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Sample records for age family income

  1. Liminality and low-income aging families by choice: meanings of family and support.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Susan; Gazso, Amber

    2014-12-01

    Through the lens of individualization, aging families demonstrate changes both in family composition and in meanings of family and support. So, also, do low-income families that - in order to survive - choose flexible, sometimes novel, social-support relations, including kin and non-kin: these are aging families by choice. Applying the concept of liminality (transitional states of being) created through individualization, we explored the experiences of close relations in low-income families consisting of aging kin and non-kin members. Qualitative interviews with respondents representing two or three generations of aging families of choice illustrated how these families perceive the meanings of family and social support. We find that reciprocity is less vital to relationships of older with younger members in familial networks than may be expected. Liminality contours meanings and exchanges in low-income aging families of choice such that no matter how tenuous relations may be, they provide a sense of belonging and meaning. PMID:25298078

  2. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services, a... are programs serving children of migrant families and Early Head Start programs. (b)(1) At least...

  3. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  4. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  5. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  6. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN... § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  7. Relations of Growth in Effortful Control to Family Income, Cumulative Risk, and Adjustment in Preschool-age Children

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Moran, Lyndsey; Zalewski, Maureen; Ruberry, Erika; Kiff, Cara; Thompson, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    The study examined growth in effortful control (executive control, delay ability) in relation to income, cumulative risk (aggregate of demographic and psychosocial risk factors), and adjustment in 306 preschool-age children (50% girls, 50% boys) from families representing a range of income (29% at- or near-poverty; 28% lower-income; 25% middle-income; 18% upper-income), with 4 assessments starting at 36–40 mos. Income was directly related to levels of executive control and delay ability. Cumulative risk accounted for the effects of income on delay ability but not executive control. Higher initial executive control and slope of executive control and delay ability predicted academic readiness, whereas levels, but not growth, of executive control and delay ability predicted social competence and adjustment problems. Low income is a marker for lower effortful control, which demonstrates additive or mediating effects in the relation of income to children’s preschool adjustment. PMID:25253079

  8. Family Income at the Bottom and at the Top: Income Sources and Family Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Monnat, Shannon M.; Tsao, Hui-shien

    2009-01-01

    Attention has recently been focused on wealth as a source of long-term economic security and on wealth ownership as a crucial aspect of the racial economic divisions in the United States. This literature, however has been concerned primarily with the wealth gap between poor and middle-class families, and between the white and black middle class. In this paper, we investigate the incomes of families at the top and bottom of the family income distribution. We examine the sources of income and the demographic characteristics of these high-income and low-income families using family level data from the 1988-2003 Current Population Surveys. We find that, at the bottom of the distribution, transfer income is the major income source; in particular, income from social security, supplemental security, and public assistance. At the top, employment income is the largest component of family income. Non-white, female, and non-married householders are disproportionately located at the bottom of the family income distribution. These families consist of both young and old adults, with high-school educations or less, in low-level service occupations. Many are disabled, many are retired. Householders at the top of the income distribution are typically male, white, and married. Householders and spouses at the top are typically middle-age, with college educations, employed in professional service and managerial occupations. We find that wealth is not an important source of income for families at the highest percentiles. The highest income families during this period in the U.S. were not a “property elite”: their income is mostly from employment. We speculate, however, that they will join the “property elite” later in the life-course as they retire and receive income from their investments. PMID:20161570

  9. Income, age and financial satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Chang-ming

    2003-01-01

    Although the effects of income and age on subjective well-being have been widely studied, research on the effects of income and age on financial satisfaction, a major life domain to which income has direct relevance, remains limited. Analyzing data from the General Social Surveys, this article empirically examined the effects of income and age on financial satisfaction. These findings suggest that the social-psychological mechanisms underlying the age differences in the effects of income on financial satisfaction might not reflect a clear-cut status attainment versus status maintenance framework. The findings also served to caution future financial satisfaction research in the choice of income measures and the age grouping.

  10. Federal Income Tax Cuts and Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammartino, Frank J.

    This report identifies overall tax burdens faced by low income families, explaining how those burdens would change if certain types of federal income tax cuts were enacted. Using detailed household-level data on incomes and taxes, the report shows how federal income and payroll taxes differ for low income families and how these families benefit…

  11. A Digital Program Informs Low-Income Caregivers of Preschool-Age Children about Family Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara; Rifkin, Robin; Arnold, Kristen; Least, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the digital program, "Mealtime is Family Time", as a means of educating caregivers of preschoolers on the importance of family meals within the division of feeding responsibility framework. Methods: Descriptive design using 2 approaches: focus group program review and discussion or self-report survey after independent…

  12. Trends in Family Income: 1970-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roberton C.

    Comparing the experiences of different types of families, this report analyzes family incomes in the United States from 1970 to 1986. The adjusted family income (AFI) measure used in the analysis corrects for family size and for inflation, but does not take account of either in-kind income or taxes. After a section summarizing the report's…

  13. Body Dissatisfaction and Self-Esteem in Female Students Aged 9–15: The Effects of Age, Family Income, Body Mass Index Levels and Dance Practice

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Lilian A.; Novaes, Jefferson S.; Santos, Mara L.; Fernandes, Helder M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=−0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=−0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η2=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η2=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group. PMID:25713641

  14. Body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students aged 9-15: the effects of age, family income, body mass index levels and dance practice.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Lilian A; Novaes, Jefferson S; Santos, Mara L; Fernandes, Helder M

    2014-09-29

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of age, family income, body mass index and dance practice on levels of body dissatisfaction and self-esteem in female students. The sample consisted of 283 female subjects attending a public school with a mean age of 11.51±1.60 years and a mean body mass index of 18.72 kg/m2 (SD=3.32). The instruments used were the Body Dissatisfaction Scale for Adolescents and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, both of which showed good internal consistency (0.77 and 0.81, respectively). The tests were applied (two-factor ANOVA) to compare the students practicing and those not practicing dance; the differences in the levels of body dissatisfaction (p=0.104) and self-esteem (p=0.09) were considered significant. The results demonstrated that age negatively correlated with body dissatisfaction (r=-0.19; p<0.01) and that higher body mass index levels were associated with greater body dissatisfaction (r=0.15, p=0.016) and lower levels of self-esteem (r=-0.17, p<0.01) only in non-practitioners. The practice of dance had a significant effect on levels of body dissatisfaction (F=4.79; p=0.030; η(2)=0.02), but there was no significant difference in self-esteem (F=1.88; p=0.172; η(2)=0.02). It can be concluded that female children and adolescents practicing dance have higher self-esteem, and are more satisfied with their body weight and their appearance. Moreover, results showed that self-esteem and body dissatisfaction were influenced by the body mass index levels only in the non-practitioners group.

  15. A Pro-Family Income Tax.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Allan

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the Tax Reform Act of 1986, which doubled the personal exemption, increased the eligibility ceiling for the Earned Income Tax Credit, and reduced marginal income-tax rates. Compares the Act with the Acts of 1948 and 1969. Outlines criteria for a pro-family income tax policy. (BJV)

  16. Family income per capita, age, and smoking status are predictors of low fiber intake in residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Victória Félix Dos; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Santos; de Mello Fontanelli, Mariane; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesized that dietary total fiber intake may be less than recommendations and that the intake of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber may be associated with demographic, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Data were drawn from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents, adults, and elderly persons living in São Paulo city were included. Demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected from households. Dietary intake was measured using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All analyses were conducted based on the sample design of the study. The proportion of individuals who met the adequate intake (AI) for total fiber intake was examined, and foods that contributed to the intake of fiber and fractions were evaluated. The relationship of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber intake with demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle characteristics was determined using multiple linear regression models. A low proportion of individuals met the AI for dietary fiber. The foods that most contributed to total fiber intake were beans, French bread, and rice. Total fiber intake was negatively associated with former and current smokers and positively associated with family income per capita and age. Soluble fiber intake was negatively associated with current smokers and positively associated with female sex, age, and family income per capita. Insoluble fiber intake was negatively associated with former or current smokers and positively associated with age. In summary, residents in the city of São Paulo had a low fiber intake, and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors were associated with dietary fiber and intake of its fractions.

  17. What money can buy: family income and childhood obesity.

    PubMed

    Jo, Young

    2014-12-01

    This paper investigates the relationship between family income and childhood obesity. Using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 (ECLS-K), I report three new findings. First, family income and childhood obesity are generally negatively correlated, but for children in very low-income families, they are positively correlated. Second, the negative association between family income and Body Mass Index (BMI) is especially strong and significant among high-BMI children. Third, the difference in obesity rates between children from low- and high-income families increases as children age. This study further investigates potential factors that might contribute to a rapid increase in the obesity rate among low-income children. I find that their faster weight gain, rather than slower height growth, is a greater contributor to the rapid increase in their BMI over time. On the other hand, I also find that the faster weight gain by low-income children cannot be attributed to any single factor, such as participation in school meal programs, parental characteristics, or individual characteristics. These findings add to the current obesity debate by demonstrating that the key to curbing childhood obesity may lie in factors generating different obesity rates across income levels.

  18. Who Gains from the Demographic Dividend? Forecasting Income by Age

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang-Hyop; Mason, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Changes in the population age structure are known to influence the total income per person, but little is known about whether the changes are equally shared across the population or are concentrated on particular age groups and/or birth cohorts. The answer to this question has potentially important implications for income inequality, for human capital investment, and for fertility decision-making. We propose a new model of intergenerational transfers which distinguishes between the effects of changes in population structure and the effects of changes in family age structure. Using age-specific data from annual income and expenditure surveys of Taiwan between 1978 and 1998, we show that changes in age structure have had a very favorable effect on Taiwan's income growth. The gains are not equally shared by all age groups, however. Children and young adults have benefited the most, while the elderly have benefited the least. The population and family age structures have independent effects on per capita income; the effect of the population age structure is most important. Generational differences in per capita income are closely related to intergenerational differences in earnings, suggesting only a weak form of altruism. Finally, we predict that, on average, population aging will adversely influence per capita income growth in Taiwan in the coming decades. PMID:18443647

  19. Black-white mortality differences by family income.

    PubMed

    Sorlie, P; Rogot, E; Anderson, R; Johnson, N J; Backlund, E

    1992-08-01

    Death rates among US black men and women under 75 years of age are higher than for their white counterparts. The explanation for this excess risk, though attributed to socioeconomic factors, remains unclear. We calculated mortality rates by family income for blacks and whites in a representative sample of the US population (National Longitudinal Mortality Study). For persons aged less than 65 years of age, mortality rates are lower in those with higher family income for both blacks and whites, and both men and women. However, at each level of income, blacks have higher mortality than whites. Higher levels of family income are also associated with lower death rates from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and deaths from causes other than cardiovascular disease or cancer. After adjustment for income, blacks have higher death rates from each of these three general causes. For subjects below 65 years, the mortality gradient by income is larger than the gradient by race. The differences in mortality rates by race not accounted for by income may be due to other differences such as access to health care, type or quality of medical care, or behavioral risk factors that disadvantage black populations.

  20. Boosting family income to promote child development.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Greg J; Magnuson, Katherine; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Families who live in poverty face disadvantages that can hinder their children's development in many ways, write Greg Duncan, Katherine Magnuson, and Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal. As they struggle to get by economically, and as they cope with substandard housing, unsafe neighborhoods, and inadequate schools, poor families experience more stress in their daily lives than more affluent families do, with a host of psychological and developmental consequences. Poor families also lack the resources to invest in things like high-quality child care and enriched learning experiences that give more affluent children a leg up. Often, poor parents also lack the time that wealthier parents have to invest in their children, because poor parents are more likely to be raising children alone or to work nonstandard hours and have inflexible work schedules. Can increasing poor parents' incomes, independent of any other sort of assistance, help their children succeed in school and in life? The theoretical case is strong, and Duncan, Magnuson, and Votruba-Drzal find solid evidence that the answer is yes--children from poor families that see a boost in income do better in school and complete more years of schooling, for example. But if boosting poor parents' incomes can help their children, a crucial question remains: Does it matter when in a child's life the additional income appears? Developmental neurobiology strongly suggests that increased income should have the greatest effect during children's early years, when their brains and other systems are developing rapidly, though we need more evidence to prove this conclusively. The authors offer examples of how policy makers could incorporate the findings they present to create more effective programs for families living in poverty. And they conclude with a warning: if a boost in income can help poor children, then a drop in income--for example, through cuts to social safety net programs like food stamps--can surely harm them.

  1. Role of Service Learning Activities: Assessing and Enhancing Food Security in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duerr, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Many low-income families are at risk for food insecurity. In addition, with the aging of America, multigenerational families are becoming more prevalent, resulting in excessive strain and burden on the resources of low-income families. Family and consumer sciences educators need to teach their students about factors that contribute to food…

  2. A Test of the Family Stress Model on Toddler-Aged Children's Adjustment among Hurricane Katrina Impacted and Nonimpacted Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Callahan, Kristin L.; Mirabile, Scott P.

    2008-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family…

  3. Associations between family structure change and child behavior problems: the moderating effect of family income.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Rebecca M; Claessens, Amy; Markowitz, Anna J

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated conditions under which family structure matters most for child well-being. Using data from the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (n = 3,936), a national sample of U.S. families, it was estimated how changes in family structure related to changes in children's behavior between age 3 and 12 separately by household income level to determine whether associations depended on families' resources. Early changes in family structure, particularly from a two-biological-parent to single-parent family, predicted increases in behavior problems more than later changes, and movements into single and stepparent families mattered more for children of higher versus lower income parents. Results suggest that for children of higher income parents, moving into a stepfamily may improve, not undermine, behavior.

  4. Asteroid family ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoto, Federica; Milani, Andrea; Knežević, Zoran

    2015-09-01

    A new family classification, based on a catalog of proper elements with ∼384,000 numbered asteroids and on new methods is available. For the 45 dynamical families with >250 members identified in this classification, we present an attempt to obtain statistically significant ages: we succeeded in computing ages for 37 collisional families. We used a rigorous method, including a least squares fit of the two sides of a V-shape plot in the proper semimajor axis, inverse diameter plane to determine the corresponding slopes, an advanced error model for the uncertainties of asteroid diameters, an iterative outlier rejection scheme and quality control. The best available Yarkovsky measurement was used to estimate a calibration of the Yarkovsky effect for each family. The results are presented separately for the families originated in fragmentation or cratering events, for the young, compact families and for the truncated, one-sided families. For all the computed ages the corresponding uncertainties are provided, and the results are discussed and compared with the literature. The ages of several families have been estimated for the first time, in other cases the accuracy has been improved. We have been quite successful in computing ages for old families, we have significant results for both young and ancient, while we have little, if any, evidence for primordial families. We found 2 cases where two separate dynamical families form together a single V-shape with compatible slopes, thus indicating a single collisional event. We have also found 3 examples of dynamical families containing multiple collisional families, plus a dubious case: for these we have obtained discordant slopes for the two sides of the V-shape, resulting in distinct ages. We have found 2 cases of families containing a conspicuous subfamily, such that it is possible to measure the slope of a distinct V-shape, thus the age of the secondary collision. We also provide data on the central gaps appearing in

  5. Trends in the Family Income Distribution by Race/Ethnicity and Income Source, 1988–2009

    PubMed Central

    Monnat, Shannon M.; Raffalovich, Lawrence E.; Tsao, Hui-shien

    2015-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in U.S. income inequality has prompted a great deal of research on trends in overall family income and changes in sources of family income, especially among the highest income earners. However, less is known about changes in sources of income among the bottom 99% or about racial/ethnic differences in those trends. The present research contributes to the literatures on income trends and racial economic inequality by using family-level data from the 1988–2009 Current Population Survey to examine changes in overall family income and the proportion of income coming from employment, property/assets, and transfers across five different levels of family income for white-, black, and Hispanic-headed families. We find that at all income levels above the 25th percentile, employment income is by far the largest contributor to family income for all racial/ethnic groups. Employment income trended upward over the period in both real dollars and as a percentage of total family income. In this respect, white, black and Hispanic families are remarkably similar. The racial gap in total family income has remained fairly stable over the period, but this trend conceals a narrowing of racial differences in property income, mostly as a function of the decline in property income among whites, a widening of racial differences in transfer income among the bottom 25%, and a widening of racial differences in employment income, particularly at the top of the family income distribution. Income accrued from wealth is a very small component of overall family income for all three racial groups, even for the highest-income families (top 1%). PMID:26180265

  6. Welfare and the family size decision of low-income, two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Gensler, H

    1997-10-01

    This study determines the increase in family size given an increase in the per child welfare benefit for a family with children in the US. The family size decision was modeled as a discrete choice decision. Data were obtained from the 1980-91 March Current Population Surveys of the US Census Bureau on 13,516 low-income, nonmilitary, non-farm, two-parent families with at least one dependent child. Low income was any amount under twice the official poverty level. Parents were limited to ages 18-40 years. Alaska and Hawaii were excluded. The data sets for 1979-90 were pooled. The sample included 10% Blacks and 27% receiving some amount of welfare. Average ages were 28.9 years for mothers and 30.8 years for fathers. The average number of children was 2.43. Findings from the ordered probit model indicate that education had a negative impact on family size, and age and race had positive impacts. Wages did not have a significant effect. The state unemployment rate and the average state income had negative effects. Unearned income had a small but significant effect on family size. The marginal welfare benefit had a positive impact. Findings reinforce the wealth hypothesis, that wealthier societies have smaller family sizes. Family size declines with increases in wages and education, which reflect increases in opportunity costs for time. Family size increases with age, as rearing children is labor-intensive. Family size increases with unearned income and welfare benefits that make childbearing affordable. It is argued that poor people in developed societies behave more consistently like poor people in developing countries. A 100% increase in the per child welfare benefit resulted in a 2% increase in the number of children. The policy implication is that a considerable increase in welfare benefits will have only trivial behavioral impacts for the poor on family size decisions. PMID:12321292

  7. Family Income, School Attendance, and Academic Achievement in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Taryn W.; Hutchison, Lindsey; Winsler, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Low family income is associated with poor academic achievement among children. Higher rates of school absence and tardiness may be one mechanism through which low family income impacts children's academic success. This study examines relations between family income, as measured by receipt of free or reduced-price lunch, school attendance, and…

  8. Money Income of Households, Families, and Persons in the United States: 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This statistical compilation looks at personal income at three levels: household, family, and individual. Within each of these categories, income figures for 1984 and 1983 are related to selected characteristics such as type of residence, geographic region, race, educational level, age, size of household or family, and number of wage earners in…

  9. Income gradients in oral health according to child age.

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Sabbah, Wael; Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Murasko, Jason E; Gansky, Stuart A

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to confirm whether the well-known income disparities in oral health seen over the life course are indeed absent in 9- to 11-yr-old children, and to explore the role of access to dental care in explaining the age-profile of the income gradient in child oral health. We used data from the 2007 United States National Survey of Children's Health. Income gradients in parental reports of children's decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, broken teeth, bleeding gums, and fair/poor condition of teeth were assessed in stratified analyses according to age of child (1-5, 6-8, 9-11, 12-14, and 15-17 yr), using survey logistic regression to control for family-, parental-, and child-level covariates. Health insurance status and use of preventive dental care were the indicators for children's access to dental care. The adjusted ORs for the effect of family income on having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth were not significant in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Different age-patterns were found for broken teeth and bleeding gums. The attenuation of the income gradients in having decayed teeth or cavities, toothache, and fair/poor condition of teeth, previously seen in 9- to 11-yr-old children, was also seen in 15- to 17-, 12- to 14-, and 6- to 8-yr-old children, respectively, after controlling for children's access to dental care. This study supports the attenuation of income inequalities in oral health in 9- to 11-yr-old children. Access to dental care could attenuate income gradients in oral health in other age groups. PMID:26031837

  10. Explaining Relative Incomes of Low-Income Families in U.S. Cities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackley, Paul R.

    1988-01-01

    Uses an interurban analysis model to assess the position of lower income families. Identifies factors determining the relative incomes of the poor through use of a supply and demand model of aggregate income inequality. Found high school graduation a significant factor in income inequality. Implications for policy are discussed. (KO)

  11. Chronic family adversity and early child behavior problems: a longitudinal study of low income families.

    PubMed

    Shaw, D S; Vondra, J I; Hommerding, K D; Keenan, K; Dunn, M

    1994-09-01

    A beginning step in the prevention of child psychopathology is the identification of conditions associated with a disproportionately high incidence of behavior problems. Rutter and colleagues (British Journal of Psychiatry, 1975, 126, 493-509) have reported a dramatic increase in the probability of child adjustment difficulties as a function of multiple family stressors. However, few investigators have tested this association beginning in infancy. The present investigation examines this relationship at the ages of 1 and 2 with behavioral adjustment at age 3 among 100 low-income families. Broad support was found for the family adversity hypothesis, though sex differences were evident regarding individual correlates of problem behavior.

  12. Family income affects children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongxiang; Zhu, Liqi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine how family income and social distance influence young rural Chinese children's altruistic behavior in the dictator game (DG). A total of 469 four-year-old children from eight rural areas in China, including many children left behind by parents who had migrated to urban areas for work, played the DG. Stickers comprised the resource, while recipients in the game were assumed to be either their friends or strangers, with the social distance (i.e., strangers compared to friends) as a between-subjects variable. Children donated significantly more stickers to their friends than to strangers. Moreover, children from lower income families donated more stickers than children from higher income families. However, no gender and parental migrant status differences in children's prosocial behaviors were evident in this sample. Findings of this study suggest that children's altruistic behaviours to peers are influenced by family characteristics since preschool age. The probable influence of local socialization practices on development and the possible adaptive significance were discussed.

  13. Age structure and income distribution policy.

    PubMed

    Von Weizsacker, R K

    1988-01-01

    The dependence of earnings on age is a firmly established empirical fact. A simple microeconomic model of educational choice, being consistent with this observation, is designed. The model lends itself readily to aggregation over individuals and age groups. Thus, relations can be set up between economic variables influencing the aggregate distribution of labor incomes and demographic variables determining the age structure of the population. The main results of the present study are: 1) overall earnings inequality is shown to be an increasing function of life expectancy and a decreasing function of fertility. 2) The effectiveness of redistributive policies is sensitive to the age composition. In particular, the inequality-reducing effect of a 1% income tax rise is shown to be smaller the older the population.

  14. Alcohol Consumption Patterns among Undergraduates: The Impact of Family Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Catherine M.

    1995-01-01

    Reports the results of a study concerning college student characteristics and alcohol consumption. In general, family income was positively associated with likelihood of drinking. In the lowest income category, men were more likely to drink than women; in the highest income category, women were more likely to drink than men. (LKS)

  15. Women need skills, income and family planning.

    PubMed

    Mumtaz, K

    1990-01-01

    The myth in Pakistan is that women do not work outside the home but they do even though they tend not to be paid for it. They handle wheat and plant vegetables. They tend to and milk cattle. They handle manure used for fuel and fertilizer. They receive some money albeit small amounts for picking pesticide-laden cotton which puts them at risk. These work activities link them more closely with nature and natural resources than men. Yet modern harvest methods prevent women from gleaning fields for grain to sell to raise money for their family or for wheat stalks to use as fuel. This forces them to take wood from forests or shrubbery, thereby straining these limited resources. Other problems include population growth, male migration, landlessness, and insufficient health services. Society prefers sons. It considers women as childbearers and transitory persons. Females tend not to be educated, thus society does not value women. Social norms and infant mortality are associated with family size--the poorest women tend to have the highest fertility. More children serve as an economic safety valve. Many studies shatter the myth that women do not work. Policymakers and planners need to learn the results of these studies. The number of female-headed households rises. An increasing number of women must work to supplement their husband's income. To empower women, they need education and to acquire skills. Since they tend to be anemic, have an average of 9 births, and a life expectancy at birth for women of 55 years, they must also have access to health and family planning services. Nongovernmental organizations should help women to be more economically productive which allows them some economic independence. For example, in Gilgit, such an organization has trained women in tree planting, nursery rearing, vegetable growing, and caring for chickens. PMID:12285666

  16. A New Safety Net for Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zedlewski, Sheila; Chaudry, Ajay; Simms, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    During the 1990s, the federal government promised low-income families that work would pay. Parents moved into jobs in response to new welfare rules requiring work, tax credits and other work supports that boosted take-home pay. Unfortunately, the record shows that low-income families have not progressed much. Many do not bring home enough to cover…

  17. Improving Strategies for Low-Income Family Children's Information Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Haiyan; Washington, Rodney; Yin, Jianjun

    2014-01-01

    This article discussed the significance of improving low-income family children's information literacy, which could improve educational quality, enhance children's self-esteem, adapt children to the future competitive world market, as well as the problems in improving low-income family children's information literacy, such as no home computer and…

  18. Policies Affecting New York City's Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Hugh; Garcia, Kathryn; Amerlynck, Virginie; Blum, Barbara

    This report describes policy and program changes affecting New York's low-income families, issues related to these changes, and ways that city, state, and federal governments might further enhance the well-being of low-income families. Part 1 reviews major new policies enacted by the federal and state governments since the mid-1990s, noting how…

  19. Smart Choices for Healthy Families: A Pilot Study for the Treatment of Childhood Obesity in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinard, Courtney A.; Hart, Michael H.; Hodgkins, Yvonne; Serrano, Elena L.; McFerren, Mary M.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    This pre-post study used a mixed-methods approach to examine the impact of a family-based weight management program among a low-income population. Smart Choices for Healthy Families was developed through an integrated research-practice partnership and piloted with 26 children and parents (50% boys; mean age = 10.5 years; 54% Black) who were…

  20. Aging family caregivers: policies and practices.

    PubMed

    Heller, Tamar; Caldwell, Joe; Factor, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This review examines later life family support for adults with developmental disabilities from a life course perspective that takes into account social trends and changes in service patterns and in attitudes of families. Key issues addressed include: (1) trends affecting family caregiving, (2) health and social outcomes of life-long caregiving, (3) support needs of families, (4) family support policies and practices, and (5) recommendations for a research and policy agenda. Research examining outcomes of life-long caregiving has shown that most families adapt well to having a family member with disabilities. However, some families are at risk for poorer physical and mental health outcomes. These include cultural minorities and families of adults with behavioral challenges. Caregiving does seem to have a negative impact on maternal employment and family income as mothers often give up or cut back on employment to care for a child with developmental disabilities, who is more likely to continue living in the family home throughout adulthood than other adult children. Federal and state initiatives are addressing issues of family support through both the developmental disabilities and aging service systems.

  1. Family Incomes in Trouble. Briefing Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economic Policy Inst., Washington, DC.

    This briefing paper presents statistical evidence from a variety of data sources that the real income of the average U.S. household has been stagnant for a decade; primary causes are also examined. The major reasons identified for income stagnation are (1) declining real wages; (2) a less productive economy (economic growth has slowed down)…

  2. Family income, parental education and brain structure in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Noble, Kimberly G; Houston, Suzanne M; Brito, Natalie H; Bartsch, Hauke; Kan, Eric; Kuperman, Joshua M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J; Murray, Sarah S; Casey, B J; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Frazier, Jean A; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Kennedy, David N; Van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Kaufmann, Walter E; Kenet, Tal; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-05-01

    Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. We investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1,099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data imply that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children.

  3. Early Math Trajectories: Low-Income Children's Mathematics Knowledge from Age 4 to 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Fyfe, Emily R.; Hofer, Kerry G.; Farran, Dale C.

    2016-01-01

    Early mathematics knowledge is a strong predictor of later academic achievement, but children from low-income families enter school with weak mathematics knowledge. An Early Math Trajectories model is proposed and evaluated within a longitudinal study of 517 low-income American children from age 4 to 11. This model includes a broad range of math…

  4. Creation Vacation Brings Low-Income Families to Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullerton, Ann; Hulbert, Ted; Pierson, Paul; Waldorf, Jennifer; Calhoun, Annie

    2002-01-01

    A study examining outcomes of a free camp for low-income families in Oregon surveyed 19 participant families. Enjoying the outdoors, spending time together as a family, and meeting new people from their communities were significant outcomes. A 5-month follow-up survey found positive program outcomes that continued after the experience. (TD)

  5. Locked in Poverty: The Low Income Rural Family in Dane County, Wisconsin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, Charles

    Fifty low income, rural families living in Dane County, Wisconsin, having school-age children, were studied to obtain information that would be useful for community development work with families in rural areas, and to assess the delivery of social services in rural areas. Characteristics of the poor in Wisconsin and in the United States as a…

  6. Boosting Family Income to Promote Child Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Families who live in poverty face disadvantages that can hinder their children's development in many ways, write Greg Duncan, Katherine Magnuson, and Elizabeth Votruba-Drzal. As they struggle to get by economically, and as they cope with substandard housing, unsafe neighborhoods, and inadequate schools, poor families experience more stress in…

  7. Lower-income families pay a higher share of income toward national health care spending than higher-income families do.

    PubMed

    Ketsche, Patricia; Adams, E Kathleen; Wallace, Sally; Kannan, Viji Diane; Kannan, Harini

    2011-09-01

    All health care spending from public and private sources, such as governments and businesses, is ultimately paid by individuals and families. We calculated the burden of US health care spending on families as a percentage of income and found that at the national level, lower-income families pay a larger share of their incomes toward health care than do higher-income families. Specifically, we found that payments made privately, such as those for health insurance or out-of-pocket spending for care, and publicly, through taxes and tax expenditures, consumed more than 20 percent of family income for families in the lowest-income quintile but no more than 16 percent for families in any other income quintile. Our analysis provides a framework for considering the equity of various initiatives under health reform. Although many effects remain to be seen, we find that, overall, the Affordable Care Act should reduce inequities in the burden of paying for national health care spending. PMID:21900653

  8. Private Financial Transfers, Family Income, and the Great Recession

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Aaron; Pilkauskas, Natasha; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2014-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,701; 1998–2010), the authors studied whether the unemployment rate was associated with private financial transfers (PFTs) among urban families with young children and whether family income moderated these associations. They found that an increase in the unemployment rate was associated with greater PFT receipt and that family income moderated the association. Poor and near-poor mothers experienced increases in PFT receipt when unemployment rates were high, whereas mothers with incomes between 2 and 3 times the poverty threshold experienced decreases. Simulations estimating the impact of the Great Recession suggest that moving from 5% to 10% unemployment is associated with a 9-percentage-point increase in the predicted probability of receiving a PFT for the sample as a whole, with greater increases in predicted probabilities among poor and near poor mothers. PMID:25505802

  9. Role of expendable income and price in food choice by low income families.

    PubMed

    Burns, Cate; Cook, Kay; Mavoa, Helen

    2013-12-01

    The public health literature suggests that the cheapness of energy-dense foods is driving the obesity epidemic. We examined food purchases in low-income families and its relationship to the price of food and availability of funds. In-depth interviews were conducted with 22 parents with children less than 15 years of age whose major source of income was a government pension. A photo taxonomy, where participants sorted 50 photos of commonly purchased foods, was used to explore food choice. The most common food groupings used by the participants were: basic, emergency, treat and comfort. The process of food purchase was described by participants as weighing up the attributes of a food in relation to price and money available. Shoppers nominated the basic unit of measurement as quantity per unit price and the heuristic for food choice when shopping as determining "value for money" in a process of triage relating to food purchase decisions. Participants stated satiation of hunger to be the most common "value" relative to price. Given that the foods nominated as filling tended to be carbohydrate-rich staples, we suggest that public health initiatives need to acknowledge this triage process and shape interventions to promote nutrition over satiation. PMID:24008182

  10. Childhood parental divorce and cortisol in young adulthood: evidence for mediation by family income.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Amy J; Luecken, Linda J

    2009-10-01

    Childhood parental divorce has been linked with negative physical and psychological health in adulthood, potentially due to alterations in adrenocortical activity resulting from chronic stress. The current study evaluated cortisol in 94 young adults (mean age 19.9) from families characterized by parental divorce (n=43) or intact parental marriages (n=51). Salivary cortisol was assessed prior to and at 3 time points after a challenging speech task. Participants from divorced families had significantly lower cortisol across the experimental period than those from intact families, even after controlling for family conflict and current depression and anxiety. Lower family income was also associated with lower cortisol, and partially mediated the relationship between parental divorce and cortisol. Findings suggest that childhood parental divorce is associated with attenuated cortisol in young adulthood, which may be explained by lower income in divorced families.

  11. Money Income and Poverty Status of Families and Persons in the United States: 1986. (Advance Data From the March 1987 Current Population Survey). Consumer Income.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Population Reports, 1987

    1987-01-01

    This report presents data on the 1986 income and poverty status of families and persons from 60,500 households in the United States. Among the variables examined are the following: (1) race; (2) Hispanic origin; (3) sex; (4) age; (5) marital status; (6) residence; and (7) family status. The following highlights are included: (1) for the fourth…

  12. Income-generating activities for family planning acceptors.

    PubMed

    1989-07-01

    The Income Generating Activities program for Family Planning Acceptors was introduced in Indonesia in 1979. Capital input by the Indonesian National Family Planning Coordination Board and the UN Fund for Population Activities was used to set up small businesses by family planning acceptors. In 2 years, when the businesses become self-sufficient, the loans are repaid, and the money is used to set up new family planning acceptors in business. The program strengthens family planning acceptance, improves the status of women, and enhances community self-reliance. The increase in household income generated by the program raises the standards of child nutrition, encourages reliance on the survival of children, and decreases the value of large families. Approximately 18,000 Family Planning-Income Generating Activities groups are now functioning all over Indonesia, with financial assistance from the central and local governments, the World Bank, the US Agency for International Development, the UN Population Fund, the Government of the Netherlands, and the Government of Australia through the Association of South East Asian Nations.

  13. 24 CFR 982.516 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., including family members not related by blood or marriage. If any new family member is added, family income... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family income and composition... VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.516 Family income and composition: Regular...

  14. Nonstandard Schedules and Young Children's Behavioral Outcomes among Working Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joshi, Pamela; Bogen, Karen

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on how maternal employment in nonstandard schedules at night, on the weekends, or that rotate on a weekly basis influence preschoolers' behavioral outcomes. Examining low-income working mothers and their children aged 2-4 years from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study (N = 206), we find that maternal…

  15. Maternal Correlates of Growth in Toddler Vocabulary Production in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pan, Barbara Alexander; Rowe, Meredith L.; Singer, Judith D.; Snow, Catherine E.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated predictors of growth in toddlers' vocabulary production between the ages of 1 and 3 years by analyzing mother-child communication in 108 low-income families. Individual growth modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in children's observed vocabulary production and predictors of initial status and between-person…

  16. Characterizing the Achievement Motivation Orientation of Children from Low- and Middle-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Crystal A.; Burns, Barbara M.

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: The current study examined achievement motivation orientation in preschool-age children from low- and middle-income families. Participants were 126 children who were attending an urban Head Start site or a private preschool. Children's motivation orientation was assessed as being performance oriented or mastery oriented using a…

  17. A Quasi-Experimental Analysis of the Association between Family Income and Offspring Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Brian M.; Goodnight, Jackson A.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Rodgers, Joseph Lee; Rathouz, Paul J.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2009-01-01

    The study presents a quasi-experimental analysis of data on 9,194 offspring (ages 4-11 years old) of women from a nationally representative U.S. sample of households to test the causal hypotheses about the association between family income and childhood conduct problems (CPs). Comparison of unrelated individuals in the sample indicated a robust…

  18. The Syracuse University Family Development Research Program: Long-Range Impact of an Early Intervention with Low-Income Children and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lally, J. Ronald; And Others

    The Family Development Research Program was distinctive in its omnibus conceptualization of program, providing a full complement of education, nutrition, health and safety, and human service resources to 108 families from the prenatal period of their children until the children reached elementary school age. All families had an income of less than…

  19. About the modified Gaussian family of income distributions with applications to individual incomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabia, José María; Prieto, Faustino; Trueba, Carmen; Jordá, Vanesa

    2013-03-01

    In a recent paper in this journal [Q. Guo, L. Gao, Distribution of individual incomes in China between 1992 and 2009, Physica A 391 (2012) 5139-5145], a new family of distributions for modeling individual incomes in China was proposed. This family is the so-called Modified Gaussian (MG) distribution, which depends on two parameters. The MG distribution shows a satisfactory fit for the individual income data between 1992 and 2009. However, for the practical use of this model with individual incomes, it is necessary to know its probabilistic and statistical properties, especially the corresponding inequality measures. In this paper, probabilistic functions and inequality measures of the MG distribution are obtained in closed form, including the normalizing constant, probability functions, moments, first-degree stochastic dominance conditions, relationships with other families of distributions and standard tools for inequality measurement (Lorenz and generalized Lorenz curves and Gini, Donaldson-Weymark-Kakwani and Pietra indices). Several methods for parameter estimation are also discussed. In order to illustrate all the previous formulations, we have fitted individual incomes of Spain for three years using the European community household panel survey, concluding a static pattern of inequality, since the Gini index and other inequality measures remain constant over the study period.

  20. Australian women and income security for old age: A cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rosenman, L S; Winocur, S

    1990-07-01

    Australian women constitute a majority of the aged population in Australia, and are more likely than men to be single in old age as well as dependent upon the means-tested Age Pension with no, or only limited, income supplementation from other sources such as occupational superannuation. Based upon research on a national sample of 1016 Australian women, aged across the adult life span, this paper reports age cohort patterns of work, family, and economic expectations for old age. While work and family patterns of Australian women are changing, the clear trend remains towards labour force withdrawal and part-time work for long periods while children are present in the home. The implications of these patterns for income security in old age are discussed. PMID:24390303

  1. Helping Working Families: The Earned Income Tax Credit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Saul D.; Seidman, Laurence S.

    The impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) on working families was analyzed. The analysis established that the EITC is, on balance, a highly effective program that meets its primary objectives well. The following benefits of the EITC were identified: (1) it reduced the poverty rate in 1999 by an estimated 1.5 percentage points; (2) it is…

  2. South Dakota Low Income Families and Migration. Bulletin 637.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montoya, Marco; And Others

    Using the U.S. Census definition of poverty, an attempt was made to determine: how many poverty level South Dakota families there were in 1970 and where they resided; the socioeconomic factors explaining county differences in poverty incomes; whether those factors explaining poverty incidence would correlate with county differences in the extent…

  3. Paraprofessionals in Home Economics Programs for Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidenfrost, Nancy B.; And Others

    This booklet was developed as a guide for home economists who are responsible for teaching paraprofessionals (individuals who usually have no college degree and are trained and supervised by county home economists) how to teach low-income families. The content is in seven short sections: (1) Planning the Program discusses available resources,…

  4. The Coalition Parties' Family Tax Package. The Australian Family Income Transfer Project. AFIT Bulletin No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Helen; And Others

    The Australian Family Income Transfer Project (AFIT) is designed to examine the impact of government policies on the economic well being of Australian families. The AFIT Project uses published national statistics as well as data and information collected by the Australian Institute of Family Studies (the project's sponsor) in its own studies and…

  5. 24 CFR 984.304 - Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... set forth in 24 CFR part 913. (2) Section 8 FSS program: Calculation of family rent. For the rental... regulations set forth in 24 CFR § 982.505. (b) Increases in FSS family income. Any increase in the earned... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Total tenant payment, family...

  6. Variation in height and knee height in adolescents in Merida, Mexico, by head of household employment level and family income.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Vázquez, Adriana; Azcorra, Hugo; Falfán, Ina; Dickinson, Federico

    2013-05-01

    Variation in height among young adults has been linked to the living conditions of different social groups. The aim of this study was to measure variation in the height and knee height of young adults by head of household employment level and family income. The sample comprised 180 individuals (90 girls) aged 16 and 17 years living in the city of Merida, Mexico. Height and knee height were measured by anthropometry, and individuals' family social and economic data collected from their mothers. Variation in these measurements was analysed by three categories of employment and family income terciles. One-way ANOVAs were done by sex to compare mean height and knee height by employment and family income. Coefficients of variation were calculated and a Bartlett test applied. Significant differences in height and knee height were observed only between family income terciles. Both sexes were taller at the highest levels of family income (p<0.05) and men had the highest (p<0.05) knee height. Highest family income individuals exhibited the least variation in height and knee height. Similarity in socioeconomic conditions for families in the lowest family income tercile and with employee heads of household was not associated with lower variation of height and knee height.

  7. Family structure and income inequality in families with children, 1976 to 2000.

    PubMed

    Martin, Molly A

    2006-08-01

    Using 24 years of data from the March supplements to the Current Population Survey and detailed categories of family structure, including cohabiting unions, I assess the contribution of changes in family structure to the dramatic rise in family income inequality. Between 1976 and 2000, family structure shifts explain 41% of the increase in inequality, but the influence of family structure change is not uniform within this period or across racial-ethnic groups. In general, the estimated role of family structure change is inversely related to the magnitude of the changes in inequality. Furthermore, by including cohabitation, I find lower levels of total inequality and a weaker role for demographic shifts in family structure for trends in income inequality.

  8. 75 FR 77894 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB Recertification of Family Income...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Family Income and Composition AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer, HUD. ACTION: Notice...: Recertification of Family Income and Composition. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0082. Form Numbers: HUD-93101A,...

  9. The impact of deferring retirement age on retirement income adequacy.

    PubMed

    VanDerhei, Jack; Copeland, Craig

    2011-06-01

    UPDATE OF RSPM-POST-65 RETIREMENT AGES: The EBRI Retirement Security Projection Model (RSPM) was developed in 2003 to provide an assessment of national retirement income prospects. The 2011 version of RSPM adds a new feature that allows households to defer retirement age past age 65 in an attempt to determine whether retirement age deferral is indeed sufficiently valuable to mitigate retirement income adequacy problems for most households (assuming the worker is physically able to continue working and that there continues to be a suitable demand for his or her skills). The answer, unfortunately, is not always "yes," even if retirement age is deferred into the 80s. LOWEST-INCOME LEVELS, 50-50 CHANCE OF ADEQUACY: RSPM baseline results indicate that the lowest preretirement income quartile would need to defer retirement age to 84 before 90 percent of the households would have a 50 percent probability of success. Although a significant portion of the improvement takes place in the first four years after age 65, the improvement tends to level off in the early 70s before picking up in the late 70s and early 80s. Households in higher preretirement income quartiles start at a much higher level, and therefore have less improvement in terms of additional households reaching a 50 percent success rate as retirement age is deferred for these households. LOWEST-INCOME LEVELS, HIGHER CHANCES OF ADEQUACY: If the success rate is moved to a threshold of 70 percent, only 2 out of 5 households in the lowest-income quartile will attain retirement income adequacy even if they defer retirement age to 84. Increasing the threshold to 80 percent reduces the number of lowest preretirement income quartile households that can satisfy this standard at a retirement age of 84 to approximately 1 out of 7. IMPORTANCE OF DEFINED CONTRIBUTION RETIREMENT PLANS: One of the factors that makes a major difference in the percentage of households satisfying the retirement income adequacy thresholds at any

  10. 24 CFR 984.304 - Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... set forth in 24 CFR part 913. (2) Section 8 FSS program: Calculation of family rent. For the rental... regulations set forth in 24 CFR § 982.505. (b) Increases in FSS family income. Any increase in the earned... subpart F of 24 CFR part 5, and subpart K of 24 CFR part 982. For the rental voucher program, the...

  11. 24 CFR 984.304 - Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... set forth in 24 CFR part 913. (2) Section 8 FSS program: Calculation of family rent. For the rental... regulations set forth in 24 CFR § 982.505. (b) Increases in FSS family income. Any increase in the earned... subpart F of 24 CFR part 5, and subpart K of 24 CFR part 982. For the rental voucher program, the...

  12. 24 CFR 984.304 - Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... set forth in 24 CFR part 913. (2) Section 8 FSS program: Calculation of family rent. For the rental... regulations set forth in 24 CFR § 982.505. (b) Increases in FSS family income. Any increase in the earned... subpart F of 24 CFR part 5, and subpart K of 24 CFR part 982. For the rental voucher program, the...

  13. 24 CFR 984.304 - Total tenant payment, family rent, and increases in family income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... set forth in 24 CFR part 913. (2) Section 8 FSS program: Calculation of family rent. For the rental... regulations set forth in 24 CFR § 982.505. (b) Increases in FSS family income. Any increase in the earned... subpart F of 24 CFR part 5, and subpart K of 24 CFR part 982. For the rental voucher program, the...

  14. Low-income energy assistance. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Aging, Family and Human Services of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources, United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session, March 24, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    Fourteen witnesses spoke for the elderly and low-income families at this hearing on the proposed Emergency Energy Assistance to help those unable to cope with rising energy costs. By targeting directly at people, the proposal is designed to increase flexibility and efficiency rather than the funding level. Among the concerns expressed were the need to minimize paperwork and the importance of continuing home weatherization. Witnesses represented state governments and the Federal government and organizations for the elderly. Their testimony is followed by additional material submitted for the record. (DCK)

  15. 24 CFR 960.503 - Occupancy by over-income families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Occupancy by over-income families... URBAN DEVELOPMENT ADMISSION TO, AND OCCUPANCY OF, PUBLIC HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.503 Occupancy by over-income families. A PHA that owns or operates fewer than...

  16. 24 CFR 960.503 - Occupancy by over-income families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Occupancy by over-income families... URBAN DEVELOPMENT ADMISSION TO, AND OCCUPANCY OF, PUBLIC HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.503 Occupancy by over-income families. A PHA that owns or operates fewer than...

  17. 24 CFR 960.503 - Occupancy by over-income families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Occupancy by over-income families... URBAN DEVELOPMENT ADMISSION TO, AND OCCUPANCY OF, PUBLIC HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.503 Occupancy by over-income families. A PHA that owns or operates fewer than...

  18. Differential Calculation Abilities in Young Children from Middle- and Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Nancy. C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined the performance of kindergartners from middle- and low-income families on arithmetic calculations presented in a nonverbal format and in three verbal formats. Children from middle-income families performed better than those from low-income families on verbal calculation tasks but not on the nonverbal task. (BC)

  19. 24 CFR 960.503 - Occupancy by over-income families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Occupancy by over-income families... URBAN DEVELOPMENT ADMISSION TO, AND OCCUPANCY OF, PUBLIC HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.503 Occupancy by over-income families. A PHA that owns or operates fewer than...

  20. 24 CFR 960.257 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim reexaminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family income and composition... and Reexamination § 960.257 Family income and composition: Regular and interim reexaminations. (a... must conduct a reexamination of family income and composition at least annually and must...

  1. 24 CFR 960.257 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim reexaminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Family income and composition... and Reexamination § 960.257 Family income and composition: Regular and interim reexaminations. (a... must conduct a reexamination of family income and composition at least annually and must...

  2. 24 CFR 982.516 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Family income and composition... VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.516 Family income and composition: Regular and... a reexamination of family income and composition at least annually. (2) The PHA must obtain...

  3. 24 CFR 960.257 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim reexaminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family income and composition... and Reexamination § 960.257 Family income and composition: Regular and interim reexaminations. (a... must conduct a reexamination of family income and composition at least annually and must...

  4. 24 CFR 982.516 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Family income and composition... VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.516 Family income and composition: Regular and... a reexamination of family income and composition at least annually. (2) The PHA must obtain...

  5. 24 CFR 960.257 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim reexaminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Family income and composition... and Reexamination § 960.257 Family income and composition: Regular and interim reexaminations. (a... must conduct a reexamination of family income and composition at least annually and must...

  6. 24 CFR 982.516 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Family income and composition... VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.516 Family income and composition: Regular and... a reexamination of family income and composition at least annually. (2) The PHA must obtain...

  7. 24 CFR 982.516 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim examinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Family income and composition... VOUCHER PROGRAM Rent and Housing Assistance Payment § 982.516 Family income and composition: Regular and... a reexamination of family income and composition at least annually. (2) The PHA must obtain...

  8. 24 CFR 960.257 - Family income and composition: Regular and interim reexaminations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family income and composition... and Reexamination § 960.257 Family income and composition: Regular and interim reexaminations. (a... must conduct a reexamination of family income and composition at least annually and must...

  9. 24 CFR 960.503 - Occupancy by over-income families.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occupancy by over-income families... URBAN DEVELOPMENT ADMISSION TO, AND OCCUPANCY OF, PUBLIC HOUSING Occupancy by Over-Income Families or Police Officers § 960.503 Occupancy by over-income families. A PHA that owns or operates fewer than...

  10. 24 CFR 886.324 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reexamination of family income and... family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and... whether the family's unit size is still appropriate. The owner must adjust Tenant Rent and the...

  11. Impact of demographic characteristics in pet ownership: modeling animal count according to owners income and age.

    PubMed

    Martins, Camila Marinelli; Mohamed, Ahmed; Guimarães, Ana Marcia Sá; de Barros, Cristiane da Conceição; Pampuch, Raquel Dos Santos; Svoboda, Walfrido; Garcia, Rita de Cassia Maria; Ferreira, Fernando; Biondo, Alexander Welker

    2013-05-01

    Pet owner characteristics such as age, gender, income/social class, marital status, rural/urban residence and household type have been shown to be associated with the number of owned pets. However, few studies to date have attempted to evaluate these associations in Brazil. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to evaluate the association between age and income of owners and the number of owned dogs and cats in a Brazilian urban center. Pinhais, metropolitan area of Curitiba, Southern Brazil, the seventh largest city in Brazil, was chosen for this study. Questionnaires were administered door-to-door between January and February 2007 and data were analyzed by zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) models. A total of 13,555 of 30,380 (44.62%) households were interviewed. The majority (62.43%) of households reported having one or more dogs, with one or two dogs being the most common (29.97% and 19.71%, respectively). Cat ownership per household was much lower (P=0.001) than dog ownership, with 90% of the households reported having no owned cats. ZINB analyses indicated that income is not associated with the number of both dogs and cats among households that have pets. However, households from higher income categories were more likely to have dogs (but not cats) when compared to the lowest income category (P<0.05), contradicting a common belief that the poorer the family, the more likely they have pets. Certain age categories were significantly associated with the number of dogs or cats in households that have pets. In addition, most age categories were significantly associated with having dogs and/or cats (P<0.05). In conclusion, our study has found that age but not household income is associated with the number of dogs or cats in households that have pets; higher income households were more likely to have dogs when compared to low-income households.

  12. Family and cultural influences on low-income latino children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Catherine Decarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E

    2011-01-01

    This study examined family and cultural influences on adjustment among 90 low-income Latino middle school children (46% girls; average age = 11.38, SD = .66) and their primary caregivers (93% female; average age = 36.12, SD = 6.13). All participants identified as Hispanic/Latino, with 75% of families identifying as Mexican-origin Latino, and 77% of parents and 32% of children identifying as immigrants. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that family reframing interacted with familism, with high levels of both associated with fewer psychological symptoms, whereas passive appraisal is linked to worse functioning. Results are discussed with regard to the implications of this research for preventive interventions with families in poverty. PMID:21391028

  13. Diverse Family Types and Out-Of-School Learning Time of Young School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    =Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological parent families. In all four cases, however, the differentials are explained by the presence of siblings age 18+, lower levels of family income, or younger maternal age. PMID:21532970

  14. Family obligation values as a protective and vulnerability factor among low-income adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2015-06-01

    Adolescents' beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls.

  15. Family Obligation Values as a Protective and Vulnerability Factor among Low-Income Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents’ beliefs about family obligation often reflect cultural variations in their family context, and thus are important for understanding development among diverse youth. In this study, we test hypotheses about the role of family obligation values in risk behavior and mental health in a sample of 194 low-income adolescent girls (Mean age = 15.2; 58% Latina, 28% African-American/Black). We hypothesized that family obligation values can be both a protective and vulnerability factor, depending on the type of outcome and the presence of other risk factors. Across the sample, higher family obligation values tended to occur with indicators of positive family functioning (e.g., more frequent communication, less maternal hostility) based on mother and adolescent reports. As hypothesized, family obligation values moderated the relationship between established risk factors and adjustment in distinct ways, such that high family obligation values decreased risk in some domains (i.e., a protective factor) but increased risk in other domains (i.e., a vulnerability factor). Specifically, high family obligation values diminished the relationship between peer norms for risky behavior (sex and substance use) and individual engagement in those behaviors. At the same time, high family obligation values magnified the relationship between exposure to negative life events and poor mental health (PTSD and depressive symptoms). The results suggest that family obligation is an important but complex aspect of development among diverse adolescent girls. PMID:25351163

  16. Economic stress and cortisol among postpartum low-income Mexican American women: buffering influence of family support

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, Shannon L.; Luecken, Linda J.; Gress-Smith, Jenna; Crnic, Keith A.; Gonzales, Nancy A.

    2016-01-01

    Low-income Mexican American women experience significant health disparities during the postpartum period. Contextual stressors, such as economic stress, are theorized to affect health via dysregulated cortisol output. However, cultural protective factors including strong family support may buffer the impact of stress. In a sample of 322 low-income Mexican American women (mother age 18–42; 84% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000–$15,000), we examined the interactive influence of economic stress and family support at 6 weeks postpartum on maternal cortisol output (AUCg) during a mildly challenging mother-infant interaction task at 12 weeks postpartum, controlling for 6 week maternal cortisol and depressive symptoms. The interaction significantly predicted cortisol output such that higher economic stress predicted higher cortisol only among women reporting low family support. These results suggest that family support is an important protective resource for postpartum Mexican American women experiencing elevated economic stress. PMID:26332931

  17. EITC Participation and Association with Financial Distress among Rural Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmunson, Clinton G.; Son, Seohee; Lee, Jaerim; Bauer, Jean W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) participation among rural, low-income families, by income level, and investigated whether nonparticipation corresponds with increased financial distress. Rates of EITC participation among 314 rural low-income mothers were lower than national averages, especially among the lowest earners. There…

  18. Childhood family income and life outcomes in adulthood: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Sheree J; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to use data gathered over the course of a 30-year longitudinal study to examine the linkages between economic circumstances in childhood and subsequent developmental outcomes spanning educational achievement; economic circumstances; crime; mental health; and teenage pregnancy. All of these outcomes have been linked with childhood economic conditions and it is frequently argued that reducing income inequalities will mitigate psychosocial risks of children reared in families facing economic hardship. Alternatively it may be suggested that the associations between childhood family economic circumstances and later outcomes are mediated by individual, family and social factors that are correlated with low family income and contribute to later outcomes. To examine these issues, data were drawn from a birth cohort of New Zealand children born in 1977 and followed to age 30. Declining childhood family income was associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including: lower educational achievement; poorer economic circumstances; higher rates of criminal offending; higher rates of mental health problems; and higher rates of teenage pregnancy. After covariate adjustment, childhood family income remained significantly associated with educational achievement and economic circumstances, but was no longer significantly associated with the mental health, offending and teenage pregnancy outcomes. These findings suggest that, after due allowance has been made for social, family and individual contextual factors, low family income during childhood is associated with a range of educational and economic disadvantages in adulthood but is not directly related to increased risks of crime, mental health problems or teen pregnancy. PMID:22486841

  19. Theme: The Family in an Aging World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, George C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "The World Ages, the Family Ages" (Myers, Agree); "Grandparents as Parents in Developing Countries" (Tout); "Grandparents as Parents: The American Experience" (Minkler); "Playing for Informal Care" (Evers, Leichsenring); "Family Care in America" (Keigher, Stone); "Concerns for Carers: Family Support in Denmark" (Leeson, Tufte);…

  20. RECRUITING LOW-INCOME FAMILIES FOR FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION PROGRAMS, FOUR REPORTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CANNON, DOLLY N.

    THE FIRST OF THE FOUR REPORTS IN THIS PUBLICATION IS A DISCUSSION OF THE METHODS USED BY THE CHILD STUDY ASSOCIATION TO RECRUIT LOW-INCOME PARENTS FOR ITS FAMILY LIFE EDUCATION PROGRAMS. THE SECOND REPORT IS A DESCRIPTION OF TWO PARENT EDUCATION CLASSES OPERATED BY THE LOS ANGELES PUBLIC SCHOOLS. ONE OF THESE CLASSES IS AN EVENING CLASS FOR…

  1. Family Income Affects Children’s Altruistic Behavior in the Dictator Game

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yongxiang; Zhu, Liqi; Chen, Zhe

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine how family income and social distance influence young rural Chinese children’s altruistic behavior in the dictator game (DG). A total of 469 four-year-old children from eight rural areas in China, including many children left behind by parents who had migrated to urban areas for work, played the DG. Stickers comprised the resource, while recipients in the game were assumed to be either their friends or strangers, with the social distance (i.e., strangers compared to friends) as a between-subjects variable. Children donated significantly more stickers to their friends than to strangers. Moreover, children from lower income families donated more stickers than children from higher income families. However, no gender and parental migrant status differences in children’s prosocial behaviors were evident in this sample. Findings of this study suggest that children’s altruistic behaviours to peers are influenced by family characteristics since preschool age. The probable influence of local socialization practices on development and the possible adaptive significance were discussed. PMID:24265820

  2. The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit. NBER Working Paper No. 14599

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Gordon; Lochner, Lance

    2008-01-01

    Past estimates of the effect of family income on child development have often been plagued by endogeneity and measurement error. In this paper, we use two simulated instrumental variables strategies to estimate the causal effect of income on children's math and reading achievement. Our identification derives from the large, non-linear changes in…

  3. Reciprocal influences between maternal language and children's language and cognitive development in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S

    2014-03-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language. Child cognitive development was assessed at both ages and child receptive vocabulary was assessed at age 3;0. Maternal language related to children's lexical diversity at each age, and maternal language at age 2;0, was associated with children's receptive vocabulary and cognitive development at age 3;0. Furthermore, children's cognitive development at age 2;0 was associated with maternal language at age 3;0 controlling for maternal language at age 2;0, suggesting bi-directionality in mother-child associations. The quantity and diversity of the language children hear at home has developmental implications for children from low-income households. In addition, children's early cognitive skills further feed into their subsequent language experiences.

  4. State-level income inequality and family burden of U.S. families raising children with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Parish, Susan L; Rose, Roderick A; Dababnah, Sarah; Yoo, Joan; Cassiman, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that income inequality within a nation influences health outcomes net of the effect of any given household's absolute income. We tested the hypothesis that state-level income inequality in the United States is associated with increased family burden for care and health-related expenditures for low-income families of children with special health care needs. We analyzed the 2005-06 wave of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a probability sample of approximately 750 children with special health care needs in each state and the District of Columbia in the US Our measure of state-level income inequality was the Gini coefficient. Dependent measures of family caregiving burden included whether the parent received help arranging or coordinating the child's care and whether the parent stopped working due to the child's health. Dependent measures of family financial burden included absolute burden (spending in past 12 months for child's health care needs) and relative burden (spending as a proportion of total family income). After controlling for a host of child, family, and state factors, including family income and measures of the severity of a child's impairments, state-level income inequality has a significant and independent association with family burden related to the health care of their children with special health care needs. Families of children with special health care needs living in states with greater levels of income inequality report higher rates of absolute and relative financial burden.

  5. LOW INCOME FAMILY, TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS, HOME ECONOMICS CURRICULUM CONSTRUCTION, EDUCATION 685.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANN, OPAL H.

    A STUDY WAS MADE OF THE NEED FOR EXTENSION WORK WITH LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN EASTERN KENTUCKY (APPALACHIA) AND OF THE PROBLEMS AND TRAINING NEEDS OF HOME DEMONSTRATION EXTENSION AGENTS WHO WORK WITH THESE FAMILIES. THE AGENTS FELT THEY HAD A RESPONSIBILITY TO HELP LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN BUDGETING TIME, EFFORT, AND RESOURCES TO MEET MINIMUM…

  6. Family Income and Parenting: The Role of Parental Depression and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chih-Yuan S.; Anderson, Jared R.; Horowitz, Jason L.; August, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relations among family income, social support, parental depression, and parenting among 290 predominantly rural families with children at risk for disruptive or socially withdrawn behaviors. Structural equation modeling and multiple regression were used, and the results showed that low family income was related to high…

  7. 24 CFR 882.515 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... income and composition. See 24 CFR part 5. (d) Continuation of housing assistance payments. A family's... this chapter and determine whether the family's unit size is still appropriate (see § 882.213). The PHA... concerning a change in the family's income or other circumstances between regularly scheduled...

  8. Health Care, Health and Illness Behavior of Low Income Families in the State of Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolaria, Bhopinder S.

    This study on health care and health and illness of low income families is based on findings from interviews with 301 low-income families in the state of Maine. The findings show that a majority of the families have various health or medical problems which need immediate attention. These problems range from dental care and chronic medical…

  9. For love and money? The impact of family structure on family income.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Adam; Sawhill, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    What do the half-century decline in U.S. marriage and the attendant rise in single parenthood mean for the economic well-being of children, especially children living in single-parent families? Adam Thomas and Isabel Sawhill show how differing living arrangements can be expected to affect families' economic well-being. Married-parent and cohabiting households, for example, can benefit from economies of scale and from having two adult earners. The availability of child support for single-parent families and the marriage penalties in the tax and transfer system reduce but rarely completely offset the economic benefits of marriage. Consistent with these expectations, national data on family income show that across all races and for a variety of income measures, children in lone-parent families (single-parent households with no cohabiter) have less family income and are more likely to be poor than children in married-parent families. Cohabiting families are generally better off economically than lone-parent families, but considerably worse off than married-parent families. Thomas and Sawhill acknowledge the possibility that the link between famlily structure and family resources may not be causal. But new research that simulates niarriages between existing single mothers and unattached men with similar characteristics suggests that family structure does affect family resources and that child poverty rates would drop substantially if these mothers were to marry. It does not necessarily follow, however, that policymakers ought to, or even can, do anything about family structure. Marriage is not an economic cure-all for the complex problem of child poverty. It would be a mistake for policymakers to focus on promoting marriage to the exclusion of encouraging and rewarding work or addressing problems such as early out-of-wedlock childbearing. Still, Thomas and Sawhill conclude that a continuation of recent declines in single parenthood, linked most recently to declines in

  10. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... please turn Javascript on. 7 Smart Steps to Aging Well 1. Control Blood Pressure You can have ...

  11. Family factors for child meal skipping in low-income families in Korea.

    PubMed

    Bae, Hwa-ok; Kim, Meesook; Hong, Soon-Myung

    2010-04-01

    The present study proposed to examine whether family factors are associated with child meal skipping in Korea. Family factors were divided into risk factors and protective factors on conceptual and theoretical bases. The sample was obtained from the Survey of Meal Service for Poor Children conducted by the Korea Institute for Health and Social Affairs in 2007. A final sample was composed of 944 children in low-income families who are served by the public meal program. Child meal skipping was positively associated with risk factors and negatively associated with protective factors, as hypothesized. Single-father family, middle or small urban area, presence of caretaker after school, health level of caretaker, caretaker's concern about child's diet, and degree of family cohesion significantly predicted child meal skipping. The authors suggest a few implications for practice based on the study findings.

  12. Associations between family food behaviors, maternal depression, and child weight among low-income children

    PubMed Central

    McCurdy, Karen; Gorman, Kathleen S.; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Metallinos-Katsaras

    2014-01-01

    Although low-income children are at greater risk for overweight and obesity than their higher income counterparts, the majority of poor children are not overweight. The current study examined why such variation exists among diverse young children in poor families. Cross-sectional data were collected on 164 low-income, preschool aged children and their mothers living in two Rhode Island cities. Over half of the sample was Hispanic (55%). Mothers completed measures of family food behaviors and depression while trained assistants collected anthropometric data from children at seven day care centers and a Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program outreach project. Multivariate analysis of covariance revealed that higher maternal depression scores were associated with lower scores on maternal presence when child eats (P < .05), maternal control of child’s eating routines (P < .03), and food resource management skills (P < .01), and with higher scores on child control of snacking (P < .03) and negative mealtime practices (P < .05). Multiple regression results revealed that greater maternal presence whenever the child ate was significantly associated with lower child BMI z scores (β = .166, P < .05). Logistic regression analyses indicated that higher scores on food resource management skills reduced the odds of child overweight (odds ratios = .72 – .95, P < .01). Maternal depression did not modify the relationship between family food behaviors and child weight. Overall, caregiver presence whenever a child eats, not just at meals, and better parental food resource management skills may promote healthier weights in low-income preschoolers. Further research is needed to identify the mechanisms that connect caregiver presence and food resource management skills to healthier weights for this age group. PMID:24768937

  13. The causal effect of family income on child health in the U.K.

    PubMed

    Kuehnle, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Recent studies examining the effect of family income on child health have been unable to account for the endogeneity of income. Using data from a British cohort study, we address this gap by exploiting exogenous variation in local labour market characteristics to instrument for family income. We estimate the causal effect of family income on different measures of child health and explore the role of potential transmission mechanisms. We find that income has a very small but significant causal effect on subjective child health and no significant effect on chronic health conditions, apart from respiratory illnesses. Using the panel structure, we show that the timing of income does not matter for young children. Moreover, our results provide further evidence that parental health does not drive a spurious relationship between family income and child health. Our study implies that financial transfers are unlikely to deliver substantial improvements in child health.

  14. Outcome of a Food Observational Study among Low-Income Preschool Children Participating in a Family-Style Meal Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treviño, Roberto P.; Vasquez, Liset; Shaw-Ridley, Mary; Mosley, Desiree; Jechow, Katherine; Piña, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In the United States, one out of every seven low-income children between the ages of 2 and 5 years is at risk for overweight and obesity. Formative research was conducted to determine if preschool children participating in family-style meals consumed the minimum food servings according to U.S. Department of Agriculture dietary…

  15. Reciprocal Influences between Maternal Language and Children's Language and Cognitive Development in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Lulu; Spier, Elizabeth T.; Tamis-Lemonda, Catherine S.

    2014-01-01

    We examined reciprocal associations between early maternal language use and children's language and cognitive development in seventy ethnically diverse, low-income families. Mother-child dyads were videotaped when children were aged 2;0 and 3;0. Video transcripts were analyzed for quantity and lexical diversity of maternal and child language.…

  16. iPads Enhance Social Interaction Skills among Hearing-Impaired Children of Low Income Families in Saudi Arabia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bahatheg, Raja Omar

    2015-01-01

    This research tries to investigate the technical contribution on improving the social interaction of hearing-impaired children from low income families in Saudi Arabia. It compares the social interaction skills of hearing-impaired children who do and do not have access to iPads. To achieve the goals of the study; seventeen children aged five years…

  17. Feeding style differences in food parenting practices associated with fruit and vegetable intake in children fromlow-income families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the moderating effects of feeding styles on the relationship between food parenting practices and fruit and vegetable intake in low-income families with preschool-aged children. Focus group meetings with Head Start parents were conducted by using the nomina...

  18. Work, Family and Community Support as Predictors of Work-Family Conflict: A Study of Low-Income Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griggs, Tracy Lambert; Casper, Wendy J.; Eby, Lillian T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines relationships between support from work, family and community domains with time- and strain-based work-family conflict in a sample of low-income workers. Results reveal significant within-domain and cross-domain relationships between support from all three life domains with work--family conflict. With respect to family support,…

  19. Ecocultural patterns of family engagement among low-income Latino families of preschool children.

    PubMed

    McWayne, Christine M; Melzi, Gigliana; Limlingan, Maria Cristina; Schick, Adina

    2016-07-01

    For the 5 million low-income Latino children in the United States who are disproportionately impacted by the numerous risk factors associated with poverty, it is essential to identify proximal protective factors that mitigate these risks and bolster the academic and social skills that are foundational to a successful transition into formal schooling. Using ecocultural theory as a lens to guide this work, the present study: (a) described patterns of culture-contextualized family engagement among a low-income, Latino sample, and (b) examined relations between these patterns, family demographic factors, and children's language and social skills in preschool. Across Spanish and English language subsamples, we found evidence that there is heterogeneity in patterns of family engagement within and across language groups, such that different forms of family engagement defined the high engagement profiles in particular. We also found that demographic factors (such as child gender, family structure, and parental education and employment) predicted these patterns differentially across language groups, and that these patterns related to children's social and language skills in meaningful ways. Findings provide directions for future research, theory, and practice with this heterogeneous cultural group. (PsycINFO Database Record

  20. Ecocultural patterns of family engagement among low-income Latino families of preschool children.

    PubMed

    McWayne, Christine M; Melzi, Gigliana; Limlingan, Maria Cristina; Schick, Adina

    2016-07-01

    For the 5 million low-income Latino children in the United States who are disproportionately impacted by the numerous risk factors associated with poverty, it is essential to identify proximal protective factors that mitigate these risks and bolster the academic and social skills that are foundational to a successful transition into formal schooling. Using ecocultural theory as a lens to guide this work, the present study: (a) described patterns of culture-contextualized family engagement among a low-income, Latino sample, and (b) examined relations between these patterns, family demographic factors, and children's language and social skills in preschool. Across Spanish and English language subsamples, we found evidence that there is heterogeneity in patterns of family engagement within and across language groups, such that different forms of family engagement defined the high engagement profiles in particular. We also found that demographic factors (such as child gender, family structure, and parental education and employment) predicted these patterns differentially across language groups, and that these patterns related to children's social and language skills in meaningful ways. Findings provide directions for future research, theory, and practice with this heterogeneous cultural group. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27253261

  1. Shopping Behaviors of Low-income Families during a 1-Month Period of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darko, Janice; Eggett, Dennis L.; Richards, Rickelle

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore food shopping behaviors among low-income families over the course of the month. Design: Two researchers conducted 13 90-minute focus groups. Setting: Two community organizations serving low-income populations and a university campus. Participants: Low-income adults (n = 72) who were the primary household food shoppers and who…

  2. Beverage consumption of mother-toddler dyads in families with limited incomes.

    PubMed

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Lee, Seung-Yeon; Schiffman, Rachel F; Horodynski, Mildred Omar; McKelvey, Lorraine

    2006-12-01

    Beverage intake and diet quality of toddlers from families with limited incomes were described and compared to their mother's beverage intake. At both 2 and 3 years of age, the children's average milk intake was adequate, the juice intake was twice that recommended, and the intake of sweetened beverages was high. Mothers who consumed more than 12 fl oz of soft drinks per day were nearly four times more likely to have a child with poor diet quality. Health practitioners should do focused screening of mothers' and children's beverage intakes to quickly assess those at high risk for poor diets.

  3. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction Among 13 year Old Boys and Girls: A Multilevel Study in 35 Countries.

    PubMed

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma; Richter, Matthias; Davies, Carolyn A; Schnohr, Christina W; Due, Pernille; Currie, Candace

    2011-11-01

    Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequality on this relationship. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: WHO collaborative Study (N = 58,352 across 35 countries) were analysed using multilevel linear and logistic regression analyses for outcome measures life satisfaction score and binary high/low life satisfaction. National income and income inequality were associated with aggregated life satisfaction score and prevalence of high life satisfaction. Within-country socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction existed even after adjustment for family structure. This relationship was curvilinear and varied cross-nationally. Socioeconomic inequalities were greatest in poor countries and in countries with unequal income distribution. GDP (PPP US$) and Gini did not explain between country variance in socioeconomic inequalities in life satisfaction. The existence of, and variation in, within-country socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent life satisfaction highlights the importance of identifying and addressing mediating factors during this life stage.

  4. Families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  5. POVERTY AND THE BEHAVIOR OF LOW-INCOME FAMILIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFERS, CAMILLE; LEWIS, HYLAN

    THE PURPOSE WAS TO DRAW SOME RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN POVERTY AND BEHAVIOR, SPECIFICALLY ANALYZING THE DIRECT AND INDIRECT EFFECTS OF INADEQUATE INCOME ON LOW-INCOME MOTHERS' CHILD-REARING PRIORITIES AND ON RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PARENTS. LOW-INCOME MOTHERS SHOW CONSIDERABLE SATISFACTION WITH THE CHILD-REARING ROLE, BUT FEEL THEMSELVES LEAST ADEQUATE…

  6. Family Income, TV Viewing, and Children's Cereal Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    A survey of 148 children revealed that although the majority of children from both low-income and moderate-to-high income backgrounds understood the selling intent of television commercials for cereals, there were significant differences between income groups in children's ability to evaluate the nutritional value of heavily advertised cereals.…

  7. Prenatal stress, partner support, and infant cortisol reactivity in low-income Mexican American families.

    PubMed

    Luecken, Linda J; Lin, Betty; Coburn, Shayna S; MacKinnon, David P; Gonzales, Nancy A; Crnic, Keith A

    2013-12-01

    Maternal exposure to significant prenatal stress can negatively affect infant neurobiological development and increase the risk for developmental and health disturbances. These effects may be pronounced in low SES and ethnic minority families. We explored prenatal partner support as a buffer of the impact of prenatal stress on cortisol reactivity of infants born to low-income Mexican American women. Women (N=220; age 18-42; 84% Spanish-speaking; 89% foreign born; modal family income $10,000-$15,000) reported on economic stress and satisfaction with spousal/partner support during the prenatal period (26-38 weeks gestation), and infant salivary cortisol reactivity to mildly challenging mother-infant interaction tasks was assessed at women's homes at six weeks postpartum. Multilevel models estimated the interactive effect of prenatal stress and partner support on cortisol reactivity, controlling for covariates and potential confounds. Infants born to mothers who reported high prenatal stress and low partner support exhibited higher cortisol reactivity relative to those whose mothers reported high support or low stress. The effects did not appear to operate through birth outcomes. For low-income Mexican American women, partner support may buffer the impact of prenatal stress on infant cortisol reactivity, potentially promoting more adaptive infant health and development. PMID:24090585

  8. The Role of Breakfast in the American Family Diet by Income Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Shanthy A.

    1998-01-01

    Examined data from Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (USDA) concerning breakfast consumption in families and the kinds of food chosen. Found that 85% of families reported having breakfast; most of those reporting no breakfast came from lowest income group. Consumption of cereals, fruits and juices increased with income; consumption…

  9. Family Structure and Income during the Stages of Childhood and Subsequent Prosocial Behavior in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bandy, Robert; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether family structure transition and low income are risk factors in the development of prosocial behavior. Models of young adults' prosocial behavior--charitable giving and volunteering--were estimated as functions of their family structure and income during the stages of childhood. Participants were a representative…

  10. Is Children's Free School Meal "Eligibility" a Good Proxy for Family Income?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Graham; Vignoles, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Family income is an important factor associated with children's educational achievement. However, key areas of UK research (for example, on socially segregated schooling) and policy (for example, the allocation of funding to schools) rely on children's free school meal (FSM) "eligibility" to proxy family income. This article examines the…

  11. 24 CFR 886.324 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... composition. 886.324 Section 886.324 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and composition of all families at least once each year. Upon verification of the information, the owner must...

  12. 24 CFR 886.124 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... composition. 886.124 Section 886.124 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and composition of all families at least once each year. Upon verification of the information, the owner must...

  13. 24 CFR 886.324 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... composition. 886.324 Section 886.324 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and composition of all families at least once each year. Upon verification of the information, the owner must...

  14. 24 CFR 886.124 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... composition. 886.124 Section 886.124 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and composition of all families at least once each year. Upon verification of the information, the owner must...

  15. 24 CFR 886.124 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... composition. 886.124 Section 886.124 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and composition of all families at least once each year. Upon verification of the information, the owner must...

  16. 24 CFR 886.124 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... composition. 886.124 Section 886.124 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and composition of all families at least once each year. Upon verification of the information, the owner must...

  17. 24 CFR 886.324 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... composition. 886.324 Section 886.324 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and composition of all families at least once each year. Upon verification of the information, the owner must...

  18. 24 CFR 886.324 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... composition. 886.324 Section 886.324 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and composition of all families at least once each year. Upon verification of the information, the owner must...

  19. 24 CFR 886.124 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... composition. 886.124 Section 886.124 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... family income and composition. (a) Regular reexaminations. The owner must reexamine the income and composition of all families at least once each year. Upon verification of the information, the owner must...

  20. Coping with Family Conflict: What's Helpful and What's Not for Low-Income Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2009-01-01

    Family conflict is exacerbated by poverty-related stress and is detrimental to adolescent mental health. Adolescent coping with family conflict has the potential to buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of family conflict on internalizing symptoms. We examined coping with family conflict among 82 low-income adolescents (53.7% female, mean age…

  1. Aging and Family Life: A Decade Review

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarize and critically evaluate the major empirical, conceptual, and theoretical directions that studies of aging families have taken during the first decade of the 21st century. The field has benefited from an expanded perspective based on four overarching themes: (a) complexity in emotional relations, (b) diversity in family structures and households, (c) interdependence of family roles and functions, and (d) patterns and outcomes of caregiving. Although research on aging families has advanced theory and applied innovative statistical techniques, the literature has fallen short in fully representing diverse populations and in applying the broadest set of methodological tools available. We discuss these and other frontier areas of scholarship in light of the aging of baby boomers and their families. PMID:22930600

  2. Income of People Aged 65 and Older: Overview From 1968 Survey of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bixby, Lenore E.

    1970-01-01

    In a 1968 survey of the income of the aged, 8,248 persons were interviewed out of a population of 19.3 million persons aged 65 or over, excluding approximately 95,000 federal annuitants, 30,000 aliens, and a small number of persons not enrolled. The Current Medicare Survey was utilized to obtain certain selected characteristics of aged persons.…

  3. Family Ecological Predictors of Physical Activity Parenting in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampard, Amy M.; Jurkowski, Janine M.; Lawson, Hal A.; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting, or strategies parents use to promote PA in children, has been associated with increased PA in children of all ages, including preschool-aged children. However, little is known about the circumstances under which parents adopt such behaviors. This study examined family ecological factors associated with PA…

  4. Low-income aged: eligibility ad participation in SSI.

    PubMed

    Drazga, L; Upp, M; Reno, V; Staren, M

    1982-05-01

    This article reports on a study undertaken to evaluate the Social Security Administration's (SSA) methods for estimating the number of persons eligible for Federal Supplemental Security Income (SSI) payments. SSA estimates that 65-70 percent of the aged eligible for SSI actually participate in the program. It has been argued that the actual participation rate may be either higher or lower than SSA estimates because SSA misestimates the size of the eligible population. SSA bases its estimates of the number of persons eligible on data in the Census Bureau's Current Population Survey (CPS). In this study, a sample of 2,000 low-income aged persons was interviewed in 1979, and two sets of information were collected: One duplicated the data used by SSA to make its estimates; the other duplicated the type of information collected when a person actually applies for SSI. When the two sets were compared, it was found that the methodology that SSA uses to estimate the size of the eligible population and the information collected from SSI applicants produced estimates that were quite similar. The study also evaluated theories to explain why some persons eligible for SSI do not claim benefits. The study found that the elderly are more likely to participate in SSI if they live in States that supplement Federal SSI payments and that do not have a history of imposing liens on the property of welfare recipients. Participants also tend to have somewhat lower incomes (excluding SSI) than nonparticipants. No evidence was found that variations in practices among Social Security district offices could account for differences in SSI participation rates.

  5. Money income of households, families, and persons in the United States: 1985.

    PubMed

    Welniak, E J

    1987-08-01

    Income data in this report for 1985 are the first estimates based entirely on households selected from the 1980 census-based sample design. Highlights of the data follow. 1) Median household income in 1985 was $23,620, a 5.4% increase over 1984, or 1.7% after adjustment for inflation. Whites' median income was $24,910, Blacks' $14,820, and Hispanics' $17,470. 2) For the 3rd year in a row median family income moved ahead of inflation. In 1985, median family income was $27,740, 4.9% higher than 1984's median of $26,430, or a 1.3% real increase after adjusting for inflation. 3) Real median income for white families in 1985 was $29,150, 1.7% higher than in 1984; black families' median income was $16,790, 5% higher than in 1984; hispanic families' real median income was $19,030, not statistically different from 1984. 4) The median income of married-couple families was $31,100 in 1985; with the wife in the paid labor force it was $36,430. Both amounts were significantly higher in real terms than in 1984. In March 1986, about 80% of all families were married couples of which 54% had a wife in the paid labor force. 5) The median income for families with a female householder, no husband present, was $13,660 in 1985, not statistically different from 1984. 6) Families in which the householder's education ended after 4 years of high school had a median income of $27,470; 4 years of college yielded a median income of $43,190, and 5+ years of college yielded a median of $50,530. 7) Men's median earnings were $24,200, no significant change from 1984; women's earnings rose to $15,620, a 2.1% real increase. 8) In 1985, 66.3% of civilian male workers 15+ worked year-round, full-time as compared to 48.5% of women. 9) In 1985, real per capita money income in the US was $11,010, up 2.1% from 1984; Whites' per capita income was $11,670, up 2%; Blacks' per capita income was $6840, up 4.9%; Hispanics' per capita income was $6610, unchanged from 1984.

  6. Taxes, Families, and the Labor Party, 1990. The Australian Family Income Transfer Project. AFIT Bulletin No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownlee, Helen; And Others

    The Australian Family Income Transfer Project (AFIT) is designed to examine the impact of government policies on the economic wellbeing of Australian families. The AFIT Project uses published national statistics as well as data and information collected by the Australian Institute of Family Studies (the project's sponsor) in its own studies and…

  7. Money income of households, families, and persons in the United States: 1986.

    PubMed

    Welniak, E J

    1988-06-01

    This report presents income data for households, families, and persons in the US for 1986. The data were compiled from information collected in the March 1987 Current Population Survey of 60,500 households. Median household income in 1986 was $24,900, 3.4% higher than in 1985 after adjusting for a 1.9% increase in consumer prices between 1985 and 1986. For the 4th consecutive year, median family income moved ahead of inflation. In 1986, the median income for families was $29,460, 4.2% higher than the 1985 median after adjusting for inflation. Since 1982, when the last economic recession ended, real median family income rose a total of 10.7%. The median earnings of both men and women working year-round, full-time increased significantly in real terms between 1985 and 1986. In 1986, per capita income was $11,670, up 4% from 1985 in real terms. Per capita incomes for Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics were $12,350, $7,210, and $7,000 respectively, all higher than in 1985 in real terms. Between 1970 and 1980, real per capita income rose 15.5% while real median family income showed no significant change.

  8. National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families. State and Community Substudy Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Ann M.; Layzer, Jean I.; Kreader, J. Lee; Werner, Alan; Glantz, Fred B.

    The National Study of Child Care for Low-Income Families, conducted for the Administration for Children and Families in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is a 5-year research effort in 17 states and 25 communities that will provide information on the response of states and communities to the child care needs of low-income families,…

  9. Free Tax Assistance and the Earned Income Tax Credit: Vital Resources for Social Workers and Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Younghee; DeJohn, Tara V.; Murray, Drew

    2012-01-01

    As the United States' economy continues to experience challenges, more families at or near the poverty level fall prey to predatory financial practices. Their vulnerability to these operations is increased by a lack of knowledge of asset-building resources and alternative financial services. This article focuses on Volunteer Income Tax Assistance…

  10. The Schulhof Family: Solving the Age Puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokrouhlický, David; Ďurech, Josef; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Vraštil, Jan; Krugly, Yurij N.; Inasaridze, Raguli Ya.; Ayvasian, Vova; Zhuzhunadze, Vasili; Molotov, Igor E.; Pray, Donald; Husárik, Marek; Pollock, Joseph T.; Nesvorný, David

    2016-03-01

    The Schulhof family, a tight cluster of small asteroids around the central main belt body (2384) Schulhof, belongs to a so far rare class of very young families (estimated ages less than 1 Myr). Characterization of these asteroid clusters may provide important insights into the physics of the catastrophic disruption of their parent body. The case of the Schulhof family has been up to now complicated by the existence of two proposed epochs of its origin. In this paper, we first use our own photometric observations, as well as archival data, to determine the rotation rate and spin axis orientation of the largest fragment (2384) Schulhof. Our data also allow us to better constrain the absolute magnitude of this asteroid, and thus also improve the determination of its geometric albedo. Next, using the up-to-date catalog of asteroid orbits, we perform a new search of smaller members in the Schulhof family, increasing their number by 50%. Finally, the available data are used to access Schulhof's family age anew. We now find that the younger of the previously proposed two ages of this family is not correct, resulting from a large orbital uncertainty of single-opposition members. Our new runs reveal a single age solution of about 800 kyr with a realistic uncertainty of 200 kyr.

  11. 24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... programs: Reexamination of family income and composition. 5.657 Section 5.657 Housing and Urban Development...: Reexamination of family income and composition. (a) Applicability. This section states requirements for reexamination of family income and composition in the Section 8 project-based assistance programs, except...

  12. 24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... programs: Reexamination of family income and composition. 5.657 Section 5.657 Housing and Urban Development...: Reexamination of family income and composition. (a) Applicability. This section states requirements for reexamination of family income and composition in the Section 8 project-based assistance programs, except...

  13. 24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... programs: Reexamination of family income and composition. 5.657 Section 5.657 Housing and Urban Development...: Reexamination of family income and composition. (a) Applicability. This section states requirements for reexamination of family income and composition in the Section 8 project-based assistance programs, except...

  14. 24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... programs: Reexamination of family income and composition. 5.657 Section 5.657 Housing and Urban Development...: Reexamination of family income and composition. (a) Applicability. This section states requirements for reexamination of family income and composition in the Section 8 project-based assistance programs, except...

  15. 24 CFR 5.657 - Section 8 project-based assistance programs: Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... programs: Reexamination of family income and composition. 5.657 Section 5.657 Housing and Urban Development...: Reexamination of family income and composition. (a) Applicability. This section states requirements for reexamination of family income and composition in the Section 8 project-based assistance programs, except...

  16. On the Labor-Supply Effects of Age-Related Income Maintenance Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, James P.

    1975-01-01

    The model deals with channels through which income transfer programs are likely to affect working hours of family members and a method of estimating the labor-supply reactions to income maintenance programs. Labor-supply effects are functions of the duration of a family's participation and the relevant importance of male market investment.…

  17. Home Literacy Beliefs and Practices among Low-Income Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Heather S.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn; Saenz, Laura M.; Soares, Denise A.; Resendez, Nora; Zhu, Leina; Hagan-Burke, Shanna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore within-group patterns of variability in the home literacy environments (HLEs) of low-income Latino families using latent profile analysis. Participants were (N = 193) families of Latino preschoolers enrolled in a larger study. In the fall of 2012, mothers filled out a family literacy practices inventory, a…

  18. Training Home Economics Program Assistants to Work with Low Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouls, Janalyce; And Others

    These materials are designed to present ideas for developing a program for training nonprofessional workers to help low income families to raise their aspirations, develop pride in homemaking, improve homemaking skills, have a more satisfying home and family life, improve the health of family members, gain knowledge to help children develop, and…

  19. Family income, parenting styles and child behavioural-emotional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Dooley, Martin; Stewart, Jennifer

    2007-02-01

    A positive relationship between income and child outcomes has been observed in data from numerous countries. A key question concerns the extent to which this association represents a causal relationship as opposed to unobserved heterogeneity. We use data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to implement a series of empirical strategies for estimating the existence and size of the effect of income on behavioural-emotional outcomes. We also examine the role of parenting style. Our results indicate that there is little evidence of an effect of income on behavioural-emotional scores. The exclusion of parenting style from the models was found to not bias the estimated income effect, but parenting style was found to have a consistent impact on child outcomes.

  20. Obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children - United States, 1998-2008.

    PubMed

    2009-07-24

    Childhood obesity continues to be a leading public health concern that disproportionately affects low-income and minority children. Children who are obese in their preschool years are more likely to be obese in adolescence and adulthood and to develop diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, asthma, and sleep apnea. One of the Healthy People 2010 objectives (19-3) is to reduce to 5% the proportion of children and adolescents who are obese. CDC's Pediatric Nutrition Surveillance System (PedNSS) is the only source of nationally compiled obesity surveillance data obtained at the state and local level for low-income, preschool-aged children participating in federally funded health and nutrition programs. To describe progress in reducing childhood obesity, CDC examined trends and current prevalence in obesity using PedNSS data submitted by participating states, territories, and Indian tribal organizations during 1998-2008. The findings indicated that obesity prevalence among low-income, preschool-aged children increased steadily from 12.4% in 1998 to 14.5% in 2003, but subsequently remained essentially the same, with a 14.6% prevalence in 2008. Reducing childhood obesity will require effective prevention strategies that focus on environments and policies promoting physical activity and a healthy diet for families, child care centers, and communities.

  1. Promoting Fathers' Engagement with Children: Preventive Interventions for Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Philip A.; Cowan, Carolyn Pape; Pruett, Marsha Kline; Pruett, Kyle; Wong, Jessie J.

    2009-01-01

    Few programs to enhance fathers' engagement with children have been systematically evaluated, especially for low-income minority populations. In this study, 289 couples from primarily low-income Mexican American and European American families were randomly assigned to one of three conditions and followed for 18 months: 16-week groups for fathers,…

  2. Income Tax Deductions for Family Day Care Homes. Southeastern Day Care Bulletin No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Eva C.

    Women who provide day care in their own homes augment their modest earnings in some cases if they take afvantage of deductions permitted under the Internal Revenue regulations concerning use of private homes for business purposes. Where combined family income is at a level where income tax is payable, it may be profitable to calculate all…

  3. Health and social outcomes among children in low-income families and families receiving social assistance--a Swedish national cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ringbäck Weitoft, Gunilla; Hjern, Anders; Batljan, Ilija; Vinnerljung, Bo

    2008-01-01

    We examined health and social outcomes among children related to parental disposable income and receipt of social assistance. Swedish national registry data were used in a longitudinal design. We estimated relative risks and odds ratios for health and social outcomes in Poisson and logistic regressions among 1.2 million children between 1993 and 2002, and adjusted for factors that might affect the associations. Children in families receiving long-term social assistance showed considerably less satisfactory future prospects regarding health-related outcomes--all-cause mortality, suicide attempt, alcohol and drug misuse. Also, and to an even greater extent, the children experienced low educational attainment and social assistance in young adulthood compared with the rest of the population, and also in comparison with other low-income families. Low income was also associated with risk increases, but to a lesser extent. After taking into account the greater proportion of social-assistance recipients in low-income groups, attenuated risk increases remained only regarding future prospects of low education and social assistance. Regarding both low income and months receiving social assistance there was a gradient, at least in the age-adjusted analyses; there were greater risk increases among long-term recipients and among those with low incomes, and lower risk increases among short-term recipients and among those with high incomes. The results indicate that growing up in a family on long-term social assistance is a robust risk marker for compromised long-term development. A policy whereby children and parents receiving long-term assistance are offered access to evidence-based prevention programs in the areas of health, education and skills training appears to be important.

  4. Child and family safety device affordability by country income level: an 18 country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hendrie, D; Miller, T; Orlando, M; Spicer, R; Taft, C; Consunji, R; Zaloshnja, E

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To compare availability, urban price, and affordability of child/family safety devices between 18 economically diverse countries. Design: Descriptive: urban price surveys by local safety organisations or shoppers. Setting: Retail stores and internet vendors. Main outcome measures: Prices expressed in US dollars, and affordability measured by hours of factory work needed to buy a child safety seat, a belt-positioning booster seat, a child bicycle helmet, and a smoke alarm. Results: Prices of child and family safety devices varied widely between countries but the variation for child safety seats and bicycle helmets did not relate strongly to country income. Safety devices were expensive, often prohibitively so, in lower income countries. Far more hours of factory work were required to earn a child safety device in lower income than middle income, and middle income than higher income, countries. A bicycle helmet, for example, cost 10 hours of factory work in lower income countries but less than an hour in higher income countries. Smoke alarms and booster seats were not available in many lower income countries. Conclusions: Bicycles and two-axle motor vehicles were numerous in lower and middle income countries, but corresponding child safety devices were often unaffordable and sometimes not readily available. The apparent market distortions and their causes merit investigation. Advocacy, social marketing, local device production, lowering of tariffs, and mandatory use legislation might stimulate market growth. Arguably, a moral obligation exists to offer subsidies that give all children a fair chance of surviving to adulthood. PMID:15583254

  5. Income, Family Characteristics, and Physical Violence toward Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: This paper discusses the ways in which existing microeconomic theories of partner abuse, intra-family bargaining, and distribution of resources within families may contribute to our current understanding of physical child abuse. The empirical implications of this discussion are then tested on data from the 1985 National Family Violence…

  6. Policies that Improve Family Income Matter for Children. Improving Children's Economic Security: Research Findings about Increasing Family Income through Employment. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauthen, Nancy K.

    This policy brief provides an introduction for a series of 10 such briefs examining policies that seek to increase family income by encouraging, supporting, and rewarding parental work. The purpose of the series is to synthesize what is known from research about the effectiveness of various policies in increasing parental employment, either by…

  7. Growth in family income inequality, 1970-1990: industrial restructuring and demographic change.

    PubMed

    Chevan, A; Stokes, R

    2000-08-01

    Industrial restructuring and changing population composition frequently have been treated as competing explanations of growing U.S. income inequality. Using the Gini coefficient, we employ a model of conditional change to explore the relative effects of each on changes of family income distribution between 1970 and 1990, across 784 metropolitan areas and public use microdata areas (PUMAs). Changes in both industrial structure and population characteristics are found to have significant and opposite effects on family income distribution, although there are sharp differences by decade in the dynamics that underlie increasing inequality. Our central conclusion is that it is too soon to eliminate deindustrialization as a significant cause of increased earnings inequality.

  8. T cells, precocious aging, and familial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Fudenberg, H H; Schuman, S H; Goust, J M; Jorgenson, R

    1978-01-01

    A 15-year-old girl presented with precocious aging and was found to have low levels of active and total T cells. Family history revealed a high familial incidence of cancer on both the maternal and paternal sides, and activ T cell levels were found to be low in several living family members. The patient developed osteogenic sarcoma 13 months after initial study. Since our previous studies have reported low active and total T cells in patients with cancer, the present results suggest that subjects with low active T cells should be monitored frequently to detect possible neoplasia in it early stages. They also suggest that impaired cellular immunity in humans is associated with, if not the cause of, accelerated aging. PMID:304823

  9. Racial Inequality Trends and the Intergenerational Persistence of Income and Family Structure

    PubMed Central

    Bloome, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparity in family incomes remained remarkably stable over the past 40 years in the United States despite major legal and social reforms. Previous scholarship presents two primary explanations for persistent inequality through a period of progressive change. One highlights continuity: because socioeconomic status is transmitted from parents to children, disparities created through histories of discrimination and opportunity denial may dissipate slowly. The second highlights change: because family income results from joining individual earnings in family units, changing family compositions can offset individuals’ changing economic chances. I examine whether black-white family income inequality trends are better characterized by the persistence of existing disadvantage (continuity) or shifting forms of disadvantage (change). I combine cross-sectional and panel analysis using Current Population Survey, Panel Study of Income Dynamics, Census, and National Vital Statistics data. Results suggest that African Americans experience relatively extreme intergenerational continuity (low upward mobility) and discontinuity (high downward mobility); both helped maintain racial inequality. Yet, intergenerational discontinuities allow new forms of disadvantage to emerge. On net, racial inequality trends are better characterized by changing forms of disadvantage than by continuity. Economic trends were equalizing but demographic trends were disequalizing; as family structures shifted, family incomes did not fully reflect labor-market gains. PMID:26456973

  10. Child Care Choices, Consumer Education, and Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anne; And Others

    In 1991, the National Center for Children in Poverty undertook a study of low-income parents as child care consumers. The study involved a review of current research findings, interviews with staff of child resource and referral agencies, and an examination of child care consumer education provided in the Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS)…

  11. INCOME OPPORTUNITIES FOR RURAL FAMILIES FROM OUTDOOR RECREATION ENTERPRISES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BIRD, RONALD; INMAN, BUIS T.

    MANY LOW INCOME AREAS OF THE U.S. POSSESS NATURAL ATTRACTIONS WHICH CAN BE USED AS A BASIS FOR ESTABLISHING EITHER PART OR FULL-TIME RECREATIONAL ENTERPRISES. THE SUCCESS OF PEOPLE UNDERTAKING THESE TYPES OF BUSINESS VENTURES DEPENDS ON THEIR MANAGERIAL ABILITY IN ASSESSING DEMAND, ACQUIRING THE NECESSARY CAPITAL, BUILDING APPROPRIATE FACILITIES,…

  12. Locus of control, self-control, and family income as predictors of young children's mathematics and science scores.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sue; Meyer, James A; Nelson, Laverne; Baldwin, Vernoice; Ting, Ling; Sterling, Deloris

    2007-04-01

    Locus of control, self-control, and family income were investigated as possible predictors of 138 young children's mathematics and science scores. The children, 60 boys and 78 girls, ranging from 4 to 8 years of age (M = 5.4, SD = 1.3) were administered the Stephens-Delys Reinforcement Contingency Interview Scale, the Self-control Rating Scale, the Comprehensive Mathematics Inventory, and a science test based on the work of D. K. Dickinson. Analysis showed mathematics scores were positively related to income, locus of control, and science scores. Mathematics and science scores were negatively related to lack of self-control. Also, science scores were positively related to locus of control. Multiple regression analysis with mathematics as the dependent variable indicated income had the greatest predictive value followed by self-control and locus of control. The multiple regression model of science was also significant, with locus of control having the greatest influence followed by self-control.

  13. Family food insecurity and nutritional risk in adolescents from a low-income area of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Taís S; Sichieri, Rosely; Salles-Costa, Rosana; Veiga, Gloria V; Pereira, Rosangela A

    2013-09-01

    The study objective was to analyse the association between food insecurity and the weight and height status of adolescents from a low-income area in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The population-based cross-sectional survey included 523 adolescents aged 12-18 years, selected by a three-stage cluster sample. Dietary intake was ascertained with a food frequency questionnaire and family food insecurity was assessed with a validated questionnaire. The analysis estimated weighted means of energy and nutrient intakes by families' socioeconomic characteristics and the association between dietary intake with overweight and stunting. The prevalence of mild family food insecurity was 36%, and 24% of the families reported moderate or severe food insecurity. Overweight prevalence was 24%, and the prevalence of stunting was 9%, with no significant differences between sex or age groups. Family food insecurity was associated with unfavourable socioeconomic characteristics, but there was no association between socioeconomic characteristics (including family food insecurity) and overweight or stunting. Moderate or severe family food insecurity was inversely associated with intake of protein and calcium. In addition, stunting was associated with low calcium and iron intake. The co-existence of family food insecurity with overweight and stunting implies a high nutritional risk for adolescents from poor areas of Rio de Janeiro. Nevertheless, the observed absence of a statistical association between family food insecurity and weight status attests to the complexity of this issue.

  14. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26-65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p=0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p<0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p=0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  15. SOME PERSPECTIVES ON CHILD REARING PRACTICES AMONG URBAN LOW INCOME FAMILIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JEFFERS, CAMILLE

    BASED ON THE RESEARCH OF A PARTICIPANT-OBSERVER, THIS PAPER DESCRIBES THE CHILD REARING PRACTICES OF SOME LOW INCOME FAMILIES IN WASHINGTON, D.C. IT WAS FOUND THAT IN GENERAL BASIC PRIORITIES IN THE FAMILY WERE GIVEN TO FOOD, CLOTHING, AND RENT, AND THESE PRIORITIES AFFECTED THE MOTHER'S PERCEPTION OF HER CHILD'S NEEDS. THE MOTHERS SAW THEMSELVES…

  16. HELPING LOW-INCOME FAMILIES THROUGH PARENT EDUCATION, A SURVEY OF RESEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHILMAN, CATHERINE S.; KRAFT, IVOR

    THE CHILD LIFE STUDIES BRANCH OF THE CHILDREN'S BUREAU MADE AN INFORMAL SURVEY OF PARENT EDUCATION FOR LOW-INCOME FAMILIES IN THE UNITED STATES IN 1961 TO 1963. PARENT EDUCATION IS DESIGNED TO IMPROVE HOUSEKEEPING, STRENGTHEN INTERFAMILY RELATIONSHIPS, REINFORCE FAMILY-SCHOOL UNDERSTANDING, AND IMPROVE PERSONAL SKILLS. PRACTITIONERS RECOMMEND A…

  17. Approaches for Increasing Soybean Use by Low-Income Brazilian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Describes an educational/distributional campaign to increase use of soybeans by low-income Brazilian families. Initially, no families surveyed used soybeans but, after participating in a program on nutrition and soybeans, and free distribution of soybeans for one month, soybean usage by participants increased even when free soybeans were replaced…

  18. Family Reading Behavior and Early Literacy Skills in Preschool Children from Low-Income Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Stacey Storch; Fischel, Janet E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the family reading behavior of 233 preschool children from low-income backgrounds who were attending Head Start. Parents completed a survey of their family reading behavior, including Child Reading, Parent Reading Interest, and Parent-Child Reading Interaction, and provided demographic data on their educational level,…

  19. A Phenomenological Study of Urban School Counselors' Perceptions of Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Rebekah F.; Grothaus, Tim

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study explores urban school counselors' perceptions of low-income families in their schools. Ten school counselors participated in two rounds of individual interviews and answered two emailed reflective questions. Six themes emerged from the data: (a) perceptions of family characteristics and environment,…

  20. 24 CFR 884.218 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... verified. See 24 CFR 750.10(d)(2)(i) for the requirements for the disclosure and verification of Social... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reexamination of family income and... CFR part 5. For requirements regarding the signing and submitting of consent forms by families for...

  1. 24 CFR 884.218 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... verified. See 24 CFR 750.10(d)(2)(i) for the requirements for the disclosure and verification of Social... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reexamination of family income and... CFR part 5. For requirements regarding the signing and submitting of consent forms by families for...

  2. 24 CFR 884.218 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... verified. See 24 CFR 750.10(d)(2)(i) for the requirements for the disclosure and verification of Social... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reexamination of family income and... CFR part 5. For requirements regarding the signing and submitting of consent forms by families for...

  3. 24 CFR 884.218 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... verified. See 24 CFR 750.10(d)(2)(i) for the requirements for the disclosure and verification of Social... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reexamination of family income and... CFR part 5. For requirements regarding the signing and submitting of consent forms by families for...

  4. 24 CFR 884.218 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... verified. See 24 CFR 750.10(d)(2)(i) for the requirements for the disclosure and verification of Social... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reexamination of family income and... CFR part 5. For requirements regarding the signing and submitting of consent forms by families for...

  5. Not Poor in Spirit: Hope for Kentucky's Low-Income Families and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall-Clayton, Nancy; Chandler, Betsy, Ed.

    This report tells the stories of dozens of low-income families from all parts of Kentucky. It is a personal report, compiled after 4 months of travel and interviews. The report also makes recommendations for improvements in programs designed to serve impoverished families. The introduction discusses the seeming paradoxes of poverty and generosity,…

  6. Parent Differentiation of Self and Child Competence in Low-Income Urban Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skowron, Elizabeth A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the author examined whether family system functioning was associated with resilience in children exposed to negative environmental stress. In a sample of 55 low-income, urban families, greater differentiation of self among mothers predicted child competence--that is, better verbal and math achievement scores and lower…

  7. A Hand Up: How State Earned Income Credits Help Working Families Escape Poverty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Frederick C.; And Others

    This report examines state earned income tax credits (EICs) as a means to assist working poor families to escape poverty. Specifically, the report notes that six states have their own EICs, expressed as a percentage of the federal EIC, with the advantages being that the credit is a reward for work, is a pro-family policy, is efficiently targeted,…

  8. Family income, parental education and internalizing and externalizing psychopathology among 2-3-year-old Chinese children: the mediator effect of parent-child conflict.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao

    2014-02-01

    Using a sample of 156 Chinese children aged 2-3 years and their parents, this study examined the effects of socio-economic status, specifically family income and parental education, on the children's internalizing and externalizing psychopathology and whether these effects were mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. Results indicated that family income, maternal education and paternal education all negatively predicted externalizing symptoms. Income also negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among boys but not girls. Maternal education negatively predicted internalizing symptoms among girls but not boys. The effects of income on psychopathology were fully mediated by mother-child and father-child conflict. In contrast, the effects of education were not mediated or only partially mediated by conflict. Findings are discussed in the framework of the family stress model.

  9. Job Loss and Unmet Health Care Needs in the Economic Recession: Different Associations by Family Income

    PubMed Central

    Birkenmaier, Julie; Kim, Youngmi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined heterogeneous associations between job loss and unmet health care needs by family income level in the recent economic recession. Methods. We conducted logistic regression analyses with the sample from the 2008 Survey of Income and Program Participation (n = 12 658). Dependent variables were 2 dichotomous measures of unmet health care needs in medical and dental services. The primary independent variables were a dummy indicator of job loss during a 2-year period and the family income-to-needs ratio. We used an interaction term between job loss and the family income-to-needs ratio to test the proposed research question. Results. Job loss was significantly associated with the increased risk of unmet health care needs. The proportion with unmet needs was highest for the lowest-income unemployed, but the association between job loss and health hardship was stronger for the middle- and higher-income unemployed. Conclusions. The unemployed experience health hardship differently by income level. A comprehensive coordination of applications for unemployment and health insurance should be considered to protect the unemployed from health hardship. PMID:25211745

  10. [The Family Allowance Program: reflecting on core issues in Brazil's income transfer policy].

    PubMed

    e Silva, Maria Ozanira da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Introduced in 2003, Brazil's Family Allowance Program was intended to unite several Income Transfer Programs run at the Municipal, State and Federal levels since 1995. Designed as an expression of the development of direct monetary transfers to families or individuals, its key assumption is that linking income transfers to poor families with structural policies and programs (mainly in the fields of education, healthcare and jobs) could break through the vicious cycle of poverty in the present and halt its future replication. Linking cash transfers to structuring policies and programs for poor families might well underpin a policy combating poverty and social inequality. This paper presents a retrospective of these Income Transfer Programs, examining their significance and scope in terms of Brazil's Social Security Policies, assessing their potentials and constraints as tools for fostering social inclusion. PMID:18813481

  11. [The Family Allowance Program: reflecting on core issues in Brazil's income transfer policy].

    PubMed

    e Silva, Maria Ozanira da Silva

    2007-01-01

    Introduced in 2003, Brazil's Family Allowance Program was intended to unite several Income Transfer Programs run at the Municipal, State and Federal levels since 1995. Designed as an expression of the development of direct monetary transfers to families or individuals, its key assumption is that linking income transfers to poor families with structural policies and programs (mainly in the fields of education, healthcare and jobs) could break through the vicious cycle of poverty in the present and halt its future replication. Linking cash transfers to structuring policies and programs for poor families might well underpin a policy combating poverty and social inequality. This paper presents a retrospective of these Income Transfer Programs, examining their significance and scope in terms of Brazil's Social Security Policies, assessing their potentials and constraints as tools for fostering social inclusion.

  12. Buying into the Computer Age: A Look at Hispanic Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelm, Anthony

    Ownership rates of advanced communication technologies among Hispanic families are lower than the national average. Going beyond socioeconomic (i.e., family income, educational attainment, and occupation) indicators as key predictors of the so-called technology gap, this paper relies on qualitative analysis of Hispanic families' attitudes and…

  13. Exploring Low-Income Families' Financial Barriers to Food Allergy Management and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Minaker, Leia M.; Elliott, Susan J.; Clarke, Ann

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Low-income families may face financial barriers to management and treatment of chronic illnesses. No studies have explored how low-income individuals and families with anaphylactic food allergies cope with financial barriers to anaphylaxis management and/or treatment. This study explores qualitatively assessed direct, indirect, and intangible costs of anaphylaxis management and treatment faced by low-income families. Methods. In-depth, semistructured interviews with 23 participants were conducted to gain insight into income-related barriers to managing and treating anaphylactic food allergies. Results. Perceived direct costs included the cost of allergen-free foods and allergy medication and costs incurred as a result of misinformation about social support programs. Perceived indirect costs included those associated with lack of continuity of health care. Perceived intangible costs included the stress related to the difficulty of obtaining allergen-free foods at the food bank and feeling unsafe at discount grocery stores. These perceived costs represented barriers that were perceived as especially salient for the working poor, immigrants, youth living in poverty, and food bank users. Discussion. Low-income families report significant financial barriers to food allergy management and anaphylaxis preparedness. Clinicians, advocacy groups, and EAI manufacturers all have a role to play in ensuring equitable access to medication for low-income individuals with allergies. PMID:24693292

  14. Do age-friendly characteristics influence the expectation to age in place? A comparison of low-income and higher income Detroit elders.

    PubMed

    Lehning, Amanda J; Smith, Richard J; Dunkle, Ruth E

    2015-03-01

    Currently there is limited evidence linking age-friendly characteristics to outcomes in elders. Using a representative sample of 1,376 adults aged 60 and older living in Detroit, this study examined the association between age-friendly social and physical environmental characteristics and the expectation to age in place, and the potential differences between low- and higher-income elders. Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) age-friendly guide, we identified six factors reflecting age-friendly characteristics. Logistic regression models indicated that regardless of income level only neighborhood problems were significantly associated with expecting to age in place. Low-income elders were more likely to expect to age in place than their higher-income counterparts, and it is unclear whether this resulted from a desire to remain in the home or that there is no place else to go. Future research should address the ways in which financial resources affect the choices, expectations, and outcomes of aging in place.

  15. Do Age-Friendly Characteristics Influence the Expectation to Age in Place? A Comparison of Low-Income and Higher Income Detroit Elders

    PubMed Central

    Lehning, Amanda J.; Smith, Richard J.; Dunkle, Ruth E.

    2015-01-01

    Currently there is limited evidence linking age-friendly characteristics to outcomes in elders. Using a representative sample of 1,376 adults aged 60 and older living in Detroit, this study examined the association between age-friendly social and physical environmental characteristics and the expectation to age in place, and the potential differences between low- and higher-income elders. Based on U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) age-friendly guide, we identified six factors reflecting age-friendly characteristics. Logistic regression models indicated that regardless of income level only neighborhood problems were significantly associated with expecting to age in place. Low-income elders were more likely to expect to age in place than their higher-income counterparts, and it is unclear whether this resulted from a desire to remain in the home or that there is no place else to go. Future research should address the ways in which financial resources affect the choices, expectations, and outcomes of aging in place. PMID:24652879

  16. Estimated Participation and Hours in Early Care and Education by Type of Arrangement and Income at Ages 2 to 4 in 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Steve; Nores, Milagros

    2012-01-01

    This working paper estimates participation in early childhood education (ECE) programs by child's age, program setting, family income level, and child's household language. To produce the best possible estimates of participation, the authors combined information from multiple data sets. In 2010, approximately 6.6 million between the ages of 2 and…

  17. Family Income and Child Cognitive and Noncognitive Development in Australia: Does Money Matter?

    PubMed

    Khanam, Rasheda; Nghiem, Son

    2016-06-01

    This article investigates whether family income affects children's cognitive and noncognitive development by exploiting comprehensive information from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. We include variables that represent parental investment, parental stress, and neighborhood characteristics to examine if these factors mediate the effects of income. Using dynamic panel data, we find that family income is significantly associated with children's cognitive skills but not with noncognitive skills. Mother's education, parent's physical and mental health, parenting styles, child's own health, and presence of both biological parents are the most important factors for children's noncognitive development. For cognitive development, income as well as parents' education, child's birth weight, and number of books that children have at home are highly significant factors. We also find strong evidence to support the skill formation theory that children's previous cognitive and noncognitive outcomes are significantly related to their current outcomes. PMID:27083194

  18. Family Income and Child Cognitive and Noncognitive Development in Australia: Does Money Matter?

    PubMed

    Khanam, Rasheda; Nghiem, Son

    2016-06-01

    This article investigates whether family income affects children's cognitive and noncognitive development by exploiting comprehensive information from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. We include variables that represent parental investment, parental stress, and neighborhood characteristics to examine if these factors mediate the effects of income. Using dynamic panel data, we find that family income is significantly associated with children's cognitive skills but not with noncognitive skills. Mother's education, parent's physical and mental health, parenting styles, child's own health, and presence of both biological parents are the most important factors for children's noncognitive development. For cognitive development, income as well as parents' education, child's birth weight, and number of books that children have at home are highly significant factors. We also find strong evidence to support the skill formation theory that children's previous cognitive and noncognitive outcomes are significantly related to their current outcomes.

  19. Family and Individual Predictors of First-Generation and Low Family Income First-Year Undergraduates' Integration at a Midwestern University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilotte, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This study examined how first-year undergraduates' family background characteristics (i.e., first-generation status and low family income) and individual attributes (i.e., sex, motivation, and best friend attachment) are related to institutional integration (faculty and student integration). Low and non-low family income students (N = 961)…

  20. Mental health and family functioning as correlates of a sedentary lifestyle among low-income women with young children.

    PubMed

    Li, Kaigang; Davison, Kirsten K; Jurkowski, Janine M

    2012-01-01

    The authors in this cross-sectional study examined mental health and family environmental factors related to a sedentary lifestyle, including lack of leisure-time physical activity and high levels of television viewing, among low-income mothers/female guardians of preschool-aged children. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 131 mothers in 2010. Primary outcome measures included television viewing time (minutes/day) and leisure-time physical activity (<150 versus ≥150 minutes per week). Independent variables included depressive symptoms, perceived stress, and family functioning. Demographic factors (age, marriage, work status, education, number of children in the household, and race/ethnicity) were examined as potential covariates. Participating women watched television on average 186.1 minutes/day (i.e., >3 hours). Additionally, 36% of women engaged in less than the recommended 150-minute leisure-time physical activity per week. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that greater depressive symptoms (B = 76.4, p < 0.01) and lower family functioning (B = 33.0, p < 0.05) were independently related to greater television viewing when controlling for other variables. No independent factors were identified for lack of leisure-time physical activity when controlling for other covariates. Findings suggest that health promotion efforts to promote an active lifestyle among low-income women with young children should address mental health and family functioning factors, especially depressive symptoms.

  1. Does income-related health inequality change as the population ages? Evidence from Swedish panel data.

    PubMed

    Islam, M Kamrul; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Clarke, Philip; Burström, Kristina

    2010-03-01

    This paper explains and empirically assesses the channels through which population aging may impact on income-related health inequality. Long panel data of Swedish individuals is used to estimate the observed trend in income-related health inequality, measured by the concentration index (CI). A decomposition procedure based on a fixed effects model is used to clarify the channels by which population aging affects health inequality. Based on current income rankings, we find that conventional unstandardized and age-gender-standardized CIs increase over time. This trend in CIs is, however, found to remain stable when people are instead ranked according to lifetime (mean) income. Decomposition analyses show that two channels are responsible for the upward trend in unstandardized CIs - retired people dropped in relative income ranking and the coefficient of variation of health increases as the population ages.

  2. Money income of households, families, and persons in the United States: 1984.

    PubMed

    Welniak, E J

    1986-04-01

    Estimates in this report are based on a sample that includes households from both the 1970 census-based sample design and the new 1980 census-based design. The estimates in this report for 1983 and 1984 reflect the introduction of new survey weighting procedures for the Spanish-origin population. Some highlights of the data follow. 1) For the 2nd year in a row, median family income increased faster than inflation according to results of the March 1985 Current Population Survey. 2) In 1984, median family income was $26,430, 7.1% higher than the 1983 median of $24,670. After adjusting for the 4.3% increase in consumer prices between 1983 and 1984, real median family income still showed a significant gain of 2.8%.

  3. Infant Care Arrangements and Maternal Well Being among Low-Income Non-Migrant Families and Migrant Farm Working Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, D.; Kossek, E. E.; Barratt, M.

    2004-01-01

    As parents rely on an increasingly complex patchwork of care giving arrangements, one aspect of children's early care experiences that may be associated with both children's and parent's well being is the complexity of the child care arrangements. Participants in a low-income sample and in a migrant farm working family sample participated in…

  4. Homes of low-income minority families with asthmatic children have increased condition issues

    PubMed Central

    Ciaccio, Christina E.; Nazir, Niaman; Daley, Christine M.; DiDonna, Anita; Choi, Won S.; Barnes, Charles S.; Rosenwasser, Lanny J.

    2014-01-01

    The home is increasingly associated with asthma. It acts both as a reservoir of asthma triggers and as a refuge from seasonal outdoor allergen exposure. Racial/ethnic minority families with low incomes tend to reside in neighborhoods with low housing quality. These families also have higher rates of asthma. This study explores the hypothesis that black and Latino urban households with asthmatic children experienced more home mechanical, structural condition–related areas of concern than white households with asthmatic children. Participant families (n = 140) took part in the Kansas City Safe and Healthy Homes Program, had at least one asthmatic child, and met income qualifications of no more than 80% of local median income; many were below 50%. Families self-identified their race. Homes were assessed by environmental health professionals using a standard set of criteria and a specific set of on-site and laboratory sampling and analyses. Homes were given a score for areas of concern between 0 (best) and 53 (worst). The study population self-identified as black (46%), non-Latino white (26%), Latino (14.3%), and other (12.9%). Mean number of areas of concern were 18.7 in Latino homes, 17.8 in black homes, 13.3 in other homes, and 13.2 in white homes. Latino and black homes had significantly more areas of concern. White families were also more likely to be in the upper portion of the income. In this set of 140 low-income homes with an asthmatic child, households of minority individuals had more areas of condition concerns and generally lower income than other families. PMID:25584914

  5. Homes of low-income minority families with asthmatic children have increased condition issues.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Christina M; Ciaccio, Christina E; Nazir, Niaman; Daley, Christine M; DiDonna, Anita; Choi, Won S; Barnes, Charles S; Rosenwasser, Lanny J

    2014-01-01

    The home is increasingly associated with asthma. It acts both as a reservoir of asthma triggers and as a refuge from seasonal outdoor allergen exposure. Racial/ethnic minority families with low incomes tend to reside in neighborhoods with low housing quality. These families also have higher rates of asthma. This study explores the hypothesis that black and Latino urban households with asthmatic children experienced more home mechanical, structural condition-related areas of concern than white households with asthmatic children. Participant families (n = 140) took part in the Kansas City Safe and Healthy Homes Program, had at least one asthmatic child, and met income qualifications of no more than 80% of local median income; many were below 50%. Families self-identified their race. Homes were assessed by environmental health professionals using a standard set of criteria and a specific set of on-site and laboratory sampling and analyses. Homes were given a score for areas of concern between 0 (best) and 53 (worst). The study population self-identified as black (46%), non-Latino white (26%), Latino (14.3%), and other (12.9%). Mean number of areas of concern were 18.7 in Latino homes, 17.8 in black homes, 13.3 in other homes, and 13.2 in white homes. Latino and black homes had significantly more areas of concern. White families were also more likely to be in the upper portion of the income. In this set of 140 low-income homes with an asthmatic child, households of minority individuals had more areas of condition concerns and generally lower income than other families. PMID:25584914

  6. Social Support, Family Organizations, and Adolescent Adjustment in Low-Income Puerto Rican Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Ronald D.; Seaton, Elenor; Jacobson, Leanne; Rodriguez, Antoinette U.; Dominguez, Antonio

    Social support from kin has been discussed as an important feature of family life among Puerto Rican families. This study examines the association between kinship support, family organization, and adolescent adjustment in Puerto Rican families. (Author)

  7. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26–65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p = 0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p < 0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  8. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers for Healthy Living for Low-Income African American Families

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Veronnie Faye; Rowland, Michael L.; Young, Linda; Atwood, Katherine; Thompson, Kirsten; Sterrett, Emma; Honaker, Sarah Morsbach; Williams, Joel E.; Johnson, Knowlton; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 85) and their parents. An expert panel provided insights in developing culturally appropriate intervention strategies. Results: Child and parent focus group analysis revealed 11 barriers and no definitive facilitators for healthy eating and lifestyles. Parents reported confusion regarding what constitutes nutritional eating, varying needs of family members in terms of issues with weight, and difficulty in engaging the family in appropriate and safe physical activities; to name a few themes. Community experts independently suggested that nutritional information is confusing and, often, contradictory. Additionally, they recommended simple messaging and practical interventions such as helping with shopping lists, meal planning, and identifying simple and inexpensive physical activities. Conclusion: Childhood obesity in the context of low-resource families is a complex problem with no simple solutions. Culturally sensitive and family informed interventions are needed to support low-income African American families in dealing with childhood obesity. PMID:25538931

  9. Out-of-School Care and Problem Behavior Trajectories Among Low-Income Adolescents: Individual, Family, and Neighborhood Characteristics as Added Risks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Morris, Jodi Eileen; Hernandez, Daphne

    2004-01-01

    Using a developmental systems approach, this study considered longitudinal links between adolescents' out-of-school care experiences and behavioral trajectories within a random sample of 819 adolescents ages 10 to 14 years at Wave 1 from low-income, urban families. Multiple aspects of context were considered, including the location, supervision,…

  10. The Formative Role of Home Literacy Experiences across the First Three Years of Life in Children from Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Eileen T.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Spellmann, Mark E.; Pan, Barbara A.; Raikes, Helen; Julieta Lugo-Gil Gayle Luze

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation focused on the language and literacy environments of 1046 children from low-income families across children's first three years of life. Children's language and cognitive abilities at 14, 24, and 36 months of age were examined in relation to the frequency of children's participation in literacy activities, the…

  11. National Income and Income Inequality, Family Affluence and Life Satisfaction among 13 Year Old Boys and Girls: A Multilevel Study in 35 Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Kate Ann; Torsheim, Torbjorn; Vollebergh, Wilma; Richter, Matthias; Davies, Carolyn A.; Schnohr, Christina W.; Due, Pernille; Currie, Candace

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a critical period where many patterns of health and health behaviour are formed. The objective of this study was to investigate cross-national variation in the relationship between family affluence and adolescent life satisfaction, and the impact of national income and income inequality on this relationship. Data from the 2006…

  12. The Impact of Family Income on Child Achievement: Evidence from the Earned Income Tax Credit. Discussion Paper No. 1361-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahl, Gordon; Lochner, Lance

    2009-01-01

    Past estimates of the effect of family income on child development have often been plagued by endogeneity and measurement error. In this paper, we use two simulated instrumental variables strategies to estimate the causal effect of income on children's math and reading achievement. Our identification derives from the large, non-linear changes…

  13. Effect of Family Income on the Relationship Between Parental Education and Sealant Prevalence, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005–2010

    PubMed Central

    Al Agili, Dania E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We examined the association between sealant prevalence and parental education for different levels of family income, controlling for other covariates. Methods We combined data from 2005–2006, 2007–2008, and 2009–2010 cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The study sample was 7,090 participants aged 6 to 19 years. Explanatory variables, chosen on the basis of Andersen and Aday’s framework of health care utilization, were predisposing variables — child’s age, sex, race/ethnicity, and parental education (high school diploma); enabling variables — family income (<100% of the federal poverty level [FPL]; 100%–200% of the FPL; and >200% of the FPL), health insurance status, and regular source of medical care; and a need variable — future need for care (perceived child health status is excellent/very good, good, fair/poor). We conducted bivariate and multivariate analyses and included a term for interaction between education and income in the multivariate model. We report significant findings (P ≤ .05). Results Sealant prevalence was associated with all explanatory variables in bivariate and multivariate analyses. In bivariate analyses, higher parental education and family income were independently associated with higher sealant prevalence. In the multivariate analysis, higher parental education was associated with sealant prevalence among higher income children, but not among low-income children (<100% FPL). Sealant prevalence was higher among children with parental education greater than a high school diploma versus less than a high school diploma in families with income ≥100% FPL. Conclusion Our findings suggest that income modifies the association of parental education on sealant prevalence. Recognition of this relationship may be important for health promotion efforts. PMID:26312383

  14. The Effects of Age and Household Income on the Use of Literate Language Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmon, Regina D.; McDade, Hiram L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the use of literate language features (LLFs) in the oral narratives of African American and Caucasian American preschoolers residing in either low- or middle-income homes to determine whether differences existed as a result of age or household income. The oral narratives of 96 preschoolers enrolled in public school programs and…

  15. The global impact of income inequality on health by age: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Richard; Pearce, Jamie

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To explore whether the apparent impact of income inequality on health, which has been shown for wealthier nations, is replicated worldwide, and whether the impact varies by age. Design Observational study. Setting 126 countries of the world for which complete data on income inequality and mortality by age and sex were available around the year 2002 (including 94.4% of world human population). Data sources Data on mortality were from the World Health Organization and income data were taken from the annual reports of the United Nations Development Programme. Main outcome measures Mortality in 5-year age bands for each sex by income inequality and income level. Results At ages 15-29 and 25-39 variations in income inequality seem more closely correlated with mortality worldwide than do variations in material wealth. This relation is especially strong among the poorest countries in Africa. Mortality is higher for a given level of overall income in more unequal nations. Conclusions Income inequality seems to have an influence worldwide, especially for younger adults. Social inequality seems to have a universal negative impact on health. PMID:17954512

  16. 12 CFR 1282.17 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size and income known (owner-occupied units, actual...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1282.17 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals § 1282.17 Affordability—Income level definitions—family size and...

  17. Family income and childhood obesity in eight European cities: the mediating roles of neighborhood characteristics and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Evans, Gary W; Jones-Rounds, McKenzie L; Belojevic, Goran; Vermeylen, Francoise

    2012-08-01

    Utilizing data from the Large Analysis and Review of European Housing and Health Status (LARES) research program conducted by the WHO in eight European cities (Forli, Vilnius, Ferreira do Alentejo, Bonn, Geneva, Angers, Bratislava, Budapest), we examined whether the well-documented inverse correlation between family income and children's BMI might be explained, in part, by access to open green space and ensuing physical activity. We found that household income was inversely related to BMI among 1184 children, ages 6-18 years of age. Utilizing structural equation modeling with statistical controls for age and gender, we found evidence for two indirect paths between household income and BMI. One indirect relationship operates successively through open green space and physical activity. The second path operates through physical activity alone. The child's height and weight as well as level of physical activity were reported by their mother. Open green space was assessed by trained observers' ratings of the area surrounding the child's home. Limitations of the study and implications for better understanding of the ecological context of obesity are discussed.

  18. Influence of Parental Education and Family Income on Children's Education in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drajea, Alice J.; O'Sullivan, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of parents' literacy levels and family income in Uganda on the quality and nature of parents' involvement in their children's primary education. A mixed-methods study with an ethnographic element was employed to explore the views and opinions of 21 participants through a qualitative approach. Methods for data…

  19. Asthma Management among Low-Income Latino and African American Families of Infants and Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koenig, Karel; Chesla, Catherine A.

    2004-01-01

    To discover the underlying understandings that organize how low-income Latino and African American parents of infants and toddlers with severe persistent asthma manage symptoms in their children, 11 families with children 12-48 months old and recently hospitalized with asthma were interviewed over 3-6 months. Interpretive phenomenology was used to…

  20. School Readiness among Low-Income Black Children: Family Characteristics, Parenting, and Social Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bono, Katherine E.; Sy, Susan R.; Kopp, Claire B.

    2016-01-01

    This study focuses on the associations between family variables and academic and social school readiness in low-income Black children. Analyses drew from the National Institute for Child Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development dataset. The participants included 122 children and their mothers. Data collection occurred…

  1. Dual Utilization of Medical Services by Low Income Latino Families: An Exploratory Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Merilyn

    1985-01-01

    Interviews with 50 low income family members who used two health care providers--Kaiser Health Maintenance Organization and La Clinica de La Raza--were used to study how cost, need, access, services, and culture affected choice of provider. Cultural affinity seemed to influence decisions to use and pay for La Clinica's services. (JHZ)

  2. Low-Income Children, Their Families and the Great Recession: What Next in Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aber, Lawrence; Chaudry, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Children and youth vary in their developmental health due to differences in family economic security and exposure to toxic stress. The economic downturn has increased the challenges facing low-income children. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) and the President's first budget made significant down-payments on investments in…

  3. The Effects of Race/Ethnicity, Income, and Family Structure on Adolescent Risk Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Robert W.; Beuhring, Trisha; Shew, Marcia L.; Bearinger, Linda H.; Sieving, Renee E.; Resnick, Michael D.

    2000-01-01

    Examined the unique and combined contributions of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure to adolescent smoking, alcohol use, violence, suicide, and sexual intercourse. Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health indicated that though some behaviors appeared to relate to the factors, when taken together, these factors…

  4. Managing Personal Income: Student Problem Book. Family Financial Education Program 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Continental Illinois National Bank and Trust Co., Chicago.

    The student workbook was designed for a high school unit on personal income management, part of a family financial education program which also includes a unit on accepting credit responsibility. The student guide follows the same format as the teacher's guide and is based on three experiences--understanding checks, using a checking account, and…

  5. The Changing Rural Appalachian Community and Low-Income Family: Implications for Community Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Photiadis, John D.

    Pressures on rural Appalachian families to function as an integral part of the larger American society have led to internal discord and a "Culture of Poverty"; consequently, a new vehicle for rural community reorganization is needed, particularly for low-income rural Appalachian communities. An alternative for non-conventional development should…

  6. Attention Skills and Looking to Television in Children from Low Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Danielle D.; Weatherholt, Tara N.; Burns, Barbara M.

    2010-01-01

    Attentional skills and home environment were examined as predictors of looking patterns during television viewing by 70 48- to 91-month-old children from low income families. Looking to the television was assessed in conditions without distractors and with continuous distractors. Looking patterns during television viewing reflected attentional…

  7. 24 CFR 5.240 - Family disclosure of income information to the responsible entity and verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family disclosure of income information to the responsible entity and verification. 5.240 Section 5.240 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development GENERAL HUD PROGRAM...

  8. The Selection of Children from Low-Income Families into Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Purtell, Kelly M.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Ansari, Arya; Benner, Aprile D.

    2016-01-01

    Because children from low-income families benefit from preschool but are less likely than other children to enroll, identifying factors that promote their enrollment can support research and policy aiming to reduce socioeconomic disparities in education. In this study, we tested an accommodations model with data on 6,250 children in the Early…

  9. Family Income Dynamics, Early Childhood Education and Care, and Early Child Behavior Problems in Norway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…

  10. Family Background Variables as Instruments for Education in Income Regressions: A Bayesian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoogerheide, Lennart; Block, Joern H.; Thurik, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The validity of family background variables instrumenting education in income regressions has been much criticized. In this paper, we use data from the 2004 German Socio-Economic Panel and Bayesian analysis to analyze to what degree violations of the strict validity assumption affect the estimation results. We show that, in case of moderate direct…

  11. Private Schooling for Low-Income Families: A Census and Comparative Survey in East Delhi, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline

    2007-01-01

    A census and survey of schools in the slums of East Delhi, India, explored the nature and extent of private education serving low-income families, and compared inputs to public and private schooling. Around two-thirds of all schools were private unaided, with more unrecognised private than government schools. Teaching activity was found to be…

  12. Classroom Interaction in Private Schools Serving Low-Income Families in Hyderabad, India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Fay; Hardman, Frank; Tooley, James

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of classroom interaction and discourse in privately-funded schools serving low-income families in Hyderabad, India. In common with other developing countries, India has seen a proliferation of such schools and yet little systematic study has been made of them. One hundred and thirty eight lessons were analysed using a…

  13. College Costs and Family Income: The Affordability Issue at UC and CSU. Report 11-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jessika

    2011-01-01

    Rising costs are putting an education at California's public universities out of reach for many Californians. Eroding state funding for higher education has meant that more costs are passed on to students and their families in the form of increased fees. Room and board and other costs have grown much faster than inflation. Incomes have not kept…

  14. Home Improvements: Within-Family Associations between Income and the Quality of Children's Home Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearing, Eric; Taylor, Beck A.

    2007-01-01

    Within-family associations between changes in income and changes in the home environment during infancy and early childhood were examined using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 1364). Linear and nonlinear (i.e., semilog) specifications were estimated for…

  15. 24 CFR 882.515 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... income and composition. See 24 CFR part 5. (d) Continuation of housing assistance payments. A family's... after June 19, 1995, the PHA shall follow the requirements of 24 CFR part 5 concerning obtaining and... regular reexamination, the PHA shall follow the requirements of 24 CFR part 5 concerning verification...

  16. 24 CFR 882.515 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... income and composition. See 24 CFR part 5. (d) Continuation of housing assistance payments. A family's... after June 19, 1995, the PHA shall follow the requirements of 24 CFR part 5 concerning obtaining and... regular reexamination, the PHA shall follow the requirements of 24 CFR part 5 concerning verification...

  17. 24 CFR 882.515 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... income and composition. See 24 CFR part 5. (d) Continuation of housing assistance payments. A family's... after June 19, 1995, the PHA shall follow the requirements of 24 CFR part 5 concerning obtaining and... regular reexamination, the PHA shall follow the requirements of 24 CFR part 5 concerning verification...

  18. 24 CFR 882.515 - Reexamination of family income and composition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... income and composition. See 24 CFR part 5. (d) Continuation of housing assistance payments. A family's... after June 19, 1995, the PHA shall follow the requirements of 24 CFR part 5 concerning obtaining and... regular reexamination, the PHA shall follow the requirements of 24 CFR part 5 concerning verification...

  19. Maternal Relationship Instability Influences on Children's Emotional and Behavioral Functioning in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Heather J.; Coley, Rebekah Levine; Carrano, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated associations between maternal relationship instability patterns and children's behavioral and emotional functioning in middle childhood in a representative sample of low-income urban families (N = 891). Data from the "Three-City Study" tracked maternal partnerships through the child's life, assessing total marital…

  20. An Analysis of Arizona Individual Income Tax-Credit Scholarship Recipients' Family Income, 2009-10 School Year. Program on Education Policy and Governance Working Paper. PEPG 10-18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Vicki E.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the "East Valley Tribune and the Arizona Republic" alleged that Arizona's individual income tax-credit scholarship program disproportionately serves privileged students from higher-income families over those from lower-income backgrounds. Yet neither paper collected the student-level, scholarship recipient family income data needed to…

  1. Validation of a culture-contextualized measure of family engagement in the early learning of low-income Latino children.

    PubMed

    McWayne, Christine M; Melzi, Gigliana

    2014-04-01

    Given the increased numbers of Latino children entering the U.S. educational system, there is a need to develop culturally contextualized models to understand the ways Latino parents participate in and support their children's school experiences. Current tools used to measure family engagement have been developed primarily with monolingual English-speaking European American families and thus might not accurately capture the engagement behaviors unique to other ethnic and linguistic groups. The present study builds upon prior mixed-methods research, involving a total of 763 Latino parents, which employed an emic approach to understand family engagement conceptualizations for a pan-Latino population and to develop a new measure for use with this heterogeneous group. In this follow-up study, we examined, with an additional 463 Latino caregivers, the construct validity of a revised 43-item measure across 2 language versions: Parental Engagement of Families from Latino Backgrounds (PEFL-English) and Participación Educativa de Familias Latinas (PEFL-Spanish). The 4 dimensions of family engagement empirically identified in the prior development study were confirmed with this multicity, independent sample of low-income Latino families. Family engagement dimensions demonstrated relations with recency of immigration, home language, employment, education, and caregiver age, as well as caregiver-reported levels of social support. Findings are discussed with respect to future directions for early childhood research and practice.

  2. Income Inequities in Health Care Utilization among Adults Aged 50 and Older.

    PubMed

    Penning, Margaret J; Zheng, Chi

    2016-03-01

    Equitable access to and utilization of health services is a primary goal for many health care systems, particularly in countries with universal publicly funded systems. Despite concerns regarding potentially adverse implications of the 1990s' health care policy and other reforms, whether and how income inequalities in service utilization changed remains unclear. This study addressed the impact of income on physician and hospital utilization from 1992-2002 among adults aged 50 and older in British Columbia. Those with lower incomes were found less likely to access general practitioner and specialist services but more likely to access hospital services. Income-related disparities in physician care increased over time; hospital care declined. Volume of GP and hospital care was inversely associated with income; these differences increased regarding GP services only. Findings of declines in hospital-care access, accompanied by increasing income-related disparities in physician-services access, show that inequities are increasing within Canada's health care system.

  3. Income Inequities in Health Care Utilization among Adults Aged 50 and Older.

    PubMed

    Penning, Margaret J; Zheng, Chi

    2016-03-01

    Equitable access to and utilization of health services is a primary goal for many health care systems, particularly in countries with universal publicly funded systems. Despite concerns regarding potentially adverse implications of the 1990s' health care policy and other reforms, whether and how income inequalities in service utilization changed remains unclear. This study addressed the impact of income on physician and hospital utilization from 1992-2002 among adults aged 50 and older in British Columbia. Those with lower incomes were found less likely to access general practitioner and specialist services but more likely to access hospital services. Income-related disparities in physician care increased over time; hospital care declined. Volume of GP and hospital care was inversely associated with income; these differences increased regarding GP services only. Findings of declines in hospital-care access, accompanied by increasing income-related disparities in physician-services access, show that inequities are increasing within Canada's health care system. PMID:26757886

  4. The Impact of Child Care on Low-Income Texas Families: A Research Review Submitted to the Texas Work and Family Clearinghouse. Texas Workforce Commission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schexnayder, Deanna; McCoy, Jody

    Child care provisions in the federal welfare bill allow state policymakers flexibility in child care fund allocation. This report, prepared for the 75th Texas Legislature, reviews research on the importance of child care programs to low-income families. The report notes that the child care needs of many low-income Texas families have not been met…

  5. Affordability: Family Incomes and Net Prices at Highly Selective Private Colleges and Universities. Discussion Paper No. 66r

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catharine; Winston, Gordon; Boyd, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    College tuition is frequently compared, in press and politics, to the US median family income. That is, however, a highly misleading benchmark since schools with need-based financial aid rarely charge students from median income families the reported sticker price. Working from the financial aid records of individual students at twenty-eight…

  6. Waiting in Line: Low Income Families and the Search for Housing. Watching Out for Children in Changing Times.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Citizens for Children and Youth, PA.

    The existing housing crisis for Philadelphia's low income families has been exacerbated by a decrease in the real income of these families over the past 10 years, a shortage of affordable housing during the same period, and the deterioration of much of the existing housing stock. "Watching Out for Children in Changing Times," a joint effort…

  7. Employment Alone is Not Enought for America's Low-Income Children and Families. Living at the Edge Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cauthen, Nancy K.; Lu, Hsien-Hen

    Families with incomes between the official poverty level and the minimum economic security level face many of the same material hardships and financial pressures that officially poor families face, partly because as their income grows, they lose eligibility for public benefits. This report focuses on the role that public policies play in…

  8. A Survey of Current Pre-School Education of/for Children from Urban Low-Income Families in Beijing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin-Qinghua; Liu-Yan; Zhang-Yan; Li-Qiong

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the pre-school education of children from low-income families in six urban districts of Beijing, using questionnaires and in-depth interviews with respondents from district educational committees, sub-district and resident's committees, nursery schools, and low-income families. The results indicated that (1) the number of…

  9. Subsidizing Child Care: How Child Care Subsidies Affect the Child Care Used by Low-Income African American Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinraub, Marsha; Shlay, Anne B.; Harmon, Michelle; Tran, Henry

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the type and quality of child care used by low-income families who were either receiving or not receiving subsidized child care, we interviewed 111 African American parents from a randomly selected sample of low-income families. We inquired about their child-care use, satisfaction with care, work stress, and employment history. Using…

  10. 75 FR 26780 - State Median Income Estimate for a Four-Person Family: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... in the Federal Register on March 3, 1988, at 53 FR 6824 and amended on October 15, 1999, at 64 FR... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families State Median Income Estimate for a Four-Person Family: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY) 2011 State Median Income Estimates for Use Under the...

  11. Safety practices and living conditions of low-income urban families.

    PubMed

    Santer, L J; Stocking, C B

    1991-12-01

    Injuries remain the leading cause of mortality in children and disproportionately affect poor children. Prior injury prevention efforts have neglected the injury prevention needs of these children. One hundred thirty-three care givers of medically indigent urban children younger than 6 years old were interviewed regarding living conditions, previous injuries, and safety practices and knowledge. Functional smoke detectors and fire extinguishers were present in 75% and 27% of homes, respectively. Few respondents, regardless of previous poisoning experience, were cognizant of ipecac, had it in their homes, or had a good response to a possible poisoning. Few homes had locked storage space, and most hazards were stored suboptimally. While the frequency of the use of automobiles was low, rides in a variety of vehicles were common with 63% of children who usually were restrained inadequately. Additionally, 89% of children aged 35 to 59 months and 6% of those younger than 3 years old sometimes bathed without adult supervision. These findings indicate the dramatic need for injury prevention programs focused on low-income urban families. Specific concerns include exposure to fires and burns, falls, hazardous travel conditions, dangerous chemical, choking, and drowning. Lack of information and isolated care givers may result in poor supervision and responses to injury of these children.

  12. [The cost of meeting dietary guidelines for low-income Brazilian families].

    PubMed

    Borges, Camila Aparecida; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Villar, Betzabeth Slater

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to identify the cost of meeting the Brazilian National Dietary Guidelines and analyze the impact on family budget. Data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey for 2008 were used. Food purchases were recorded for seven days in 55,970 households. A subset of low-income families (≤ BRL 415.00 per capita/month and ≤ US$ 1.00 per capita/day) was used for the analysis. We estimated per capita calorie availability, total food expenditures, and food prices aggregated in 8 food groups based on the Brazilian Guidelines. Each food group's share in total calories was estimated and compared to the recommendations. Actual purchases exceeded the recommendations for beans, oils/fats, sweets, and meat/eggs, and fell short for fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and grains. Meeting the recommendations would increase food expenditures by 58% among individuals with per capita income ≤ US$ 1.00/day and by 39% for those with per capita income ≤ BRL 415.00. Adoption of the recommendations would require 145% of total income. Meeting current recommendations would demand an increase in income or a policy to reduce food prices.

  13. Age at Immigration and the Incomes of Older Immigrants, 1994–2010

    PubMed Central

    Tienda, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Seniors comprise a growing proportion of new U.S. immigrants. We investigate whether late-age immigrants are disadvantaged in older age relative to those arriving earlier in life, based on income, reliance on public benefits, and access to public medical insurance. We test whether the 1996 welfare reform law altered the relationships between age at immigration and these outcomes. Method. Immigrants aged 65 and older in the 1994–2010 Current Population Surveys were classified by age at immigration. Median and logistic regressions are used to estimate the association between age at immigration and several outcomes and to test whether these associations differ for arrivals before and after welfare reform. Results. Late-age immigration is strongly associated with lower personal income, lower rates of Medicare and Social Security receipt, and higher participation in Supplemental Security Income (SSI) and Medicaid. Arrival after 1996 is associated with lower rates of SSI, Medicaid, and Medicare receipt. The association between late-age immigration and income is stronger for post-1996 arrivals relative to earlier arrivals, whereas that between late-age immigration and Medicaid is weaker, suggesting that the penalty conferred by late-age immigration grew after reform. Discussion. Late-age immigrants face formidable economic disadvantages exacerbated by exclusion from public benefits, with implications for immigration, health care, and welfare policy. PMID:24942972

  14. Assistive technologies for ageing populations in six low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Marasinghe, Keshini Madara; Lapitan, Jostacio Moreno; Ross, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Despite the benefits derived from the use of assistive technologies (AT), some parts of the world have minimal or no access to AT. In many low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC), only 5–15% of people who require AT have access to them. Rapid demographic changes will exacerbate this situation as populations over 60 years of age, as well as functional limitations among older populations, in LMIC are expected to be higher than in high-income countries in the coming years. Given both these trends, AT are likely to be in high demand and provide many benefits to respond to challenges related to healthy and productive ageing. Multiple databases were searched for English literature. Three groups of keywords were combined: those relating to AT, ageing population and LMIC selected for this study, namely Brazil, Cambodia, Egypt, India, Turkey and Zimbabwe. These countries are expected to see the most rapid growth in the 65 and above population in the coming years. Results indicate that all countries had AT designed for older adults with existing impairment and disability, but had limited AT that are designed to prevent impairment and disability among older adults who do not currently have any disabilities. All countries have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities. The findings conclude that AT for ageing populations have received some attention in LMIC as attested by the limited literature results. Analysis of review findings indicate the need for a comprehensive, integrated health and social system approach to increase the current availability of AT for ageing populations in LMIC. These would entail, yet not be limited to, work on: (1) promoting initiatives for low-cost AT; (2) awareness raising and capacity building on AT; (3) bridging the gap between AT policy and practice; and (4) fostering targeted research on AT. PMID:26688747

  15. Resilience and successful aging. Comparison among low and high income older adults.

    PubMed

    Wagnild, Gail

    2003-12-01

    1 Resilience, a personality characteristic that moderates the negative effects of stress and promotes adaptation, has been associated with better health in prior studies. 2 Successful aging can be defined as the enjoyment of health and vigor of the mind, body, and spirit into middle age and beyond. 3 Individuals with lower incomes may be less likely to achieve successful aging because of a higher prevalence of health risk factors. 4 Resilience appears to be positively and significantly associated with indicators of successful aging regardless of income.

  16. Risky business: managing the health care of urban low-income families.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, K K

    1995-07-01

    The article examines the managed care movement and its threat of neglecting the public health needs of particular populations. Case studies and service parameters of an urban perinatal home visiting program exemplify the health and illness needs of low-income families and the urgent need for nursing representation at managed care planning forums. Client, provider, planner, and environmental characteristics that will contribute to the financial risks or health successes of managed care organizations are discussed. One potential risky design for low-income urban populations is described. Nursing input into the design and implementation of managed care programs is advocated. PMID:7601883

  17. Family Day Care and the School-Age Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seltzer, Michelle Seligson

    This paper provides portions of a workshop discussion at the Wheelock Conference on School-Age Child Care concerning the role of family day care for school-age children. The workshop participants included family day care providers affiliated with the day care system in the Greater Boston area, administrators of a family day care system which also…

  18. Exploring Cumulative Risk and Family Literacy Practices in Low-Income Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcella, Jennifer; Howes, Carollee; Fuligni, Allison Sidle

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The home literacy environment and other early learning settings such as preschool play a role in children's language and literacy outcomes, yet research suggests that Latino, Spanish-speaking families are less likely than other families to participate in family literacy activities. This study explored the relations among…

  19. Family orientation, language, and anxiety among low-income Latino youth.

    PubMed

    Martinez, William; Polo, Antonio J; Carter, Jocelyn Smith

    2012-05-01

    There is emerging evidence that Latino youth report higher levels of anxiety symptoms than children from other ethnic groups. Although often implicated, cultural variables have not been systematically evaluated to determine their relationship to anxiety symptoms in Latino youth. The present study examined family orientation values, as measured by family obligation and affiliative obedience, and their relationship to youth anxiety symptoms. The sample consisted of 133 Latino students (grades 5th through 7th) of low-income backgrounds in an urban public school setting. Structural equation models revealed that higher family orientation was associated with separation anxiety/panic (β=.32) and harm avoidance (β=.51). Models employing language proficiency and use mirrored those employing family orientation, suggesting that language fluency captures, in part, family socialization values. The results provide support for the impact of culture in the assessment and specific needs of Latino youth with anxiety problems.

  20. Scores on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory of Children from Low- and Middle-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaga, Rose I.; Fenson, Larry; Cronan, Terry; Pethick, Stephen J.

    1998-01-01

    This study compared language skills in a group of very low-income toddlers with those of a middle-income sample matched on age and sex. The assessment instrument used was the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory for toddlers, a parent report form. Scores for low-income group were strikingly lower on three key indices evaluated: size of…

  1. Ecocultural Patterns of Family Engagement among Low-Income Latino Families of Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWayne, Christine M.; Melzi, Gigliana; Limlingan, Maria Cristina; Schick, Adina

    2016-01-01

    For the 5 million low-income Latino children in the United States who are disproportionately impacted by the numerous risk factors associated with poverty, it is essential to identify proximal protective factors that mitigate these risks and bolster the academic and social skills that are foundational to a successful transition into formal…

  2. Early Maternal Language Use during Book Sharing in Families from Low-Income Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Linzy M.; Crais, Elizabeth; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Cox, Martha; Blair, Clancy; Burchinal, Peg; Crnic, Keith; Crouter, Ann; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Greenberg, Mark; Lanza, Stephanie; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Werner, Emily; Willoughby, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The authors examined the language used by mothers from low-income and rural environments with their infants at ages 6 and 15 months to identify predictors of maternal language use at the 15-month time point. Method: Maternal language use by 82 mothers with their children was documented during book-sharing interactions within the home in a…

  3. Food preparation supplies predict children's family meal and home-prepared dinner consumption in low-income households.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Waring, Molly E; Schneider, Kristin L; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2014-05-01

    Frequent family meals and home food preparation are considered important for children's nutritional health and weight maintenance. This cross-sectional study tested whether these parent-driven behaviors are related to the availability of food preparation supplies in low-income urban households. Caregivers of children ages 6-13 provided information on family meal frequency, child consumption of home-prepared dinners, household food insecurity, and attitudes towards cooking. Researchers used a newly developed Food Preparation Checklist (FPC) to assess the availability of 41 food preparation supplies during a physical audit of the home environment. Caregivers and children provided anthropometric measurements and jointly reported on child dietary intake. In ordinal logistic regression models, greater home availability of food preparation supplies was associated with more frequent family meals and child consumption of home-prepared dinners. Associations were independent of household financial strain, food insecurity, caregiver attitudes toward cooking, and sociodemographic characteristics. Fewer food preparation supplies were available in households characterized by greater food insecurity, lower income, and negative caregiver attitudes towards cooking, but did not differ by child or caregiver weight status. As in prior studies, more frequent family meals and consumption of home-prepared dinners were associated with healthier child dietary intake in several areas. We conclude that food preparation supplies are often limited in the most socioeconomically disadvantaged households, and their availability is related to the frequency with which children consume family meals and home-prepared dinners. The potential role of food preparation supplies as contributors to socioeconomic disparities in child nutritional health and obesity deserves further study. PMID:24462491

  4. Income inequality and income segregation.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Sean F; Bischoff, Kendra

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates how the growth in income inequality from 1970 to 2000 affected patterns of income segregation along three dimensions: the spatial segregation of poverty and affluence, race-specific patterns of income segregation, and the geographic scale of income segregation. The evidence reveals a robust relationship between income inequality and income segregation, an effect that is larger for black families than for white families. In addition, income inequality affects income segregation primarily through its effect on the large-scale spatial segregation of affluence rather than by affecting the spatial segregation of poverty or by altering small-scale patterns of income segregation.

  5. The effects of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure on adolescent risk behaviors.

    PubMed Central

    Blum, R W; Beuhring, T; Shew, M L; Bearinger, L H; Sieving, R E; Resnick, M D

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The study examined the unique and combined contributions of race/ethnicity, income, and family structure to adolescent cigarette smoking, alcohol use, involvement with violence, suicidal thoughts or attempts, and sexual intercourse. METHODS: Analyses were based on the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. A nationally representative sample of 7th to 12th graders participated in in-home interviews, as did a resident parent for 85.6% of the adolescent subjects. The final sample included 10,803 White, Black, and Hispanic 7th to 12th graders. RESULTS: White adolescents were more likely to smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and attempt suicide in the younger years than were Black and Hispanic youths. Black youths were more likely to have had sexual intercourse; both Black and Hispanic youths were more likely than White teens to engage in violence. Controlling for gender, race/ethnicity, income, and family structure together explained no more than 10% of the variance in each of the 5 risk behaviors among younger adolescents and no more than 7% among older youths. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that when taken together, race/ethnicity, income, and family structure provide only limited understanding of adolescent risk behaviors. PMID:11111260

  6. Income, Relationship Quality, and Parenting: Associations with Child Development in Two-Parent Families

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Lawrence M.; McLanahan, Sara S.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research suggests considerable heterogeneity in the advantages of living in a two-parent family. Specifically, children living with married biological parents exhibit more favorable outcomes than children living with cohabiting biological parents and with married and cohabiting stepparents. To explain these differences, researchers have focused almost exclusively on differences in the levels of factors such as income, parental relationship quality, and parenting quality across family types. In this paper, we examined whether differences in the benefits associated with these factors might also account for some of the variation in children’s cognition and social-emotional development. Focusing on children at the time they enter kindergarten, we found only weak evidence of differences in benefits across family types. Rather, we found that children living in stepfather families experienced above average levels of parental relationship quality and parenting quality which, in turn, played a protective role vis-à-vis their cognitive and social-emotional development. PMID:26339104

  7. For Love "and" Money? The Impact of Family Structure on Family Income

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Adam; Sawhill, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    What do the half-century decline in U.S. marriage and the attendant rise in single parenthood mean for the economic well-being of children, especially children living in single-parent families? Adam Thomas and Isabel Sawhill show how differing living arrangements can be expected to affect families' economic well-being. Married-parent and…

  8. Family Structure Effects on Maternal and Paternal Parenting in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Davis, Christina M.

    2008-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey, a birth cohort study, this study analyzes the effect of family structure on parenting for 3,402 mothers and 2,615 fathers. To address the problem of omitted variable bias, fixed effects methods are used to control for the presence of time-invariant unobserved…

  9. Exploring the Relationship between Assets and Family Stress among Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothwell, David W.; Han, Chang-Keun

    2010-01-01

    The "hard times" resulting from the 2008 Great Recession represent an opportunity to re-examine the theoretical framework for how families use economic resources to manage stress. M. Sherraden's (1991) theory of assets and H. I. McCubbin and J. Patterson's (1983) family adjustment and adaptation response model informed this study of how assets…

  10. Academic Performance Gaps and Family Income in a Rural Elementary School: Perceptions of Low-Income Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renth, Beth A.; Buckley, Phillip; Puchner, Laurel

    2015-01-01

    A wide range of research has been conducted regarding reasons for the achievement gap between low income students and higher income students, but there is limited research regarding parental perspectives, and particularly fewer studies of parental perceptions of low-income, rural elementary school parents. This study examined the extent to which…

  11. Examining Zero Expected Family Contribution as a New Criterion for "Low Income": Comparing the Impact on Student Persistence at Two- and Four-Year Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, J. Cody

    2015-01-01

    The designation "low income" is often assigned to students who are Federal Pell Grant eligible; however, family incomes for these recipients range from $0 to as high as $60,000 (Baum & Payea, 2011). Over 93% of all zero expected family contribution (EFC) students have a family income of $30,000 or less and constituted 67.4% of all…

  12. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting as Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the…

  13. Windows of Opportunity: Strategies To Support Families Receiving Welfare and Other Low-Income Families in the Next Stage of Welfare Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeney, Eileen; Schott, Liz; Lazere, Ed; Fremstad, Shawn; Goldberg, Heidi; Guyer, Jocelyn; Super, David; Johnson, Clifford

    This report describes an array of innovative strategies and practical ideas for helping low-income families with children. There is a window of opportunity for these new strategies as many states have tremendous financial resources available. The Temporary Assistance For Needy Families (TANF) program rules have been clarified, and families are…

  14. A Study of the Relationship Between the Level of Nutritional Consumption and the Education, Income, and Family Size of Selected Poor Families in Atlanta, Georgia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Flora Powell

    The stated objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the differences in knowledge of nutrition, of income, and of family size in the upper and lower strata families; (2) the shopping practices of families; (3) average weekly food expenditures; (4) mean educational level; and (5) differences in the mean weekly food expenditures -- a…

  15. Learning about Children's School Preparation through Photographs: The Use of Photo Elicitation Interviews with Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    As part of a larger project on the transition to kindergarten, eight families volunteered for a photography-based study. The purpose of this study was to gain further insight into how low-income families prepare children for kindergarten. Following a photo elicitation approach, eight families used a digital camera for 1 week to document activities…

  16. Who's Reading to Children in Low-Income Families? The Influence of Paternal, Maternal and Child Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duursma, Elisabeth; Pan, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Most research on parental bookreading has focused on mothers reading to their children. This study examined bookreading practices among approximately 800 fathers and mothers in low-income families. We looked at differences and similarities between families where both parents read frequently compared to families where only mothers read frequently.…

  17. Associations between maternal older age, family environment and parent and child wellbeing in families using assisted reproductive techniques to conceive.

    PubMed

    Boivin, J; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M B; Thapar, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (<31 years) or older (>38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4-11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n=642) and fathers (n=439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood. PMID:19346045

  18. A Closer Look at Changes in Children's Living Arrangements in Low-Income Families. Working Paper. Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherlin, Andrew J.; Fomby, Paula

    This study examined changes in low-income children's living arrangements over time. Caregivers of children in Boston, Chicago, and San Antonio completed interviews in 1999 and then again 16 months later as part of the Three-City Study of low-income families with children. The percentage of children living with single mothers who were not…

  19. Links between Parent-Teacher Relationships and Kindergartners' Social Skills: Do Child Ethnicity and Family Income Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iruka, Iheoma U.; Winn, Donna-Marie C.; Kingsley, Susan J.; Orthodoxou, Yannick J.

    2011-01-01

    This study uses National Center for Early Development and Learning (NCEDL) data to examine the moderating effects of child ethnicity and family income on the links between parent-teacher relationships and kindergartners' social skills. This study includes 481 Caucasian, African American, and Latino children from low-income households. Overall,…

  20. Family Income, Parent Education, and Perceived Constraints as Predictors of Observed Program Quality and Parent Rated Program Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torquati, Julia C.; Raikes, Helen H.; Huddleston-Casas, Catherine A.; Bovaird, James A.; Harris, Beatrice A.

    2011-01-01

    Observed child care quality and parent perceptions of child care quality received by children in poor (below Federal Poverty Line, FPL), low-income (between FPL and 200% of FPL), and non-low-income families were examined. Observations were completed in 359 center- and home-based child care programs in four Midwestern states and surveys were…

  1. Developing Talents among High-Potential Students from Low-Income Families in an Out-of-School Enrichment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Rachelle; Gentry, Marcia

    2010-01-01

    Enrichment programs can provide various social and academic benefits for high-potential learners. However, students from low-income families receive fewer opportunities for academic enrichment than students from higher income backgrounds. This qualitative study examined the experiences and perceptions of high-potential students from low-income…

  2. Child Care Use by Low-Income Families: Variations across States. Research Brief. Publication #2008-23

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Laura; Vandivere, Sharon; Keith, Julie; Atienza, Astrid

    2008-01-01

    For many low-income and single parents, employment depends on securing reliable, affordable child care. Yet these parents may face greater challenges than do higher-income and two-parent families in making affordable, appropriate child care arrangements that complement their work schedules. Indeed, the cost, availability, stability, and quality of…

  3. Obesity risk in children: The role of acculturation in the feeding practices and styles of low-income Hispanic families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parent feeding has been associated with child overweight/obesity in low-income families. Because acculturation to the United States has been associated with increased adult obesity, our study aim was to determine whether acculturation was associated with feeding in these populations. Low-income Hisp...

  4. CHILDHOOD DEPRESSION. Exploring the association between family violence and other psychosocial factors in low-income Brazilian schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Childhood depression affects the morbidity, mortality and life functions of children. Individual, family and environmental factors have been documented as psychosocial risk factors for childhood depression, especially family violence, which results in inadequate support, low family cohesion and poor communication. This study investigates the association between psychosocial depression factors in low-income schoolchildren and reveals the potential trouble spots, highlighting several forms of violence that take place within the family context. Methods The study was based on a cross-sectional analysis of 464 schoolchildren aged between 6 and 10, selected by random sampling from a city in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Socio-economic, family and individual variables were investigated on the strength of the caregivers’ information and organized in blocks for analysis. A binary logistic regression model was applied, according to hierarchical blocks. Results The final hierarchical regression analysis showed that the following variables are potential psychosocial factors associated with depression in childhood: average/poor relationship with the father (OR 3.24, 95% CI 1.32-7.94), high frequency of victimization by psychological violence (humiliation) (OR 6.13, 95% CI 2.06-18.31), parental divorce (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.14-7.32) and externalizing behavior problems (OR 3.53 IC 1.51-8.23). Conclusions The results point to multiple determinants of depressive behavior in children, as well as the potential contribution of psychological family violence. The study also reveals potential key targets for early intervention, especially for children from highly vulnerable families. PMID:22776354

  5. 24 CFR 990.215 - Payments of operating subsidy conditioned upon reexamination of income of families in occupancy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... required to reexamine the income of each family in accordance with the provisions of the ACC, the 1937 Act... its rent and utility allowance calculations have been or will be adjusted in accordance with...

  6. Low-income women's employment experiences and their financial, personal, and family well-being.

    PubMed

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lombardi, Caitlin McPherran

    2014-02-01

    Low-income women's rates of employment have grown dramatically in recent years, yet the stability and quality of their employment remain low. Using panel data from the Three-City Study following 1,586 low-income African American, Latina, and European American women, this study assessed associations between women's employment quality (wages; receipt of health insurance) and stability (work consistency; job transitions) and their financial, personal, and family well-being. Hierarchical linear models assessing within-person effects found that increases in wages were associated with improved financial well-being and physical health. Average wages over time similarly were associated with greater levels of income and financial stability as well as mental and physical health at the end of the study. In contrast, few significant associations emerged for receipt of health insurance or for the stability and consistency of women's employment. Results have implications for programs and policies seeking to support disadvantaged women's employment in order to improve family resources and functioning.

  7. The Relationship between Type D Personality and Suicidality in Low-Income, Middle-Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Dae Hyun; Kim, Seog Ju; Lee, Jong-Ha; Kim, Pyo-Min; Park, Doo-Heum; Ryu, Seung Ho; Yu, Jaehak

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low-income adults are considered to be a group at high risk for suicide. We sought to examine the effect of type D personality and other socio-demographic factors on suicidality in low-income, middle-aged Koreans. Methods In total, 306 low-income, middle-aged Koreans [age: 49.16±5.24 (40-59) years, 156 males, 150 females] were enrolled from the Korean National Basic Livelihood Security System. Socio-demographic data, including employment status, income, health, marital status, and educational attainment, were gathered. Beck's 19-item Scale for Suicidal Ideation (SSI) was applied to evaluate suicidality, and the DS14 was used to assess type D personality. Results Unemployment (p<0.01) and absence of spouse (p=0.03) predicted higher SSI scores independent of other socioeconomic factors. All type D personality scores [i.e., negative affectivity (NA), social inhibition (SI), and total score] predicted higher SSI scores independent of all socioeconomic factors (all, p<0.001). Subjects with type D personality had higher SSI scores (p<0.001), and the association between suicidality and socio-demographic factors (employment or physical health) could be found only in subjects without type D personality. Conclusion Type D personality was a risk factor for suicide in low-income Koreans, independently from socio-economic factors. In addition, the socio-demographic factors were less prominently associated with suicidality in those with type D personality. PMID:25670941

  8. Federal child care funding for low-income families: how much is needed?

    PubMed

    Koppelman, Jane

    2002-07-22

    Setting a dollar amount for government spending on child care is a major issue in reauthorizing the 1996 welfare reform law. Two key components in pending Congressional proposals involve the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families block grant and the Child Care and Development Fund, which together provide the bulk of government child care funding for low income working families, whether or not these families are directly involved in the welfare system. The choices for Congress involved in setting an appropriate child care funding level are complex and fraught with questions about quality and cost tradeoffs. This issue brief provides background on current child care use, arrangements, and cost, as well as research findings on the measurement of quality in child care programs.

  9. [Caring for the health of young children in the family context: an ethnographic study of low income families].

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Vania; Trad, Leny A Bomfim

    2007-01-01

    This study examines ways of caring for the health of small children in families assisted by the Family Health Program in a low-income outlying district of Salvador over a period of nine months. Based on participant observations supplemented by semi-structured interviews, the ethnographic approach offers a close-up view of how the respondents understand childcare and its links to the social and cultural context. Childcare requirements are arrayed along three main axes, structured on the basis of the child's gender: preservation of integrity, ability to play and education. Practices related to healthcare express evaluations and decisions that take into consideration the constraints imposed by reality and different standpoints, with the medical view occupying an important but not preponderant - position. Finally, the inter-subjective character of childcare is examined, in the sense that adults obtain moral gratification through caring for children, striving to meet their needs.

  10. State income tax policy and family size: fertility and the dependency exemption.

    PubMed

    Whittington, L A

    1993-10-01

    income as a constant, income reduces the impact of the dependency exemption on fertility. Neither state or federal exemptions are a determinant of fertility but serve as a policy tool for motivating average family size.

  11. [Experience with treatment of high blood pressure in low-income families].

    PubMed

    Trad, Leny Alves Bonfim; Tavares, Jeane Saskya Campos; Soares, Carla Silva; Ripardo, Rachel Coelho

    2010-04-01

    In order to properly understand high blood pressure (HBP), or arterial hypertension, it is important to examine the influence of knowledge and beliefs associated with the condition, as well as the resources available for its treatment. This study analyzes the treatment experiences of three low-income extended families that include members with HBP. The study investigated the various alternatives that were adopted, determinants of choices, evaluation of the services used, and the impact of interaction with health services on care in the home. An ethnographic study was performed in a low-income neighborhood in Salvador, Bahia State, using direct observation and semi-structured interviews with key informants in home and institutional settings. The study found that the treatment experiences of the participating families did not follow a rigid pattern, but were influenced by prior experiences with hypertension and other diseases, available social support, and conditions in the formal health care system available in the neighborhood. The study also detected a grasp and adaptation of technical health knowledge by families.

  12. Maternal Age and Depressive Symptoms in a Low-Income Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study, depressive symptoms of 2,011 European-American, African-American, and Latina low-income mothers at approximately 14 months after birth of the child were examined. Maternal age was used as a predictor of depressive symptoms. Overall, 31.9% of mothers were classified as depressed using the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression…

  13. Astronomy for Special Needs Children (Low-income and/or Serious Medical Conditions) and Their Families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubowich, Donald

    2015-08-01

    I present the results of two NASA-IDEAS/STScI* sponsored and one IAU OAD grant for astronomy outreach programs for seriously ill or traumatically injured children and their families staying at the Ronald McDonald Houses of Long Island (New Hyde Park, NY) and Chicago or for children hospitalized at the Winthrop University Hospital Children’s Medical Center, (Mineola, NY). An astronomy program was also created for the five Fresh Air Fund Charity summer camps (low-income and special needs) and for a Hofstra summer camp for developmentally challenged youths.These programs are designed for children of all ages include” STSCi’s “Tonight’s Sky” (monthly guide to the sky); telescope observations of the Moon, Sun, planets, nebulae, and stars; and hands-on activities. During cloudy weather remote/robotic telescope observations are shown to the children.The staff and volunteers at the Ronald McDonald House and Children’s Medical Center are trained to use the telescope and to do astronony demonstrations. I created an Activity Book for the staff with demonstrations, participatory hands-on activities, and edible demonstrations using chocolate, marshmallows, and popcorn are to stimulate interest.These educational activities help children and their families learn about astronomy while providing a diversion to take their minds off their illness during a stressful time. The RMHs provide free or low-cost housing in a comfortable, supportive alternative atmosphere where family members sleep, eat, relax and find support from other families in similar situations. Families are kept united when mutual support is as critical as the medical treatment itself. The ill children and their families may stay for a few days or months because of chemotherapy, dialysis, or rehabilitative therapy. Children from 50 states and 50 countries stay the Chicago RMHs and there are 260 RMHs in the US and 65 worldwide.

  14. Exploring identity and aging: auto-photography and narratives of low income older adults.

    PubMed

    Kohon, Jacklyn; Carder, Paula

    2014-08-01

    This study focused on meanings of health, housing, independence and aging among low-income adults age 55 and older who live in, or are on a waiting list for, publicly subsidized rental housing. The purpose was to learn how low-income older adults perceive their independence and health, and how their place of residence contributes to these perceptions, as well as related perceptions of self. Qualitative data were collected using in-person narrative interviews with 45 individuals and a second photo elicitation interview with 31 of these persons. Themes describe how disrupted identities influence subjective thoughts about the aging process, housing, health, and finances, the process of clinicalization, and place identities. These findings highlight the relationship between housing status, dignity, and shifting identities as older adults experience the aging process in a low-income context. This study expands the current scholarship on the relationship between environment and aging as well as our understanding of poverty among older persons. These topics are relevant for new policies and programs to support the aging in place of older persons in subsidized housing. Understanding the life worlds of those who live in or have applied to this form of housing will be instrumental in developing such strategies. PMID:24984907

  15. Changes in family income status and the development of overweight and obesity from 2 to 15 years: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An emerging body of research suggests the trajectory of a family’s income affects children’s health and development more profoundly than the often-measured income at a single time point. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between changes in family income status, early-life risk factors, and body mass index (BMI) z-score trajectory from age 2 to 15 years. Methods This longitudinal study employed a birth cohort (n = 595) located in a rural region of New York State. Data were collected through an audit of medical records and mailed questionnaires. Family low-income and BMI z-score trajectories were identified using latent-class modeling techniques that group children based on similar trends across time. We examined five early-life risk factors in relation to income and BMI z-score trajectories: maternal overweight/obesity, maternal gestational weight gain, maternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding duration, and early-life weight gain trajectory. We used multinomial logistic regression models to estimate the odds of being in a BMI z-score trajectory group based on income trajectory and early-life risk factors. Results Children who remain low-income throughout childhood were more likely to maintain overweight (AOR = 2.55, 95% CI = 1.03, 5.42) and children who moved into low-income during childhood were more likely to be obese (AOR = 2.36, 95% CI = 1.12, 5.93) compared to children who were never low-income. Maternal overweight/obesity was significantly associated with a child become obese (AOR = 8.31, 95% CI = 3.80, 18.20), become overweight (AOR = 2.37, 95% CI = 1.34, 4.22), and stay overweight (AOR = 1.79, 95% CI = 1.02, 3.14). Excessive gestational weight gain was associated with increased likelihood of a child becoming overweight trajectory (AOR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.01, 4.00). Conclusions Our findings further supports the growing evidence that there are several preventable

  16. Understanding the Relation of Low Income to HPA-Axis Functioning in Preschool Children: Cumulative Family Risk and Parenting As Pathways to Disruptions in Cortisol

    PubMed Central

    Lengua, Liliana J.; Kiff, Cara J.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relation of low income and poverty to cortisol levels, and tested potential pathways from low income to disruptions in cortisol through cumulative family risk and parenting. The sample of 306 mothers and their preschool children included 29 % families at or near poverty, 27 % families below the median income, and the remaining families at middle and upper income. Lower income was related to lower morning cortisol levels, and cumulative risk predicted a flatter diurnal slope, with a significant indirect effect through maternal negativity, suggesting that parenting practices might mediate an allostatic effect on stress physiology. PMID:22528032

  17. Examination of the Family Involvement Questionnaire-Early Childhood (FIQ-EC) with Low-Income, Latino Families of Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWayne, Christine M.; Manz, Patricia H.; Ginsburg-Block, Marika D.

    2015-01-01

    Given the growing numbers of Latino children entering the U.S. educational system, there is a need to understand the ways Latino parents support their children's early education. However, tools used to measure family engagement have been developed primarily with middle-income, English-speaking European American families in the United States. The…

  18. Performance Assessment of High and Low Income Families through "Online RAW Achievement Battery Test" of Primary Grade Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Tamim; Hanif, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This study is intended to investigate student's achievement capability among two families i.e. Low and High income families and designed for primary level learners. A Reading, Arithmetic and Writing (RAW) Achievement test that was developed as a part of another research study (Tamim Ahmed Khan, 2015) was adopted for this study. Both English medium…

  19. [Changes in employment, retirement age and fertility: their effects on economic dependency and per capita income].

    PubMed

    Bravo, J H

    1991-04-01

    This article provides a very simplified analysis of the impact of changes in unemployment, retirement age, and fertility on economic dependency and per capita income in Latin America. The macroeconomic consequences of variations in age structure have received a little recent attention among Latin American researchers and policymakers, partly because of the lack of simple but rigorous analytical models to orient research. This analysis is simplified in that it focuses on changes in age distribution but does not explicitly consider effects of changes in population size, even though in reality the 2 types of changes are interrelated. The analysis has also been simplified by not taking into account any type of causal interaction between the demographic and economic variables analyzed; only the most elementary accounting relations between them are utilized. The 1st section defines the concept of economic dependency, specifies the effects of changes in its demographic and economic components, and establishes a simple link between the dependency ratio and per capita income. These and other derivations in the following sections permit evaluation of the impact of changes in employment, retirement age, and fertility on the dependency ratio and per capita income. The work concludes with a synthesis and general discussion, including a theoretical consideration of the effects of interactions among components. Only the most important equations are presented in the main text, but all variables, equations, and relations are defined and derived in the appendix. 6 countries were studied to illustrate the relationships in the context of the demographic diversity of Latin America. Argentina and Cuba represented countries in an advanced stage of the demographic transition, Chile and Mexico represented an intermediate phase, and Bolivia and Peru represented countries at the beginning of the transition. Results of decomposition of changes in dependency and income due to each of the

  20. Perceived Income Adequacy among Older Adults in 12 Countries: Findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwin, Howard; Sapir, Eliyahu V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a survey research measure of subjective income, as measured by perceived income adequacy, in an international context. Design and Methods: The study population comprised persons aged 50 years and older in 12 countries from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 28,939). Perceived difficulty in making ends…

  1. [Health Care Insurance in France: its impact on income distribution between age and social groups].

    PubMed

    Fourcade, N; Duval, J; Lardellier, R

    2013-08-01

    Our study, based on microsimulation models, evaluates the redistributive impact of health care insurance in France on income distribution between age and social groups. This work sheds light on the debate concerning the respective role of the public health care insurance (PHI) and the private supplemental health care insurance (SHI) in France. The analysis points out that the PHI enables the lowest-income households and the pensioners a better access to health care than they would have had under a complete private SHI. Due to the progressivity of taxes, low-income households contribute less to the PHI and get higher benefits because of a weaker health. Pensioners have low contributions to public health care finance but the highest health care expenditures.

  2. Family Extrusion of the Aged Patient: Family Homeostasis and Sexual Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael B.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Case studies demonstrate that when chronic sexual conflict constitutes a factor in family homeostasis, nursing home placement of the aged ill is a likely event when either there is a shift in family dynamics due to death or illness of a key member or the aged becomes overtly psychiatrically disabled. (Author)

  3. The Selection of Children from Low-Income Families into Preschool

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Purtell, Kelly M.; Davis-Kean, Pamela; Ansari, Arya; Benner, Aprile D.

    2016-01-01

    Because children from low-income families benefit from preschool but are less likely than other children to enroll, identifying factors that promote their enrollment can support research and policy aiming to reduce socioeconomic disparities in education. In this study, we tested an accommodations model with data on 6,250 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. In general, parental necessity (e.g., maternal employment) and human capital considerations (e.g., maternal education) most consistently predicted preschool enrollment among children from low-income families. Supply side factors (e.g., local child care options) and more necessity and human capital factors (e.g., having fewer children, desiring preparation for school) selected such children into preschool over parental care or other care arrangements, and several necessity factors (e.g., being less concerned about costs) selected them into non-Head Start preschools over Head Start programs. Systemic connections and child elicitation did not consistently predict preschool enrollment in this population. PMID:26890917

  4. Ideal ages for family formation among immigrants in Europe.

    PubMed

    Holland, Jennifer A; de Valk, Helga A G

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates ideal ages for marriage and parenthood among immigrants from over 160 countries origins living in 25 European countries. Ideals regarding the timing of family formation are indicative of how individuals perceive the family life course and provide insight into family-life aspirations and the meaning attached to these transitions. Using data from the European Social Survey (Round 3, 2006; N=6330) and a cross-classified multilevel modeling approach, we investigate associations between the influences of the dominant family formation timing patterns in countries of origin and settlement, individual-level characteristics, and ideal ages. We make innovative use of a standard demographic measure, the singulate mean age of marriage, to measure family formation patterns. Results suggest that residential context influences are associated with the timing ideals of all migrants, but origin influences seem to be associated with the ideals of only the most recent migrants.

  5. Family Planning for Low-Income African American Families: Contributions of Social Work Pioneer Ophelia Settle Egypt.

    PubMed

    Wells-Wilbon, Rhonda

    2015-10-01

    Historically, African Americans made huge contributions to the field of social welfare and the social work profession, yet little has been written about them in the professional literature. This article explores the contributions of pioneering social worker Ophelia Settle Egypt. A thorough assessment of her pioneering role would reveal her unique work as an educator, researcher, and grassroots social worker, but the focus here is on her innovative commitment to the Planned Parenthood movement. Egypt's work around population control in her Southeast Washington, DC, neighborhood with low-income African American families in the early 1950s became a labor of love in her community that can help inform current practice approaches in urban environments with African American populations.

  6. Parenting Behaviours among Low-Income Mothers of Preschool Age Children in the USA: Implications for Parenting Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Yvonne; Griffin, Kenneth W.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the overall quality of parenting behaviours among low-income mothers in the USA and the extent to which they are influenced by risk factors within the family environment, maternal well-being and maternal risk characteristics associated with socio-economic status. Participants consisted of 1070 low-income mothers of…

  7. Is Income Inequality a Determinant of Population Health? Part 2. U.S. National and Regional Trends in Income Inequality and Age- and Cause-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Lynch, John; Smith, George Davey; Harper, Sam; Hillemeier, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    This article describes U.S. income inequality and 100-year national and 30-year regional trends in age- and cause-specific mortality. There is little congruence between national trends in income inequality and age- or cause-specific mortality except perhaps for suicide and homicide. The variable trends in some causes of mortality may be associated regionally with income inequality. However, between 1978 and 2000 those regions experiencing the largest increases in income inequality had the largest declines in mortality (r= 0.81, p < 0.001). Understanding the social determinants of population health requires appreciating how broad indicators of social and economic conditions are related, at different times and places, to the levels and social distribution of major risk factors for particular health outcomes. PMID:15225332

  8. Is income inequality a determinant of population health? Part 2. U.S. National and regional trends in income inequality and age- and cause-specific mortality.

    PubMed

    Lynch, John; Smith, George Davey; Harper, Sam; Hillemeier, Marianne

    2004-01-01

    This article describes U.S. income inequality and 100-year national and 30-year regional trends in age- and cause-specific mortality. There is little congruence between national trends in income inequality and age- or cause-specific mortality except perhaps for suicide and homicide. The variable trends in some causes of mortality may be associated regionally with income inequality. However, between 1978 and 2000 those regions experiencing the largest increases in income inequality had the largest declines in mortality (r= 0.81, p < 0.001). Understanding the social determinants of population health requires appreciating how broad indicators of social and economic conditions are related, at different times and places, to the levels and social distribution of major risk factors for particular health outcomes.

  9. Iranian Adolescents' Intended Age of Marriage and Desired Family Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tashakkori, Abbas; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined questionnaire data pertaining to intended age of marriage and desired family size from Iranian 12th graders. Proximal factors (individual level variables such as self-concept and school success) were stronger predictors on both dependent measures than were distal factors (parental education, sibling size, and family modernity). Proximal…

  10. Income Inequality in Health at All Ages: A Comparison of the United States and England

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. I systematically examined income gradients in health in the United States and England across the life span (ages birth to 80 years), separately for females and males, for a number of health conditions. Methods. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for the United States (n = 36 360) and the Health Survey for England (n = 55 783), I calculated weighted prevalence rates and risk ratios by income level for the following health risk factors or conditions: obesity, hypertension, diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high cholesterol ratio, heart attack or angina, stroke, and asthma. Results. In the United States and England, the income gradients in health are very similar across age, gender, and numerous health conditions, and are robust to adjustments for race/ethnicity, health behaviors, body mass index, and health insurance. Conclusions. Health disparities by income are pervasive in England as well as in the United States, despite better overall health, universal health insurance, and more generous social protection spending in England. PMID:22994174

  11. Families with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  12. Family history of immigration from a tuberculosis endemic country and low family income are associated with a higher BCG vaccination coverage in Ile-de-France region, France.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Chauvin, Pierre; Le Strat, Yann; Soler, Marion; Fonteneau, Laure; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2013-11-19

    After withdrawal of multipuncture BCG device from the French market in January 2006, vaccination coverage (VC) with the intradermal device has dropped and since remained sub-optimal in Ile-de-France, the only region of mainland France where BCG is recommended to all children. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify socio-economic factors associated with BCG VC in children of Paris metropolitan area born after January 2006. Two-stage random sampling was used to include 425 children up to 5 years old from Paris and its suburbs. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and vaccination status confirmed by a vaccination document. Poisson regression analyzed the association between VC and potential determinants. VC of children from families with the lowest incomes (first quartile of family income/consumption unit (CU) (<883 €) was close to 100% regardless of family origin. In families with higher incomes (≥ 883 €/CU), VC was significantly higher among children born to families from a tuberculosis highly endemic country (98.2%) compared with other children (76.2%) (p=0.004). Children of low socio-economic background as well as those with a family history of immigration, regardless of family income, are correctly identified as being at high risk of tuberculosis and properly vaccinated with BCG in this area.

  13. Intermetropolitan Differences in Family Income Inequality: An Ecological Analysis of Total White and Nonwhite Patterns in 1960

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdall, George W.

    1977-01-01

    A path model is presented which views income level and inequality as caused by ecological structure (age, racial composition, and regional location), industry mix (manufacturing and agricultural employment), and human capital factors (educational inequality and female labor force participation). (Author)

  14. The protocol for the Families First Edmonton trial (FFE): a randomized community-based trial to compare four service integration approaches for families with low-income

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Families with low incomes experience an array of health and social challenges that compromise their resilience and lead to negative family outcomes. Along with financial constraints, there are barriers associated with mental and physical health, poorer education and language. In addition, vulnerable populations experience many services as markedly unhelpful. This combination of family and service barriers results in reduced opportunities for effective, primary-level services and an increased use of more expensive secondary-level services (e.g., emergency room visits, child apprehensions, police involvement). A systematic review of effective interventions demonstrated that promotion of physical and mental health using existing service was critically important. Methods/Design The Families First Edmonton Trial (FFE) tests four service integration approaches to increase use of available health and social services for families with low-income. It is a randomized, two-factor, single-blind, longitudinal effectiveness trial where low-income families (1168) were randomly assigned to receive either (1) Family Healthy Lifestyle plus Family Recreation service integration (Comprehensive), (2) Family Healthy Lifestyle service integration, (3) Family Recreation service integration, or (4) existing services. To be eligible families needed to be receiving one of five government income assistance programs. The trial was conducted in the City of Edmonton between January 2006 and August 2011. The families were followed for a total of three years of which interventional services were received for between 18 and 24 months. The primary outcome is the number of family linkages to health and social services as measured by a customized survey tool “Family Services Inventory”. Secondary outcomes include type and satisfaction with services, cost of services, family member health, and family functioning. Where possible, the measures for secondary outcomes were selected because

  15. Supporting Low-Income Parents of Young Children: The Palm Beach County Family Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Rich, Lauren; Gouvea, Marcia; Winje, Carolyn; Scannell, Molly; Harden, Allen; Berg, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    For more than a decade, Florida's Palm Beach County has been building an infrastructure of prevention and early intervention services to promote and support the healthy development and school readiness of children from birth to age 8. The county began this effort with a set of programs focused on serving families in four targeted geographic areas…

  16. Prevalence of Food Addiction Among Low-Income Reproductive-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Laz, Tabassum H.; Pohlmeier, Ali M.; Rahman, Mahbubur; Cunningham, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Hyperpalatable foods (i.e., high in salt, sugar, or fat) have been shown to have addictive properties that may contribute to overeating. Prior studies conducted on food addiction behaviors are mostly based on white and middle-aged women. Data are not available, however, on reproductive-aged women from other races/ethnicities or low-income women. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of food addiction among multiethnic women of low socioeconomic status. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of health behaviors, including food addiction according to the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) between July 2010 and February 2011 among 18- to 40-year-old low-income women attending reproductive-health clinics (N = 1,067). Results: Overall, 2.8% of women surveyed met the diagnosis of food addiction. The prevalence of food addiction did not differ by age group, race/ethnicity, education, income, or body mass index categories, tobacco and alcohol use, or physical activity. However, it did differ by level of depression (p < 0.01). The YFAS symptom count score significantly differed by race/ethnicity (p < 0.01) with black women having higher scores than Hispanic women. Racial differences were also observed among some of the YFAS symptoms. Conclusion: These findings demonstrated a low prevalence of food addiction among low-income, reproductive-aged women. Racial differences were observed in the YFAS symptom count score, but not in the overall prevalence of food addition. Additionally, women with food addiction had higher levels of depression than women without food addiction. PMID:26284304

  17. Work, Health, and Family at Older Ages in Japan.

    PubMed

    Raymo, James M; Liang, Jersey; Kobayashi, Erika; Sugihara, Yoko; Fukaya, Taro

    2009-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate ways in which the relationship between health and labor force exit at older ages is moderated by family characteristics. Using two waves of data from a national sample of older Japanese men collected 1999 and 2002, we estimate logistic regression models for labor force exit beyond age 63 as a function of health change, family characteristics, and their interactions. We confirm that poor health is strongly associated with labor force exit and find evidence that moderating influences of family context depend upon the level of health. However, results are only partially consistent with hypotheses that the relationship between health and the likelihood of labor force exit should be stronger for (a) those with good health and family incentives to exit the labor force and (b) those with poor health and family incentives to remain in the labor force.

  18. Social-cognitive predictors of low-income parents' restriction of screen time among preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lampard, Amy M; Jurkowski, Janine M; Davison, Kirsten K

    2013-10-01

    Parents' rules regarding child television, DVD, video game, and computer use (screen time) have been associated with lower screen use in children. This study aimed to identify modifiable correlates of this behavior by examining social-cognitive predictors of parents' restriction of child screen time. Low-income parents (N = 147) of preschool-aged children (2-6 years) completed self-administered questionnaires examining parent and child screen time, parent restriction of screen time, self-efficacy to restrict screen time, and beliefs about screen time. Structural equation modeling results indicated that greater self-efficacy to restrict screen time (β = .29, p = .016) and greater perceived importance of restricting child screen use (β = .55, p < .001) were associated with greater restriction of child screen use, after controlling for parent screen time. Family-based interventions that consider broader attitudinal factors around child screen time may be necessary to engage parents in restricting screen use. PMID:23239766

  19. Family income and appraisals of parental conflict as predictors of psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Hostinar, Camelia E

    2013-10-01

    The goal of the current study was to provide the first investigation of whether appraisals of parental marital conflict mediate associations of family income with emerging adult psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol production. Participants were 178 college students who provided 3 saliva samples across the day and reported their family income, adjustment (depressive symptoms, perceived daily stress, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems), and appraisals of their parents' conflict (including perceptions of frequency, intensity, resolution, stability, as well as perceived threat and self-blame for conflict). Results indicated that emerging adults from low-income families reported more-negative conflict appraisals, which in turn predicted lower levels of adjustment; there was no association between income and patterns of cortisol production across the day. However, emerging adults who felt responsible for their parents' conflict displayed cortisol levels that were lower early in the day, with a tendency toward blunted cortisol slopes across the day; those who appraised their parents' conflict less negatively displayed a more normative pattern of cortisol production. These results suggest that effects of family income on psychological adjustment are explained, in part, by appraisals of parental conflict, particularly of appraisals of conflict as threatening, whereas self-blame conflict appraisals have main effects on cortisol, and predict a dysregulated and potentially maladaptive pattern of cortisol production across the day for emerging adults. PMID:24098963

  20. Family income and appraisals of parental conflict as predictors of psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol in emerging adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lucas-Thompson, Rachel G; Hostinar, Camelia E

    2013-10-01

    The goal of the current study was to provide the first investigation of whether appraisals of parental marital conflict mediate associations of family income with emerging adult psychological adjustment and diurnal cortisol production. Participants were 178 college students who provided 3 saliva samples across the day and reported their family income, adjustment (depressive symptoms, perceived daily stress, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems), and appraisals of their parents' conflict (including perceptions of frequency, intensity, resolution, stability, as well as perceived threat and self-blame for conflict). Results indicated that emerging adults from low-income families reported more-negative conflict appraisals, which in turn predicted lower levels of adjustment; there was no association between income and patterns of cortisol production across the day. However, emerging adults who felt responsible for their parents' conflict displayed cortisol levels that were lower early in the day, with a tendency toward blunted cortisol slopes across the day; those who appraised their parents' conflict less negatively displayed a more normative pattern of cortisol production. These results suggest that effects of family income on psychological adjustment are explained, in part, by appraisals of parental conflict, particularly of appraisals of conflict as threatening, whereas self-blame conflict appraisals have main effects on cortisol, and predict a dysregulated and potentially maladaptive pattern of cortisol production across the day for emerging adults.

  1. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    adults in the family, and 3) having bad memories from childhood that made it hard to deny children’s food requests. Conclusions Although the primary aspirations of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children were not focused on children’s weight, these aspirations were compatible with obesity prevention strategies to limit children’s portion sizes and their intake of solid fats and/or added sugars. PMID:23157723

  2. Vetting and Letting: Cohabiting Stepfamily Formation Processes in Low-Income Black Families

    PubMed Central

    Reid, Megan; Golub, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined cohabiting union formation processes by analyzing in-depth interview data collected from 30 individuals in cohabiting relationships: 15 low-income Black mothers of adolescents and their partners. Prior research suggests that cohabiting union formation is a gradual, nondeliberative process. In contrast, most couples in this study described a gradual but highly deliberative process. Mothers focused primarily on vetting their partners to ensure child well-being and less on when and how their partners officially came to live with them, a process the authors call vetting and letting. Mothers delineated 4 strategies to ensure their child’s well-being when vetting their partners, and their partners reported that they understood the importance of participating in this process. The authors argue that vetting and letting is a child-centered family formation process, not a partner-centered union formation process, and that cohabiting union processes may vary substantially by subpopulation. PMID:26556922

  3. Family Income and Education Were Related with 30-Year Time Trends in Dietary and Meal Behaviors of American Children and Adolescents123

    PubMed Central

    Kant, Ashima K.; Graubard, Barry I.

    2013-01-01

    Recent survey data reveal the persistence of long-acknowledged socioeconomic status (SES) differentials in the prevalence of obesity in U.S. children and adolescents. We examined 30-y changes in the association of dietary and meal behaviors with family income and education to understand the possible contribution of these trends to SES trends in obesity rates in 2- to 19-y-old Americans. We used dietary and SES data for 2- to 19-y olds from the NHANES 1971–1974 to 2003–2008 (n = 39,822). The secular changes in the independent association of family income and education with 24-h dietary behaviors [energy intake (kcal), amount of foods and beverages (g), percent energy from all beverages and from nutritive beverages, and energy density of foods] and 24-h meal behaviors [number of eating occasions, energy from snack episodes (%), and mention of breakfast] were examined using multivariable regression methods. The secular increase in energy intake and food and beverage amount was significant in the lowest family SES categories. The positive association of family income and education with intakes of energy, food amounts, and beverage energy, noted in 1971–1974 or 1976–1980, was not observed in later surveys. There was an age gradient in changes in most diet and SES associations over time, with largest adverse changes in 12- to 19-y olds. Higher education was associated with lower energy from snack episodes, breakfast skipping, and energy density of foods and these associations did not change over time. Overall, these results suggest both income and education differentials in secular increases in food amounts and energy intakes. PMID:23514763

  4. Epidemics of overweight and obesity among growing childhood in China between 1997 and 2009: Impact of Family Income, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Su, Chang; Zhang, Bing; Wang, You-Fa; Jia, Xiao-Fang; Xue, Hong; Wang, Hui-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a major health problem among children and adolescents worldwide. This study aimed to examine the trends of overweight and obesity among childhood in China and assess their associations with family income, dietary intake, and physical activity (PA) between 1997 and 2009. Methods: Two waves of cross-sectional data of Chinese children and adolescents aged 7–17 years from the China Health and Nutrition Survey were used. Weight and height were measured following standardized procedures. Dietary intake was assessed by 3 consecutive 24-h recalls. Childhood overweight and obesity were defined using the International Obesity Task Force-recommended body mass index cut-offs. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to examine the associations of family income with diet intakes and PA. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the associations of overweight and obesity with family income, dietary intake, and PA. Results: The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity increased from 12.6% in 1997 to 22.1% in 2009, particularly in the medium- and high-family income groups, which increased by 102.7% and 90.3%, respectively. Higher fat intake (% energy), and moderate and vigorous PA were significantly associated with overweight and obesity in final model (odds ratio [OR] = 1.01, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00–1.02, P = 0.004; and OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.98–1.00, P = 0.036, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among Chinese children and adolescents has increased between 1997 and 2009. Reducing fat intake and increasing PA may help obesity prevention. PMID:26168826

  5. National and regional estimates of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age in 138 low-income and middle-income countries in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anne CC; Katz, Joanne; Blencowe, Hannah; Cousens, Simon; Kozuki, Naoko; Vogel, Joshua P; Adair, Linda; Baqui, Abdullah H; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Caulfield, Laura E; Christian, Parul; Clarke, Siân E; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Huybregts, Lieven; Kariuki, Simon; Kolsteren, Patrick; Lusingu, John; Marchant, Tanya; Merialdi, Mario; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndirangu, James; Newell, Marie-Louise; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Rosen, Heather E; Sania, Ayesha; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Willey, Barbara A; Lawn, Joy E; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background National estimates for the numbers of babies born small for gestational age and the comorbidity with preterm birth are unavailable. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of term and preterm babies born small for gestational age (term-SGA and preterm-SGA), and the relation to low birthweight (<2500 g), in 138 countries of low and middle income in 2010. Methods Small for gestational age was defined as lower than the 10th centile for fetal growth from the 1991 US national reference population. Data from 22 birth cohort studies (14 low-income and middle-income countries) and from the WHO Global Survey on Maternal and Perinatal Health (23 countries) were used to model the prevalence of term-SGA births. Prevalence of preterm-SGA infants was calculated from meta-analyses. Findings In 2010, an estimated 32·4 million infants were born small for gestational age in low-income and middle-income countries (27% of livebirths), of whom 10·6 million infants were born at term and low birthweight. The prevalence of term-SGA babies ranged from 5·3% of livebirths in east Asia to 41·5% in south Asia, and the prevalence of preterm-SGA infants ranged from 1·2% in north Africa to 3·0% in southeast Asia. Of 18 million low-birthweight babies, 59% were term-SGA and 41% were preterm. Two-thirds of small-for-gestational-age infants were born in Asia (17·4 million in south Asia). Preterm-SGA babies totalled 2·8 million births in low-income and middle-income countries. Most small-for-gestational-age infants were born in India, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Bangladesh. Interpretation The burden of small-for-gestational-age births is very high in countries of low and middle income and is concentrated in south Asia. Implementation of effective interventions for babies born too small or too soon is an urgent priority to increase survival and reduce disability, stunting, and non-communicable diseases. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation by a grant to the US Fund for UNICEF to

  6. What users want in e-commerce design: effects of age, education and income.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Nancy J

    2003-01-15

    Preferences for certain characteristics of an online shopping experience may be related to demographic data. This paper discusses the characteristics of that experience, demographic data and preferences by demographic group. The results of an online survey of 488 individuals in the United States indicate that respondents are generally satisfied with their online shopping experiences, with security, information quality and information quantity ranking first in importance overall. The sensory impact of a site ranked last overall of the seven characteristics measured. Preferences for these characteristics in e-commerce sites were differentiated by age, education and income. The sensory impact of sites became less important as respondents increased in age, income or education. As the income of respondents increased, the importance of the reputation of the vendor rose. Web site designers may incorporate these findings into the design of e-commerce sites in an attempt to increase the shopping satisfaction of their users. Results from the customer relationship management portion of the survey suggest that current push technologies and site personalization are not an effective means of achieving user satisfaction. PMID:12554404

  7. What users want in e-commerce design: effects of age, education and income.

    PubMed

    Lightner, Nancy J

    2003-01-15

    Preferences for certain characteristics of an online shopping experience may be related to demographic data. This paper discusses the characteristics of that experience, demographic data and preferences by demographic group. The results of an online survey of 488 individuals in the United States indicate that respondents are generally satisfied with their online shopping experiences, with security, information quality and information quantity ranking first in importance overall. The sensory impact of a site ranked last overall of the seven characteristics measured. Preferences for these characteristics in e-commerce sites were differentiated by age, education and income. The sensory impact of sites became less important as respondents increased in age, income or education. As the income of respondents increased, the importance of the reputation of the vendor rose. Web site designers may incorporate these findings into the design of e-commerce sites in an attempt to increase the shopping satisfaction of their users. Results from the customer relationship management portion of the survey suggest that current push technologies and site personalization are not an effective means of achieving user satisfaction.

  8. Community Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Barriers to Childhood Obesity Prevention in Low-Income Families, Massachusetts 2012–2013

    PubMed Central

    Chuang, Emmeline; Aftosmes-Tobio, Alyssa; Blaine, Rachel E.; Giannetti, Mary; Land, Thomas; Davison, Kirsten K.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The etiology of childhood obesity is multidimensional and includes individual, familial, organizational, and societal factors. Policymakers and researchers are promoting social–ecological approaches to obesity prevention that encompass multiple community sectors. Programs that successfully engage low-income families in making healthy choices are greatly needed, yet little is known about the extent to which stakeholders understand the complexity of barriers encountered by families. The objective of this study was to contextually frame barriers faced by low-income families reported by community stakeholders by using the Family Ecological Model (FEM). Methods From 2012 through 2013, we conducted semistructured interviews with 39 stakeholders from 2 communities in Massachusetts that were participating in a multisector intervention for childhood obesity prevention. Stakeholders represented schools; afterschool programs; health care; the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; and early care and education. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and summarized. Results Stakeholder reports of the barriers experienced by low-income families had a strong degree of overlap with FEM and reflected awareness of the broader contextual factors (eg, availability of community resources, family culture, education) and social and emotional dynamics within families (eg, parent knowledge, social norms, distrust of health care providers, chronic life stressors) that could affect family adoption of healthy lifestyle behaviors. Furthermore, results illustrated a level of consistency in stakeholder awareness across multiple community sectors. Conclusion The congruity of stakeholder perspectives with those of low-income parents as summarized in FEM and across community sectors illustrates potential for synergizing the efforts necessary for multisector, multilevel community interventions for the prevention of childhood obesity. PMID

  9. Feeding Practices and Styles Used by a Diverse Sample of Low-Income Parents of Preschool-age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Alison K.; Gromis, Judy C.; Lohse, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the feeding practices and styles used by a diverse sample of low-income parents of preschool-age children. Design: Thirty- to 60-minute meetings involving a semistructured interview and 2 questionnaires administered by the interviewer. Setting: Low-income communities in Philadelphia, PA. Participants: Thirty-two parents of…

  10. The Well-Being of Maryland Parents and Their Children: Differences by Income Status and Family Structure. Research Brief. Publication #2009-22

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertheimer, Richard; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Kahn, Jordan

    2009-01-01

    Research studies based on statistics for the United States as a whole have documented differences in child and family well-being between children in low-income families and children in more affluent families and between children in single-parent families and children in two-parent families. However, researchers have not explored differences in…

  11. Associations among parental feeding styles and children's food intake in families with limited incomes

    PubMed Central

    Hoerr, Sharon L; Hughes, Sheryl O; Fisher, Jennifer O; Nicklas, Theresa A; Liu, Yan; Shewchuk, Richard M

    2009-01-01

    Background Although general parenting styles and restrictive parental feeding practices have been associated with children's weight status, few studies have examined the association between feeding styles and proximal outcomes such as children's food intake, especially in multi-ethnic families with limited incomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of parental feeding styles and young children's evening food intake in a multiethnic sample of families in Head Start. Methods Participants were 715 Head Start children and their parents from Texas and Alabama representing three ethnic groups: African-American (43%), Hispanic (29%), and White (28%). The Caregivers Feeding Styles Questionnaire (Hughes) was used to characterize authoritative, authoritarian (referent), indulgent or uninvolved feeding styles. Food intake in several food groups was calculated from 3 days of dietary recalls for the child for evening food intakes from 3 PM until bedtime. Results Compared to children of authoritarian parents, intakes of fruits, juice and vegetables were lowest among children of indulgent or uninvolved parents (1.77 ± 0.09 vs 1.45 ± 0.09 and 1.42 ± 0.11 cups) as were intakes of dairy foods (0.84 ± 0.05 vs 0.67 ± 0.05 and 0.63+0.06 cups), respectively. Conclusion Findings suggest that permissive parent feeding styles like indulgent or uninvolved relate negatively to children's intake of nutrient-rich foods fruit, 100% fruit juice, vegetables and dairy foods from 3 PM until bedtime. PMID:19678947

  12. Does Maternal Supervision Mediate the Impact of Income Source on Behavioral Adjustment in Children from Persistently Poor Families?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Civita, Mirella; Pagani, Linda S.; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the influence of income source within the context of persistent poverty on children's disruptive classroom behavior at age 12 and whether these associations were mediated by maternal supervision at ages 10 and 11. Using a subsample (N = 1,112) from the Quebec Longitudinal Study, we coded four economic circumstances indicating…

  13. Low income Russian families adopt effective behavioral strategies to maintain dietary stability in times of economic crisis.

    PubMed

    Dore, Anna R; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M

    2003-11-01

    The social, political and economic reforms of 1992 in Russia led to a decade of rising income inequality, unemployment and economic crises, the most severe of which occurred in 1998. This study assesses dietary trends for children in low and high income households during this politically and economically unstable period from 1994 to 2000. Several possible food-related behaviors were also assessed to evaluate coping strategies adopted in the face of decreasing economic stability. Low income children maintained a steady energy intake per kilogram weight throughout the study period (251.0-259.4 kJ/kg), whereas intake for high income children increased significantly to a per capital average of 297.1 kJ/kg by 2000. At the food group level, the trend in per capita intake for all food groups was maintained for low income children except for a 22% decrease in meat and poultry consumption (P < 0.01). Per capita intake increased over time for dairy products and eggs in the high income group (P < 0.01). A decrease in cost per kJ (rubles/kJ) was observed for both low and high income families (P < 0.01). These data suggest that Russian households were able to conserve the diet structure for children by using what appear to be food-related behavioral mechanisms during periods of economic crisis. PMID:14608060

  14. Supplemental Security Income for the aged, blind, and disabled; income, resources and exclusions deeming of income and resources: Medicaid program; financial requirements for categorically needy--HHS. Final rules.

    PubMed

    1984-02-15

    The Social Security Administration (SSA) is adopting as final, interim regulations on deeming of income and resources, which was published on Friday, June 4, 1982. These rules address the problem of certain individuals who require costly medical care and who under the usual Supplemental Security Income (SSI) deeming rules are ineligible for SSI and Medicaid as long as they live with their families. These rules also address the problems of individuals who remain institutionalized because returning home for less costly medical treatment would result in loss of SSI and Medicaid eligibility. The rules provide that the Secretary, in appropriate circumstances, will not apply the usual SSI rules for deeming the income and resources of certain family members to a noninstitutionalized individual. This is a temporary policy that will deal with this concern while States, if they choose, develop appropriate programs of home and community-based services under their Medicaid programs.

  15. The Effects of Service Participation, Friendship Networks, and Family Support on Developmental Outcomes: A Study of Young People from Low-Income Families in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ngai, Steven Sek-yum; Ngai, Ngan-pun; Cheung, Chau-kiu; To, Siu-ming

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the factors conducive to the success of young people growing up in low-income families. Many studies carried out locally and overseas focus on the risks and difficulties experienced by these young people; however, little attempt has been made to examine the factors that help them change their lives from failure, poverty,…

  16. Family Voices on Parental School Choice in Milwaukee: What Can We Learn from Low-Income Families? SCDP Milwaukee Evaluation Report #19

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Thomas; Lucas-McLean, Juanita; Jensen, Laura I.; Fetzko, Christina; Ho, Bonnie; Segovia, Sylvia

    2010-01-01

    This report, designed as one component of the comprehensive evaluation of the Milwaukee school system being conducted by the School Choice Demonstration Project (SCDP), is based on focus group conversations with low-income families whose children attend Milwaukee public and private schools. The report seeks to elucidate the demand side of school…

  17. A Closer Look at Changes in Children's Living Arrangements in Low-Income Families. Policy Brief. Welfare, Children & Families: A Three-City Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherlin, Andrew J.; Fomby, Paula

    This report presents data from a sample of children in low-income families in Boston, Massachusetts; Chicago, Illinois; and San Antonio, Texas, whose caregivers completed interviews between March and December of 1999 and then again 16 months later as part of the Three-City Study. It draws implications for welfare policies that focus on encouraging…

  18. Effectiveness of a Comprehensive, Five-Year Family Support Program for Low-Income Families: Findings from the Comprehensive Child Development Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodson, Barbara D.; Layzer, Jean I.; St. Pierre, Robert G.; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Lopez, Michael

    2000-01-01

    Conducted a randomized experiment over 5 years to test effects of the Comprehensive Child Development Program (CCDP), a 2-generation program that employed case management and home visiting to ensure education, health, and social services for multi-risk, low-income children and families. Found no statistically significant impact on CCDP families…

  19. Production and Maternal Report of 16- and 18-Month-Olds' Vocabulary in Low- and Middle-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furey, Joan E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare maternal report of children's vocabularies on the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories Words and Gestures form (CDI:WG; Fenson et al., 1993) with spontaneous production data in both low- and middle-income families. Method: As part of a longitudinal investigation, language samples were gathered from 23 mother-child…

  20. Mother-Child Book-Sharing and Children's Storytelling Skills in Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luo, Rufan; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Kuchirko, Yana; Ng, Florrie F.; Liang, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined book-sharing interactions between mothers and their 4-year-old children from African American (n?=?62), Dominican (n?=?67), Mexican (n?=?59) and Chinese (n?=?82) low-income U.S. families, and children's independent storytelling skills one year later. Mothers' book-sharing style was analysed in terms of…

  1. Validation of a Multidimensional Assessment of Parenting Styles for Low-Income African-American Families with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coolahan, Kathleen; McWayne, Christine; Fantuzzo, John; Grim, Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Examined the construct and concurrent validity of the Parenting Behavior Questionnaire-Head Start (PBQ-HS) with low-income African-American families with preschoolers, and whether parenting styles differed by caregiver characteristics. Derived Active-Responsive, Active-Restrictive, and Passive-Permissive parenting dimensions; the last differed…

  2. Families with High Out-of-Pocket Health Services Expenditures Relative to Their Income. Final Report on Phase II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berki, S. E.

    This paper presents high-cost illness data from the first public use data file released on the 1977 National Medical Care Expenditure Survey. Characteristics of families which incurred out-of-pocket expenditures for personal health services that exceeded 5, 10, and 20 percent of their income in 1977 are described including: (1) demographics; (2)…

  3. WORKING WITH LOW-INCOME FAMILIES, PROCEEDINGS OF THE AHEA WORKSHOP (UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO, MARCH 15-19, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Home Economics Association, Washington, DC.

    WORK WITH LOW INCOME FAMILIES HAS BEEN PART OF THE BASIC PHILOSOPHY OF THE AMERICAN HOME ECONOMICS ASSOCIATION (AHEA) SINCE ITS INCEPTION. A NATIONAL WORKSHOP WAS ATTENDED BY STATE DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION AND U.S. OFFICE OF EDUCATION PERSONNEL, TEACHER-EDUCATORS, EXTENSION WORKERS, SOCIAL WORKERS, AND PERSONS WITH RELATED INTERESTS. TEXTS OF THE…

  4. The Changing Role of Family Income and Ability in Determining Educational Achievement. NBER Working Paper No. 13527

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belley, Philippe; Lochner, Lance

    2007-01-01

    This paper uses data from the 1979 and 1997 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth cohorts (NLSY79 and NLSY97) to estimate changes in the effects of ability and family income on educational attainment for youth in their late teens during the early 1980s and early 2000s. Cognitive ability plays an important role in determining educational outcomes…

  5. 12 CFR 1282.18 - Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Affordability-Income level definitions-family size not known (actual or prospective tenants). 1282.18 Section 1282.18 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION ENTERPRISE HOUSING GOALS AND MISSION Housing Goals §...

  6. Parent emotional distress and feeding styles in low-income families. The role of parent depression and parenting stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Depression and other stressors have been associated with general parenting and child outcomes in low-income families. Given that parents shape child eating behaviors through their feeding interactions with their child, it is important to investigate factors that may influence parental feeding of you...

  7. Delayed College Entry and the Socioeconomic Gap: Examining the Roles of Student Plans, Family Income, Parental Education, and Parental Occupation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan S.; Lynch, Cassie M.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates delayed college entry, including how college enrollment differs based on students' plans while in high school. Results confirm that low-SES students are repeatedly disadvantaged in the college transition, but add complexity concerning the influences of family income, parental education, and parental occupational status.…

  8. BOUNCE: A community-based mother–daughter healthy lifestyle intervention for low-income Latino families

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a family-based exploratory community study titled BOUNCE (Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition, Counseling, and Exercise), to increase physical fitness and activity in low-income Latino mothers and daughters. The BOUNCE study consis...

  9. Fun & Fit, Phase I: A Program for Overweight African American and Hispanic American Children from Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Karen S.; Hart, Melanie A.; Griffin, L. Kent

    2009-01-01

    Fun & Fit is a program designed to create positive physical activity experiences and to promote healthy lifestyle choices among overweight children from low-income African American and Hispanic American families. The program is a collaborative project between Texas Tech University and the Lubbock Independent School District funded through a grant…

  10. Pro-Poor PRIMR: Improving Early Literacy Skills for Children from Low-Income Families in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Benjamin; Jepkemei, Evelyn; Kibukho, Kennedy

    2015-01-01

    Children from low-income families are at risk of learning outcome difficulties, particularly in literacy. Various studies link poor literacy results with performance later in primary and secondary school, and suggest that poverty, literacy skills and weak instructional methods combine to drastically limit the educational opportunities for many…

  11. School Leaders' Discursive Constructions of Low-Income and Minority Families Identities: A Marketplace Racism/Classism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Felecia M.; De Oliver, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Informed by Foucault's analytics of power, this critical discourse analysis focuses upon the discursive construction of minority and low-income family identities, primarily using text from interviews of Texas school leaders within the neoliberal context of No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Qualitative content analysis was used to discover whether the…

  12. The Link between Preschoolers' Phonological Awareness and Mothers' Book-Reading and Reminiscing Practices in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyva, Diana; Sparks, Alison; Reese, Elaine

    2012-01-01

    The relation between preschoolers' phonological awareness and the frequency and quality of parents' book-reading and reminiscing practices were examined in 54 low-income and ethnically diverse families. Children's phonological awareness was assessed at the beginning and end of preschool. Mothers reported the frequency with which they read books…

  13. Untapped Potential? How States Contract Directly with Providers To Shore Up Child Care Choices for Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schumacher, Rachel; Irish, Kate; Greenberg, Mark H.

    States are using federal and state dollars to expand child care assistance for low-income families. Nevertheless, persistent gaps in child care supply continue, particularly among specific populations. State expansion of child care funding has slowed, and most states face major fiscal crises. Many states have moved to all- or majority-voucher…

  14. Optimizing Early Mathematics Experiences for Children from Low-Income Families: A Study on Opportunity to Learn Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Aubrey H.

    2010-01-01

    Both the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics and the National Association for the Education of Young Children recognize that well-designed opportunity to learn mathematics can help improve mathematics achievement of students from low-income families and from minority backgrounds. Using data from a nationally representative sample, the…

  15. From Reminiscing to Reading: Home Contributions to Children's Developing Language and Literacy in Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Alison; Reese, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relations among a range of literacy-related home practices and children's acquisition of language and literacy at the outset of preschool are examined in a sample of linguistically diverse children from low-income families in the United States. Specifically, the study focuses on sources of variation found in mother-child…

  16. 20 CFR 663.640 - May an individual with a disability whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... adult? 663.640 Section 663.640 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Priority and... eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for priority as a low-income adult? Yes, even if the family...

  17. 76 FR 21750 - State Median Income Estimate for a Four-Person Family: Notice of the Federal Fiscal Year (FFY...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-18

    ... 45 CFR 96.85(b), which were published in the Federal Register on March 3, 1988, at 53 FR 6824 and amended on October 15, 1999, at 64 FR 55858. Dated: March 22, 2011. Yolanda J. Butler, Acting Director... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families State Median Income Estimate for a...

  18. 20 CFR 663.640 - May an individual with a disability whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... adult? 663.640 Section 663.640 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ADULT AND DISLOCATED WORKER ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Priority and... eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for priority as a low-income adult? Yes, even if the family...

  19. Predicting Infant Maltreatment in Low-Income Families: The Interactive Effects of Maternal Attributions and Child Status at Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm…

  20. Family Income in Early Childhood and Subsequent Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsson, Henrik; Sariaslan, Amir; Långström, Niklas; D'Onofrio, Brian; Lichtenstein, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background: Studies have found negative associations between socioeconomic position and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but it remains unclear if this association is causal. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the association between family income in early childhood and subsequent ADHD depends on measured…

  1. Metropolitan income inequality and working-age mortality: a cross-sectional analysis using comparable data from five countries.

    PubMed

    Ross, Nancy A; Dorling, Danny; Dunn, James R; Henriksson, Göran; Glover, John; Lynch, John; Weitoft, Gunilla Ringbäck

    2005-03-01

    The relationship between income inequality and mortality has come into question as of late from many within-country studies. This article examines the relationship between income inequality and working-age mortality for metropolitan areas (MAs) in Australia, Canada, Great Britain, Sweden, and the United States to provide a fuller understanding of national contexts that produce associations between inequality and mortality. An ecological cross-sectional analysis of income inequality (as measured by median share of income) and working-age (25-64) mortality by using census and vital statistics data for 528 MAs (population >50,000) from five countries in 1990-1991 was used. When data from all countries were pooled, there was a significant relationship between income inequality and mortality in the 528 MAs studied. A hypothetical increase in the share of income to the poorest half of households of 1% was associated with a decline in working-age mortality of over 21 deaths per 100,000. Within each country, however, a significant relationship between inequality and mortality was evident only for MAs in the United States and Great Britain. These two countries had the highest average levels of income inequality and the largest populations of the five countries studied. Although a strong ecological association was found between income inequality and mortality across the 528 MAs, an association between income inequality and mortality was evident only in within-country analyses for the two most unequal countries: the United States and Great Britain. The absence of an effect of metropolitan-scale income inequality on mortality in the more egalitarian countries of Canada, Australia, and Sweden is suggestive of national-scale policies in these countries that buffer hypothetical effects of income inequality as a determinant of population health in industrialized economies.

  2. Joint Effects of Structural Racism and Income Inequality on Small-for-Gestational-Age Birth

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Maeve E.; Liu, Danping; Grantz, Katherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined potential synergistic effects of racial and socioeconomic inequality associated with small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth. Methods. Electronic medical records from singleton births to White and Black women in 10 US states and the District of Columbia (n = 121 758) were linked to state-level indicators of structural racism, including the ratios of Blacks to Whites who were employed, were incarcerated, and had a bachelor’s or higher degree. We used state-level Gini coefficients to assess income inequality. Generalized estimating equations models were used to quantify the adjusted odds of SGA birth associated with each indicator and the joint effects of structural racism and income inequality. Results. Structural racism indicators were associated with higher odds of SGA birth, and similar effects were observed for both races. The joint effects of racial and income inequality were significantly associated with SGA birth only when levels of both were high; in areas with high inequality levels, adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.81 to 2.11 for the 3 structural racism indicators. Conclusions. High levels of racial inequality and socioeconomic inequality appear to increase the risk of SGA birth, particularly when they co-occur. PMID:26066964

  3. Assessing the Feasibility of a Web-Based Weight Loss Intervention for Low-Income Women of Reproductive Age: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sisneros, Jessica A; Ronay, Ashley A; Robbins, Cheryl L; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ni, Ai; Morrow, John; Vu, Maihan B; Johnston, Larry F; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D

    2016-01-01

    Background Low-income women of reproductive age are at increased risk for obesity and resulting increases in the risk of maternal/fetal complications and mortality and morbidity. Very few weight-loss interventions, however, have been targeted to this high-risk group. Based on the high prevalence of social media use among young and low-income individuals and previous successes using group formats for weight-loss interventions, the use of social media as a platform for weight-loss intervention delivery may benefit low-income women of reproductive age. Objective Examine the feasibility of delivering group-based weight-loss interventions to low-income women of reproductive age using face-to-face meetings and Web-based modalities including social media. Methods Participants attended a family planning clinic in eastern North Carolina and received a 5-month, group- and Web-based, face-to-face weight-loss intervention. Measures were assessed at baseline and 20 weeks. Results Forty participants enrolled, including 29 (73%) African American women. The mean body mass index of enrollees was 39 kg/m2. Among the 12 women who completed follow-up, mean weight change was -1.3 kg. Participation in the intervention was modest and retention at 5 months was 30%. Returnees suggested sending reminders to improve participation and adding activities to increase familiarity among participants. Conclusions Engagement with the intervention was limited and attrition was high. Additional formative work on the barriers and facilitators to participation may improve the intervention’s feasibility with low-income women of reproductive age. PMID:26920252

  4. Relationship of family income and house type to body mass index and chronic energy deficiency among urban Bengalee male slum dwellers of Kolkata, India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Raja; Bose, Kaushik; Bisai, Samiran

    2009-01-01

    A cross-sectional study of 469 adult (>18 years) Bengalee male slum dwellers of Dum Dum, Kolkata, India, was undertaken to study the relationships of family income and house type with body mass index (BMI) and chronic energy deficiency. The overall frequency of chronic energy deficiency was 32.0%. Based on the World Health Organization classification, the prevalence of chronic energy deficiency among this population was high and thus the situation is serious. Overall, monthly family income was significantly positively correlated with BMI. Significant differences in mean weight, BMI and monthly family income, were observed between the two house type groups. All values were found to be significantly higher in the brick household group who also earned a comparatively higher income as evident from the mean monthly family income values. The prevalence of chronic energy deficiency was also found to be significantly higher in the bamboo-fenced household group. Subjects belonging to the lowest family income group had the lowest mean BMI and the highest rate of chronic energy deficiency while those in the highest family income group had the largest mean BMI and lowest rate of chronic energy deficiency. There was a significant family income group difference in mean BMI. There existed significant differences in chronic energy deficiency rates in family income group categories. Linear regression analyses showed that monthly family income and house type had a significant impact on BMI. Subsequent multiple regression analyses revealed that both monthly family income and house type had a significant impact on BMI, even after controlling for each other. PMID:19019365

  5. Impact of the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program on Low-Income Families: An Indepth Analysis. Agricultural Economic Report Number 220.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feaster, J. Gerald

    This report evaluates the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) of the Extension Service of the Department of Agriculture. About 184,000 low-income families participated in the program prior to October 1969. A national sample of 10,500 showed that family incomes were very low--less than 2,700 dollars, of which more than a third was…

  6. Race, Poverty and SAT Scores: Modeling the Influences of Family Income on Black and White High School Students' SAT Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon-Roman, Ezekiel J.; Everson, Howard T.; McArdle, John J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Educational policy makers and test critics often assert that standardized test scores are strongly influenced by factors beyond individual differences in academic achievement such as family income and wealth. Unfortunately, few empirical studies consider the simultaneous and related influences of family income, parental education, and…

  7. Ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental food practices among families of low income Hispanic and African-American preschoolers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The family and home environment are important in shaping the dietary patterns of children, yet research among low-income, minority groups is limited. We examined ethnic differences in the home food environment and parental practices among 706 low-income African-American and Hispanic families of pre...

  8. Blunted Cortisol Response to Stress is Associated with Higher Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Clifford, Caitlin; Sturza, Julie; Rosenblum, Katherine; Vazquez, Delia M; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2013-01-01

    No known studies have tested the hypothesis that a blunted pattern of cortisol reactivity to stress, which is often found following exposure to chronic life stressors, is associated with a higher body mass index (BMI) in very young children. Low-income children (n = 218, mean age 56.6 (range: 38.1 to 78.5; SD 7.0) months, 49.1% male, 56.4% white, 16.1% black, 11.5% Hispanic/Latino) participated in a series of behavioral tasks designed to elicit stress. Cortisol was sampled in saliva 5 times during the protocol, and area under the curve (AUC), representing total cortisol output during stress elicitation, was calculated. Children were weighed and height measured and body mass index (BMI) z-score was calculated. Linear regression was used to evaluate the association between cortisol AUC and BMI z-score, controlling for child age, sex, and race/ethnicity (non-Hispanic white vs. not); primary caregiver weight status (overweight, defined as BMI > 25 vs. not); and family income-to-needs ratio. Mean child BMI z-score was 0.88 (SD = 1.03). Mean cortisol AUC was 6.11 μg/dL/min (SD = 10.44). In the fully adjusted model, for each 1-standard deviation unit decrease in cortisol AUC, the child's BMI z-score increased by 0.17 (SE 0.07) standard deviation units (p <.02). A blunted cortisol response to stress, as is often seen following chronic stress exposure, is associated with increased BMI z-score in very young children. Further work is needed to understand how associations between stress, cortisol, and elevated body mass index may develop very early in the lifespan. PMID:23849598

  9. Factors Influencing Healthy Lifestyle Changes: A Qualitative Look at Low-Income Families Engaged in Treatment for Overweight Children

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Shauna; Albright, Karen; Allison, Mandy; Haemer, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Childhood obesity disproportionately affects low-income minority populations, yet there is a paucity of literature about effective interventions in this population. This study sought to understand the experience of low-income majority Hispanic families engaged in obesity treatment. Methods: We conducted six focus groups (2=English, 4=Spanish) with families who completed a community-based, family-oriented obesity treatment program, using standard qualitative focus group interview methods. Transcripts were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. Two coders using the software program ATLAS.ti (v.7.0; Scientific Software Development GmbH, Berlin, Germany) coded each transcript independently; reflexive team analysis with three study team members was used to reach a consensus. Results: Participants (n=37) indicated high program satisfaction. Parents reported buying less junk/fast food, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables, preparing and eating more meals as a family, and increasing their families' physical activity (PA). Four barrier and facilitator themes emerged. Barrier themes were time and financial cost, parent's lack of time and energy, influence of family members, and challenges regarding physical environment. Facilitator themes were skill building around healthy eating and parenting, family involvement, and long-term health concerns. Unanticipated findings, parents reported, were that changes resulted in children sleeping better, feeling happier, and less irritability. Conclusions: Despite low-income families experiencing barriers to lifestyle changes to manage obesity, they made positive dietary changes and increased PA by learning specific skills and including the whole family in those changes. Additionally, some unexpected benefits were noted, including improved sleep, less irritability, and children appearing happier. Future studies should consider using these parent-identified outcomes as secondary measures of

  10. Effects of prenatal factors and temperament on infant cortisol regulation in low-income Mexican American families.

    PubMed

    Luecken, Linda J; MacKinnon, David P; Jewell, Shannon L; Crnic, Keith A; Gonzales, Nancy A

    2015-12-01

    Prenatal psychosocial exposures can significantly affect infant health and development. Infants with higher temperamental negativity are theorized to be more susceptible to environmental exposures. We evaluated the interaction of prenatal maternal exposures and infant temperamental negativity to predict infant cortisol response to mildly challenging mother-infant interaction tasks. Participants included 322 Mexican American mother-infant dyads (mother age 18-42; 82% Spanish-speaking; modal family income $10,000-$15,000). Mothers reported depressive symptoms and social support prenatally and infant temperamental negativity at 6 weeks postpartum. Salivary cortisol was collected from infants before and after mother-infant interaction tasks at 12 weeks. Higher prenatal maternal depressive symptoms and lower social support predicted higher cortisol among infants with higher temperamental negativity. Higher infant temperamental negativity predicted an increase in maternal distress and a decrease in social support from prenatal to 12 weeks postpartum. Interactive influences of maternal social-contextual factors and infant temperament may influence the development of infant neurobiological regulation and promote or strain maternal and infant adaptation over time.

  11. Why poverty remains high: the role of income growth, economic inequality, and changes in family structure, 1949-1999.

    PubMed

    Iceland, John

    2003-08-01

    After dramatic declines in poverty from 1950 to the early 1970s in the United States, progress stalled. This article examines the association between trends in poverty and income growth, economic inequality, and changes in family structure using three measures of poverty: an absolute measure, a relative measure, and a quasi-relative one. I found that income growth explains most of the trend in absolute poverty, while inequality generally plays the most significant role in explaining trends in relative poverty. Rising inequality in the 1970s and 1980s was especially important in explaining increases in poverty among Hispanics, whereas changes in family structure played a significant role for children and African Americans through 1990. Notably, changes in family structure no longer had a significant association with trends in poverty for any group in the 1990s.

  12. Alcohol, tobacco, and father's aggressive behavior in relation to socioeconomic variables in Cretan low versus medium income families.

    PubMed

    Diacatou, A; Mamalakis, G; Kafatos, A; Vlahonikolis, J; Bolonaki, I

    1993-03-01

    In order to identify socioeconomic factors affecting parents' alcohol and cigarette consumption and father's aggressiveness toward other family members, 87 low-income and 92 medium-income Greek families were tested. Father's alcohol consumption correlated positively with his smoking (p < .0008) and aggressive behavior (p < .00005), while mother's alcohol correlated positively with her smoking (p < .0001) and number of marriages (p < .01), and negatively with the family's overcrowding index (p < .006). Furthermore, father's smoking correlated positively with his alcohol (p < .01), and mother's smoking with her alcohol (p < .0004) and tenancy (p < .01). Finally, father's aggressiveness was found to be positively related to his alcohol consumption and negatively to his work and level of education. PMID:8463019

  13. Chronic health conditions and depressive symptoms strongly predict persistent food insecurity among rural low-income families.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Karla L; Olson, Christine M

    2012-08-01

    Longitudinal studies of food insecurity have not considered the unique circumstances of rural families. This study identified factors predictive of discontinuous and persistent food insecurity over three years among low-income families with children in rural counties in 13 U.S. states. Respondents reported substantial knowledge of community resources, food and finance skills, and use of formal public food assistance, yet 24% had persistent food insecurity, and another 41% were food insecure for one or two years. Multivariate multinomial regression models tested relationships between human capital, social support, financial resources, expenses, and food insecurity. Enduring chronic health conditions increased the risk of both discontinuous and persistent food insecurity. Lasting risk for depression predicted only persistent food insecurity. Education beyond high school was the only factor found protective against persistent food insecurity. Access to quality physical and mental health care services are essential to ameliorate persistent food insecurity among rural, low-income families.

  14. Influence of family dynamics on burden among family caregivers in aging Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kusaba, Tesshu; Sato, Kotaro; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamada, Yukari; Matsui, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Satoshi; Ando, Takashi; Sakushima, Ken; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term care for the elderly is largely shouldered by their family, representing a serious burden in a hyper-aging society. However, although family dynamics are known to play an important role in such care, the influence of caring for the elderly on burden among caregiving family members is poorly understood. Objective. To examine the influence of family dynamics on burden experienced by family caregivers. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study at six primary care clinics, involving 199 caregivers of adult care receivers who need long-term care. Participants were divided into three groups based on tertile of Index of Family Dynamics for Long-term Care (IF-Long score), where higher scores imply poorer relationships between care receivers and caregiving family: best, <2; intermediate, 2 to <5; worst, ≥5. The mean differences in burden index of caregivers (BIC-11) between the three groups were estimated by linear regression model with adjustment for care receiver’s activity of daily living and cognitive function. Results. Mean age of caregivers was 63.2 years (with 40.7% aged ≥ 65 years). BIC-11 scores were higher in the worst IF-Long group (adjusted mean difference: 4.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 7.5) than in the best IF-Long group. We also detected a positive trend between IF-Long score and BIC-11 score (P-value for trend <0.01). Conclusion. Our findings indicate that family dynamics strongly influences burden experienced by caregiving family members, regardless of the care receiver’s degree of cognitive impairment. These results underscore the importance of evaluating relationships between care receivers and their caregivers when discussing a care regimen for care receivers. PMID:27450988

  15. Money Income and Poverty Status of Families and Persons in the United States: 1981. (Advance Data from the March 1982 Current Population Survey). Current Population Reports, Consumer Income Series P-60, No. 134.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This report presents 20 tables of data on money income and poverty status of individuals and families in the United States in 1981, as derived from the 1982 Current Population Survey of the Bureau of the Census. The income and poverty data are shown in relation to different variables, including race/ethnicity, type of residence, geographical…

  16. Physical and Psychological Aggression towards a Child among Homeless, Doubled-up, and Other Low-income Families

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Min; Ostler, Teresa; Fertig, Angela

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the extent of adverse parenting behaviors among low-income families with children and determines whether housing instability, measured by homelessness and doubling up with relatives or friends due to economic hardship, increases the likelihood of physical and psychological aggression towards a child, after considering the contribution of other relevant characteristics. Using data from 3 waves of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study followed 2,332 low-income children in 20 large U.S. cities. Multivariate analyses involved logistic regression with generalized estimating equations. Adverse parenting behaviors were common among all low-income families regardless of their having experienced housing instability. Nonetheless, mothers with a homeless or doubled-up episode reported higher rates of physically and psychologically aggressive behaviors towards a child compared to the housed group. Having a homeless episode was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of reporting a high level of physical aggression towards a child. Child’s behavioral issues, maternal depression, and parental stress also contributed to adverse parenting behaviors. Findings suggest that housing instability can be a marker of adverse parenting behaviors and service professionals need to respond to parenting needs as well as housing needs for families in unstable housing. Areas of future research were discussed. PMID:27134322

  17. Family planning program effects on the fertility of low-income U.S. women.

    PubMed

    Cutright, P; Jaffe, F S

    1976-01-01

    Under rigorous statistical controls, it has been shown that the larger the proportion of lower SES women enrolled in organized family planning programs, the lower their fertility. Program effects independent of other social, economic and cultural factors were shown for lower SES whites and blacks, and for most age groups. The potential of a fully implemented program to reduce fertility differentials between upper and lower SES groups was assessed, using 1969-1970 fertility rates and the estimates of 1969 program impact. Although we believe that the program's impact has increased in magnitude over time, even these estimates from an early point in U.S. program development provide impressive documentation that the program reduces fertility in the subpopulation served by the program, and, by implication, that there is a genuine need for organized family planning services, even in an industrialized nation like the United States. If there were no need, there could be no program effect. The family planning program was one of the major new health and social programs introduced in the mid-1960s. This study shows that, far from failing, the program was succeeding very well in attaining its objectives. The program works because it gives women of lower socioeconomic status access to modern and effective methods of contraception that they would not otherwise have. As a result, the rates of unwanted and mistimed pregnancy of patients are lower than those of comparable women who lack access to organized clinic programs.

  18. [The right to share in the nation's wealth: from the Family Allowance Program to Basic Citizenship Income].

    PubMed

    Suplicy, Eduardo Matarazzo

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the positive outcomes of Brazil's Family Allowance Program, in terms of combating hunger and eradicating poverty, stressing that this is the first step towards introducing a Basic Income for Citizenship (RBC - Renda Básica de Cidadania) in Brazil, as established in 2004 through Law N degrees 10,835. This Basic Income for Citizenship will be phased in by stages at the discretion of the Executive Branch, starting with the neediest segments of the population. Everyone will be endowed with the unconditional right to receive an income that will be sufficient - as far as possible - to cover vital requirements. This is not a matter of charity or welfare, but rather an across-the-board right to share in the wealth of the nation. The rationality of this tool for ensuring real freedom and dignity for all is also examined here. PMID:18813498

  19. Diet quality of Americans differs by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education level.

    PubMed

    Hiza, Hazel A B; Casavale, Kellie O; Guenther, Patricia M; Davis, Carole A

    2013-02-01

    An index that assesses the multidimensional components of the diet across the lifecycle is useful in describing diet quality. The purpose of this study was to use the Healthy Eating Index-2005, a measure of diet quality in terms of conformance to the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, to describe the diet quality of Americans by varying sociodemographic characteristics in order to provide insight as to where diets need to improve. The Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores were estimated using 1 day of dietary intake data provided by participants in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mean daily intakes of foods and nutrients, expressed per 1,000 kilocalories, were estimated using the population ratio method and compared with standards that reflect the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Participants included 3,286 children (2 to 17 years), 3,690 young and middle-aged adults (18 to 64 years), and 1,296 older adults (65+ years). Results are reported as percentages of maximum scores and tested for significant differences (P ≤ 0.05) by age, sex, race/ethnicity, income, and education levels. Children and older adults had better-quality diets than younger and middle-aged adults; women had better-quality diets than men; Hispanics had better-quality diets than blacks and whites; and diet quality of adults, but not children, generally improved with income level, except for sodium. The diets of Americans, regardless of socioeconomic status, are far from optimal. Problematic dietary patterns were found among all sociodemographic groups. Major improvements in the nutritional health of the American public can be made by improving eating patterns.

  20. Financial capability, asset ownership, and later-age immigration: evidence from a sample of low-income older Asian immigrants.

    PubMed

    Nam, Yunju; Lee, Eun Jeong; Huang, Jin; Kim, Junpyo

    2015-01-01

    We examined financial capability and asset ownership among low-income older Asian immigrants with special attention given to later-age immigrants who came to the United States when they were 55 years old or older. Survey data collected from supported employment program participants (N = 150) were used. The analyses demonstrated a low level of financial knowledge and asset ownership in the sample. The findings also indicated that later-age immigrants' financial-management skills, knowledge of social programs, and asset ownership were significantly lower than those of young-age immigrants. These findings call for active interventions to enhance economic security among low-income older Asian immigrants.

  1. Effortful Control, Behavior Problems and Peer Relations: What Predicts Academic Adjustment in Kindergarteners from Low-income Families?

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L.; Morris, Michael D. S.; Robinson, Lara R.; Myers, Sonya S.; Aucoin, Katherine J.; Keyes, Angela W.; Terranova, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of effortful control, behavior problems, and peer relations in the academic adjustment of 74 kindergarten children from primarily low-income families using a short-term longitudinal design. Teachers completed standardized measures of children’s effortful control, internalizing and externalizing problems, school readiness, and academic skills. Children participated in a sociometric interview to assess peer relations. Research Findings: Correlational analyses indicate that children’s effortful control, behavior problems in school, and peer relations are associated with academic adjustment variables at the end of the school year, including school readiness, reading skills, and math skills. Results of regression analyses indicate that household income and children’s effortful control primarily account for variation in children’s academic adjustment. The associations between children’s effortful control and academic adjustment did not vary across sex of the child or ethnicity. Mediational analyses indicate an indirect effect of effortful control on school readiness, through children’s internalizing problems. Practice or Policy: Effortful control emerged as a strong predictor of academic adjustment among kindergarten children from low-income families. Strategies for enhancing effortful control and school readiness among low-income children are discussed. PMID:24163572

  2. Evaluation of field methods for estimating exposure of children in low-income families to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, N.K.; Chuang, J.C.; Lyu, C.

    1996-12-31

    Children in low-income families may have higher exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and related compounds than children in higher-income families. These higher exposures could result from the location of their homes, nearer to industrial sites and traffic; from poorer diet; from environmental tobacco smoke; or other causes. The study was designed to evaluate methods and estimate the range of total exposures of low-income children to PAH through various pathways. Nonsmoking participants with preschool children, incomes at or below the official US poverty level, and space heating in their homes were recruited. The PAH concentrations were measured in the household indoor and outdoor air, house dust, and yard soil, and in the diet of both an adult and a preschool child living in the home. An initial study in two homes and an additional study of nine homes, four urban and five rural, during the heating season were completed. The problems and successes encountered in the recruitment process and selected results of the heating season measurements are summarized in the paper.

  3. Effortful Control, Behavior Problems and Peer Relations: What Predicts Academic Adjustment in Kindergarteners from Low-income Families?

    PubMed

    Morris, Amanda Sheffield; John, Aesha; Halliburton, Amy L; Morris, Michael D S; Robinson, Lara R; Myers, Sonya S; Aucoin, Katherine J; Keyes, Angela W; Terranova, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the role of effortful control, behavior problems, and peer relations in the academic adjustment of 74 kindergarten children from primarily low-income families using a short-term longitudinal design. Teachers completed standardized measures of children's effortful control, internalizing and externalizing problems, school readiness, and academic skills. Children participated in a sociometric interview to assess peer relations. Research Findings: Correlational analyses indicate that children's effortful control, behavior problems in school, and peer relations are associated with academic adjustment variables at the end of the school year, including school readiness, reading skills, and math skills. Results of regression analyses indicate that household income and children's effortful control primarily account for variation in children's academic adjustment. The associations between children's effortful control and academic adjustment did not vary across sex of the child or ethnicity. Mediational analyses indicate an indirect effect of effortful control on school readiness, through children's internalizing problems. Practice or Policy: Effortful control emerged as a strong predictor of academic adjustment among kindergarten children from low-income families. Strategies for enhancing effortful control and school readiness among low-income children are discussed. PMID:24163572

  4. Low-Income Parents: How Do Working Conditions Affect Their Opportunity To Help School-Age Children at Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heymann, S. Jody; Earle, Alison

    2000-01-01

    Examined the working conditions faced by parents who has at least one child in need of help for educational or behavioral problems using data for 1,878 families from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-Mother and Child Survey. Data show that low-income parents often lack the paid leave and flexibility they need to help children with…

  5. Family Planning Practice Among Rural Reproductive-Age Married Women in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Jirapongsuwan, Ann; Latt, Kyaw Thu; Siri, Sukhontha; Munsawaengsub, Chokchai

    2016-05-01

    A cross-sectional study was undertaken to investigate family planning (FP) practices and associated factors among reproductive-age married women. Data were collected by interviewing the 300 married women living in a rural area of Myanmar. The questionnaire had reliability coefficients ranging from .8 to .9. Results indicated that 73.3% of women performed FP, and contraceptive injection was the most common method. Significant associations were found with age 21 to 35 years (adjusted odds ratio [adj OR] = 3.748, 95% CI = 2.179-6.445), adequacy of income (adj OR = 2.520, 95% CI = 1.477-4.290), good attitude toward FP (adj OR = 0.386, 95% CI = 0.228-0.656), good support from health care providers (adj OR = 0.129, 95% CI = 0.054-0.313), good support from family (adj OR = 0.304, 95% CI = 0.163-0.565), good support from friends (adj OR = 0.344, 95% CI = 0.193-0.613), and FP practice. It is recommended that designing FP programs with peers and family involvement could increase the practice of FP among rural Myanmar women. PMID:27122625

  6. Income Disparities in Preschool Outcomes and the Role of Family, Child, and Parenting Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohen, Dafna; Guèvremont, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined income disparities in a comprehensive set of preschoolers' outcomes (verbal ability, developmental skills, number knowledge, and hyperactivity) and the factors that could reduce differences in outcomes between children in the lowest and highest household income quartiles. Findings using Cycle 6 data from the…

  7. Child Disinhibition, Parent Restriction, and Child Body Mass Index in Low-Income Preschool Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Martha A.; Radnitz, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine both unique and interactive effects of parent restrictive feeding and child disinhibited eating behavior on child body mass index (BMI) in low-income Latino and African American preschoolers. Methods: The sample included 229 parent-child pairs, the majority of whom were low-income and Latino (57%) or African American (25%).…

  8. The Initial Impacts of Welfare Reform on the Incomes of Single-Mother Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primus, Wendell; Rawlings, Lynette; Larin, Kathy; Porter, Kathryn

    This report examines trends in the incomes of single mothers and their children during a pair of consecutive two-year periods, 1993-95 and 1995-97, considering changes in earnings and changes in safety net programs that provide them with income. Chapter 1, "Introduction," reviews the issue. Chapter 2, "Participation Has Declined Faster than…

  9. Age-of-Recall Effects on Family-of-Origin Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampson, Robert B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    College students (n=141) completed Self-Report Family Inventory on Beavers Systems Model of Family Functioning, rating current family, family when they were 10 years old, and family when they were 16 years old. Found significant differences between age-of-recall groups, with recall ratings from age 10 significantly more competent, cohesive, and…

  10. Individual Differences in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms and Associated Executive Dysfunction and Traits: Sex, Ethnicity, and Family Income

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Michelle M.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present investigation was to investigate sex, ethnic, and socioeconomic status (SES) influences on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and risk markers, including executive dysfunction and temperament traits. Participants were 109 children who were 3 to 6 years old (64% male; 36% ethnic minority) and their primary caregivers and teachers who completed a multistage, multi-informant screening, and diagnostic procedure. Parents completed a diagnostic interview and diagnostic and temperament questionnaires, teachers completed questionnaires, and children completed cognitive control tasks. Because of targeted overrecruitment of clinical cases, 56% of children in the sample were diagnosed with ADHD. Results suggested minimal sex differences, but prominent ethnic differences, in ADHD symptoms and temperament and executive function risk markers. Further, low family income was associated with increased ADHD symptoms and more temperament and executive function risk markers, and low family income explained many ethnic differences in ADHD symptoms and these risk markers. There were prominent interactions among child sex, ethnicity, and family income. Thus, study results suggest that children with multiple individual difference demographic risk factors (e.g., such as being male and ethnic minority) are at highly increased risk of ADHD symptoms and associated risk markers in the temperament and executive function domains. PMID:23889009

  11. Selective Disclosure in a First Conversation about a Family Death in James Agee's Novel "A Death in the Family"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rober, Peter; Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    The first conversation of a family about a family death is a neglected but potentially important topic. In a first conversation in James Agee's (1957/2006) novel "A Death in the Family," the member who knows the most about the accidental death of another member discloses information selectively. The first conversation in Agee's novel suggests that…

  12. Low Income Families' Utilization of the Federal "Safety Net": Individual and State-Level Predictors of TANF and Food Stamp Receipt.

    PubMed

    Purtell, Kelly M; Gershoff, Elizabeth T; Aber, J Lawrence

    2012-04-01

    Two of the primary programs through which the federal government provides benefits to low income families are the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) program and the Food Stamp program. However, many eligible low income families do not actually receive these benefits. We combined state-level policy data with rich data on a national sample of low income families to investigate family and state-level predictors of TANF and Food Stamp receipt. Our findings indicate: 1) families experiencing more economic hardship and health challenges are more likely to receive benefits, and 2) states' coverage is associated with families' receipt of TANF, but not Food Stamps. Implications for policy and research are discussed.

  13. Size and Age Dependence of Koronis Family Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, L. A.

    2011-10-01

    The ancient and massive Koronis family now has four identified subfamilies (asteroid families made by the breakup of fragments of the ancient collision), with ages running from 5.7 to 290 My. This presents unique opportunities to explore space weathering processes, along with dynamical processes such as collisions and binary formation and destruction. Analysis of family members with accurate SDSS measurements shows a correlation of average subfamily color with age that for the first time is highly statistically significant. Yet Thomas et al. (2011) report a size dependence of the colors of the ancient family that demands caution when comparing subfamilies with differing size distributions. Reanalyis of the Thomas et al. data show the reported break near asteroid diameter 5 km is not significant. However, analysis of the much more extensive SDSS data set show a significant break past diameter 2.5 km, with smaller objects systematically bluer. The break is not present in the Karin subfamily (the youngest at 5.7 My), but is already fully developed in the Eriphyla subfamily (only 220 My). The reddening trend with age remains even when comparing only asteroids of similar size, confirming the presence of space weathering phenomena. The meaning of the trend with size is not immediately clear. We consider briefly the strengths and weaknesses of several interpretations of the bluer colors for small objects: 1) those objects receive more jolts from random collisions capable of shaking the regolith and exposing fresh material beneath; 2) those objects receive more jolts from the cycle of fission and recombination driven by YORP; and 3) the lower gravity on those objects retains regolith less well.

  14. Parental emotional competence and parenting in low-income families with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy; Borre, Alicia; Wright, Anna W; Jäggi, Lena; Drazdowski, Tess; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2016-02-01

    Ample research has demonstrated that alexithymia, which is characterized by difficulty processing emotions, is associated with disruptions in parenting infants and toddlers. Individuals suffering from alexithymia have among other negative outcomes difficulty building and maintaining interpersonal relationships. Research on emotional expression and recognition has documented the importance of these competencies for the quality of the parent-child relationship and for skills critical for parents of adolescents, such as effective monitoring. However, literature linking parental alexithymia to parenting behaviors and related constructs during adolescents is lacking. The present study closes this gap by examining how mothers' (M age = 39.42 years, SD = 7.62; Range = 23-67) alexithymia affects parent-reported behaviors of solicitation and control, as well as youths' (53.6% female; M age = 12.13 years, SD = 1.62; Range = 9-16) reported disclosure and felt acceptance by their mothers among a sample of 358 primarily urban, African American families. Structural equation models (SEM) revealed that mothers' alexithymia was prospectively related to less parental solicitation 2 years later for both males and females, and to lower levels of felt acceptance for males. Multiple group analyses revealed that these models fits equally well for younger and older youth. Contrary to hypotheses, alexithymia was not related to control or to disclosure. Taken together, these findings indicate that parents' difficulty in processing emotions contributes to parenting beyond early childhood. PMID:26376429

  15. Parental emotional competence and parenting in low-income families with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy; Borre, Alicia; Wright, Anna W; Jäggi, Lena; Drazdowski, Tess; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2016-02-01

    Ample research has demonstrated that alexithymia, which is characterized by difficulty processing emotions, is associated with disruptions in parenting infants and toddlers. Individuals suffering from alexithymia have among other negative outcomes difficulty building and maintaining interpersonal relationships. Research on emotional expression and recognition has documented the importance of these competencies for the quality of the parent-child relationship and for skills critical for parents of adolescents, such as effective monitoring. However, literature linking parental alexithymia to parenting behaviors and related constructs during adolescents is lacking. The present study closes this gap by examining how mothers' (M age = 39.42 years, SD = 7.62; Range = 23-67) alexithymia affects parent-reported behaviors of solicitation and control, as well as youths' (53.6% female; M age = 12.13 years, SD = 1.62; Range = 9-16) reported disclosure and felt acceptance by their mothers among a sample of 358 primarily urban, African American families. Structural equation models (SEM) revealed that mothers' alexithymia was prospectively related to less parental solicitation 2 years later for both males and females, and to lower levels of felt acceptance for males. Multiple group analyses revealed that these models fits equally well for younger and older youth. Contrary to hypotheses, alexithymia was not related to control or to disclosure. Taken together, these findings indicate that parents' difficulty in processing emotions contributes to parenting beyond early childhood.

  16. Money Income in 1975 of Families and Persons in the United States. Current Population Reports, Consumer Income, Series P-60, No. 105.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of the Census (DOC), Suitland, MD. Population Div.

    This report documents information concerning the money income of persons 14 years and older in the United States during 1975. "Money income" is defined as income received before tax and other deductions. The report does not include sources of non-money income such as food stamps, health benefits, and subsidized housing. The questionnaire used in…

  17. Family, caring and ageing in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Tony; Powell, Jason L

    2005-03-01

    This paper provides a critical exploration of the assumptions and narratives underpinning the development of social policy initiatives targeting caring relationships based upon family ties. Using a narrative approach attention is drawn to the ways in which family identities are open to a far greater range of negotiation than is assumed by policy. Drawing on the United Kingdom as a case example, questions are posed about intergenerational relations and the nature of late life citizenship. The comparatively recent invention of narratives supporting 'informal care' and the link with neo-liberal and 'third way' notions of active citizenship are explored. As is the failure of policy developments to take into account the diversity of care giving styles and the complexity of caring relationships. It is argued that the uneven and locally specific ways in which policy develops enables the co-existence of a complex range of narratives about family, caring and ageing which address diverse aspects of the family life of older people in often contradictory ways.

  18. 75 FR 62413 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request; Recertification of Family Income and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Income and Composition, Section 235(b) and Statistical Report Section 235(b), (i) and (j) AGENCY: Office... 235(b), (i) and (j). OMB Control Number, if applicable: 2502-0082. The Form HUD-93101 is sent...

  19. Individual Variation among Preschoolers in a Cognitive Intervention Program in Low Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenstein, Phyllis

    The range of cognitive gains made by low-income preschool children in the home-based Mother-Child Home Program is discussed as to the causes of the wide variability found. At the end of one year (October 1967 to May 1968) in the program, 33 low-income preschoolers made an average Stanford-Binet IQ gain of 17 points. The varibility within this…

  20. Potential consequences of raising the Social Security eligibility age on low-income older workers.

    PubMed

    Choi, N G

    2000-01-01

    To examine the potential consequences of raising the Social Security retirement age on future cohorts of low-income elders, this study, based on data from the Health and Retirement Study, 1992-1994, identifies factors that may hinder or facilitate continuous employment among older workers born between 1931 and 1941. Specifically, following the analysis of labor-force participation rates and self-reported reasons for non-work, multivariate logistic regression models tested the relationship between individual strengths and constraints, social-structural opportunities and constraints, and economic need variables and the likelihood of work. The findings show that for both men and women, having disabilities was the most significant predictor of non-work. Racial differences, especially in men's labor-force participation rates, appeared to be due in large part to significant racial differences in disability rates. A higher proportion of blacks and Hispanics than whites also reported that they were unemployed. Based on the findings, raising the Social Security eligibility age is likely to result in increased numbers of Disability Insurance (DI) claimants, and the fiscal impact of such an increase needs to be examined. The need to assist unemployed older persons is also discussed. PMID:11148829

  1. Public Pensions as the Great Equalizer? Decomposition of Old-Age Income Inequality in South Korea, 1998-2010.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sun-Jae

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the redistributive effects of public pensions on old-age income inequality, testing whether public pensions function as the "great equalizer." Unlike the well-known alleviating effect of public pensions on old-age poverty, the effects of public pensions on old-age income inequality more generally have been less examined, particularly outside Western countries. Using repeated cross-sectional data of elderly Koreans between 1998 and 2010, we applied Gini coefficient decomposition to measure the impact of various income sources on old-age inequality, particularly focusing on public pensions. Our findings show that, contrary to expectations, public pension benefits have inequality-intensifying effects on old-age income in Korea, even countervailing the alleviating effects of public assistance. This rather surprising result is due to the specific institutional context of the Korean public pension system and suggests that the "structuring" of welfare policies could be as important as their expansion for the elderly, particularly for developing welfare states.

  2. Synthesis of Findings from Southern Regional Cooperative Research Project S-44: Factors in the Adjustment of Families and Individuals in Low-Income Rural Areas of the South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Virlyn A.; Morgan, Carolyn A.

    A group of rural sociologists initiated this 1958-1965 research project for the purpose of increasing knowledge about social and economic adjustments of low-income people in the rural areas of the South. Factors found to be associated with the adjustment of low-income families and individuals were anomia, level-of-living, joint decision making,…

  3. What Works for Increasing Family Income and Parental Employment: Lessons from Experimental Evaluations of Programs and Interventions. Fact Sheet. Publication #2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashim, Kyleen; Moore, Kristin A.

    2010-01-01

    Children living in lower-income and poor families are more likely to suffer from poor physical and mental health, engage in risky and delinquent behaviors, fare worse academically, and drop out of school than children from more advantaged backgrounds. Higher income does not guarantee protection from these risks, but is associated with a range of…

  4. The Relative Quality and Cost-Effectiveness of Private and Public Schools for Low-Income Families: A Case Study in a Developing Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooley, James; Dixon, Pauline; Shamsan, Yarim; Schagen, Ian

    2010-01-01

    The "mushrooming" of private schools for low-income families has been widely noted in the literature; however, very little is known about the quality of these schools. This research explored the relative quality of private unaided (recognised and unrecognised) and government schools in low-income areas of Hyderabad, India. A preliminary census to…

  5. Economic well-being and children's social adjustment: the role of family process in an ethnically diverse low-income sample.

    PubMed

    Mistry, Rashmita S; Vandewater, Elizabeth A; Huston, Aletha C; McLoyd, Vonnie C

    2002-01-01

    Using latent variable structural equation modeling, a family economic stress model that links economic well-being to child well-being in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample of 419 elementary school-age children was evaluated. The sample was 57% African American and 28% Hispanic, and most families were headed by single mothers. The results provided support for the position that family process is a critical mediator of the effects of economic hardship on children's social adjustment. Lower levels of economic well-being, and the corollary elevated perceptions of economic pressure indirectly affected parenting behavior through an adverse impact on parental psychological well-being. Distressed parents reported feeling less effective and capable in disciplinary interactions with their child and were observed to be less affectionate in parent-child interactions. In turn, less than optimal parenting predicted lower teacher ratings of children's positive social behavior and higher ratings of behavior problems. Multiple-group analyses revealed that the pathways by which economic hardship influences children's behavior appear to operate similarly for boys and girls, and for African American and Hispanic families.

  6. Parent-child interactions among low-income Mexican American parents and preschoolers: do clinic-referred families differ from nonreferred families?

    PubMed

    McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna; Argote, Carolina Bertely; Liang, June

    2010-03-01

    This study compared low-income Mexican American parents of young children referred for behavior problems to their nonreferred counterparts on an observational measure of parent-child interactions. Referred Mexican American parents demonstrated more negative behaviors than their nonreferred counterparts in both nondirective and highly directive situations. However, no differences were found at moderate levels of directiveness. The most and least directive situations in the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System best differentiated referred from nonreferred Mexican American families, and families differed more in their negative behaviors than positive behaviors. Many of the parenting behaviors that have been found to differ between referred and nonreferred Caucasian families were also observed to differ between their Mexican American counterparts.

  7. Parent-Child Interactions Among Low-Income Mexican American Parents and Preschoolers: Do Clinic-Referred Families Differ From Nonreferred Families?

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Kristen; Yeh, May; Lau, Anna; Argote, Carolina Bertely; Liang, June

    2009-01-01

    This study compared low-income Mexican American parents of young children referred for behavior problems to their nonreferred counterparts on an observational measure of parent-child interactions. Referred Mexican American parents demonstrated more negative behaviors than their nonreferred counterparts in both nondirective and highly directive situations. However, no differences were found at moderate levels of directiveness. The most and least directive situations in the Dyadic Parent-Child Interaction Coding System best differentiated referred from nonreferred Mexican American families, and families differed more in their negative behaviors than positive behaviors. Many of the parenting behaviors that have been found to differ between referred and nonreferred Caucasian families were also observed to differ between their Mexican American counterparts. PMID:20171330

  8. The association of fast food, fruit and vegetable prices with dietary intakes among US adults: is there modification by family income?

    PubMed

    Beydoun, May A; Powell, Lisa M; Wang, Youfa

    2008-06-01

    We examined the effects of prices of fast foods and fruits and vegetables on dietary intake, body mass index (BMI) and obesity risks and whether the associations varied across groups according to their family income. Data from the US Department of Agriculture Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (CSFII 1994-96) for 7331 individuals aged 20-65 years with complete data on two 24-h recalls were used. We computed two food price indices (FFPI and FVPI) which were linked to individuals through geocoded identifiers. Main outcomes included dietary intakes of energy, selected nutrients and food groups, fast food consumption, and diet quality measured using two indices (HEI and aMED), BMI and obesity. Interaction terms between key variables were tested in regression analyses and in further stratified analysis by family income. Higher fast food price indices (FFPIs) were associated with higher fiber intake, lower saturated fat, and better overall diet quality as measured by aMED. FVPI was positively associated with improved dietary quality as well as in terms of lower cholesterol and sodium intakes, improved HEI and lower BMI. Most of these associations showed homogeneous strengths across income groups as evidenced by a non-significant FFPIxPIR or FVPIxPIR interaction term (p>0.10). While increasing FFPI by 1 standard deviation was only borderline protective against fast food consumption, its association with other binary outcomes that were considered was non-significant. In contrast, FVPI was protective against obesity, particularly among the near poor. It was also associated with improved aMED score. Analyses of these national data suggest that changing fast food and fruit and vegetable prices may affect people's dietary quality and to some extent their adiposity, although the present study is limited by the available food price data.

  9. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status.

  10. Parent-child mealtime interactions in racially/ethnically diverse families with preschool-age children.

    PubMed

    Kong, Angela; Jones, Blake L; Fiese, Barbara H; Schiffer, Linda A; Odoms-Young, Angela; Kim, Yoonsang; Bailey, Lauren; Fitzgibbon, Marian L

    2013-12-01

    Family meals may improve diet and weight outcomes in children; however, results from nationally representative samples suggest that these relationships vary by race/ethnicity. Observing parent-child mealtime interactions may lend insight to why racial/ethnic differences exist. In this pilot study, a multi-ethnic sample of low-income families (n = 30) with a preschool-age child was videotaped during a dinner in their home. A global coding scheme was used to assess the following: 'Action' (behaviors that divert attention from eating), 'Behavior Control' (behaviors intended to modify another person's behavior), and 'Communication' (i.e., meal-oriented, interpersonal, and critical). All families spent a significant amount of time in 'action' oriented behaviors that diverted their attention from eating. We also observed racial/ethnic differences in communication (i.e. critical) and behavior patterns (i.e. behavior control). This study demonstrated that this approach for observing parent-child mealtime interactions in a naturalistic setting among a diverse study sample was feasible; however, future studies should address how these patterns relate to dietary intake and weight status. PMID:24183134

  11. Risk and Protective Factors for Adult and Child Hunger Among Low-Income Housed and Homeless Female-Headed Families

    PubMed Central

    Wehler, Cheryl; Weinreb, Linda F.; Huntington, Nicholas; Scott, Richard; Hosmer, David; Fletcher, Kenneth; Goldberg, Robert; Gundersen, Craig

    2004-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify factors associated with adult or child hunger. Methods. Low-income housed and homeless mothers were interviewed about socioeconomic, psychosocial, health, and food sufficiency information. Multinomial logistic regression produced models predicting adult or child hunger. Results. Predictors of adult hunger included mothers’ childhood sexual molestation and current parenting difficulties, or “hassles.” Risk factors for child hunger included mothers’ childhood sexual molestation, housing subsidies, brief local residence, having more or older children, and substandard housing. Conclusions. This study found that the odds of hunger, although affected by resource constraints in low-income female-headed families, were also worsened by mothers’ poor physical and mental health. Eliminating hunger thus may require broader interventions than food programs. PMID:14713707

  12. The relationship between self-report and biomarkers of stress in low-income, reproductive age women

    PubMed Central

    Borders, Ann E.B; Grobman, William A.; Amsden, Laura B.; McDade, Thomas W.; Sharp, Lisa K.; Holl, Jane L.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if there is an association between self-reported and biologic measures of stress in low-income, reproductive age women. STUDY DESIGN Between 1999 and 2005, randomly selected reproductive age women from the 1998 welfare rolls in Chicago were interviewed yearly to assess psychosocial, socioeconomic, and health characteristics. The association of two stress sensitive biomarkers (Epstein-Barr virus antibody titer (EBV) and C-reactive protein (CRP) level) with self-reported stress was assessed. RESULTS Of the 206 women interviewed, 205 (99%) agreed to provide a blood sample. There was no difference in mean EBV or CRP levels based on age, race, parity, employment, marital status, or education. Women who reported a higher degree of perceived stress or reported experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of EBV (p < .05). CONCLUSION Measures of self-reported psychosocial stress are associated with elevated levels EBV antibody in a low-income population of reproductive age women. PMID:20870203

  13. "Fewer children, better life" or "as many as God wants"? Family planning among low-income Iranian and Afghan refugee families in Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Tober, Diane M; Taghdisi, Mohammad-Hossein; Jalali, Mohammad

    2006-03-01

    In the West it is often assumed that religion (esp. Islam) and contraception are mutually exclusive. Yet, the Islamic Republic of Iran has one of the most successful family-planning programs in the developing world, and is often looked to as a potential model for other Muslim countries. Although Iran's family-planning program has been extremely successful among Iranians, it has been far less successful among Afghan refugees and other ethnic groups. Afghans and Iranians both seek services in Iran's public health sector for family health care, treatment of infectious disease, and childhood vaccinations. On these occasions, all adult married patients are strongly encouraged to use family planning to reduce the number of offspring. In this article, we explore how Iran's family-planning program is differentially perceived and utilized among low-income Iranian and Afghan refugee families in rural and urban locations. Particular attention is given to how different interpretations of Islam may or may not influence reproductive health-related behaviors and how cultural factors influence reproductive strategies.

  14. Early Academic Achievement Among American Low-Income Black Students from Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Families.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Esther; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Palamar, Joseph; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-11-01

    At least half of the well-documented achievement gap for low-income Black children is already present in kindergarten, due in part to limited opportunities for acquiring foundational skills necessary for school success. There is some evidence that low-income minority children from immigrant families have more positive outcomes than their non-immigrant counterparts, although little is known about how the immigrant paradox may manifest in young children. This study examines foundational school readiness skills (academic and social-emotional learning) at entry into pre-kindergarten (pre-k) and achievement in kindergarten and second grade among Black children from low-income immigrant and non-immigrant families (N = 299). Immigrant and non-immigrant children entered pre-k with comparable readiness scores; in both groups, reading scores decreased significantly from kindergarten to second grade and math scores decreased significantly for non-immigrant children and marginally for immigrant children. Regardless of immigrant status, pre-k school readiness and pre-k classroom quality were associated with elementary school achievement. However, declines in achievement scores were not as steep for immigrant children and several predictive associations were moderated by immigrant status, such that among those with lower pre-k school readiness or in lower quality classrooms, immigrant children had higher achievement test scores than children from non-immigrant families. Findings suggest that immigrant status provides young Black students with some protection against individual- and classroom-level risk factors for early underachievement in elementary school. PMID:26048254

  15. Early Academic Achievement Among American Low-Income Black Students from Immigrant and Non-Immigrant Families.

    PubMed

    Calzada, Esther; Barajas-Gonzalez, R Gabriela; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Huang, Keng-Yen; Palamar, Joseph; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2015-11-01

    At least half of the well-documented achievement gap for low-income Black children is already present in kindergarten, due in part to limited opportunities for acquiring foundational skills necessary for school success. There is some evidence that low-income minority children from immigrant families have more positive outcomes than their non-immigrant counterparts, although little is known about how the immigrant paradox may manifest in young children. This study examines foundational school readiness skills (academic and social-emotional learning) at entry into pre-kindergarten (pre-k) and achievement in kindergarten and second grade among Black children from low-income immigrant and non-immigrant families (N = 299). Immigrant and non-immigrant children entered pre-k with comparable readiness scores; in both groups, reading scores decreased significantly from kindergarten to second grade and math scores decreased significantly for non-immigrant children and marginally for immigrant children. Regardless of immigrant status, pre-k school readiness and pre-k classroom quality were associated with elementary school achievement. However, declines in achievement scores were not as steep for immigrant children and several predictive associations were moderated by immigrant status, such that among those with lower pre-k school readiness or in lower quality classrooms, immigrant children had higher achievement test scores than children from non-immigrant families. Findings suggest that immigrant status provides young Black students with some protection against individual- and classroom-level risk factors for early underachievement in elementary school.

  16. Transitions to Engagement among Low-Income Cohabiting African American Couples: A Family Perspective for Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Cassandra; Monroe, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    With passage of the Welfare Reform Law of 1996, various national, state, and local programs were created to encourage marriage, particularly among low-income African American cohabiting couples with children. However, policy makers know little about the deterrents to marriage for members of this group. More specifically, there is a lack of data…

  17. Child Care Decision Making: Understanding Priorities and Processes Used by Low-Income Families in Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forry, Nicole; Isner, Tabitha K.; Daneri, Maria P.; Tout, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Few studies have described parents' child care decision-making process, yet understanding how parents make child care choices is fundamental to developing effective services to promote the selection of high-quality care. This study used latent profile analysis to distinguish subgroups of low-income parents identified as…

  18. Assessing the Productive Vocabulary of Spanish-English Bilingual Toddlers from Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mancilla-Martinez, Jeannette; Pan, Barbara Alexander; Vagh, Shaher Banu

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the utility and validity of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) for use with low-income parents and their 24- to 36-month-old Spanish-English bilingual children (n = 79). Issues in the interpretation of the integrated CDI/Inventarios del Desarrollo de Habilidades Comunicativas (IDHC) score to index…

  19. Literacy Discussions in Low-Income Families: The Effect of Parent Questions on Fourth Graders' Retellings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capotosto, Lauren; Kim, James S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of four types of reading comprehension questions--immediate, non-immediate, summary, and unanswerable questions--that linguistically diverse and predominantly low-income parents asked their fourth graders on children's text retellings. One-hundred-twenty (N = 120) parent and child dyads participated in a home visit…

  20. The Effectiveness of Three Media in Disseminating Basic Information to Low Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trent, Curtis; Kinlaw, Rachel

    In order to measure the effectiveness of information leaflets, circular letters, and cartoon booklets in disseminating basic foods and nutrition information to low-income homemakers, a sample of 700 North Carolina homemakers involved in the Expanded Foods and Nutrition Education Program sponsored by the Agricultural Extension Service was divided…

  1. Home-Based Therapy for Young Children in Low-Income Families: A Student Training Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattek, Ryan J.; Jorgenson, Elizabeth T.; Fox, Robert A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to develop an internship training program that offered in-home therapy for young children with significant emotional and behavior problems. The children lived in single-parent, low-income homes in unsafe neighborhoods of a large, urban area. A year-long, training and supervision program was implemented with 10…

  2. Children's Emerging Digital Literacies: Investigating Home Computing in Low- and Middle-Income Families. CCT Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ba, Harouna; Tally, Bill; Tsikalas, Kallen

    The EDC (Educational Development Center) Center for Children and Technology (CCT) and Computers for Youth (CFY) completed a 1-year comparative study of children's use of computers in low- and middle-income homes. The study explores the digital divide as a literacy issue, rather than merely a technical one. Digital literacy is defined as a set of…

  3. Fathers' Early Emotion Talk: Associations with Income, Ethnicity, and Family Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Zerwas, Stephanie; Cox, Martha; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Contextual, mother-, child-, and father-level variables were examined in association with fathers' emotion talk to infants during a shared picture book activity, in an ethnically diverse, low-income sample (N = 549). Significant main effects included the rate of emotion talk from fathers' romantic partners (i.e., the infant's mother), infant…

  4. Food Insecurity and Obesity: A Dual Challenge for Low-Income Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    "Food insecurity," which is the lack of access to enough food to fully meet basic needs at all times because of economic constraints, afflicts 40.6% of low-income households with children. Research shows that living in a food-insecure household can lead to negative health and developmental consequences for young children, including obesity.…

  5. Recommendation for full-day kindergarten for children of low-income and racial/ethnic-minority families.

    PubMed

    Community Preventive Services Task Force

    2014-03-01

    The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends full-day kindergarten programs to improve the health prospects of minority children and children from low-income families, based on strong evidence that, compared with half-day kindergarten or full-day kindergarten on alternating days, full-day programs substantially improve reading and mathematics achievement-determinants of long-term academic and health-related outcomes (e.g., reduced teen pregnancy and risk behaviors). The achievement gains apparent at the beginning of first grade do not, themselves, guarantee academic achievement in later years. Ongoing school environments that support learning and development are essential. PMID:24512873

  6. Recommendation for full-day kindergarten for children of low-income and racial/ethnic-minority families.

    PubMed

    Community Preventive Services Task Force

    2014-03-01

    The Community Preventive Services Task Force recommends full-day kindergarten programs to improve the health prospects of minority children and children from low-income families, based on strong evidence that, compared with half-day kindergarten or full-day kindergarten on alternating days, full-day programs substantially improve reading and mathematics achievement-determinants of long-term academic and health-related outcomes (e.g., reduced teen pregnancy and risk behaviors). The achievement gains apparent at the beginning of first grade do not, themselves, guarantee academic achievement in later years. Ongoing school environments that support learning and development are essential.

  7. The Jane Dent Home: the rise and fall of homes for the aged in low-income communities.

    PubMed

    Reed, Susan C; Davis, Nancy

    2004-11-01

    The Jane Dent Home was established in 1898 (as the Home for Aged and Infirm Colored People) to serve African American elderly barred from admission to most homes for the aged. Sustained by community leadership through difficult times, the Home finally closed in 1975 after growing and persistent racial and economic segregation of Chicago's low-income neighborhoods combined with pressure from state government to ensure fire safety. This history illustrates the decline of not-for-profit homes for the aged while for-profit nursing homes were capturing market share. In Chicago this trend is strongest in low-income communities of color, which may lead to lower quality of care for such communities. Support for indigenous not-for-profit long-term care may promote the goals of health care equity articulated by Healthy People 2010.

  8. Mortality risk in preterm and small-for-gestational-age infants in low-income and middle-income countries: a pooled country analysis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joanne; Lee, Anne CC; Kozuki, Naoko; Lawn, Joy E; Cousens, Simon; Blencowe, Hannah; Ezzati, Majid; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Marchant, Tanya; Willey, Barbara A; Adair, Linda; Barros, Fernando; Baqui, Abdullah H; Christian, Parul; Fawzi, Wafaie; Gonzalez, Rogelio; Humphrey, Jean; Huybregts, Lieven; Kolsteren, Patrick; Mongkolchati, Aroonsri; Mullany, Luke C; Ndyomugyenyi, Richard; Nien, Jyh Kae; Osrin, David; Roberfroid, Dominique; Sania, Ayesha; Schmiegelow, Christentze; Silveira, Mariangela F; Tielsch, James; Vaidya, Anjana; Velaphi, Sithembiso C; Victora, Cesar G; Watson-Jones, Deborah; Black, Robert E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Babies with low birthweight (<2500 g) are at increased risk of early mortality. However, low birthweight includes babies born preterm and with fetal growth restriction, and not all these infants have a birthweight less than 2500 g. We estimated the neonatal and infant mortality associated with these two characteristics in low-income and middle-income countries. Methods For this pooled analysis, we searched all available studies and identified 20 cohorts (providing data for 2 015 019 livebirths) from Asia, Africa, and Latin America that recorded data for birthweight, gestational age, and vital statistics through 28 days of life. Study dates ranged from 1982 through to 2010. We calculated relative risks (RR) and risk differences (RD) for mortality associated with preterm birth (<32 weeks, 32 weeks to <34 weeks, 34 weeks to <37 weeks), small-for-gestational-age (SGA; babies with birthweight in the lowest third percentile and between the third and tenth percentile of a US reference population), and preterm and SGA combinations. Findings Pooled overall RRs for preterm were 6·82 (95% CI 3·56–13·07) for neonatal mortality and 2·50 (1·48–4·22) for post-neonatal mortality. Pooled RRs for babies who were SGA (with birthweight in the lowest tenth percentile of the reference population) were 1·83 (95% CI 1·34–2·50) for neonatal mortality and 1·90 (1·32–2·73) for post-neonatal mortality. The neonatal mortality risk of babies who were both preterm and SGA was higher than that of babies with either characteristic alone (15·42; 9·11–26·12). Interpretation Many babies in low-income and middle-income countries are SGA. Preterm birth affects a smaller number of neonates than does SGA, but is associated with a higher mortality risk. The mortality risks associated with both characteristics extend beyond the neonatal period. Differentiation of the burden and risk of babies born preterm and SGA rather than with low birthweight could guide

  9. The effects of service participation, friendship networks, and family support on developmental outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Ngai, Steven Sek-Yum; Ngai, Ngan-Pun; Cheung, Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-Ming

    2008-01-01

    This research investigates the factors conducive to the success of young people growing up in low-income families. Many studies carried out locally and overseas focus on the risks and difficulties experienced by these young people; however, little attempt has been made to examine the factors that help them change their lives from failure, poverty, and social exclusion. Based on a quantitative survey of 405 young people recruited from schools and integrated youth service centers in Hong Kong, this research identifies a range of indicators of, and necessary conditions for, the positive development of young people with economic disadvantage. It also evaluates the way in which the functions of service participation, friendship networks, and various family factors support them to thrive in different areas. The study helps fill the gap of the existing literature and draws implications for policy and practice to address the needs of these youths. Future directions of research are also discussed. PMID:18689108

  10. Economic disadvantage and transitional outcomes: a study of young people from low-income families in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Ngai, Steven Sek Yum; Cheung, Jacky Chau-Kiu; To, Siu-ming; Luan, Hui; Zhao, Ruiling

    2014-01-01

    This study draws on data from focus groups involving 50 young people from low-income families in Hong Kong to investigate their school-to-work experiences. In line with the ecological–developmental perspective, our results show that contextual influences, including lower levels of parental involvement and lack of opportunities for further education or skill development, constrain both the formulation and pursuit of educational and career goals. In contrast, service use and supportive interactions with parents and non-family adults were found to help young people find a career direction and foster more adaptive transition. Furthermore, our results indicate a striking difference in intrapersonal agency and coping styles between youths who were attending further education or engaged in jobs with career advancement opportunities and those who were not. We discuss the implications of our findings, both for future research and for policy development to enhance the school-to-work transition of economically disadvantaged young people. PMID:25364087

  11. Building Their Futures: How Early Head Start Programs Are Enhancing the Lives of Infants and Toddlers in Low-Income Families. Volume I: Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, John M.; Kisker, Ellen Eliason; Ross, Christine M.; Schochet, Peter Z.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Boller, Kimberly; Paulsell, Diane; Fuligni, Allison Sidle; Berlin, Lisa J.

    Early Head Start began with 68 programs in 1995 and today, almost 650 programs serve some 55,000 low-income families with infants and toddlers. This two-generation program provides high-quality child and family development services, a focus on staff development, and a commitment to community partnerships. A rigorous national evaluation, including…

  12. Locating the Place and Meaning of Physical Activity in the Lives of Young People from Low-Income, Lone-Parent Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the United Kingdom (UK), it is predicted that economic cuts and a subsequent increase in child poverty will affect those already on the lowest incomes and, in particular, those living in lone-parent families. As a result, the informal pedagogic encounters within the family that contribute to the development of physical…

  13. Language Outcomes for Children of Low-Income Families Enrolled in Auditory Verbal Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogan, Sarah; Stokes, Jacqueline; Weller, Isobel

    2010-01-01

    A common misconception about families in the UK who choose to participate in an Auditory Verbal (AV) approach for their child with hearing impairment, is that they are uniformly from affluent backgrounds. It is asserted that the good spoken language outcomes in these children are a product of the child's social background and family's values…

  14. Family Support Center Village: A Unique Approach for Low-Income Single Women with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Helen V.; Wolfe, Jayne L.

    2004-01-01

    The Family Support Center, recognizing the need for single women with children to maintain stability, has developed a program referred to as the Family Support Center Village, which incorporates a service enriched co-housing model. The "Village" will be the catalyst for these mothers' self-sufficiency and will provide opportunities to develop…

  15. School Readiness among Low-Income, Latino Children Attending Family Childcare versus Centre-Based Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansari, Arya; Winsler, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Latino children often struggle in school. Early childhood education programmes are seen as critical for fostering children's school readiness. Latino families often choose family childcare (FCC) over centre-based childcare (CBC), yet little is known about the school readiness of Latino children attending FCC. We compared school readiness over the…

  16. Food budget standards and dietary adequacy in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael; Dick, Katie; Holmes, Bridget

    2002-11-01

    Budget standards are specified baskets of goods and services which, when priced, can represent predefined living standards. 'Low cost but acceptable' (LCA) is a minimum income standard, adequate to provide warmth and shelter, a healthy and palatable diet, social necessities, social integration, avoidance of chronic stress and the maintenance of good health (physical, mental and social) in a context of free access to good-quality health care, good-quality education and social justice. The LCA food budget standard identifies a basket of foods and corresponding menus which provides (for a given household composition) a palatable diet that is consistent with prevailing cultural norms, and that satisfies existing criteria for health in relation to dietary reference values, food-based dietary guidelines and safe levels of alcohol consumption. Two previous studies that explored the relationship between diet and food expenditure in low-income households suggested that the amount spent on food was a good predictor of dietary adequacy, growth and health in children. The current paper will focus on diet and measures of deprivation in 250 low-income households in London. Households were screened for material deprivation (e.g. no car, no fixed line telephone, in receipt of Income Support) using a doorstep questionnaire. Diet was assessed using four 24 h recalls based on the 'triple pass' method. Expenditure on food and other aspects of household circumstances were assessed by face-to-face interview. Food expenditure in these households was characterized in relation to food budget standards. Further analyses explored the relationships between food expenditure and dietary adequacy, growth in children and measures of deprivation. PMID:12691187

  17. Food budget standards and dietary adequacy in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael; Dick, Katie; Holmes, Bridget

    2002-11-01

    Budget standards are specified baskets of goods and services which, when priced, can represent predefined living standards. 'Low cost but acceptable' (LCA) is a minimum income standard, adequate to provide warmth and shelter, a healthy and palatable diet, social necessities, social integration, avoidance of chronic stress and the maintenance of good health (physical, mental and social) in a context of free access to good-quality health care, good-quality education and social justice. The LCA food budget standard identifies a basket of foods and corresponding menus which provides (for a given household composition) a palatable diet that is consistent with prevailing cultural norms, and that satisfies existing criteria for health in relation to dietary reference values, food-based dietary guidelines and safe levels of alcohol consumption. Two previous studies that explored the relationship between diet and food expenditure in low-income households suggested that the amount spent on food was a good predictor of dietary adequacy, growth and health in children. The current paper will focus on diet and measures of deprivation in 250 low-income households in London. Households were screened for material deprivation (e.g. no car, no fixed line telephone, in receipt of Income Support) using a doorstep questionnaire. Diet was assessed using four 24 h recalls based on the 'triple pass' method. Expenditure on food and other aspects of household circumstances were assessed by face-to-face interview. Food expenditure in these households was characterized in relation to food budget standards. Further analyses explored the relationships between food expenditure and dietary adequacy, growth in children and measures of deprivation.

  18. Mother and Soldier: Raising a Child with a Disability in a Low-Income Military Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Nancy E.; Wall, Shavaun M.; Liebow, Harriet; Sabatino, Christine A.; Timberlake, Elizabeth M.; Farber, Michaela Z.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of six low-income women, each of whom is raising a child with a suspected or diagnosed disability while also serving as an active member of the armed forces. Their experiences as they attempt to strike a balance between the highly demanding work role of the military and their role as a mother of a child…

  19. Complex home care: Part 2- family annual income, insurance premium, and out-of-pocket expenses.

    PubMed

    Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Yadrich, Donna Macan; Ross, Vicki M; Smith, Carol E; Clements, Faye; Williams, Arthur R

    2010-01-01

    Annual costs paid by families for intravenous infusion of home parenteral nutrition (HPN) health insurance premiums, deductibles, co-payments for health services, and the wide range of out-of-pocket home health care expenses are significant. The costs of managing complex chronic care at home cannot be completely understood until all out-of-pocket costs have been defined, described, and tabulated. Non-reimbursed and out-of-pocket costs paid by families over years for complex chronic care negatively impact the financial stability of families. National health care reform must take into account the long-term financial burdens of families caring for those with complex home care. Any changes that may increase the out-of-pocket costs or health insurance costs to these families can also have a negative long-term impact on society when greater numbers of patients declare bankruptcy or qualify for medical disability.

  20. 42 CFR 436.210 - Individuals who meet the income and resource requirements of the cash assistance programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant... income and resource requirements of the appropriate cash assistance program for their status (that...

  1. 42 CFR 436.210 - Individuals who meet the income and resource requirements of the cash assistance programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... for Coverage of Families and Children and Aged, Blind, and Disabled Individuals, Including Pregnant... income and resource requirements of the appropriate cash assistance program for their status (that...

  2. The RD parent empowerment program creates measurable change in the behaviors of low-income families and children: an intervention description and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hand, Rosa K; Birnbaum, Amanda S; Carter, Betty Jean; Medrow, Lisa; Stern, Emily; Brown, Katie

    2014-12-01

    Dietary and physical activity habits are developed early in life and are influenced by family environments. We describe and evaluate an intervention for low-income families to encourage healthy habits. The RD Parent Empowerment Program (http://www.eatright.org/programs/kidseatright/activities/content.aspx?id=6442477891) consists of four workshops centered on the 8 Habits of Healthy Children and Families (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Foundation). Registered dietitian nutritionists conduct the workshops in school and community settings using a structured leader guide and tailor the communication and interactive activities to the audience. Participants are parents of young children. Our goals were to use a phenomenologic approach to elicit participant feedback, determine whether participants in the RD Parent Empowerment Program made healthier choices for their families after attending the workshops, and identify which elements of the program participants believed contributed most to its success. The evaluation design used a pragmatic, mixed-methods approach utilizing postintervention focus groups and pre-post intervention scores on the Family Nutrition and Physical Activity (FNPA) survey. All workshop attendees aged 18 years or older were eligible to participate in the evaluation. One hundred twenty-three parents participated in the intervention across seven sites. Focus group results were analyzed using thematic analysis methods to match themes to the main intervention goals. t Tests were used to compare pre- and postintervention FNPA scores and demographic characteristics pooled across sites. FNPA scores significantly improved from pre- to postintervention by a mean of 4.3 FNPA points (6.5%; P<0.01). Focus group participants reported behavior changes as a result of the program and identified the site leaders as integral to the program's success, triangulating the results. The RD Parent Empowerment Program generates meaningful self-reported behavior change in

  3. Prevalence and Incidence of Traumatic Experiences Among Orphans in Institutional and Family-Based Settings in 5 Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Pence, Brian W; Ostermann, Jan; Whetten, Rachel A; O’Donnell, Karen; Thielman, Nathan M; Whetten, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background: Policy makers struggling to protect the 153 million orphaned and separated children (OSC) worldwide need evidence-based research on the burden of potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and the relative risk of PTEs across different types of care settings. Methods: The Positive Outcomes for Orphans study used a 2-stage, cluster-randomized sampling design to identify 1,357 institution-dwelling and 1,480 family-dwelling orphaned and separated children in 5 low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. We used the Life Events Checklist developed by the National Center for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder to examine self-reported PTEs among 2,235 OSC ages 10–13 at baseline. We estimated prevalence and incidence during 36-months of follow-up and compared the risk of PTEs across care settings. Data collection began between May 2006 and February 2008, depending on the site. Results: Lifetime prevalence by age 13 of any PTE, excluding loss of a parent, was 91.0% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 85.6, 94.5) in institution-dwelling OSC and 92.4% (95% CI = 90.3, 94.0) in family-dwelling OSC; annual incidence of any PTE was lower in institution-dwelling (23.6% [95% CI = 19.4, 28.7]) than family-dwelling OSC (30.0% [95% CI = 28.1, 32.2]). More than half of children in institutions (50.3% [95% CI = 42.5, 58.0]) and in family-based care (54.0% [95% CI = 50.2, 57.7]) had experienced physical or sexual abuse by age 13. Annual incidence of physical or sexual abuse was lower in institution-dwelling (12.9% [95% CI = 9.6, 17.3]) than family-dwelling OSC (19.4% [95% CI = 17.7, 21.3]), indicating statistically lower risk in institution-dwelling OSC (risk difference = 6.5% [95% CI = 1.4, 11.7]). Conclusion: Prevalence and incidence of PTEs were high among OSC, but contrary to common assumptions, OSC living in institutions did not report more PTEs or more abuse than OSC living with families. Current efforts to reduce

  4. Drug Testing Incoming Residents and Medical Students in Family Medicine Training: A Survey of Program Policies and Practices

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Paul F.; Semelka, Michael W.; Bigdeli, Laleh

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite well-established negative consequences, high rates of substance use and related disorders continue to be reported. Physicians in training are not immune from this, or the associated risks to their health and careers, while impaired physicians are a threat to patient safety. Objective We surveyed family medicine residency programs' practices relating to drug testing of medical students and incoming residents. The survey asked about the extent to which residency programs are confronted with trainees testing positive for prohibited substances, and how they respond. Methods The survey was sent to the directors of family medicine residency programs. A total of 205 directors (47.2%) completed the survey. Results A majority of the responding programs required drug testing for incoming residents (143, 68.9%). Most programs did not require testing of medical students (161, 81.7%). Few programs reported positive drug tests among incoming residents (9, 6.5%), and there was only 1 reported instance of a positive result among medical students (1, 3.3%). Respondents reported a range of responses to positive results, with few reporting that they would keep open training spots or offer supportive services for a medical student who tested positive. Conclusions Changing laws legalizing certain drugs may require corresponding changes in the focus on drug testing and associated issues in medical training; however, many residency program directors were not aware of their institution's current policies. Programs will need to reexamine drug testing policies as new generations of physicians, growing up under altered legal circumstances concerning drug use, progress to clinical training. PMID:26217424

  5. Mediating effect of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life among low-income older Korean immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bum Jung

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the direct and indirect effects of Adult Day Health Care (ADHC) and family network on Quality of Life (QOL) for low-income older Korean immigrants in Los Angeles County, CA. A cross-sectional survey of low-income older Korean immigrants who use ADHC programs was conducted. Self-reported measures included sociocultural characteristics, acculturation, cognitive function, family network, utilization of ADHC, and QOL. The study found that for QOL, two variables had only direct effects: years in ADHC and acculturation. Family network was directly associated with QOL and indirectly associated with it through the variable "years in ADHC." Our findings indicate that a strong family network is positively associated with more years of attendance in ADHC, and with higher QOL scores. Thus, policy makers and practitioners should be aware of the positive association among social networks, attendance in ADHC, and higher QOL among low-income older Korean immigrants.

  6. Perceived Income Adequacy Among Older Adults in 12 Countries: Findings From the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Howard; Sapir, Eliyahu V.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To validate a survey research measure of subjective income, as measured by perceived income adequacy, in an international context. Design and Methods: The study population comprised persons aged 50 years and older in 12 countries from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (n = 28,939). Perceived difficulty in making ends meet was regressed on sociodemographic variables, economic indicators, health status measures, and expectations regarding one's financial future. Country differences were also controlled. Results: The findings confirm a multidimensional explanation of perceived income adequacy but also point to the primacy of objective economic indicators in predicting household financial distress. Respondents aged 80 years and older report less financial difficulty. Poor health status and pessimistic financial expectations also predict greater household financial distress but to a lesser degree. Implications: Self-rated economic status is a robust indicator of financial capacity in older age and can be used by practitioners to gain meaningful information. However, practitioners should keep in mind that the oldest-old may underestimate financial difficulties. PMID:19386829

  7. Social stratification and adolescent overweight in the United States: how income and educational resources matter across families and schools.

    PubMed

    Martin, Molly A; Frisco, Michelle L; Nau, Claudia; Burnett, Kristin

    2012-02-01

    The current study examines how poverty and education in both the family and school contexts influence adolescent weight. Prior research has produced an incomplete and often counterintuitive picture. We develop a framework to better understand how income and education operate alone and in conjunction with each other across families and schools. We test it by analyzing data from Wave 1 of the U.S.-based National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 16,133 in 132 schools) collected in 1994-1995. Using hierarchical logistic regression models and parallel indicators of family- and school-level poverty and educational resources, we find that at the family-level, parent's education, but not poverty status, is associated with adolescent overweight. At the school-level, the concentration of poverty within a school, but not the average level of parent's education, is associated with adolescent overweight. Further, increases in school poverty diminish the effectiveness of adolescents' own parents' education for protecting against the risks of overweight. The findings make a significant contribution by moving beyond the investigation of a single socioeconomic resource or social context. The findings push us to more fully consider when, where, and why money and education matter independently and jointly across health-related contexts.

  8. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  9. Caregiver Use of the Core Components of Technology-Enhanced Helping the Noncompliant Child: A Case Series Analysis of Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Margaret T.; Jones, Deborah J.; Cuellar, Jessica; Forehand, Rex; Gonzalez, Michelle; Honeycutt, Amanda; Khavjou, Olga; Newey, Greg; Edwards, Alex; Jacobs, Mary; Pitmman, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Children from low-income families are more likely to develop early-onset disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs) compared to their higher income counterparts. Low-income families of children with early-onset DBDs, however, are less likely to engage in the standard-of-care treatment, behavioral parent training (BPT), than families from other sociodemographic groups. Preliminary between-group findings suggested technology-enhanced BPT was associated with increased engagement and boosted treatment outcomes for low-income families relative to standard BPT. The current study used a case series design to take this research a step further by examining whether there was variability in use of, and reactions to, the smartphone enhancements within technology-enhanced BPT and the extent to which this variability paralleled treatment outcome. Findings provide a window into the uptake and use of technology-enhanced service delivery methods among low-income families, with implications for the broader field of children’s mental health.

  10. Health at advanced age: social inequality and other factors potentially impacting longevity in nine high-income countries.

    PubMed

    Granados, José A Tapia

    2013-02-01

    This article surveys the evolution of health at advanced age in nine high-income countries over the last three decades, and the variables that might explain that evolution. Life expectancy at age 65 for males and females is used as summary indicator to conceptualize "health at advanced age." A comparison of the nine countries - Canada, Denmark, France, Japan, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States - reveals excellent health performance for Japan, which has the greatest proportion of elderly people in the population and also the best health indicators for both males and females; the United States and Denmark perform poorly. Of all nine countries, the United States has the youngest population, the highest income per capita, and the greatest expenditure on health care, but also the highest levels of income inequality and relative poverty, and lacked universal health care coverage during the study period. Experts have considered that these three factors have probably contributed to the poor progress in the health of the elderly in the United States in recent decades. Tobacco consumption appears to be a key influence on the health of the elderly and probably explains to a large extent - with a lag of several decades - the differential evolution of health in these countries.

  11. 24 CFR 5.611 - Adjusted income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adjusted income. 5.611 Section 5... Serving Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.611 Adjusted income. Adjusted income means annual income...

  12. Family predictors of continuity and change in social and physical aggression from ages 9 to 18.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Brinkley, Dawn Y; Underwood, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3-12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group-based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence.

  13. Family predictors of continuity and change in social and physical aggression from ages 9 to 18.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Brinkley, Dawn Y; Underwood, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3-12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group-based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340

  14. Family Predictors of Continuity and Change in Social and Physical Aggression from Ages 9 – 18

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Beron, Kurt J.; Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9–18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children’s social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3–12. Participants’ parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children’s behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340

  15. Family Sponsorship and Late-Age Immigration in Aging America: Revised and Expanded Estimates of Chained Migration.

    PubMed

    Carr, Stacie; Tienda, Marta

    2013-12-01

    We use the Immigrants Admitted to the United States (micro-data) supplemented with special tabulations from the Department of Homeland Security to examine how family reunification impacts the age composition of new immigrant cohorts since 1980. We develop a family migration multiplier measure for the period 1981 to 2009 that improves on prior studies by including immigrants granted legal status under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and relaxing unrealistic assumptions required by synthetic cohort measures. Results show that every 100 initiating immigrants admitted between 1981-85 sponsored an average of 260 family members; the comparable figure for initiating immigrants for the 1996-2000 cohort is 345 family members. Furthermore, the number of family migrants ages 50 and over rose from 44 to 74 per 100 initiating migrants. The discussion considers the health and welfare implications of late-age immigration in a climate of growing fiscal restraint and an aging native population. PMID:24415816

  16. Family Sponsorship and Late-Age Immigration in Aging America: Revised and Expanded Estimates of Chained Migration

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Stacie; Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    We use the Immigrants Admitted to the United States (micro-data) supplemented with special tabulations from the Department of Homeland Security to examine how family reunification impacts the age composition of new immigrant cohorts since 1980. We develop a family migration multiplier measure for the period 1981 to 2009 that improves on prior studies by including immigrants granted legal status under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and relaxing unrealistic assumptions required by synthetic cohort measures. Results show that every 100 initiating immigrants admitted between 1981–85 sponsored an average of 260 family members; the comparable figure for initiating immigrants for the 1996–2000 cohort is 345 family members. Furthermore, the number of family migrants ages 50 and over rose from 44 to 74 per 100 initiating migrants. The discussion considers the health and welfare implications of late-age immigration in a climate of growing fiscal restraint and an aging native population. PMID:24415816

  17. Washington State Recreational Marijuana Legalization: Parent and Adolescent Perceptions, Knowledge, and Discussions in a Sample of Low-Income Families

    PubMed Central

    Mason, W. Alex; Hanson, Koren; Fleming, Charles B.; Ringle, Jay L.; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2015-01-01

    Background In November 20012, Washington State and Colorado became the first states in the United States to legalize recreational marijuana use for adults, and Uruguay became the first country to allow the cultivation, distribution, possession, and use of marijuana. One possible consequence of these changes is increased adolescent marijuana use. Parents may mitigate this adverse consequence; however, whether parents and adolescents have accurate knowledge about the laws and are discussing marijuana use in light of the law changes is unknown. Objective We examine perceptions, knowledge, and parent-child discussions about Washington State’s recreational marijuana law in a sample of low-income families. Methods Participants were a subset of families (n = 115) in an ongoing study that originally recruited parents and adolescents from middle schools in Tacoma, Washington. In summer 2013, when students were entering the 11th grade, students and their parents were asked questions about the recreational marijuana law. Results Participants perceived that their marijuana-related attitudes and behaviors changed little as a result of the law, and displayed uncertainty about what is legal and illegal. Most parents reported discussing the new law with their children but only occasionally, and conversations emphasized household rules, particularly among parent lifetime marijuana users compared to non-users. Conclusions/Importance Results suggest that there should be a public health campaign focused on families that provides clear information about the recreational marijuana laws. PMID:25671633

  18. Unemployment Insurance for Low-Income Families: New Challenges for Child Advocates. Issue Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Catherine Crystal

    Unemployment insurance is a cooperative federal and state program that provides temporary, partial wage replacement to formerly employed people who lose their jobs through no fault of their own. This issue brief discusses the program and its importance as an approach to ameliorate the effects of welfare reform on struggling families. The brief…

  19. Strengthening Low-Income Families: A Research Agenda for Parenting, Relationship, and Fatherhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MDRC, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Policymakers need to decide how to invest in strengthening the most basic foundation for early childhood development: family relationships. The challenges: (1) help parents provide the responsive and stimulating environments that will prepare young children for school; and (2) support fathers' engagement with their children regardless of whether…

  20. Bridging the Technology Gap for Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Hector

    2008-01-01

    Research shows that families have a powerful effect on children's success in school. Parental involvement at home and in school is positively associated with children's school readiness and significant school performance. This study is focused on examining the impact of an intervention technology program--Community Learning Centers--(Centros…

  1. Education Tax Credits: Refundability Critical to Making Credits Helpful to Low-Income Students and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Katherine; Lower-Basch, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Half of all non-loan federal student aid is now offered as tax benefits for educational costs in the form of credits, deductions, and college savings accounts. These benefits help students and families offset the costs of their postsecondary education with tax savings. Yet, as explained in the 2013 report, "Reforming Student Aid: How to…

  2. Poverty among Black Families in the Nonmetro South. Rural Development Research Report No. 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghelfi, Linda M.

    This report analyzes the sources of income and the income problems of black families in the nonmetropolitan South based on 1980 data. It also describes some characteristics of family householders and adult family members related to income-earning capacity, such as age, education, work disability, labor force status, occupation, and weeks worked.…

  3. 24 CFR 5.609 - Annual income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... for Needy Families (TANF) program are included in annual income only to the extent such payments: (A... Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.609 Annual income. (a) Annual income means all amounts, monetary...

  4. 24 CFR 5.609 - Annual income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... for Needy Families (TANF) program are included in annual income only to the extent such payments: (A... Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.609 Annual income. (a) Annual income means all amounts, monetary...

  5. 24 CFR 5.609 - Annual income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... for Needy Families (TANF) program are included in annual income only to the extent such payments: (A... Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.609 Annual income. (a) Annual income means all amounts, monetary...

  6. 24 CFR 5.609 - Annual income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... for Needy Families (TANF) program are included in annual income only to the extent such payments: (A... Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.609 Annual income. (a) Annual income means all amounts, monetary...

  7. 24 CFR 5.609 - Annual income.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... for Needy Families (TANF) program are included in annual income only to the extent such payments: (A... Persons with Disabilities: Family Income and Family Payment; Occupancy Requirements for Section 8 Project-Based Assistance Family Income § 5.609 Annual income. (a) Annual income means all amounts, monetary...

  8. Large repayments of premium subsidies may be owed to the IRS if family income changes are not promptly reported.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Gould, Elise; Roby, Dylan

    2013-09-01

    Subsidies for health insurance premiums under the Affordable Care Act are refundable tax credits. They can be taken when taxes are filed or in advance, as reductions in monthly premiums that must be reconciled at tax filing. Recipients who take subsidies in advance will receive tax refunds if their subsidies were too small but will have to make repayments if their subsidies were too high. We analyzed predicted repayments and refunds for people receiving subsidies, using California as a case study. We found that many families could owe large repayments to the Internal Revenue Service at their next tax filing. If income changes were reported and credits adjusted in a timely manner throughout the tax year, the number of filers owing repayments would be reduced by 7-41 percent and the median size of repayments reduced by as much as 61 percent (depending on the level of changes reported and the method used to adjust the subsidy amounts). We recommend that the health insurance exchanges mandated by the Affordable Care Act educate consumers about how the subsidies work and the need to promptly report income changes. We also recommend that they provide tools and assistance to determine the amount of subsidies that enrollees should take in advance.

  9. The Mommy and Me Play Program: a pilot play intervention for low-income, African American preschool families.

    PubMed

    Wright, Linnie Green

    2015-01-01

    In this study the author examined the effects of a dyadic, mother-paired play intervention-The Mommy and Me Play Program-an innovative intervention program designed using a live-action modeling technique in which mothers serve as "natural helpers" to each other. By identifying natural strengths in mothers and employing opportunities for scaffolded learning, this intervention aimed to enhance mother-child play interactions and children's social and emotional competence. Fifty mother-child dyads from a single, low-income, African American, urban community were assessed in this study on measures of mother-child play interactions and children's social and emotional competency. Results from this pilot were not statistically significant, but provide important information regarding future research with this intervention program. These preliminary findings indicated that mothers with fewer play skills pre-intervention demonstrated improvement in their play skills post-intervention beyond other intervention participants; and children of those same mothers showed the greatest decrease in angry and aggressive behaviors in the classroom when compared to other participating children from pre- to post-intervention. Implications for research and practice in community-based, intervention work with low-income, ethnic-minority families are discussed.

  10. Large repayments of premium subsidies may be owed to the IRS if family income changes are not promptly reported.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Gould, Elise; Roby, Dylan

    2013-09-01

    Subsidies for health insurance premiums under the Affordable Care Act are refundable tax credits. They can be taken when taxes are filed or in advance, as reductions in monthly premiums that must be reconciled at tax filing. Recipients who take subsidies in advance will receive tax refunds if their subsidies were too small but will have to make repayments if their subsidies were too high. We analyzed predicted repayments and refunds for people receiving subsidies, using California as a case study. We found that many families could owe large repayments to the Internal Revenue Service at their next tax filing. If income changes were reported and credits adjusted in a timely manner throughout the tax year, the number of filers owing repayments would be reduced by 7-41 percent and the median size of repayments reduced by as much as 61 percent (depending on the level of changes reported and the method used to adjust the subsidy amounts). We recommend that the health insurance exchanges mandated by the Affordable Care Act educate consumers about how the subsidies work and the need to promptly report income changes. We also recommend that they provide tools and assistance to determine the amount of subsidies that enrollees should take in advance. PMID:24019357

  11. Mothers’ and Fathers’ Sensitivity and Children's Cognitive Development in Low-Income, Rural Families

    PubMed Central

    Mills-Koonce, W. Roger; Willoughby, Michael T.; Zvara, Bharathi; Barnett, Melissa; Gustafsson, Hanna; Cox, Martha J

    2015-01-01

    This study examines associations between maternal and paternal sensitive parenting and child cognitive development across the first 3 years of life using longitudinal data from 630 families with co-residing biological mothers and fathers. Sensitive parenting was measured by observational coding of parent-child interactions and child cognitive development was assessed with the Bayley Scales of Infant Development and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scales of Intelligence. There were multiple direct and indirect associations between parenting and cognitive development across mothers and fathers, suggesting primary effects, carry-forward effects, spillover effects across parents, and transactional effects across parents and children. Associations between parenting and cognitive development were statistically consistent across mothers and fathers, and the cumulative effects of early parenting on later cognitive development were comparable to the effects of later parenting on later cognitive development. As interpreted through a family systems framework, findings suggest additive and interdependent effects across parents and children. PMID:25954057

  12. Three-Year Change in the Wellbeing of Orphaned and Separated Children in Institutional and Family-Based Care Settings in Five Low- and Middle-Income Countries

    PubMed Central

    Whetten, Kathryn; Ostermann, Jan; Pence, Brian W.; Whetten, Rachel A.; Messer, Lynne C.; Ariely, Sumedha; O'Donnell, Karen; Wasonga, Augustine I.; Vann, Vanroth; Itemba, Dafrosa; Eticha, Misganaw; Madan, Ira; Thielman, Nathan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background With more than 2 million children living in group homes, or “institutions”, worldwide, the extent to which institution-based caregiving negatively affects development and wellbeing is a central question for international policymakers. Methods A two-stage random sampling methodology identified community representative samples of 1,357 institution-dwelling orphaned and separated children (OSC) and 1,480 family-dwelling OSC aged 6–12 from 5 low and middle income countries. Data were collected from children and their primary caregivers. Survey-analytic techniques and linear mixed effects models describe child wellbeing collected at baseline and at 36 months, including physical and emotional health, growth, cognitive development and memory, and the variation in outcomes between children, care settings, and study sites. Findings At 36-month follow-up, institution-dwelling OSC had statistically significantly higher height-for-age Z-scores and better caregiver-reported physical health; family-dwelling OSC had fewer caregiver-reported emotional difficulties. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups on other measures. At both baseline and follow-up, the magnitude of the differences between the institution- and family-dwelling groups was small. Relatively little variation in outcomes was attributable to differences between sites (11–27% of total variation) or care settings within sites (8–14%), with most variation attributable to differences between children within settings (60–75%). The percent of variation in outcomes attributable to the care setting type, institution- versus family-based care, ranged from 0–4% at baseline, 0–3% at 36-month follow-up, and 0–4% for changes between baseline and 36 months. Interpretation These findings contradict the hypothesis that group home placement universally adversely affects child wellbeing. Without substantial improvements in and support for family settings, the removal of

  13. Intake of seafood in the US varies by age, income, and education level but not by race-ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K; Johnson, LuAnn K; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T; Picklo, Matthew J

    2014-12-22

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%-90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels.

  14. Intake of Seafood in the US Varies by Age, Income, and Education Level but Not by Race-Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Jahns, Lisa; Raatz, Susan K.; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Kranz, Sibylle; Silverstein, Jeffrey T.; Picklo, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Current US federal dietary guidance recommends regular consumption of seafood (fish + shellfish) to promote health; however, little is known about how well Americans meet the guideline, particularly population subgroups that may be at risk for inadequate intake. The purposes of this study were to describe the prevalence of seafood consumption and, among consumers, the amounts of seafood eaten by sex, age group, income and education level, and race-ethnicity. Data from 15,407 adults aged 19+ participating in the 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys were analyzed using methods to account for sporadic intake of seafood. Over 80% of Americans reported consuming any seafood over the past 30 days, 74% reported consuming fish, and 54% reported eating shellfish. The percentages varied by socio-demographic group. Younger age and lower income and education levels were associated with lower odds of being a seafood consumer (p < 0.0001). Among those who reported eating seafood, the average amount eaten of any seafood was 158.2 ± 5.6 g/week. Among seafood consumers, women and individuals of lower age and education levels consumed less seafood. Approximately 80%–90% of seafood consumers did not meet seafood recommendations when needs were estimated by energy requirements. A great deal of work remains to move Americans toward seafood consumption at current recommended levels. PMID:25533013

  15. Money income and poverty status of families and persons in the United States: 1984 (advance data from the March 1985 Current Population Survey).

    PubMed

    Welniak Ej; Winard, A I

    1985-08-01

    Estimates in this report are based on a sample that includes households from both the 1970 census-based sample design and the new 1980 census-based design. Estimates in this report for 1983 and 1984 reflect the introduction of new survey weighting procedures for the Spanish-origin population. Some highlights of the data follow. 1) For the 2nd year in a row, median family income increased faster than inflation according to results of the March 1985 Current Population Survey conducted by the US Bureau of the Census. 2) In 1984, median family income was $26,430, 7.7% higher than the 1983 median of $24,550. After adjusting for the 4.3% increase in consumer prices between 1983 and 1984, real median family income still shows a significant gain of 3.3%. Not since 1972 has family income increased at a faster rate. 3) There was a significant decline in the poverty population, reversing a trend of increases in poverty experienced in recent years. Between 1983 and 1984, the poverty population fell from 35.5 million to 33.7 million. The poverty rate in 1984 was 14.4%, significantly lower than the 1983 rate of 15.3%. The poverty threshold for a family of 4 in 1984 was $10,609.

  16. Performance of African American Preschool Children from Low-Income Families on Expressive Language Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Cathy H.; Kaiser, Ann P.; Marley, Scott C.; Milan, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    The purposes of the study were to determine (a) the ability of two spontaneous language measures, mean length of utterance in morphemes (MLU-m) and number of different words (NDW), to identify African American preschool children at low and high levels of language ability; (b) whether child chronological age was related to the performance of either…

  17. Viewing Low-Income Fathers’ Ties to Families through a Cultural Lens: Insights for Research and Policy

    PubMed Central

    WALLER, MAUREEN R.

    2011-01-01

    Policy makers have become increasingly interested in addressing the cultural dimensions of child support, “responsible fatherhood,” and marriage in poor communities. However, policy studies have primarily focused on identifying economic determinants of these issues, with a substantial amount of variation in their statistical models left unexplained. This article draws on in-depth interviews the author conducted with disadvantaged mothers and fathers to illustrate how a systematic investigation into the meaning of low-income men’s ties to families may fill in or provide alternative explanations for some important questions related to paternal involvement. In particular, it suggests that analyzing fathers’ relationships through a cultural lens may not only reveal new information about the meaning of their emotional involvement, informal support, care of children, and conflicts with mothers which future policy studies should consider but may also inform policy initiatives by reducing the risk that they will be misdirected or have unintended consequences for poor families. PMID:21625346

  18. Correlates of availability and accessibility of fruits and vegetables in homes of low-income Hispanic families.

    PubMed

    Dave, Jayna M; Evans, Alexandra E; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Watkins, Ken W; Saunders, Ruth P

    2010-02-01

    Availability and accessibility (AA) has been consistently shown across studies as the most important correlate of fruits and vegetables (FV) intake. However, there is little data on factors that influence AA of FV, especially in Hispanic families. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between parental factors, child's preferences for FV and AA of FV in homes of low-income Hispanic families with children 5-12 years old. A convenience sample of 184 parents of low socioeconomic status recruited through public elementary schools completed a self-administered questionnaire about demographics, language spoken at home and food insecurity (FI). Parental factors and child's preferences were measured using a 16-item questionnaire, which was developed specifically for the study. AA of FV was measured using a validated nine-item index. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that language spoken at home, parental practices that promote consumption of FV, parental role modeling and perceived benefits of fast food had significant and independent associations with AA of FV at home. Intervention programs should take into consideration the language spoken at home and target at improving parental factors in order to improve AA of FV.

  19. Correlates of availability and accessibility of fruits and vegetables in homes of low-income Hispanic families.

    PubMed

    Dave, Jayna M; Evans, Alexandra E; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Watkins, Ken W; Saunders, Ruth P

    2010-02-01

    Availability and accessibility (AA) has been consistently shown across studies as the most important correlate of fruits and vegetables (FV) intake. However, there is little data on factors that influence AA of FV, especially in Hispanic families. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between parental factors, child's preferences for FV and AA of FV in homes of low-income Hispanic families with children 5-12 years old. A convenience sample of 184 parents of low socioeconomic status recruited through public elementary schools completed a self-administered questionnaire about demographics, language spoken at home and food insecurity (FI). Parental factors and child's preferences were measured using a 16-item questionnaire, which was developed specifically for the study. AA of FV was measured using a validated nine-item index. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis indicated that language spoken at home, parental practices that promote consumption of FV, parental role modeling and perceived benefits of fast food had significant and independent associations with AA of FV at home. Intervention programs should take into consideration the language spoken at home and target at improving parental factors in order to improve AA of FV. PMID:19654221

  20. Child, family, and school characteristics related to English proficiency development among low-income, dual language learners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs. PMID:25313591

  1. Child, family, and school characteristics related to English proficiency development among low-income, dual language learners.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Kyong; Curby, Timothy W; Winsler, Adam

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about 2nd language development among young, low-income, language-minority children. This article examined the longitudinal English development of low-income, dual language learners (DLLs) in Miami (n = 18,532) from kindergarten through 5th grade. Growth curve modeling indicated that social skills, good behavior, Spanish (L1) competence in preschool, having a mother born in the United States, and attending larger schools with fewer DLLs were associated with higher initial levels of English proficiency in kindergarten and/or steeper growth over time. Survival analyses indicated that it took about 2 years for half of the sample to become proficient in English according to the school district's criterion. Higher initial proficiency in kindergarten, not receiving free/reduced lunch, not being Hispanic or Black, strong cognitive, language, and socioemotional skills at age 4, and maternal education were associated with faster attainment of English proficiency. It is important for teachers, parents, researchers, and policy makers to understand that DLL students come from diverse backgrounds and that poverty and other factors influence the speed of English language development for DLLs.

  2. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  3. "Snacks are not food". Low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children.

    PubMed

    Fisher, J O; Wright, G; Herman, A N; Malhotra, K; Serrano, E L; Foster, G D; Whitaker, R C

    2015-01-01

    Snacking has become more frequent among US preschool-aged children in recent decades and represents a significant proportion of daily energy intake. Social influences on snacking among children, however, are not well understood. This qualitative research described low-income, urban mothers' perceptions of feeding snacks to their preschool-aged children using data from 7 focus groups with 32 participants. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparative method to identify themes. Mothers described snacks as involving less preparation, balance, and sustenance than meals (Theme 1). Mothers also made reference to some snacks as not being "real food" (Theme 2). At the same time, snacks had significant hedonic value as reflected in mothers' enjoyment of those foods (Theme 3), the effectiveness of snacks to manage children's behavior (Theme 4), and the variety of restrictions that mothers placed on children's access to snacks, such as locking cabinets, offering small servings, and reducing the number of snacks in sight (Theme 5). Two overarching themes highlighted distinctions mothers made in feeding children snacks vs. meals as well as the powerful hedonic appeal of snacks for both mother and child. These observations suggest that low-income, urban mothers of preschool-aged children may perceive snacks as serving a more important role in managing children's behavior than in providing nutrition. Child feeding interventions should address non-food related ways of managing children's behavior as well as encouraging caregivers to see snacks as structured opportunities for nutrition and connecting with their children.

  4. Longitudinal Effects of a Two-Generation Preschool Programme on Receptive Language Skill in Low-Income Canadian Children to Age 10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mughal, Muhammad Kashif; Ginn, Carla S.; Perry, Robert L.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored longitudinal effects of a two-generation preschool programme on receptive language scores in children (n = 78) at age 10 years, living with low income. Scores at four time-points, programme intake, exit, age 7, and age 10 years were measured using the "Peabody picture vocabulary test" (3rd ed.). Effects of culture…

  5. Perspective of patients, patients’ families, and healthcare providers towards designing and delivering hospice care services in a middle income Country

    PubMed Central

    Azami-Aghdash, Saber; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Aghaei, Mir Hossein; Naghavi-Behzad, Mohammad; Asgarlo, Zoleikha

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: In view of the recent surge in chronic disease rates and elderly population in the developing countries, there is an urgent felt need for palliative and hospice care services. The present study investigates the views and attitudes of patients and their families, physicians, nurses, healthcare administrators, and insurers regarding designing and delivering hospice care service in a middle income country. Materials and Methods: In this qualitative study, the required data was collected using semi structured interviews and was analyzed using thematic analysis. Totally 65 participants from hospitals and Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were selected purposively to achieve data saturation. Results: Analyzing the data, five main themes (barriers, facilitators, strategies, attitudes, and service provider) were extracted. Barriers included financial issues, cultural-religious beliefs, patient and family-related obstacles, and barriers related to healthcare system. Facilitators included family-related issues, cultural-religious beliefs, as well as facilitators associated with patients, healthcare status, and benefits of hospice service. Most participants (79%) had positive attitude towards hospice care service. Participant suggested 10 ways to design and deliver effective and efficient hospice care service. They thought the presence of physicians, nurses, and psychologists and other specialists and clergy were necessary in the hospice care team. Conclusion: Due to lack of experience in hospice care in developing countries, research for identifying probable barriers and appropriate management for reducing unsuccessfulness in designing and delivering hospice care service seems necessary. Input from the facilitators and their suggested solutions can be useful in planning the policy for hospice care system. PMID:26600704

  6. Analysis of Risk Alleles and Complement Activation Levels in Familial and Non-Familial Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Saksens, Nicole T. M.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; Verbakel, Sanne K.; Groenewoud, Joannes M. M.; Daha, Mohamed R.; Schick, Tina; Fauser, Sascha; Boon, Camiel J. F.; Hoyng, Carel B.; den Hollander, Anneke I.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a multifactorial disease, in which complement-mediated inflammation plays a pivotal role. A positive family history is an important risk factor for developing AMD. Certain lifestyle factors are shown to be significantly associated with AMD in non-familial cases, but not in familial cases. This study aimed to investigate whether the contribution of common genetic variants and complement activation levels differs between familial and sporadic cases with AMD. Methods and Results 1216 AMD patients (281 familial and 935 sporadic) and 1043 controls (143 unaffected members with a family history of AMD and 900 unrelated controls without a family history of AMD) were included in this study. Ophthalmic examinations were performed, and lifestyle and family history were documented with a questionnaire. Nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) known to be associated with AMD were genotyped, and serum concentrations of complement components C3 and C3d were measured. Associations were assessed in familial and sporadic individuals. The association with risk alleles of the age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) gene was significantly stronger in sporadic AMD patients compared to familial cases (p = 0.017 for all AMD stages and p = 0.003 for advanced AMD, respectively). ARMS2 risk alleles had the largest effect in sporadic cases but were not significantly associated with AMD in densely affected families. The C3d/C3 ratio was a significant risk factor for AMD in sporadic cases and may also be associated with familial cases. In patients with a densely affected family this effect was particularly strong with ORs of 5.37 and 4.99 for all AMD and advanced AMD respectively. Conclusion This study suggests that in familial AMD patients, the common genetic risk variant in ARMS2 is less important compared to sporadic AMD. In contrast, factors leading to increased complement activation appear to play a larger role in patients with a

  7. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Coverage of Families and Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined...

  8. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Coverage of Families and Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined...

  9. 42 CFR 435.229 - Optional targeted low-income children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Optional targeted low-income children. 435.229... Coverage of Families and Children § 435.229 Optional targeted low-income children. The agency may provide Medicaid to— (a) All individuals under age 19 who are optional targeted low-income children as defined...

  10. Verbal Reinforcement and Task Performance of Middle and Lower Income Black Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Steve H.

    A study was conducted to assess the effects of verbal reinforcement on task performance of black preschool children. Subjects were 36 black children in preschool centers serving families of two income levels. The children were stratified by age, sex, and income level and were randomly assigned to four groups: (1) middle income, praise; (2) middle…

  11. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH...

  12. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH...

  13. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) YOUTH...

  14. Five Thousand American Families -- Patterns of Economic Progress. Volume II: Special Studies of the First Five Year's of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, James N., Ed.

    Volume II of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics presents special studies from the matrix of data which allowed further policy relevant analysis. The ten special studies, each corresponding to a chapter in the volume, are as follows: Housing and Homeownership; Residential Mobility and Family Housing Adjustments; Modes of Travel to Work; The…

  15. 42 CFR 457.540 - Cost-sharing charges for children in families with incomes at or below 150 percent of the FPL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-sharing charges for children in families with incomes at or below 150 percent of the FPL. 457.540 Section 457.540 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH...

  16. 42 CFR 457.540 - Cost-sharing charges for children in families with incomes at or below 150 percent of the FPL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost-sharing charges for children in families with incomes at or below 150 percent of the FPL. 457.540 Section 457.540 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STATE CHILDREN'S HEALTH...

  17. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER...

  18. 20 CFR 664.250 - May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May a disabled youth whose family does not meet income eligibility criteria under the Act be eligible for youth services? 664.250 Section 664.250 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR YOUTH ACTIVITIES UNDER...

  19. The Quality of Teachers' Interactive Conversations with Preschool Children from Low-Income Families during Small-Group and Large-Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jennifer J.; de Groot Kim, Sonja

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the quality of preschool teachers' interactive conversations with three- and four-year-olds in two Head Start classrooms serving children from low-income families in the United States. Over a period of 20?weeks, 10 bi-weekly observations of conversations (totaling 15?h per classroom) were conducted in one small-group (Play…

  20. North Carolina Rural Adjustment Studies. A Study of Farm Families and Their Level of Living-Income Patterns in Watauga County, North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Glenn C.

    The purposes of this 1961 study were to identify attitudes and goals of farm people in low income areas and to relate these factors and selected social and personal factors to patterns of adjustment to economic and situational conditions. The sample for the study consisted of 296 farm families in Watauga County, North Carolina. Results of the…