiological S-BRS decrease in a mid-aged healthy male population. Our findings reinforce the interest of evaluating spontaneous BRS reported to predict hypertension and cardiovascular events in various populations.

  3. Chronological progression of body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness in females 12 to 17 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jones, Lauren E; Buckner, Ellen; Miller, Renée

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary study of cross-sectional data was to examine patterns of scores on the Eating Disorders Inventory in a healthy sample of female adolescents thought to have a high potential for risk. Data were obtained as part of a consultation to identify risk of developing eating disorders. The screening and subsequent group level analysis was carried out with 44 female dancers 12 to 17 years of age enrolled in grades 7 to 12 in a Magnet school. This secondary analysis examined three components of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-3): body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and bulimia for the purpose of comparing group findings across ages and grades. Some level of body dissatisfaction was widespread in the population, body dissatisfaction increased beginning notably at age 14 and increased sharply at age 15, with further increases until age 16. The correlation between body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness was shown to be statistically significant (r = 0.83, p < 0.001). Awareness that body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness increase at ages 15 and 16 means disordered eating may begin at this time. If body dissatisfaction and drive for thinness begins early in life and markedly increases at ages 14 and 15, eating disorder prevention must begin in childhood and continue into adolescence. PMID:24757916

  4. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2008-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  5. Preliminary Examination of First Year Female University Students: Smoking Practices and Beliefs in a City with No-Smoking Legislation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Camblin, Amy

    2009-01-01

    Young adults between the ages of 20 to 24 are reported to have the highest smoking rates of any other age group. A questionnaire was used to assess the smoking practices and beliefs of 323 female university students. All participants were first year students entering university in a city where smoke-free legislation had been enacted. Results…

  6. Assessment of Relational Reasoning in Children Aged 4 to 8 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Glenda

    This study examined the hypothesis that age-related increases in reasoning ability are associated with the ability to represent relations of increasing complexity, defined as the number of entities related. The study's purpose was to determine the extent to which this ability to process relations with three entities increased between ages 4 and 8…

  7. Behavioral Autonomy Age Expectations among Mexican-Origin Mother-Daughter Dyads: An Examination of Within-Group Variability

    PubMed Central

    Bámaca-Colbert, Mayra Y.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.; Espinosa-Hernández, Graciela; Brown, Ashley M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined differences in behavioral autonomy age expectations between Mexican-origin mothers and their adolescent daughters (N = 319 dyads); variability in behavioral autonomy age expectations as a function of nativity and maternal educational attainment also was examined. Findings indicated significant differences between mothers and daughters such that mothers reported later expectations for the timing of behavioral autonomy than did daughters. Follow-up analyses indicated that findings appeared to be driven by maternal nativity, with dyads comprised of Mexico-born mothers reporting the latest age expectations for behavioral autonomy when compared with dyads comprised of U.S.-born mothers. Findings underscore the need to examine normative development among Latino adolescents and their families with a specific focus on how sociocultural characteristics can contribute to within-family differences. PMID:22093152

  8. Oxidative degradation in highly cross-linked and conventional polyethylene after 2 years of real-time shelf aging.

    PubMed

    Willie, Bettina M; Bloebaum, Roy D; Ashrafi, Shadi; Dearden, Colette; Steffensen, Trina; Hofmann, Aaron A

    2006-04-01

    Previous studies have reported oxidative degradation of conventional polyethylene (PE) components during shelf aging, following radiation. However, no studies have yet reported data concerning the effect of real-time shelf aging in the manufacturer's packaging on the oxidative degradation of commercially available highly cross-linking PE components. The null hypothesis tested was that in either highly cross-linked or conventional PE acetabular components there would be no significant difference in the amount of oxidative degradation between time zero PE liners and PE liners that had been real-time shelf aged for 2 years in their respective packaging. The results of the study indicated that after 2 years of real-time shelf aging, negligible oxidative degradation occurred with minimal changes in oxidation index, density, and percent crystallinity in commercially available highly cross-linked and conventional PE acetabular liners. These data suggested that oxidative degradation was not a clinical issue in the highly cross-linked and conventional PE components examined after 2 years of real-time shelf aging. It is likely that current manufacturing and packaging technologies have limited the previous clinical concerns related to oxidative degradation during shelf aging of highly cross-linked and conventional PE components.

  9. Quantitative Tract-Based White Matter Development from Birth to Age Two Years

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Xiujuan; Gouttard, Sylvain; Sharma, Anuja; Gu, Hongbin; Styner, Martin; Lin, Weili; Gerig, Guido; Gilmore, John H

    2012-01-01

    Few large-scale studies have been done to characterize the normal human brain white matter growth in the first years of life. We investigated white matter maturation patterns in major fiber pathways in a large cohort of healthy young children from birth to age two using diffusion parameters fractional anisotropy (FA), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (RD). Ten fiber pathways, including commissural, association and projection tracts, were examined with tract-based analysis, providing more detailed and continuous spatial developmental patterns compared to conventional ROI based methods. All DTI data sets were transformed to a population specific atlas with a group-wise longitudinal large deformation diffeomorphic registration approach. Diffusion measurements were analyzed along the major fiber tracts obtained in the atlas space. All fiber bundles show increasing FA values and decreasing radial and axial diffusivities during the development in the first two years of life. The changing rates of the diffusion indices are faster in the first year than the second year for all tracts. RD and FA show larger percentage changes in the first and second years than AD. The gender effects on the diffusion measures are small. Along different spatial locations of fiber tracts, maturation does not always follow the same speed. Temporal and spatial diffusion changes near cortical regions are in general smaller than changes in central regions. Overall developmental patterns revealed in our study confirm the general rules of white matter maturation. This work shows a promising framework to study and analyze white matter maturation in a tract-based fashion. Compared to most previous studies that are ROI-based, our approach has the potential to discover localized development patterns associated with fiber tracts of interest. PMID:22510254

  10. Thirty years of the United Nations and global ageing: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Kendig, Hal; Lucas, Nina; Anstey, Kaarin J

    2013-10-01

    Over the past three decades, the United Nations (UN) has slowly devoted increasing attention to global ageing. Concern for individually based welfare or health-care programs for older people in developed countries has progressed to also consider the contributions of older people and implications of ageing for socioeconomic advancement in developing countries, including those in Asia Oceania. These shifts are evident in the International Plans of Action on Ageing from Vienna in 1982 to Madrid in 2002; recent 10-year reviews of the Madrid Plan; and current advocacy for inclusion of ageing in the influential UN Millennium Plan post-2015. Australia has demonstrated progressive policies and contributed to ageing developments by the UN, International Federation on Ageing the World Health Organization and the International Association of Gerontology. Key ideas driving further action are the importance of valuing people at all ages, addressing inequalities over the life-course and implementing human rights approaches to ageing.

  11. Continuity and Change in General Cognitive Ability from 1 to 7 years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardon, Lon R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Yearly cognitive tests were administered to adoptive and nonadoptive siblings between one and seven years of age and identical and nonidentical twins between one and three years. Results indicated that genetic influences are a source of continuity and change in mental development, whereas shared and nonshared environmental effects contribute to…

  12. Bringing the Montessori Three-Year Multi-Age Group to the Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, David

    2003-01-01

    Describes the benefits of including the ninth grade within the 3-year multi-age group setting within a Montessori farm school. Notes how seventh, eighth, and ninth grades work together in one family cluster, allowing 15-year-olds to avoid the pecking order of the high school freshman year while developing personal leadership, confidence, and a…

  13. Successful Aging in a 70-Year-Old Man with Down Syndrome: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krinsky-McHale, Sharon J.; Devenny, Darlynne A.; Gu, Hong; Jenkins, Edmund C.; Kittler, Phyllis; Murty, Vundavalli V.; Schupf, Nicole; Scotto, Luigi; Tycko, Benjamin; Urv, Tiina K.; Ye, Lingling; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2008-01-01

    The authors present a case study of a 70-year-old man with Down syndrome ("Mr. C.") who they followed for 16 years and who does not exhibit declines in cognitive or functional capacities indicative of dementia, despite having well-documented, complete trisomy 21. The authors describe the age-associated changes that occurred over 16 years as well…

  14. Nutritional Transition in Children under Five Years and Women of Reproductive Age: A 15-Years Trend Analysis in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Loret de Mola, Christian; Quispe, Renato; Valle, Giancarlo A.; Poterico, Julio A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapid urbanization, increase in food availability, and changes in diet and lifestyle patterns have been changing nutritional profiles in developing nations. We aimed to describe nutritional changes in children under 5 years and women of reproductive age in Peru, during a 15-year period of rapid economic development and social policy enhancement. Materials and Methods Trend analyses of anthropometric measures in children of preschool age and women between 15–49 years, using the Peruvian National Demographic and Family Health Surveys (DHS) from 1996 to 2011. WHO growth curves were used to define stunting, underweight, wasting and overweight in children <5y. We employed the WHO BMI-age standardized curves for teenagers between 15–19y. In women >19 years, body mass index (BMI) was analyzed both categorically and as a continuous variable. To statistically analyze the trends, we used regression models: Linear and Poisson for continuous and binary outcomes, respectively. Results We analyzed data from 123 642 women and 64 135 children, from 1996 to 2011. Decreases over time were evidenced for underweight (p<0.001), wasting (p<0.001), and stunting (p<0.001) in children under 5y. This effect was particularly noted in urban settings. Overweight levels in children reduced (p<0.001), however this reduction stopped, in urban settings, since 2005 (∼12%). Anemia decreased in children and women (p<0.001); with higher reduction in urban (↓43%) than in rural children (↓24%). BMI in women aged 15–19 years increased (p<0.001) across time, with noticeable BMI-curve shift in women older than 30 years. Moreover, obesity doubled during this period in women more than 19y. Conclusion Nutrition transition in Peru shows different patterns for urban and rural populations. Public policies should emphasize targeting both malnutrition conditions—undernutrition/stunting, overweight/obesity and anemia—considering age and place of residence in rapid developing societies

  15. Examining the role of information exchange in residential aged care work practices-a survey of residential aged care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The provision of residential aged care is underpinned by information, and is reliant upon systems that adequately capture and effectively utilise and communicate this information. The aim of this study was to explicate and quantify the volume and method by which information is collected, exchanged within facilities and with external providers, and retrieved from facility information systems and hospitals. Methods A survey of staff (n = 119), including managers, health informatics officers (HIOs), quality improvement staff, registered nurses (RNs), enrolled nurses (ENs)/endorsed enrolled nurses (EENs) and assistants in nursing (AINs) was carried out in four residential aged care facilities in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia. Sites varied in size and displayed a range of information technology (IT) capabilities. The survey investigated how and by whom information is collected, retrieved and exchanged, and the frequency and amount of time devoted to these tasks. Descriptive analysis was performed using SPSS, and open responses to questions were coded into key themes. Results Staff completed a median of six forms each, taking a median of 30 min per shift. 68.8% of staff reported transferring information from paper to a computer system, which took a median of 30 min per shift. Handover and face-to-face communication was the most frequently used form of information exchange within facilities. There was a large amount of faxing and telephone communication between facility staff and General Practitioners and community pharmacists, with staff reporting sending a median of 2 faxes to pharmacy and 1.5 faxes to General Practitioners, and initiating 2 telephone calls to pharmacies and 1.5 calls to General Practitioners per shift. Only 38.5% of respondents reported that they always had information available at the point-of-care and only 35.4% of respondents reported that they always had access to hospital stay information of residents after hospital

  16. Analysis of the sounds of the child in the first year of age and a comparison to the language.

    PubMed

    Rothgänger, Hartmut

    2003-12-01

    This study has the aim to analyze the acoustic characteristic features of cries and babbling in the course of the ontogenetical development of babies from the 3rd to 5th day on up to the age of 1 year and to compare the results to the acoustic characteristics of the adult language. The mean fundamental frequency of crying increased considerably from 441.8 to 502.9 Hz and the mean fundamental frequency of babbling decreased remarkably from 389.3 to 336.9 Hz. These types of melodies represent individual differences in the course of crying. The first intonations were similar to the hunger cry and later they were on par with the pain cry. The melodies of babbling remained unchanged in the first year of age. Scientific examinations proved that crying and babbling are different. The development of the mean fundamental frequency for both, crying and babbling, showed a contrary tendency within the first year of age. The melody of babbling indicated similarities to the language within the first year of age. At the age of 9 months, the fundamental frequency and the melody contained features of the language of females in labour. Crying of a newborn and infant can be regarded in direct connection with the cries of a grown-up person, particularly in situations of emotional agitation or cultic rituals. Babbling, in contrast, shows structural similarities to the language. This justifies the assumption that the human being possesses two separate communication systems that share the same acoustic channel.

  17. Femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children aged 0-5 years.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiayou; Tang, Jin; Zhou, Libo; Zeng, Rong; Mou, Jinsong; Zhang, Lingli

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children. Between January and December, 2007, we randomly sampled 1,450 healthy Chinese children (0-5 years old) from Hunan Provincial Children's Hospital in Changsha, Hunan, China. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis was measured by pelvic X-ray photography and processed by medical image processing software. The growth of femoral head epiphysis in girls was 2-3 months earlier than that in boys. The diameter of femoral head epiphysis increased with advancing age in both girls and boys, but the diameter of femoral head epiphysis in 2, 3, 4, 6, and 10-month-old girls was significantly larger than that in boys. Cubic regression equations between the diameter of femoral head epiphysis and age were created for boys and girls that could be used to predict the diameter of femoral head epiphysis. In conclusion, there was gender difference in femoral head epiphysis growth and development among Chinese children, and our prediction models will provide the guidance for early diagnosis of diseases related to the growth and development of the femoral head epiphysis.

  18. Insulin Resistance Is Associated With Decreased Quadriceps Muscle Strength in Nondiabetic Adults Aged ≥70 Years

    PubMed Central

    Barzilay, Joshua I.; Cotsonis, George A.; Walston, Jeremy; Schwartz, Ann V.; Satterfield, Suzanne; Miljkovic, Iva; Harris, Tamara B.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Lower-limb muscle strength is reduced in many people with diabetes. In this study, we examined whether quadriceps muscle strength is reduced in relation to insulin resistance in well-functioning ambulatory nondiabetic individuals. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants (age ≥70 years) underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scanning to ascertain muscle and fat mass, tests of quadriceps strength, computed tomography scanning of the quadriceps to gauge muscle lipid content, and fasting insulin and glucose level measurements from which homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was derived. RESULTS In regression analysis, quadriceps strength per kilogram of muscle mass was negatively associated (P < 0.0001) with HOMA-IR independent of other factors negatively associated with strength such as increased age, female sex, low-physical activity, impaired fasting glucose, and increased total body fat. Muscle lipid content was not associated with strength. CONCLUSIONS A small decrease in quadriceps muscle force is associated with increased HOMA-IR in well-functioning nondiabetic adults, suggesting that diminished quadriceps muscle strength begins before diabetes. PMID:19171728

  19. Examining the Cultural Competence of Third- and Fourth-Year Nutrition Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hack, Rebekah; Hekmat, Sharareh; Ahmadi, Latifeh

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary Canadian research assessing nutrition students' cultural competence and to identify areas for future education initiatives in dietetic education that could ultimately improve dietitians' cultural competence. A mixed-methods study was conducted using a 24-item questionnaire that was administered to students enrolled in third- and fourth-year undergraduate nutrition classes (n = 133). In total, 115 questionnaires were analyzed for quantitative data, and 109 were analyzed for qualitative data. The students scored an overall medium-high level of cultural competence. Out of the 5 areas examined (skills, attitudes, awareness, desires, knowledge), students' multicultural knowledge scores were the lowest. It was found that a lower number of barriers to learning about other cultures were significantly associated with a higher overall cultural competence score, and taking a course in cultural foods significantly increased the students' knowledge and overall cultural competence (P ≤ 0.05). The qualitative data found that students felt the cultural competence curriculum had gaps and identified several ideas for improvement. In conclusion, this research data provides novel insights into the cultural competence of Canadian dietetic students and additionally supports future research and curriculum development to enhance cultural competence. PMID:26280274

  20. Examining the Cultural Competence of Third- and Fourth-Year Nutrition Students: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hack, Rebekah; Hekmat, Sharareh; Ahmadi, Latifeh

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide preliminary Canadian research assessing nutrition students' cultural competence and to identify areas for future education initiatives in dietetic education that could ultimately improve dietitians' cultural competence. A mixed-methods study was conducted using a 24-item questionnaire that was administered to students enrolled in third- and fourth-year undergraduate nutrition classes (n = 133). In total, 115 questionnaires were analyzed for quantitative data, and 109 were analyzed for qualitative data. The students scored an overall medium-high level of cultural competence. Out of the 5 areas examined (skills, attitudes, awareness, desires, knowledge), students' multicultural knowledge scores were the lowest. It was found that a lower number of barriers to learning about other cultures were significantly associated with a higher overall cultural competence score, and taking a course in cultural foods significantly increased the students' knowledge and overall cultural competence (P ≤ 0.05). The qualitative data found that students felt the cultural competence curriculum had gaps and identified several ideas for improvement. In conclusion, this research data provides novel insights into the cultural competence of Canadian dietetic students and additionally supports future research and curriculum development to enhance cultural competence.

  1. Examining Resilience of Quality of Life in the Face of Health-Related and Psychosocial Adversity at Older Ages: What Is "Right" about the Way We Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildon, Zoe; Montgomery, Scott M.; Blane, David; Wiggins, Richard D.; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines resilience at older ages, focusing on the relationships between quality of life (qol) and adversity. Our objectives are to identify (a) the basis of adversity, (b) the characteristics of resilient individuals, and (c) the attributes that attenuate the full impact of adversity. Design and Methods: Resilience is…

  2. Preschool to School in Autism: Neuropsychiatric Problems 8 Years after Diagnosis at 3 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnevik Olsson, M.; Lundström, S.; Westerlund, J.; Giacobini, M. B.; Gillberg, C.; Fernell, E.

    2016-01-01

    The study presents neuropsychiatric profiles of children aged 11 with autism spectrum disorder, assessed before 4.5 years, and after interventions. The original group comprised a community sample of 208 children with ASD. Parents of 128 participated--34 with average intellectual function, 36 with borderline intellectual function and 58 with…

  3. Siblings, theory of mind, and executive functioning in children aged 3-6 years: new longitudinal evidence.

    PubMed

    McAlister, Anna R; Peterson, Candida C

    2013-01-01

    Longitudinal data were obtained from 157 children agedyears 3 months to 5 years 6 months at Time 1. At Time 2 these children had aged an average of 12 months. Theory of mind (ToM) and executive functioning (EF) were measured at both time points. Results suggest that Time 1 ToM scores predict Time 2 EF scores. Detailed examination of sibling influences suggests that benefits-in terms of advanced ToM development-accrue to children with siblings versus without, and to those with a larger number of child-aged siblings. Any advance in either area (ToM or EF) is likely to benefit the other, and early sibling interaction appears to act as a catalyst. PMID:23848417

  4. The new life stage of emerging adulthood at ages 18-29 years: implications for mental health.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Jeffrey J; Žukauskienė, Rita; Sugimura, Kazumi

    2014-12-01

    Since 1960 demographic trends towards longer time in education and late age to enter into marriage and of parenthood have led to the rise of a new life stage at ages 18-29 years, now widely known as emerging adulthood in developmental psychology. In this review we present some of the demographics of emerging adulthood in high-income countries with respect to the prevalence of tertiary education and the timing of parenthood. We examine the characteristics of emerging adulthood in several regions (with a focus on mental health implications) including distinctive features of emerging adulthood in the USA, unemployment in Europe, and a shift towards greater individualism in Japan. PMID:26361316

  5. Midlife muscle strength and human longevity up to age 100 years: a 44-year prospective study among a decedent cohort.

    PubMed

    Rantanen, Taina; Masaki, Kamal; He, Qimei; Ross, G Webster; Willcox, Bradley J; White, Lon

    2012-06-01

    We studied prospectively the midlife handgrip strength, living habits, and parents' longevity as predictors of length of life up to becoming a centenarian. The participants were 2,239 men from the Honolulu Heart Program/Honolulu-Asia Aging Study who were born before the end of June 1909 and who took part in baseline physical assessment in 1965-1968, when they were 56-68 years old. Deaths were followed until the end of June 2009 for 44 years with complete ascertainment. Longevity was categorized as centenarian (≥100 years, n = 47), nonagenarian (90-99 years, n = 545), octogenarian (80-89 years, n = 847), and ≤79 years (n = 801, reference). The average survival after baseline was 20.8 years (SD = 9.62). Compared with people who died at the age of ≤79 years, centenarians belonged 2.5 times (odds ratio (OR) = 2.52, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.23-5.10) more often to the highest third of grip strength in midlife, were never smokers (OR = 5.75 95% CI = 3.06-10.80), had participated in physical activity outside work (OR = 1.13 per daily hour, 95% CI = 1.02-1.25), and had a long-lived mother (≥80 vs. ≤60 years, OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.06-5.01). Associations for nonagenarians and octogenarians were parallel, but weaker. Multivariate modeling showed that mother's longevity and offspring's grip strength operated through the same or overlapping pathway to longevity. High midlife grip strength and long-lived mother may indicate resilience to aging, which, combined with healthy lifestyle, increases the probability of extreme longevity.

  6. Lutein intake at the age of 1 year and cardiometabolic health at the age of 6 years: the Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Kiefte-de Jong, Jessica C; Hofman, Albert; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-09-28

    Lutein is a carotenoid with strong antioxidant properties. Previous studies in adults suggest a beneficial role of lutein on cardiometabolic health. However, it is unknown whether this relation also exists in children; therefore, we aimed to assess the relation between lutein intake at 13 months of age and cardiometabolic outcomes at the age of 6 years. We included 2044 Dutch children participating in a population-based prospective cohort study. Diet was measured at 13 months of age with an FFQ. Lutein intake was standardised for energy and β-carotene intake. Blood pressure, anthropometrics, serum lipids and insulin were measured at the age of 6 years. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed to measure total and regional fat and lean mass. A continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score was created, including the components body fat percentage, blood pressure, insulin, HDL-cholesterol and TAG. Age- and sex-specific standard deviation scores were created for all outcomes. Multivariable linear regression was performed, including socio-demographic and lifestyle variables. Median (energy-standardised) lutein intake was 1317 mcg/d (95% range 87, 6069 mcg/d). There were no consistent associations between lutein intake at 13 months and anthropometrics and body composition measures at 6 years of age. In addition, lutein intake was not associated with a continuous cardiometabolic risk factor score, nor was it associated with any of the individual components of the cardiometabolic risk factor score. Results from this large population-based prospective cohort study do not support the hypothesis that lutein intake early in life has a beneficial role for later cardiometabolic health.

  7. Longitudinal Volumetric Brain Changes in Autism Spectrum Disorder Ages 6–35 Years

    PubMed Central

    Lange, Nicholas; Travers, Brittany G.; Bigler, Erin D.; Prigge, Molly B.D.; Froehlich, Alyson L.; Nielsen, Jared A.; Cariello, Annahir N.; Zielinski, Brandon A.; Anderson, Jeffrey S.; Fletcher, P. Thomas; Alexander, Andrew A.; Lainhart, Janet E.

    2014-01-01

    LAY ABSTRACT Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality MRI scans) compared to 56 typically developing male controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156 participants scanned over an eight-year period. We provide volumetric growth curves for the entire brain, total gray matter (GM), frontal GM, temporal GM, parietal GM, occipital GM, total cortical white matter (WM), corpus callosum, caudate, thalamus, total cerebellum, and total ventricles. Mean volume of cortical WM was reduced significantly. Decreases in regional mean volumes in the ASD sample were most often due to decreases during late adolescence and adulthood. The growth curve of whole-brain volume showed increased volumes in young children with autism and subsequently decreased during adolescence to meet the TDC curve between 10 and 15 years of age. The volume of many structures continued to decline atypically into adulthood in the ASD sample. The data suggest that ASD is a dynamic disorder with complex changes in whole and regional brain volumes that change over time from childhood into adulthood. SCIENTIFIC ABSTRACT Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality MRI scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.7 years) compared to 56 typically developing male controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.6 years) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156

  8. The Effectiveness of Child Restraint Systems for Children Aged 3 Years or Younger During Motor Vehicle Collisions: 1996 to 2005

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Craig L.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives. We estimated the effectiveness of child restraints in preventing death during motor vehicle collisions among children 3 years or younger. Methods. We conducted a matched cohort study using Fatality Analysis Reporting System data from 1996 to 2005. We estimated death risk ratios using conditional Poisson regression, bootstrapping, multiple imputation, and a sensitivity analysis of misclassification bias. We examined possible effect modification by selected factors. Results. The estimated death risk ratios comparing child safety seats with no restraint were 0.27 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.21, 0.34) for infants, 0.24 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.30) for children aged 1 year, 0.40 (95% CI = 0.32, 0.51) for those aged 2 years, and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.33, 0.52) for those aged 3 years. Estimated safety seat effectiveness was greater during rollover collisions, in rural environments, and in light trucks. We estimated seat belts to be as effective as safety seats in preventing death for children aged 2 and 3 years. Conclusions. Child safety seats are highly effective in reducing the risk of death during severe traffic collisions and generally outperform seat belts. Parents should be encouraged to use child safety seats in favor of seat belts. PMID:19059860

  9. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Sandstrom, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100%), and 30 (83%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94%) isolates of E. coli and (78%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection.

  10. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Sandstrom, Gunnar

    2015-04-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48%) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22%) for rotavirus A, 36 (8%) for Shigella spp., 17 (4%) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2%) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11%) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5%) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100%), and 30 (83%) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100%) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94%) isolates of E. coli and (78%) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47%) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44%) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  11. 29 CFR 2520.104-50 - Short plan years, deferral of accountant's examination and report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... and report. (a) Definition of “short plan year.” For purposes of this section, a short plan year is a plan year, as defined in section 3(39) of the Act, of seven or fewer months' duration, which occurs in... year begins is changed. (b) Deferral of accountant's report. A plan administrator is not required...

  12. 29 CFR 2520.104-50 - Short plan years, deferral of accountant's examination and report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and report. (a) Definition of “short plan year.” For purposes of this section, a short plan year is a plan year, as defined in section 3(39) of the Act, of seven or fewer months' duration, which occurs in... year begins is changed. (b) Deferral of accountant's report. A plan administrator is not required...

  13. 29 CFR 2520.104-50 - Short plan years, deferral of accountant's examination and report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... and report. (a) Definition of “short plan year.” For purposes of this section, a short plan year is a plan year, as defined in section 3(39) of the Act, of seven or fewer months' duration, which occurs in... year begins is changed. (b) Deferral of accountant's report. A plan administrator is not required...

  14. Partner aggression in high-risk families from birth to age 3 years: associations with harsh parenting and child maladjustment.

    PubMed

    Graham, Alice M; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-02-01

    Aggression between partners represents a potential guiding force in family dynamics. However, research examining the influence of partner aggression (physically and psychologically aggressive acts by both partners) on harsh parenting and young child adjustment has been limited by a frequent focus on low-risk samples and by the examination of partner aggression at a single time point. Especially in the context of multiple risk factors and around transitions such as childbirth, partner aggression might be better understood as a dynamic process. In the present study, longitudinal trajectories of partner aggression from birth to age 3 years in a large, high-risk, and ethnically diverse sample (N = 461) were examined. Specific risk factors were tested as predictors of aggression over time, and the longitudinal effects of partner aggression on maternal harsh parenting and child maladjustment were examined. Partner aggression decreased over time, with higher maternal depression and lower maternal age predicting greater decreases in partner aggression. While taking into account contextual and psychosocial risk factors, higher partner aggression measured at birth and a smaller decrease over time independently predicted higher levels of maternal harsh parenting at age 3 years. Initial level of partner aggression and change over time predicted child maladjustment indirectly (via maternal harsh parenting). The implications of understanding change in partner aggression over time as a path to harsh parenting and young children's maladjustment in the context of multiple risk factors are discussed.

  15. Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter STD on Facebook Reportable STDs in Young People 15-24 Years of Age, by State ... gender, data show that sexually active adolescents and young adults are at increased risk for STDs when ...

  16. Body build classes as a method for systematization of age-related anthropometric changes in girls aged 7-8 and 17-18 years.

    PubMed

    Kasmel, Jaan; Kaarma, Helje; Koskel, Säde; Tiit, Ene-Margit

    2004-03-01

    A total of 462 schoolgirls aged 7-8 and 17-18 years were examined anthropometrically (45 body measurements and 10 skinfolds) in a cross-sectional study. The data were processed in two age groups: 7-8-year-olds (n = 205) and 17-18-year-olds (n = 257). Relying on average height and weight in the groups, both groups were divided into five body build classes: small, medium, large, pyknomorphous and leptomorphous. In these classes, the differences in all other body measurements were compared, and in both age groups, analogous systematic differences were found in length, width and depth measurements and circumferences. This enabled us to compare proportional changes in body measurements during ten years, using for this ratios of averages of basic measurements and measurement groups in the same body build classes. Statistical analysis by the sign test revealed statistically significant differences between various body build classes in the growth of averages. Girls belonging to the small class differed from the girls of the large class by an essentially greater increase in their measurements. Our results suggest that the growth rate of body measurements of girls with different body build can be studied by the help of body build classification.

  17. Association between age at menarche and diabetes in Korean post-menopausal women: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunjung; Lee, Kyong Won; Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye Kyung; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Early menarche is known to be associated with diabetes, however this association remains controversial. Our study aimed to investigate the possible association between age at menarche and diabetes prevalence in post-menopausal Korean women. This study included 3,254 post-menopausal Korean women aged 50-85 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES 2007-2009). Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for diabetes prevalence. Levels of biochemical markers were compared according to groups by age at menarche. Women in the earlier menarche age group (10-12 years) showed higher levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and scores of homeostatic model assessment in the insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index than other groups (p <0.05). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, early age at menarche was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes (OR 1.86, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.07-3.23). The observed association remained significant despite additional adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.03-3.23) and despite further adjustments for FBG levels and HOMA-IR index (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.11-4.55). Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that younger age at menarche is associated with increased diabetes prevalence in the Korean population.

  18. Development of Tactical Deception from 4 to 8 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Rachelle M.; LaFreniere, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    One hundred eighteen children, divided into three age groups (4-, 6-, and 8-year-olds) participated in a competitive game designed to explore advances in children's deceptive abilities. Success in the game required children to inhibit useful information or provide misinformation in their communication with an adult opponent. Age trends were…

  19. Motor Skills in Children Aged 7-10 Years, Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whyatt, Caroline P.; Craig, Cathy M.

    2012-01-01

    This study used the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC2) to assess motor skills in children aged 7-10 years with autism (n = 18) in comparison to two groups of age-matched typically developing children; a receptive vocabulary matched group (n = 19) and a nonverbal IQ matched group (n = 22). The results supported previous work, as…

  20. Color Vision Deficiencies in Youths 12-17 Years of Age United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaby, David; Roberts, Jean

    The prevalence of color vision deficiencies among youths 12 to 17 years of age in the United States was evaluated during a 1966-1970 survey of 6,768 youths selected as representative of noninstitutionalized adolescents with respect to age, sex, race, geographic region, income, population size of place of residence, and rate of population change in…

  1. Duration of sleep at 3 years of age is associated with fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age: the Southampton Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Baird, Janis; Hill, Catherine M; Harvey, Nicholas C; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Sian M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have shown that shorter sleep duration in childhood is associated with higher body mass index (BMI), and have proposed that it is due to an effect of sleep on adiposity. There is little evidence about the association of sleep with fat-free mass. This study examined the association between child's sleep duration at ageyears and fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age in a prospective cohort study of 302 boys and 285 girls. Study participants were taking part in the Southampton Women's Survey, a longitudinal study of mothers and children from preconception onwards. Total sleep duration at ageyears was derived from parental report of night sleep and nap duration. Body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at 4 years. Mean total sleep duration was 11.5 hours. In linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially confounding factors (maternal educational attainment, prepregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, child's gestational age at birth, age at DXA, sex, age last breastfed, dietary quality at 3 years, TV watching and hours actively on the move and parental social class), shorter sleep in hours was associated with higher BMI (kg/m(2) ) [β: -0.2340, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.373 to -0.096], a greater fat mass index (kg) (β: -0.1182, 95% CI: -0.218 to -0.018) and a greater fat-free mass index (kg) (β: -0.100, 95% CI: -0.185 to -0.015). Previous research suggested that the association between shorter sleep and higher body mass index is due to an effect on adiposity. Our findings are novel, suggesting that the relationship between sleep and BMI is also determined by an effect on muscle. PMID:26909889

  2. Duration of sleep at 3 years of age is associated with fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age: the Southampton Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Baird, Janis; Hill, Catherine M; Harvey, Nicholas C; Crozier, Sarah; Robinson, Sian M; Godfrey, Keith M; Cooper, Cyrus; Inskip, Hazel

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have shown that shorter sleep duration in childhood is associated with higher body mass index (BMI), and have proposed that it is due to an effect of sleep on adiposity. There is little evidence about the association of sleep with fat-free mass. This study examined the association between child's sleep duration at ageyears and fat and fat-free mass at 4 years of age in a prospective cohort study of 302 boys and 285 girls. Study participants were taking part in the Southampton Women's Survey, a longitudinal study of mothers and children from preconception onwards. Total sleep duration at ageyears was derived from parental report of night sleep and nap duration. Body composition was assessed by Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) at 4 years. Mean total sleep duration was 11.5 hours. In linear regression analyses, adjusted for potentially confounding factors (maternal educational attainment, prepregnancy BMI, smoking during pregnancy, child's gestational age at birth, age at DXA, sex, age last breastfed, dietary quality at 3 years, TV watching and hours actively on the move and parental social class), shorter sleep in hours was associated with higher BMI (kg/m(2) ) [β: -0.2340, 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.373 to -0.096], a greater fat mass index (kg) (β: -0.1182, 95% CI: -0.218 to -0.018) and a greater fat-free mass index (kg) (β: -0.100, 95% CI: -0.185 to -0.015). Previous research suggested that the association between shorter sleep and higher body mass index is due to an effect on adiposity. Our findings are novel, suggesting that the relationship between sleep and BMI is also determined by an effect on muscle.

  3. Perfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Asthma among Children 12–19 Years of Age: NHANES (1999–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Humblet, Olivier; Diaz-Ramirez, Ledif Grisell; Balmes, John R.; Pinney, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Perfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) are a family of commonly used industrial chemicals whose persistence and ubiquity in human blood samples has led to concern about possible toxicity. Several animal studies and one recent human study have suggested a link between exposure to PFCs and asthma, although few epidemiologic studies have been conducted. Objectives: We investigated children’s PFC serum concentrations and their associations with asthma-related outcomes. Methods: We evaluated the association between serum concentrations of eight PFCs, including perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), with self-reported lifetime asthma, recent wheezing, and current asthma using data from participants 12–19 years of age from the 1999–2000 and 2003–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Results: In multivariable-adjusted models, PFOA was associated with higher odds of ever having received a diagnosis of asthma [odds ratio (OR) = 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.39 for a doubling in PFOA], whereas for PFOS there were inverse relationships with both asthma and wheezing (OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.74, 1.04, and OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.67, 1.02, respectively). The associations were attenuated after accounting for sampling weights. No associations were seen between the other PFCs and any outcome. Conclusions: This cross-sectional study provides some evidence for associations between exposure to PFCs and asthma-related outcomes in children. The evidence is inconsistent, however, and prospective studies are needed. Citation: Humblet O, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Balmes JR, Pinney SM, Hiatt RA. 2014. Perfluoroalkyl chemicals and asthma among children 12–19 years of age: NHANES (1999–2008). Environ Health Perspect 122:1129–1133; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306606 PMID:24905661

  4. Prediction of Anxiety Symptoms in Preschool-Aged Children: Examination of Maternal and Paternal Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan L.; Rapee, Ronald M.; Kennedy, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Background: Little is known about risk factors for anxiety in young children. The current study investigated the value of a set of theoretically derived risk factors to predict symptoms of anxiety in a sample of preschool-aged children. Methods: Mothers (n = 632) and fathers (n = 249) completed questionnaires twice, 12 months apart. Measures were…

  5. Measuring Impulsivity in School-Aged Boys and Examining Its Relationship with ADHD and Odd Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avila, Cesar; Cuenca, Isabel; Felix, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antonia; Miranda, Ana

    2004-01-01

    Seven different laboratory measures of impulsivity were administered to a group of 165 school-aged boys. Parents' and teachers' ratings of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional/Defiant Disorder were also obtained. Factor analyses of impulsivity measures revealed the existence of a strong Inhibitory Control Factor including…

  6. Ethics and Retail Management Professionals: An Examination of Age, Education, and Experience Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.; Cavico, Frank J.; McCartney, Timothy O.; DiPaolo, Peter T.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical maturity and behavior are of great concern to all educators, firms, and investors, and even more so in a recession. This research surveyed managers and employees in the retail environment to measure their Personal Business Ethics Scores (PBES) to see if age, education, and management experience makes a difference in making more ethical…

  7. Search for varicella zoster virus DNA in saliva of healthy individuals aged 20-59 years.

    PubMed

    Birlea, Marius; Cohrs, Randall J; Bos, Nathan; Mehta, Satish K; Pierson, Duane L; Gilden, Don

    2014-02-01

    All neurological and ocular complications of varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation can occur without rash. Virological verification requires detection of VZV DNA or anti-VZV IgG antibody in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), or anti-VZV IgM antibody in serum or CSF. If VZV were readily detected in other tissue in patients with neurological disease without rash and found to correlate with tests listed above, more invasive tests such as lumbar puncture might be obviated. Saliva is a potential source of VZV DNA. To study the potential diagnostic value of detecting VZV DNA in saliva from patients with neurological disease, saliva of healthy adults was searched for VZV DNA. A single saliva sample obtained by passive drool was centrifuged at 16,000g for 20 min. DNA was extracted from the supernatant and cell pellet and examined in triplicate for VZV DNA by real time PCR. A single random saliva sample from 80 healthy men and women aged 20-59 years revealed no VZV DNA (Table ), but was uniformly positive for cell (GAPdH) DNA. Because VZV DNA was not found in a random saliva sample from 80 individuals 20-59-year-old, a VZV-positive sample during neurologic disease may have potential significance. Further studies will determine whether VZV DNA in saliva correlates with VZV DNA or anti-VZV antibody in CSF in patients with neurological disease.

  8. [Exercised-induced asthma in soccer players ages from 8 to 13 years].

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulou, M; Tsimaras, V; Fotiadou, E; Aggelopoulou-Sakadami, N

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this study was the detection of exercise induced asthma in soccer players aged 8-13 years. Thirty boys, 8-13 years old participated in the study. They were coming from an athletic team of north of Thessaloniki. The study included clinical examination, administration of a respiratory health questionnaire and the exercise -- free running -- test with spirometric measurements. Spirometric measurements were performed by using a microspirometer, before exercise and 2, 5, 10, 15 and 30 min after a 6 min free running exercise (80 - 90 % max heart rate). The highest forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV (1)) value before exercise was compared with the lowest of post exercise values. The results showed a decline in FEV (1) > 15 % in 12 out of 30 children. Particularly, decline in FEV (1) was present in 1 (11 %) out of 9 children with free personal medical history but positive family history for asthma, in 3 (25 %) out of 12 children with allergies, and in 8 (89 %) out of 9 children with asthma. Symptoms were reported by 9 of 12 children with fall in FEV (1) > 15 %, during the 6 min exercise test, who had no symptoms during the soccer games. Identification of EIA by exercise challenge test in young athletes is a useful component for the diagnosis of bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Similar studies should be performed on older and younger athletes who participate in different sports and games.

  9. Picky eating during childhood: A longitudinal study to age 11-years

    PubMed Central

    Mascola, Anthony J.; Bryson, Susan W.

    2010-01-01

    Picky eating is a common disorder during childhood often causing considerable parental anxiety. This study examined the incidence, point prevalence, persistence and characteristics of picky eating in a prospective study of 120 children and their parents followed from 2 to 11 years. At any given age between 13% and 22% of the children were reported to be picky eaters. Incidence declined over time whereas point prevalence increased indicating that picky eating is often a chronic problem with 40% having a duration of more than 2-years. Those with longer duration differed from those with short duration having more strong likes and dislikes of food and not accepting new foods. Parents of picky eaters were more likely to report that their children consumed a limited variety of foods, required food prepared in specific ways, expressed stronger likes and dislikes for food, and threw tantrums when denied foods. They were also more likely to report struggles over feeding, preparing special meals, and commenting on their child’s eating. Hence, picky eating is a prevalent concern of parents and may remain so through childhood. It appears to be a relatively stable trait reflecting an individual eating style. However no significant effects on growth were observed. PMID:20850060

  10. Bacterial Uropathogens Isolates and Antibiograms in Children Under 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Alsammani, Mohamed Alkhatim; Ahmed, Mohamed Issa; Abdelatif, Nahla Farouk

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood urinary infections are among the most common febrile illnesses occurring during this period with varying susceptibility to antibiotic. Aim: The aim of this study was to identify uropathogens responsible to for urinarytract infection (UTIs) in children less than 5 years of age, and determine the antibiograms of the isolates to commonly used antibiotics. Patients and methods: Hundred and four children (2 months - 5 years old) seen at the Gadarif Teaching Hospital from January 2012 and December 2013 were evaluated. A urine specimen was obtained by a plastic bag with an adhesive backing around an opening or by direct voiding into sterile container. Urine was examined microscopically and those with significant pyuria and bacteruria were further cultured and microorganisms were identified and tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. Results: Out of 304 children suffering from UTIs; 145(47.7%) had significant pyuria of them; 54(17.8 %) had positive bacterial growth. The frequency of sex and residency were almost the same. E. coli (42.6%) was the most common uropathogen, sensitive to ciprofloxacin (91.3%), followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa (29.6%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin (75%)and Norofloxacin (68.8%), Klebsiellapneumoniae (18.5%) sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin and Nalidixic acid (90%) and Proteus mirabilis sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and Norofloxacin (90%), Amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (Augmentin(80%). Conclusion: The most common uropathogens were E. coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Klebsiellapneumoniae, and Proteus mirabilis. Ciprofloxacin is the recommended initial empirical therapy while awaiting the culture and sensitivity results. PMID:25568544

  11. A Study of the Influence of Age on Predictability of Graduate Record Examinations Aptitude Tests for Successful Graduate Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lafferty, Gladys E.

    The purposes of the study were to determine the influence of age on academic achievement, to investigage meaningful relationships between Graduate Record Examination (GRE) aptitude test scores and graduate grade point ratios (GPR), and to evaluate the student sample in terms of national norms. The assumption underlying the study was that…

  12. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  13. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or over, except steers and spayed heifers and cattle of any age which are being moved interstate...

  14. Examining the nonparametric effect of drivers' age in rear-end accidents through an additive logistic regression model.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lu; Yan, Xuedong

    2014-06-01

    This study seeks to inspect the nonparametric characteristics connecting the age of the driver to the relative risk of being an at-fault vehicle, in order to discover a more precise and smooth pattern of age impact, which has commonly been neglected in past studies. Records of drivers in two-vehicle rear-end collisions are selected from the general estimates system (GES) 2011 dataset. These extracted observations in fact constitute inherently matched driver pairs under certain matching variables including weather conditions, pavement conditions and road geometry design characteristics that are shared by pairs of drivers in rear-end accidents. The introduced data structure is able to guarantee that the variance of the response variable will not depend on the matching variables and hence provides a high power of statistical modeling. The estimation results exhibit a smooth cubic spline function for examining the nonlinear relationship between the age of the driver and the log odds of being at fault in a rear-end accident. The results are presented with respect to the main effect of age, the interaction effect between age and sex, and the effects of age under different scenarios of pre-crash actions by the leading vehicle. Compared to the conventional specification in which age is categorized into several predefined groups, the proposed method is more flexible and able to produce quantitatively explicit results. First, it confirms the U-shaped pattern of the age effect, and further shows that the risks of young and old drivers change rapidly with age. Second, the interaction effects between age and sex show that female and male drivers behave differently in rear-end accidents. Third, it is found that the pattern of age impact varies according to the type of pre-crash actions exhibited by the leading vehicle. PMID:24642249

  15. Cervical cancer screening among women aged 18-30 years - United States, 2000-2010.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    Screening women for cervical cancer can save lives. However, among young women, cervical cancer is relatively rare, and too-frequent screening can lead to high costs and adverse events associated with overtreatment. Before 2012, cervical cancer screening guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Cancer Society (ACS), and U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) differed on age to start and how often to get screened for cervical cancer. In 2012, however, all three organizations recommended that 1) screening by Papanicolau (Pap) test should not be used for women aged <21 years, regardless of initiation of sexual activity, and 2) a screening interval of 3 years should be maintained for women aged 21-30 years. ACS and ACOG explicitly recommend against yearly screening. To assess trends in Pap testing before the new guidelines were introduced, CDC analyzed 2000-2010 data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) for women aged 18-30 years. CDC found that, among women aged 18-21 years, the percentage reporting never having been screened increased from 26.3% in 2000 to 47.5% in 2010, and the proportion reporting having had a Pap test in the past 12 months decreased from 65.0% to 41.5%. Among those aged 22-30 years, the proportion reporting having had a Pap test within the preceding 12 months decreased from 78.1% to 67.0%. These findings showed that Pap testing practices for young women have been moving toward the latest guidelines. However, the data also showed a concerning trend: among women aged 22-30 years, who should be screened every 3 years, the proportion who reported never having had a Pap test increased from 6.6% to 9.0%. More effort is needed to promote acceptance of the latest evidence-based recommendations so that all women receive the maximal benefits of cervical cancer screening.

  16. A year in transition: a qualitative study examining the trajectory of first year residents’ well-being

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background It is generally understood that trainees experience periods of heightened stress during first year residency, yet there is little information on variations in stress and well-being over the transition period or those factors that contribute to these variations. This qualitative study explored the trajectory of well-being described by first year residents in the context of challenges, supports and adaptations over time. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted face-to-face with 17 first year residents at the University of Toronto. Participants drew a graph of their well-being over the course of their first year and described critical periods of challenge and adaptation. Interviews were audio-taped and transcribed. Results were organized into a thematic analysis using NVivo software. Results Residents described a pattern of well-being that varied in accordance with changes in rotations. Well-being increased when residents perceived high levels of team support, felt competent and experienced valued learning opportunities. Well-being decreased with low team support, heavy work demands, few learning opportunities and poor orientations. Anxiety and excitement in the beginning of the year gave way to heightened confidence but increased fatigue and apathy towards the year’s end. Residents used a number of cognitive, behavioural and self-care strategies to cope with transitional challenges. Conclusions Residents experienced a pattern of highly fluctuating well-being that coincided with changes in rotations. Residents’ well-being varied according to levels of supervisor and colleague support, learning opportunities, and work demands. Residents’ well-being may be improved by program interventions that facilitate better team and supervisory supports, maintain optimal service to learning ratios, establish effective fatigue and risk management systems, offer wellness support services and integrate skills based resiliency training into the curriculum. PMID

  17. Gait patterns in a community-dwelling population aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Verlinden, V J A; van der Geest, J N; Hoogendam, Y Y; Hofman, A; Breteler, M M B; Ikram, M A

    2013-04-01

    Poor gait is an important risk factor for falls and associated with higher morbidity and mortality. It is well established that older age is associated with worse gait, but it remains unclear at what age this association is first seen. Moreover, previous studies focused mainly on normal walking, but gait also encompasses turning and tandem walking. In a large study of community-dwelling middle-aged and elderly persons we investigated the association of age with gait, focusing on normal walking, turning and tandem walking. In 1500 persons aged 50 years and over, we measured gait using an electronic walkway. Participants performed normal walks, turning and a tandem walk. With principal components analysis of 30 variables we summarized gait into five known gait factors: Rhythm, Variability, Phases, Pace and Base of Support; and uncovered two novel gait factors: Tandem and Turning. The strongest associations with age were found for Variability (difference in Z-score -0.29 per 10 years increase (95% confidence interval: -0.34; -0.24)), Phases (-0.31 per 10 years (-0.36; -0.27)) and Tandem (-0.25 per 10 years (-0.30; -0.20)). Additionally, these factors already showed association with the youngest age groups, from 55 to 60 years of age and older. Our study shows that Variability, Phases and Tandem have the strongest association with age and are the earliest to demonstrate a poorer gait pattern with higher age. Future research should further investigate how these gait factors relate with gait-related diseases in their earliest stages.

  18. Effects of aging in Masters swimmers: 40-year review and suggestions for optimal health benefits.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Robert T; Rahe, Richard H

    2010-04-07

    The Masters Swimming Program is over 40 years old and has achieved international status, with thousands of participants competing in five-year age categories between 18 and 99. Early studies of Masters swimmers by age groups found an increase in times for most events of about 1% per year, and later studies showed a significant correlation with the age-associated decline in maximal oxygen uptake. As larger sample sizes have become available, the age-related decline in performance among national champion Masters swimmers, both men and women, and for both short and longer swims, has been shown to be linear at about 0.6% per year up to age 70. Beyond age 70, the age-related decline accelerates exponentially for both men and women, with considerably more variability than in younger age groups. Several factors may be related to the accelerated performance decline beyond the of age 70, including accelerated physiological aging, chronic physical disabilities, acute illnesses requiring relatively lengthy recovery, effects of multiple medications, and social issues such as transportation problems, all of which can lead to increasing difficulty in maintaining a regular workout schedule. Masters Swimming is a "user-friendly" aerobic sport, imposing little excess strain, and thus is particularly suitable for the elderly. Masters coaches are gaining increasing experience with the over-70 age groups, tailoring workouts to accommodate their need for longer warm-up periods, longer rest periods between swimming sets, less overall distance, less emphasis on "breath control", and more time between workouts. With these accommodations, the motivation of elderly Masters swimmers to compete remains strong, and their ranks should continue to increase.

  19. Is prosthodontic treatment age-dependent in patients 60 years and older in Public Dental Services?

    PubMed

    Hiltunen, K; Vehkalahti, M M; Mäntylä, P

    2015-06-01

    Prosthodontic treatment is a common procedure for the elderly as tooth loss is a reality in old age. Dentists take care of increasingly older patients with physiological age manifesting as cognitive impairment, frailty or multiple chronic diseases or who have side effects of medicines. We evaluated how patients' age affects prosthodontic treatment choice and whether we could identify the age when a change in practice occurs. In addition, we determined how common the treatment method of fixed prostheses is among patients aged 60 years or over in Public Dental Services (PDS) and how common rehabilitation of dentition with new dentures is compared with repair of existing dentures. Our data cover all patients aged 60 years and older (n = 130,060) treated in Helsinki PDS in 2007-2012. Data were aggregated into seven groups: 60-64, 65-69, 70-74, 75-79, 80-84, 85-89, and 90 years and over. During the 6-year period, the mean annual number of the population was about 114,000 and the mean annual number of patients treated with prosthodontics 1700. Prosthodontic treatment choices (repair, removable prosthodontics, fixed prostheses, fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses) vary by age; the older the patient, the rarer fixed or fibre-reinforced composite fixed prostheses and removable prostheses and the more frequent repairs (P < 0.001). Denture repair was virtually the only treatment that patients over 90 years received. Based on our results, the age at which prosthodontic treatment practices in PDS change is around 70 years. Beyond this age, fixed prosthodontic treatment modalities are very rare and repairs are more common.

  20. Development of social functioning and communication in school-aged (5-9 years) children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    van Schie, Petra E M; Siebes, Renate C; Dallmeijer, Annet J; Schuengel, Carlo; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Gorter, Jan Willem; Becher, Jules G

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine determinants of the course and level of social functioning and communication in school-aged children with cerebral palsy (CP) over a 2-year period. A clinic-based sample of 5 and 7 years old children with CP (n=108; 72 males; mean age 6 y 3 mo, SD 12 mo; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GFMCS) level I-V) was followed longitudinally in three yearly assessments. Social functioning and communication were measured with the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). Data were analyzed with generalized estimated equations. The results showed that social function followed a course of progressive restrictions over time in non-ambulatory children with CP aged 5-9 compared to children who could walk with or without walking aids. Overall lower levels of social functioning were found in children with GMFCS V, epilepsy, speech problems, lower intellectual capacity and older age at baseline. For communication more restrictions over time were found in children with lower intellectual capacity. Children with GMFCS V, speech problems and older age at baseline had overall greater restrictions in communication. It was concluded that motor functioning and intellectual ability can be used to identify children at risk for progressive restrictions in social functioning and communication. For children with CP and social and communicative restrictions, multidisciplinary assessment and treatment may be indicated to counteract an unfavorable development.

  1. Influence of Obesity on Foot Loading Characteristics in Gait for Children Aged 1 to 12 Years

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Steffen; Carlsohn, Anja; Mueller, Juliane; Baur, Heiner; Mayer, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are increasing health problems that are not restricted to adults only. Childhood obesity is associated with metabolic, psychological and musculoskeletal comorbidities. However, knowledge about the effect of obesity on the foot function across maturation is lacking. Decreased foot function with disproportional loading characteristics is expected for obese children. The aim of this study was to examine foot loading characteristics during gait of normal-weight, overweight and obese children aged 1–12 years. Methods A total of 10382 children aged one to twelve years were enrolled in the study. Finally, 7575 children (m/f: n = 3630/3945; 7.0±2.9yr; 1.23±0.19m; 26.6±10.6kg; BMI: 17.1±2.4kg/m2) were included for (complete case) data analysis. Children were categorized to normal-weight (≥3rd and <90th percentile; n = 6458), overweight (≥90rd and <97th percentile; n = 746) or obese (>97th percentile; n = 371) according to the German reference system that is based on age and gender-specific body mass indices (BMI). Plantar pressure measurements were assessed during gait on an instrumented walkway. Contact area, arch index (AI), peak pressure (PP) and force time integral (FTI) were calculated for the total, fore-, mid- and hindfoot. Data was analyzed descriptively (mean ± SD) followed by ANOVA/Welch-test (according to homogeneity of variances: yes/no) for group differences according to BMI categorization (normal-weight, overweight, obesity) and for each age group 1 to 12yrs (post-hoc Tukey Kramer/Dunnett’s C; α = 0.05). Results Mean walking velocity was 0.95 ± 0.25 m/s with no differences between normal-weight, overweight or obese children (p = 0.0841). Results show higher foot contact area, arch index, peak pressure and force time integral in overweight and obese children (p<0.001). Obese children showed the 1.48-fold (1 year-old) to 3.49-fold (10 year-old) midfoot loading (FTI) compared to normal-weight. Conclusion Additional

  2. Examining the ages of M7-L8 dwarfs with the BOSS Ultracool Dwarf sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Sarah J.; Hawley, Suzanne L.; West, Andrew A.; Bochanski, John J.

    2016-01-01

    We present the latest results from the BOSS Ultracool Dwarfs (BUD) sample of 12998 M7-L8 dwarfs, identified from a combination of photometry and spectroscopy from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Using a cross-match of the BUD sample to the Two Micron All-Sky Survey (2MASS) and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalogs, we measure both colors and proper motions for the majority of the sample. The proper motions, combined with radial velocities from SDSS spectra and updated distance estimates based on i-Ks colors, yield three-dimensional velocities for 9121 ultracool dwarfs. We usethese velocities as statistical proxies for age to identify and test other potential age indicators, including Hα emission, atomic line strengths, molecular band depths, and broad-band colors.

  3. Figures and First Years: Examining first-year Calculus I student ability to incorporate figures into technical reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonacci, Nathan; Rogers, Michael; Pfaff, Thomas

    This three-year study focused on first-year Calculus I students and their abilities to incorporate figures into technical reports. Students were handed guidelines as part of their Multidisciplinary Sustainability Education Module meant to aid them in crafting effective figures. Figure-specific questionnaires were added in the class to gain insight into the quantitative literacy skills students possessed both before starting their course and after its completion. Reviews of the figures in 78 technical reports written by 106 students showed repeated failure to refer to figures in discussion sections and use them in evidence-based arguments. Analysis of quantitative literacy skills revealed that the students could both read and interpret figures, suggesting that issues with literacy were not the main contributor to the sub-par graphs.

  4. Longitudinal volumetric brain changes in autism spectrum disorder ages 6-35 years.

    PubMed

    Lange, Nicholas; Travers, Brittany G; Bigler, Erin D; Prigge, Molly B D; Froehlich, Alyson L; Nielsen, Jared A; Cariello, Annahir N; Zielinski, Brandon A; Anderson, Jeffrey S; Fletcher, P Thomas; Alexander, Andrew A; Lainhart, Janet E

    2015-02-01

    Since the impairments associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tend to persist or worsen from childhood into adulthood, it is of critical importance to examine how the brain develops over this growth epoch. We report initial findings on whole and regional longitudinal brain development in 100 male participants with ASD (226 high-quality magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.7 years) compared to 56 typically developing controls (TDCs) (117 high-quality scans; mean inter-scan interval 2.6 years) from childhood into adulthood, for a total of 156 participants scanned over an 8-year period. This initial analysis includes between one and three high-quality scans per participant that have been processed and segmented to date, with 21% having one scan, 27% with two scans, and 52% with three scans in the ASD sample; corresponding percentages for the TDC sample are 30%, 30%, and 40%. The proportion of participants with multiple scans (79% of ASDs and 68% of TDCs) was high in comparison to that of large longitudinal neuroimaging studies of typical development. We provide volumetric growth curves for the entire brain, total gray matter (GM), frontal GM, temporal GM, parietal GM, occipital GM, total cortical white matter (WM), corpus callosum, caudate, thalamus, total cerebellum, and total ventricles. Mean volume of cortical WM was reduced significantly. Mean ventricular volume was increased in the ASD sample relative to the TDCs across the broad age range studied. Decreases in regional mean volumes in the ASD sample most often were due to decreases during late adolescence and adulthood. The growth curve of whole brain volume over time showed increased volumes in young children with autism, and subsequently decreased during adolescence to meet the TDC curve between 10 and 15 years of age. The volume of many structures continued to decline atypically into adulthood in the ASD sample. The data suggest that ASD is a dynamic disorder with complex

  5. School vision screening, ages 5-16 years: the evidence-base for content, provision and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Logan, Nicola S; Gilmartin, Bernard

    2004-11-01

    The optometric profession in the UK has a major role in the detection, assessment and management of ocular anomalies in children between 5 and 16 years of age. The role complements a variety of associated screening services provided across several health care sectors. The review examines the evidence-base for the content, provision and efficacy of these screening services in terms of the prevalence of anomalies such as refractive error, amblyopia, binocular vision and colour vision and considers the consequences of their curtailment. Vision screening must focus on pre-school children if the aim of the screening is to detect and treat conditions that may lead to amblyopia, whereas if the aim is to detect and correct significant refractive errors (not likely to lead to amblyopia) then it would be expedient for the optometric profession to act as the major provider of refractive (and colour vision) screening at 5-6 years of age. Myopia is the refractive error most likely to develop during primary school presenting typically between 8 and 12 years of age, thus screening at entry to secondary school is warranted. Given the inevitable restriction on resources for health care, establishing screening at 5 and 11 years of age, with exclusion of any subsequent screening, is the preferred option. PMID:15491475

  6. Bone age assessment for young children from newborn to 7-year-old using carpal bones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aifeng; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Liu, Brent J.; Huang, H. K.

    2007-03-01

    A computer-aided-diagnosis (CAD) method has been previously developed based on features extracted from phalangeal regions of interest (ROI) in a digital hand atlas, which can assess bone age of children from ages 7 to 18 accurately. Therefore, in order to assess the bone age of children in younger ages, the inclusion of carpal bones is necessary. In this paper, we developed and implemented a knowledge-based method for fully automatic carpal bone segmentation and morphological feature analysis. Fuzzy classification was then used to assess the bone age based on the selected features. Last year, we presented carpal bone segmentation algorithm. This year, research works on procedures after carpal bone segmentation including carpal bone identification, feature analysis and fuzzy system for bone age assessment is presented. This method has been successfully applied on all cases in which carpal bones have not overlapped. CAD results of total about 205 cases from the digital hand atlas were evaluated against subject chronological age as well as readings of two radiologists. It was found that the carpal ROI provides reliable information in determining the bone age for young children from newborn to 7-year-old.

  7. A qualitative examination of the perceptions of parents on the Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the early years

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Minimizing sedentary behavior, in particular screen-based sedentary behavior, during the early years is important for healthy growth and development. Consequently, new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years (aged 0–4 years) were recently released. Researchers are unclear what messages should supplement the guidelines when disseminating them to parents and when using the guidelines in behaviour-change interventions to increase adoption. The objective of this study was to qualitatively examine parents’ perceptions of the new Canadian Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines for the Early Years. Methods Parents with a child ≤4 years who attended a child care centre were purposefully recruited from child care centres. A total of 7 semi-structured focus groups with 2 to 5 parents were conducted from August to November, 2013 by a trained and experienced moderator. Participants were asked a series of open-ended questions pertaining to the Sedentary Behaviour Guidelines information sheet. Initial themes were identified followed by further review and analysis. Results For the most part parents thought the guidelines were clear and did not disagree with the recommendations per se. However, some confusion arose around the value of some sedentary activities, such as reading and coloring, for social and cognitive development. Many parents described feeling guilty after reading the guidelines and perceived several barriers in meeting the daily recommendations. Common barriers included the need to balance multiple demands of family life, the prevalence and accessibility of screen technology, and the weather and built environment where families live. Parents expressed the importance of communicating the guidelines early enough for good habits to be established and the need for realistic strategies and ideas to help them meet the recommendations. Conclusions Overall the findings indicate that gain-framed messages around the role of screen-based and non

  8. Association of relative age effects in sports with number of years in school.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the association of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, with a high school versus university background in Japanese professional soccer and baseball players. The number of athletes born in the first quarter (April-June) was larger than the number born in the fourth quarter (January-March) for both soccer and baseball; however, the magnitude of the relative age effect differed with years in school. The skew of birth dates was stronger among players who only graduated high school than those who graduated university or college. This phenomenon was confirmed in both baseball and soccer players. The findings suggest relative age effects in professional sports to be related to years of age and years in school. PMID:23033753

  9. Association of relative age effects in sports with number of years in school.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2012-08-01

    The present study investigated the association of the relative age effect, a biased distribution of birth dates, with a high school versus university background in Japanese professional soccer and baseball players. The number of athletes born in the first quarter (April-June) was larger than the number born in the fourth quarter (January-March) for both soccer and baseball; however, the magnitude of the relative age effect differed with years in school. The skew of birth dates was stronger among players who only graduated high school than those who graduated university or college. This phenomenon was confirmed in both baseball and soccer players. The findings suggest relative age effects in professional sports to be related to years of age and years in school.

  10. Spatial but not verbal cognitive deficits at age 3 years in persistently antisocial individuals.

    PubMed

    Raine, Adrian; Yaralian, Pauline S; Reynolds, Chandra; Venables, Peter H; Mednick, Sarnoff A

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have repeatedly shown verbal intelligence deficits in adolescent antisocial individuals, but it is not known whether these deficits are in place prior to kindergarten or, alternatively, whether they are acquired throughout childhood. This study assesses whether cognitive deficits occur as early as age 3 years and whether they are specific to persistently antisocial individuals. Verbal and spatial abilities were assessed at ages 3 and 11 years in 330 male and female children, while antisocial behavior was assessed at ages 8 and 17 years. Persistently antisocial individuals (N = 47) had spatial deficits in the absence of verbal deficits at age 3 years compared to comparisons (N = 133), and also spatial and verbal deficits at age 11 years. Age 3 spatial deficits were independent of social adversity, early hyperactivity, poor test motivation, poor test comprehension, and social discomfort during testing, and they were found in females as well as males. Findings suggest that early spatial deficits contribute to persistent antisocial behavior whereas verbal deficits are developmentally acquired. An early-starter model is proposed whereby early spatial impairments interfere with early bonding and attachment, reflect disrupted right hemisphere affect regulation and expression, and predispose to later persistent antisocial behavior.

  11. Introducing the Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in the Undergraduate Psychiatric Curriculum: Evaluation after One Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahid, Muhammad Ajmal; Al-Zayed, Adel; Ohaeri, Jude; Varghese, Ramani

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) was introduced in undergraduate psychiatry clerkship in 2008. The authors studied the effect of OSCE on the students' performance. Methods: The "short case" (SC) and "oral examination" (OE), two of the five components of the previous assessment format, were replaced with the OSCE.…

  12. Examining Relations among Attachment, Religiosity, and New Age Spirituality Using the Adult Attachment Interview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granqvist, Pehr; Ivarsson, Tord; Broberg, Anders G.; Hagekull, Berit

    2007-01-01

    This study was the first to examine relations between attachment and religion-spirituality in adults using a developmentally validated attachment assessment, the Adult Attachment Interview. Security of attachment was expected to be linked to a religiosity-spirituality that is socially based on the parental relationships and reflects extrapolation…

  13. Preliminary Examination of Cervical Health Practices and Knowledge among University-Aged Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Paula C.; Bryden, Pamela J.

    2005-01-01

    Cervical cancer is relatively preventable through regular cervical examinations and by engaging in healthy practices concerning lifestyle behaviors, like safe sexual intercourse. Despite the benefits that regular pap tests provide, screening tests continue to be under used by women, with younger women being one of the most negligent groups. Since…

  14. Age, Health and Culture: An Examination of Health Among Spanish-Speaking Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres-Gil, Fernando

    The study examined the utilization of health care facilities, the barriers to utilization, the need for health services, the coping mechanisms (family, religion, folk medicine, or other vehicles used by older persons to help cope with health problems), and the way in which the different phases (prevention, initial utilization, and maintenance) of…

  15. Mortality in Children Aged 0-9 Years: A Nationwide Cohort Study from Three Nordic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yongfu; Qin, Guoyou; Cnattingius, Sven; Gissler, Mika; Olsen, Jørn; Zhao, Naiqing; Li, Jiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Mortality in children under five years has been widely studied, whereas mortality at 5–9 years has received little attention. Using unique data from national registers in three Nordic countries, we aimed to characterize mortality directionality in children aged 0 to 9 years. Methods and Findings The cohort study included all children born in Denmark from 1973 to 2008 (n = 2,433,758), Sweden from 1973 to 2006 (n = 3,400,212), and a random sample of 89.3% of children born in Finland from 1987 to 2007 (n = 1,272,083). Children were followed from 0 to 9 years, and cumulative mortality and mortality rates were compared by age, gender, cause of death, and calendar periods. Among the 7,105,962 children, there were 48,299 deaths during study period. From 1981–1985 to 2001–2005, all-cause mortality rates were reduced by between 34% and 62% at different ages. Overall mortality rate ratio between boys and girls decreased from 1.25 to 1.21 with the most prominent reduction in children aged 5–9 years (from 1.59 to 1.19). Neoplasms, diseases of the nervous system and transport accidents were the most frequent cause of death after the first year of life. These three leading causes of death declined by 42% (from 6.2 to 3.6 per 100,000 person years), 43% (from 3.7 to 2.1) and 62% (from 3.9 to 1.5) in boys, and 25% (from 4.1 to 3.1 per 100000 person years), 42% (from 3.4 to 1.9) and 63% (from 3.0 to 1.1) in girls, respectively. Mortality from neoplasms was the highest in each age except infants when comparing cause-specific mortality, and half of deaths from diseases of the nervous system occurred in infancy. Mortality rate due to transport accidents increased with age and was highest in boys aged 5–9 years. Conclusions Mortality rate in children aged 0–9 years has been decreasing with diminished difference between genders over the past decades. Our results suggest the importance of further research on mortality by causes of neoplasms, and causes of transport

  16. A Case Series of Marijuana Exposures in Pediatric Patients Less than 5 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, George Sam; Narang, Sandeep K.; Wells, Kathryn; Chuang, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In Colorado, there has been a large increase in medical marijuana dispensaries and licenses for the use of medical marijuana over the past year. This is a retrospective case series of marijuana exposures that have presented to the emergency department (ED) in children less than 5 years of age. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart…

  17. Pap Smear Test Prevalence within Three Years (Age 18+) - Small Area Estimates

    Cancer.gov

    For Pap smear test, a woman 18 years of age or older must have reported having at least one Pap smear test in her life. Furthermore, she should have had one within the last three years by the time of interview.

  18. Malnutrition in the First Year of Life and Personality at Age 40

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galler, Janina R.; Bryce, Cyralene P.; Zichlin, Miriam L.; Waber, Deborah P.; Exner, Natalie; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.; Costa, Paul T.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early childhood malnutrition is associated with cognitive and behavioral impairment during childhood and adolescence, but studies in adulthood are limited. Methods: Using the NEO-PI-R personality inventory, we compared personality profiles at 37-43 years of age ("M" 40.3 years, "SD" 1.9) of Barbadian adults who had…

  19. Examining the Academic Performance and Retention of First-Year Students in Living-Learning Communities and First-Year Experience Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdie, John R., II; Rosser, Vicki J.

    2011-01-01

    Institutional data were used to examine the grades and retention of first-year students in 2 types of living learning communities--Academic Theme Floors (ATFs) and Freshman Interest Groups (FIGs)--and a First-Year Experience (FYE) course. Multiple regression revealed students in FIGs earned nominally higher GPAs (standardized [beta] = 0.02, p less…

  20. Increasing negativity of age stereotypes across 200 years: evidence from a database of 400 million words.

    PubMed

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K; Levy, Becca R

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level.

  1. Increasing Negativity of Age Stereotypes across 200 Years: Evidence from a Database of 400 Million Words

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Reuben; Allore, Heather G.; Trentalange, Mark; Monin, Joan K.; Levy, Becca R.

    2015-01-01

    Scholars argue about whether age stereotypes (beliefs about old people) are becoming more negative or positive over time. No previous study has systematically tested the trend of age stereotypes over more than 20 years, due to lack of suitable data. Our aim was to fill this gap by investigating whether age stereotypes have changed over the last two centuries and, if so, what may be associated with this change. We hypothesized that age stereotypes have increased in negativity due, in part, to the increasing medicalization of aging. This study applied computational linguistics to the recently compiled Corpus of Historical American English (COHA), a database of 400 million words that includes a range of printed sources from 1810 to 2009. After generating a comprehensive list of synonyms for the term elderly for these years from two historical thesauri, we identified 100 collocates (words that co-occurred most frequently with these synonyms) for each of the 20 decades. Inclusion criteria for the collocates were: (1) appeared within four words of the elderly synonym, (2) referred to an old person, and (3) had a stronger association with the elderly synonym than other words appearing in the database for that decade. This yielded 13,100 collocates that were rated for negativity and medicalization. We found that age stereotypes have become more negative in a linear way over 200 years. In 1880, age stereotypes switched from being positive to being negative. In addition, support was found for two potential explanations. Medicalization of aging and the growing proportion of the population over the age of 65 were both significantly associated with the increase in negative age stereotypes. The upward trajectory of age-stereotype negativity makes a case for remedial action on a societal level. PMID:25675438

  2. Examining interference of different cognitive tasks on voluntary balance control in aging and stroke.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Tanvi; Subramaniam, Savitha; Varghese, Rini

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the effect of semantic and working memory tasks when each was concurrently performed with a voluntary balance task to evaluate the differences in the resulting cognitive-motor interference (CMI) between healthy aging and aging with stroke. Older stroke survivors (n = 10), older healthy (n = 10) and young adults (n = 10) performed the limits of stability, balance test under single task (ST) and dual task (DT) with two different cognitive tasks, word list generation (WLG) and counting backwards (CB). Cognitive ability was evaluated by recording the number of words and digits counted while sitting (ST) and during balance tasks (DT). The balance and cognitive costs were computed using [(ST-DT)/ST] × 100 for all the variables. Across groups, the balance cost was significantly higher for the older stroke survivors group in the CB condition than older healthy (p < 0.05) and young adult groups (p < 0.05) but was similar between these two groups for the WLG task. Similarly, the cognitive cost was significantly higher in older stroke survivors than in older healthy (p < 0.05) and young adults (p < 0.01) for both the cognitive tasks. The working memory task resulted in greater CMI than the semantic one, and this difference seemed to be most apparent in older stroke survivors. Young adults showed the least CMI, with a similar performance on the two memory tasks. On the other hand, healthy aging and stroke impact both semantic and working memory. Stroke-related cognitive deficits may further significantly decrease working memory function.

  3. Examining interference of different cognitive tasks on voluntary balance control in aging and stroke.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Tanvi; Subramaniam, Savitha; Varghese, Rini

    2016-09-01

    This study compared the effect of semantic and working memory tasks when each was concurrently performed with a voluntary balance task to evaluate the differences in the resulting cognitive-motor interference (CMI) between healthy aging and aging with stroke. Older stroke survivors (n = 10), older healthy (n = 10) and young adults (n = 10) performed the limits of stability, balance test under single task (ST) and dual task (DT) with two different cognitive tasks, word list generation (WLG) and counting backwards (CB). Cognitive ability was evaluated by recording the number of words and digits counted while sitting (ST) and during balance tasks (DT). The balance and cognitive costs were computed using [(ST-DT)/ST] × 100 for all the variables. Across groups, the balance cost was significantly higher for the older stroke survivors group in the CB condition than older healthy (p < 0.05) and young adult groups (p < 0.05) but was similar between these two groups for the WLG task. Similarly, the cognitive cost was significantly higher in older stroke survivors than in older healthy (p < 0.05) and young adults (p < 0.01) for both the cognitive tasks. The working memory task resulted in greater CMI than the semantic one, and this difference seemed to be most apparent in older stroke survivors. Young adults showed the least CMI, with a similar performance on the two memory tasks. On the other hand, healthy aging and stroke impact both semantic and working memory. Stroke-related cognitive deficits may further significantly decrease working memory function. PMID:27302401

  4. Understanding age-related reductions in visual working memory capacity: Examining the stages of change detection

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Molitor, Robert J.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is reduced in older adults. Research has shown age-related impairments to VWM encoding, but aging is likely to affect multiple stages of VWM. In the present study, we recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of younger and older adults during VWM maintenance and retrieval. We measured encoding-stage processing with the P1 component, maintenance-stage processing with the contralateral delay activity (CDA), and retrieval-stage processing by comparing the activity for old and new items (old–new effect). Older adults showed lower behavioral capacity estimates (K) than did younger adults, but surprisingly, their P1 components and CDAs were comparable to those of younger adults. This remarkable dissociation between neural activity and behavior in the older adults indicated that the P1 and CDA did not accurately assess their VWM capacity. However, the neural activity evoked during VWM retrieval yielded results that helped clarify the age-related differences. During retrieval, younger adults showed early old–new effects in frontal and occipital areas and a late central–parietal old–new effect, whereas older adults showed a late right-lateralized parietal old–new effect. The younger adults’ early old–new effects strongly resembled an index of perceptual fluency, suggesting that perceptual implicit memory was activated. The activation of implicit memory could have facilitated the younger adults’ behavior, and the lack of these early effects in older adults may suggest that they have much lower-resolution memory than do younger adults. From these data, we speculated that younger and older adults store the same number of items in VWM, but that younger adults store a higher-resolution representation than do older adults. PMID:24420648

  5. Association of diarrhoea and upper respiratory infections with weight and height gains in Bangladeshi children aged 5 to 11 years.

    PubMed Central

    Torres, A. M.; Peterson, K. E.; de Souza, A. C.; Orav, E. J.; Hughes, M.; Chen, L. C.

    2000-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The association between infection and growth delay is not well documented in school-age children in developing countries. We conducted a prospective cohort study to examine the association between infectious disease and weight and height gains among Bangladeshi children. METHODS: A one-year follow-up study was performed to elucidate the determinants and consequences of physical growth of children under five years of age. The study included 135 households randomly selected from four villages in the Matlab area. RESULTS: The most frequent infections were upper respiratory infections (mean = 4 episodes or 27 days per year) followed by non-dysenteric diarrhoea (mean = 2.3 episodes or 15 days per year) and dysentery (mean = 0.2 episodes or 2 days per year). The number of episodes and their duration decreased significantly with age. Over a 12-month period the mean weight gain was 1.3 kg and the mean increase in height was 2.9 cm. The total number of days when diarrhoea occurred was negatively associated with annual weight gain (regression coefficient beta = -7 g per day, P = 0.02), with adjustment for age, sex, energy and protein intake, and household land ownership. The incidence of diarrhoeal disease was significantly associated with weight gain in intermediate models but only marginally associated with it in the final multivariate model (P = 0.08). Neither the incidence nor the duration of upper respiratory infections was associated with weight gain. Height gain was not significantly associated with the duration or incidence of either category of illness. Diarrhoea was a significant correlate of retarded weight gain among children above preschool age, whereas upper respiratory infections were not. DISCUSSION: Diarrhoeal morbidity slowed growth in children well beyond the weaning age, suggesting that increased attention should be given to the study of the continuous impact of diarrhoea in children aged over 5 years. An understanding of the determinants of

  6. Knowing minds, controlling actions: the developmental relations between theory of mind and executive function from 2 to 4 years of age.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ulrich; Liebermann-Finestone, Dana P; Carpendale, Jeremy I M; Hammond, Stuart I; Bibok, Maximilian B

    2012-02-01

    This longitudinal study examined the concurrent and predictive relations between executive function (EF) and theory of mind (ToM) in 82 preschoolers who were assessed when they were 2, 3, and 4 years old. The results showed that the concurrent relation between EF and ToM, after controlling for age, verbal ability, and sex, was significant at 3 and 4 years of age but not at 2 years of age. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that EF at age 2 significantly predicted ToM at age 3 and that EF at age 3 significantly predicted ToM at age 4, over and above the effects of age, verbal ability, and prior performance on ToM tasks. However, ToM at ages 2 and 3 did not explain a significant amount of variance in EF at age 4. Bootstrap procedures revealed that verbal ability at age 3 fully mediated the relation between ToM at age 2 and EF at age 4.

  7. Short-Term Memory, Working Memory, and Executive Functioning in Preschoolers: Longitudinal Predictors of Mathematical Achievement at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bull, Rebecca; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wiebe, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether measures of short-term memory, working memory, and executive functioning in preschool children predict later proficiency in academic achievement at 7 years of age (third year of primary school). Children were tested in preschool (M age = 4 years, 6 months) on a battery of cognitive measures, and mathematics and reading outcomes (from standardized, norm-referenced school-based assessments) were taken on entry to primary school, and at the end of the first and third year of primary school. Growth curve analyses examined predictors of math and reading achievement across the duration of the study and revealed that better digit span and executive function skills provided children with an immediate head start in math and reading that they maintained throughout the first three years of primary school. Visual-spatial short-term memory span was found to be a predictor specifically of math ability. Correlational and regression analyses revealed that visual short-term and working memory were found to specifically predict math achievement at each time point, while executive function skills predicted learning in general rather than learning in one specific domain. The implications of the findings are discussed in relation to further understanding the role of cognitive skills in different mathematical tasks, and in relation to the impact of limited cognitive skills in the classroom environment. PMID:18473197

  8. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific.

  9. A re-examination of cremains weight: sex and age variation in a Northern California sample.

    PubMed

    Van Deest, Traci L; Murad, Turhon A; Bartelink, Eric J

    2011-03-01

    The reduction of modern commercially cremated remains into a fine powder negates the use of traditional methods of skeletal analysis. The literature on the use of cremains weight for estimating aspects of the biologic profile is limited, often with conflicting results. This study re-evaluates the value of weight in the assessment of biologic parameters from modern cremated remains. A sample of adults was collected in northern California (n = 756), with a cremains weight averaging 2737.1 g. Males were significantly heavier than females (mean = 3233.2 g versus mean = 2238.3 g, respectively; p<0.001). Comparison of this sample with other previously reported samples from southern California, Florida, and Tennessee indicates a consistent sex difference, with the most similar mean values to the Tennessee study. Although cremains weight decreases with age as expected, the relationship is weak; thus, cremains weight cannot accurately predict age-at-death. While sex estimation shows considerable accuracy (86.3% for males and 80.9% for females), sectioning points may be population specific. PMID:21265835

  10. Longitudinal examination of infant baseline and reactivity cortisol from ages 7 to 16 months.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Muzik, Maria; McGinnis, Ellen W; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Bocknek, Erika L; Beeghly, Marjorie; DeCator, Draycen; Abelson, James L

    2015-04-01

    This study characterized the longitudinal evolution of HPA axis functioning from 7 to 16 months of age and identified individual and environmental factors that shape changes in HPA axis functioning over time. Participants were 167 mother-infant dyads drawn from a larger longitudinal study, recruited based on maternal history of being maltreated during childhood. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after age-appropriate psychosocial stressors when infants were 7 and 16 months old. Maternal observed parenting and maternal reports of infant and environmental characteristics were obtained at 7 months and evaluated as predictors of changes in infant baseline cortisol and reactivity from 7 to 16 months. Results revealed that infants did not show a cortisol response at 7 months, but reactivity to psychosocial stress emerged by 16 months. Individual differences in cortisol baseline and reactivity levels over time were related to infant sex and maternal overcontrolling behaviors, underscoring the malleable and socially informed nature of early HPA axis functioning. Findings can inform prevention and intervention efforts to promote healthy stress regulation during infancy. PMID:25783617

  11. Age inclusive services or separate old age and working age services? A historical analysis from the formative years of old age psychiatry c.1940-1989.

    PubMed

    Hilton, Claire

    2015-04-01

    The Equality Act 2010 made it unlawful to discriminate in the provision of services on the grounds of age. This legislation is open to interpretation, but it is affecting the way older people's services are defined and provided. Historical evidence indicates that, since the 1940s, apart from psychiatrists working in dedicated old age services, most were unenthusiastic about working with mentally unwell older people and unsupportive of those who chose to do so. A historical analysis might shed light on current dilemmas about 'all age' or 'old age' services and inform decision-making on future mental health services.

  12. SMOG CHAMBERS: A TOOL TO EXAMINE EFFECTS OF PHOTOCHEMICALLY AGED AIR POLLUTANTS ON BIOLOGICAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Irradiative exposure chambers or 'Smog chambers' have been used at the University of North Carolina for over 30 years to study photochemically active mixtures of volatile organic compounds and their transformation products (a significant sub-set of Hazardous Air Pollutants, HAPs)...

  13. Pial synangiosis in patients with moyamoya younger than 2 years of age.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Eric M; Lin, Ning; Manjila, Sunil; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2014-04-01

    Object Patients with moyamoya who are younger than 2 years of age represent a therapeutic challenge because of their frequent neurological instability and concomitant anesthetic risks. The authors report their experience with pial synangiosis revascularization in this population. Methods The authors reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of all patients with moyamoya in a consecutive series of patients under 2 years of age, who underwent cerebral revascularization surgery using pial synangiosis at a single institution. Results During a 12-year period (1994-2005), 34 procedures (bilateral in 15 patients, unilateral in 4) were performed in 19 patients younger than 2 years (out of a total of 456 procedures in 240 patients). Eighteen of these patients presented with either stroke or transient ischemic attack. The average age of the 19 patients at first surgery was 1.4 years (range 6 months-1.9 years). Unanticipated staged operations occurred in 3 patients, due to persistent electroencephalographic changes during the initial surgery in 2 cases and due to brain swelling during the procedure requiring ventriculostomy in the other. There were 2 perioperative strokes; both patients had postoperative seizures but made clinical recoveries. The average follow-up was 7 years (range 1-14 years). Long term, at follow-up, 13 patients (68%) were clinically independent for their age, with 8 (42%) having no significant deficit. Late complications included subdural hygroma evacuation (1), additional revascularization procedures performed years later for frontal lobe ischemia (2), late infarction (1), and asymptomatic ischemic change on routine follow-up MRI studies (1). All patients who had both pre- and postoperative angiography demonstrated progression of disease. Conclusions Despite the challenges inherent to this population, the majority of children with moyamoya under the age of 2 years have a good long-term prognosis. The data from this study support the use of pial

  14. Age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function in a 24-year longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Xu, X; Laird, N; Dockery, D W; Schouten, J P; Rijcken, B; Weiss, S T

    1995-03-15

    This paper proposes the use of two-factor models (age-period and age-cohort models) to estimate age, period, and cohort effects on pulmonary function by using the data collected in a 24-year longitudinal study in the Netherlands from 1965 to 1990. The analysis included 18,363 pulmonary function measurements on 6,148 subjects aged 20-54 years at the initial visit. The subjects were grouped into four birth cohorts (before 1923, 1923-1934, 1935-1946, and after 1946) and four survey periods (1965-1972, 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990). In the age-cohort model, the decrement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) associated with a yearly increase in age was 28.3 +/- 3.7 ml/year for a man 176 cm tall and 16.0 +/- 1.9 ml/year for a woman 163 cm tall. The estimated acceleration of decline with aging was significant for both men (beta = -0.212; standard error = 0.079 ml) and women (beta = -0.346; standard error = 0.058 ml). Compared with that of the cohort born before 1923, the average level of FEV1 was estimated to increase by 156, 277, and 379 ml, respectively, for the three younger cohorts in men (p = 0.01) and by 133, 213, and 328 ml for the three younger cohorts in women (p < 0.01). In the age-period model, the estimated linear age effect on FEV1 was 36.2 +/- 4.2 ml/year for a man and 30.5 +/- 2.3 ml/year for a woman. The age quadratic term was significant for women, but not for men. Average FEV1 was estimated to be increased by 141, 169, and 250 ml, respectively, for the periods 1973-1978, 1979-1984, and 1985-1990 in men and by 131, 138, and 219 ml in women. These period effects were significant for both men and women. In summary, this study applied the two-factor models to estimate cross-sectional and longitudinal effects of aging on FEV1 and demonstrated significant period and cohort effects, which could be attributed in part to changes in air pollutants, respiratory infections, vaccinations, types of cigarettes, diet, and lifestyles over time.

  15. Eribulin Monotherapy in Patients Aged 70 Years and Older With Metastatic Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cortes, Javier; Vahdat, Linda T.; Cardoso, Fatima; Twelves, Chris; Wanders, Jantien; Dutcus, Corina E.; Yang, Jay; Seegobin, Seth; O’Shaughnessy, Joyce

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Following the demonstrated efficacy and safety of eribulin mesylate in heavily pretreated patients with metastatic breast cancer, an exploratory analysis was performed to investigate the effect of age in these patients. Methods. Data were pooled from two single-arm phase II studies and one open-label randomized phase III study in which patients received eribulin mesylate at 1.4 mg/m2 as 2- to 5-minute intravenous infusions on days 1 and 8 of a 21-day cycle. The effect of age on median overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), clinical benefit rate (CBR), and incidence of adverse events (AEs) was calculated for four age groups (<50 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, ≥70 years). Results. Overall, 827 patients were included in the analysis (<50 years, n = 253; 50–59 years, n = 289; 60–69 years, n = 206; ≥70 years, n = 79). Age had no significant impact on OS (11.8 months, 12.3 months, 11.7 months, and 12.5 months, respectively; p = .82), PFS (3.5 months, 2.9 months, 3.8 months, and 4.0 months, respectively; p = .42), ORR (12.7%, 12.5%, 6.3%, and 10.1%, respectively), or CBR (20.2%, 20.8%, 20.4%, and 21.5%, respectively). Although some AEs had higher incidence in either the youngest or the oldest subgroup, there was no overall effect of age on the incidence of AEs (including neuropathy, neutropenia, and leukopenia). Conclusion. Eribulin monotherapy in these selected older patients with good baseline performance status led to OS, PFS, ORR, CBR, and tolerability similar to those of younger patients with metastatic breast cancer. The benefits and risks of eribulin appear to be similar across age groups. PMID:24682463

  16. An Examination of 40 Years of Mathematics Education among Norwegian Braille-Reading Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingenberg, Oliv G.; Fosse, Per; Augestad, Liv Berit

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study presented here estimated the occurrence of braille-reading students in Norway who were educated according to their grade-level progression in mathematics from 1967 to 2007. It also analyzed the association among these students' progression in mathematics and the causes of visual impairment, the age at which the diagnosis…

  17. Examining the Familial Link between Positive Affect and Empathy Development in the Second Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volbrecht, Michele M.; Lemery-Chalfant, Kathryn; Aksan, Nazan; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2007-01-01

    Within a sample of 584 twins aged 12 to 25 months (292 pairs) studied longitudinally, positive affect measured through two laboratory pleasure episodes and maternal report at 12 and 22 months significantly predicted empathy-related helping and hypothesis testing assessed between 19 and 25 months. Girls showed significantly more concern than did…

  18. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single-Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Gary A; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H; Reitberg, Donald P; Guenin, Eric

    2016-07-01

    This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age-based doses of 100-400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo ) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz /F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz /F than CLo , an increase in terminal exponential half-life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation-related changes in CLo and Vz /F. PMID:26632082

  19. [Bolsa Família: food and nutrition insecurity of children under five years of age].

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Flávia; Schmidt, Suely Teresinha; da Costa, Islandia Bezerra; Almeida, Claudia Choma Bettega; Matuda, Nívea da Silva

    2014-05-01

    This is a descriptive cross-sectional study of the population base conducted in the town of Colombo in the state of Paraná. The objectives were to identify the prevalence of food insecurity in families that are beneficiaries of the Bolsa Família Program and the factors related to this condition, and describe the nutritional status of children under five years of age. Analyses of association were performed using Fisher's exact test. The sample included 442 families, of which 168 have children under five years of age. The Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale was applied to evaluate food insecurity and the nutritional status of the 199 children evaluated was determined by the height-for-age, weight-for-age and body mass-for-age indices in accordance with the WHO reference values for 2006. The prevalence of food insecurity was 81.6%. Overweight and stunting among children coexisted. Food insecurity was found to be associated with the height-for-age index among children under two years of age. The per capita income and food deficits influenced the situation of food insecurity significantly.

  20. Five years later: language in school-age internationally adopted children.

    PubMed

    Glennen, Sharon; Bright, Betsy J

    2005-02-01

    This study followed a cohort of 46 school-age children adopted from Eastern Europe who were originally studied by Glennen and Masters up through age 2 or 3. Five years later, the children were 6 to 9 years of age. Data on their school-age abilities were collected through surveys of parents and teachers. Parents indicated that 17.4% of the children were receiving classroom accommodations or special education programs and 54.5% had one or more diagnoses. The most common diagnosis was attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD), occurring in 25% of the children, primarily boys. Learning disability and speech language impairment were each noted in 11.4% of the children. Language and Social Skill profiles on the Children's Communication Checklist-2 and Social Skills Rating Scale (SSRS) indicated that structural and meaning-based language abilities were areas of strength. Measures of pragmatic use of language (i.e., Use of Context, Social Relations, Nonverbal Communication) were relative weaknesses. Behavior profiles on the SSRS indicated higher than average levels of hyperactivity. The profile of Language and Social Skills strengths and weaknesses was similar to patterns observed in children with ADD/ADHD. Age of adoption was not predictive of school-age outcomes on these measures, but the children's expressive vocabulary when they were 2 to 3 years of age predicted SSRS outcomes for Social Skills and Problem Behaviors.

  1. Correlates of Three Year Transfer Student Retention Rates with Race, Gender, Age, Credit Hours, and Place of Residence at a Regional Public University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Michael Thomas

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examined the relationship between the three year academic success of transfer students and the variables of race, gender, age, number of transfer credit hours, and place of residence. The study was conducted at Midwestern State University, a public, regional four-year institution and followed the incoming transfer classes of the…

  2. National Growth Charts for United Arab Emirates Children With Down Syndrome From Birth to 15 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    H Aburawi, Elhadi; Nagelkerke, Nicolas; Deeb, Asma; Abdulla, Shahrban; Abdulrazzaq, Yousef M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Specific centile growth charts for children with Down syndrome (DS) have been produced in many countries and are known to differ from those of normal children. Since growth assessment depends on the growth pattern characteristic for these conditions, disorder-specific charts are desirable for various ethnic groups. Aims To provide cross-sectional weight, height, and head circumference (HC) references for healthy United Arab Emirates (UAE) children with DS. Methods A retrospective and cross-sectional growth study of Emirati children with DS, aged 0 to 18 years old, was conducted. Height, weight, and HC were measured in each child. Cole’s LMS statistical method was applied to estimate age-specific percentiles, and measurements were compared to UAE reference values for normal children. Results Incidence of DS in the UAE population is 1 in 374 live births (267 in 10 000 live births). We analyzed 1263 growth examinations of 182 children with DS born between 1994 and 2012. The male-to-female ratio was 1.6:1. Height, weight, and HC centile charts were constructed for ages 0 to 13 years. The prevalence of overweight and obesity in DS children aged 10 to 13 years of age was 32% and 19%, respectively. The DS children were significantly shorter and heavier than normal children in the UAE. Conclusions Weight, height, and HC growth charts were created for children with DS. These can be used as a reference standard for the UAE children with DS. Overweight and obesity are quite common in DS children ≥10 years of age, as DS children tend to be shorter and heavier than non-DS children. PMID:25196167

  3. Associations between Infant Feeding Practice Prior to Six Months and Body Mass Index at Six Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Imai, Cindy Mari; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorisdottir, Birna; Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2014-01-01

    Rapid growth during infancy is associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity and differences in weight gain are at least partly explained by means of infant feeding. The aim was to assess the associations between infant feeding practice in early infancy and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years of age. Icelandic infants (n = 154) were prospectively followed from birth to 12 months and again at age 6 years. Birth weight and length were gathered from maternity wards, and healthcare centers provided the measurements made during infancy up to 18 months of age. Information on breastfeeding practices was documented 0–12 months and a 24-h dietary record was collected at 5 months. Changes in infant weight gain were calculated from birth to 18 months. Linear regression analyses were performed to examine associations between infant feeding practice at 5 months and body mass index (BMI) at 6 years. Infants who were formula-fed at 5 months of age grew faster, particularly between 2 and 6 months, compared to exclusively breastfed infants. At age 6 years, BMI was on average 1.1 kg/m2 (95% CI 0.2, 2.0) higher among infants who were formula fed and also receiving solid foods at 5 months of age compared to those exclusively breastfed. In a high-income country such as Iceland, early introduction of solid foods seems to further increase the risk of high childhood BMI among formula fed infants compared with exclusively breastfed infants, although further studies with greater power are needed. PMID:24747694

  4. SIRT6 minor allele genotype is associated with >5-year decrease in lifespan in an aged cohort.

    PubMed

    TenNapel, Mindi J; Lynch, Charles F; Burns, Trudy L; Wallace, Robert; Smith, Brian J; Button, Anna; Domann, Frederick E

    2014-01-01

    Aging is a natural process involving complex interplay between environment, metabolism, and genes. Sirtuin genes and their downstream targets have been associated with lifespan in numerous organisms from nematodes to humans. Several target proteins of the sirtuin genes are key sensors and/or effectors of oxidative stress pathways including FOXO3, SOD3, and AKT1. To examine the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) at candidate genes in these pathways and human lifespan, we performed a molecular epidemiologic study of an elderly cohort (≥65 years old.). Using age at death as a continuous outcome variable and assuming a co-dominant genetic model within the framework of multi-variable linear regression analysis, the genotype-specific adjusted mean age at death was estimated for individual SNP genotypes while controlling for age-related risk factors including smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption and co-morbidity. Significant associations were detected between human lifespan and SNPs in genes SIRT3, SIRT5, SIRT6, FOXO3 and SOD3. Individuals with either the CC or CT genotype at rs107251 within SIRT6 displayed >5-year mean survival advantages compared to the TT genotype (5.5 and 5.9 years, respectively; q-value  = 0.012). Other SNPs revealed genotype-specific mean survival advantages ranging from 0.5 to 1.6 years. Gender also modified the effect of SNPs in SIRT3, SIRT5 and AKT1 on lifespan. Our novel findings highlight the impact of sirtuins and sirtuin-related genotypes on lifespan, the importance of evaluating gender and the advantage of using age as a continuous variable in analyses to report mean age at death. PMID:25541994

  5. Examining First-Year Non-Dominant Students' Experiences as Academic Writers: An Identity Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panayotova, Dora Marinova

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation reports on a study investigating the identity of first-year university students as writers. The longitudinal project explored how students from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds construct their identities as undergraduates and as academic writers in their first year. The research was qualitative and interpretative, and used…

  6. Prospects and Problems of the Year-Round School in Contemporary American Education: A Sociological Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibsen, C. A.

    A number of school divisions have entered year-round education without fully realizing the effects of such a program on the family and the community. Family vacations, child care, and routine living are disrupted by year-round educational programs. Community recreational facilities, church activities, public service programs, police work, and…

  7. First-Year School Counselors: Examining the Benefits of Informal Support and Mentoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milsom, Amy; Kayler, Holly

    2008-01-01

    New professionals can benefit from support and mentoring as they transition into their jobs, and research suggests that school counselors often do not receive formal mentoring from other school counselors. In this qualitative study, seven first-year school counselors were asked to keep journals during their first year and to reflect on their…

  8. Reference values of whole-blood fatty acids by age and sex from European children aged 3–8 years

    PubMed Central

    Wolters, M; Schlenz, H; Foraita, R; Galli, C; Risé, P; Moreno, L A; Molnár, D; Russo, P; Veidebaum, T; Tornaritis, M; Vyncke, K; Eiben, G; Iacoviello, L; Ahrens, W

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To establish reference values for fatty acids (FA) especially for n-3 and n-6 long-chain polyunsaturated FAs (LC PUFA) in whole-blood samples from apparently healthy 3–8-year-old European children. The whole-blood FA composition was analysed and the age- and sex-specific distribution of FA was determined. Design and subjects: Blood samples for FA analysis were taken from 2661 children of the IDEFICS (identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) study cohort. Children with obesity (n=454) and other diseases that are known to alter the FA composition (n=450) were excluded leaving 1653 participants in the reference population. Measurements: The FA composition of whole blood was analysed from blood drops by a rapid, validated gas chromatographic method. Results: Pearson correlation coefficients showed an age-dependent increase of C18:2n-6 and a decrease of C18:1n-9 in a subsample of normal weight boys and girls. Other significant correlations with age were weak and only seen either in boys or in girls, whereas most of the FA did not show any age dependence. For age-dependent n-3 and n-6 PUFA as well as for other FA that are correlated with age (16:0, C18:0 and C18:1n-9) percentiles analysed with the general additive model for location scale and shape are presented. A higher median in boys than in girls was observed for C20:3n-6, C20:4n-6 and C22:4n-6. Conclusions: Given the reported associations between FA status and health-related outcome, the provision of FA reference ranges may be useful for the interpretation of the FA status of children in epidemiological and clinical studies. PMID:25219413

  9. Interventions for increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged 5 years and under

    PubMed Central

    Wolfenden, Luke; Wyse, Rebecca J; Britton, Ben I; Campbell, Karen J; Hodder, Rebecca K; Stacey, Fiona G; McElduff, Patrick; James, Erica L

    2014-01-01

    the review. Two trials examined the impact of specific feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child intake of a target vegetable. Two trials assessed the effectiveness of home visiting programs implemented in disadvantaged communities and one trial investigated the effect of a preschool-based intervention in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Risk of bias of included studies was low although three of the five trials were judged to be at high risk of performance bias. Meta-analysis of two trials examining repeated food exposure versus a no intervention comparison found no significant difference in target vegetable consumption in the short term (mean difference (MD) 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) −2.78 to 5.52). Coupling repeated food exposure with a tangible non-food or social reward, was effective in increasing targeted vegetable consumption in the short term based on one trial. Home visiting programs provided to disadvantaged groups did not significantly increase overall fruit intake in the short term (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.01, 95% CI −0.09 to 0.11). Similarly, a multi-component preschool-based intervention failed to significantly increase child consumption of vegetables, but did report a small significant increase in mean child consumption of fruit, six months following baseline assessment. None of the trials investigated intervention cost-effectiveness or reported information regarding any adverse events or unintended adverse consequences of the intervention. Authors’ conclusions Despite the importance of encouraging fruit and vegetable consumption among children aged five years and under, this review identified few randomised controlled trials investigating interventions to achieve this. PMID:23152262

  10. Will the Affordable Care Act (ACA) Improve Racial/Ethnic Disparity of Eye Examination Among US Working-Age Population with Diabetes?

    PubMed

    Shi, Qian; Fonseca, Vivian; Krousel-Wood, Marie; Zhao, Yingnan; Nellans, Frank P; Luo, Qingyang; Shi, Lizheng

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the racial/ethnic disparity of eye examination rates among US adults with diabetes before and after the ACA. Working-age adults (18-64 years) with diabetes for years 2014-2017 were simulated by bootstrapping from the working-age diabetes patient sample of Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) Household Component 2011. Insurance coverage rates were separately predicted for each racial/ethnic group based on the Congressional Budgeting Office (CBO) report in 2014 and the proportions of Medicaid eligibility. Eye examination rates were weighted to national estimates and compared between racial/ethnic groups. Confidence intervals were estimated using the bootstrap percentile method. Health insurance coverage after the ACA is projected to increase from 90.23 % in 2011 to 98.33 % in 2014 among non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), reaching 98.96 % in 2017. Minorities are forecasted to have about 15 % expansion of insurance coverage from 2011 (80.65 %) to 2014 (96.00 %), reaching 97.25 % in 2017. In 2011, 63.01 % of NHW had eye examinations with forecasted increase to 65.83 % in 2014 and 66.05 % in 2017, while the eye examination rate in the minorities will increase from 55.75 % in 2011 to 59.23 % in 2014 and remain at 59.48 % in 2017. Therefore, racial disparity in eye examination rates is forecasted to persist (ranging from 6.57 % in 2017 to 6.69 % in 2016). The ACA is projected to improve the eye examination rate along with the expansion in insurance coverage. Although predicted racial/ethnic disparities will improve, some differences will persist. Comprehensive strategies need to be developed to eliminate the disparity.

  11. Measuring impulsivity in school-aged boys and examining its relationship with ADHD and ODD ratings.

    PubMed

    Avila, César; Cuenca, Isabel; Félix, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antònia; Miranda, Ana

    2004-06-01

    Seven different laboratory measures of impulsivity were administered to a group of 165 school-aged boys. Parents' and teachers' ratings of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional/Defiant Disorder were also obtained. Factor analyses of impulsivity measures revealed the existence of a strong Inhibitory Control Factor including measures derived from Stop Task, the Continuous Performance Test, the Matching Familiar Figures Test, and the Circle Tracing Task. Other forms of impulsivity like resistance to interference, the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and efficiency in the DRL Task loaded on a second independent factor. The Inhibitory Control factor was correlated with ADHD ratings, whereas the second factor was slightly related to the presence of ODD symptoms. Discussion is focused on the relevance of inhibitory control in impulsivity and ADHD research.

  12. Major Changes in a Rhythmic Ball-Bouncing Task Occur at Age 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Bazile, Christophe; Siegler, Isabelle A.; Benguigui, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the development of a rhythmical skill of children aged from 5 to 12 years old. Five age groups (5–6, 7–8, 9–10, 11–12, and young adults) performed a virtual ball bouncing task (16 forty-second long test trials). Task performances, racket oscillation, ball-racket impacts as well as the ball-racket coupling were analysed. The results showed a change in both performance and behaviour at the age of 7 years old. Before this age, children exhibited restricted perceptual-motor coordination with a high frequency of racket oscillation and a poor level of performance. After the age of 7, cycle-to-cycle adaptive coordination based on visual information was progressively acquired leading to increasing performance levels with age. Overall these results revealed a rapid change in capability to perform the ball bouncing task across age with a late emergence of the required coordination and significant change in the coordination at the age of 7. PMID:24098332

  13. The developmental activities of elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden.

    PubMed

    Ford, Paul R; Carling, Christopher; Garces, Marco; Marques, Mauricio; Miguel, Carlos; Farrant, Andrew; Stenling, Andreas; Moreno, Jansen; Le Gall, Franck; Holmström, Stefan; Salmela, John H; Williams, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The developmental activities of 328 elite soccer players aged under-16 years from Brazil, England, France, Ghana, Mexico, Portugal and Sweden were examined using retrospective recall in a cross-sectional research design. The activities were compared to the early diversification, early specialisation, and early engagement pathways. Players started their involvement in soccer at approximately 5 years of age. During childhood, they engaged in soccer practice for a mean value of 185.7, s = 124.0 h · year(-¹), in soccer play for 186.0, s = 125.3 h · year(-¹), and in soccer competition for 37.1, s = 28.9 h · year(-¹). A mean value of 2.3, s = 1.6 sports additional to soccer were engaged in by 229 players during childhood. Players started their participation in an elite training academy at 11 to 12 years of age. During adolescence, they engaged in soccer practice for a mean value of 411.9, s = 184.3 h · year(-¹), in soccer play for 159.7, s = 195.0 h · year(-¹), and in soccer competition for 66.9, s = 48.8 h · year(-¹). A mean value of 2.5, s = 1.8 sports other than soccer were engaged in by 132 players during this period. There were some relatively minor differences between countries, but generally the developmental activities of the players followed a mixture of the early engagement and specialisation pathways, rather than early diversification.

  14. The Association of Urbanicity with Cognitive Development at Five Years of Age in Preterm Children

    PubMed Central

    Gouin, Marion; Flamant, Cyril; Gascoin, Géraldine; Rouger, Valérie; Florin, Agnès; Guimard, Philippe; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Hanf, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the association of urbanicity, defined as living in an urban area, with cognitive development at five years of age in preterm children who were free of any disabilities or neurodevelopmental delays. Design Prospective population-based cohort. Setting French regional Loire Infant Follow-up Team (LIFT) network. Participants Included in the study were 1738 surviving infants born between March 2003 and December 2008 before 35 weeks of gestational age. At two years of age, the children were free of any disabilities and neurodevelopmental delays and were living in the Pays de la Loire region from their birth to five years of age. Main Outcome Measures The cognitive development at five years of age was evaluated with the Global School Adaptation score (GSA). The urbanicity of the residence for each child was classified into three groups: urban, quasi-rural, and rural area. Results Quantile regression approaches were used to identify a significant association between urbanicity and the GSA score at five years of age (adjusting for child and family characteristics). We found that the negative impact of urbanicity on the GSA score was more important for the lower quantile of the GSA scores. Conclusions Urbanicity was significantly associated with cognitive neurodevelopment at five years of age in preterm children born before 35 weeks of gestation. Complementary results additionally suggest that this relation could be mediated at the residence level by a high socioeconomic deprivation level. If these results are confirmed, more personalized follow-ups could be developed for preterm children. Further studies are needed to finely identify the contextual characteristics of urbanicity that underlie this association. PMID:26161862

  15. Predictors of Obesity in a Cohort of Children Enrolled in WIC as Infants and Retained to 3 Years of Age.

    PubMed

    Chiasson, M A; Scheinmann, R; Hartel, D; McLeod, N; Sekhobo, J; Edmunds, L S; Findley, S

    2016-02-01

    This longitudinal study of children enrolled as infants in the New York State (NYS) Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) examined predictors of obesity (body mass index ≥ 95th percentile) at 3 years of age. NYS WIC administrative data which included information from parent interviews and measured heights and weights for children were used. All 50,589 children enrolled as infants in WIC between July to December 2008 and July to December 2009 and retained in WIC through age three were included. At 3 years of age, 15.1% of children were obese. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that children of mothers who received the Full Breastfeeding Food Package when their infant was enrolled in WIC (adjusted OR = 0.52) and children with ≤2 h screen time daily at age 3 (adjusted OR = 0.88) were significantly less likely to be obese (p < 0.001) controlling for race/ethnicity, birth weight, and birthplace. In this cohort of NYS WIC participants, maternal receipt of the Full Breastfeeding Food Package (a surrogate measure of exclusive breastfeeding) is associated with lower levels of obesity in their children at age 3. The relationships between participation in WIC, exclusive breastfeeding, and obesity prevention merit further study.

  16. Daily living skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder from 2 to 21 years of age.

    PubMed

    Bal, Vanessa Hus; Kim, So-Hyun; Cheong, Daniel; Lord, Catherine

    2015-10-01

    Daily living skills (DLS), such as personal hygiene, meal preparation, and money management, are important to independent living. Research suggests that many individuals with autism spectrum disorder exhibit impairments in daily living skills relative to their cognitive skills. This study examined predictors of daily living skills attainment and trajectories of daily living skills in a longitudinal sample referred for possible autism spectrum disorder and followed from 2 to 21 years of age. Consistent with previous studies, participants with autism spectrum disorder and nonspectrum diagnoses showed continual development of daily living skills throughout childhood and adolescence. Early childhood nonverbal mental age was the strongest predictor of daily living skills attainment for both diagnostic groups. Group-based modeling suggested two distinct trajectories of daily living skills development for participants with autism spectrum disorder. Skill levels for both groups of young adults with autism spectrum disorder remained considerably below age level expectations. Whereas the "High-DLS" group gained approximately 12 years in daily living skills from T2 to T21, the "Low-DLS" group's daily living skills improved 3-4 years over the 16- to 19-year study period. Nonverbal mental age, receptive language, and social-communication impairment at 2 years predicted High- versus Low-DLS group membership. Receiving greater than 20 h of parent-implemented intervention before age 3 was also associated with daily living skills trajectory. Results suggest that daily living skills should be a focus of treatment plans for individuals with autism spectrum disorder, particularly adolescents transitioning to young adulthood.

  17. The Relationship of Korean Students' Age and Years of English-as-a-Foreign-Language Exposure with English-Reading Ability: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Jill; Stenner, A. Jackson; Sanford-Moore, Eleanor E.; Koons, Heather; Bowen, Kimberly; Kim, Kee Hyung

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present cross-age study with South Korean students was to investigate the relationship of age and years of English-as-a-foreign-language (EFL) exposure with English-reading ability. The main research question was, "Do individuals' age and number of years of English exposure interact in relation to English-reading…

  18. Investigation of complete dental arches of 23 patients aged at least 75 years.

    PubMed

    Volpato, Beniamino; Di Carlo, Stefano; Shahinas, Jorida; Mencio, Francesca; Fusco, Raimondo; Pompa, Giorgio

    2011-03-01

    Numerous factors help to conserve the dentition of elderly patients, such as healthy food habits, a strong physical constitution, and a good quality of life. The aim of this study was to define a model that takes into account the integration of both the structural and functional aspects of a healthy dentition. Twenty-three patients aged at least 75 years were recruited. The patients were required to possess all of their dentition and have no prosthetic rehabilitations and be asymptomatic for temporomandibular joint disorders. Occlusal characteristics were measured and recorded using the criteria adopted by the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: presence or absence of rotation of the upper arches, trend of the occlusal table, and distribution of occlusal contacts during movements. We believe that the following parameters are predictive of a condition of the dental arches' equilibrium: crowding and disalignment of the teeth, derotated position of the upper arches, absence of the curve of Spee, an occlusal plane trend contrary to spherical theory, and presence of group function on the working side and malocclusion on the nonworking side. We consider that these factors are merely the consequence of correct functioning within the framework of favorable environmental factors.

  19. Interventions to Increase Physical Activity in Children Aged 2-5 Years: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ling, Jiying; Robbins, Lorraine B; Wen, Fujun; Peng, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Comprehensive evaluation of prior interventions designed to increase preschoolers' physical activity is lacking. This systematic review aimed to examine the effect of interventions on objectively measured physical activity in children aged 2-5 years. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. In May 2014, we searched PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ERIC, SPORTDiscus, Cochrane, and Embase. Two reviewers independently identified and appraised the studies. Twenty-four articles describing 23 independent studies and 20 unique interventions met inclusion criteria. Of the 8 interventions resulting in a significant effect in objectively measured physical activity, all were center-based and included a structured physical activity component, 6 included multiple components, 5 integrated theories or models, and 4 actively involved parents. Seven of the 8 were randomized controlled trials. Due to the heterogeneity of the study designs, physical activity measures, and interventions, drawing definitive conclusions was difficult. Although the overall intervention effect was less than optimal, the review indicated that theory-driven, multicomponent interventions including a structured physical activity component and targeting both parents and their children may be a promising approach for increasing preschoolers' physical activity and warrant continued investigation using rigorous designs to identify those that are most effective.

  20. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines.

  1. Micronutrient interventions on cognitive performance of children aged 5-15 years in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Misra, Snigdha

    2012-01-01

    It is estimated that more than 200 million young children worldwide fail to reach their potential in cognitive development owing to undernutrition. Numerous studies have assessed the effects of micronutrient supplementation on growth and cognitive development in infants, toddlers and preschoolers. However, micronutrient interventions on the cognitive performance of older children are limited. This article seeks to provide an update on micronutrient interventions and cognitive outcomes among children aged 5-15 years in developing countries. A total of 13 randomized controlled trials published since 2000 were identified. Majority of these studies assessed the effects of micronutrient-fortified foods on various domains of cognitive function. Among key micronutrients assessed were iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A. This review found a lack of consistency in the impact of micronutrient supplementation on intelligence, long term mental functions and school examination grades of the children. A beneficial effect of micronutrient supplementation on short term memory was more consistently reported. Overall, the evidence from this review for the impact of micronutrients on cognitive performance in older children remains equivocal. In light of the growing interest on the influence of nutrition on cognition, it is important that culturally-appropriate and sufficiently sensitive assessment tools be used for measuring the desired cognitive outcomes that are most likely to be affected by the nutrients under study. PMID:23017305

  2. Diarrhea Prevalence, Care, and Risk Factors Among Poor Children Under 5 Years of Age in Mesoamerica.

    PubMed

    Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H

    2016-03-01

    Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152

  3. FOUR-YEAR INCIDENCE AND PROGRESSION OF AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION: THE LOS ANGELES LATINO EYE STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Varma, Rohit; Foong, Athena W.P.; Lai, Mei-Ying; Choudhury, Farzana; Klein, Ronald; Azen, Stanley P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To estimate 4-year incidence and progression of early and advanced age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Design Population-based cohort study. Methods A comprehensive ophthalmologic examination including stereoscopic fundus photography was performed on adult Latinos at baseline and follow-up. Photographs were graded using a modified Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. For estimations of incidence and progression of AMD, the Age Related Eye Disease Study Scale was used. Main outcome measures are incidence and progression of early AMD (drusen type, drusen size, and retinal pigmentary abnormalities) and advanced AMD (exudative AMD and geographic atrophy). Results 4,658/6100 (76%) completed the follow-up examination. The 4-year incidence of early AMD was 7.5% (95%CI:6.6,8.4) and advanced AMD was 0.2% (95%CI:0.1,0.4). Progression of any AMD occurred in 9.3% (95%CI:8.4,10.3) of at-risk participants. Incidence and progression increased with age. Incidence of early AMD in the second eye (10.8%) was higher than incidence in the first eye (6.9%). Baseline presence of soft indistinct large drusen≥250μm in diameter was more likely to predict the 4-year incidence of pigmentary abnormalities, geographic atrophy, and exudative AMD than smaller or hard or soft distinct drusen. Conclusions Age-specific incidence and progression of AMD in Latinos are lower than in non-Hispanic whites. While incident early AMD is more often unilateral, the risk of its development in the second is higher than in the first eye. Older persons and those with soft indistinct large drusen had a higher risk of developing advanced AMD compared to those who were younger and did not have soft indistinct large drusen. PMID:20399926

  4. Microbial aetiology of acute diarrhoea in children under five years of age in Khartoum, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Diarrhoea is one of leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent estimations suggested the number of deaths is close to 2.5 million. This study examined the causative agents of diarrhoea in children under 5 years of age in suburban areas of Khartoum, Sudan. A total of 437 stool samples obtained from children with diarrhoea were examined by culture and PCR for bacteria, by microscopy and PCR for parasites and by immunoassay for detection of rotavirus A. Of the 437 samples analysed, 211 (48 %) tested positive for diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli, 96 (22 %) for rotavirus A, 36 (8 %) for Shigella spp., 17 (4 %) for Salmonella spp., 8 (2 %) for Campylobacter spp., 47 (11 %) for Giardia intestinalis and 22 (5 %) for Entamoeba histolytica. All isolates of E. coli (211, 100 %) and Salmonella (17, 100 %), and 30 (83 %) isolates of Shigella were sensitive to chloramphenicol; 17 (100 %) isolates of Salmonella, 200 (94 %) isolates of E. coli and (78 %) 28 isolates of Shigella spp. were sensitive to gentamicin. In contrast, resistance to ampicillin was demonstrated in 100 (47 %) isolates of E. coli and 16 (44 %) isolates of Shigella spp. In conclusion, E. coli proved to be the main cause of diarrhoea in young children in this study, followed by rotavirus A and protozoa. Determination of diarrhoea aetiology and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of diarrhoeal pathogens and improved hygiene are important for clinical management and controlled strategic planning to reduce the burden of infection. PMID:25713206

  5. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure: Adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at age 6 years

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Morris J.; Meador, Kimford J.; Browning, Nancy; May, Ryan; Baker, Gus A.; Clayton-Smith, Jill; Kalayjian, Laura A.; Kanner, Andres; Liporace, Joyce D.; Pennell, Page B.; Privitera, Michael; Loring, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Neurodevelopmental Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs (NEAD) study is a prospective observational multicenter study in the USA and UK, which enrolled pregnant women with epilepsy on antiepileptic drug (AED) monotherapy from 1999 to 2004. The study aimed to determine if differential long-term neurodevelopmental effects exist across four commonly used AEDs (carbamazepine, lamotrigine, phenytoin, and valproate). In this report, we examine fetal AED exposure effects on adaptive and emotional/behavioral functioning at 6 years of age in 195 children (including three sets of twins) whose parent (in most cases, the mother) completed at least one of the rating scales. Adjusted mean scores for the four AED groups were in the low average to average range for parent ratings of adaptive functioning on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System—Second Edition (ABAS-II) and for parent and teacher ratings of emotional/behavioral functioning on the Behavior Assessment System for Children (BASC). However, children whose mothers took valproate during pregnancy had significantly lower General Adaptive Composite scores than the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Further, a significant dose-related performance decline in parental ratings of adaptive functioning was seen for both valproate and phenytoin. Children whose mothers took valproate were also rated by their parents as exhibiting significantly more atypical behaviors and inattention than those in the lamotrigine and phenytoin groups. Based upon BASC parent and teacher ratings of attention span and hyperactivity, children of mothers who took valproate during their pregnancy were at a significantly greater risk for a diagnosis of ADHD. The increased likelihood of difficulty with adaptive functioning and ADHD with fetal valproate exposure should be communicated to women with epilepsy who require antiepileptic medication. Finally, additional research is needed to confirm these findings in larger prospective study samples, examine

  6. Age at First Delivery and Osteoporosis Risk in Korean Postmenopausal Women: The 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).

    PubMed

    Yun, Bo Hyon; Choi, Yun Rak; Choi, Young Sik; Cho, SiHyun; Lee, Byung Seok; Seo, Seok Kyo

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported in several studies that there may be a significant correlation between reproductive history and the risk of osteoporosis due to the effect of estrogen. Under this hypothesis, however, it is unclear whether the age at first delivery has any major influences on the risk of osteoporosis. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between the age at first delivery and the risk of osteoporosis in Korean menopausal women. This study was performed using data from the 2008-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and included 2,530 Korean postmenopausal women. The diagnosis of osteoporosis was made using the World Health Organization T-score criteria (T-score ≤ -2.5, at the femoral neck or lumbar spine). Participants were categorized into 3 groups according to age at first delivery: ≤ 23, 24-29, and ≥ 30 years. Older age, lower body mass index, lower calcium intake, later menarche, and earlier menopause increased the risk of osteoporosis, whereas hormone therapy and oral contraceptive use were associated with a decreased risk of osteoporosis. Postmenopausal women whose first delivery occurred at age 24-29 years were shown to have a significantly increased risk of osteoporosis (odds ratio, 2.124; 95% confidence interval, 1.096-4.113; P = 0.026) compared to those who first gave birth after the age of 30 years. These findings suggest that postmenopausal women whose first delivery occurred in their mid to late 20s, a period during which bone mass slowly accumulates to the peak, are at an increased risk of osteoporosis.

  7. Screening for developmental delay among children aged 1-4 years: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Rachel; Kenny, Meghan; Bennett, Teresa; Fitzpatrick-Lewis, Donna; Ali, Muhammad Usman; Sherifali, Diana; Raina, Parminder

    2016-01-01

    Background: Existing guidelines on screening children less than 5 years of age for developmental delay vary. In this systematic review, we synthesized the literature on the effectiveness and harms of screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase and PsychINFO for relevant articles published to June 16, 2015. We identified studies that included children aged 1-4 years who were not at high risk of developmental delay, screened in a primary care setting. Randomized trials and controlled cohort studies were considered for benefits (cognitive, academic and functional outcomes); no restrictions on study design were imposed for the review of harms. Results: Two studies were included. One used the Ages and Stages Questionnaire II for screening and reported significantly more referrals to early intervention in the intervention groups than in the control group (relative risk [RR] 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.49-2.54, in the intervention group with office support and RR 1.71, 95% CI 1.30-2.25, in the intervention group without office support). The time to referral was 70% shorter in the intervention group with office support (rate ratio 0.30, 95% CI 0.19-0.48) and 64% shorter in the intervention group without office support (rate ratio 0.36, 95% CI 0.23-0.59), compared with the control group. The other study used the VroegTijdige Onderkenning Ontwikkelingsstoornissen Language Screening instrument to screen children aged 15 months at enrolment for language delay. It reported no differences between groups in academic performance outcomes at age 8 years. Interpretation: The evidence on screening for developmental delay in asymptomatic children aged 1-4 years is inconclusive. Further research with longer-term outcomes is needed to inform decisions about screening and screening intervals. PMID:27226967

  8. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child. PMID:25819172

  9. Infants of adolescent mothers. Maternal characteristics and developmental status at 1 year of age.

    PubMed

    Camp, B W; Burgess, D; Morgan, L; Malpiede, D

    1984-03-01

    The Bayley Scales of Infant Development were administered at 1 year of age to 54 healthy infants of adolescent mothers. Information was obtained regarding maternal cognitive and emotional maturity, child-rearing attitudes, attitudes toward the infant, and psychosocial status at one year. The average Bayley Mental Scale score was 113, and the average Bayley Motor Scale score was 105. There was a negative correlation between the Bayley Mental Scale score and maternal age and education. Bayley Motor Scale scores were predictable from a combination of maternal authoritarian attitudes, abuse potential, and infant's birth weight. Although high authoritarian attitudes in mothers have been associated with poor cognitive development at later ages, they may represent an important strength in adolescent mothers during the first year. PMID:6702768

  10. Parenting clinically anxious versus healthy control children aged 4-12 years.

    PubMed

    van der Sluis, C M; van Steensel, F J A; Bögels, S M

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated whether parenting behaviors differed between parents of 68 clinically anxious children and 106 healthy control children aged 4-12 years. The effects of parent gender, child gender and child age on parenting were explored. Mothers and fathers completed a questionnaire to assess parenting behaviors in for children hypothetically anxious situations. Results showed that parents of clinically anxious children reported more anxiety-enhancing parenting (reinforcement of dependency and punishment) as well as more positive parenting (positive reinforcement). For the clinical sample, fathers reported using more modeling/reassurance than mothers, and parents reported using more force with their 4-7-year-olds than with their 8-12-year-olds. No interaction effects were found for child gender with child anxiety status on parenting. Results indicate that for intervention, it is important to measure parenting behaviors, and to take into account father and mother differences and the age of the child.

  11. Examining the Educational Leadership Knowledge Base: A 5-Year Citation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgemenke, Arthur; Brown, Casey Graham

    2013-01-01

    The professionals who research and publish in the field of educational administration impact the theory and best practice cycle that develops into the discipline's body of knowledge. This body of knowledge, in turn, is imparted to aspiring educational leaders. The authors examined whose research educational administration researchers are citing,…

  12. Examination of Cognitive and Instrumental Functional Performance as Indicators for Driving Cessation Risk across 3 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Michelle L.; Edwards, Jerri D.; Ross, Lesley A.; Ball, Karlene K.; Lunsman, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to prospectively examine the role of cognitive and instrumental functional performance in driving cessation while simultaneously accounting for any contributions of demographics, vision, physical performance, and health among a sample of older adults without dementia. Design and Methods: Included in the…

  13. Socratic Teachers and Confucian Learners: Examining the Benefits and Pitfalls of a Year Abroad

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenholtz, Joe

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores the interplay between Western conceptions of education and students from other educational traditions, most specifically Japan, through the lens of the author's practice in international education. He examines models of the private and public spheres and public discourse advanced by Hannah Arendt and Jurgen Habermas in relation…

  14. A 20-Year Examination of the Perceptions of Business School Interns: A Longitudinal Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Sherry James; Stokes, Amy; Parker, Richard Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined students' attitudes toward specific elements of an ongoing internship program. The study sample consisted of 816 student interns from 25 different colleges and universities. Results indicate that despite significant changes in instructional design and the incorporation of new technologies into the learning environment,…

  15. Assessment of the Continuous Progress Report for the Early Learning Years (An Examination of Scale Construction).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Kathy D.

    An evaluation was conducted to examine the structure and design of the Continuous Progress Report (CPR), an observation scale used to measure students' early developmental skills in the District of Columbia public schools. Item construction and the relative consistency of measurement constructs in the CPR were the specific focus of the evaluation.…

  16. A Retrospective Examination of a University's Thirteen Years in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blood, Ronald E.; And Others

    The context of educational reform within which U.S. higher education has worked in selected Latin American countries is examined, with attention directed to the specific experience of the University of New Mexico. The evolution of the Latin American Programs in Education office (LAPE) in the university setting, the organizational milieu in which…

  17. Physical activity and cognitive function in individuals over 60 years of age: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Ashley; Rea, Irene Maeve; Parimon, Tanyalak; Cusack, Barry J

    2014-01-01

    Background It is unclear whether physical activity in later life is beneficial for maintenance of cognitive function. We performed a systematic review examining the effects of exercise on cognitive function in older individuals, and present possible mechanisms whereby physical activity may improve cognition. Methods Sources consisted of PubMed, Medline, CINAHL, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and the University of Washington, School of Medicine Library Database, with a search conducted on August 15, 2012 for publications limited to the English language starting January 1, 2000. Randomized controlled trials including at least 30 participants and lasting at least 6 months, and all observational studies including a minimum of 100 participants for one year, were evaluated. All subjects included were at least 60 years of age. Results Twenty-seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Twenty-six studies reported a positive correlation between physical activity and maintenance or enhancement of cognitive function. Five studies reported a dose-response relationship between physical activity and cognition. One study showed a nonsignificant correlation. Conclusion The preponderance of evidence suggests that physical activity is beneficial for cognitive function in the elderly. However, the majority of the evidence is of medium quality with a moderate risk of bias. Larger randomized controlled trials are needed to clarify the association between exercise and cognitive function and to determine which types of exercise have the greatest benefit on specific cognitive domains. Despite these caveats, the current evidence suggests that physical activity may help to improve cognitive function and, consequently, delay the progression of cognitive impairment in the elderly. PMID:24748784

  18. Children's bilateral advantage for grasp-to-eat actions becomes unimanual by age 10 years.

    PubMed

    Flindall, Jason W; Gonzalez, Claudia L R

    2015-05-01

    Studies have shown that infants tend to develop a lateralized hand preference for hand-to-mouth actions earlier than they do a preference for many other grasp-to-place or grasp-to-manipulate tasks, years even before direction of hand preference can be reliably determined. This observation has led to a series of studies contrasting the kinematics of grasp-to-eat and grasp-to-place actions in adults. These studies have described a robust kinematic asymmetry between left- and right-handed grasp-to-eat maximum grip apertures (MGAs) that has been interpreted as a right-hand advantage for feeding that may have led to right-handedness as observed on a global scale. The current study examines grasp-to-eat and grasp-to-place kinematics in two groups of typically developing children aged 7 to 12 years. It was found that the previously described task difference is present in both hands among younger children and that the effect does not become lateralized until the end of the first decade of life. Additional kinematics of both the dominant and non-dominant hands are described in detail to augment a growing catalogue of reach-to-grasp action descriptions for typically developing children. The maturation of the right-hand advantage for grasp-to-eat actions is discussed in terms of an inherent right-hand/left-hemisphere bias for such actions that may have influenced the development of population-level right-handedness in humans.

  19. Guaifenesin Pharmacokinetics Following Single‐Dose Oral Administration in Children Aged 2 to 17 Years

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Gary A.; Solomon, Gail; Albrecht, Helmut H.; Reitberg, Donald P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study characterized guaifenesin pharmacokinetics in children aged 2 to 17 years (n = 40) who received a single oral dose of guaifenesin (age‐based doses of 100‐400 mg) 2 hours after breakfast. Plasma samples were obtained before and for 8 hours after dosing and analyzed for guaifenesin using liquid chromatography‐tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using noncompartmental methods, relationships with age were assessed using linear regression, and dose proportionality was assessed on 95% confidence intervals. Based on the upper dose recommended in the monograph (for both children and adolescents), area under the curve from time zero to infinity and maximum plasma concentration both increased with age. However, when comparing the upper dose for children aged 2 to 11 years with the lower dose for adolescents aged 12 to 17 years, similar systemic exposure was observed. As expected due to increasing body size, oral clearance (CLo) and terminal volume of distribution (Vz/F) increased with age. Due to a larger increase in Vz/F than CLo, an increase in terminal exponential half‐life was also observed. Allometric scaling indicated no maturation‐related changes in CLo and Vz/F. PMID:26632082

  20. Accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value for third molar in assessing 18 years of age.

    PubMed

    De Luca, S; Biagi, R; Begnoni, G; Farronato, G; Cingolani, M; Merelli, V; Ferrante, L; Cameriere, R

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasingly numerous international migrations, estimating the age of unaccompanied minors is becoming of enormous significance for forensic professionals who are required to deliver expert opinions. The third molar tooth is one of the few anatomical sites available for estimating the age of individuals in late adolescence. This study verifies the accuracy of Cameriere's cut-off value of the third molar index (I3M) in assessing 18 years of age. For this purpose, a sample of orthopantomographs (OPTs) of 397 living subjects aged between 13 and 22 years (192 female and 205 male) was analyzed. Age distribution gradually decreases as I3M increases in both males and females. The results show that the sensitivity of the test was 86.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (80.8%, 91.1%), and its specificity was 95.7%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92.1%, 98%). The proportion of correctly classified individuals was 91.4%. Estimated post-test probability, p was 95.6%, with a 95% confidence interval of (92%, 98%). Hence, the probability that a subject positive on the test (i.e., I3M<0.08) was 18 years of age or older was 95.6%.

  1. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... extent of the damage and to effect permanent repairs. (d) Vessels less than 15 years of age (except...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older may be considered for continued participation in... a 2.5 year examination interval, it means a vessel must undergo two examinations within any...

  2. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... extent of the damage and to effect permanent repairs. (d) Vessels less than 15 years of age (except...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older may be considered for continued participation in... a 2.5 year examination interval, it means a vessel must undergo two examinations within any...

  3. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... extent of the damage and to effect permanent repairs. (d) Vessels less than 15 years of age (except...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older may be considered for continued participation in... a 2.5 year examination interval, it means a vessel must undergo two examinations within any...

  4. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... extent of the damage and to effect permanent repairs. (d) Vessels less than 15 years of age (except...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older may be considered for continued participation in... a 2.5 year examination interval, it means a vessel must undergo two examinations within any...

  5. 46 CFR 31.10-21 - Drydock examination, internal structural examination, cargo tank internal examination, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... extent of the damage and to effect permanent repairs. (d) Vessels less than 15 years of age (except...) of this section, that are 15 years of age or older may be considered for continued participation in... a 2.5 year examination interval, it means a vessel must undergo two examinations within any...

  6. Rotator cuff injury in patients over the age of 65 years: evaluation of function, integrity and strength☆

    PubMed Central

    de Castro Veado, Marco Antonio; Prata, Eric Fontes; Gomes, David Correia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively evaluate the results from patients who underwent arthroscopic treatment for rotator cuff injuries, among those aged over 65 years, observing integrity, function and strength. Methods Thirty-five shoulders were operated between July 2005 and July 2010, and 28 shoulders were re-evaluated regarding elevation strength and external rotation, using a digital dynamometer. Integrity was evaluated by means of ultrasound examinations. The patients, whose mean age was 70.54 years (ranging from 65 to 82 years), were followed up for a minimum of 26 months and mean of 51.18 months (ranging from 26 to 82 months). To evaluate function, the UCLA score, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) and a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain were used. Results In analyzing the ultrasound scans, it was observed that the integrity of the rotator cuff was maintained in 75% of the cases at the end of the follow-up, along with the improvement in the UCLA score, which evolved from 17.46 to 32.39, i.e. excellent and good results in 89.28%. The mean SST and VAS indices were 9.86 and 1.5 respectively. Conclusion Arthroscopic surgery to repair rotator cuff injuries in patients over the age of 65 years leads to improved function and pain relief, with maintenance of the integrity of the repair. The data on muscle strength were inconclusive. PMID:26229937

  7. Solid Foundations: Health and Education Partnership for Indigenous Children Aged 0 to 8 Years. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerial Council on Education, Employment, Training and Youth Affairs, Carlton South (Australia).

    An Australian national task force examined a number of areas related to achieving educational equality for Australia's Indigenous peoples. This paper looks at health issues, particularly during ages 0-8, that may affect the educational outcomes of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children. Chapter 1 discusses the importance of the early years…

  8. Development of the Concept of Freedom over a 15-year Age Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Daniel P.

    Freedom is subject to a variety of conceptions in life because people think of it from where they are in life. Psychological literature contains a great deal about freedom but it is almost always found under the rubric of freedom versus determinism. This study examined the concepts of freedom in subjects (N=450) who ranged in age from 7 to 21…

  9. Childhood Risk Factors for Lifetime Anorexia Nervosa by Age 30 Years in a National Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholls, Dasha E.; Viner, Russell M.

    2009-01-01

    Whether previously identified childhood risk factors for anorexia nervosa (AN) predict self-reported lifetime AN by age 30 is examined. The cohort confirmed four risk and two protective factors out of the 22 suggested risk factors. The study used data from the 1970 British Cohort Study.

  10. 9 CFR 71.18 - Individual identification of certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. 71.18 Section 71.18 Animals and Animal... certain cattle 2 years of age or over for movement in interstate commerce. (a) No cattle 2 years of age or...) of this chapter, shall be moved in interstate commerce other than in accordance with the...

  11. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between...

  12. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. Link to an amendment published at 75... concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between 14 and 16...

  13. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between...

  14. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between...

  15. 29 CFR 570.31 - Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... minors 14 and 15 years of age. 570.31 Section 570.31 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE... INTERPRETATION Employment of Minors Between 14 and 16 Years of Age (Child Labor Reg. 3) § 570.31 Secretary's determinations concerning the employment of minors 14 and 15 years of age. The employment of minors between...

  16. A Frailty Index predicts 10-year fracture risk in adults age 25 years and older: results from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos)

    PubMed Central

    Ioannidis, G.; Rockwood, K.; Thabane, L.; Adachi, J. D.; Kirkland, S.; Pickard, L. E.; Papaioannou, A.

    2016-01-01

    Summary We created a 30-item Frailty Index in the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study. A Frailty Index is a sensitive measure that can quantify fracture risk according to degree of frailty. Our results indicated that at any age, frailty was an important independent risk factor for fracture over 10 years. Introduction In later life, frailty has been linked to fractures. It is likely that the antecedents of fracture are seen across the life course, in ways not entirely captured by traditional osteoporosis risk factors. Using data collected from the prospective, population-based Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), we created the 30-item CaMos Frailty Index and examined whether it was associated with incident fractures over 10 years. Methods All CaMos participants aged 25 years and older (n= 9,423) were included in the analysis. To examine the relationship between baseline Frailty Index scores and incident fractures, a competing risk proportional sub-distribution hazards model was used with death considered a competing risk. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, education level, femoral neck T-score, and antiresorptive therapy. Results At baseline, the mean age was 62.1 years [standard deviation (SD) 13.4], and 69.4 % were women. The mean Frailty Index score was 0.13 (SD 0.11), ranging from 0 to 0.66. For every 0.10 increase in Frailty Index scores (approximately one SD), the hazard ratio was 1.25 (p<0.001) for all fractures, 1.18 (p=0.043) for hip fractures, and 1.30 (p= 0.001) for clinical vertebral fractures. Conclusion The CaMos Frailty Index quantified fracture risk according to degree of frailty. Irrespective of age and bone mineral density, the Frailty Index was associated with hip, vertebral, and all-type clinical fractures. Predicting late onset illnesses may have to consider overall health status and not just traditional risk factors. PMID:25103215

  17. Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged 10-19 years - United States, 2007-2010.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Stephanie J; Hamilton, Brady E; Mathews, T J

    2013-11-22

    Pregnancy and childbirth among females aged <20 years have been the subject of long-standing concern among the public, the public health community, and policy makers. Teenagers who give birth are much more likely than older women to deliver a low birthweight or preterm infant, and their babies are at higher risk for dying in infancy. The annual public costs associated with births among teenage girls are an estimated $10.9 billion. According to the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), an estimated 77% of births to teenagers aged 15-19 years were unintended.

  18. Aging Wire Insulation Assessment by Phase Spectrum Examination of Ultrasonic Guided Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anastasi, Robert F.; Madaras, Eric I.

    2003-01-01

    Wire integrity has become an area of concern to the aerospace community including DoD, NASA, FAA, and Industry. Over time and changing environmental conditions, wire insulation can become brittle and crack. The cracks expose the wire conductor and can be a source of equipment failure, short circuits, smoke, and fire. The technique of using the ultrasonic phase spectrum to extract material properties of the insulation is being examined. Ultrasonic guided waves will propagate in both the wire conductor and insulation. Assuming the condition of the conductor remains constant then the stiffness of the insulator can be determined by measuring the ultrasonic guided wave velocity. In the phase spectrum method the guided wave velocity is obtained by transforming the time base waveform to the frequency domain and taking the phase difference between two waveforms. The result can then be correlated with a database, derived by numerical model calculations, to extract material properties of the wire insulator. Initial laboratory tests were performed on a simple model consisting of a solid cylinder and then a solid cylinder with a polymer coating. For each sample the flexural mode waveform was identified. That waveform was then transformed to the frequency domain and a phase spectrum was calculated from a pair of waveforms. Experimental results on the simple model compared well to numerical calculations. Further tests were conducted on aircraft or mil-spec wire samples, to see if changes in wire insulation stiffness can be extracted using the phase spectrum technique.

  19. Commentary: the mental status examination in the age of the internet--challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Metzner, Jeffrey L; Ash, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In her Presidential address, Dr. Recupero shows us how the Internet and changes in electronic communications have affected the forensic evaluation process in multiple ways. These developments provide the forensic psychiatrist with new tools and new sources of information, and their novelty brings about new challenges and opportunities. This commentary focuses on the use of information and communication technology (ICT) for purposes of obtaining collateral information in addition to a sample of other likely uses of ICT in the practice of forensic psychiatry. Collateral information from electronic communications such as e-mails, web postings, texting, and social networking sites provides useful data but also raises challenges in interpretation. Digital information about the expert can be used by cross-examining attorneys. Electronic tools can help the forensic psychiatrist to be more efficient. Correctional systems have a great deal to gain by adopting more efficient information systems. Continuing evolution of these technologies assures that we can expect more rapid change in these areas in the future.

  20. Age at type 2 diabetes onset and glycaemic control: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Berkowitz, Seth A.; Meigs, James B.; Wexler, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis We tested the hypothesis that age younger than 65 years at type 2 diabetes diagnosis is associated with worse subsequent glycaemic control. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of data from participants in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey was performed. For adults with self-reported diabetes, we dichotomised age at diabetes diagnosis as younger (<65 years) vs older (≥65 years). The primary outcome of interest was HbA1c >9.0% (75 mmol/mol). Secondary outcomes were HbA1c >8.0% (64 mmol/mol) and >7.0% (53 mmol/mol). We used multivariable logistic regression for analysis. Results Among 1,438 adults with diabetes, a higher proportion of those <65 years at diagnosis compared with those ≥65 at diagnosis had an HbA1c >9.0% (14.4% vs 2.5%, p<0.001). After adjustment for sex, race/ethnicity, education, income, insurance, usual source of care, hyperglycaemia medication, duration of diabetes, family history, BMI and waist circumference, age <65 years at diagnosis remained significantly associated with greater odds of HbA1c > 9.0% (OR 3.22, 95% CI 1.54, 6.72), HbA1c > 8.0% (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.43, 5.16) and HbA1c >7.0% (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.18, 3.11). The younger group reported fewer comorbidities, but were less likely to report good health (OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.36, 0.83). Conclusions/interpretation Younger age at type 2 diabetes diagnosis is significantly associated with worse subsequent glycaemic control. Because patients who are younger at diagnosis have fewer competing comorbidities and complications, safe, aggressive, individualised treatment could benefit this higher-risk group. PMID:23995472

  1. Re-examining the relationships among dementia, stigma, and aging in immigrant Chinese and Vietnamese family caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dandan; Hinton, Ladson; Tran, Cindy; Hinton, Devon; Barker, Judith C.

    2010-01-01

    Prior literature emphasizes that Asian Americans with dementia may be particularly vulnerable to the stigma of chronic mental illness. However, there is a dearth of empirical research to support this claim. This study examines the relationship of stigma and dementia in 32 qualitative interviews with Chinese and Vietnamese family caregivers. Stigma was a common theme in the interviews (91%). Further analysis of stigma revealed two sources: chronic mental illness stigma and stigma reflecting negative stereotypes of aging or the aged. Chinese and Vietnamese cultural views of normal aging are not a unitary category but accommodate different trajectories of aging, some more and some less desired. When applied to persons with dementia, a “normalized” but negative trajectory of aging carried with it significant stigma that was distinct from but in addition to the stigma of chronic and severe mental illness. Older Chinese and Vietnamese with dementia are thus at risk of experiencing multiple stigmas that include but go beyond the stigma associated with chronic and severe mental illness. PMID:18665444

  2. Diabetes death rates among youths aged ≤ 19 years--United States, 1968-2009.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Although diabetes mellitus most often is diagnosed in adulthood, it remains one of the most common serious chronic diseases of childhood. Youths with diabetes are at risk for diabetes-related mortality because of acute complications that can result from the condition, including diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia. In the United States in 2010, an estimated 215,000 persons aged ≤ 19 years had diagnosed diabetes. Medical care for diabetes has improved considerably in recent decades, leading to improved survival rates. However, recent trends in diabetes death rates among youths aged <10 years and 10-19 years in the United States have not been reported. To assess these trends, CDC analyzed data from the National Vital Statistics System for deaths in the United States with diabetes listed as the underlying cause during 1968-2009. This report highlights the results of that analysis, which found that diabetes-related mortality decreased 61%, from an annual rate of 2.69 per million for the period 1968-1969 to a rate of 1.05 per million in 2008-2009. The percentage decrease was greater among youths aged <10 years (78%) than among youths aged 10-19 years (52%). These findings demonstrate improvements in diabetes mortality among youths but also indicate a need for continued improvement in diabetes diagnosis and care. PMID:23114253

  3. Screening for refractive errors at age 1 year: a pilot study.

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, R M; Traynar, M J; Walker, C; Wilson, J M

    1979-01-01

    Cycloplegic refraction of 1-year-old children is technically possible and is acceptable to mothers as a method for screening children for visual defects. The range of refractions found in a sample of 186 1-year-old children is reported. Prediction of which children are significantly at risk for squint and/or amblyopia is possible on the basis of refractions at age 1 year according to the criteria selected for an 'abnormal' refraction. Bilateral hypermetropia and/or astigmatism or anisometropia at age 1 year was significantly (P less than 1 in 10 000) associated with a child eventually being found to have squint or amblyopia. Both the age of screening and criteria of abnormality will probably need modification. +2.50 or more D hypermetropia in any one meridian of either eye at age 1 year was even more significantly (P = 0.000 000 05%) associated with squint and/or amblyopia. The possibility that meridional hypermetropia could be the basic defect in squint and amblyopia is discussed. PMID:435441

  4. Maintenance of Response Suppression Following Overcorrection: A 10-Year Retrospective Examination of Eight Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxx, Richard M.; Livesay, Jim

    1984-01-01

    A retrospective analysis of the progress of eight institutionalized subjects who had been successfully treated in overcorrection procedures 10 years earlier revealed that maladaptive behaviors of the highest functioning individuals showed the longest term and best suppression, and that staff tend to return to the status quo after the expert…

  5. How Do You Construct an Historical Claim? Examining How Year 12 Coped with Challenging Historiography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrau, Kirstie

    2015-01-01

    While preparing her Year 12 students for an International Baccalaureate paper on early Islam, Kirstie Murray became concerned that students' weaknesses in making claims would be particularly exposed by the challenging complexity of this topic's source record and its contested historiography. Drawing on the practice of other history teachers,…

  6. Examining the Relationship between Faculty-Librarian Collaboration and First-Year Students' Information Literacy Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, Veronica Arellano; Rabinowitz, Celia E.

    2016-01-01

    Using surveys, interviews, and a rubric-based assessment of student research essays, the St. Mary's College of Maryland Assessment in Action team investigated the relationship between faculty-librarian collaboration in a First Year Seminar (FYS) course and students' demonstrated information literacy (IL) abilities. In gathering information on the…

  7. [Experiences and results in hypertension screening in women between 20 and 65 years of age in Karl-Marx-City].

    PubMed

    Voigt, G; Börker, G; Edelmann, S; Hartung, A; Hartung, G; Heyne, S; Töpfer, V

    1980-11-15

    From 1975 to 1979 in the district of the City of Karl-Marx-Stadt 91,130 females at the age between 20 and 65 years were summoned to a gynaecologico-cardiological mass examination which was supported by computer. 56,460 females underwent the examination. According to the WHO-criteria two measurements of blood pressure were carried out, when increased blood pressure was present a third one and a fourth one by an examination group. A diagnostic standard programme was used. In the second measurement of blood pressure we established 19.8% of patients with hypertension and 28.6% patients with borderline values. 52.8% of the hypertensions were known. Of 10,685 females with known or established hypertension 10.1% underwent an optimum therapy. On the basis of these results a programme for the fight against hypertension was developed for the county Karl-Marx-Stadt.

  8. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Design Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Setting and participants Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts—Cohort I 1890–1919; Cohort II 1920–1959—and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Results Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). Conclusions This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. PMID:27091824

  9. Children's and Adults' Memory for Emotional Pictures: Examining Age-Related Patterns Using the Developmental Affective Photo System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordon, Ingrid M.; Melinder, Annika M. D.; Goodman, Gail S.; Edelstein, Robin S.

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine theoretical questions about children's and adults' memory for emotional visual stimuli. In Study 1, 7- to 9-year-olds and adults (N = 172) participated in the initial creation of the Developmental Affective Photo System (DAPS). Ratings of emotional valence, arousal, and complexity were obtained. In Study 2,…

  10. Soft tissue thickness values for black and coloured South African children aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Briers, N; Briers, T M; Becker, P J; Steyn, M

    2015-07-01

    In children, craniofacial changes due to facial growth complicate facial approximations and require specific knowledge of soft tissue thicknesses (STT). The lack of South African juvenile STT standards of particular age groups, sex and ancestry is problematic. According to forensic artists in the South African Police Service the use of African-American values to reconstruct faces of Black South African children yields poor results. In order to perform a facial approximation that presents a true reflection of the child in question, information regarding differences in facial soft tissue at different ages, sexes and ancestry groups is needed. The aims of this study were to provide data on STT of South African Black and Coloured children and to assess differences in STT with respect to age, sex and ancestry. STT was measured using cephalograms of South African children (n=388), aged 6-13 years. After digitizing the images, STT measurements were taken at ten mid-facial landmarks from each image using the iTEM measuring program. STT comparisons between groups per age, sex and ancestry were statistically analyzed. The results showed that STT differences at lower face landmarks are more pronounced in age groups per ancestry as opposed to differences per age and sex. Generally, an increase in STT was seen between 6-10 year old groups and 11-13 year old groups, regardless of ancestry and sex, at the midphiltrum, labiale inferius, pogonion, and beneath chin landmarks. This research created a reference dataset for STT of South African children of Black and Coloured ancestry per age and sex that will be useful for facial reconstruction/approximation of juvenile remains.

  11. A Longitudinal Study of Cardiovascular Stability in Active Men Aged 45 to 65 Years.

    PubMed

    Kasch, F W; Wallace, J P; Van Camp, S P; Verity, L

    1988-01-01

    In brief: Cross-sectional studies of physical performance generally show a linear decline in maximum aerobic power (V O2 max) with increasing age (about 1% to 2% per year). In the study described in this article, 15 men were serially followed for 20 years. They performed exercises consisting of walking, running, swimming, and cycling for an average of 3.6 days per week and requiring an energy expenditure of 2,104 kcal per week. Over the 20 years, directly measured V O2 max declined 12% (from 44.4 to 38.9 ml· kg(-1)· min(-1), or 0.27 ml· kg(-1)· min(-1) per year). Essentially no differences were seen in resting heart rate or arterial blood pressure. The authors conclude that physical training forestalls the decline in V O2 max until at least age 65. PMID:27427109

  12. Dairy Intakes at Age 10 Years Do Not Adversely Affect Risk of Excess Adiposity at 13 Years123

    PubMed Central

    Bigornia, Sherman J.; LaValley, Michael P.; Moore, Lynn L.; Northstone, Kate; Emmett, Pauline; Ness, Andy R.; Newby, P. K.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of an association between milk intake and childhood adiposity remains inconsistent, with few data available regarding the effects of the amount of dairy fat consumed. This study examined the relation between dairy consumption (total, full, and reduced fat) at age 10 y on risk of excess adiposity at age 13 y in participants of the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC; n = 2455). Intakes were assessed by 3-d dietary records. Total body fat mass (TBFM) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was examined at 13 y. Outcomes included excess TBFM (top quintile of TBFM), overweight, and change in body mass index (BMI). The highest vs. lowest quartile of total dairy consumers (g/d) at age 10 y did not have an increased risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.46, 1.16; P-trend = 0.28) or overweight (OR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.15; P = 0.24) at age 13 y. Children in the highest quartile of full-fat dairy intakes vs. those in the lowest quartile had a reduced risk of excess TBFM (OR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.41, 1.00; P = 0.04) and a suggestion of a reduction in overweight (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.06; P = 0.19) at age 13 y. Furthermore, the highest vs. lowest consumers of full-fat products had smaller gains in BMI during follow-up [2.5 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.2, 2.7) vs. 2.8 kg/m2 (95% CI: 2.5, 3.0); P < 0.01]. Associations with reduced-fat dairy consumption did not attain statistical significance. In this study, dairy consumption was not related to excess fat accumulation during late childhood. Estimates had wide confidence limits but generally showed inverse relations between dairy intakes and risk of excess adiposity. Additional prospective research is warranted to confirm the effects of dairy intake on obesity in children. PMID:24744312

  13. Twenty-year dynamics of hypertension in Iranian adults: age, period, and cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Mostafa; Yousefifard, Mahmoud; Baikpour, Masoud; Rafei, Ali; Fayaz, Mohammad; Heshmat, Ramin; Koohpayehzadeh, Jalil; Asgari, Fereshteh; Etemad, Koorosh; Gouya, Mohammad Mehdi; Mohammad, Kazem

    2015-12-01

    Hypertension is a well-known health problem all over the world. Many studies have assessed its prevalence and associated risk factors, but all were cross-sectional and did not evaluate the trend of hypertension through all three different temporal dimensions including age, period, and cohort. So, we aimed to assess the 20-year dynamics of hypertension via the age-period-cohort model. Data from 74,155 subjects aged 25-60 years gathered through five national health surveys (1990-91, 1999, 2003, 2007, and 2011) were used in this study. The age-period-cohort effect on hypertension was analyzed using the intrinsic estimator model. The prevalence of hypertension increased with age for both genders except for males in 2003 and 2011 periods with drops of 3.5% for ages 55-60 and 8.1% for ages 50-60, respectively. As for the period effect, the prevalence of hypertension was almost constant in all age groups for both genders from 1990-1999. The cohort-based prevalence of hypertension showed a declining trend in all cohorts for females except for 2011 in birth cohort of 1950-1955 which remains stationary. The trend of prevalence for males also follows a decreasing trend except for periods of 2003, 2007, and 2011; birth cohorts of 1945-1949, 1975-1980, and 1950-1960 increase by 3.5%, 1.9%, and 8.1%, respectively. The age effect on the prevalence of hypertension showed an almost monotonic increasing trend. The period effect increased the total prevalence of hypertension from 1992 to 1997. The cohort effect also showed a monotonic decrease in hypertension prevalence except for a few discrepancies. PMID:26481410

  14. A 3-Year Longitudinal Study Examining the Effect of Resilience on Suicidality in Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Nagy A.; Green, Kimberly T.; Beckham, Jean C.; Elbogen, Eric B.

    2013-01-01

    Background This study evaluated the correlation and role of resilience and resilience factors in predicting suicidal ideation and attempts in veterans. Methods In this 3-year longitudinal study, one hundred and seventy-six Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans were evaluated for a number of clinical and demographic variables. Longitudinal follow-up was performed approximately 3 years. Results Resilience at the initial assessment predicted lower suicidality at follow-up, controlling for suicidality at the initial assessment, suggesting a protective effect for resilience. With respect to specific domains of resilience, secure relationships and positive acceptance of change significantly predicted lower suicidality. Conclusions These findings have important implications for clinical care and for guiding future research efforts to increase resilience among returning soldiers. PMID:23376871

  15. Use of cessation methods among smokers aged 16-24 years--United States, 2003.

    PubMed

    2006-12-22

    Smoking cessation among adolescent smokers is relatively rare, with approximately 15.6% of smokers aged 12-19 years quitting smoking in a 4-year period (approximately 4% per year). Rates for failed quitting attempts among younger smokers are higher than those for adults (43%), with approximately 58% of high-school smokers having tried to quit at least once for 1 day or longer in the preceding year. To track the history of quitting behavior among smokers aged 16-24 years, Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, New York) initiated the 2-year longitudinal National Youth Smoking Cessation Survey (NYSCS) in 2003. This report summarizes key findings from the survey regarding lifetime use of smoking-cessation methods. The findings indicated that smokers aged 16-24 years who had tried to quit were more likely to use unassisted quitting methods than assisted quitting methods; none of the unassisted methods are recommended by the Public Health Service (PHS) clinical guidelines for treatment of tobacco use and dependence, whereas most of the assisted methods are recommended for adults and have been determined to be effective. Many youths aged 16-24 years are trying to quit smoking but often underestimate the rapid progression to tobacco dependence; therefore, PHS clinical practice guidelines for treating tobacco use and dependence recommend that certain clinical interventions proven to be effective among adults be used in youth-based approaches to cessation. In addition, other components of comprehensive tobacco-control programs also increase smoking cessation and should be implemented at CDC-recommended levels to lower tobacco use among youths and adults.

  16. Accident and emergency attendances by children under the age of 1 year as a result of injury

    PubMed Central

    Macgregor, D

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: To examine all accident and emergency (A&E) department attendances by children under the age of 1 year over a period of 12 months. Also to try to identify the prevalence and severity of accident types in small children and to suggest ways to reduce such accidents. Methods: The A&E department of the Royal Aberdeen Children's Hospital (RACH) serves a population of over half a million. All children under 1 year of age attending this department in the year 2000 had their case notes reviewed by the author and the cause, type, and severity of the illness or injury noted. Results: During the 12 month audit period 1416 new cases under the age of 1 year presented to RACH, 790 of which presented directly to A&E. Six hundred and eighteen (78%) were self referred and 116 children attended A&E on more than one occasion during the year. Four hundred and thirty four (55%) of the A&E attendances were classed as "accidents", the remainder were mainly for medical conditions such as respiratory distress. Two hundred and sixty four (61%) were caused by falls and 38% were admitted for inpatient management. Two hundred and twenty nine (29%) required radiographs, which revealed 30 fractures. Thirty seven children sustained scalds/burns and there were 33 accidental ingestions. Six cases were judged to be non-accidental. Conclusions: There is a surprisingly high rate of "accidental" injury in this age group, bringing into question the effectiveness of current accident prevention strategies. Perhaps specific prevention advice should be targeted at parents and carers of young children. There should always be a high index of suspicion for non-accidental injury. PMID:12533361

  17. Effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure and iron deficiency anemia on child growth and body composition through age 9 years

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R. Colin; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Molteno, Christopher D.; Jiang, Hongyu; Meintjes, Ernesta M.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Duggan, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Prenatal alcohol exposure has been associated with pre- and postnatal growth restriction, but little is known about the natural history of this restriction throughout childhood or the effects of prenatal alcohol on body composition. OBJECTIVE To examine the effects of heavy prenatal alcohol exposure on longitudinal growth and body composition. DESIGN 85 heavy drinking pregnant women (≥ 2 drinks/day or ≥ 4 drinks/occasion) and 63 abstaining and light-drinking controls (< 1 drink/day, no binging) were recruited at initiation of prenatal care in an urban obstetrical clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, and prospectively interviewed during pregnancy about alcohol, smoking, drug use, and demographics. Among their children, length/height, weight, and head circumference were measured at 6.5 and 12 months and at 5 and 9 years. Percent body fat was estimated at age 9 years using bioelectric impedance analysis. RESULTS In multiple regression models with repeated measures (adjusted for confounders), heavy alcohol exposure was associated with reductions in weight (0.6 SD), length/height (0.5 SD), and head circumference (0.9 cm) from 6.5 months to 9 years that were largely determined at birth. These effects were exacerbated by iron deficiency in infancy but were not modified by iron deficiency or measures of food security at 5 years. An alcohol-related postnatal delay in weight gain was seen at 12 months. Effects on head circumference were greater at age 9 than at other age points. Although heavy alcohol exposure was not associated with changes in body composition, children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS (PFAS) had lower % body fat than heavy exposed nonsyndromal and control children. CONCLUSIONS Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure is related to prenatal growth restriction that persists through age 9 years and an additional delay in weight gain during infancy. FAS and PFAS diagnoses are associated with leaner body composition in later childhood. PMID

  18. Examining the 10-Year Rebuilding Dilemma for U.S. Fish Stocks

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Wesley S.; Cope, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, fishery managers strive to maintain fish stocks at or above levels that produce maximum sustainable yields, and to rebuild overexploited stocks that can no longer support such yields. In the United States, rebuilding overexploited stocks is a contentious issue, where most stocks are mandated to rebuild in as short a time as possible, and in a time period not to exceed 10 years. Opponents of such mandates and related guidance argue that rebuilding requirements are arbitrary, and create discontinuities in the time and fishing effort allowed for stocks to rebuild due to differences in productivity. Proponents, however, highlight how these mandates and guidance were needed to curtail the continued overexploitation of these stocks by setting firm deadlines on rebuilding. Here we evaluate the statements made by opponents and proponents of the 10-year rebuilding mandate and related guidance to determine whether such points are technically accurate using a simple population dynamics model and a database of U.S. fish stocks to parameterize the model. We also offer solutions to many of the issues surrounding this mandate and its implementation by recommending some fishing mortality based frameworks, which meet the intent of the 10-year rebuilding requirement while also providing more flexibility. PMID:25375788

  19. Respiratory Viruses Associated Hospitalization among Children Aged <5 Years in Bangladesh: 2010-2014

    PubMed Central

    Homaira, Nusrat; Luby, Stephen P.; Hossain, Kamal; Islam, Kariul; Ahmed, Makhdum; Rahman, Mustafizur; Rahman, Ziaur; Paul, Repon C.; Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Brooks, W. Abdullah; Sohel, Badrul Munir; Banik, Kajal Chandra; Widdowson, Marc-Alain; Willby, Melisa; Rahman, Mahmudur; Bresee, Joseph; Ramirez, Katharine-Sturm; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Background We combined hospital-based surveillance and health utilization survey data to estimate the incidence of respiratory viral infections associated hospitalization among children aged < 5 years in Bangladesh. Methods Surveillance physicians collected respiratory specimens from children aged <5 years hospitalized with respiratory illness and residing in the primary hospital catchment areas. We tested respiratory specimens for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza viruses, human metapneumovirus, influenza, adenovirus and rhinoviruses using rRT-PCR. During 2013, we conducted a health utilization survey in the primary catchment areas of the hospitals to determine the proportion of all hospitalizations for respiratory illness among children aged <5 years at the surveillance hospitals during the preceding 12 months. We estimated the respiratory virus-specific incidence of hospitalization by dividing the estimated number of hospitalized children with a laboratory confirmed infection with a respiratory virus by the population aged <5 years of the catchment areas and adjusted for the proportion of children who were hospitalized at the surveillance hospitals. Results We estimated that the annual incidence per 1000 children (95% CI) of all cause associated respiratory hospitalization was 11.5 (10–12). The incidences per 1000 children (95% CI) per year for respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza, adenovirus, human metapneumovirus and influenza infections were 3(2–3), 0.5(0.4–0.8), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), 0.4 (0.3–0.6), and 0.4 (0.3–0.6) respectively. The incidences per 1000 children (95%CI) of rhinovirus-associated infections among hospitalized children were 5 (3–7), 2 (1–3), 1 (0.6–2), and 3 (2–4) in 2010, 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Conclusion Our data suggest that respiratory viruses are associated with a substantial burden of hospitalization in children aged <5 years in Bangladesh. PMID:26840782

  20. A developmental examination of the psychometric properties and predictive utility of a revised psychological self-concept measure for preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J

    2016-02-01

    Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ; Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-age children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor analysis revealed 3 latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., sociability, control, and assurance) from the lower order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for sociability and assurance, not for control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the 3 latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale-Short Form (SCBE-SF; LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26098231

  1. A developmental examination of the psychometric properties and predictive utility of a revised psychological self-concept measure for preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Jia, Rongfang; Lang, Sarah N; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J

    2016-02-01

    Accurate assessment of psychological self-concept in early childhood relies on the development of psychometrically sound instruments. From a developmental perspective, the current study revised an existing measure of young children's psychological self-concepts, the Child Self-View Questionnaire (CSVQ; Eder, 1990), and examined its psychometric properties using a sample of preschool-age children assessed at approximately 4 years old with a follow-up at age 5 (N = 111). The item compositions of lower order dimensions were revised, leading to improved internal consistency. Factor analysis revealed 3 latent psychological self-concept factors (i.e., sociability, control, and assurance) from the lower order dimensions. Measurement invariance by gender was supported for sociability and assurance, not for control. Test-retest reliability was supported by stability of the psychological self-concept measurement model during the preschool years, although some evidence of increasing differentiation was obtained. Validity of children's scores on the 3 latent psychological self-concept factors was tested by investigating their concurrent associations with teacher-reported behavioral adjustment on the Social Competence and Behavior Evaluation Scale-Short Form (SCBE-SF; LaFreniere & Dumas, 1996). Children who perceived themselves as higher in sociability at 5 years old displayed less internalizing behavior and more social competence; boys who perceived themselves as higher in control at age 4 exhibited lower externalizing behavior; children higher in assurance had greater social competence at age 4, but displayed more externalizing behavior at age 5. Implications relevant to the utility of the revised psychological self-concept measure are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

    2009-10-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention.

  3. Neurodevelopment of children under 3 years of age with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolters, Pamela L; Gropman, Andrea L; Martin, Staci C; Smith, Michaele R; Hildenbrand, Hanna L; Brewer, Carmen C; Smith, Ann C M

    2009-10-01

    Systematic data regarding early neurodevelopmental functioning in Smith-Magenis syndrome are limited. Eleven children with Smith-Magenis syndrome less than 3 years of age (mean, 19 months; range, 5-34 months) received prospective multidisciplinary assessments using standardized measures. The total sample scored in the moderately to severely delayed range in cognitive functioning, expressive language, and motor skills and exhibited generalized hypotonia, oral-motor abnormalities, and middle ear dysfunction. Socialization skills were average, and significantly higher than daily living, communication, and motor abilities, which were below average. Mean behavior ratings were in the nonautistic range. According to exploratory analyses, the toddler subgroup scored significantly lower than the infant subgroup in cognition, expressive language, and adaptive behavior, suggesting that the toddlers were more delayed than the infants relative to their respective peers. Infants aged approximately 1 year or younger exhibited cognitive, language, and motor skills that ranged from average to delayed, but with age-appropriate social skills and minimal maladaptive behaviors. At ages 2 to 3 years, the toddlers consistently exhibited cognitive, expressive language, adaptive behavior, and motor delays and mildly to moderately autistic behaviors. Combining age groups in studies may mask developmental and behavioral differences. Increased knowledge of these early neurodevelopmental characteristics should facilitate diagnosis and appropriate intervention. PMID:19748044

  4. Prevalence of a few variant dental features in children aged 11–16 years in Davangere, a city in Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Poornima, P.; Kirthiga, M.; Sasalwad, Shilpa; Nagaveni, N. B.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Variations in morphology of shape of teeth have always been of interest to dentists from ancient times. But to our surprise, till date, no studies related to the prevalence of dental features have been conducted in any part of the world. Aims: To evaluate the prevalence of a few variant dental features in a group of children aged from 11 to 16 years in the city of Davangere that belongs to the state of Karnataka, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted where children aged 11–16 years were selected (both girls and boys) and type III clinical examination was done. They were checked for the following features – Carabelli's cusp, 3-cusped maxillary 2nd molar, 5-cusped maxillary 1st molar, 4-cusped mandibular 1st molar, 5-cusped mandibular 2nd molar, cusp 6 present in mandibular 1st molar, and 7-cusped mandibular 1st molar. Statistical Analysis Used: The Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data. P value of 0.05 or less was considered for statistical significance. Results: Around 99.3% of the school children examined had at least one of the dental variations that were examined in relation to the shape of teeth. Conclusions: This study definitely provides us with baseline data, but further epidemiological studies are required to determine the prevalence of the above mentioned dental anomalies. PMID:27051217

  5. Quantified outdoor micro-activity data for children aged 7-12-years old.

    PubMed

    Beamer, Paloma I; Luik, Catherine E; Canales, Robert A; Leckie, James O

    2012-01-01

    Estimation of aggregate exposure and risk requires detailed information regarding dermal contact and mouthing activity. We analyzed micro-level activity time series (MLATS) of children aged 7-12 years to quantify these contact behaviors and evaluate differences by age and gender. In all, 18 children, aged 7-12 years, were videotaped while playing outdoors. Video footage was transcribed via Virtual Timing Device (VTD) software. We calculated the hand and mouth contact frequency, hourly duration and median duration of contact with 16 object categories. Median mouthing frequencies were 12.6 events/h and 2.6 events/h for hands and non-dietary objects, respectively. Median hourly mouthing duration was 0.4 min/h and 0.1 min/h with hands and objects. Median mouthing contact duration was 1 s and 1.5 s with hands and objects, respectively. The median object contact frequency for both the hands combined was 537.3 events/h with an hourly contact duration of 81.8 min/h and a median contact duration of 3 s. There were no significant differences in the mouthing activity between genders or age groups. Female children had longer and more frequent hand contacts with several surface types. Age was negatively correlated with hand contacts of floor and wood surfaces. Contact frequencies in this study are higher than current regulatory recommendations for this age group. PMID:21989500

  6. [Analysis of seven year prophylactic examinations of uterine cervix carcinoma in women living in the town of Kielce].

    PubMed

    Malarewicz, A; Rosiak, J

    1995-04-01

    The authors are presenting an analysis of the prophylactic examinations carried out within the period of seven years among women under the care of the Municipal Health Care Center in Kielce. They are also trying to evaluate the influence such examinations have in forming up the detectability of preneoplastic states and cancer of the uterine cervix. The studies were carried out from 1982-1988. A rule was adopted to repeat the examinations every two years. Owing to organizing difficulties, the first stage of the examinations took three years. The basis of the prophylactic examinations was cytologic examination. The detectability of intraepithelial neoplasm of the uterine cervix (CIN) in the three stages was 0.26%, 0.16%, and 0.07%. It was observed therefore, the gradual drop in the number of the detectable CIN among the population in the duration of the studies. A "shift" of detectable neoplasma changes in the uterine cervix in the direction of a higher percentage of preinvasive cancers and with an early invasion was observed. This shift, beside the stable decrement of the absolute number of detectable cancers is a favourable phenomenon and testifies the great usefulness and the effectiveness of the studies.

  7. Conceptual Organization at 6 and 8 Years of Age: Evidence From the Semantic Priming of Object Decisions

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Naomi; McGregor, Karla K.; Graham, Anne

    2007-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine children’s knowledge of semantic relations. Method In Experiment 1, the 6-year-olds, 8-year-olds, and adults participated in an object decision task. Participants in the primed group made object decisions in response to primes that were related taxonomically, thematically, or perceptually to the target objects. Those in the unprimed group made decisions about the same stimuli without the benefit of primes. In Experiment 2, the children in the primed group explained the taxonomic and thematic relations between the prime–target pairs used in Experiment 1. Results In Experiment 1, the strength of semantic relations did not vary with type or age, as taxonomic priming was as strong as thematic priming and the degree of priming did not reliably differentiate the 3 age groups. Differential priming effects between taxonomic and perceptual conditions, the former hastening and the latter slowing responses, suggested that the relation binding object concepts into taxonomies was not reducible to common physical features. In Experiment 2, the 6-year-olds had more difficulty describing taxonomic than thematic relations, whereas the 8-year-olds described both with ease. Conclusions Contrary to the shift hypothesis, taxonomic and thematic relations-structure concepts in children as young as 6 and into adulthood. In accord with the performance hypothesis, 6-year-olds’ representations of taxonomic relations are fragile and vulnerable to high task demands. PMID:17344557

  8. High prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among children aged 1 month to 16 years in Hangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D deficiency in children is widespread. But the vitamin D status of Chinese children is seldom investigated. The objective of the present study was to survey the serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in more than 6,000 children aged 1 month to 16 years in Hangzhou (latitude: 30°N), the capital of Zhejiang Province, southeast China. Methods The children aged 1 month to 16 years who came to the child health care department of our hospital, the children's hospital affiliated to Zhejiang university school of medicine, for health examination were taken blood for 25(OH) D measurement. Serum 25(OH) D levels were determined by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and categorized as < 25, < 50, and < 75 nmol/L. Results A total of 6,008 children aged 1 month to 16 years participated in this cross-sectional study. All the subjects were divided into subgroups according to their age: 0-1y, 2-5y, 6-11y and 12-16y representing infancy, preschool, school age and adolescence stages respectively. The highest mean level of serum 25(OH)D was found in the 0-1y stage (99 nmol/L) and the lowest one was found in 12-16y stage (52 nmol/L). Accordingly, the prevalence of serum 25(OH)D levels of < 75 nmol/L and < 50 nmol/L were at the lowest among infants (33.6% and 5.4% respectively) and rose to the highest among adolescents (89.6% and 46.4% respectively). The mean levels of serum 25(OH)D and the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency changed according to seasons. In winter and spring, more than 50% of school age children and adolescents had a 25(OH)D level at < 50 nmol/L. If the threshold is changed to < 75 nmol/L, all of the adolescents (100%) had low 25(OH)D levels in winter and 93.7% school age children as well. Conclusions The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency among children in Hangzhou Zhejiang province is high, especially among children aged 6-16 years. We suggest that the recommendation for vitamin D

  9. Longitudinal posturography and rotational testing in children 3-9 years of age: Normative data

    PubMed Central

    Casselbrant, Margaretha L.; Mandel, Ellen M.; Sparto, Patrick J; Perera, Subashan; Redfern, Mark S.; Fall, Patricia A.; Furman, Joseph M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To obtain normative longitudinal vestibulo-ocular and balance test data in children from ages 3 to 9 with normal middle-ear status. Study Design Prospective, longitudinal cohort Setting Tertiary care pediatric hospital Subjects and Methods Three-year-old children were entered and tested yearly. Subjects underwent earth vertical axis rotation testing using sinusoidal and constant velocity stimuli and performed the Sensory Organization Test. Results One hundred forty-eight children were entered and usable data were collected on 127 children. A linear increase in the vestibulo-ocular reflex gain as children aged was found, without a change in the phase of the response. An age-related linear increase in Equilibrium Scores, indicating reduced postural sway, was also observed. Conclusion These normative data can be used in the evaluation of dizziness and balance disorders in children. PMID:20416461

  10. Developing and Instituting a Parenting Course for Parents of Children Ages 3 through 14 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Innes, Ruth S.

    A licensed counselor working in a privately owned mental health facility implemented a practicum study designed to improve the parenting skills and quality of family communication in families with children between 3 and 14 years of age. Practicum goals were to: (1) give parents information that would improve their parenting skills; and (2)…

  11. The Five to Seven Year Shift: The Age of Reason and Responsibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sameroff, Arnold J., Ed.; Haith, Marshall M.

    This book reviews the contemporary state of knowledge on developmental transitions between 5 and 7 years. Contributions are: (1) "Interpreting Developmental Transitions" (Arnold Sameroff; Marshall Haith); (2) "The Child's Entry into the 'Age of Reason'" (Sheldon White); (3) "Is There a Neural Basis for Cognitive Transitions in School-Age…

  12. Portrayal of Life Form in Selected Biographies for Children Eight to Twelve Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Shirley Lois

    This study describes and analyzes, in a critical literary manner, selected biographies for children eight to twelve years of age. Biographies of Jane Addams, Cesar Chavez, Mohandas Gandhi, Toyohiko Kagawa, Martin Luther King, Jr., and Albert Schweitzer are viewed from the perspective of a literary criterion based on the principles of design to…

  13. Rejuvenating immunity: “anti-aging drug today” eight years later

    PubMed Central

    Blagosklonny, Mikhail V.

    2015-01-01

    The 2014 year ended with celebration: Everolimus, a rapamycin analog, was shown to improve immunity in old humans, heralding ‘a turning point’ in research and new era in human quest for immortality. Yet, this turning point was predicted a decade ago. But what will cause human death, when aging will be abolished? PMID:25844603

  14. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  15. Factors in African Americans Pursuing Higher Education after Age 30 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Davetta A.

    2011-01-01

    Many African Americans are leaving high school prior to graduation and are entering college for the first time beyond the age of 30 years, a phenomenon that has an effect on school systems, the community, and society as a whole. The research problem addressed was the need to understand the experience of an increasing number of African Americans…

  16. Correlates of Depressive Disorders in the Quebec General Population 6 to 14 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Lise; Valla, Jean-Pierre; Smolla, Nicole; Piche, Genevieve; Berthiaume, Claude; St.-Georges, Marie

    2007-01-01

    There are relatively few community-based epidemiological studies in which correlates of depressive disorders were identified through multivariate analyses in children and adolescents aged 6-14 years. Moreover, several family characteristics (e.g., parent-child relationship) have never been explored in this regard. The purpose of this study was…

  17. Prevalence of Obesity and Overweight Among School Children Aged 8-18 Years in Rajkot, Gujarat.

    PubMed

    Chudasama, Rajesh K; Eshwar, Tkm; Eshwar, Subhasini T; Thakkar, Dhara

    2016-08-01

    A total of 1496 school children aged 8-18 years (79.1% boys) participated in this study. Prevalence of obesity and overweight was estimated by using three different growth standards. Revised IAP 2015 growth standards detected more obese and overweight children than WHO 2007 and IOTF standards. PMID:27395837

  18. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  19. Plasticity, Person-Context Relations, and Cognitive Training in the Aged Years: A Developmental Contextual Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Richard M.

    1990-01-01

    Developmental contextualism focuses on changes in fused relations between developing people and their changing contexts. Research on cognitive training in the aged years provides evidence about plasticity throughout life because it alters developmental trajectories through revised person-context relations. The studies in the current issue support…

  20. Eating Problems at Age 6 Years in a Whole Population Sample of Extremely Preterm Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samara, Muthanna; Johnson, Samantha; Lamberts, Koen; Marlow, Neil; Wolke, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method: A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%])…