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Sample records for age family status

  1. Interactive effects of family socioeconomic status and body mass index on depression in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fu-Gong; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Tung, Ho-Jui

    2012-01-01

    Depression is an important health problem in children and the onset of depression is occurring at a younger age than previously suggested. The associations of being overweight and low socioeconomic status in childhood depression have been well documented; nevertheless few studies have addressed the combined effects of socioeconomic status and body weight, with depression in school-age children. We intended to examine if the relationship between socioeconomic status and childhood depression could be modified by abnormal body weight. A cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 559 subjects from 29 elementary schools in Taiwan. A depression scale was used to determine the depression status. Children receiving governmental monetary assistance for after-school class were categorized as being in the lower socioeconomic group. Data for depression-related demographic characteristics, family and school variables were collected. Children in the lower socioeconomic status group have a higher prevalence of depression (23.5%) than those in higher socioeconomic status groups(16.4%). Being overweight demonstrates the opposite effect on depression risk in the different socioeconomic groups. In lower socioeconomic families, the risk of depression in overweight children is three times higher than that for normal weight children; whereas in higher socioeconomic families, overweight children have a lower risk for depression than normal weight children. We concluded that a qualitative interactive effect existed between being overweight and socioeconomic status with childhood depression. More attention should be paid to overweight children from lower socioeconomic status families to prevent depression in school-age children.

  2. Aging and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, C. Roberta

    1984-01-01

    Discusses emotional, social, medical, and nutritional needs of older people, and stresses the need for education of the families of the elderly and the need for a coordinated approach to service delivery to this population. In this way, maximum independence of the aged can be achieved. (NRJ)

  3. Age at diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders: is there an association with socioeconomic status and family self-education about autism?

    PubMed Central

    Hrdlicka, Michal; Vacova, Maria; Oslejskova, Hana; Gondzova, Veronika; Vadlejchova, Iveta; Kocourkova, Jana; Koutek, Jiri; Dudova, Iva

    2016-01-01

    Background The marked increase in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) prevalence has stimulated worldwide interest in exploring broader circumstances of care of autistic children, including the role of socioeconomic status (SES) and family information on autism. Methods Our sample comprised of 160 children who participated in a diagnostic examination focused on autism, and their parents who completed a simple descriptive questionnaire focusing on the family situation as well as family self-education about autism. The diagnosis of ASD was confirmed in 120 children (75% of the sample; 94 boys, 26 girls) with mean age 6.2±2.7 years (median 5.3, range 2.2–17.2 years). In 71 autistic patients (59.2%), a diagnosis of mental retardation was also established. Results The age at diagnosis of ASD correlated negatively with maternal (P=0.014) and paternal (P=0.002) ages at the time of birth of the ASD child as well as with paternal (P=0.002) and maternal (P=0.050) education. The age at diagnosis of ASD did not correlate with family SES. Mothers were significantly more active in seeking information on autism than fathers or both parents equally (80 vs 9 vs 28 cases, respectively; P<0.001). The mean number of information sources on autism was 3.5±1.8 with a range 0–9. The mean number of resources did not differ among the three SES groups (3.50 vs 3.49 vs 4.25, respectively; P=0.704). The mean number of sources did not correlate with the age at diagnosis of ASD. The most often used sources were the Internet (81.7%), followed by psychologists (48.3%), books (46.7%), and child and adolescent psychiatrists (43.3%). Conclusion An earlier diagnosis of ASD is associated with higher parental age at birth and higher parental education but not with family SES or number of family information sources. PMID:27462156

  4. BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation status and cancer family history of Danish women affected with multifocal or bilateral breast cancer at a young age

    PubMed Central

    Bergthorsson, J; Ejlertsen, B; Olsen, J; Borg, A; Nielsen, K; Barkardottir, R; Klausen, S; Mouridsen, H; Winther, K; Fenger, K; Niebuhr, A; Harboe, T; Niebuhr, E

    2001-01-01

    INTRODUCTION—A small fraction of breast cancer is the result of germline mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 cancer susceptibility genes. Mutation carriers frequently have a positive family history of breast and ovarian cancer, are often diagnosed at a young age, and may have a higher incidence of double or multiple primary breast tumours than breast cancer patients in general.
OBJECTIVES—To estimate the prevalence and spectrum of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations in young Danish patients affected with bilateral or multifocal breast cancer and to determine the relationship of mutation status to family history of cancer.
SUBJECTS—From the files of the Danish Breast Cancer Cooperative Group (DBCG), we selected 119 breast cancer patients diagnosed before the age of 46 years with either bilateral (n=59) or multifocal (n=61) disease.
METHODS—DNA from the subjects was screened for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations using single strand conformation analysis (SSCA) and the protein truncation test (PTT). Observed and expected cancer incidence in first degree relatives of the patients was estimated using data from the Danish Cancer Registry.
RESULTS—Twenty four mutation carriers were identified (20%), of whom 13 had a BRCA1 mutation and 11 carried a BRCA2 mutation. Two mutations in BRCA1 were found repeatedly in the material and accounted for seven of the 24 (29%) mutation carriers. The mutation frequency was about equal in patients with bilateral (22%) and multifocal breast cancer (18%). The incidence of breast and ovarian cancer was greatly increased in first degree relatives of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, but to a much lesser degree in relatives of non-carriers. An increased risk of cancer was also noted in brothers of non-carriers.
CONCLUSIONS—A relatively broad spectrum of germline mutations was observed in BRCA1 and BRCA2 and most of the mutations are present in other populations. Our results indicate that a diagnosis of bilateral and multifocal breast

  5. Age and Functional Health Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    gender such that energy level declined with older age for males, but energy level was lowest for females in the 35-49 age group. The correlations...psychosocial function," Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 185, 1963, pp. 914-919. Health Status 42 Koenig, H., "Depression and dysphoria among

  6. Associations between Family Communication Patterns, Sibling Closeness, and Adoptive Status

    PubMed Central

    Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the protective effect of family and sibling closeness on child adjustment, but fewer studies have investigated how closeness is promoted within families. Guided by Family Communication Patterns Theory, we tested the association between family communication and sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, and whether adoptive status moderated this relationship. Participating families included 616 adoptive and non-adoptive families with two adolescent children. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. Sibling closeness was highest in families that emphasized both conversation and conformity and lowest in families that emphasized only conversation or neither conversation nor conformity. Emotional and behavioral closeness were differentially associated with adoption status, sibling age, and sibling gender. Few moderating effects of adoption status were found. Post hoc analyses showed moderating effects of sibling gender composition. PMID:21984844

  7. Family income per capita, age, and smoking status are predictors of low fiber intake in residents of São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Victória Félix Dos; Sales, Cristiane Hermes; Vieira, Diva Aliete Santos; de Mello Fontanelli, Mariane; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesized that dietary total fiber intake may be less than recommendations and that the intake of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber may be associated with demographic, lifestyle, and socioeconomic factors. Data were drawn from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional population-based study. Adolescents, adults, and elderly persons living in São Paulo city were included. Demographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected from households. Dietary intake was measured using two 24-hour dietary recalls. All analyses were conducted based on the sample design of the study. The proportion of individuals who met the adequate intake (AI) for total fiber intake was examined, and foods that contributed to the intake of fiber and fractions were evaluated. The relationship of total, soluble, and insoluble fiber intake with demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle characteristics was determined using multiple linear regression models. A low proportion of individuals met the AI for dietary fiber. The foods that most contributed to total fiber intake were beans, French bread, and rice. Total fiber intake was negatively associated with former and current smokers and positively associated with family income per capita and age. Soluble fiber intake was negatively associated with current smokers and positively associated with female sex, age, and family income per capita. Insoluble fiber intake was negatively associated with former or current smokers and positively associated with age. In summary, residents in the city of São Paulo had a low fiber intake, and demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors were associated with dietary fiber and intake of its fractions.

  8. Theme: The Family in an Aging World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, George C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "The World Ages, the Family Ages" (Myers, Agree); "Grandparents as Parents in Developing Countries" (Tout); "Grandparents as Parents: The American Experience" (Minkler); "Playing for Informal Care" (Evers, Leichsenring); "Family Care in America" (Keigher, Stone); "Concerns for Carers: Family Support in Denmark" (Leeson, Tufte);…

  9. Healthy Family 2009: Assuring Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...

  10. Bone age, social deprivation, and single parent families.

    PubMed Central

    Cole, T J; Cole, A J

    1992-01-01

    It is well known that deprivation affects bone growth. The study was set up to investigate what aspects of deprivation are of greatest importance. Bone ages of 1593 child trauma patients aged 0-19 years from Middlesbrough General Hospital, Cleveland, were related to local authority ward indices of socioeconomic status (51 wards). After adjustment for chronological age and sex, the mean bone ages in each ward were highly significantly negatively associated with five ward indices of deprivation: the rate of single parent families, low care ownership, unemployment, rented housing, and overcrowding. There was a mean four month deficit in bone age among children living in wards with the highest single parent family rates. The inverse association between deprivation and bone age is unlikely to be causal throughout childhood, as older and younger children were affected to the same extent. However the bone age deficit could be caused by deprivation retarding skeletal maturation during a critical period in early life. PMID:1444529

  11. Genetic influence on family socioeconomic status and children's intelligence.

    PubMed

    Trzaskowski, Maciej; Harlaar, Nicole; Arden, Rosalind; Krapohl, Eva; Rimfeld, Kaili; McMillan, Andrew; Dale, Philip S; Plomin, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Environmental measures used widely in the behavioral sciences show nearly as much genetic influence as behavioral measures, a critical finding for interpreting associations between environmental factors and children's development. This research depends on the twin method that compares monozygotic and dizygotic twins, but key aspects of children's environment such as socioeconomic status (SES) cannot be investigated in twin studies because they are the same for children growing up together in a family. Here, using a new technique applied to DNA from 3000 unrelated children, we show significant genetic influence on family SES, and on its association with children's IQ at ages 7 and 12. In addition to demonstrating the ability to investigate genetic influence on between-family environmental measures, our results emphasize the need to consider genetics in research and policy on family SES and its association with children's IQ.

  12. Aging Parents as Family Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Jan S.; Becker, Marion

    1988-01-01

    Investigated extent to which aging parents experience stress when problems arise in lives of their adult children, and ways in which they serve as resources to their children in need. Findings from 29 couples over age 60 revealed that mothers experienced significant stress resulting from adult children's problems, whereas fathers experienced…

  13. Structural aging program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Graves, H.L. III

    1994-12-31

    Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure.

  14. Structural aging program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1995-04-01

    Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information of the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors of aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure.

  15. Aging and Family Life: A Decade Review

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarize and critically evaluate the major empirical, conceptual, and theoretical directions that studies of aging families have taken during the first decade of the 21st century. The field has benefited from an expanded perspective based on four overarching themes: (a) complexity in emotional relations, (b) diversity in family structures and households, (c) interdependence of family roles and functions, and (d) patterns and outcomes of caregiving. Although research on aging families has advanced theory and applied innovative statistical techniques, the literature has fallen short in fully representing diverse populations and in applying the broadest set of methodological tools available. We discuss these and other frontier areas of scholarship in light of the aging of baby boomers and their families. PMID:22930600

  16. Pediatric Pulmonologists' Perceptions of Family Socioeconomic Status in Asthma Care.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Sara B; Gordon, Brian J; Jennings, Jacky M; Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Adler, Nancy E; Okelo, Sande O

    2014-09-01

    Background: Physicians' assumptions about patients' socioeconomic status (SES) have been shown to influence clinical decision making in adult patients. The goal of this study is to assess the factors associated with pediatric pulmonologists' (PPs') subjective ratings of their patients' SES, and whether these factors differ by patient race/ethnicity. Methods: Parents of children with asthma (n=171) presenting for pulmonary care reported their SES using the MacArthur Subjective SES 10-rung ladder. The PPs (n=7) also estimated each family's SES. Two-level linear regression models with random intercepts (level 1: PP's SES ratings; level 2: PPs) were used to assess the predictors of PP-estimated family SES. The analyses were then stratified by race/ethnicity. Results: Parental educational, insurance type, age, and race/ethnic background were associated with PPs' SES ratings. Black/African American families were rated lower than white families, accounting for other demographic factors (b=-0.60, p<0.01), but families of other races/ethnicities were not (b=-0.10, p=0.29). Even when comparing families with the same level of parental education, black/African American families, but not families of other backgrounds, were judged to have lower SES than white families (from 0.77 rungs lower among parents with some college, to 1.2 rungs lower among parents with high school or less; both p<0.05). Conclusions: Racial differences in PPs' ability to estimate families' subjective SES in asthma care may be a function of unconscious societal biases about race and class. Collecting subjective SES from families and PPs during the office visit could facilitate discussions about material and psychosocial needs and resources that influence treatment effectiveness.

  17. Behavior problems of clinic children: relation to parental marital status, age and sex of child.

    PubMed

    Brady, C P; Bray, J H; Zeeb, L

    1986-07-01

    Behavior problems of 703 children seen in a clinical setting were examined for interactions between and effects of family type (i.e., parental marital status) and age and sex of child. Significant differences were found based on family type, with children of separated, divorced, and remarried parents having more problems. Expected interactions between marital status and age and sex of child were not obtained, although results support prior research with regard to the effects of age and sex.

  18. THE SCHULHOF FAMILY: SOLVING THE AGE PUZZLE

    SciTech Connect

    Vokrouhlický, David; Ďurech, Josef; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Vraštil, Jan; Krugly, Yurij N.; Inasaridze, Raguli Ya.; Ayvasian, Vova; Zhuzhunadze, Vasili; Pray, Donald; Husárik, Marek; Pollock, Joseph T.; Nesvorný, David

    2016-03-15

    The Schulhof family, a tight cluster of small asteroids around the central main belt body (2384) Schulhof, belongs to a so far rare class of very young families (estimated ages less than 1 Myr). Characterization of these asteroid clusters may provide important insights into the physics of the catastrophic disruption of their parent body. The case of the Schulhof family has been up to now complicated by the existence of two proposed epochs of its origin. In this paper, we first use our own photometric observations, as well as archival data, to determine the rotation rate and spin axis orientation of the largest fragment (2384) Schulhof. Our data also allow us to better constrain the absolute magnitude of this asteroid, and thus also improve the determination of its geometric albedo. Next, using the up-to-date catalog of asteroid orbits, we perform a new search of smaller members in the Schulhof family, increasing their number by 50%. Finally, the available data are used to access Schulhof's family age anew. We now find that the younger of the previously proposed two ages of this family is not correct, resulting from a large orbital uncertainty of single-opposition members. Our new runs reveal a single age solution of about 800 kyr with a realistic uncertainty of 200 kyr.

  19. Aging and Family Life: A Decade Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann

    2010-01-01

    In this review, we summarize and critically evaluate the major empirical, conceptual, and theoretical directions that studies of aging families have taken during the first decade of the 21st century. The field has benefited from an expanded perspective based on four overarching themes: (a) complexity in emotional relations, (b) diversity in family…

  20. Work and Family: 1992. Status Report and Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galinsky, Ellen

    Many parents are currently struggling to balance job and family responsibilities. Such attempts bring about changes in work and individual attitudes. This report presents the status of work and family in 1992, as well as the nature and direction of workplace changes to accommodate families. The report indicates that large United States companies…

  1. Gender, family, and the nutritional status of children in three culturally contrasting states of India.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Paula; Matthews, Zoë; Hinde, Andrew

    2002-09-01

    This paper has three main aims: to measure the clustering of children with low weight for age z-scores within families, to establish whether significant differences exist by gender in weight for age z-scores, and to demonstrate whether the presence of a mother-in-law in the household has any significant impact on the nutritional status of young children. Regression modelling is used to examine the weight for age z-scores of children under the age of four years in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh using the 1992-93 Indian National Family Health Survey data. Random effects models measure the clustering of children with low weight for age z-scores in families, controlling for a number of other family factors. Our findings do not reveal significant gender differences in weight for age z-scores. Although little variation was found between family structures in the nutritional status of children, there were significant differences between families after controlling for family type. This suggests that there are differences between families that cannot be explained by a cross-sectional demographic survey. The evidence from this work suggests that nutrition programs need to adopt community nutrition interventions that aim resources at young children from families where children with low weight for age z-scores are found to cluster. However, there is a need for further inter-disciplinary research to collect data from families on behavioural factors and resource allocation in order that we might better understand why some families are more prone to having children with low weight for age z-scores. The diversity in the significant covariates between the three states in the models has shown the need for Indian nutrition programs to adopt state-specific approaches to tackling malnutrition.

  2. Family therapy in Brazil: current status.

    PubMed

    Picon, Felipe

    2012-04-01

    In the last three decades there has been a noticeable trend in the redefinition of the nuclear family in Brazil. A recent increase in the rates of divorces and paradoxically also in the rates of marriages, the legalization of same-sex unions and adoption by these couples, and the phenomenon of teenage pregnancy are some of the aspects that reflect on the current Brazilian family. This review highlights these changes and describes how family therapists in Brazil are facing the challenge of assisting these families, in a continental-sized country with uneven distribution of training courses and healthcare assistance.

  3. Current status of familial gastrointestinal polyposis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ioan; Gurzu, Simona; Turdean, Gligore Sabin

    2015-01-01

    Because of the rarity of familial gastrointestinal cancer-predisposing syndromes, their exploration in literature is not extensive. In this review, an update of the clinicopathological and molecular criteria of gastrointestinal familial polyposis syndromes with potential malignant transformation is performed. In addition, a guide for screening and surveillance was synthesized and a distribution of gene mutations according to the specific syndromes and geographic distribution was included. The following inherited polyposes syndromes were analyzed: familial adenomatous polyposis, the hamartomatous familial polyposes (Juvenile polyposis, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Cowden syndrome, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, hereditary mixed polyposis syndrome, Gorlin syndrome, Birt-Hogg-Dube syndrome, neurofibromatosis type I and multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome 2B), Li-Fraumeni syndrome, and MUTYH-associated adenomatous polyposis. For proper medical care, subspecialization of gastroenterologists, pathologists, and genticists in the field of familial diseases should be introduced in the medical curriculum. PMID:26600934

  4. Family Sponsorship and Late-Age Immigration in Aging America: Revised and Expanded Estimates of Chained Migration

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Stacie; Tienda, Marta

    2013-01-01

    We use the Immigrants Admitted to the United States (micro-data) supplemented with special tabulations from the Department of Homeland Security to examine how family reunification impacts the age composition of new immigrant cohorts since 1980. We develop a family migration multiplier measure for the period 1981 to 2009 that improves on prior studies by including immigrants granted legal status under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and relaxing unrealistic assumptions required by synthetic cohort measures. Results show that every 100 initiating immigrants admitted between 1981–85 sponsored an average of 260 family members; the comparable figure for initiating immigrants for the 1996–2000 cohort is 345 family members. Furthermore, the number of family migrants ages 50 and over rose from 44 to 74 per 100 initiating migrants. The discussion considers the health and welfare implications of late-age immigration in a climate of growing fiscal restraint and an aging native population. PMID:24415816

  5. Family Sponsorship and Late-Age Immigration in Aging America: Revised and Expanded Estimates of Chained Migration.

    PubMed

    Carr, Stacie; Tienda, Marta

    2013-12-01

    We use the Immigrants Admitted to the United States (micro-data) supplemented with special tabulations from the Department of Homeland Security to examine how family reunification impacts the age composition of new immigrant cohorts since 1980. We develop a family migration multiplier measure for the period 1981 to 2009 that improves on prior studies by including immigrants granted legal status under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and relaxing unrealistic assumptions required by synthetic cohort measures. Results show that every 100 initiating immigrants admitted between 1981-85 sponsored an average of 260 family members; the comparable figure for initiating immigrants for the 1996-2000 cohort is 345 family members. Furthermore, the number of family migrants ages 50 and over rose from 44 to 74 per 100 initiating migrants. The discussion considers the health and welfare implications of late-age immigration in a climate of growing fiscal restraint and an aging native population.

  6. Current status of family intervention science.

    PubMed

    Diamond, G; Siqueland, L

    2001-07-01

    Looking at the field as a whole through metaanalysis, Shadish et al concluded (based on 162 studies) that marital and family therapies were significantly more effective than no treatment and at least as effective as other forms of psychotherapy. Although these reviews and others are positive, individual studies raise many questions. For instance, based on research findings, family treatments increasingly have become standard care for patients with schizophrenia. It remains unclear what degree and type of family involvement is needed for which patients at which stage of their disorder. In the area of anxiety and depression, there are too few studies to make any strong conclusion. Although investigators such as Barrett, Cobham, and Diamond have produced some positive results, the Lewinsohn and Clark studies fail to demonstrate the added benefit of family involvement. Although Brent's study showed CBT to reduce depression faster, family therapy and supportive therapy did just as well in the long run, and family conflict was a strong risk factor for relapse. In the area of anorexia, Russell and Robins produced strong results from family interventions, whereas Geist found no difference between different types of family interventions. Family treatments for obesity have been inconsistent. In a metaanalysis of 41 studies, parental involvement did not contribute significantly to outcomes. In the Epstein study, however, which included 5- and 10-year follow-up, the results of family intervention were impressive. Although many of these studies can be cited for various methodologic flaws, the most consistent problem is that sample sizes are too small to detect difference between two or more active treatments. The most consistent findings (and most well-done, large studies) that support the efficacy of family-based interventions are done with externalizing problems. Work groups led by Patterson, Eisenstadt, Webster-Stratton, Alexander, and Henggeler all have produced impressive

  7. Family meal frequency and weight status among adolescents: cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations.

    PubMed

    Fulkerson, Jayne A; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Hannan, Peter J; Story, Mary

    2008-11-01

    This study examined cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal associations between the frequency of family meals and overweight status (>85th percentile for age and gender) in a large, diverse population of adolescents (n = 2,516). The population included two cohorts (midadolescence to young adulthood, n = 1,710, and early adolescence to midadolescence, n = 806). Logistic regression models tested cross-sectional and longitudinal (1999-2004) associations between family meal frequency and overweight status. Two sets of models are presented: (i) models adjusted only for baseline demographic characteristics and (ii) models also adjusted for physical activity, sedentary behaviors, and energy intake. Longitudinal models adjusted for baseline overweight status. Although significant inverse associations between family meal frequency and overweight status were observed for early adolescent females in all cross-sectional models (P < 0.001), longitudinal associations were not significant. Neither cross-sectional nor longitudinal associations were significant for males of either cohort and older females in any models. Young adolescent females who do not eat meals with their families may be at risk for overweight; however, the increased risk may not persist over a 5-year period. Eating family meals during high school may not protect against overweight during young adulthood. Although previous longitudinal research has suggested significant dietary and psychosocial benefits related to family meal frequency, the weight-related benefits of family meals may be more complex and deserving of further study, including an examination of the quality and quantity of food consumed at family meals.

  8. Social, Academic, and Behavioral Competence of Depressed Children: Relationship to Diagnostic Status and Family Interaction Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Elizabeth Burney; And Others

    1997-01-01

    The social adjustment and academic performance of 15 children hospitalized for depression were compared to 14 children with schizophrenia and 20 normal children, ages 7 to 14. Analyses reveal an association between children's adaptive functioning and both diagnostic status and family transactional processes. (SLD)

  9. Relationships among the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the perceived health status, family support and life satisfaction of older Korean adults and the relationships among them. This study was designed to be a descriptive correlation study using questionnaire. Subjects were 246 older people who were over 65 years of age in Seoul and Daegu metropolitan city, Korea. Measures were the Cornell Medical Index-Simple Korean Form to measure the perceived health status, the Family Support Instrument to measure the family support and the Standard Life Satisfaction Instrument for Korean people to measure the life satisfaction. Perceived health state was worse as average 3.3, family support was good as average 3.4 and life satisfaction was low as average 3.1. There were statistically significant positive correlations among perceived health state, family support and life satisfaction and between family support and life satisfaction. The predictors of life satisfaction in elderly were family support, age, monthly allowance and perceived health state. These factors explained 37.5% of the total variance. The major influencing factor was family support. This cross-sectional study provides preliminary evidence that to develop nursing strategy to increase family support of older Korean adults is needed.

  10. Families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture

  11. [A study on family types and the employment status of married women in Japan].

    PubMed

    Nakano, E; Ikenoue, M; Ishikawa, A

    1982-04-01

    Japanese society post World War II has experienced a largescale transformation in the field of woman's lifestyle, especially in women's labor force participation and role within the household. Many of the studies have pointed out that family structure has changed significantly from being an extended family to becoming a nuclear family and that women's labor force participation rates have increased during middle age. The aims of this study are to identify such general statements and to find out a variation of women's lifestyle and family structure among subpopulations by using sample survey data. We have conducted The Women's Life Style Survey dated June 1980. Samples have been drawn from married women ages 20-59 among 6 Japanese subpopulations. It has been recognized that 2 type of family structure among the middle age population exists in urban and rural areas. There are simple family structures as defined by the nuclear family and there are more complex family structures. The 1st typically appears in urban areas where grown children establish their own independent households. The 2nd, the extended family, is seen typically in the rural areas where the proportion of households with parents is significantly high. It means that 1 of the grown children in the family at least lives with parents after marriage. In looking at the labor force participation for married women, the lowest rates are seen for those age 25-34 and relatively high participation rates for those age 35 and over. The highest labor participation rates appeared among women age 40-44 and 45-49. Age pattern of labor participation is strongly related to the stage of the wife's life cycle as they move away from childbearing and childrearing. The transformed employment status appears mainly in married women in urban areas with a nuclear family structure. On the other hand, higher labor rates of participation appeared in the rural areas where most of the women belong to the household with parents. Moreover

  12. Societal Literacy and the Status of the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Gary R.; Kezis, Mindy

    1980-01-01

    The relationship of status of the aged to societal literacy in a sample of 122 cultures appears spurious because of effects of variables indexing societal complexity. Conclusions are: societal literacy has no independent effect on status of the aged; and the overall relationship between the two appears curvilinear. (Author)

  13. The psychosocial status of the family members of rheumatoid arthritis patients in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sang Wan; Ha, You Jung; Kang, Eun Ha; Lee, Yun Jong; Song, Yeong Wook

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the psychosocial aspect of the family members of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), we conducted a population-based analysis to examine the psychosocial characteristics of family members of RA patients in comparison with the general population. From the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey dataset (KNHANES V) (2010-2012), we identified 363 RA patients and selected family members of these patients who were aged 20 years or older (n = 367). The control group was randomly sampled from members of families without RA patients and matched for sex and age (n = 1101). We compared the psychosocial characteristics of family members of RA patients with the control group. Additionally, serial conditional logistic regression models were performed to evaluate the factors that affect psychosocial status of the RA family members, after adjusting for covariates. No significant differences were found in socioeconomic status between the two groups. For psychological factors, stress (85.8 vs 74.7 %, p < 0.001) and depression (7.9 vs 3.3 %, p < 0.001) were more common in the family members of RA patients. The presence of a RA patient in the family showed a positive association with stress [odds ratio (OR) 2.07; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.48-2.88, p < 0.001] and depression (OR 2.59, CI 1.55-4.32, p < 0.001), after adjusting for socioeconomic status. Our data show that the family members of RA patients have an increased prevalence of stress and depression. Physicians who treat RA patients should also consider the needs and the burden of family members.

  14. Family Socioeconomic Status, Parent Expectations, and a Child's Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stull, Judith C.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how a family's socioeconomic status (SES) affects a child's educational achievement and differentiates the direct effects of SES on these experiences from the indirect ones as they are mediated by the school. This distinction is an important one as it is in the latter realm where social policy can have an impact. The data…

  15. Supermarket Speak: Increasing Talk among Low-Socioeconomic Status Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridge, Katherine E.; Weisberg, Deena Skolnick; Ilgaz, Hande; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathryn A.; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick

    2015-01-01

    Children from low-socioeconomic status (SES) families often fall behind their middle-class peers in early language development. But interventions designed to support their language skills are often costly and labor-intensive. This study implements an inexpensive and subtle language intervention aimed at sparking parent-child interaction in a place…

  16. Service Utilization for Latino Children in Mixed-Status Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Qingwen; Brabeck, Kalina

    2012-01-01

    In the aftermath of 1996 welfare and immigration reforms, service utilization is particularly challenging for mixed-status families in which U.S.-born children live with undocumented parents. This study used both qualitative interview data and quantitative survey data to document Latino immigrant parents' service utilization for their U.S.-born…

  17. A New Look at Family Migration and Women's Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Paul; Feng, Zhiqiang; Gayle, Vernon

    2009-01-01

    Family migration has a negative impact on women's employment status. Using longitudinal data from the British Household Panel Survey (3,617 women; 22,354 women/wave observations) we consider two neglected issues. First, instead of relying on the distance moved to distinguish employment-related migrations, we use information on the reason for…

  18. Marital status and mortality: Does family structure in childhood matter?

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Han; Kim, Jibum; Lee, Min-Ah

    2016-06-01

    It is well known that marital status is significantly associated with mortality risk. Little is known, however, regarding whether and how the effects of marital status are moderated by one's own family structure in childhood. The purposes of this study are to examine whether marital status (i.e., family structure in adulthood) and living with both biological parents in childhood (i.e., family structure in childhood) are associated with mortality risk, and whether and how the effects of marital status vary depending on family structure in childhood and gender. We analyze the risk of death in five waves of the General Social Survey (GSS) from 1994 through 2002 after linking the GSS data to death certificate data from the National Death Index through 2008. The findings indicate that being widowed increases the risk of mortality, while living with both parents in childhood lowers it. Interestingly, analysis of the interaction between marital status and family structure in childhood reveals that the disadvantage of widowhood in terms of mortality is significantly stronger for those who lived with both parents in childhood than for those who did not. Subsample analysis by gender shows that the moderating effect of living with both parents is largely equal across men and women, though statistically more robust for men. These findings suggest that living with both parents during childhood may increase vulnerability to marital disruptions due to unwanted life events such as spousal loss. Childhood advantages, ironically, may form more stressful contexts of spousal loss by lowering one's adaptability or immunity to adulthood hardships, especially when the hardships in adulthood are characteristically opposite from the childhood advantages.

  19. Age Trends in the Experience of Family Discord in Single-Mother Families across Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dworkin, Jodi B.; Larson, Reed

    2001-01-01

    Utilized the Family Environment Scale and the Experience Sampling Method to evaluate how family discord was related to adolescents' age, in 101 single-mother families. Mothers' reports of overall discord decreased across adolescence. In immediate interactions, boys reported feeling more anger towards their mothers with age, while girls reported…

  20. Marital Status and Depressive Symptoms over Time: Age and Gender Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPierre, Tracey A.

    2009-01-01

    Guided by a life course perspective, this study investigated the contemporaneous and longitudinal relationships between marital status and depressive symptoms for men and women, and examined if age moderates these relationships. Data came from 9,507 individuals who responded to the first two waves of the National Survey of Families and Households.…

  1. The Succession of Lineage Roles as Families Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Studied the succession of roles adopted from generation to generation as patterned in relation to the family life course, changes in health and dependency of various generations and factors such as family size, birth order, and sex. Proposes a conceptual framework for an analysis of aging and the family. (Author)

  2. Father Involvement and Coparenting Behavior: Parents’ Nontraditional Beliefs and Family Earner Status as Moderators

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Catherine K.; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated relations between father involvement in caregiving and play and coparenting behavior using self-report and observational data from 80 two-parent families of preschool-aged children, and examined parents’ nontraditional beliefs about fathers’ roles and family earner status as moderators of these relations. Results indicated that greater father involvement in caregiving and play was associated with less observed undermining coparenting behavior in dual-earner families. Conversely, greater father involvement in caregiving was associated with less perceived supportive and greater perceived undermining coparenting behavior in single-earner families. Father involvement in play was not related to coparenting behavior among single-earner families. This study highlights the importance of considering parental employment patterns and the multidimensional nature of fathering behavior when studying fathering and coparenting. PMID:22328861

  3. A Family-Oriented Policy and Treatment Program for Female Juvenile Status Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druckman, Joan M.

    1979-01-01

    Families of female juvenile status offenders were administered the Moos Family Environment Scale. The families could be described as moderately cohesive and adaptive. Results suggest that the dysfunctioning family may not be the primary cause of status offenses and that family-oriented treatment is possibly not the choice treatment for status…

  4. Age at migration, family instability, and timing of sexual onset.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Rachel E; Tienda, Marta; Adserà, Alícia

    2017-03-01

    This study builds on and extends previous research on nativity variations in adolescent health and risk behavior by addressing three questions: (1) whether and how generational status and age at migration are associated with timing of sexual onset among U.S. adolescents; (2) whether and how family instability mediates associations between nativity and sexual debut; and (3) whether and how these associations vary by gender. We find that first- and second-generation immigrant youth initiate sexual activity later than native youth. Foreign-born youth who migrate after the start of adolescence exhibit the latest sexual onset; boys' sexual behavior is particularly sensitive to age at migration. Parental union stability is protective for first- and second-generation youth, especially boys; however, instability in co-residence with parents accelerates sexual debut for foreign-born girls, and dilutes protections from parental marital stability. Use of a non-English language at home delays sexual onset for immigrant girls, but not boys.

  5. Women's status and family planning: results from a focus group survey.

    PubMed

    Gu, B; Xie, Z

    1994-02-01

    Focus group discussions were conducted in China's Pingluo County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Sihui County, Guangdong Province among reproductive age women with only daughters, mothers-in-law, unmarried women aged 23 years and older, and women business persons and cadres. The topic of discussion was the status of women, gender differences in employment, education, marriage, family life, childbearing, and elderly care in counties that have above average fertility rates. There were also several groups of men, mixed gender groups with husbands working away from home, local family planning workers, and rural intellectuals. The findings showed that there is more access to education for girls and a higher employment rate for young women. Daughters receive education to the highest level affordable. Enrollments are equal for boys and girls. Women's employment is not challenged by husbands, and work is available in a variety of locations. Business ownership and operation is encouraged. By middle age, women generally do not work in enterprises, but at home or on contracted farmland. Equal rights within the family are generally accepted. Husbands turn over their salary to wives for family expenses. Girls receive the same care after birth as boys. Women's status is improving. Improvements in social status have also involved sacrifices. Women complained that the workload on the farm has increased with adult males away working in cities. Women bear the burden of family planning, including in some cases side effects from oral pills and recovery from sterilizations. One women remarked that there were burdens in bearing children, taking oral pills, having IUD insertions, and having induced abortions; men should bear 50% of the responsibility. The burden of women without sons is harder, and women may also feel inferior as the last in their family line. One family with 6 daughters accepted the fine of RMB 7000 yuan for having another child, which turned out to be a son. One

  6. All under One Roof: Mixed-Status Families in an Era of Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fix, Michael; Zimmerman, Wendy

    2001-01-01

    Documents the prevalence of mixed immigration status families, discussing immigration and citizenship policies that drive their formation. Population data show that nearly 1 in 10 families with children is of mixed citizenship status, and 75 percent of children in immigrant families are citizens. Identifies challenges that mixed status families…

  7. Quality of Family Context or Sibling Status? Influences on Cognitive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freijo, Enrique B. Arranz; Oliva, Alfredo; Olabarrieta, Fernando; Martin, Juan Luis; Manzano, Ainhoa; Richards, Martin P. M.

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence of socioeconomic status, quality of family context and sibling status on cognitive development in a sample of 551 five-year-old children. The regression analyses confirmed the predictive value of socioeconomic status and quality of family context on cognitive development. The quality of family context mediates the…

  8. Family characteristics have limited ability to predict weight status of young children.

    PubMed

    Gray, Virginia B; Byrd, Sylvia H; Cossman, Jeralynn S; Chromiak, Joseph; Cheek, Wanda K; Jackson, Gary B

    2007-07-01

    The ability of (a) family characteristics (marital status, income, race, and education), (b) parental control over child's food intake, and (c) parental belief in causes of overweight to predict weight status of children was assessed. Parents/caretakers of elementary school-aged children were surveyed to determine attitudes related to childhood nutrition and overweight. Anthropometric measurements were obtained from children to determine weight status (n=169 matched surveys and measurements). chi(2) tests and nested logistic regression models were used to determine relationships between children's weight status and family characteristics, parental control, and parental belief in the primary cause of overweight. Low household income was an important predictor of overweight; marital status and race added no further explanatory power to the model. Parental control was not a significant predictor of overweight. Parental belief in the primary cause of overweight in children (diet vs physical activity) was significantly related to children's weight; however, it was not significant after controlling for income. Low household income relates strongly to increased childhood weight status; therefore, school and government policies should promote an environment that supports affordable, safe, and feasible opportunities for healthful nutrition and physical activity, particularly for low-income audiences.

  9. Status of motor operated valves aging assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Motor operated valves (MOVs) have a long history of operational problems in nuclear power plants. Resolution of MOV problems in the past has tended to focus on symptoms rather than root cause. Although there has been more attention focused recently on identifying root causes, problems with valve operational readiness resulting from aging and service wear still persist. In addition, weaknesses in the currently used design equations for sizing of MOVs, identified in tests carried out by industry and confirmed in the recent NRC gate valve blowdown testing, have re-enforced the need for improved in-situ methods for determining the operational readiness of MOVs, whether from aging and service wear or from improper installation and maintenance. The objective of the MOV aging assessment is to evaluate and recommend practical methods for insuring operational readiness of safety-related MOVs under all anticipated operating conditions.

  10. Genetic link between family socioeconomic status and children's educational achievement estimated from genome-wide SNPs

    PubMed Central

    Krapohl, E; Plomin, R

    2016-01-01

    One of the best predictors of children's educational achievement is their family's socioeconomic status (SES), but the degree to which this association is genetically mediated remains unclear. For 3000 UK-representative unrelated children we found that genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms could explain a third of the variance of scores on an age-16 UK national examination of educational achievement and half of the correlation between their scores and family SES. Moreover, genome-wide polygenic scores based on a previously published genome-wide association meta-analysis of total number of years in education accounted for ~3.0% variance in educational achievement and ~2.5% in family SES. This study provides the first molecular evidence for substantial genetic influence on differences in children's educational achievement and its association with family SES. PMID:25754083

  11. Genetic link between family socioeconomic status and children's educational achievement estimated from genome-wide SNPs.

    PubMed

    Krapohl, E; Plomin, R

    2016-03-01

    One of the best predictors of children's educational achievement is their family's socioeconomic status (SES), but the degree to which this association is genetically mediated remains unclear. For 3000 UK-representative unrelated children we found that genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphisms could explain a third of the variance of scores on an age-16 UK national examination of educational achievement and half of the correlation between their scores and family SES. Moreover, genome-wide polygenic scores based on a previously published genome-wide association meta-analysis of total number of years in education accounted for ~3.0% variance in educational achievement and ~2.5% in family SES. This study provides the first molecular evidence for substantial genetic influence on differences in children's educational achievement and its association with family SES.

  12. Family Extrusion of the Aged Patient: Family Homeostasis and Sexual Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael B.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Case studies demonstrate that when chronic sexual conflict constitutes a factor in family homeostasis, nursing home placement of the aged ill is a likely event when either there is a shift in family dynamics due to death or illness of a key member or the aged becomes overtly psychiatrically disabled. (Author)

  13. XTX8003 Aging Study Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, M.; Coleman, K.; Foster, P.; Klassen, S.; Loyola, V.

    1999-03-08

    XTX8003 is an extrudable explosive composed of 80% PETN and 20% Sylgard 182 (polydimethylsiloxane). Knowledge of the aging characteristics of XTX8003 is desired to understand the relationship between chemical and physical changes and performance. This understanding will allow improved assessment of the current state and also projected lifetime of components that contain this material. A literature search revealed few published studies of the aging behavior of XTX8003 or a chemically similar material, LX-13. Two studies showed that detonation velocity had decreased after storage at 70 C for two years. Another study showed a 30% decrease in target penetration by conical shaped charge after 12 weeks of storage at 82 C. Only one study was found which evaluated chemical and physical changes, but no information was available to correlate performance degradation to chemical and physical changes in the material. In summary, the major changes seen in aged XTX8003 are in detonation velocity and particle morphology, but particle morphology does not appear to be the determining factor in the loss of detonation velocity. The study will continue at least 24 months, at which time the data will be evaluated to determine how best to continue with the remaining test samples.

  14. Ideal ages for family formation among immigrants in Europe.

    PubMed

    Holland, Jennifer A; de Valk, Helga A G

    2013-12-01

    This paper investigates ideal ages for marriage and parenthood among immigrants from over 160 countries origins living in 25 European countries. Ideals regarding the timing of family formation are indicative of how individuals perceive the family life course and provide insight into family-life aspirations and the meaning attached to these transitions. Using data from the European Social Survey (Round 3, 2006; N=6330) and a cross-classified multilevel modeling approach, we investigate associations between the influences of the dominant family formation timing patterns in countries of origin and settlement, individual-level characteristics, and ideal ages. We make innovative use of a standard demographic measure, the singulate mean age of marriage, to measure family formation patterns. Results suggest that residential context influences are associated with the timing ideals of all migrants, but origin influences seem to be associated with the ideals of only the most recent migrants.

  15. Families with School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell

    2011-01-01

    Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…

  16. [Community Health Agent: status adapted with Family Health Program reality?].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Karina Tonini; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba; Arcieri, Renato Moreira; Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    This study analyses the status and work reality of Community Health Agents, with the purpose of contributing to the improvement of the Brazilian Health System (SUS) in small cities. It was discussed aspects related to their participation in the team of the Family Health Program (PSF) and their interaction with the community. It was observed a lack of motivation and experience, which compromises the quality of Agents performance in the community. It is known that these findings are reflex and consequence of an established context. It is necessary the team rethink their practice, specially the managers, having always as a fundament the principles that guide the SUS and PSF.

  17. Work, Health, and Family at Older Ages in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Raymo, James M.; Liang, Jersey; Kobayashi, Erika; Sugihara, Yoko; Fukaya, Taro

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate ways in which the relationship between health and labor force exit at older ages is moderated by family characteristics. Using two waves of data from a national sample of older Japanese men collected 1999 and 2002, we estimate logistic regression models for labor force exit beyond age 63 as a function of health change, family characteristics, and their interactions. We confirm that poor health is strongly associated with labor force exit and find evidence that moderating influences of family context depend upon the level of health. However, results are only partially consistent with hypotheses that the relationship between health and the likelihood of labor force exit should be stronger for (a) those with good health and family incentives to exit the labor force and (b) those with poor health and family incentives to remain in the labor force. PMID:23082037

  18. Birth Order, Age-Spacing, IQ Differences, and Family Relations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfouts, Jane H.

    1980-01-01

    Very close age spacing was an obstacle to high academic performance for later borns. In family relations and self-esteem, first borns scored better and performed in school as well as their potentially much more able younger siblings, regardless of age spacing. (Author)

  19. Mixed-Age Interactions in Family Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Loraine; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examined how preschoolers' experiences with mixed-age peers in family child care homes affect development. Found that interaction with younger and same-age peers was associated with less complex social and cognitive play and lower receptive language scores. Interaction with older peers was related to more complex cognitive play. The setting…

  20. Socio-economic status and family structure differences in early trajectories of child adjustment: Individual and neighbourhood effects.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Midouhas, Emily; Ruddy, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of single-parent family status and high parental socio-economic status (SES) on the trajectories of children's emotional/behavioural adjustment in early-to-middle childhood (ages 3-7 years). We also assessed whether these family characteristics interact with the equivalent neighbourhood characteristics of shares of single-parent families and high-SES adults in predicting these trajectories. Using data on 9850 children in England participating in the Millennium Cohort Study, we found that family status and parental SES predicted children's trajectories of adjustment. Even after controlling for these family factors and key child and parent characteristics, the neighbourhood shares of high-SES adults and single-parent families were related (negatively and positively, respectively) to child problem behaviour. Importantly, children of low-SES parents in neighbourhoods with a high concentration of high-SES adults had fewer emotional symptoms than their counterparts in areas with fewer high-SES adults. Surprisingly, the adverse effect of single-parent family status on child hyperactivity was attenuated in areas with a higher share of single-parent families.

  1. [Late middle-aged schizophrenic patient in the family (social-psychological problems)].

    PubMed

    Druz', V F

    1984-01-01

    Clinical and sociopsychological studies of 28 families have shown that the familial status and role of elderly schizophrenics are usually higher than in young patients which depends not only on the clinical course, the age at the onset of the disease and its duration but also on the structure of the family and on how well the relatives understand the nature and manifestations of disease. On reaching middle age schizophrenic males become more adaptive in the family due to the fact that in the course of the disease their psychopathlike and asocial behaviour becomes less marked. Females both young and elderly usually have a higher status although in the course of disease it tends to show a gradual lowering. The field of communication becomes more definite and is typically restricted to the spouse or daughter. Depending on the dominant factors of relations, three types of families have been identified: integrated, partially integrated and disintegrated. Disintegrated families are less common as compared with integrated ones.

  2. Family secrets: disclosure of HIV status among gay men with HIV/AIDS to the family of origin.

    PubMed

    Kadushin, G

    2000-01-01

    A mail survey obtained a sample of 117 gay men with HIV/AIDS to examine levels of disclosure of HIV status to the family of origin and the association between disclosure and levels of support and barriers to support from the family. Among men with HIV there was a significant difference in knowledge of HIV status between family members such that mothers and siblings were more likely to be knowledgeable than fathers. For the total sample disclosure of HIV status was associated with higher levels of support from all family members and with a lower level of barrier to support from mothers and fathers. Implications for practice are discussed.

  3. Marital status and age at natural menopause: considering pheromonal influence.

    PubMed

    Sievert, L L; Waddle, D; Canali, K

    2001-01-01

    Married women generally report a later mean age at menopause. The results reported here, from a study carried out in Greene County, New York, are no exception. Married and widowed women report a later mean age at natural menopause compared to single and divorced women (P < 0.05). To better understand the relationship between marital status and age at menopause, possible mechanistic and confounding variables are examined, in particular parity, sexual activity, smoking habits, level of education, and income. Parity and income 10 years prior to interview are significant factors, along with marital status, that explain part of the variation in age at natural menopause. An alternative explanation is the pheromonal influence of a male in the household. This would explain the consistency of results across populations. This pilot study supports further biochemical investigation.

  4. Defining the Flora Family: Reflectance Properties and Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykhuis, Melissa J.; Molnar, Lawrence A.; Van Kooten, Samuel J; Greenberg, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The Flora family resides in the densely populated inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the ν6 secular resonance and the Jupiter 3:1 mean motion resonance. The presence of several large families that overlap dynamically with the Floras (e.g. the Vesta, Baptistina, and Nysa-Polana families), and the removal of a significant fraction of Floras via the nearby ν6 resonance have historically complicated the Flora family's distinction in both proper orbital elements and reflectance properties. Here we use orbital information from AstDyS, color information from SDSS, and albedo information from WISE, to obtain the characteristic orbital and reflectance properties of the Floras, by sampling the core of the family in multidimensional phase space. We find the characteristic Flora SDSS colors to be a* = 0.127 ± 0.012 and i-z = -0.038 ± 0.008; the characteristic Flora albedo is pV = 0.295 ± 0.006. These properties allow us to select a high-purity sample of Floras with similar orbital and reflectance properties as required for a detailed dynamical study. We then use the young Karin family, for which we have an age determined via direct backward integration of members' orbits, to calibrate the Yarkovsky drift rates for the Flora family without having to estimate the Floras' material properties. The size-dependent dispersion of the Flora members in semimajor axis (the "V" plot) then yields an age for the family of 940+160-120 My. We discuss the effects on our age estimate of two independent processes that both introduce obliquity variations among the family members on short (My) timescales: 1) the capture of Flora members in spin-orbit resonance, and 2) YORP-driven obliquity variation through YORP cycles. Accounting for these effects does not significantly change the age determination.

  5. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  6. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals.

  7. Maximizing Wellness in Successful Aging and Cancer Coping: The Importance of Family Communication from a Socioemotional Selectivity Theoretical Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Carla L; Nussbaum, Jon F

    Interpersonal communication is a fundamental part of being and key to health. Interactions within family are especially critical to wellness across time. Family communication is a central means of adaptation to stress, coping, and successful aging. Still, no theoretical argument in the discipline exists that prioritizes kin communication in health. Theoretical advances can enhance interventions and policies that improve family life. This article explores socioemotional selectivity theory (SST), which highlights communication in our survival. Communication partner choice is based on one's time perspective, which affects our prioritization of goals to survive-goals sought socially. This is a first test of SST in a family communication study on women's health and aging. More than 300 women of varying ages and health status participated. Two time factors, later adulthood and late-stage breast cancer, lead women to prioritize family communication. Findings provide a theoretical basis for prioritizing family communication issues in health reform.

  8. Assisting adoptive families: children adopted at older ages.

    PubMed

    Singer, Ellen; Krebs, Madeleine

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the adoption experience can help health care providers develop sensitivity to the special tasks of adopted children and their families. Children who are adopted at older ages may face particular challenges. Age at adoptive placement, the burden of loss, pre-adoptive experiences, and the challenge of attachment are all significant issues in older-child adoption. Pediatric nurses demonstrate sensitivity and support to adopted children and their families by using appropriate language about adoption; understanding the significance of missing health information; providing appropriate referrals as needed; and displaying an open, caring attitude.

  9. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to measure the anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 5249 students were included in our study. The overall rate of anxiety status among students was 14.1%. A significant difference was observed between anxiety status and sex, mothers education level, dietary and siesta habit (P < 0.05), only-child family, gentle temper, regular breakfast habit, friend support was associated with lower scores on anxiety status. The findings indicated that anxiety status is common among school students. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended. PMID:25550963

  10. Social Support and HIV-Status Disclosure to Friends and Family: Implications for HIV-Positive Youth

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sonia; Yamazaki, Michiyo; Harris, D. Robert; Harper, Gary W.; Ellen, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The fear of negative reactions from friends and family members affects many HIV-positive adolescents’ decisions regarding disclosure of their HIV status. The complex relationships and interplay among social support, fear of stigma, and disclosure of HIV status needs to be better understood among youth living with HIV. Methods Social support from friends and family members, and HIV status disclosure were examined among 402 youth, aged 12 to 24 years, living with HIV. Results In separate analyses, 1) HIV positive youth who reported more than one close friend, as well as 2) HIV positive youth who reported that friends and family members continued to socialize with them after disclosure of their HIV diagnosis, had higher levels of perceived social support overall (both p<0.05). Furthermore, perceived social support did not differ significantly between those participants for whom no family member knew their HIV status and those for whom at least one family member knew their status (p=0.13). Race/ethnicity, sexual orientation, education level, and current living situation were not associated with family's knowledge of the participants’ HIV infection status (p>0.07). Conclusion This investigation adds important information concerning youth living with HIV, whose early disclosure experiences may influence their resilience and future coping mechanisms regarding experienced stigma, and thus influence the length of time they conceal their HIV status, their decision to disclose their status, and potentially their decisions regarding treatment. Interventions and support systems to assist youth living with HIV with disclosure, as well as medical care, may improve their overall quality of life. PMID:25940217

  11. Child feeding practices and overweight status among Mexican immigrant families.

    PubMed

    Vera-Becerra, Luz Elvia; Lopez, Martha L; Kaiser, Lucia L

    2015-04-01

    The purpose was to compare maternal perceptions, feeding practices, and overweight status of children in immigrant households in California (US) with a cohort in Guanajuato, Mexico (MX). In 2006, staff interviewed mothers and weighed and measured their children, 1-6 years (US: n = 95 and MX: n = 200). Prevalence of overweight [body mass index z-score (BMIZ) >1.0 and <1.65] and obesity (BMIZ > 1.65) was 21.1 and 28.4% in the US respectively, compared to 11.5 and 12.9% in MX (p < 0.001). No differences were observed in maternal ability to identify correctly the child's weight status or ever being told the child was overweight. US children ate away from home more often (p < 0.0001), had fewer family meals (p < 0.0001), and played outdoors less often than MX children (p < 0.0002). Further analyses should examine how differences in eating and activity patterns explain the disparity in childhood obesity across the countries.

  12. Asthma and child behavioral skills: does family socioeconomic status matter?

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Hao

    2014-08-01

    Asthma is associated with poorer behavioral and psychological outcomes in children, yet little is known about whether and how the social stratification process affects the impacts of asthma on children's outcomes. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, this study considered the role of socioeconomic status in shaping the developmental consequences of children's asthma. Results showed that asthma was negatively associated with attention and social competence and positively associated with externalizing problem behaviors for children with low-educated mothers and children who lived in poor households. However, the adverse consequences of asthma disappeared for children with high-educated mothers and children who did not experience poverty. Additionally, the socioeconomic disparities were not fully explained by healthcare resources, family process, and exposure to environment risks and the disparities were found for both mild and severe cases. These findings suggest that, to fully understand the developmental consequences of illness in children, it is important to place socioeconomic status at the center of investigation.

  13. Effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle on pulmonary response to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase on the pulmonary response to ozone exposure. Three hundred seventy-two healthy white and black young adults, between the ages of 18 and 35 y, were exposed only once to 0.0, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm ozone for 2.3 h. Prior to and after exposure, pulmonary function tests were obtained. Prior to exposure, each subject completed a personal and family-history questionnaire. The response to this questionnaire were used to investigate age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase effects on pulmonary responsiveness to ozone. We concluded that the ages of subjects, within the age range studied, had an effect on responsiveness (i.e., decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased as the subjects` ages decreased). Socioeconomic status, as reflected by education of fathers, also appeared to affect forced expiratory volume in 1-s responsiveness to ozone, with the middle socioeconomic group being the most responsive. The phase of menstrual cycle did not have an impact on individual responsiveness to ozone. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Defining the Flora Family: Orbital properties, reflectance properties and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dykhuis, Melissa J.; Molnar, Lawrence; Van Kooten, Samuel J.; Greenberg, Richard

    2014-11-01

    The Flora family resides in the densely populated inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the ν6 secular resonance and the Jupiter 3:1 mean motion resonance. The presence of several large families that overlap dynamically with the Floras (e.g., the Vesta, Baptistina, and Nysa-Polana families), and the removal of a significant fraction of Floras via the nearby ν6 resonance complicates the Flora family's distinction in both proper orbital elements and reflectance properties. Here we use orbital information from the Asteroids Dynamic Site (AstDyS), color information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and albedo information from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to obtain the median orbital and reflectance properties of the Floras by sampling the core of the family in multidimensional phase space. We find the median Flora SDSS colors to be a∗ = 0.126 ± 0.007 and i -z =-0.037±0.007 ; the median Flora albedo is pV = 0.291 ± 0.012. These properties allow us to define ranges for the Flora family in orbital and reflectance properties, as required for a detailed dynamical study. We use the young Karin family, for which we have an age determined via direct backward integration of members' orbits, to calibrate the Yarkovsky drift rates for the Flora family without having to estimate the Floras' material properties. The size-dependent dispersion of the Flora members in semimajor axis (the "V" plot) then yields an age for the family of 950-170+200 My, with the uncertainty dominated by the uncertainty in the material properties of the family members (e.g., density and surface thermal properties). We discuss the effects on our age estimate of two independent processes that both introduce obliquity variations among the family members on short (My) timescales: (1) the capture of Flora members in spin-orbit resonance, and (2) YORP-driven obliquity variation through YORP cycles. Accounting for these effects does not significantly change this age

  15. The Status of Rapid Response Learning in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Dew, Ilana T. Z.; Giovanello, Kelly S.

    2010-01-01

    Strong evidence exists for an age-related impairment in associative processing under intentional encoding and retrieval conditions, but the status of incidental associative processing has been less clear. Two experiments examined the effects of age on rapid response learning – the incidentally learned stimulus-response association that results in a reduction in priming when a learned response becomes inappropriate for a new task. Specifically, we tested whether priming was equivalently sensitive in both age groups to reversing the task-specific decision cue. Experiment 1 showed that cue inversion reduced priming in both age groups using a speeded inside/outside classification task, and in Experiment 2 cue inversion eliminated priming on an associative version of this task. Thus, the ability to encode an association between a stimulus and its initial task-specific response appears to be preserved in aging. These findings provide an important example of a form of associative processing that is unimpaired in older adults. PMID:20853961

  16. Parents’ Relative Socioeconomic Status and Paternal Involvement in Chinese Families: The Mediating Role of Coparenting

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chang; Wu, Xinchun; Zou, Shengqi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the mediating role of coparenting in the association between differences/similarities in paternal and maternal socioeconomic status (SES) and paternal involvement in Chinese families. The sample included 244 couples with children aged 3–7 years. Fathers and mothers reported their individual incomes, educational levels, occupations, and coparenting behavior (measured using the Coparenting Scale), and fathers completed the Father Involvement Questionnaire. Structural equation modeling was performed to examine the associations between SES and paternal involvement. Results suggested that SES indicator measures were outcome specific. Occupational differences/similarities were associated with paternal involvement indirectly, via fathers’ family integrity practices. Income and educational differences/similarities did not affect paternal involvement. The results suggested that the traditional Chinese view that “men are chiefly responsible for activity in society, while women are responsible for the home” has faded. PMID:27445908

  17. Examining aging sexual stigma attitudes among adults by gender, age, and generational status

    PubMed Central

    Syme, Maggie L.; Cohn, Tracy J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Stigma related to later life sexuality could produce detrimental effects for older adults, through individual concerns and limited sexual healthcare for older adults. Identifying groups at risk for aging sexual stigma will help to focus interventions to reduce it. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to examine cross-sectional trends in aging sexual stigma attitudes by age group, generational status, and gender. Method An online survey was administered to a national sample of adults via a crowdsourcing tool, in order to examine aging sexual stigma across age groups, generational status, and gender (N=962; 47.0% male, 52.5% female, and .5% other; mean age = 45 yrs.). An aging sexual stigma index was formulated from the attitudinal items of the Aging Sexual Knowledge and Attitudes Scale. Results This sample reported moderately permissive attitudes toward aging sexuality, indicating a low level of aging sexual stigma. Though descriptive data showed trends of stigma attitudes increasing with age and later generations, there were no significant differences between age groups or generations in terms of aging sexual stigma beliefs. Men, regardless of age and/or generation, were found to espouse significantly higher stigmatic beliefs than women or those reporting “other” gender. Conclusions Aging sexual stigma beliefs may not be prevalent among the general population as cohorts become more sexually liberal over time, though men appear more susceptible to these beliefs. However, in order to more comprehensively assess aging sexual stigma, future research may benefit from measuring explicit and implicit aging sexual stigma beliefs. PMID:25703148

  18. MIXED-STATUS FAMILIES AND WIC UPTAKE: THE EFFECTS OF RISK OF DEPORTATION ON PROGRAM USE

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Edward D.; Pirog, Maureen A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Develop and test measures of risk of deportation and mixed-status families on WIC uptake. Mixed-status is a situation in which some family members are U.S. citizens and other family members are in the U.S. without proper authorization. Methods Estimate a series of logistic regressions to estimate WIC uptake by merging data from Fragile Families and Child Well-being Survey with deportation data from U.S.-Immigration Customs and Enforcement. Results The findings of this study suggest that risk of deportation is negatively associated with WIC uptake and among mixed-status families; Mexican origin families are the most sensitive when it comes to deportations and program use. Conclusion Our analysis provides a typology and framework to study mixed-status families and evaluate their usage of social services by including an innovative measure of risk of deportation. PMID:27642194

  19. Influence of family dynamics on burden among family caregivers in aging Japan

    PubMed Central

    Kusaba, Tesshu; Sato, Kotaro; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamada, Yukari; Matsui, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Satoshi; Ando, Takashi; Sakushima, Ken; Fukuhara, Shunichi

    2016-01-01

    Background. Long-term care for the elderly is largely shouldered by their family, representing a serious burden in a hyper-aging society. However, although family dynamics are known to play an important role in such care, the influence of caring for the elderly on burden among caregiving family members is poorly understood. Objective. To examine the influence of family dynamics on burden experienced by family caregivers. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study at six primary care clinics, involving 199 caregivers of adult care receivers who need long-term care. Participants were divided into three groups based on tertile of Index of Family Dynamics for Long-term Care (IF-Long score), where higher scores imply poorer relationships between care receivers and caregiving family: best, <2; intermediate, 2 to <5; worst, ≥5. The mean differences in burden index of caregivers (BIC-11) between the three groups were estimated by linear regression model with adjustment for care receiver’s activity of daily living and cognitive function. Results. Mean age of caregivers was 63.2 years (with 40.7% aged ≥ 65 years). BIC-11 scores were higher in the worst IF-Long group (adjusted mean difference: 4.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 7.5) than in the best IF-Long group. We also detected a positive trend between IF-Long score and BIC-11 score (P-value for trend <0.01). Conclusion. Our findings indicate that family dynamics strongly influences burden experienced by caregiving family members, regardless of the care receiver’s degree of cognitive impairment. These results underscore the importance of evaluating relationships between care receivers and their caregivers when discussing a care regimen for care receivers. PMID:27450988

  20. Brief Report: Effect of Menarcheal Status and Family Structure on Depressive Symptoms and Emotional/Behavioural Problems in Young Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capron, Christiane; Therond, Carine; Duyme, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship between depressive symptoms and emotional/behavioural problems in adolescent girls (N = 553) aged 12-13 years, menarcheal status and family structure, and considered whether the effect of family structure was the same in the presence or absence of menses. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the…

  1. Child support and mixed-status families an analysis using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lanlan; Pirog, Maureen A.; Vargas, Edward D.

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature documents the importance of child support for children’s wellbeing, though little is known about the child support behaviors of mixed-status families, a large and rapidly growing population in the United States. In this paper, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to investigate the impact of citizenship status on formal and informal child support transfers among a nationally representative sample of parents who have citizen children. Probit regression models and propensity score matching (PSM) estimators show that mixed-status families are significantly less likely to have child support orders and child support receipt compared to their citizen counterparts. We found that mothers’ knowledge of the child support system increases the probability of establishing paternity. However, cultural differences in knowledge of and perception about the U.S. child support system between mixed-status families and citizen families do not have an impact on the probability of getting a child support order, child support receipt, or in-kind child support. Rather, institutional factors such as collaborations between welfare agencies and child support enforcement agencies as well as state child support enforcement efforts have a significant impact on formal child support outcomes. The results are robust against different model specifications, measure constructions, and use of datasets. These findings have important policy implications for policy makers and researchers interested in reducing child poverty in complex family structures and underscore the need to revisit child support policies for mixed-status families. PMID:27712683

  2. Child support and mixed-status families an analysis using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lanlan; Pirog, Maureen A; Vargas, Edward D

    2016-11-01

    A large body of literature documents the importance of child support for children's wellbeing, though little is known about the child support behaviors of mixed-status families, a large and rapidly growing population in the United States. In this paper, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to investigate the impact of citizenship status on formal and informal child support transfers among a nationally representative sample of parents who have citizen children. Probit regression models and propensity score matching (PSM) estimators show that mixed-status families are significantly less likely to have child support orders and child support receipt compared to their citizen counterparts. We found that mothers' knowledge of the child support system increases the probability of establishing paternity. However, cultural differences in knowledge of and perception about the U.S. child support system between mixed-status families and citizen families do not have an impact on the probability of getting a child support order, child support receipt, or in-kind child support. Rather, institutional factors such as collaborations between welfare agencies and child support enforcement agencies as well as state child support enforcement efforts have a significant impact on formal child support outcomes. The results are robust against different model specifications, measure constructions, and use of datasets. These findings have important policy implications for policy makers and researchers interested in reducing child poverty in complex family structures and underscore the need to revisit child support policies for mixed-status families.

  3. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs.

  4. The Association Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Violence Onset: Does it Vary by Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Structure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2005-01-01

    The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…

  5. Associations between Family Communication Patterns, Sibling Closeness, and Adoptive Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samek, Diana R.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the protective effect of family and sibling closeness on child adjustment, but fewer studies have investigated how closeness is promoted within families. Guided by Family Communication Patterns Theory, we tested the association between family communication and sibling emotional and behavioral closeness, and…

  6. Families, social life, and well-being at older ages.

    PubMed

    Waite, Linda; Das, Aniruddha

    2010-01-01

    As people age, many aspects of their lives tend to change, including the constellation of people with whom they are connected, their social context, their families, and their health--changes that are often interrelated. Wave I of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) has yielded rich information on intimate ties, especially dyads and families, and on social connections generally. Combined with extensive biological and other health measures, NSHAP enables researchers to address key questions on health and aging. We begin with recent findings on intimate dyads, then move to social participation, and finally to elder mistreatment. Among dyads, we find that whereas sexual activity drops sharply with age for both women and men, gender differences in partner loss as well as psychosocial and normative pressures constrain women's sex more than men's. However, surviving partnerships tend to be emotionally and physically satisfying and are marked by relatively frequent sex. In contrast to sex, nonsexual intimacy is highly prevalent at older ages, especially among women. Older adults are also socially resilient--adapting to the loss of social ties by increasing involvement with community and kin networks. Despite these social assets, older adults remain vulnerable to mistreatment. Overall, these findings yield a mixed picture of gender-differentiated vulnerabilities balanced by proactive adaptation and maintenance of social and dyadic assets.

  7. Glycemia, diabetes status, and cognition in middle aged Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, José A.; Cabral, Rafi; Eimicke, Joseph P.; Manly, Jennifer J.; Teresi, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the association of glycemia and diabetes status with cognition among 600 Hispanics aged 55 to 64 years from Northern Manhattan. Methods Diabetes was ascertained by history or Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and pre-diabetes were ascertained with HbA1c. Memory was assessed with the Selective Reminding Test (SRT). Executive abilities were assessed using the Color trails 1 and 2, and verbal fluency test. The cross-sectional association of glycemia and diabetes status with cognitive performance was examined using linear regression. Results Participants were a mean age of 59.2 ± 2.9 years old, 76.7% were women, and more than 65% had pre-diabetes or diabetes. HbA1C (β = − 0.97; p <0.001) and diabetes (β = − 2.06; p = 0.001) were related with lower SRT total recall after adjustment for demographics, education, and vascular risk factors. Pre-diabetes was associated with worse performance in color trails 2 (β = − 6.45 p = 0.022) after full adjustment. Conclusions Higher glycemia and diabetes are related to worse memory and executive abilities in late middle age, while pre-diabetes is related only to worse executive abilities. Longitudinal follow-up is needed to understand the order and progression of these deficits. PMID:26163818

  8. Age-of-Recall Effects on Family-of-Origin Ratings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampson, Robert B.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    College students (n=141) completed Self-Report Family Inventory on Beavers Systems Model of Family Functioning, rating current family, family when they were 10 years old, and family when they were 16 years old. Found significant differences between age-of-recall groups, with recall ratings from age 10 significantly more competent, cohesive, and…

  9. An Examination of Fast Mapping Skills in Preschool Children from Families with Low Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Elizabeth J.; Schuele, C. Melanie

    2012-01-01

    Researchers consistently report that children from low socioeconomic status (SES) families have, on average, smaller vocabularies as assessed by measures of existing vocabulary knowledge than children from higher SES families. Yet, few studies have examined the word-learning process of children from low SES families. The present study was an…

  10. A Status Report on Homeless Families in America's Cities. A 29-City Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waxman, Laura DeKoven; Reyes, Lilia M.

    This survey assesses the status of homelessness among families in cities. The data were collected from city officials during April 1987. The findings include the following: (1) the number of homeless families increased by 31 percent during the last two years; (2) families represented one-third of the homeless and a single parent headed two-thirds…

  11. Metformin Alleviates Altered Erythrocyte Redox Status During Aging in Rats.

    PubMed

    Garg, Geetika; Singh, Sandeep; Singh, Abhishek Kumar; Rizvi, Syed Ibrahim

    2017-02-01

    Metformin, a biguanide drug commonly used to treat type 2 diabetes, has been noted to function as a caloric restriction mimetic. Its antidiabetic effect notwithstanding, metformin is currently being considered an antiaging drug candidate, although the molecular mechanisms have not yet been unequivocally established. This study aims to examine whether short-term metformin treatment can provide protective effects against oxidative stress in young and old-age rats. Young (age 4 months) and old (age 24 months) male Wistar rats were treated with metformin (300 mg/kg b.w.) for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, an array of biomarkers of oxidative stress were evaluated, including plasma antioxidant capacity measured in terms of ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), total plasma thiol (SH), plasma membrane redox system (PMRS), protein carbonyl (PCO), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in control and experimental groups. Metformin treatment resulted in an increase in FRAP, GSH, SH, and PMRS activities in both age groups compared to respective controls. On the other hand, treated groups exhibited significant reductions in ROS, MDA, PCO, AOPP, and AGE level. Save for FRAP and protein carbonyl, the effect of metformin on all other parameters was more pronounced in old-aged rats. Metformin caused a significant increase in the PMRS activity in young rats, however, the effect was less pronounced in old rats. These findings provide evidence with respect to restoration of antioxidant status in aged rats after short-term metformin treatment. The findings substantiate the putative antiaging role of metformin.

  12. Selective Disclosure in a First Conversation about a Family Death in James Agee's Novel "A Death in the Family"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rober, Peter; Rosenblatt, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    The first conversation of a family about a family death is a neglected but potentially important topic. In a first conversation in James Agee's (1957/2006) novel "A Death in the Family," the member who knows the most about the accidental death of another member discloses information selectively. The first conversation in Agee's novel suggests that…

  13. Assessment of the contribution of APOE gene variants to metabolic phenotypes associated with familial longevity at middle age

    PubMed Central

    Noordam, Raymond; Oudt, Charlotte H.; Deelen, Joris; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; van Heemst, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Offspring of long-lived families are characterized by beneficial metabolic phenotypes in glucose and lipid metabolism and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Although the genetic basis for human longevity remains largely unclear, the contribution of variation at the APOE locus has been repeatedly demonstrated. We aimed to assess whether ApoE isoforms mark the familial longevity status in middle age and subsequently to test to what extend this association is mediated by the metabolic characteristics marking this status. From the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS), we included offspring from nonagenarian siblings and partners as controls. Using the metabolic phenotypes of familial longevity as mediators, we investigated how APOE gene variants associated with LLS offspring/control status (in 1,515 LLS offspring and 715 controls). Within the LLS (mean age = 59.2 years), ApoE ε4 was not associated with a lower likelihood of being an LLS offspring, whereas ApoE ɛ2 was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of being an LLS offspring (odds ratio = 1.43), but this difference was not mediated (p-values>0.05) by any of the investigated metabolic phenotypes (e.g., diabetes and glucose). Therefore, variation at the APOE locus may not influence familial longevity status in middle age significantly through any of the metabolic mechanisms investigated. PMID:27540764

  14. Size and Age Dependence of Koronis Family Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molnar, L. A.

    2011-10-01

    The ancient and massive Koronis family now has four identified subfamilies (asteroid families made by the breakup of fragments of the ancient collision), with ages running from 5.7 to 290 My. This presents unique opportunities to explore space weathering processes, along with dynamical processes such as collisions and binary formation and destruction. Analysis of family members with accurate SDSS measurements shows a correlation of average subfamily color with age that for the first time is highly statistically significant. Yet Thomas et al. (2011) report a size dependence of the colors of the ancient family that demands caution when comparing subfamilies with differing size distributions. Reanalyis of the Thomas et al. data show the reported break near asteroid diameter 5 km is not significant. However, analysis of the much more extensive SDSS data set show a significant break past diameter 2.5 km, with smaller objects systematically bluer. The break is not present in the Karin subfamily (the youngest at 5.7 My), but is already fully developed in the Eriphyla subfamily (only 220 My). The reddening trend with age remains even when comparing only asteroids of similar size, confirming the presence of space weathering phenomena. The meaning of the trend with size is not immediately clear. We consider briefly the strengths and weaknesses of several interpretations of the bluer colors for small objects: 1) those objects receive more jolts from random collisions capable of shaking the regolith and exposing fresh material beneath; 2) those objects receive more jolts from the cycle of fission and recombination driven by YORP; and 3) the lower gravity on those objects retains regolith less well.

  15. Economic Status of Families Living with Multiple Sclerosis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, Marci; Weinert, Clarann

    1992-01-01

    A nationwide survey of 604 families living with multiple sclerosis found average duration of the disease was 10 years; family income was above the national median; in 28 percent of the families, health insurance was inadequate to cover illness costs; and, overall, factors other than income and amount of health insurance determined the economic…

  16. Natural family planning in 1985: a status report.

    PubMed

    Spieler, J; Shuler, A

    1985-05-01

    The current status of natural family planning (NFP) was reviewed. There is renewed interest in NFP, and many couples who find other methods unacceptable for medical, safety, or personal reasons are turning to NFP methods. The percent of contraceptive users who rely on behavioral methods in developing countries in 35% in Peru, 20%-25% in Haiti, Philippines, and Sri Lanka, and average 7.5% for the remaining 23 developing countries. IN the US about 4.7% of all contraceptive users rely on behavioral methods. Worldwide, rhythm is the most commonly used form of behavior fertility control, but this method is not promoted by most NFP programs. The 3 modern methods of NFP are 1) the basal body temperature method, 2) the cervical mucus, or Billings method, and 3) the sympto-thermal method. All these methods rely on physical signs and symptoms to detect ovulation and require sexual abstinence during the fertile phase of the menstrual cycle. The basal body temperature method requires women to detect the slight rise in temperature which occurs at the time of ovulation. The method is 94%-97% effective if intercourse is restricted to the postovulatory phase of the cycle. Disadvantages of the method are that intercourse must be restricted to only 7-13 days of the cycle, women must take their temperature daily, the method cannot be used during fever episodes, and the method is inappropriate for use during lactation or near menopause. The cervical mucus method is based on observing cervical mucus changes during the cycle. These changes signal the fertile and infertile phases of the cycle. According to a World Health Organization study, 93% of the women instructed in the method were able to detect mucus changes, and illiterate women were as adept at identifying these changes as university graduates. Findings also indicated that the method was 97% effective if abstinence was practiced during 15 days of the cycle, but use-effectiveness was only about 80%. This method has the advantage

  17. Selective disclosure in a first conversation about a family death in James Agee's novel A Death in the Family.

    PubMed

    Rober, Peter; Rosenblatt, Paul C

    2013-02-01

    The first conversation of a family about a family death is a neglected but potentially important topic. In a first conversation in James Agee's (1957/ 2006) novel A Death in the Family, the member who knows the most about the accidental death of another member discloses information selectively. The first conversation in Agee's novel suggests that communication and caring in the first family conversation about a death is attuned to family member emotions, particularly those of the family member considered most vulnerable, and that the aim is not a shared narrative that is true, but one that people can live with.

  18. Age-Related Differences in Cortical Thickness Vary by Socioeconomic Status.

    PubMed

    Piccolo, Luciane R; Merz, Emily C; He, Xiaofu; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Noble, Kimberly G

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings indicate robust associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain structure in children, raising questions about the ways in which SES may modify structural brain development. In general, cortical thickness and surface area develop in nonlinear patterns across childhood and adolescence, with developmental patterns varying to some degree by cortical region. Here, we examined whether age-related nonlinear changes in cortical thickness and surface area varied by SES, as indexed by family income and parental education. We hypothesized that SES disparities in age-related change may be particularly evident for language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. Participants were 1148 typically-developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Results indicated that SES factors moderate patterns of age-associated change in cortical thickness but not surface area. Specifically, at lower levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were curvilinear, with relatively steep age-related decreases in cortical thickness earlier in childhood, and subsequent leveling off during adolescence. In contrast, at high levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were linear, with consistent reductions across the age range studied. Notably, this interaction was prominent in the left fusiform gyrus, a region that is critical for reading development. In a similar pattern, SES factors significantly moderated linear age-related change in left superior temporal gyrus, such that higher SES was linked with steeper age-related decreases in cortical thickness in this region. These findings suggest that SES may moderate patterns of age-related cortical thinning, especially in language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions.

  19. Age-Related Differences in Cortical Thickness Vary by Socioeconomic Status

    PubMed Central

    He, Xiaofu; Sowell, Elizabeth R.; Noble, Kimberly G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent findings indicate robust associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and brain structure in children, raising questions about the ways in which SES may modify structural brain development. In general, cortical thickness and surface area develop in nonlinear patterns across childhood and adolescence, with developmental patterns varying to some degree by cortical region. Here, we examined whether age-related nonlinear changes in cortical thickness and surface area varied by SES, as indexed by family income and parental education. We hypothesized that SES disparities in age-related change may be particularly evident for language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. Participants were 1148 typically-developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Results indicated that SES factors moderate patterns of age-associated change in cortical thickness but not surface area. Specifically, at lower levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were curvilinear, with relatively steep age-related decreases in cortical thickness earlier in childhood, and subsequent leveling off during adolescence. In contrast, at high levels of SES, associations between age and cortical thickness were linear, with consistent reductions across the age range studied. Notably, this interaction was prominent in the left fusiform gyrus, a region that is critical for reading development. In a similar pattern, SES factors significantly moderated linear age-related change in left superior temporal gyrus, such that higher SES was linked with steeper age-related decreases in cortical thickness in this region. These findings suggest that SES may moderate patterns of age-related cortical thinning, especially in language- and literacy-supporting cortical regions. PMID:27644039

  20. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  1. Otter scent signals age, sex, and reproductive status.

    PubMed

    Kean, Eleanor F; Müller, Carsten T; Chadwick, Elizabeth A

    2011-07-01

    Scent is used across taxa to communicate information about signaler identity. Eurasian otters Lutra lutra are mainly solitary and thought to use scent as their primary means of communication. Little is known, however, about what information otters communicate through scent or what social function this performs. Headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry were used to sample and analyze volatile organic compounds from anal scent gland secretion from 158 otters of differing sex, age, and female reproductive status. Univariate and multivariate differences were clear between adult and juvenile otters. Complex sex differences were apparent in adult otters but not in younger individuals, suggesting the use of this scent secretion in mate attraction. The scent of pregnant and lactating females was highly differentiated from male and juvenile scent, but anecdotal reports suggest females avoid communication during these times.

  2. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  3. Current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44: United States, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kimberly; Daugherty, Jill; Jones, Jo

    2014-12-01

    Nearly all women use contraception at some point in their lifetimes, although at any given time they may not be using contraception for reasons such as seeking pregnancy, being pregnant, or not being sexually active. Using data from the 2011-2013 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) on contraceptive use in the month of the interview, this report provides a snapshot of current contraceptive status among women aged 15-44 in the United States. In addition to describing use of any method by age, Hispanic origin and race, and educational attainment, patterns of use are described for the four most commonly used contraceptive methods: the oral contraceptive pill, female sterilization, the male condom, and long-acting reversible contraceptives, which include contraceptive implants and intrauterine devices.

  4. Re-Examining the Associations between Family Backgrounds and Children's Cognitive Developments in Early Ages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tu, Yu-Kang; Law, Graham R.

    2010-01-01

    A recent English study found that children from poor families who did well in cognitive tests at age three are expected to be overtaken in the cognitive test by the age of seven by children from rich families who did poorly in cognitive tests at age three. The conclusion was that family background seems to have a dominant influence on a child's…

  5. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods: Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Results: Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Conclusions: Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway. PMID:26941571

  6. Family migration and the economic status of women in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chattopadhyay, A

    1997-01-01

    "The impact of family migration on women's economic position in a developing country setting is an area that has received relatively little research attention. Incorporating a lifetime perspective, this study makes use of the retrospective migration histories of husbands and wives from the second round of the Malaysian Family Life Survey to estimate how joint migration with the husband affects women's socioeconomic achievement. The findings show that family migration depresses the chances of working, but it does not significantly reduce socioeconomic attainment of those who do work. However, when a woman migrates with her husband she does forgo the substantial advantage she could have derived had she moved alone."

  7. Health Status of Children of Migrant Farm Workers: Farm Worker Family Health Program, Moultrie, Georgia

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Aryeh D.; Wold, Judith Lupo

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the health status of migrant farmworkers’ children served by the Farm Worker Family Health Program (FWFHP) in Moultrie, Georgia. Methods. We analyzed data from children aged 0 to 16 years examined through the FWFHP from 2003 to 2011 (n across years = 179–415). We compared their prevalence of overweight, obesity, elevated blood pressure, anemia, and stunting with that of children in the United States and Mexico. Results. Across study years, prevalence of overweight, obesity, elevated blood pressure, anemia, and stunting ranged from 13.5% to 21.8%, 24.0% to 37.4%, 4.1% to 20.2%, 10.1% to 23.9%, and 1% to 6.4%, respectively. Children in the FWFHP had a higher prevalence of obesity than children in all comparison groups, and FWFHP children aged 6 to 12 years had a higher prevalence of elevated blood pressure than all comparison groups. Older FWFHP children had a higher prevalence of anemia than US children and Mexican children. Children in FWFHP had a higher prevalence of stunting than US and Mexican American children. Conclusions. We observed an elevated prevalence of obesity, anemia among older age groups, and stunting in this sample of children of migrant workers. PMID:24328649

  8. Family Economic Status and Parental Involvement: Influences of Parental Expectation and Perceived Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yiji; Deng, Ciping; Yang, Xiangdong

    2016-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's education is a critical factor associated with children's socio-emotional and educational outcomes. However, low parental involvement occurs more often among economically disadvantaged families. It is unclear what mechanisms may explain the association between family economic status and parents' educational…

  9. Student Performance and Family Socioeconomic Status: Results from a Survey of Compulsory Education in Western China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Xiaofei; Lu, Ke

    2008-01-01

    This study used fifteen-year-old ninth-grade students from rural areas of five provinces in western China as samples to carry out research on the relationship between the socioeconomic status of Chinese families and student academic performance. Based on parents' educational background, occupation, family economic conditions, and other factors,…

  10. Citizenship, Beneficence, and Informed Consent: The Ethics of Working in Mixed-Status Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangual Figueroa, Ariana

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from a 23-month ethnographic study conducted in mixed-status Mexican homes to detail the particular methodological concerns that arise when conducting research within these legally complex and vulnerable families. Specifically, the analysis illustrates when and why undocumented parents in one focal family asked the ethnographer…

  11. Impacts of Marital Status and Parental Presence on the Material Hardship of Families with Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerman, Robert I.

    This study investigated how marriage, cohabitation, single parenthood, and the presence of biological parents affected the incomes and material hardships of children. Data from the 1997 and 1999 National Survey of America's Families were used to examine recent changes in the marital status and household structure of families with children, how…

  12. Family Socioeconomic Status, Parental Expectations, and Adolescents' Academic Achievements: A Case of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Haiying; Pang, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    This study examines direct and indirect effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) and parental expectations on adolescents' mathematics and problem-solving achievement in mainland China. SES here is composed of family wealth, home educational resources, and parental education. Over 5,000 ninth-grade students in 5 geographical districts of China…

  13. A Metaphorical Story To Raise Relational Esteem in Mexican American Families of Low Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Elizabeth R.; Wooten, Ray; Babcock, Bob; Hill, Floyd

    2002-01-01

    Researchers have indicated that members of Mexican American (MA) families of low socioeconomic status (SES) may have low self-esteem due a variety of influences. This research addresses these issues through the telling of a metaphorical story to 30 MA families. The metaphorical story did not significantly affect the relational esteem of MA…

  14. Status of Breastfeeding and Child Immunization Outcomes in Clients of the Nurse-Family Partnership.

    PubMed

    Thorland, William; Currie, Dustin; Wiegand, Emily R; Walsh, Joe; Mader, Nick

    2017-03-01

    Background The Nurse-Family Partnership (NFP) is a home visiting program serving first-time, low-income mothers, with an area of focus on healthy early childhood development. Previous foundational trials of program effect on breastfeeding and immunizations have shown a mix of neutral and positive results. The present evaluation investigates these effects following program scale-up, using a large contemporary cohort of clients. Methods Nurse-Family Partnership client breastfeeding and immunization status were compared to National Survey of Children's Health data and National Immunization Survey data, respectively. Sample differences in demographic covariates were adjusted using logistic regression. Results Nurse-Family Partnership clients were significantly more likely to have ever breastfed (adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR: 1.20 (1.17, 1.23)] and maintain breastfeeding at 6 [aPR: 1.17 (1.10, 1.24)] and 12 [aPR: 1.39 (1.25, 1.53)] months, but less likely to exclusively breastfeed at 6 months [aPR: 0.84 (0.70, 0.95)] NFP clients were significantly more likely to be up-to-date on immunizations at 6 [aPR: 1.23 (1.22, 1.25)], 18 [aPR: 1.33 (1.30,1.35)], and 24 [aPR: 1.15 (1.14, 1.16)] months of age than the reference cohort, with no significant difference at 12 months. Discussion Nurse-Family Partnership clients had more beneficial breastfeeding and immunization outcomes than children of mothers with demographically similar profiles. However, exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months lags behind the reference sample and represents a potential area for further improvement.

  15. Family Socioeconomic Status and Academic Achievement among Korean Adolescents: Linking Mechanisms of Family Processes and Adolescents' Time Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Dayoung; Wickrama, K. A. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined pathways through which family socioeconomic status may influence adolescents' academic achievement. We focused on parental monitoring and adolescents' after-school time-use patterns as linking mechanisms. Participants were 441 twelve- to fourteen-year-old Korean adolescents who participated in the Korea Welfare Panel Study.…

  16. Effects of parental marital status, income, and family functioning on African American adolescent self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Mandara, J; Murray, C B

    2000-09-01

    This study examined the effects of marital status, family income, and family functioning on African American adolescents' self-esteem. One hundred sixteen adolescents participated, 64% of whom were female. Compared with boys with nonmarried parents, boys with married parents had higher overall self-esteem, even when family income and family functioning were controlled. Parental marital status had no effect on girls' self-esteem. Family functioning was a very strong predictor of self-esteem for both sexes. However, family relational factors were more important to girls' self-esteem, whereas structural and growth factors were more important for boys. It was concluded that African American adolescent boys with nonmarried parents are at risk for developing low self-esteem compared with other African American adolescents, but a more controlled and structured environment may buffer the effects of having nonmarried parents.

  17. Age or health status: which influences medical insurance enrollment greater?

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Cai, Gong–Jie; Li, Guan–Nan; Cao, Jing–Jing; Shi, Qiong–Hua; Bai, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Background The New Cooperative Medical Scheme (NCMS) for peasantries implemented in 2003 and the Urban Resident Basic Medical Insurance (URBMI) for the urban unemployed implemented in 2007 have many similarities. They both apply the financing mode of individual premiums plus government’s subsidies, and the voluntary enrollment. The Chinese government plans to integrate these two systems and build a unified basic medical insurance system for the unemployed in order to achieve the medical equity and increase the general health level. Thus, to analyze the main influencing factors of the enrollment of the urban unemployed and rural residents is very important for improving the system and securing the stability of the system during the transition. Methods The study uses data from the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) and adopts logistic regression models to test which factors influence the enrollment of the URBMI and the NCMS under the background of rather high enrollment rate of Chinese basic medical insurances and strong fiscal support of the Chinese government, especially whether health status or age influences enrollment of these two insurances greater. Results There is indeed some adverse selection in the URBMI and the NCMS. Whether the individual has chronic diseases have significant influence on enrollments of both the urban unemployed and rural residents, while whether the individual got ill in last four weeks just influences enrollments of the urban unemployed. Age influences enrollment greater than health status. The older the insured are, the larger the enrollment rates are. Conclusion Because of the active support for basic medical insurances of the Chinese government, the enrollment performance of the urban unemployed and rural residents has already changed. When implementing the new policy, the government should pay attention to the willingness to enroll in and the change of enrollment performance of the insured. Therefore, under the policy of

  18. Order of aging of major human organs or systems and evaluation of health status based on aging.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chengfang; Liu, Chunqing; Gao, Hanboya; Liu, Hui

    2017-03-01

    To determine the functional age of an individual, a quantitative system for the assessment of aging status was developed in the present study. A total of 1579 subjects were selected randomly from patients undergoing physical examination. The index of organic mild impairment (IOMI) and IOMI corrected for age (COMI) were calculated. By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of the IOMIs of younger and elderly subjects, a cutoff value for COMI of 30% was obtained. About 95% of <30-year-old subjects were healthy. These data suggest that organs and systems reflect the aging status of an individual and may be a useful tool for evaluating health status.

  19. Facilitating Disclosure of HIV-Positive Status to Family Members.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huber, Charles H.

    1996-01-01

    Based on a review of an article and drawing on the experiences of five women, offers a model for facilitating disclosure of Human Immunodeficiency Virus status. Outlines a six-step process for understanding disclosure, which includes adjusting to the diagnosis, evaluating personal disclosure skills, and taking inventory. Lists implications for…

  20. Diverse Family Types and Out-Of-School Learning Time of Young School Age Children

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Hiromi

    2010-01-01

    =Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological parent families. In all four cases, however, the differentials are explained by the presence of siblings age 18+, lower levels of family income, or younger maternal age. PMID:21532970

  1. Veteran Status, Race-Ethnicity, and Marriage among Fragile Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usdansky, Margaret L.; London, Andrew S.; Wilmoth, Janet M.

    2009-01-01

    We used data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 2,679 ) to examine the impact of men's past military service on the likelihood that a couple will marry within 5 years of a nonmarital birth. Logistic regression analyses showed that men's past military service increased marriage odds by 54% for couples with Black fathers even…

  2. Socioeconomic Status and Life-Space Mobility in Old Age.

    PubMed

    Eronen, Johanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Rantakokko, Merja; Portegijs, Erja; Viljanen, Anne; Rantanen, Taina

    2016-10-01

    Life-space mobility describes the extent of community mobility of older persons. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and life-space mobility and to investigate whether associations might be explained by SES-related disparities in health and functioning. The participants (n = 848) were community-dwelling adults aged 75-90. Education and occupation were used to indicate SES. Life-space assessment (range 0-120) was used to indicate distance and frequency of moving and assistance needed in moving. People with low education had lower life-space mobility scores than those with intermediate or high education: marginal means 63.5, 64.8, and 70.0 (p = .003), respectively. SES-related health disparities, i.e., higher body mass index, poorer cognitive capacity, and poorer physical performance explained the association, rendering it nonsignificant (marginal means 65.2, 65.3, and 67.5, p = .390). Low SES and restricted life-space mobility often coexist with overweight, reduced cognition, and poorer physical performance.

  3. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  4. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility... FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY, RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...

  5. Staff-family relationships in residential aged care facilities: the views of residents' family members and care staff.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Michael; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; Tarzia, Laura; Chenco, Carol

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine staff and family members' perceptions of each other's roles and responsibilities in the Australian residential aged care setting. Data was collected by interview and focus group from 27 staff and 14 family members at five residential aged care facilities in the state of Victoria, Australia. Findings highlight "communication" as the core category supporting the formation of constructive staff-family relationships, as described by three main themes; "building trust," "involvement," and "keeping the family happy." Staff attitudes, mutual cooperation, meaningful engagement, and shared expectations lay the foundation for relationships. Findings suggest that further efforts to establish and sustain good relationships with families are required by facilities. Characteristics, roles, and expectations of staff and family that can both promote and hinder the formation of constructive staff-family relationships are discussed.

  6. Nutritional status of pre-school children from low income families

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We evaluated growth and nutritional status of preschool children between 2 and 6 years old from low income families from 14 daycare centers. Methods Cross-sectional study with 1544 children from daycare centers of Santo Andre, Brazil. Body weight (W), height (H) and body mass index (BMI) were classified according to the 2000 National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS). Cutoff points for nutritional disorders: -2 z scores and 2.5 and 10 percentiles for malnutrition risk, 85 to 95 percentile for overweight and above BMI 95 percentile for obesity. Stepwise Forward Regression method was used including age, gender, birth weight, breastfeeding duration, age of mother at birth and period of time they attended the daycare center. Results Children presented mean z scores of H, W and BMI above the median of the CDC/NCHS reference. Girls were taller and heavier than boys, while we observed similar BMI between both genders. The z scores tended to rise with age. A Pearson Coefficient of Correlation of 0.89 for W, 0.93 for H and 0.95 for BMI was documented indicating positive association of age with weight, height and BMI. The frequency of children below -2 z scores was lower than expected: 1.5% for W, 1.75% for H and 0% for BMI, which suggests that there were no malnourished children. The other extremity of the distribution evidenced prevalence of overweight and obesity of 16.8% and 10.8%, respectively. Conclusion Low income preschool children are in an advanced stage of nutritional transition with a high prevalence of overweight. PMID:21549003

  7. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  8. Dental services utilization by women of childbearing age by socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Kaylor, Mary B; Polivka, Barbara J; Chaudry, Rosemary; Salsberry, Pamela; Wee, Alvin G

    2010-04-01

    For women of childbearing age, oral health not only affects their physical and psychological well-being but also that of their children. This study used the 2003-2004 Ohio Family Health Survey (N = 9,819) to examine dental need and utilization by women in Ohio. Predisposing, enabling, and need variables were examined as they effect dental health service utilization by women of childbearing age at different socioeconomic status (SES) levels. The proportion of women in the low SES group self reporting a dental need (18%) was 3 times that of the proportion of women in the higher SES group with a self reported need (6%). Results of bivariate analysis showed that having a dental visit in the past year varied significantly by SES, race, insurance status, provider density, and need. A racial disparity in dental service utilization was noted in the bivariate analysis of the middle SES group. While dental need and type of dental coverage varied by SES, both were significantly associated with utilization of dental services within all 3 SES categories in the logistic regressions. These results suggest that measures need to be implemented to meet the goal of increasing access and utilization of dental health services by low-income populations.

  9. Mental health inequalities in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents explained by personal social position and family socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Mental health inequalities are an increasingly important global problem. This study examined the association between mental health status and certain socioeconomic indicators (personal social position and the socioeconomic status of the family) in Slovenian 15-year-old adolescents. Methods Data originate from the WHO-Collaborative cross-national ‘Health Behavior in School-aged Children’ study conducted in Slovenia in 2010 (1,815 secondary school pupils, aged 15). Mental health status was measured by: KIDSCREEN-10, the Strength and Difficulties questionnaire (SDQ), a life satisfaction scale, and one question about feelings of depression. Socioeconomic position was measured by the socioeconomic status of the family (Family Affluence Scale, perceived material welfare, family type, occupational status of parents) and personal social position (number of friends and the type of school). Logistic regression and a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) were performed. Results Girls had 2.5-times higher odds of suffering feelings of depression (p < 0.001), 1.5-times higher odds of low life satisfaction (p = 0.008), and a greater chance of a lower quality of life and a higher SDQ score than boys (p = 0.001). The adolescents who perceived their family’s material welfare as worse had 4-times higher odds (p < 0.001) of a low life satisfaction, a greater chance of a low quality of life, and a higher SDQ score than those who perceived it as better (p < 0.001). Adolescents with no friends had lower KIDSCREEN-10 and higher SDQ scores than those who had more than three friends. Conclusions Despite the fact that Slovenia is among the EU members with the lowest rates of social inequalities, it was found that adolescents with a lower socioeconomic position have poorer mental health than those with a higher socioeconomic position. Because of the financial crisis, we can expect an increase in social inequalities and a greater impact on

  10. Family Background, School-Age Trajectories of Activity Participation, and Academic Achievement at the Start of High School

    PubMed Central

    Crosnoe, Robert; Smith, Chelsea; Leventhal, Tama

    2014-01-01

    Applying latent class and regression techniques to data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 997), this study explored the potential academic advantages of time spent in out-of-school activities. Of particular interest was how these potential advantages played out in relation to the timing and duration of activity participation and the family contexts in which it occurred. Participation closer to the start of high school—including consistent participants and latecomers—was associated with higher grades at the transition into high school, especially for youth from low-income families. Sensitivity analyses indicated that this link between school-age activity participation and adolescent academic progress was unlikely to be solely a function of selection. It also tended to be more pronounced among youth from lower-income families, although without varying by other aspects of family status or process. PMID:26279615

  11. Women criminality--the influence of socio-familial history and status.

    PubMed

    Luta, Veronica; Pasca, Viorel; Enache, Alexandra; Ciopec, Flavius; Ursachi, Georgeta; Radu, Daniel; Stratul, Stefan; Zarie, Gabriela; Mutiu, Florentina

    2009-04-01

    Our interdisciplinary study aims at the influence of social and familial history and status in a sample of Romanian female offenders. We collected data regarding the social and familial environment and status in the moment of committing a crime from 235 women incarcerated in four Romanian prisons. We applied a 67 item questionnaire conceived by the members of the research group. The items we compared refer to: the type of offence, the offender's marital status and the number of children in the moment of committing the crime, the situation in the family of origin and the offender's evaluation of the relationship with the parents and brothers, the monthly income, the type of relationship with the partner as described by the offender, history of substance abuse and violence in the family of origin and in the own family. We also analyzed the answers regarding the motivation for the criminal act. The paper shows the distribution of various types of criminal offences in correlation with the level of education, the relevance of a stable familial environment and monthly income. The history of criminality, substance abuse and interpersonal violence in the families of origin is also taken into account.

  12. THE ASSOCIATION BETWEEN ADULT MORTALITY RISK AND FAMILY HISTORY OF LONGEVITY: THE MODERATING EFFECTS OF SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS

    PubMed Central

    TEMBY, OWEN F.; SMITH, KEN R.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Studies consistently show that increasing levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and having a familial history of longevity reduce the risk of mortality. But do these two variables interact, such that individuals with lower levels of SES, for example, may experience an attenuated longevity penalty by virtue of having long-lived relatives? This article examines this interaction by analysing survival past age 40 based on data from the Utah Population Database on an extinct cohort of men born from the years 1840 to 1909. Cox proportional hazards regression and logistic regression are used to test for the main and interaction mortality effects of SES and familial excess longevity (FEL), a summary measure of an individual’s history of longevity among his or her relatives. This research finds that the mortality hazard rate for men in the top 15th percentile of occupational status decreases more as FEL increases than it does among men in the bottom 15th percentile. In addition, the mortality hazard rate among farmers decreases more as FEL increases than it does for non-farmers. With a strong family history of longevity as a proxy for a genetic predisposition, this research suggests that a gene–environment interaction occurs whereby the benefits of familial excess longevity are more available to those who have occupations with more autonomy and greater economic resources and/or opportunities for physical activity. PMID:24103415

  13. The association between adult mortality risk and family history of longevity: the moderating effects of socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Temby, Owen F; Smith, Ken R

    2014-11-01

    Studies consistently show that increasing levels of socioeconomic status (SES) and having a familial history of longevity reduce the risk of mortality. But do these two variables interact, such that individuals with lower levels of SES, for example, may experience an attenuated longevity penalty by virtue of having long-lived relatives? This article examines this interaction by analysing survival past age 40 based on data from the Utah Population Database on an extinct cohort of men born from the years 1840 to 1909. Cox proportional hazards regression and logistic regression are used to test for the main and interaction mortality effects of SES and familial excess longevity (FEL), a summary measure of an individual's history of longevity among his or her relatives. This research finds that the mortality hazard rate for men in the top 15th percentile of occupational status decreases more as FEL increases than it does among men in the bottom 15th percentile. In addition, the mortality hazard rate among farmers decreases more as FEL increases than it does for non-farmers. With a strong family history of longevity as a proxy for a genetic predisposition, this research suggests that a gene-environment interaction occurs whereby the benefits of familial excess longevity are more available to those who have occupations with more autonomy and greater economic resources and/or opportunities for physical activity.

  14. Mammographic surveillance in women aged 35-39 at enhanced familial risk of breast cancer (FH02).

    PubMed

    Evans, D G; Thomas, S; Caunt, J; Roberts, L; Howell, A; Wilson, M; Fox, R; Sibbering, D M; Moss, S; Wallis, M G; Eccles, D M; Duffy, S

    2014-03-01

    Although there have been encouraging recent studies showing a potential benefit from annual mammography in women aged 40-49 years of age with an elevated breast cancer risk due to family history there is little evidence of efficacy in women aged <40 years of age. A prospective study (FH02) has been developed to assess the efficacy of mammography screening in women aged 35-39 years of age with a lifetime breast cancer risk of ≥ 17 % who are not receiving MRI screening. Retrospective analyses from five centres with robust recall systems identified 47 breast cancers (n = 12 in situ) with an interval cancer rate of 15/47 (32%). Invasive tumour size, lymph node status and current vital status were all significantly better than in two control groups of unscreened women (including those with a family history) recruited to the POSH study. Further evaluation of the prospective arm of FH02 is required to assess the potential added value of digital mammography and the cancer incidence rates in moderate and high risk women in order to inform cost effectiveness analyses.

  15. Family Structure and the Timing of Transitions from 70 to 103 Years of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian

    1996-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…

  16. Family Socioeconomic Status and Consistent Environmental Stimulation in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosnoe, Robert; Leventhal, Tama; Wirth, R. J.; Pierce, Kim M.; Pianta, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    The transition into school occurs at the intersection of multiple environmental settings. This study applied growth curve modeling to a sample of 1,364 American children, followed from birth through age 6, who had been categorized by their exposure to cognitive stimulation at home and in preschool child care and 1st-grade classrooms. Of special…

  17. Family group psychotherapy to support the disclosure of HIV status to children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nicastro, Emanuele; Continisio, Grazia Isabella; Storace, Cinzia; Bruzzese, Eugenia; Mango, Carmela; Liguoro, Ilaria; Guarino, Alfredo; Officioso, Annunziata

    2013-06-01

    Disclosure of the HIV status to infected children is often delayed due to psychosocial problems in their families. We aimed at improving the quality of life in families of HIV-infected children, thus promoting disclosure of the HIV status to children by parents. Parents of 17 HIV-infected children (4.2-18 years) followed at our Center for pediatric HIV, unaware of their HIV status, were randomly assigned to the intervention group (8 monthly sessions of family group psychotherapy, FGP) or to the control group not receiving psychotherapy. Changes in the Psychological General Well-Being Index (PGWB-I) and in the Short-Form State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Sf-STAI), as well as the HIV status disclosure to children by parents, were measured. Ten parents were assigned to the FGP group, while 7 parents to the controls. Psychological well-being increased in 70% of the FGP parents and none of the control group (p=0.017), while anxiety decreased in the FGP group but not in controls (60% vs. 0%, p=0.03). HIV disclosure took place for 6/10 children of the intervention group and for 1/7 of controls. Family group psychotherapy had a positive impact on the environment of HIV-infected children, promoting psychological well-being and the disclosure of the HIV status to children.

  18. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History.

    PubMed

    Giordimaina, Alicia M; Sheldon, Jane P; Kiedrowski, Lesli A; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-12-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey, nondiabetic Mexican Americans (n = 385), Blacks (n = 387), and Whites (n = 396) reported family histories of T2DM. Negative binomial regressions used age and gender to predict the number of affected relatives reported. Models were examined for the gender gap, parabolic age effect, and gender-by-age interaction predicted by kinkeeping. Results demonstrated support for gender and parabolic age effects but only among Whites. Kinkeeping may have application to the study of White family medical historians, but not Black or Mexican American historians, perhaps because of differences in family structure, salience of T2DM, and/or gender roles.

  19. Immigrant College Scholars in STEM: Generational Status, Family Achievement-Orientation, and Academic Outcomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beason, Tiffany S.

    Previous research has demonstrated that higher academic achievement among children of immigrants is related to higher academic expectations and aspirations among immigrant parents as compared to U.S.-born parents. The current study sought to further explore how family environment impacts the relation between immigrant generational status and academic outcomes. Specifically, it was hypothesized that family achievement-orientation, or family attitudes towards success at work or school, mediates the relation between immigrant generational status and academic outcomes (i.e. college GPA and career choice as indicated by graduate program entry). Results indicate that family achievement-orientation is higher among African American/Black children of immigrants than African Americans with US-born parents. Furthermore, African American/Black children of immigrants pursue the M.D. over the Ph.D. more often than their counterparts with US-born parents. The study concludes with a discussion of implications for future research.

  20. [Exploration of social support available to mothers of children with cancer, their health status, and other factors related to their family function].

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Ling; Chen, Jih-Yuan

    2008-12-01

    The mother is typically the primary caregiver for children suffering from cancer. The long-term care responsibilities involved with caring for a cancer-stricken child impacts upon the mother's family role and functions and causes lifestyle changes or imbalances. The aim of this study was to explore social support, health status, and related factors in families of children with cancer. This study adopted a cross-sectional descriptive design. Study subjects consisted of 120 mothers of children with cancer recruited from the outpatient and inpatient departments of two medical centers in southern Taiwan between January and April 2006. Research instruments included demographic characterizations of the children with cancer, their mothers, and families; the Social Support: Personal Resource Questionnaire (PRQ85) part 2, the Duke Health Profile (DUKE), and the Family Assessment Device (FAD). Results showed a mean score of social support for mothers of children with cancer was 131.21 out of a total possible 175. The standard score for social support was 75.0. The standard score for health was 67.15. The mean score of family functioning was 128.48 out of a total possible 240. The standard score of family function was 53.53. Mother's age, marriage, family type, family socioeconomic stage, disease stage, and relapse of child's disease all had a statistically significant relationship to family function. Significant positive relationships were identified between the two variables social support and health status and family function. Mother's health, social support, disease relapse, and mother's age were significant predictors of mother's family function, explaining 42% of variance in family function for mothers of children with cancer. We hope findings will help clinical health professionals identify and implement nursing strategies to increase the health of mothers and their children as well as promote social support to strengthen family functions.

  1. The intergenerational continuity of socioeconomic status: Effects of parenting, personality, and age at first romantic partnership.

    PubMed

    Senia, Jennifer M; Neppl, Tricia K; Gudmunson, Clinton G; Donnellan, M Brent; Lorenz, Frederick O

    2016-09-01

    Research has indicated that socioeconomic status (SES) is related to individual health and well-being, and may be transmitted across generations. According to the interactionist model, circumstances in the family of origin and individual characteristics both account for social, economic, and developmental outcomes associated with SES. Thus, for the present investigation, we evaluated continuities in SES across 2 generations (G1, G2) as mediated through G1 maternal positive parenting, G2 personality, and G2 age of first committed romantic partnership. Participants were 432 emerging adults from an ongoing longitudinal study. Consistent with the interactionist model, G1 SES was associated with G2 personality indirectly through G1 maternal positive parenting. G1 SES, G2 personality, and G2 first partnership directly predicted G2 SES. G1 maternal positive parenting was also indirectly associated with G2 age at first partnership through G2 personality. Findings were consistent across 2 broad personality domains-negative emotionality and constraint. However, positive emotionality was not associated with G2 age at partnership. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Nutritional status of under-five children from urban low-income families in Xiangtan and Jilin in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yan-Fang; Gan, Yin-Yan; Guo, Chao-Nan; Sun, Ju; Hao, Li-Ping

    2017-02-01

    There have been many studies on the nutrition and the growth status of children from rural and remote western regions of China, whereas researches on children from urban low-income families are scarce. This study aimed to investigate the growth and nutritional status of children under five years of age from urban low-income families in China. There were 169 children aged 25-60 months recruited from Xiangtan and Jilin, two cities with a population of 2.81 million and 4.26 million respectively, in China in this cluster cross-sectional study. Data were collected on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, the feeding practices and the incidence of anemia and diarrhea. The results showed that the prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia was 7.1% and 9.5% for the two cities, respectively, which was higher than that for other cities in China (1.5% and 5.9%). Of all the sampled children, 14.6% and 8.2% suffered anemia and diarrhea, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that legumes or nuts fed in a 24-h recall increased the risk of anemia (OR=4.9). Children whose caregivers began to introduce complementary foods relatively late would have high diarrhea prevalence (OR=1.4). In conclusion, the prevalence of anemia and diarrhea in under-five children from urban low-income families in China is relatively high. The growth and nutritional status of these children is greatly affected by feeding practices. A series of measures should be taken by relevant government departments to improve the health of these children.

  3. Japanese Children's Reactions to Family Photographs: Associations with Mothers' Attachment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behrens, Kazuko Y.; Umemura, Tomo

    2013-01-01

    This study examined differences in children's responses to their family photographs within a sample of Japanese 6-year-olds ("N"?=?44), exploring associations with their mothers' attachment status. The differences in children's photo reactions were captured by a 5-point continuous scale to rate how engaged children were and how…

  4. Family Socioeconomic Status and Student Adaptation to School Life: Looking beyond Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Renato G.; Novo, Rosa F.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this quantitative, cross-sectional study we analyse the relationship between family socioeconomic status (SES) and students' adaptation to school life, as expressed through several indicators of achievement, integration (adaptation to transitions, behaviour problems, risk behaviours, interpersonal difficulties, participation in…

  5. Haptics in Learning to Read with Children from Low Socio-Economic Status Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bara, Florence; Gentaz, Edouard; Cole, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of multi-sensory training on the understanding of the alphabetic principle in kindergarten children from low socio-economic status families. Two interventions were compared, called HVAM (visual and haptic exploration of letters) and VAM (visual exploration of letters). The interventions were conducted by either…

  6. Parenting, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Child Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…

  7. Is It Family Structure or Socioeconomic Status? Family Structure during Adolescence and Adult Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acock, Alan C.; Kiecolt, K. Jill

    1989-01-01

    In analyses controlling for socioeconomic status (SES), parental divorce during adolescence produced few negative effects on adult adjustment, and father's death during adolescence produced none. However, SES during adolescence and current SES affected nearly all aspects of adult adjustment, as did mother's and own educational attainment. Contains…

  8. Menarcheal age and subsequent patterns of family formation.

    PubMed

    Riley, A P; Weinstein, M; Ridley, J C; Mormino, J; Gorrindo, T

    2001-01-01

    We examine whether age at menarche affects age at first marriage or first birth using two samples of U.S. women. Data are drawn from the Tremin Trust, a longitudinal study of menstrual cycles that recruited white women who were students at the University of Minnesota and from a survey of a nationally representative sample of white women born between 1900 and 1910. Regression models with cubic splines were used to analyze the relationship between age at menarche and age at first marriage. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the effect of age at menarche on the interval between marriage and first birth. Unlike earlier work, we found that once secular trends in both age at marriage and age at menarche were taken into account, there was no evidence that age at menarche affects either age at marriage or the timing of first births in these U.S. women.

  9. Attachment Stability in Children Aged 6 to 9 Years in Extended and Nuclear Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…

  10. Early Family System Types Predict Children's Emotional Attention Biases at School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena

    2017-01-01

    The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…

  11. Notes on the Age of Maternity, Population Growth and Family Structure in the Past

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendels, Franklin F.

    1978-01-01

    Emphasizes that the age of marriage was effective in determining the birth rate and the rate of population growth; measures the magnitude of the effects of the age of marriage; and offers some observations on the relationships between age of marriage, age of male and female fertility, and family structure. (Author)

  12. Welfare: Income and Relative Poverty Status of AFDC (Aid to Families with Dependent Children) Families.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-04

    spending pat- terns of the poor . Also, some researchers believe that valuing medical care in determining incomes can distort recipients’ relative poverty ...faster than the overall cost of living, and recent surveys have found low - income fami- lies spend less than one-third of their income on food. The poverty ...AR9 995 NFARE: INCOME AND RELATIVE POVERTY STATUS OF AFDC i/ (AIDMON FA IIS11H U EN R CONIG OFWASHINGTO DC HUMN RESOURCES DIV. S4 MOV 67

  13. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable.

  14. Socio-Economic Status and Related Variables That Influence the Initiation of Professional Medical Care among Montana Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Jack J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine for a sample of Montana families if a positive relationship existed between the family's socioeconomic status and its medical initiation behavior, and then, controlling for socioeconomic status, to determine if a relationship existed between initiation of professional medical care and a number of…

  15. A Prospective Study of the Effects of Marital Status and Family Relations on Young Children's Adjustment among African American and European American Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Winslow, Emily B.; Flanagan, Clare

    1999-01-01

    Investigated effects of divorce and family relations on young children's development in ethnically diverse low-income families. Found that soon-to-be-divorced families demonstrated higher rates of preschool-age behavior problems, and already-divorced families showed similar trends. Parental conflict and behavior problems accounted for pre-divorce…

  16. Sleep complaints in middle-aged women and men: the contribution of working conditions and work-family conflicts.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Arber, Sara

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed to examine how physical working conditions, psychosocial working conditions and work-family conflicts are associated with sleep complaints, and whether health behaviours explain these associations. We used pooled postal questionnaire surveys collected in 2001-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n = 5819, response rate 66%). Participants were classified as having sleep complaints if they reported sleep complaints at least once a week on average (24% of women and 20% of men). Independent variables included environmental work exposures, physical workload, computer work, Karasek's job strain and work-family conflicts. Age, marital status, occupational class, work arrangements, health behaviours and obesity were adjusted for. Most working conditions were associated strongly with sleep complaints after adjustment for age only. After adjustment for work-family conflicts, the associations somewhat attenuated. Work-family conflicts were also associated strongly with women's [odds ratio (OR) 5.90; confidence interval (CI) 4.16-8.38] and men's sleep (OR 2.56; CI 1.34-4.87). The associations remained robust even after controlling for unhealthy behaviours, obesity, health status, depression and medications. Physically strenuous working conditions, psychosocial job strain and work-family conflicts may increase sleep complaints. Efforts to support employees to cope with psychosocial stress and reach a better balance between paid work and family life might reduce sleep complaints. Sleep complaints need to be taken into account in worksite health promotion and occupational health care in order to reduce the burden of poor sleep.

  17. Wolf nipple measurements as indices of age and breeding status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Meier, T.J.; Seal, U.S.

    1993-01-01

    We measured nipple sizes of 29 captive wolves (Canis lupus), of known breeding histories, throughout the year and tested distinctions among various known breeding statuses of 20 wild wolves examined in northeastern Minnesota from May through September. For ca. 8 mo of the year only breeders and nonbreeders can be classified. Distinctions between current and former breeders were not reliable.

  18. Measures of Overweight Status in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…

  19. IMMIGRATION ENFORCEMENT AND MIXED-STATUS FAMILIES: THE EFFECTS OF RISK OF DEPORTATION ON MEDICAID USE.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Edward D

    2015-10-01

    As Congress priorities the immigration debate on increased border security, the fate of an estimated 11 million undocumented citizens remains uncertain. Stuck in between partisan politics and practical solutions are mixed-status families in which some members of the family are U.S. citizens while other members are in the country without proper authorization. This paper, examines the relationship between risk of deportation and Medicaid use drawing from a nationally sample of mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey. These data are then merged with data from the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services to create a contextual risk of deportation measure. Findings suggest that an increase in risk of deportation is associated with a decrease in Medicaid use. The implications of this work have tremendous impacts for health service providers and policy makers interested in preventing and reducing health disparities in complex family structures.

  20. IMMIGRATION ENFORCEMENT AND MIXED-STATUS FAMILIES: THE EFFECTS OF RISK OF DEPORTATION ON MEDICAID USE

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    As Congress priorities the immigration debate on increased border security, the fate of an estimated 11 million undocumented citizens remains uncertain. Stuck in between partisan politics and practical solutions are mixed-status families in which some members of the family are U.S. citizens while other members are in the country without proper authorization. This paper, examines the relationship between risk of deportation and Medicaid use drawing from a nationally sample of mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey. These data are then merged with data from the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services to create a contextual risk of deportation measure. Findings suggest that an increase in risk of deportation is associated with a decrease in Medicaid use. The implications of this work have tremendous impacts for health service providers and policy makers interested in preventing and reducing health disparities in complex family structures. PMID:26435562

  1. [Morphofunctional status of gonadotropic cells of the adenohypophysis at early stages of age involution].

    PubMed

    Kozak, M V; Teplyĭ, D L

    2007-01-01

    Action of alpha-tocopherol, emoxipinum on functional status of gonadotropic cells was investigated at deficiency of sexual hormones in male and female rats of Wistar line. The alpha-tocopherol slows down aging of gonadotropic cells after gonadectomy.

  2. Trajectory of Life Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Subjective Economic Status and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economic status and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective…

  3. Associations between maternal older age, family environment and parent and child wellbeing in families using assisted reproductive techniques to conceive.

    PubMed

    Boivin, J; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M B; Thapar, Anita

    2009-06-01

    Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (<31 years) or older (>38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4-11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n=642) and fathers (n=439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood.

  4. Adoption Status and Family Relationships During the Transition to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Walkner, Amy J.; Rueter, Martha A.

    2015-01-01

    While adoptive family research has increased, most has focused on childhood and adolescence. Despite the known importance of parent-adolescent relationships drawn from the general population, we know little about how adoptive family relationships change or remain the same as adopted adolescents enter young adulthood. Utilizing the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, the purpose of this study is to build upon previous research to explore differences in conflict, closeness, and relationship quality between adoptive and nonadoptive families during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood. Self-report and independent observations were collected from children, mothers, and fathers at late adolescence (14.50–18.49 years) and young adulthood (18.50–22.49 years), and analyzed using within subjects repeated measures. While adoptive family dyads had lower relationship indicators compared to nonadoptive family dyads, similar trends over time occurred for both family types. Using individuation theory, we suggest individuation occurs for both types of families, with adoptees facing unique additional challenges during this process, including integration of adoption status, adoption communicativeness, adoption information seeking, and relationship with birth parents as possible influences in this process. PMID:25221972

  5. Adoption status and family relationships during the transition to young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Walkner, Amy J; Rueter, Martha A

    2014-12-01

    Although adoptive family research has increased, most has focused on childhood and adolescence. Despite the known importance of parent-adolescent relationships drawn from the general population, we know little about how adoptive family relationships change or remain the same as adopted adolescents enter young adulthood. Using the Sibling Interaction and Behavior Study, the purpose of this study was to build on previous research to explore differences in conflict, closeness, and relationship quality between adoptive and nonadoptive families during the transition from late adolescence into young adulthood. Self-report and independent observations were collected from children, mothers, and fathers at late adolescence (range: 14.50-18.49 years) and young adulthood (range:18.50-22.49 years), and analyzed using within-subjects repeated measures. Although adoptive family dyads had lower relationship indicators than nonadoptive family dyads, similar trends over time occurred for both family types. Using individuation theory, we suggest individuation occurs for both types of families, with adoptees facing unique additional challenges during this process, including integration of adoption status, adoption communicativeness, adoption information seeking, and relationship with birth parents as possible influences in this process.

  6. Prevalence of bullying and victimization among children in early elementary school: Do family and school neighbourhood socioeconomic status matter?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bullying and victimization are widespread phenomena in childhood and can have a serious impact on well-being. Children from families with a low socioeconomic background have an increased risk of this behaviour, but it is unknown whether socioeconomic status (SES) of school neighbourhoods is also related to bullying behaviour. Furthermore, as previous bullying research mainly focused on older children and adolescents, it remains unclear to what extent bullying and victimization affects the lives of younger children. The aim of this study is to examine the prevalence and socioeconomic disparities in bullying behaviour among young elementary school children. Methods The study was part of a population-based survey in the Netherlands. Teacher reports of bullying behaviour and indicators of SES of families and schools were available for 6379 children aged 5–6 years. Results One-third of the children were involved in bullying, most of them as bullies (17%) or bully-victims (13%), and less as pure victims (4%). All indicators of low family SES and poor school neighbourhood SES were associated with an increased risk of being a bully or bully-victim. Parental educational level was the only indicator of SES related with victimization. The influence of school neighbourhood SES on bullying attenuated to statistical non-significance once adjusted for family SES. Conclusions Bullying and victimization are already common problems in early elementary school. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged families, rather than children visiting schools in disadvantaged neighbourhoods, have a particularly high risk of involvement in bullying. These findings suggest the need of timely bullying preventions and interventions that should have a special focus on children of families with a low socioeconomic background. Future studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of such programs. PMID:22747880

  7. Widowhood in old age: Viewed in a family context☆

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney Z.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers and clinicians have traditionally explored widowhood as an intrapersonal process. We expand the paradigm of bereavement research to explore the widow's perceptions of her experience within a family context. In a study of family bereavement, 24 widows each participated in 2 separate qualitative interviews, followed by standard qualitative analyses of the transcribed narratives. Three inter-related central topics emerged. (1) Widows stress the importance of their independence vis a vis their family as central to their sense of identity. (2) Widows perceive that they and their adult children avoid expressing their feelings of sadness and loss with each other. (3) Widows believe that their children are unable to understand the meaning of the widows' loss because of differences in generations and life situations. Two inter-woven underlying themes emerged: protection of self and of other, and boundaries between widow and children. Just as protection is rooted in a dynamic of separation between widow and child, boundaries are rooted in their deep bond. When researchers and clinicians recognize the dynamics of these two themes they can potentially increase understanding of widowhood within the context of the family. PMID:24655677

  8. Widowhood in old age: viewed in a family context.

    PubMed

    Moss, Miriam S; Moss, Sidney Z

    2014-04-01

    Researchers and clinicians have traditionally explored widowhood as an intrapersonal process. We expand the paradigm of bereavement research to explore the widow's perceptions of her experience within a family context. In a study of family bereavement, 24 widows each participated in 2 separate qualitative interviews, followed by standard qualitative analyses of the transcribed narratives. Three inter-related central topics emerged. (1) Widows stress the importance of their independence vis a vis their family as central to their sense of identity. (2) Widows perceive that they and their adult children avoid expressing their feelings of sadness and loss with each other. (3) Widows believe that their children are unable to understand the meaning of the widows' loss because of differences in generations and life situations. Two inter-woven underlying themes emerged: protection of self and of other, and boundaries between widow and children. Just as protection is rooted in a dynamic of separation between widow and child, boundaries are rooted in their deep bond. When researchers and clinicians recognize the dynamics of these two themes they can potentially increase understanding of widowhood within the context of the family.

  9. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Lovat, L B

    1996-01-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  10. Body Weight Status and Dietary Intakes of Urban Malay Primary School Children: Evidence from the Family Diet Study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wai Yew; Burrows, Tracy; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Williams, Lauren T.; Collins, Clare E.; Chee, Winnie Siew Swee; Colyvas, Kim

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia is experiencing a rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity. Evidence for the relationship between dietary intake and body weight among Malaysian children is limited, with the impact of energy intake misreporting rarely being considered. This paper describes the dietary intakes of urban Malay children in comparison to national recommendations and by weight status. This cross-sectional Family Diet Study (n = 236) was conducted in five national primary schools in Malaysia (August 2013–October 2014). Data on socio-demographics, anthropometrics, 24-h dietary recalls, and food habits were collected from Malay families, consisting of a child aged 8 to 12 years and their main caregiver(s). Multivariable analyses were used to assess dietary intake-body weight relationships. The plausibility of energy intake was determined using the Black and Cole method. Approximately three in 10 Malay children were found to be overweight or obese. The majority reported dietary intakes less than national recommendations. Children with obesity had the lowest energy intakes relative to body weight (kcal/kg) compared to children in other weight categories (F = 36.21, p < 0.001). A positive moderate correlation between energy intake and weight status was identified (r = 0.53, p < 0.001) after excluding energy intake mis-reporters (n = 95), highlighting the need for the validation of dietary assessment in obesity-related dietary research in Malaysia. PMID:28117690

  11. Children's After-School Physical Activity Participation in Hong Kong: Does Family Socioeconomic Status Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Peggy PY

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between parental socioeconomic status (SES) and children's physical activity (PA) behaviour during after-school hours. Design: Cross-sectional study. Methods: Participants included 663 schoolchildren (aged between 10 and 13 years) and their parents from nine primary schools in Hong Kong.…

  12. The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement for young children in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Bairagi, R; Edmonston, B; Hye, A

    1991-01-01

    The influence of nutritional status on age misstatement in 1981 among 679 children aged 22-59 months in Companyganj, Bangladesh, is examined. The age limits were established to represent the most vulnerable age group; age information 22 months was unavailable. Calibrated scales were used for measurement. Weight was measured within 100 g, and height and arm circumference within .1 cm. Age error was calculated as actual age minus reported age. Weight for age (WA) and height for age (HA) were also calculated for actual and reported age. The Polish standard was used to calculate arm circumference for age (ACA). This rural area revealed findings different from those previously reported for the Matlab area. Systematic and random error was higher in Companyganj. Interviewer bias needs to be investigated as 1 possible explanation for the differences. There was a difference of 4.1 months between the best and worst interviewer. Although child's sex and mother's age were associated with age error in the Matlab study, child's sex was found to be insignificant. The Matlab study included children 0-14 years, which may explain the difference. The nutritional status of children influenced different interviewers, and literate and illiterate mothers report ages differently. The reasons given are the varying expectations of both the interviewers and the mothers of normal growth patterns by age. A malnourished child might be underestimated and a well-nourished child overestimated. The illiterate mother may be influenced by the opinions of the interviewer or not know the child's actual birth date, and then understate the age. The results are that there was age overreporting for each age group. The standard deviation of the age error reveals random error. The standard error increases with age. The systematic error and random error are significantly higher than in comparable Matlab data. In the analysis of nutritional status, mother's education, and interviewer, nutritional status was

  13. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel: status and program

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Ayrault, G.

    1983-10-01

    A program has been initiated to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. The existing data are reviewed to determine the critical parameters that control the aging behavior and to define the objectives and scope of the investigation. The test matrices for microstructural studies and mechanical property measurements are presented. The initial experimental effort is focussed on characterizing the microstructure of long-term, low-temperature aged material. Specimens from three heats of cast CF-8 and CF-8M stainless steel aged for up to 70,000 h at 300, 350, and 400/sup 0/C were obtained from George Fisher Ltd., of Switzerland. Initial analyses reveal the formation of three different types of precipitates which are not ..cap alpha..'. An FCC phase, similar to the M/sub 23/C/sub 6/ precipitates, was present in all the long-term aged material. 15 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Changes of telomere status with aging: An update.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Naoshi; Nakamura, Ken-Ichi; Izumiyama-Shimomura, Naotaka; Aida, Junko; Matsuda, Yoko; Arai, Tomio; Takubo, Kaiyo

    2016-03-01

    Accumulated data have shown that most human somatic cells or tissues show irreversible telomere shortening with age, and that there are strong associations between telomere attrition and aging-related diseases, including cancers, diabetes and cognitive disorders. Although it has been largely accepted that telomere attrition is one of the major causes of aging-related disorders, critical aspects of telomere biology remain unresolved, especially the lack of standardized methodology for quantification of telomere length. Another frustrating issue is that no potentially promising methods for safe prevention of telomere erosion, or for telomere elongation, have been devised. Here, we review several methods for quantification of telomere length currently utilized worldwide, considering their advantages and drawbacks. We also summarize the results of our recent studies of human cells and tissues, mainly using quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization and Southern blotting, including those derived from patients with progeria-prone Werner syndrome and trisomy 21, and several strains of induced pluripotent stem cells. We discuss the possible merits of using telomere shortness as an indicator, or a new marker, for diagnosis of precancerous states and aging-related disorders. In addition, we describe newly found factors that are thought to impact telomere dynamics, providing a new avenue for examining the unsolved issues related to telomere restoration and maintenance.

  15. Association between physique characteristics and hand skeletal aging status.

    PubMed

    Kalichman, Leonid; Malkin, Ida; Kobyliansky, Eugene

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between skeletal aging traits (obtained from evaluation of hand radiographs) and physique characteristics, including indices of obesity, skeletal size, muscular development, and the somatotypes of Heath and Carter (1967) and of Deriabin (1985). To achieve our aims, we used multiple regression analysis, and Pearson's and canonical correlation analyses. The studied population comprised 629 males and 561 females aged 18-90 years, all members of the Chuvasha (Russian Federation). The present study provides evidence for a connection between hand bone aging traits and physique characteristics. The cortical index showed a small but significant correlation with adiposity and the index of overall physique, but bone mineral density (BMD) traits were not correlated with the index of overall physique. Deriabin's set of somatotypes was significantly correlated with BMD, but could explain only 2% of its variation. Significant correlations of the hand osteoarthritis trait were observed with indices of adiposity. Also observed were statistically significant canonical correlations with both sets of somatotypes, which enabled us to predict 2-3% of hand osteoarthritis variation by a combination of somatotype components. Osseometric score evinced statistically significant correlations with most indices of physique as well as with a combination of somatotype components. These findings may prove helpful in epidemiological studies, because they show that body composition is the factor that is statistically significantly associated with skeletal aging.

  16. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  17. Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological findings regarding carotid plaque status and aging

    PubMed Central

    Milei, José; Lavezzi, Anna M; Bruni, Barbara; Grana, Daniel R; Azzato, Francisco; Matturri, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carotid barochemoreceptor pathological lesions have been studied in animals, but few human necropsies have been performed. Therefore, data rely on case patients following surgery, radiotherapy and carotid endarterectomy. Almost no data are available regarding whether the effect of aging prevails over pathological conditions, despite the classic description that glomic fibrosis increases with age. OBJECTIVE: To morphometrically characterize the alterations of the carotid barochemoreceptors and their supplying arteries. METHODS: Patients (n=23) who had suffered and died from stroke, with and without complicated internal carotid atheromatosis, were divided by age (group 1: older than 80 years; group 2: 65 to 80 years; and group 3: younger than 65 years). Carotid segments were obtained at autopsy. The specimens were stained for light microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Carotid glomus presented from moderate-to-severe atrophy and fibrosis. A focal decrease in vascularization (CD34-positive) of the glomus (greater than 50%) was observed in areas of atrophy and fibrosis. Damaged nerve endings (S100 protein-positive) were observed at the media of the carotid sinus. Morphometric data showed no differences between groups for glomus area, number of type 1 and 2 cells, and the wall to lumen arteriole ratio. No statistical differences were demonstrated in the pathological findings of the carotid glomus when comparing complicated with noncomplicated plaques or age groups. CONCLUSION: Severe carotid chemoreceptor damage exists in patients who have died from stroke and suffered from carotid atheromatosis. These findings were independent from aging and plaque type. However, damage was correlated with a marked narrowing of the supplying arterioles as a consequence of hemodynamic and/or metabolic alterations (dyslipidemia, diabetes). PMID:19148350

  18. Different reasons, different results: implications of migration by gender and family status.

    PubMed

    Geist, Claudia; McManus, Patricia A

    2012-02-01

    Previous research on migration and gendered career outcomes centers on couples and rarely examines the reason for the move. The implicit assumption is usually that households migrate in response to job opportunities. Based on a two-year panel from the Current Population Survey, this article uses stated reasons for geographic mobility to compare earnings outcomes among job migrants, family migrants, and quality-of-life migrants by gender and family status. We further assess the impact of migration on couples' internal household economy. The effects of job-related moves that we find are reduced substantially in the fixed-effects models, indicating strong selection effects. Married women who moved for family reasons experience significant and substantial earnings declines. Consistent with conventional models of migration, we find that household earnings and income and gender specialization increase following job migration. Married women who are secondary earners have increased odds of reducing their labor supply following migration for job or family reasons. However, we also find that migrating women who contributed as equals to the household economy before the move are no more likely than nonmigrant women to exit work or to work part-time. Equal breadwinner status may protect women from becoming tied movers.

  19. Correlation between Food Schemes and Children Nutrient Status at the Toddler's Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnaningsih, Tri; Lestari, Indah

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient in the meal is very important, especially for the children at the toddler's age. The aim of this research was to know the correlation between the food schemes with the children nutrient status at the toddler's age (1-3 years). The research design was cross sectional. The population for this research was all of the mothers and the…

  20. How Special Education Preschool Graduates Finish: Status at 19 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Joseph R.; Dale, Philip S.; Mills, Paulette E.; Cole, Kevin N.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the academic and special education status of 129 graduates of special education preschools at 19 years of age. Participants had been randomly assigned to either direct instruction or mediated learning preschool classrooms. At age 19, their achievement was approximately one standard deviation below average. Consistent with…

  1. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  2. Relationship of Age, Marital Status, and Work Experience of Community College Nursing Students to Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerichs, Marian L.

    To investigate differences in academic success due to age (younger or older than age 23), marital status, and nursing experience, a three-way analysis of variance was performed on the grade point averages of 1,435 female nursing students enrolled in 22 Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs in Illinois. The sample, representing over 90 percent of…

  3. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  4. Family and Community Influences on Health and Socioeconomic Status: Sibling Correlations Over the Life Course.

    PubMed

    Mazumder, Bhashkar

    2011-09-06

    This paper presents new estimates of sibling correlations in health and socioeconomic outcomes over the life course in the U.S. Sibling correlations provide an omnibus measure of the importance of all family and community influences. I find that sibling correlations in a range of health and socioeconomic outcomes start quite high at birth and remain high over the life course. The sibling correlation in birth weight is estimated to be 0.5. Sibling correlations in test scores during childhood are as high as 0.6. Sibling correlations in adult men's wages are also around 0.5. Decompositions provide suggestive evidence on which pathways may account for the gradients in health and SES by family background. For example, sibling correlations in cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills during childhood are lower controlling for family income. Similarly, parent education levels can account for a sizable portion of the correlation in adult health status among brothers.

  5. Family and Community Influences on Health and Socioeconomic Status: Sibling Correlations Over the Life Course*

    PubMed Central

    Mazumder, Bhashkar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents new estimates of sibling correlations in health and socioeconomic outcomes over the life course in the U.S. Sibling correlations provide an omnibus measure of the importance of all family and community influences. I find that sibling correlations in a range of health and socioeconomic outcomes start quite high at birth and remain high over the life course. The sibling correlation in birth weight is estimated to be 0.5. Sibling correlations in test scores during childhood are as high as 0.6. Sibling correlations in adult men’s wages are also around 0.5. Decompositions provide suggestive evidence on which pathways may account for the gradients in health and SES by family background. For example, sibling correlations in cognitive skills and non-cognitive skills during childhood are lower controlling for family income. Similarly, parent education levels can account for a sizable portion of the correlation in adult health status among brothers. PMID:23412989

  6. Early detection of age related macular degeneration: current status.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Roy; Loewenstein, Anat

    2015-01-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV), a main cause of severe vision loss in age related macular degeneration (AMD), is crucial in order to preserve vision and the quality of life of patients. This review summarizes current literature on the subject of early detection of CNV, both in the clinic setting and mainly in the patient's home. New technologies are evolving to allow for earlier detection and thus vision preservation in AMD patients.

  7. Transmission and age-at-onset patterns in familial Alzheimer's disease: evidence for heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Farrer, L A; Myers, R H; Cupples, L A; St George-Hyslop, P H; Bird, T D; Rossor, M N; Mullan, M J; Polinsky, R; Nee, L; Heston, L

    1990-03-01

    We evaluated age at onset and lifetime risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 70 kindreds with familial AD (designated FAD) composed of 541 affected and 1,066 unaffected offspring of demented parents who were identified retrospectively. Using a survival analysis method which takes into account affected persons with unknown onset ages and unaffected persons with unknown censoring ages, we found lifetime risk of AD among at-risk offspring by age 87 to be 64%. Analysis of age at onset among kindreds showed evidence for a bimodal distribution: in this sample, families with a mean onset age of less than 58 years were designated as having early-onset, while late-onset families had a mean onset age greater than 58 years. At-risk offspring in early-onset families had an estimated lifetime risk for dementia of 53%, which is significantly less than the risk of 86% that was estimated for offspring in late-onset families. Men and women in early-onset families had equivalent risk of dementia. In late-onset families, the risk to female offspring was somewhat higher than to male offspring but this difference was marginally significant. Lifetime risk of dementia in early-onset FAD kindreds is consistent with an autosomal dominant inheritance model. Our results may suggest that late-onset FAD has at least 2 etiologies; AD in some families may be transmitted as a dominant trait, whereas a proportion of cases in these and other late-onset families may be caused by other genetic or shared environmental factors.

  8. The Relationship of Family Background Factors and Neurological Status to Hyperactivity in a Normal Class Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Frank E.; Hayden, Benjamin S.

    Boys, aged 6-10 in regular classes, who were judged as hyperactive by their teachers were compared with matched non-hyperkinetic boys in terms of family background information and neurological functioning. Parent interview data were obtained on 109 hyperkinetic and 135 control Ss, while 121 hyperkinetic and 142 control Ss underwent pediatric…

  9. Mis-reporting, previous health status and health status of family may seriously bias the association between food patterns and disease

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Food pattern analyses are popular tools in the study of associations between diet and health. However, there is a need for further evaluation of this methodology. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to evaluate the relationship between food pattern groups (FPG) and existing health, and to identify factors influencing this relationship. Methods The inhabitants of Västerbotten County in northern Sweden are invited to health check-ups when they turn 30, 40, 50, and 60 years of age. The present study includes data collected from almost 60,000 individuals between 1992 and 2005. Associations between FPG (established using K-means cluster analyses) and health were analyzed separately in men and women. Results The health status of the participants and their close family and reporting accuracy differed significantly between men and women and among FPG. Crude regression analyses, with the high fat FPG as reference, showed increased risks for several health outcomes for all other FPGs in both sexes. However, when limiting analysis to individuals without previous ill-health and with adequate energy intake reports, most of the risks instead showed a trend towards protective effects. Conclusions Food pattern classifications reflect both eating habits and other own and family health related factors, a finding important to remember and to adjust for before singling out the diet as a primary cause for present and future health problems. Appropriate exclusions are suggested to avoid biases and attenuated associations in nutrition epidemiology. PMID:21034501

  10. The Nuclear War Age Barrier within the Nuclear Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConnell, Stephen C.; And Others

    This document notes that the literature addressing children's nuclear fears suggests that children are introduced to the nuclear threat by ways that do not provide dialogue and without regard to the age appropriate needs of the child, and that parents seem to be protecting their children from the horror of a holocaust by not talking about the…

  11. Family Stress, Perception of Pregnancy, and Age of First Menarche among Pregnant Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravert, April A; Martin, Jennifer

    1997-01-01

    Examines family-of-origin stress, age of first menarche, and the perceptions of pregnancy as a life event in 97 pregnant adolescents. Participants' reported high levels of family stress with only a moderate level of impact or stress attributed to the pregnancy. As a group, the girls' first menarche matched national averages. (RJM)

  12. Dancing across the Curriculum: Family Folklore in a Multi-Age Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingwersen, Henry

    1993-01-01

    A teacher introduced folklore to multiage groups of students aged 5-12 by encouraging them to work together on projects that included locating family origins on a map, collecting family recipes for a cookbook, compiling a photo album, and writing a play based on war stories gathered from relatives. (LP)

  13. How to Talk to a School Age Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family

    MedlinePlus

    ... Talk to a School Age Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to help inform and ... six to twelve year old child after a suicide attempt in the family. It is not intended to replace the advice ...

  14. Family Care of the Aged in the United States: Policy Issues from an International Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosberg, Jordan I.

    This paper addresses issues related to the care of the aged by informal caregivers, government support of such care, and policy changes that might result in improved care of the elderly population. In its treatment of family responsibility for the elderly, it calls attention to several trends: (1) family members will be increasingly unavailable to…

  15. Gender Differences in the Age-Changing Relationship between Instrumentality and Family Contact in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…

  16. Family Economic Hardship and Progression of Poor Mental Health in Middle-Aged Husbands and Wives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker

    2012-01-01

    Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes…

  17. Predicting Treatment Dropout in Parent Training Interventions for Families of School-Aged Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.

    2013-01-01

    Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…

  18. Historical evolution and present status of family medicine in sri lanka.

    PubMed

    Ramanayake, R P J C

    2013-04-01

    Sri Lankan health system consists of Allopathic, Ayurvedic, Unani, and several other systems of medicine and allopathic medicine is catering to the majority of the health needs of the people. As in many other countries, Sri Lankan health system consists of both the state and the private sector General practitioners, MOs in OPDs of hospitals and MOs of central dispensaries, provide primary medical care in Sri Lanka. Most of the general practices are solo practices. One does not need postgraduate qualification or training in general practice to start a general practice. There is no registered population for any particular health care institution in the state sector or in the private sector and there is no strict referral procedure from primary care to secondary or tertiary care. Family doctors have been practicing in Sri Lanka for well over 150 years. The first national organization of general practitioners was Independent Medical Practitioner (IMPA)'s organization which was founded in 1929 and the College of General Practitioners of Sri Lanka was founded in 1974. College conducts its own Membership Course and Examination (MCGP) since 1999. Family Medicine was introduced to undergraduate curriculum in Sri Lanka in early 1980s and now almost all the medical faculties in the country have included Family Medicine in their curricula. In 1979, General Practice/Family Medicine was recognized as a specialty in Sri Lanka by the postgraduate institute of Medicine. Diploma in Family Medicine (DFM) and MD Family Medicine are the pathways for postgraduate training in Sri Lanka. At present 50 to 60 doctors enroll for DFM every year and the country has about 20 specialists (with MD) in Family Medicine. The author's vision for the future is that all the primary care doctors to have a postgraduate qualification in Family Medicine either DFM, MD, or MCGP which is a far cry from the present status.

  19. Sex Differences in Language Across Early Childhood: Family Socioeconomic Status does not Impact Boys and Girls Equally

    PubMed Central

    Barbu, Stéphanie; Nardy, Aurélie; Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Guellaï, Bahia; Glas, Ludivine; Juhel, Jacques; Lemasson, Alban

    2015-01-01

    Child sex and family socioeconomic status (SES) have been repeatedly identified as a source of inter-individual variation in language development; yet their interactions have rarely been explored. While sex differences are the focus of a renewed interest concerning emerging language skills, data remain scarce and are not consistent across preschool years. The questions of whether family SES impacts boys and girls equally, as well as of the consistency of these differences throughout early childhood, remain open. We evaluated consistency of sex differences across SES and age by focusing on how children (N = 262), from 2;6 to 6;4 years old, from two contrasting social backgrounds, acquire a frequent phonological alternation in French – the liaison. By using a picture naming task eliciting the production of obligatory liaisons, we found evidence of sex differences over the preschool years in low-SES children, but not between high-SES boys and girls whose performances were very similar. Low-SES boys’ performances were the poorest whereas low-SES girls’ performances were intermediate, that is, lower than those of high-SES children of both sexes but higher than those of low-SES boys. Although all children’s mastery of obligatory liaisons progressed with age, our findings showed a significant impeding effect of low-SES, especially for boys. PMID:26696938

  20. Activities, family relationships and feelings about aging in a multicultural elderly sample.

    PubMed

    Harris, M B; Begay, C; Page, P

    1989-01-01

    This study looked at ethnic and gender differences in activities, family relationships, and feelings about aging in 128 American Indian, Anglo, and Hispanic adults over sixty. Reading, visiting, and watching television were the most popular activities for all subjects, with a number of sex and ethnic differences appearing. Most subjects reported improved relationships with their families on various dimensions after turning sixty. A number of advantages and disadvantages of aging were mentioned. Few ethnic or gender differences were found on these latter variables.

  1. Hydrocarbon status of soils under different ages of oil contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Kovach, R. G.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Khlynina, N. I.

    2016-05-01

    Modifications of the hydrocarbon status (HCS) of soils at the stages of the injection input of oil pollutants and the subsequent self-purification of the soil layer from technogenesis products have been revealed in studies conducted on an oil field. Comparison with the HCS of background soils has been performed. Changes in the composition and concentration of bitumoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hydrocarbon gases have been established. The HCS of a freshly contaminated soil is characterized by the predominance of butane (the highest component) in the gaseous phase, an abrupt increase in the concentration of second-kind bitumoids, and a 100-fold increase in the content of PAHs compared to the background soil. In the old contaminated soil, free and fixed methane becomes the predominant gas; the content of bitumoids in the upper soil horizons is lower than in the freshly contaminated soils by two orders of magnitude but higher than in the background soil by an order of magnitude; the PAH composition in the soil with old residual contamination remains slightly more diverse than in the background soil.

  2. Influence of immunologic status on age prediction using signal joint T cell receptor excision circles.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sohee; Seo, Hee Jin; Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Moon Young; Lee, Soong Deok

    2017-02-01

    Age estimation based on quantifying signal joint T cell receptor excision circle (sjTREC) in T cells has been established to be a promising approach in forensic practice and demonstrated in different ethnic groups. Considering that the homeostasis of T cells carrying sjTRECs is closely related to the immunologic status of a person, it is important to investigate the influence of various immunologic statuses on the age estimation model. In this study, quantification of sjTREC contents was performed for groups of people with various immune system statuses, and the result showed less correlation with chronological age (r (2) = 0.424) than in the healthy group (r (2) = 0.648). The simulation model indicated that this influence could increase the range of prediction in the age estimation model, and the mean absolute deviation (MAD) between chronological age and predicted age. Through this study, it was demonstrated that immunologic status is a factor that affects the accuracy of age prediction using sjTREC quantification.

  3. [Family dynamics in the caring context of adults on the fourth age].

    PubMed

    Polaro, Sandra Helena Isse; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; Nassar, Silvia Modesto; Lopes, Márcia Maria Bragança; Ferreira, Viviane Ferraz; Monteiro, Hellen Karinna

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the pattern of family functioning on everyday care relationships of adults in the fourth age. This is a study of diagnostic-evaluative nature of adults with 80 or more years old who depend on care, and of their relatives as caregivers. The participants were selected among the registered patients of a Family Health Unit in a district in the suburbs of Belém-PA, Brazil. They were evaluated according to the dynamics of their family, and quality of life related health lifestyle. Most of the elderly rated their families with good functionality. However, data on the elderly and caregivers' quality of life and caregivers' life style only reached the median level, showing some difficulty in the family functioning system. It was concluded that the multiple results obtained through the assessments indicate some practical implications of care to the family unity and confirm the need for multidimensional assessment about the family intervention.

  4. Mixed-Status Immigrant Families in the United States: The Role of Social Justice in Intervention Research.

    PubMed

    Whipps, Mackenzie D M; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    More than 4 million unauthorized parents of legal status children currently reside in the United States (Capps, Fix, & Zong, 2016). Developmental scientists and intervention researchers hoping to work with these mixed-status families face a myriad of challenges, largely generated from the population's policy-driven social exclusion. Despite the challenges, there is a moral imperative to work with and support parents and children currently living in mixed-status households. This chapter applies a social justice perspective, largely stemming from Prilleltensky's critical community psychological framework, to improve the relevance and usefulness of research on mixed-status families (Prilleltensky & Nelson, 1997). We discuss the utility of this social justice perspective in theory building, study design and implementation, and dissemination of findings regarding mixed-status families, with exemplars from recent research.

  5. The age of the Veritas asteroid family deduced by chaotic chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Andrea; Farinella, Paolo

    1994-07-01

    ASTEROID families are groups of objects produced in disruptive collisions of a parent body. Although family members are widely dispersed in real space, they cluster in the parameter space defined by their so-called proper elements, and can thus be distinguished from the background asteroid population1-3. For most asteroids, these parameters are very close to being invariants of motion and families are still apparent billions of years after their formation4'5. But these parameters undergo chaotic diffusion, and in some cases the rate of diffusion might be large enough that a family member exits from the region of proper-element space occupied by the family after a characteristic time which is shorter than the lifetime of the Solar System. In this case, the characteristic time should provide an approximate upper bound to the age of the family. Here we use this 'chaotic chronology' method to estimate the lifetime of the unusually compact Veritas family. Calculations of the evolu-tion of the proper elements of the family show that two members (including the largest, 490 Veritas) wander outside the borders of the family on a timescale of about 50 Myr, indicating that the family has an age of less than this.

  6. Mapping social capital: a critical contextual approach for working with low-status families.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Marisol; McDowell, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Promoting justice in therapeutic work with families demands an analysis of contextual factors such as race, ethnicity, gender, and social class in relationship to societal systems of power, privilege, and oppression. A broad understanding of these dynamics, however, is inadequate to inform our work with families whose social capital severely limits available life choices, social influence, and material resources. In this article, we describe working from a critical contextual perspective to consider how families gain and/or lose social capital through participation in multiple contexts. We introduce a technique for mapping social capitol within and across multiple systems as well as suggestions for interventions aimed at increasing the social well-being of low-status families. These include considering the dynamics of boundary crossing, recognizing and optimizing resistance to oppressive dynamics, finding ways to limit constraints and optimize opportunities, and developing webs of allies to support family functioning and access to resources. We offer the example of 13-year-old Pepe as a case in point.

  7. Infant Temperament: Stability by Age, Gender, Birth Order, Term Status, and SES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  8. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-06-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions.

  9. Ecological determinants of mean family age of angiosperm trees in forest communities in China

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin

    2016-01-01

    Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109

  10. Work-family conflict among members of full-time dual-earner couples: an examination of family life stage, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Allen, Tammy D; Finkelstein, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    Based on cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study investigates relationships between gender, age, and work-family conflict across 6 family life stages. Participants were 690 married/partnered employees who worked 35 or more hours a week. Results indicated a small but negative relationship between age and work-family conflict. Work-family conflict was also associated with family stage, with the least amount of conflict occurring during the empty nest stage and the most occurring when the youngest child in the home was 5 years of age or younger. Gender differences were also observed. Specifically, men reported more work interference with family than did women when the youngest child in the home was a teen. Women overall reported more family interference with work than did men. Results concerning age and gender revealed a different pattern demonstrating that family stage is not simply a proxy for age. Age had a main effect on work-to-family conflict that was monotonic in nature and on family to-work conflict that was linear in nature. In conclusion, the results indicate gender, age, and family stage each uniquely relate to work-family conflict.

  11. The age-crime curve in adolescence and early adulthood is not due to age differences in economic status.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Elizabeth P; Steinberg, Laurence D; Piquero, Alex R

    2013-06-01

    One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"-the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that the widely-observed adolescent peak in rates of offending is not a consequence of developmental factors, but rather an artifact of age differences in economic status. Youngsters, they argue, offend more than adults because they are poorer than adults. The present study challenges Brown and Males' proposition by analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY97; N = 8,984; 51% female; 26% Black, 21% Hispanic, 52% non-Black, non-Hispanic; ages 12-18 at Wave 1), which collected measures of criminal behavior and economic status at multiple time points. Consistent with scores of other studies, we find that criminal offending peaks in adolescence, even after controlling for variation in economic status. Our findings both counter Brown and Males' claim that the age-crime curve is illusory and underscore the danger of drawing inferences about individual behavior from analysis of aggregated data.

  12. Ageing and COPD affect different domains of nutritional status: the ECCE study.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, S; Spatafora, M; Paglino, G; Pedone, C; Corsonello, A; Scichilone, N; Antonelli-Incalzi, R; Bellia, V

    2011-06-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and ageing may contribute to malnutrition. We aimed to explore whether COPD and ageing determine malnutrition in different manners. 460 stable COPD outpatients (376 males and 84 females) from the Extrapulmonary Consequences of COPD in the Elderly (ECCE) study database were investigated (age 75.0±5.9 yrs; forced expiratory volume in 1 s 54.7±18.3% predicted). Nutritional status was evaluated using the Mini Nutritional Assessment® (MNA) questionnaire. From the MNA, three scores exploring the domains of the nutritional status were calculated: body composition, energy intake and body functionality scores. Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages were negatively correlated with five MNA items exploring mobility, patient's perception of own nutrition and health status, and arm and calf circumferences (lowest Spearman's rho (rs)=-0.011; highest p=0.039). GOLD stages were independently correlated with body composition and body functionality scores (model r2=0.073). Age was negatively correlated with four MNA items exploring loss of appetite, fluid intake, mobility and autonomy in daily life (lowest rs=-0.013; highest p=0.030). Age was independently correlated with body functionality score (model r2=0.037). Severe COPD and ageing are independent and probably concurrent conditions leading to malnutrition. The MNA questionnaire allows a valuable insight into the complexity of components of nutritional status and may provide useful clues for treatment strategies.

  13. Accelerated ageing and renal dysfunction links lower socioeconomic status and dietary phosphate intake

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. Results We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Conclusions Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status. PMID:27132985

  14. Relationships between nutritional status, depression and pleasure of eating in aging men and women.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Nathalie; Maître, Isabelle; Van Wymelbeke, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional health is an essential component of quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of nutritional status in order to identify both common and sex specific predictive pathways in an aging population. A questionnaire was administered to 464 people living at home aged 65 years and above. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about nutritional status (MNA), depression (GDS), pleasure of eating and demographic characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between the variables. For both sexes, results indicate that depression and pleasure of eating are related to nutritional status. In addition, different pathways were found between men and women. In particular, while pleasure of eating is affected by depression among aging women this is not the case for men. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed.

  15. Factors impacting the mental health of the caregivers of children with asthma in china: effects of family socioeconomic status, symptoms control, proneness to shame, and family functioning.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ting; Yi, Chunli; Zhang, Xuxia; Wang, Yuyin

    2014-12-01

    Caregiver mental health is widely considered to be an important factor influencing children's asthma symptoms. The present study aimed to examine key factors that contribute to caregiver mental health in pediatric asthma with a Chinese sample. Two hundred participants reported their family socioeconomic status (SES), proneness to shame, asthma symptoms control of their child, family functioning, and their depression and anxiety symptoms. Results suggested that low family SES, low family functioning, and a high level of shame proneness were associated with high levels of anxiety and depression for caregivers. Family functioning mediated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver mental health and also moderated the effects of SES and shame on caregiver depression. This study highlights the importance of reducing experience of shame and enhancing family functioning in families affected by pediatric asthma.

  16. Predicting Infant Maltreatment in Low-Income Families: The Interactive Effects of Maternal Attributions and Child Status at Birth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm…

  17. Support to Aging Parents and Grown Children in Black and White Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fingerman, Karen L.; VanderDrift, Laura E.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Black and White middle-aged adults typically are in a pivot position of providing support to generations above and below. Racial differences in support to each generation in the family remain unclear, however. Different factors may account for racial differences in support of grown children versus aging parents. Design and Methods:…

  18. Are Children of Young Mothers Disadvantaged because of Their Mother's Age or Family Background?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turley, Ruth N. Lopez

    2003-01-01

    Data from national sample of 3- to 16-year-olds show that lower test scores and increased behavior problems of children of younger mothers resulted from family background rather than maternal age. For nonfirstborns, maternal age at first birth, not at child's birth, influenced test scores. Disadvantage of children born to younger mothers was…

  19. Causes, Consequences and Public Health Implications of Low B-Vitamin Status in Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Kirsty; Hoey, Leane; Hughes, Catherine F.; Ward, Mary; McNulty, Helene

    2016-01-01

    The potential protective roles of folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins (vitamins B12, B6 and riboflavin) in diseases of ageing are of increasing research interest. The most common cause of folate and riboflavin deficiencies in older people is low dietary intake, whereas low B12 status is primarily associated with food-bound malabsorption, while sub-optimal vitamin B6 status is attributed to increased requirements in ageing. Observational evidence links low status of folate and the related B-vitamins (and/or elevated concentrations of homocysteine) with a higher risk of degenerative diseases including cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive dysfunction and osteoporosis. Deficient or low status of these B-vitamins alone or in combination with genetic polymorphisms, including the common MTHFR 677 C → T polymorphism, could contribute to greater disease risk in ageing by causing perturbations in one carbon metabolism. Moreover, interventions with the relevant B-vitamins to optimise status may have beneficial effects in preventing degenerative diseases. The precise mechanisms are unknown but many have been proposed involving the role of folate and the related B-vitamins as co-factors for one-carbon transfer reactions, which are fundamental for DNA and RNA biosynthesis and the maintenance of methylation reactions. This review will examine the evidence linking folate and related B-vitamins with health and disease in ageing, associated mechanisms and public health implications. PMID:27854316

  20. Family-based training program improves brain function, cognition, and behavior in lower socioeconomic status preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Helen J.; Stevens, Courtney; Pakulak, Eric; Bell, Theodore A.; Fanning, Jessica; Klein, Scott; Isbell, Elif

    2013-01-01

    Using information from research on the neuroplasticity of selective attention and on the central role of successful parenting in child development, we developed and rigorously assessed a family-based training program designed to improve brain systems for selective attention in preschool children. One hundred forty-one lower socioeconomic status preschoolers enrolled in a Head Start program were randomly assigned to the training program, Head Start alone, or an active control group. Electrophysiological measures of children’s brain functions supporting selective attention, standardized measures of cognition, and parent-reported child behaviors all favored children in the treatment program relative to both control groups. Positive changes were also observed in the parents themselves. Effect sizes ranged from one-quarter to half of a standard deviation. These results lend impetus to the further development and broader implementation of evidence-based education programs that target at-risk families. PMID:23818591

  1. Parental Socioeconomic Status, Communication, and Children's Vocabulary Development: A Third-Generation Test of the Family Investment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sohr-Preston, Sara L.; Scaramella, Laura V.; Martin, Monica J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Ontai, Lenna; Conger, Rand

    2013-01-01

    This third-generation, longitudinal study evaluated a family investment perspective on family socioeconomic status (SES), parental investments in children, and child development. The theoretical framework was tested for first-generation parents (G1), their children (G2), and the children of the second generation (G3). G1 SES was expected to…

  2. "I Have Papers so I Can Go Anywhere!": Everyday Talk about Citizenship in a Mixed-Status Mexican Family

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangual Figueroa, Ariana

    2012-01-01

    This article draws from ethnographic data collected during a 23-month--language socialization study of mixed-status Mexican families living in the New Latino Diaspora. The analysis focuses on the ways in which siblings in one family talk about citizenship during a discursive event that I call the Planning for the Future Routine. The findings show…

  3. Adults with Autism Living at Home or in Non-Family Settings: Positive and Negative Aspects of Residential Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, M. W.; Seltzer, M. M.; Jacobson, H. T.

    2005-01-01

    Very little is known about the context of caregiving by parents of adults with autism or about the perceived impacts of continued patterns of co-residence vs. out-of-family living. In the present study, maternal assessments of residential status, involvement with adult children living in a non-family setting, and the impacts on mothers of their…

  4. Fertility Decline, Gender Composition of Families, and Expectations of Old Age Support

    PubMed Central

    Allendorf, Keera

    2017-01-01

    Recent fertility declines in non-Western countries may have the potential to transform gender systems. One pathway for such transformations is the creation of substantial proportions of families with children of only one gender. Such families, particularly those with only daughters, may facilitate greater symmetry between sons and daughters. This article explores whether such shifts may influence gendered expectations of old age support. In keeping with patriarchal family systems, old age support is customarily provided by sons, but not daughters, in India. Using data from the 2005 Indian Human Development Survey, I find that women with sons overwhelmingly expect old age support from a son. By contrast, women with only daughters largely expect support from a daughter or a source besides a child. These findings suggest that fertility decline may place demographic pressure on gendered patterns of old age support and the gender system more broadly.

  5. Effort-reward imbalance at school and depressive symptoms in Chinese adolescents: the role of family socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Guo, Hongxiang; Yang, Wenjie; Cao, Ying; Li, Jian; Siegrist, Johannes

    2014-06-10

    Depression is a major mental health problem during adolescence. This study, using a sample of Chinese adolescents, examined the separate and combined effects of perceived school-related stress and of family socioeconomic status (SES) on the prevalence of depressive symptoms. A total of 1774 Chinese students from Grades 7-12 were recruited into our questionnaire survey. School-related stress was measured by the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire-School Version, family SES was assessed by a standardized question, and depressive symptoms were evaluated by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children. Multivariate logistic regression was applied, adjusting for age, gender, grade, smoking, alcohol drinking and physical activity. It was found that high school-related stress and low family SES were associated with elevated odds of depressive symptoms, respectively. The effect of school-related stress was particularly strong in low SES group. In adolescents with both high stress at school and low SES, the odds ratio was 9.18 (95% confidence interval = 6.53-12.89) compared to the reference group (low stress at school and high SES). A significant synergistic interaction effect was observed (synergy index = 2.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.56-3.32). The findings indicated that perceived school-related stress, in terms of effort-reward imbalance, was related to depressive symptoms in this sample of Chinese adolescents. The strong interaction with family SES suggests that health promoting efforts in school settings should be targeted specifically at these socially deprived groups.

  6. The impact of family status on gender identity and on sex-typing of household tasks in Israel.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Liat

    2005-06-01

    The author examined differences in sex-typing of household tasks (adult gender roles and children's chores) and differences in gender identity among adult Israelis. The author compared 2 groups of participants: single people without children (single-family participants; n = 62) and married people with children (full-family participants; n = 62). Regarding sex-typing of household tasks and direct assessments of masculine and feminine identity, there were no differences between single-family participants and full-family participants. However, family status affected self-assessments of gender identity that were based on cultural definitions of masculine and feminine attributes. Furthermore, correlations between direct assessments of gender identity and sex-typing of household tasks differed according to family status.

  7. Selenium Status Is Positively Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Aging European Men

    PubMed Central

    Beukhof, Carolien M.; Medici, Marco; van den Beld, Annewieke W.; Hollenbach, Birgit; Hoeg, Antonia; Visser, W. Edward; de Herder, Wouter W.; Visser, Theo J.; Schomburg, Lutz; Peeters, Robin P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is still a matter of debate if subtle changes in selenium (Se) status affect thyroid function tests (TFTs) and bone mineral density (BMD). This is particularly relevant for the elderly, whose nutritional status is more vulnerable. Design and Methods We investigated Se status in a cohort of 387 healthy elderly men (median age 77 yrs; inter quartile range 75–80 yrs) in relation to TFTs and BMD. Se status was determined by measuring both plasma selenoprotein P (SePP) and Se. Results The overall Se status in our population was low normal with only 0.5% (2/387) of subjects meeting the criteria for Se deficiency. SePP and Se levels were not associated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) or reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. The T3/T4 and T3/rT3 ratios, reflecting peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormone, were not associated with Se status either. SePP and Se were positively associated with total BMD and femoral trochanter BMD. Se, but not SePP, was positively associated with femoral neck and ward's BMD. Multivariate linear analyses showed that these associations remain statistically significant in a model including TSH, FT4, body mass index, physical performance score, age, smoking, diabetes mellitus and number of medication use. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that Se status, within the normal European marginally supplied range, is positively associated with BMD in healthy aging men, independent of thyroid function. Thyroid function tests appear unaffected by Se status in this population. PMID:27055238

  8. Alcohol expectancies: effects of gender, age, and family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Lundahl, L H; Davis, T M; Adesso, V J; Lukas, S E

    1997-01-01

    To explore the effects of gender, age, and positive (FH+) and negative (FH-) family history of alcoholism on alcohol-related expectancies, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) was administered to 627 college students (female n = 430). In an attempt to control for consumption effects, only individuals who described themselves as heavy drinkers were included in the study. A 2 (Family History) x 2 (Gender) x 2 (Age Range) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted on the six scales of the AEQ. Results indicated that FH+ females under the age of 20 years reported stronger expectancies of social and physical pleasure than did FH- females. Results also suggested that females over the age of 20 reported significantly lower expectancies of global, positive effects compared to all other subjects, regardless of family history of alcoholism. Finally, both male and female subjects under the age of 20 reported greater expectancies of global, positive effects, sexual enhancement, feelings of increased power and aggression, and social assertion compared to individuals over the age of 20. These results indicate that alcohol-related expectancies vary as a function of age, gender, and family history of alcoholism.

  9. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  10. There is a Positive Correlation Between Socioeconomic Status and Ovarian Reserve in Women of Reproductive Age

    PubMed Central

    Barut, Mert Ulaş; Agacayak, Elif; Bozkurt, Murat; Aksu, Tarık; Gul, Talip

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential association between socioeconomic status and ovarian reserve, anti-Mullerian hormone level, antral follicle count, and follicle stimulating hormone level in women of reproductive age. Material/Methods A total of 101 married women between 20–35 years of age who presented to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Health Research System In Vitro Fertilization (HRS IVF) Center between October 2014 and November 2015 and met the inclusion criteria were included in this study. The participants were divided into three socioeconomic groups using Kuppuswamy’s socioeconomic status scale. Thirty-one participants were assigned to the low socioeconomic status group, 37 to the middle socioeconomic status group, and 33 to the high socioeconomic status group. On days 3–6 of the menstrual cycle, 10 mL of blood was collected from the participants for follicle stimulating hormone and anti-Mullerian hormone measurements. Transvaginal ultrasonography was performed for both ovaries for the purpose of counting antral follicles measuring 2–10 mm in diameter. Results Both ovarian reserve parameters, namely anti-Mullerian hormone level and antral follicle count, exhibited a significant association with socioeconomic status (p=0.000 and p=0.000, respectively). The association between follicle stimulating hormone level and socioeconomic status was also significant (p=0.000). Conclusions A low socioeconomic status aggravated by sources of stress such as undernutrition and financial hardships affects ovarian reserve, which should be remembered in approaching infertile patients. PMID:27847382

  11. Evaluation of oral health status of retirement-age population in Latvia.

    PubMed

    Vidzis, Aldis; Cema, Ingrida; Krasta, Ingrida; Brinkmane, Anda; Kalnins, Imants

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Latvian government Health care financing regulations do not envisage free dental care in nursing homes. Consequently, in this situation arises need to carry out comparative evaluation of oral health status and quantity indicators of dental prosthodontics among retirement-age population in Latvia. The aim of the study was to estimate oral health and dental prosthodontics indicators among retirement-age population in Latvia. PATIENTS AND METHODS. We examinated 465 retirement-age inhabitants in Latvia. We assessed dental status, quantity and quality of the existing complete dental prostheses. We also evaluated the DMF-T index. RESULTS. Oral health indicators among Latvian retirement-age population are better than those for nursing homes residents in the same age group. Complete dental prostheses used by nursing homes residents do not meet denture's quality criteria. Retirement-age patients have oral hygiene problems. CONCLUSIONS. DMF-T index among Latvian retirement-age population is lower than among residents of nursing homes. The major component of DMF-T index is the number of lost teeth. The assessment of dental prostheses among residents of nursing homes showed unsatisfactory results. Retirement-age population in Latvia needs treatment of oral mucosal diseases, improvement of oral hygienic measures and increase of amount of dental prosthodontics.

  12. P16 - Familial Fragility Fractures Correlate with Osteopenic And/Or Osteoporotic Status in Postmenopausal Women: Preliminary Results from the Prof Study

    PubMed Central

    Piscitelli, P.; Coli, G.; Neglia, C.; Chitano, G.; Argentiero, A.; Paladini, D.; Mundi, S.; Paladini, L.; Greco, M.; Girasoli, C.; Gianicolo, M.E.; Pantile, V.; Argentiero, D.; De Padova, G.; Pansa, L.; Nibio, L.; Di Giuseppe, P.; Minosi, A.; Cirasino, L.; Laselva, G.; Scialpi, M.; Rigliano, V.; Benvenuto, M.; D’Angela, D.; Brandi, M.L.; Distante, A.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Within the PROF (Prevention of Osteoporotic Fractures) project, i.e. a synergistic effort of researchers and clinicians aimed at preventing osteoporotic fractures in Southern Apulia (Salento), we analysed the correlation between familial fragility fractures and osteopenic/osteoporotic status in postmenopausal women. Methods: In the years 2009–2010, we screened 5665 postmenopausal women (mean age 62 years, range 39 to 86) by quantitative ultrasound testing, at the heel or phalanx. Demographic and anamnestic data were recorded for all the patients, including BMI, nutrition, menopause, physical activity, previous fractures, familial fragility fractures. Three demineralisation categories were identified a priori: Demineralisation, when any T-score <−1.0 SD was observed; b) Severe demineralisation, whenever a T-score <−2.0 was observed, corresponding to a higher risk of fracture; c) Osteoporosis, whenever a T-score <−2.5±0.2 (for the heel) or T-score <−3.2±0.2 (for the phalanx) was observed. Descriptive statistical analyses were performed in order to assess the correlation between familial fragility fractures (any osteoporotic fracture occurring in patients’ relatives) and the osteopenic or osteoporotic status of the patients themselves. Results: Demineralisation was observed in 4487 patients out of 5665 (79%). Demineralisation corresponding to severe osteopenia or osteoporotic status was confirmed in 2823 women (50% of all the examined subjects); 846 patients (15%) were found to be osteoporotic. A total of 358 women reported a family history of fragility fractures: of these, 298 (83%) presented demineralisation – as defined by T-score <−1 – corresponding at least to an osteopenic status. In the subgroup of women with familial fragility fractures, a status of severe osteopenia or osteoporosis was diagnosed in 191 patients (53%), with 76 of them being frankly osteoporotic (21%). Conclusions: The PROF study dataset suggests that the presence of

  13. National Needs of Family Planning Among US Men Aged 15 to 44 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (< 19%), consistently using condoms (26%), or having partners consistently using contraception (41%). Conclusions. The need for engaging men aged 15 to 44 years in family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180

  14. Outcome of community-acquired pneumonia: influence of age, residence status and antimicrobial treatment.

    PubMed

    Kothe, H; Bauer, T; Marre, R; Suttorp, N; Welte, T; Dalhoff, K

    2008-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of mortality in developed countries. There is much discrepancy in the literature regarding factors influencing the outcome in the elderly population. Data were derived from a multicentre prospective study initiated by the German Competence Network for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (n = 2,647; 1,298 aged < 65 yrs and 1,349 aged > or = 65 yrs) were evaluated, of whom 72.3% were hospitalised and 27.7% treated in the community. Clinical history, residence status, course of disease and antimicrobial treatment were prospectively documented. Microbiological investigations included cultures and PCR of respiratory samples and blood cultures. Factors related to mortality were included in multivariate analyses. The overall 30-day mortality was 6.3%. Elderly patients exhibited a significantly higher mortality rate that was independently associated with the following: age; residence status; confusion, urea, respiratory frequency and blood pressure (CURB) score; comorbid conditions; and failure of initial therapy. Increasing age remained predictive of death in the elderly. Nursing home residents showed a four-fold increased mortality rate and an increased rate of gram-negative bacillary infections compared with patients dwelling in the community. The CURB score and cerebrovascular disease were confirmed as independent predictors of death in this subgroup. Age and residence status are independent risk factors for mortality after controlling for comorbid conditions and disease severity. Failure of initial therapy was the only modifiable prognostic factor.

  15. Lipreading in School-Age Children: The Roles of Age, Hearing Status, and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Hale, Sandra; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study addressed three research questions: Does lipreading improve between the ages of 7 and 14 years? Does hearing loss affect the development of lipreading? How do individual differences in lipreading relate to other abilities? Method: Forty children with normal hearing (NH) and 24 with hearing loss (HL) were tested using 4…

  16. Lysine fortification of wheat flour improves selected indices of the nutritional status of predominantly cereal-eating families in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Tajammal; Abbas, Shaid; Khan, Mushtaq A; Scrimshaw, Nevin S

    2004-06-01

    Wheat provides more than 50% of the protein and calorie intake of the population of Pakistan. Legumes and animal protein that could complement the amino acid pattern of wheat, in which lysine is the first limiting amino acid for utilization of protein, are not affordable by members of lower socioeconomic groups in developing countries. The purpose of the study was to determine whether lysine fortification of wheat flour would have a positive impact on populations consuming a predominantly wheat-based diet. A double-blind study was carried out for three months on the outskirts of Peshawar, Pakistan. Forty families received wheat flour fortified with lysine, and 40 families received wheat flour without lysine. Wheat provided 59% of the protein for men, 65% for women, and 58% for children. The weight and height of the children in both groups increased during the study, but the increase was significantly greater in the lysine group. Hemoglobin increased significantly in the women receiving lysine-fortified flour. Transferrin levels increased significantly in men, women, and children in the lysine group as compared with those in the control group. Prealbumin increased significantly in adults receiving additional lysine but decreased in children. Men, women, and children in the lysine-supplemented families had significant increases in CD4, CD8, and complement C3 as compared with controls. These results indicate that lysine fortification of wheat flour can significantly improve sensitive indicators of nutritional status in a population consuming a diet in which 58% to 65% of the protein, depending on age and sex, is supplied by wheat.

  17. Coercive Family Process and Early-Onset Conduct Problems From Age 2 to School Entry

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Winter, Charlotte C.; Patterson, Gerald R.

    2013-01-01

    The emergence and persistence of conduct problems during early childhood is a robust predictor of behavior problems in school and future maladaptation. In this study we examined the reciprocal influences between observed coercive interactions between children and caregivers, oppositional and aggressive behavior, and growth in parent report of early childhood (ages 2–5) and school-age conduct problems (age 7.5 and 8.5). Participants were drawn from the Early Steps multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse sample of male and female children and their families (N = 731). A parallel process growth model combining latent trajectory and cross-lagged approaches revealed the amplifying effect of observed coercive caregiver–child interactions on children's noncompliance, whereas child oppositional and aggressive behaviors did not consistently predict increased coercion. The slope and initial levels of child oppositional and aggressive behaviors and the stability of caregiver–child coercion were predictive of teacher-reported oppositional behavior at school age. Families assigned to the Family Check-Up condition had significantly steeper declines in child oppositional and aggressive behavior and moderate reductions in oppositional behavior in school and in coercion at age 3. Results were not moderated by child gender, race/ethnicity, or assignment to the intervention condition. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding the early development of conduct problems and to designing optimal strategies for reducing problem behavior in early childhood with families most in need. PMID:24690305

  18. Family income and tooth decay in US children: does the association change with age?

    PubMed

    Bernabé, E; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Murasko, J E; Marcenes, W

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether the association of family income with tooth decay changes with age among children in the United States. A second objective was to explore the role of access to dental health care services in explaining the interrelationships between family income, child age and tooth decay. Data from 7,491 2- to 15-year-old children who participated in the 1999-2004 National and Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. The association of family income with the prevalence of tooth decay in primary, permanent and primary or permanent teeth was first estimated in logistic regression models with all children, and then, separately in four age groups that reflect the development of the dentition (2-5, 6-8, 9-11 and 12-15 years, respectively). Findings showed that the income gradient in tooth decay attenuated significantly in 9- to 11-year-olds only to re-emerge in 12- to 15-year-olds. The age profile of the income gradient in tooth decay was not accounted for by a diverse set of family and child characteristics. This is the first study providing some evidence for age variations in the income gradient in tooth decay among children in the United States.

  19. Coercive family process and early-onset conduct problems from age 2 to school entry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Justin D; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N; Winter, Charlotte C; Patterson, Gerald R

    2014-11-01

    The emergence and persistence of conduct problems (CPs) during early childhood is a robust predictor of behavior problems in school and of future maladaptation. In this study we examined the reciprocal influences between observed coercive interactions between children and caregivers, oppositional and aggressive behavior, and growth in parent report of early childhood (ages 2-5) and school-age CPs (ages 7.5 and 8.5). Participants were drawn from the Early Steps multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse sample of male and female children and their families (N = 731). A parallel-process growth model combining latent trajectory and cross-lagged approaches revealed the amplifying effect of observed coercive caregiver-child interactions on children's noncompliance, whereas child oppositional and aggressive behaviors did not consistently predict increased coercion. The slope and initial levels of child oppositional and aggressive behaviors and the stability of caregiver-child coercion were predictive of teacher-reported oppositional behavior at school age. Families assigned to the Family Check-Up condition had significantly steeper declines in child oppositional and aggressive behavior and moderate reductions in oppositional behavior in school and in coercion at age 3. Results were not moderated by child gender, race/ethnicity, or assignment to the intervention condition. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding the early development of CPs and to designing optimal strategies for reducing problem behavior in early childhood with families most in need.

  20. Effects of socioeconomic status on physical and mental health of hemodialysis patients in Japan: differences by age, period, and cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Study purpose Whether or not socioeconomic status (SES)-related differences in the health of hemodialysis patients differ by age, period, and birth cohort remains unclear. We examined whether SES-related gaps in physical and mental health change with age, period, and birth cohort for hemodialysis patients. Methods Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, with members of a national patients’ association as participants. We used raking adjustment to create a database which had similar characteristics to the total sample of dialysis patients in Japan. SES was assessed using family size-adjusted income levels. We divided patients into three groups based on their income levels: below the first quartile, over the second quartile and under the third quartile, and over the fourth quartile. We used the number of dialysis complications as a physical health indicator and depressive symptoms as a mental health indicator. We used a cross-classified random-effects model that estimated fixed effects of age categories and period as level-1 factors, and random effects of birth cohort as level-2 factors. Results Relative risk of dialysis complications in respondents below the first quartile compared with ones over the fourth quartile was reduced in age categories >60 years. Mean differences in depressive symptoms between respondents below the first quartile and ones over the fourth quartile peaked in the 50- to 59-year-old age group, and were reduced in age groups >60 years. In addition, mean differences varied across periods, widening from 1996 to 2006. There were no significant birth cohort effects on income differences for dialysis complications or depressive symptoms. Conclusion The number of dialysis complications and depressive symptoms in dialysis patients were affected by income differences, and the degree of these differences changed with age category and period. PMID:27471405

  1. The Association of Lung Age with Smoking Status in Korean Men

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hye Young; Lee, Sang Wha; Shim, Kyung Won; Chun, Hyejin; Kim, Joo Yeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Lung age, calculated from sex, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and height, was developed to illustrate premature changes to the lungs and could be used to motivate smoking cessation. However, this method has not been tested in association with smoking in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of lung age with smoking and other factors in Korean males. Methods We reviewed the records of 1,100 healthy men who visited a health promotion center at Ewha Womans University Medical Center from January 2008 to June 2009. Lung age was calculated from FEV1 and normal predictive values of spirometry according to age in the Korean population. The difference between lung age and chronological age was evaluated in relation to smoking status, weight, body mass index, waist, muscle mass, fat mass, and exercise. Results The age difference was significantly higher in current smokers than in non-smokers (12.47 ± 19.90 vs. 7.30 ± 19.52, P < 0.001). Additionally, the age difference was positively correlated with life time pack-year (β = 0.223; P < 0.001) and fat mass (β = 0.462; P < 0.001). Lung age increased 1 year for 4.48 pack-year increase or for 2.16% increase in fat mass. Conclusion We found a significant relationship between lung age and both smoking status and fat mass in healthy Korean males. Lung age may be a useful tool for motivating cessation of cigarette smoking and management of risk factors related to obesity. PMID:24501668

  2. Pharmacotherapy guidelines for the aged by family doctors for the use of family doctors: part C--Special pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Bergert, F W; Conrad, D; Ehrenthal, K; Fessler, J; Gross, J; Gundermann, K; Kluthe, B; Lang Heinrich, W; Liesenfeld, A; Loew, P G; Luther, E; Pchalek, R; Seffrin, J; Sterzing, A; Wolfring, H-J; Zimmermann, U

    2009-03-01

    The part "Special pharmacology of the aged" of this guideline contains recommendations for typical conditions in the family doctors practice: in the January issue 2009 dementia and Morbus Parkinson, in this issue osteoporosis and urinary incontinence and in the next issue rectal incontinence and obstipation. This issue of the IJCPT contains the third part of the Pharmacotherapy guidelines for the aged by family doctors for family doctors. Part 3: Osteoporosis and urinary incontinence. Osteoporosis is a systematic disease characterized by low bone mass and declining bone structure. Exercise, adequate diet, nicotine abstinence as well as reduction of alcohol consumption may counteract the progression of the disease. Osteoporosis manifests in bone fractures with minimal trauma. Attention must be given to the risk of falling, e.g., by avoiding drugs that increase the risk of falling: e.g., psychotropic agents, analgesic drugs and antiarrhythmic agents. Specific osteoporosis medication e.g. calcium, vitamin D, biphosphonates and SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulators) is evaluated by family doctors according to indication, dosage, contraindications, long-term therapy and nature of any fracture. Duration of therapy is at least 3 - max. 5 years followed by reassessment of indication. There are 3 types of urine incontinence (urge-, stress-, and overflow-incontinence). Another standardization of urinary incontinence follows dysfunctions of the pelvic floor: detrusor muscle-dependent, due to sphincter spasm, prostate gland dependent. Urge incontinence with a dysfunction of the detrusor muscle is the most common type. Mixed types are frequent. Non-drug measures (e.g. pelvic muscle training, bladder training, toilet training are first choice treatments. Drug therapy (estrogen, imipramine) are without proven effect.

  3. Effect of aging and obesity on the expression of dyslipidaemia in children from families with familial combined hyperlipidaemia.

    PubMed

    ter Avest, Ewoud; Sniderman, Allan D; Bredie, Sebastian J H; Wiegman, Albert; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; de Graaf, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to delineate the mechanism(s) responsible for the increased secretion of VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) particles in patients with FCH (familial combined hyperlipidaemia). In 194 young adults (<25 years of age) recruited from families with FCH, we investigated how plasma lipids, (apo)lipoproteins and BMI (body mass index) varied with age. Furthermore, we performed a 5-year follow-up study of clinical and biochemical characteristics of a subset of this population (n=85) stratified by apoB (apolipoprotein B) levels (below or above the 75th percentile adjusted for age and gender). Plasma apoB concentration (r=0.45, P<0.0001), triacylglycerol (triglyceride) concentration (r=0.45, P<0.0001), LDL (low-density lipoprotein) subfraction profile (r=-0.46, P<0.0001) and BMI (r=0.51, P<0.0001) were significantly associated with age. Plasma apoB concentration in the hyperapoB group was already elevated at a young age, whereas other characteristics of FCH, as observed in adults, including triacylglycerol levels >1.5 mmol/l and/or small-dense LDL, were observed only sporadically. After the 5-year follow-up, BMI increased in both groups, and this increase was associated with changes in apoB (r=0.27, P<0.05), triacylglycerol (r=0.30, P<0.01), VLDL cholesterol (r=0.22, P<0.05), VLDL triacylglycerol (r=0.25, P<0.05) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=-0.27, P<0.05). In conclusion, we have found indirect evidence of a primary, presumably genetically determined, increase in plasma apoB concentration occurring early in life of offspring from families with FCH. However, aging-related post-maturation increases in adipose tissue mass also appear to contribute to an aggravation and/or modulation of this genetically determined apoB overproduction.

  4. Fracture risk prediction: importance of age, BMD and spine fracture status.

    PubMed

    Krege, John H; Wan, Xiaohai; Lentle, Brian C; Berger, Claudie; Langsetmo, Lisa; Adachi, Jonathan D; Prior, Jerilynn C; Tenenhouse, Alan; Brown, Jacques P; Kreiger, Nancy; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Josse, Robert G; Goltzman, David

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to identify factors for a parsimonious fracture risk assessment model considering morphometric spine fracture status, femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical risk factors. Using data from 2761 subjects from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of randomly selected community-dwelling men and women aged ⩾50 years, we previously reported that a logistic regression model considering age, BMD and spine fracture status provided as much predictive information as a model considering these factors plus the remaining WHO clinical risk factors. The current analysis assesses morphometric vertebral fracture and/or nonvertebral fragility fracture at 5 years using data from an additional 1964 CaMos subjects who have now completed 5 years of follow-up (total N=4725). Vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs assessed using quantititative morphometry at baseline and end point. Nonvertebral fragility fractures were determined by questionnaire and confirmed using radiographs or medical records; fragility fracture was defined as occurring with minimal or no trauma. In this analysis, a model including age, BMD and spine fracture status provided a gradient of risk per s.d. (GR/s.d.) of 1.88 and captured most of the predictive information of a model including morphometric spine fracture status, BMD and all WHO clinical risk factors (GR/s.d. 1.92). For comparison, this model provided more information than a model considering BMD and the WHO clinical risk factors (GR/s.d. 1.74). These findings confirm the value of age, BMD and spine fracture status for predicting fracture risk.

  5. Fracture risk prediction: importance of age, BMD and spine fracture status

    PubMed Central

    Krege, John H; Wan, Xiaohai; Lentle, Brian C; Berger, Claudie; Langsetmo, Lisa; Adachi, Jonathan D; Prior, Jerilynn C; Tenenhouse, Alan; Brown, Jacques P; Kreiger, Nancy; Olszynski, Wojciech P; Josse, Robert G; Goltzman, David; Goltzman, David; Kreiger, Nancy; Tenenhouse, Alan; Godmaire, Suzanne; Dumont, Silvia; Berger, Claudie; Zhou, Wei; Joyce, Carol; Kovacs, Christopher; Sheppard, Emma; Kirkland, Susan; Kaiser, Stephanie; Stanfield, Barbara; Brown, Jacques P; Bessette, Louis; Gendreau, Marc; Anastassiades, Tassos; Towheed, Tanveer; Matthews, Barbara; Josse, Bob; Jamal, Sophie; Murray, Tim; Gardner-Bray, Barbara; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Pickard, Laura; Olszynski, Wojciech P.; Davison, K. Shawn; Thingvold, Jola; Hanley, David A.; Allan, Jane; Prior, Jerilynn C.; Patel, Millan; Vigna, Yvette; Andjelic, Nerkeza; Lentle, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose was to identify factors for a parsimonious fracture risk assessment model considering morphometric spine fracture status, femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and the World Health Organization (WHO) clinical risk factors. Using data from 2761 subjects from the Canadian Multicentre Osteoporosis Study (CaMos), a prospective, longitudinal cohort study of randomly selected community-dwelling men and women aged ⩾50 years, we previously reported that a logistic regression model considering age, BMD and spine fracture status provided as much predictive information as a model considering these factors plus the remaining WHO clinical risk factors. The current analysis assesses morphometric vertebral fracture and/or nonvertebral fragility fracture at 5 years using data from an additional 1964 CaMos subjects who have now completed 5 years of follow-up (total N=4725). Vertebral fractures were identified from lateral spine radiographs assessed using quantititative morphometry at baseline and end point. Nonvertebral fragility fractures were determined by questionnaire and confirmed using radiographs or medical records; fragility fracture was defined as occurring with minimal or no trauma. In this analysis, a model including age, BMD and spine fracture status provided a gradient of risk per s.d. (GR/s.d.) of 1.88 and captured most of the predictive information of a model including morphometric spine fracture status, BMD and all WHO clinical risk factors (GR/s.d. 1.92). For comparison, this model provided more information than a model considering BMD and the WHO clinical risk factors (GR/s.d. 1.74). These findings confirm the value of age, BMD and spine fracture status for predicting fracture risk. PMID:24228164

  6. Health Insurance Status and Psychological Distress among US Adults Aged 18-64 Years.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Martinez, Michael E

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine the relationship between psychological distress and aspects of health insurance status, including lack of coverage, types of coverage and disruption in coverage, among US adults. Data from the 2001-2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to conduct analyses representative of the US adult population aged 18-64 years. Multivariate analyses regressed psychological distress on health insurance status while controlling for covariates. Adults with private or no health insurance coverage had lower levels of psychological distress than those with public/other coverage. Adults who recently (≤1 year) experienced a change in health insurance status had higher levels of distress than those who had not recently experienced a change. An interaction effect indicated that the relationship between recent change in health insurance status and distress was not dependent on whether an adult had private versus public/other coverage. However, for adults who had not experienced a change in status in the past year, the average absolute level of distress is higher among those with no coverage versus private coverage. Although significant relationships between psychological distress and health insurance status were identified, their strength was modest, with other demographic and health condition covariates also being potential sources of distress. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Intra-population variation in anemia status and its relationship to economic status and self-perceived health in the Mexican Family Life Survey: implications for bioarchaeology.

    PubMed

    Piperata, Barbara A; Hubbe, Mark; Schmeer, Kammi K

    2014-10-01

    Recently scholars have advocated for the use of a critical biocultural approach in bioarchaeology, where osteological and dental markers of stress are used to understand the broader biosocial context of past populations. However, the ability to accomplish this task rests on the assumption that ultimate-level environmental stressors and well-being in the past can be reconstructed from the prevalence of pathologies in skeletal collections. Here we test this assumption using anemia prevalence in the Mexican Family Life Survey. Specifically we test three hypotheses: (1) that individuals sharing the same household are more likely to share anemia status; (2) anemia status is a predictor of economic status (a common proxy for broader environmental context); and (3) anemia status is related to self-rated health. Results demonstrate that: anemia status was not commonly shared between household members; there was a significant overlap in economic status between anemic and nonanemic individuals (i.e., anemia poorly predicted economic status) and; while anemia status was associated with self-perceived health, the majority of those who reported poor health were nonanemic while a significant number of those who reported very good health were anemic. We argue that these findings are likely related to variation in individual frailty, which is shaped by biological and cultural risk factors. Therefore, we advocate for greater incorporation of individual frailty into bioarchaeological investigations, and, in effort to overcome some of the difficulties associated with this task, increased use of data from living populations and greater collaboration between bioarchaeologists and human biologists.

  8. [Food and nutrition safety of children under two years of age in families of landless rural workers].

    PubMed

    Lang, Regina Maria Ferreira; Almeida, Cláudia Choma Bettega; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2011-07-01

    To date little is known of health, nutrition and food safety conditions of children living in rural camps and settlements. The present cross-sectional descriptive study seeks to present and discuss such conditions for children under two years of age in families of landless rural workers in the Central Western region of the State of Paraná. The study was conducted with a total of 337 children under two years of age in families living in two rural settlements and two rural camps. The main variables related with protein-energy malnutrition were assessed. Results indicated that the prevalence of protein-energy malnutrition was 4.7% in settlements and 10% in camps. Home location, home type and the possibility of producing food for private consumption were the distal variables that influenced most the nutritional status of the pediatric population analyzed. This study established that the search for nutritional and food safety must consider the right of accessing resources and proper means to produce safe and healthy foods in order to enable adequate feeding compatible with the habits and practices of the region.

  9. Mothers' and fathers' involvement with school-age children's care and academic activities in Navajo Indian families.

    PubMed

    Hossain, Ziarat; Anziano, Michael C

    2008-04-01

    This exploratory study examined mothers' and fathers' reports of time involvement in their school-age children's care and academic activities. The study also explored the relationship between parents' socioeconomic status (SES) variables (age, education, income, work hours, and length of marriage) and their relative involvement with children. Mother and father dyads from 34 two-parent Navajo (Diné) Indian families with a second- or third-grade child participated in the study. Repeated measures analysis of variance showed that mothers invested significantly more time in children's care on demand and academic activities than fathers, but the differences in maternal and paternal perceptions of time involvement in routine care were not significant. The gender of the child did not influence the amount of time parents invested in children's care and academic activities. Mothers' involvement with children was not related to any of the SES variables. Fathers' involvement was significantly associated with work hours and length of marriage, and work hours produced significant interaction with fathers' involvement with children. Findings are discussed in light of gender role differences in parental involvement with children within Navajo families.

  10. Differences in COPD Patient Care by Primary Family Caregivers: An Age-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Peng-Ching; Chu, Chi-Ming; Sung, Pei-Yi; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Wang, Kwua-Yun

    2014-01-01

    Background Because Taiwan has the fastest aging rate among developed countries, care for the elderly is becoming more prominent in the country. Primary family caregivers play an important role in patient health and health promotion behavior. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an age-related disease, is a major public health problem with high morbidity and mortality and can be a long-term burden for family members; however, little attention has been given to the differences in COPD care between elder caregivers and other caregivers. This study aimed to investigate the differences between elder family caregivers and non-elder family caregivers caring for COPD patients in Taiwan, including caring behavior, caregiver response, and caring knowledge. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2007 and January 2008; 406 primary family caregivers of COPD patients from the thoracic outpatient departments of 6 hospitals in north-central Taiwan were recruited to answer questionnaires measuring COPD characteristics, care behavior, caregiver response, and COPD knowledge. All questionnaires, which addressed caregiver knowledge, care behaviors, and care reactions, were shown to have acceptable validity and reliability, and the data were analyzed using univariate and generalized linear model techniques. Results The elder caregivers group had 79 participants, and the non-elder caregivers comprised 327 participants. The COPD-related knowledge scale results were positively correlated with the family caregiver caring behavior scale, suggesting that better COPD-related knowledge among family caregivers may result in improved caring behavior. After adjusting for all possible confounding factors, the elder caregivers had significantly lower COPD-related knowledge than the non-elder caregivers (P<0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the family caregiver caring behavior scale or the caregiver reaction assessment scale between the two

  11. Lunar crater arcs. [origins, distribution and age classification of Pre-Imbrian families

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Bulkley, E. O.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis has been made of the tendency of large lunar craters to lie along circles. A catalog of the craters at least 50 km in diameter was prepared first, noting position, diameter, rim sharpness and completion, nature of underlying surface, and geological age. The subset of those craters 50-400 km in diameter was then used as input to computer programs which identified each 'family' of four or more craters of selected geological age lying on a circular arc. For comparison, families were also identified for randomized crater models in which the crater spatial density was matched to that on the moon, either overall or separately for mare and highland areas. The observed frequency of lunar arcuate families was statistically highly significantly greater than for the randomized models, for craters classified as either late-pre-Imbrian (Nectarian), middle pre-Imbrian, or early pre-Imbrian, as well as for a number of larger age-classes. The lunar families tend to center in specific areas of the moon; these lie in highlands rather than maria and are different for families of Nectarian craters than for pre-Nectarian. The origin of the arcuate crater groupings is not understood.

  12. Family size, birth order, and parental age among male paraphilics and sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Ron; Langevin, Mara; Curnoe, Suzanne

    2007-08-01

    A sample of 1823 male paraphilics, sex offenders, and non-sex offender controls were compared on family size, birth order, and parents' ages at the time of the probands' births. Sample data were also compared to population data from Statistics Canada. The men in all groups were from larger than average Canadian families and they tended to be later born. Paraphilics and sex offenders had even larger families than offender controls. Their parents tended to be older at their birth with 34.2% of mothers and 51.3% of fathers over 30 years of age, but there were no statistically significant subgroup differences. There were also significantly more multiparous teenage mothers than expected and more paraphilics' fathers who were younger than the mothers, both factors associated in the literature with increased risk of perinatal complications and abnormalities. The confounding influences of parental age, birth order, and family size were examined and indicated the need for large samples and multivariate analysis in evaluating the role of family variables associated with paraphilics and sex offenders.

  13. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing.

  14. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  15. Prevalence of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in School and Pre-School Aged Children with C-14 Urea Breath Test and the Association with Familial and Environmental Factors

    PubMed Central

    Çınar, Alev; Sadıç, Murat; İkbal Atılgan, Hasan; Baskın, Aylin; Koca, Gökhan; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection in pre-school and school age children with C-14 urea breath test, and to explore its association with age and socioeconomic factors in Turkey. Methods: Hp infection status was determined by using Urea Breath Test (UBT). Patients who had previous gastric surgery, Hp eradication treatment or equivocal UBT results were excluded. A questionnaire was administered to elicit information on gender, age, ABO/Rh blood group type, presence of gastric disease in the family, domestic animal in the household, and treatment for idiopathic Iron Deficiency Anemia (IDA). Results: This retrospective study included 500 pediatric patients (179 boys, 321 girls, mean age 10.7±4.3 years) of whom 62 (12.4%) were aged ≤6 years and 438 (87.6%) were aged 7 to 16 years. Helicobacter pylori (Hp) was positive in 245 (49%) cases. In the pre-school age group, 21/62 cases (34%) had positive UBT while in the school age group 224/438 children (51%) had positive UBT. A family history of dyspepsia and pet ownership were not associated with Hp positivity. Hp positive 76 (29.8%) children were on IDA treatment but this was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The Hp infection positivity rate was 49% in the pediatric age study group. The positivity rate was significantly lower at preschool age than school age, and it increased with age. There was no association with gender, ABO/Rh blood groups, presence of domestic pets, IDA, or history of gastric disease in the family. PMID:26316471

  16. Identification of genetic modifiers of age-at-onset for familial Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Hill-Burns, Erin M.; Ross, Owen A.; Wissemann, William T.; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I.; Zareparsi, Sepideh; Siuda, Joanna; Lynch, Timothy; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Silburn, Peter A.; Mellick, George D.; Ritz, Beate; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Factor, Stewart A.; Breheny, Patrick J.; Payami, Haydeh

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common cause of neurodegenerative movement disorder and the second most common cause of dementia. Genes are thought to have a stronger effect on age-at-onset of PD than on risk, yet there has been a phenomenal success in identifying risk loci but not age-at-onset modifiers. We conducted a genome-wide study for age-at-onset. We analysed familial and non-familial PD separately, per prior evidence for strong genetic effect on age-at-onset in familial PD. GWAS was conducted in 431 unrelated PD individuals with at least one affected relative (familial PD) and 1544 non-familial PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC); an additional 737 familial PD and 2363 non-familial PD were used for replication. In familial PD, two signals were detected and replicated robustly: one mapped to LHFPL2 on 5q14.1 (PNGRC = 3E-8, PReplication = 2E-5, PNGRC + Replication = 1E-11), the second mapped to TPM1 on 15q22.2 (PNGRC = 8E-9, PReplication = 2E-4, PNGRC + Replication = 9E-11). The variants that were associated with accelerated onset had low frequencies (<0.02). The LHFPL2 variant was associated with earlier onset by 12.33 [95% CI: 6.2; 18.45] years in NGRC, 8.03 [2.95; 13.11] years in replication, and 9.79 [5.88; 13.70] years in the combined data. The TPM1 variant was associated with earlier onset by 15.30 [8.10; 22.49] years in NGRC, 9.29 [1.79; 16.79] years in replication, and 12.42 [7.23; 17.61] years in the combined data. Neither LHFPL2 nor TPM1 was associated with age-at-onset in non-familial PD. LHFPL2 (function unknown) is overexpressed in brain tumours. TPM1 encodes a highly conserved protein that regulates muscle contraction, and is a tumour-suppressor gene. PMID:27402877

  17. The Family Support System: Comparative Analysis of Research Projects Funded by the Administration on Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofer, Andrew

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of eight research projects funded by the Administration on Aging during the 1970s which focused on the family as caregivers and support systems for elderly relatives. A brief description is provided for each project analyzed in this report as well as highlights of major findings, including that the family…

  18. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  19. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  20. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  1. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  2. 5 CFR 894.307 - Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...

  3. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  4. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  5. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  6. 45 CFR 1305.4 - Age of children and family income eligibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...

  7. Human insulin/IGF-1 and familial longevity at middle age

    PubMed Central

    Rozing, Maarten P.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Frölich, Marijke; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Beekman, Marian; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Slagboom, P. Eline; van Heemst, Diana; Group, on behalf of the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS)

    2009-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that compared to controls, long-lived familial nonagenarians (mean age: 93.4 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study displayed a lower mortality rate, and their middle-aged offspring displayed a lower prevalence of cardio-metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway has been implicated in longevity in model organisms, but its relevance for human longevity has generated much controversy. Here, we show that compared to their partners, the offspring of familial nonagenarians displayed similar non-fasted serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP3 and insulin but lower non-fasted serum levels of glucose, indicating that familial longevity is associated with differences in insulin sensitivity. PMID:20157552

  8. Falls and Wrist Fracture: Relationship to Women's Functional Status after Age 50.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Catherine M; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina P M; Farthing, Jonathan P; Crockett, Katie L; Haver, Charlene R A; Johnston, Geoffrey; Basran, Jenny

    2016-09-01

    Women experience a rapid rise in the incidence of wrist fracture after age 50. Accordingly, this study aimed to (1) determine the internal and environmental fall-related circumstances resulting in a wrist fracture, and (2) examine the relationship of functional status to these circumstances. Women aged 50 to 94 years reported on the nature of the injury (n = 99) and underwent testing for physical activity status, balance, strength, and mobility (n = 72). The majority of falls causing wrist fracture occurred outdoors, during winter months, as a result of a slip or trip while walking. Half of these falls resulted in other injuries including head, neck, and spine injuries. Faster walking speed, lower grip strength, and higher balance confidence were significantly associated with outdoor versus indoor falls and slips and trips versus other causes. This study provides insights into potential screening and preventive measures for fall-related wrist fractures in women.

  9. Direct and Indirect Effects of Brain Volume, Socioeconomic Status and Family Stress on Child IQ

    PubMed Central

    Marcus Jenkins, Jade V; Woolley, Donald P; Hooper, Stephen R; De Bellis, Michael D

    2013-01-01

    1.1. Background A large literature documents the detrimental effects of socioeconomic disparities on intelligence and neuropsychological development. Researchers typically measure environmental factors such as socioeconomic status (SES), using income, parent's occupation and education. However, SES is more complex, and this complexity may influence neuropsychological outcomes. 1.2. Methods This studyused principal components analysis to reduce 14 SES and 28 family stress indicators into their core dimensions (e.g. community and educational capital, financial resources, marital conflict). Core dimensions were used in path analyses to examine their relationships with parent IQ and cerebral volume (white matter, grey matter and total brain volume), to predict child IQ in a sample of typically developing children. 1.3. Results Parent IQ affected child IQ directly and indirectly through community and educational capital, demonstrating how environmental factors interact with familial factors in neuro-development. There were no intervening effects of cerebral white matter, grey matter, or total brain volume. 1.4. Conclusions Findings may suggest that improving community resources can foster the intellectual development of children. PMID:24533427

  10. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body.

  11. Age and Pubertal Status-Related Changes in Reports of Perception of Personal Odors.

    PubMed

    Martinec Nováková, Lenka; Plotěná, Dagmar; Havlíček, Jan

    2017-01-01

    As previously suggested, preferences for kin body odor might undergo an adaptive change over the course of puberty in order to avoid potential inbreeding, resulting in aversion to body odor of the opposite-gender kin as individuals mature sexually. However, studies based on mutual body odor aversion are rather inconclusive. We therefore investigated whether children's reports of individuals smelling good or bad differed as a function of age and pubertal status. We asked 219 children (94 male) aged 10 to 15 years to assess their pubertal development using a standardized measure and to name individuals they thought smelled good or bad. Results of the present study show that the older the girls were, the more likely they were to name males than females among nice-smelling people. Further, in both girls and boys alike, children with higher puberty scores were more likely to name children than adults. Neither in girls nor in boys did we observe any concurrent effect of age or pubertal status on children's reports of persons thought to smell bad. Irrespective of whether these changes are driven by age itself or age-related phenomena, these results suggest a shift toward a more general positive attitude to peers rather than active kin avoidance.

  12. Family History and Breast Cancer Hormone Receptor Status in a Spanish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Chavez-Uribe, Elisabet; Rodriguez, Beatriz Fernandez; Muñoz, Catuxa Celeiro; Redondo, Carmen M.; Fernandez, Maite Peña; Dominguez, Alejandro Novo; Pereira, Carina Doris; Martínez, María Elena; García-Caballero, Tomás; Rodriguez, Máximo Fraga; Antúnez, José; Carracedo, Angel; Forteza-Vila, Jerónimo; Gago-Dominguez, Manuela

    2012-01-01

    Background Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease that impacts racial/ethnic groups differently. Differences in genetic composition, lifestyles, reproductive factors, or environmental exposures may contribute to the differential presentation of breast cancer among Hispanic women. Materials and Methods A population-based study was conducted in the city of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. A total of 645 women diagnosed with operable invasive breast cancer between 1992 and 2005 participated in the study. Data on demographics, breast cancer risk factors, and clinico-pathological characteristics of the tumors were collected. Hormone receptor negative tumors were compared with hormone receptor postive tumors on their clinico-pathological characteristics as well as risk factor profiles. Results Among the 645 breast cancer patients, 78% were estrogen receptor-positive (ER+) or progesterone receptor-positive (PR+), and 22% were ER−&PR−. Women with a family history of breast cancer were more likely to have ER−&PR− tumors than women without a family history (Odds ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.91–2.26). This association was limited to cancers diagnosed before age 50 (Odds ratio, 2.79; 95% confidence interval, 1.34–5.81). Conclusions An increased proportion of ER−&PR− breast cancer was observed among younger Spanish women with a family history of the disease. PMID:22238615

  13. Metabolic profiles of biological aging in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jinying; Zhu, Yun; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Yu, Tianwei; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Jones, Dean; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V

    2014-03-01

    Short telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with age-related metabolic disorders. Telomere attrition induces profound metabolic dysfunction in animal models, but no study has examined the metabolome of telomeric aging in human. Here we studied 423 apparently healthy American Indians participating in the Strong Family Heart Study. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured by qPCR. Metabolites in fasting plasma were detected by untargeted LC/MS. Associations of LTL with each metabolite and their combined effects were examined using generalized estimating equation adjusting for chronological age and other aging-related factors. Multiple testing was corrected using the q-value method (q<0.05). Of the 1,364 distinct m/z features detected, nineteen metabolites in the classes of glycerophosphoethanolamines, glycerophosphocholines, glycerolipids, bile acids, isoprenoids, fatty amides, or L-carnitine ester were significantly associated with LTL, independent of chronological age and other aging-related factors. Participants with longer (top tertile) and shorter (bottom tertile) LTL were clearly separated into distinct groups using a multi-marker score comprising of all these metabolites, suggesting that these newly detected metabolites could be novel metabolic markers of biological aging. This is the first study to interrogate the human metabolome of telomeric aging. Our results provide initial evidence for a metabolic control of LTL and may reveal previously undescribed new roles of various lipids in the aging process.

  14. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A.; Best, Lyle G.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B.; Roman, Mary J.; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-01-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians. PMID:27540694

  15. The effect of aging on the mineral status of female SAMP1 and SAMR1.

    PubMed

    Morita, A; Abdireyim, D; Kimura, M; Itokawa, Y

    2001-04-01

    The effect of aging on the status of macrominerals and trace elements in tissues was studied using two strains (SAMP1 and SAMR1) of senescence accelerated mouse. Two-month-old, 6-mo-old, and 10-mo-old female SAMP1 and SAMR1 mice were fed a commercial diet. Iron, zinc, copper, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, sulfur, sodium, and potassium concentrations in blood, liver, kidney, brain, and tibia of the mice were determined. The copper concentration in the brain was significantly increased with age in SAMP1 and SAMR1. In addition, the brain copper levels in SAMP1 were significantly higher than that in SAMR1 at respective ages. The calcium concentration in the kidney was significantly increased with age, but the copper and phosphorus concentrations significantly decreased with age in SAMP1 and SAMR1. In the liver of SAMR1, all minerals measured in this study except for sodium and potassium were significantly decreased with age. In addition, all mineral concentrations in the liver of 2-mo-old mice in SAMR1 except for copper and sodium were markedly higher than those in SAMP1 of the same age. These results suggest that the genetic factor is related to the age-associated mineral changes in tissues.

  16. Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Carol E.; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J.; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N = 727 men; mean age 55, SD = 2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [β = 0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

  17. Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults.

    PubMed

    Franz, Carol E; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L; Hellhammer, Dirk H; Jacobson, Kristen C; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P; Panizzon, Matthew S; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S

    2013-10-01

    In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N=727 men; mean age 55, SD=2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [β=0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms.

  18. A monozygotic twin pair with β-thalassemia carrier status in a Dudh Kharia tribal family of Orissa

    PubMed Central

    Balgir, R. S.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The β-thalassemia syndrome is a genetically inherited commonly encountered hematological disorder in the state of Orissa. It causes high degree of morbidity, mortality and fetal wastage in the poor vulnerable people. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: There is an equal probability (50% chance) in every singleton pregnancy that a carrier parent of β-thalassemia major would either bear normal or carrier offspring, but not two offspring with carrier of β-thalassemia major genotype together. For the first time, a carrier parent of β-thalassemia major gene has born progeny (three daughters and a twin male offspring) with a carrier status of β-thalassemia major in Dudh Kharia tribal family studied from Sundargarh district of Orissa. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We screened randomly selected population of Dudh Kharia tribe from Sundargarh district of Orissa for hemoglobinopathies to assess the extent of the problem, design possible interventions and provide genetic counseling to them. A family with twin children was identified during screening in Lata Gaon in Bargaon block of Sundargarh district of Orissa for the above-mentioned study. Background information for this family such as name, age, sex, tribe, native place, reproductive history, family pedigree and clinical signs and symptoms were also recorded. Standardized genetic and hematological procedures and techniques were followed for analysis. RESULTS: Laboratory investigations for alkaline electrophoresis of blood lysate on cellulose acetate membrane showed raised hemoglobin A2 level in mother (Hb A2 = 5.3%), in three daughters (Hb A2 =6.5, 5.9, 5.5% in chronological and birth order), in two twin sons (Hb A2 =5.9% and 6.0%) and normal (Hb A2 = 3.3%) for father. Hence, all the children i.e., three daughters and two twin sons, including the mother were β-thalassemia carriers. Since all the hematological parameters i.e., red cell indices, G-6-PD enzyme activity, ABO and Rhesus blood groups and identical

  19. Stigma and Family Relationships of Middle-Aged Gay Men in Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Mignon R.; Dacus, Jagadisa-devasri; McCuller, William J.; Fernandez, Lawrence; Moore, Alison A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to explore how middle-aged gay men in recovery cope with stigma and family relationships. For gay men, perceptions of acceptance of their sexual orientation and degree of social connectedness can play a role in their recovery from alcohol and substance use disorders. Yet gay men may have a more difficult time accessing certain family-level health resources because their families of origin may stigmatize, reject or silence them on account of their sexual orientation. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore how participants in recovery constructed and coped with their experiences of stigma, family relationships, and alcohol and substance use. Participants (30 gay men aged 50–64) completed a questionnaire and interview. We used constructivist Grounded Theory method and Minority Stress Theory as a theoretical framework to interpret the data. We identified the following themes: Internalization of Stigma, Changes in Coping Strategies, and Ongoing Stigma. Future research should explore how to incorporate familial support into gay men’s recovery, address ongoing internalized stigma, and develop a social response to stigma, rather than leaving it to individuals to confront on their own. PMID:27092028

  20. State Firearm Laws, Firearm Ownership, and Safety Practices Among Families of Preschool-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated how state-level firearms legislation is associated with firearm ownership and storage among families with preschool-aged children. Methods. Using 2005 nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 8100), we conducted multinomial regression models to examine the associations between state-level firearms legislation generally, child access prevention (CAP) firearms legislation specifically, and parental firearm ownership and storage safety practices. Results. Overall, 8% of families with children aged 4 years living in states with stronger firearm laws and CAP laws owned firearms compared with 24% of families in states with weaker firearm laws and no CAP laws. Storage behaviors of firearm owners differed minimally across legislative contexts. When we controlled for family- and state-level characteristics, we found that firearm legislation and CAP laws interacted to predict ownership and storage behaviors, with unsafe storage least likely among families in states with both CAP laws and stronger firearm legislation. Conclusions. Broader firearm legislation is linked with the efficacy of child-specific legislation in promoting responsible firearm ownership. PMID:24825210

  1. Psychosocial Adjustment in School-age Girls With a Family History of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668

  2. Genotype by Sex and Genotype by Age Interactions with Sedentary Behavior: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Daniel M. V.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Diego, Vincent P.; Blangero, John; Souza, Michele C.; Freitas, Duarte L.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Gomes, Thayse N.; Santos, Fernanda K.; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary behavior (SB) expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge) and Genotype x Sex (GxSex) interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05) and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day), EEsed (kcal/day), personal computer (PC) usage and physical activty (PA) tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day). For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex. PMID:25302714

  3. Transcriptional analysis of histone deacetylase family members reveal similarities between differentiating and aging spermatogonial stem cells.

    PubMed

    Kofman, Amber E; Huszar, Jessica M; Payne, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    The differentiation of adult stem cells involves extensive chromatin remodeling, mediated in part by the gene products of histone deacetylase (HDAC) family members. While the transcriptional downregulation of HDACs can impede stem cell self-renewal in certain contexts, it may also promote stem cell maintenance under other circumstances. In self-renewing, differentiating, and aging spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), the gene expression dynamics of HDACs have not yet been characterized. To gain further insight with these studies, we analyzed the transcriptional profiles of six HDAC family members, previously identified to be the most highly expressed in self-renewing SSCs, during stem cell differentiation and aging. Here we discovered that in both differentiating and aging SSCs the expression of Sirt4 increases, while the expression of Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 decreases. When SSCs are exposed to the lifespan-enhancing drug rapamycin in vivo, the resultant HDAC gene expression patterns are opposite of those seen in the differentiating and aging SSCs, with increased Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 and decreased Hdac8, Hdac9, and Sirt4. Our findings suggest that HDACs important for stem cell maintenance and oxidative capacity are downregulated as adult stem cells differentiate or age. These results provide important insights into the epigenetic regulation of stem cell differentiation and aging in mammals.

  4. Family history of gynaecological cancers: relationships to the incidence of breast cancer prior to age 55.

    PubMed

    Thompson, W D; Schildkraut, J M

    1991-09-01

    As part of a multi-centre epidemiological study of cancer in women between the ages of 20 and 54, data were collected concerning family history of gynaecological cancers in the female relatives of 4730 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and the relatives of 4688 women from the general population. Women who were diagnosed with breast cancer prior to age 45 were more likely than controls to have a mother or sister with ovarian cancer (odds ratio (OR): 1.50), endometrial cancer (1.29), and cervical cancer (1.53), although none of these elevations achieved statistical significance. The corresponding odds ratios for women diagnosed with breast cancer between the ages of 45 and 54 were 1.88, 0.84 and 0.93. The association with ovarian cancer was statistically significant in this group (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-3.19). In this latter group, having a first degree relative with ovarian cancer was associated approximately as strongly with breast cancer as was having a first degree relative with breast cancer. The results suggest that there may be a shared genetic basis for some cancers of the breast and ovary. From a clinical perspective, the results indicate that in setting appropriate levels of screening for breast cancer and in establishing an appropriate age at which to begin such screening for a particular woman, her family history of ovarian cancer should be considered in addition to her family history of breast cancer.

  5. Culturally Tailored, Family-Centered, Behavioral Obesity Intervention for Latino-American Preschool-aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Gesell, Sabina B.; Po’e, Eli K.; Escarfuller, Juan; Tempesti, Tommaso

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of a culturally tailored, family-centered, short-term behavioral intervention on BMI in Latino-American preschool-aged children. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 54 parent–child dyads were allocated to the intervention and 52 dyads were allocated to an alternative school-readiness program as the control condition. Parent–child dyads were eligible if the parent self-defined Latino, was at least 18 years old, had a 2- to 6-year-old child not currently enrolled in another healthy lifestyle program, had a valid telephone number, and planned on remaining in the city for the next 6 months. The Salud Con La Familia (Health with the Family) program consisted of 12 weekly 90-minute skills-building sessions designed to improve family nutritional habits and increase physical activity. Both programs were conducted in a community recreation center serving an urban neighborhood of mostly Spanish-speaking residents. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of participating preschool-aged children were overweight or obese. Controlling for child age, gender, and baseline BMI, the effect of the treatment condition on postintervention absolute BMI was B = –0.59 (P < .001). The intervention effect seemed to be strongest for obese children. CONCLUSIONS: A skills-building, culturally tailored intervention involving parent–child dyads changed short-term early growth patterns in these Latino-American preschool-aged children. Examining long-term effects would be a prudent next step. PMID:22869834

  6. Age Moderates the Relationships between Family Functioning and Neck Pain/Disability

    PubMed Central

    Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854

  7. Age Moderates the Relationships between Family Functioning and Neck Pain/Disability.

    PubMed

    Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain.

  8. Problems Accompanied Individuals with Learning Disability and Its Relationship to Gender and Family Economic Status Variables in a Jordanian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Oweidi, Alia M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between problems that accompany individuals with learning disability and the variables of gender and family economic status for a selected sample of Jordanians. The sample of the study, which consisted of (239) male and female students, was chosen randomly. To achieve this aim, the…

  9. Exploring the Impact of First-Generation Status and Family Cohesion on the Career Thoughts of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Roneferiti MaIshia

    2012-01-01

    The impact of first-generation status and family cohesion on the career thoughts of college students was investigated. While prior research had examined the differences between first-generation and non-first-generation college students, few studies have focused on the career decision-making of first-generation college students. No research to date…

  10. Brief Report: Risky Sexual Behavior of Adolescents in Belgrade--Association with Socioeconomic Status and Family Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Dejana S.; Bjegovic, Vesna M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and family structure with risky sexual behaviors in adolescents. Methods: A total of 1782 15-year-old Belgrade schoolchildren (47.5% boys and 52.5% girls) completed a questionnaire from the WHO study, "Health behavior of schoolchildren."…

  11. The Influence of Family Socioeconomic Status on the Post-High School Outcomes of Youth with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary M.; Newman, Lynn A.; Javitz, Harold S.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2, this study considers (a) the extent to which the socioeconomic status (SES) of youth with disabilities predicted their likelihood of high school graduation, postsecondary education enrollment, and employment; (b) the extent to which other individual and family factors mediated the…

  12. Links between Family Social Status and Preschoolers' Persistence: The Role of Maternal Values and Quality of Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mokrova, Irina L.; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Children who develop persistence in the preschool years are likely to function more effectively during the transition into school. In this study of 231 3-year-old children and their mothers, we examined the relations among family social status, maternal values of self-direction, quality of parenting, and children's persistence in challenging…

  13. Adult Health in Child Care: Health Status, Behaviors, and Concerns of Teachers, Directors, and Family Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gratz, Rene R.; Claffey, Anne

    1996-01-01

    A statewide survey examined health status, behaviors, and concerns of 446 randomly selected early childhood professionals--directors, teachers, and family day care providers. Found dramatic changes in perceived frequency of various symptoms and becoming ill since working with children. Found significant differences between groups for number of…

  14. Gender atypical behavior in Chinese school-aged children: its prevalence and relation to sex, age, and only child status.

    PubMed

    Yu, Lu; Winter, Sam

    2011-07-01

    This study had three purposes: (a) to compare the prevalence of boys' and girls' gender-atypical behaviors (GABs) in a sample of Chinese school-aged children, (b) to examine the developmental pattern of GABs in Chinese boys and girls over the age range in question (6-12 years), and (c) to test the effects of being an only child on children's GAB expression. Parents of 486 boys and 417 girls completed a Child Play Behavior and Activity Questionnaire (CPBAQ) in regard to their own children, and a demographic information sheet. The frequency distribution for each gender-related behavior was calculated. The associations between sex, age, and only-child status, and CPBAQ scale scores were examined. Although most GABs (by their very nature) were exhibited infrequently in Chinese children, it was found that girls displayed GABs more frequently than boys did. The prevalence of GABs rose for girls as they grew older, but fell slightly for boys. The expressions of GABs in only children did not differ from that in children with siblings. Possible effects of Chinese culture (including the current only-child policy) on children's GABs are discussed.

  15. HIV status and age at first marriage among women in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Adair, Timothy

    2008-09-01

    Recent research has highlighted the risk of HIV infection for married teenage women compared with their unmarried counterparts (Clark, 2004). This study assesses whether a relationship exists, for women who have completed their adolescence (age 20-29 years), between HIV status with age at first marriage and the length of time between first sex and first marriage. Multivariate analysis utilizing the nationally representative 2004 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey shows that late-marrying women and those with a longer period of pre-marital sex have the highest risk of HIV. Although women in urban areas overall marry later than their rural counterparts, the positive relationship between age at marriage and HIV risk is stronger in rural areas. The higher wealth status and greater number of lifetime sexual partners of late-marrying women contribute to their higher HIV risk. Given that the age at first marriage and the gap between first marriage and first sex have increased in recent years, focusing preventive efforts on late-marrying women will be of much importance in reducing HIV prevalence among females.

  16. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou

    2016-02-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender.

  17. "Math Talk" in Families of Preschool-Aged Children: Frequency and Relations to Children's Early Math Skills across Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Susperreguy Jorquera, Maria Ines

    2013-01-01

    Early math skills are the strongest predictors of later math achievement in school. This two-wave study addressed three research questions about the role of families in fostering these skills in preschool-aged children. First, how do families talk about math at home? Second, how do these conversations vary across families with different…

  18. Aging expectations are associated with physical activity and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dogra, Shilpa; Al-Sahab, Ban; Manson, James; Tamim, Hala

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether aging expectations (AE) are associated with physical activity participation and health among older adults of low socioeconomic status (SES). A cross-sectional analysis of a sample of 170 older adults (mean age 70.9 years) was conducted. Data on AE, physical activity, and health were collected using the 12 item Expectations Regarding Aging instrument, the Healthy Physical Activity Participation Questionnaire, and the Short Form-36, respectively. Adjusted linear regression models showed significant associations between AE and social functioning, energy/vitality, mental health, and self-rated general health, as well as physical activity. These results suggest that AE may help to better explain the established association between low SES, low physical activity uptake, and poor health outcomes among older adults.

  19. Ovarian cycle activity varies with respect to age and social status in free-ranging elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Elizabeth W; Meyer, Jordana M; Putman, Sarah B; Schulte, Bruce A; Brown, Janine L

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging African elephants live in a fission-fusion society, at the centre of which is the matriarch. Matriarchs are generally older females that guide their families to resources and co-ordinate group defense. While much is known about elephant society, knowledge is generally lacking about how age affects the physiology of wild elephants. Investigation of the ovarian activity of free-ranging elephants could provide insight into the reproductive ageing process, with implications for population management. Faecal samples were collected from 46 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 60 years for a 2-year period, and progestagen metabolite analyses were used to examine relationships between social status, age, season, and ovarian activity in female elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Social status was the strongest predictor of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in non-pregnant elephants, with grand matriarchs (n = 6) having the lowest values compared with matriarchs (n = 21) and non-matriarch females (n = 19). Likewise, social status and age were the strongest predictors of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in pregnant elephants (n = 27). The number of years since a non-pregnant female gave birth to her last calf (post-partum duration) was longer for older females with a higher social status, as well as during the dry season. Our results indicate that social standing and age of elephants are related to reproductive function, and that older females exhibit reductions in ovarian capacity. These results expand our understanding of reproduction and fertility throughout an elephant's lifespan, and the factors that impact gonadal function in free-ranging females. Given that possible over-abundance of elephants in areas such as Addo Elephant National Park is fuelling the debate over how best to manage these populations, knowledge about the reproductive potential of high-ranking females can provide managers with

  20. Interactive Influences of Family and School Ecologies on the Depression Status among Children in Marital Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Fu-Gong; Tung, Ho-Jui; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of transnational marriage has increased significantly in Taiwan in recent years. Children born in immigrant families are predisposed to acculturation and learning problems. We aimed to determine if the children of marital immigrants are more depressed than children from native families, and examine the individual and joint effects of…

  1. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Venkataraam; Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Managoli, Noopur A; Gugawad, Sachin C; Hitesh, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to assess the dental caries status among disabled children as dental health is an integral part of general body health and this group is deprived of health care needs. Materials & Methods: A sample of 310 disabled children was gathered including 195- Hearing impaired, 115 – blind. Of which 226 were males and 84 were females. A study questionnaire was prepared to include demographic information and WHO oral health assessment form (1997) to record dental caries status.Data was analysed using student’s test and ANOVA test was used at p≤0.05. Results: The overall mean for DMFT scores for males and females was 2.11 (1.753) and 1.75 (1.275) respectively. Similarly overall mean for dft was 0.31 (0.254) for males and 0.27 (0.143) for females. Mean DMFT of blind students was more as compared to hearing impaired ones as 2.16 (2.005) and 1.80 (1.264) respectively. Age factor showed a significant increase in the mean DMFT scores with advancing age at p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Overall mean scores of caries was very high and it increased with increasing age. Blind children experienced more caries then hearing impaired children in permanent, whereas it was opposite in primary dentition. So there is urgent need of both comprehensive and incremental dental care for this subgroup of population. How to cite the article: Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, Hitesh D. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):55-8. PMID:24653604

  2. Frontal theta activation associated with error detection in toddlers: influence of familial socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Conejero, Ángela; Guerra, Sonia; Abundis-Gutiérrez, Alicia; Rueda, M Rosario

    2016-12-15

    Error detection is one of the functions of the executive attention network, a brain system involved in executive control that includes the anterior cingulate cortex and other prefrontal regions. Despite the key role of this function in a wide range of life outcomes, very limited research has examined the early development of the network and whether its functional efficacy is related to environmental factors. Electrophysiological studies with adults have shown oscillatory activity in theta (4-7 Hz) range arising from medial frontal cortex that follows the detection of self-committed or observed errors. In the current study, we designed a novel experimental procedure that involved a familiarization phase with simple three-pieces puzzles followed by an experimental phase in which toddlers observed the puzzles being formed either correctly or incorrectly. Observation of incorrect configurations produced increased potentials in midline channels and greater power theta activity for both toddlers (n = 56) and adults (n = 14). In addition, socioeconomic status of the family in general, and parental education in particular, contributed to individual differences in the amplitude of the error-related signal and associated theta power in toddlers, indicating that children raised in lower SES families show poorer activation of the executive attention network. These data demonstrate the influence of environmental factors at the earliest stages of development of the executive attention network. Importantly, the results show that error-detection EEG signals can be used as neural markers of the initial development of executive attention, which can be of great help for the early detection of risk for developmental disorders involving deficits in this function.

  3. Parental age and the origin of trisomy 21. A study of 302 families.

    PubMed

    Dagna Bricarelli, F; Pierluigi, M; Landucci, M; Arslanian, A; Coviello, D A; Ferro, M A; Strigini, P

    1989-04-01

    Several studies have attempted to define the role of parental age in determining the prevalence of 47, +21 according to the origin of nondisjunction. This report analyzes the original data of 197 informative families from Italy and reviews the available literature (96 families from Denmark and 201 from other countries). Mothers whose gametes showed nondisjunction are treated as cases, and those with normal meiosis as controls within each study. To utilize the data fully, maternal age at birth of a 47, +21 individual is treated as a continuous variable in a nonparametric comparison. The combined evidence indicates that nondisjunction in the female is associated with a significant age difference between cases and controls which is mostly due to errors in the second meiotic division. It may be inferred that in the general population, aging enhances nondisjunction at both first and second division in the female, while aging in the male is presumably associated mostly (or only) with first division errors. Implications and alternative models are discussed.

  4. Factors associated with nutritional status in children aged 5-24 months in the Republic of Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Nagahori, Chikako; Tchuani, Jean Paul; Yamauchi, Taro

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to clarify nutritional status and associated factors in 5-24 month old children in the district of Batouri, Republic of Cameroon. Mothers were interviewed using a semistructured questionnaire, and the child's weight, length, head circumference, and mid-upper arm circumference was collected. The data were compared with child growth standards proposed by the World Health Organization using Z-scores; χ(2) -test, Fisher's exact test, and Wilcoxon rank sum test were used to determine variables associated with malnutrition. A total of 100 mother-child pairs participated in this study; valid data from 100 pairs were subjected to analysis. The percentages of children with malnutrition indicators were wasting (6%), stunting (31%), underweight (14%), and low mid-upper arm circumference (16%). Five factors were found to be statistically significant in their association with the children's malnutrition: mother's age, child's age, mother's educational level, mothers who had family planning information, and the source of tap water. A high percentage of stunting was positively associated with a high percentage of chronic malnutrition. We speculate that insufficient nutrition was more likely to begin after weaning.

  5. Differential expression of sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Wither, Robert G; Shulyakova, Natalya; Fisher, Carl; Ratnam, Melanie; Aarts, Michelle; Lilge, Lothar; Monnier, Philippe P; Eubanks, James H

    2014-01-01

    The sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that play roles in metabolic homeostasis, stress response and potentially aging. This enzyme family resides in different subcellular compartments, and acts on a number of different targets in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. Despite their recognized ability to regulate metabolic processes, the roles played by specific sirtuins in the brain-the most energy demanding tissue in the body-remains less well investigated and understood. In the present study, we examined the regional mRNA and protein expression patterns of individual sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain. Our results show that while each sirtuin is expressed in the brain at each of these different stages, they display unique spatial and temporal expression patterns within the brain. Further, for specific members of the family, the protein expression profile did not coincide with their respective mRNA expression profile. Moreover, using primary cultures enriched for neurons and astrocytes respectively, we found that specific sirtuin members display preferential neural lineage expression. Collectively, these results provide the first composite illustration that sirtuin family members display differential expression patterns in the brain, and provide evidence that specific sirtuins could potentially be targeted to achieve cell-type selective effects within the brain.

  6. Association of Family History of Epilepsy with Earlier Age Onset of Juvenile Myoclonic Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    NAJAFI, Mohammad Reza; NAJAFI, Mohammad Amin; SAFAEI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients’ demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. Materials & Methods From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. Results JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). Conclusion A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME. PMID:27247579

  7. Resident and family member perceptions of cultural diversity in aged care homes.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Willis, Eileen; Harrington, Ann; Gillham, David; De Bellis, Anita; Morey, Wendy; Jeffers, Lesley

    2017-03-01

    Similar to many developed nations, older people living in residential aged care homes in Australia and the staff who care for them have become increasingly multicultural. This cultural diversity adds challenges for residents in adapting to the care home. This study explores: (i) residents' and family members' perceptions about staff and cultural diversity, and (ii) culturally and linguistically diverse residents' and family members' experiences. An interpretive study design employing a thematic analysis was applied. Twenty-three residents and seven family members participated in interviews. Four themes were identified from interpreting residents and family members' perceptions of the impact of cultural diversity on their adaptation to aged care homes: (i) perceiving diversity as an attraction; (ii) adapting to cross-cultural communication; (iii) adjusting to diet in the residential care home; and (iv) anticipating individualized psychosocial interactions. The findings have implications for identifying strategies to support staff from all cultural backgrounds in order to create a caring environment that facilitates positive relationships with residents and supports residents to adjust to the care home.

  8. Differential expression of sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Wither, Robert G.; Shulyakova, Natalya; Fisher, Carl; Ratnam, Melanie; Aarts, Michelle; Lilge, Lothar; Monnier, Philippe P.; Eubanks, James H.

    2014-01-01

    The sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that play roles in metabolic homeostasis, stress response and potentially aging. This enzyme family resides in different subcellular compartments, and acts on a number of different targets in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. Despite their recognized ability to regulate metabolic processes, the roles played by specific sirtuins in the brain—the most energy demanding tissue in the body—remains less well investigated and understood. In the present study, we examined the regional mRNA and protein expression patterns of individual sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain. Our results show that while each sirtuin is expressed in the brain at each of these different stages, they display unique spatial and temporal expression patterns within the brain. Further, for specific members of the family, the protein expression profile did not coincide with their respective mRNA expression profile. Moreover, using primary cultures enriched for neurons and astrocytes respectively, we found that specific sirtuin members display preferential neural lineage expression. Collectively, these results provide the first composite illustration that sirtuin family members display differential expression patterns in the brain, and provide evidence that specific sirtuins could potentially be targeted to achieve cell-type selective effects within the brain. PMID:25566066

  9. Familial Risk of Early Suicide: Variations by Age and Sex of Children and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garssen, Joop; Deerenberg, Ingeborg; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kerkhof, Ad; Kunst, Anton E.

    2011-01-01

    To determine familial risk of early suicide, data on cause of death of all Dutch residents aged 20-55 years who died between 1995 and 2001 were linked to data of their parents. Men whose father died by suicide had a higher odds of suicide themselves, relative to men whose father died of other causes (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.5; 95% confidence interval:…

  10. Effects of age and sex on copper absorption, turnover, and status

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Milne, D.B. )

    1991-03-15

    Healthy, free-living men and women aged 20 to 59 years were studied to determine the effects of age and sex on Cu absorption, biological half-life (BH) and status. Additional women who were taking oral contraceptives (OCH) or estrogens were compared to women the same ages who did not take hormones. After an overnight fast, subjects provided a blood sample and ate breakfast labeled with 2.5 {mu}Ci Cu-67. Total Cu-67 ingested was determined after the meal by counting subjects in a whole-body gamma counter. Whole body retention of Cu-67 was monitored by 10 additional counts during the next 21 days. Cu absorption (%A) was calculated by extrapolation of the linear portion of a semi-log plot of % retention vs time. BH was {minus}1n2/slope. %A was significantly greater in women than men aged 20-50, but was not affected by age. BH was not significantly affected by either age or sex. Plasma Cu, enzymatic ceruloplasmin (Cp), and RID Cp were significantly higher in women than men, but SOD and in vitro Cu-67 uptake by RBCs did not differ. None of the biochemical indices were significantly affected by age, except RID Cp, which increased with age. Plasma Cu, enzymatic Cp, and SOD activity were higher in women aged 20-39 taking OCH than in those not taking OCH, but %A and BH did not differ between the groups. Trends in women 50-59 taking estrogen or not were similar to findings for women with/without OCH. These data suggest that dietary Cu requirements may differ between men and women.

  11. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non-significant.

  12. Growth and nutritional status of children from dysfunctional families with alcohol addicted parents in Poland.

    PubMed

    Hanć, Tomasz; Czapla, Zbigniew; Szwed, Anita; Durda, Magdalena; Krotowska, Aleksandra; Cieślik, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    The study was aimed at assessment of impact of parents' alcohol addiction on growth and prevalence of underweight and overweight in their children. Two groups of subjects were compared: 80 children of alcohol addicted parents (ChAAP) aged from 7 to 14 years and reference group (RG) of 1000 children selected in terms of age and place of residence. Differences in z scores for height and Body Mass Index (BMI), prevalence of underweight and overweight were assessed. Families of ChAAP were characterized by: lower parents' education, higher unemployment rate, a greater number of children than in RG. The differences between ChAAP and RG in z scores for height (z scores: -0.54 vs. 0.45, t = -7.01, p < 0.001) and BMI (z scores: -0.61 vs. 0.29, t = -6.28, p < 0.001) remained significant when impact of the parents' employment (for height: F = 8.88, p = 0.003; for BMI: F = 21.90, p < 0.001) and the number of children (for height: F = 30.89, p < 0.001; for BMI: F = 21.89, p < 0.001) were controlled. Children raised in families with alcohol addicted parents were shorter and had lower BMI than children of the reference group. Underweight was more frequent in that group, and overweight and obesity were more rare. The observed differences seem to result from other factors than bad living conditions, e.g.: chronic post-natal stress, or adverse events during fetal development.

  13. Family socioeconomic status modulates the coping-related neural response of offspring

    PubMed Central

    Masui, Keita; Furutani, Kaichiro; Nomura, Michio; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Ura, Mitsuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Substantial research links economic adversity to poor coping in stressful or threatening environments. Neuroimaging studies suggest that activation of the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (rVLPFC) plays a key role in self-control, and it seems that individual differences in neurocognitive systems underlying self-control are determined in part by subjective childhood socioeconomic status (SES). The present study used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to investigate whether subjective childhood SES moderates rVLPFC activity during one form of threatening environment: social exclusion. Twenty-five undergraduates participated in a NIRS session in which they were socially included and then excluded during an online ball-tossing game. Lower subjective childhood SES was associated with higher levels of social distress and lower levels of rVLPFC activity during social exclusion. The present findings suggest that early family environments are reliably associated with deficits in offspring coping resources and processes, as well as with difficulties in regulating interpersonal circumstances. PMID:22446300

  14. Association between vitamin D status and age-related macular degeneration by genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Meyers, Kristin J; Liu, Zhe; Engelman, Corinne D; Wallace, Robert B; LeBlanc, Erin S; Tinker, Lesley F.; Iyengar, Sudha K; Robinson, Jennifer; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    Importance Deficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with increased odds of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Objective We examined 1) whether this association is modified by genetic risk for AMD and 2) if there is an association between AMD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes involved in vitamin D transport, metabolism and genomic function. Design, Setting and Participants Women were postmenopausal and participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS) (54 to <75 years) with available serum 25(OH)D concentrations (assessed from 1994–1998), genetic data, and measures of AMD (n=142) assessed at CAREDS baseline from 2001–2004 (n=913). Main Outcomes and Measures Prevalent early or late AMD was determined from graded, stereoscopic fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for AMD by the joint effects of 25(OH)D (<30, ≥30 to <50, ≥50 to <75, and ≥75 nmol/L) and risk genotype (noncarrier, one, or two risk alleles). The referent group was noncarriers with adequate vitamin D status (≥75 nmol/L). Joint effect ORs were adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, self-reported cardiovascular disease, self-reported diabetes status, and hormone use. Additive and multiplicative interactions were assessed using the Synergy Index (SI) and an interaction term, respectively. Results We observed a 6.7-fold increased odds of AMD (95% CI=1.6, 28.2) among women with deficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D<30 nmol/L) and two risk alleles for complement factor H (CFH) Y402H (SI for additive interaction=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.7; p for multiplicative interaction=0.25,. A significant additive (SI=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.7) and multiplicative interaction (p=0.02) was observed for deficient women with two high risk complement factor I (CFI) (rs10033900) alleles (OR=6.3, 95% CI=1.6, 24.2). The odds of AMD did not differ by genotype of candidate

  15. Nutritional status and growth parameters of school-age Roma children in the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Spiroski, Igor; Dimitrovska, Zlatanka; Gjorgjev, Dragan; Mikik, Vladimir; Efremova-Stefanoska, Vesna; Naunova-Spiroska, Daniela; Kendrovski, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Main objective of the study was to assess the nutritional status of school age Roma children in Macedonia in order to detect precursors of possible health risks at an early age. The study was designed as a comparative case control study. Study group consisted of 229 Roma school children from the 1st and 272 from the 5th grade residing in different towns in Macedonia. The control group was recruited from other than Roma ethnic background and consisted of 283 children attending 1st and 356 children attending 5th grade. Every participant was measured for his/hers body height and weight. The t-test and Chi square (Chi2) were applied to test statistical significance of variables. The WHO's AnthroPlus software was applied to assess growth parameters and population at risk. There were significant differences in values of the body weight (p = 0.001) and height (p = 0.001) between Roma and non-Roma children attending the 1st grade of primary school. Weight-for-age, height-for-age and BMI-for-age indexes of the 1st grade children significantly differred in in the same intervals of SD (> or = -2SD and < -1SD; > or = -1SD and median; > +1SD and < or = +2SD; between Roma and non-Roma 5th graders. Anthropometric parameters of nutritional status of Roma children in Macedonia are significantly different than those of their non-Roma peers. Their health risks are predominantly related to underweight. The parameters related to health risks of overweight or obesity are lower in Roma than in non-Roma children.

  16. Researching health inequalities in adolescents: the development of the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) family affluence scale.

    PubMed

    Currie, Candace; Molcho, Michal; Boyce, William; Holstein, Bjørn; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Richter, Matthias

    2008-03-01

    Socioeconomic inequalities in adolescent health have been little studied until recently, partly due to the lack of appropriate and agreed upon measures for this age group. The difficulties of measuring adolescent socioeconomic status (SES) are both conceptual and methodological. Conceptually, it is unclear whether parental SES should be used as a proxy, and if so, which aspect of SES is most relevant. Methodologically, parental SES information is difficult to obtain from adolescents resulting in high levels of missing data. These issues led to the development of a new measure, the Family Affluence Scale (FAS), in the context of an international study on adolescent health, the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study. The paper reviews the evolution of the measure over the past 10 years and its utility in examining and explaining health related inequalities at national and cross-national levels in over 30 countries in Europe and North America. We present an overview of HBSC papers published to date that examine FAS-related socioeconomic inequalities in health and health behaviour, using data from the HBSC study. Findings suggest consistent inequalities in self-reported health, psychosomatic symptoms, physical activity and aspects of eating habits at both the individual and country level. FAS has recently been adopted, and in some cases adapted, by other research and policy related studies and this work is also reviewed. Finally, ongoing FAS validation work is described together with ideas for future development of the measure.

  17. Micronutrient status and global DNA methylation in school-age children

    PubMed Central

    Perng, Wei; Rozek, Laura S.; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Duchin, Ofra; Marin, Constanza; Forero, Yibby; Baylin, Ana; Villamor, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Aberrations in global LINE-1 DNA methylation have been related to risk of cancer and cardiovascular disease. Micronutrients including methyl-donors and retinoids are involved in DNA methylation pathways. We investigated associations of micronutrient status and LINE-1 methylation in a cross-sectional study of school-age children from Bogotá, Colombia. Methylation of LINE-1 repetitive elements was quantified in 568 children 5–12 years of age using pyrosequencing technology. We examined the association of LINE-1 methylation with erythrocyte folate, plasma vitamin B12, vitamin A ferritin (an indicator of iron status) and serum zinc concentrations using multivariable linear regression. We also considered associations of LINE-1 methylation with socio-demographic and anthropometric characteristics. Mean (± SD) LINE-1 methylation was 80.25 (± 0.65) percentage of 5-mC (%5-mC). LINE-1 methylation was inversely related to plasma vitamin A. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with retinol levels higher than or equal to 1.05 µmol/L showed 0.19% 5-mC lower LINE-1 methylation than children with retinol levels lower than 0.70 µmol/L. LINE-1 methylation was also inversely associated with C-reactive protein, a marker of chronic inflammation, and female sex. We identified positive associations of maternal body mass index and socioeconomic status with LINE-1 methylation. These associations were not significantly different by sex. Whether modification of these exposures during school-age years leads to changes in global DNA methylation warrants further investigation. PMID:22918385

  18. The impact of age on outcomes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease differs by relationship status.

    PubMed

    Holm, Kristen E; Plaufcan, Melissa R; Ford, Dee W; Sandhaus, Robert A; Strand, Matthew; Strange, Charlie; Wamboldt, Frederick S

    2014-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a genetic condition that can lead to early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The objective of this study was to examine the impact of age on psychological and clinical outcomes among individuals with AATD-associated COPD. 468 individuals with AATD-associated COPD (age 32-84 at baseline) completed questionnaires at baseline, 1- and 2-year follow-up. Age was examined as a predictor of depression, anxiety, health-related quality of life, and breathlessness at all three time points using linear mixed models. Age was associated with anxiety (b = -0.09, SE = 0.02, p < 0.001) and health-related quality of life (b = -0.29, SE = 0.09, p < 0.001). Age also had a statistically significant interaction with relationship status when predicting depression, health-related quality of life, and breathlessness. Among individuals who were single, younger age was associated with more symptoms of depression (b = -0.08, SE = 0.03, p < 0.01), worse health-related quality of life (b = -0.61, SE = 0.16, p < 0.001), and more breathlessness (b = -0.023, SE = 0.009, p < 0.01) throughout the 2-year study. Age was not associated with these three outcomes among individuals who were married/part of an unmarried couple. Results suggest that individuals who develop a chronic illness at a young age, particularly those who are single, may be more likely to have worse psychological and clinical outcomes.

  19. Is menopausal status related to women's attitudes toward menopause and aging?

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Doyel; Ray, Subha

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between menopausal status and attitudes toward menopause and aging. We identified 1,400 Bengali Hindu women aged 40-55 years (early perimenopausal n = 445; late perimenopausal n = 240; early postmenopausal n = 285; late postmenopausal n = 430) from West Bengal, India. Information on attitudes toward menopause and aging was collected from March 2009 to July 2012 using ten agree/disagree statements, of which three were positive, four were negative, and the rest were neutral. We used only the positive and negative statements in the analyses. The participants were given three response options for each statement: (1) agreed, (2) disagreed, and (3) felt neutral. Agreement with positive statements and disagreement with negative statements were scored as 3. The converse responses were scored as 1. Neutral responses were not scored. Thus, the total attitude score for each participant ranged from 7 to 21. Additionally, data on sociodemographic and reproductive variables, menopausal symptoms, and perceptions toward menopause were also collected. Multivariable analyses (ANCOVA) showed that postmenopausal women had more positive attitudes toward menopause and aging than perimenopausal women. Providing balanced information about menopause and aging might help to foster positive attitudes toward menopause.

  20. Status of Family Support Services and Spending in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Susan L.; Braddock, David; Hemp, Richard; Rizzolo, Mary C.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of data on family support services and spending for individuals with developmental disabilities presents information on cash subsidy payments, respite care, and other family support. A graph shows U.S. spending for family support, 1986-1998. Additional tables break down subsidy spending for family support services by state in 1998 and…

  1. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  2. Caregiving and Family Support Interventions: Crossing Networks of Aging and Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Heller, Tamar; Gibbons, Hailee M; Fisher, Dora

    2015-10-01

    This scoping review addressed the following questions: (a) What types of caregiver interventions are being done in both aging and developmental disability research? (b) How are these interventions similar and different? (c) What kinds of outcomes do these interventions have? (d) What innovative approaches are these interventions using? and (e) What can each field (developmental disabilities and gerontology) learn from the other based on this review? The disability review spanned 20 years (1992-2012), resulting in 14 studies; the aging review spanned 5 years (2008-2012), resulting in 55 studies. Data from the final selected studies were then extracted and compared on research design, type of intervention (governmental programs, small-group psychosocial, and other), and outcomes. Generally, in both fields, family-support interventions benefited participants' well-being and improved service access and satisfaction. Increased partnership between the fields of aging and developmental disabilities is critical to future scholarship in caregiving for both populations.

  3. Severity of household food insecurity is sensitive to change in household income and employment status among low-income families.

    PubMed

    Loopstra, Rachel; Tarasuk, Valerie

    2013-08-01

    Cross-sectional studies have established a relationship between poverty and food insecurity, but little is known about the acute changes within households that lead to changes in food insecurity. This study examined how changes in income, employment status, and receipt of welfare related to change in severity of food insecurity during 1 y among low-income families. In 2005-2007, 501 families living in market and subsidized rental housing were recruited through door-to-door sampling in high-poverty neighborhoods in Toronto. One year later, families were re-interviewed. The final longitudinal analytic sample included 331 families. Within-household change in income, employment, and welfare receipt were examined in relation to change in severity of food insecurity. Severity was denoted by the aggregate raw score on the Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM). Analyses were stratified by housing subsidy status owing to differences in characteristics between households. Food insecurity was a persistent problem among families; 68% were food insecure at both interviews. Severity was dynamic, however, as 73.4% answered more or fewer questions affirmatively on the HFFSM between baseline and follow-up. Among market-rent families, a $2000 gain in income during the year and gain of full-time employment were associated with a 0.29 and 1.33 decrease in raw score, respectively (P < 0.01). This study suggests that improvements in income and employment are related to improvements in families' experiences of food insecurity, highlighting the potential for income- and employment-based policy interventions to affect the severity of household food insecurity for low-income families.

  4. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children.

  5. Sources of variation in emotional awareness: Age, gender, and socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Mankus, Annette M.; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses—controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate—demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness. PMID:26500384

  6. Sources of variation in emotional awareness: Age, gender, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Mankus, Annette M; Boden, Matthew Tyler; Thompson, Renee J

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined associations between emotional awareness facets (type clarity, source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, involuntary attention) and sociodemographic characteristics (age, gender, and socioeconomic status (SES)) in a large US sample (N = 919). Path analyses-controlling for variance shared between sociodemographic variables and allowing emotional awareness facets to correlate-demonstrated that (a) age was positively associated with type clarity and source clarity, and inversely associated with involuntary attention; (b) gender was associated with all facets but type clarity, with higher source clarity, negative emotion differentiation, voluntary attention, and involuntary attention reported by women then men; and (c) SES was positively associated with type clarity with a very small effect. These findings extend our understanding of emotional awareness and identify future directions for research to elucidate the causes and consequences of individual differences in emotional awareness.

  7. Testimony on the Economic Status of Hispanic Children and Families. Presented before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families, U.S. House of Representatives, September 25, 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quiroz, Julia Teresa

    This document presents testimony delivered before the House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families on the economic status of Hispanic children and families in the United States. The speaker, a senior policy analyst at the National Council of La Raza, focuses on the strengths of Hispanic families, the economic challenges they face, and…

  8. Feeding practices and nutritional status of children under two years of age.

    PubMed

    Khan, M I; Hoque, M A; Mollah, A H; Islam, M N; Latif, S A; Hossain, M A

    2011-10-01

    A descriptive cross sectional study was done in the department of Pediatrics Mymensingh Medical College Hospital. The purpose of the study was to assess breast feeding pattern, complementary feeding pattern, types of complementary foods and also to assess the nutritional status and to detect any relationship with the nutritional status and the feeding practices. Mothers with their children aged less than 2 years were included and very sick children, mother less children, handicapped children were excluded. Four hundred (400) consecutive children were enrolled from eight upazillas of Mymensingh district who were selected randomly. Out of 400 children, 214 children (53.5%) were male and 186 children (47.5%) were female and M:F was 1.2:1. Exclusive breastfeeding rate was 41.5%. Pre-lacteal feeding rate were 30.7% and most common pre-lacteal foods were honey and sugar water. Colostrum was given in 69.3% children. Breast feeding continued at the time of interview was 58.1%. Complementary feeding started in time in 35.8%, early weaning in 44.5% children. Type of complementary food was mainly luta (rice powder mixed with boiled water and sugar only) in 38.8% and khichuri (rice, pulses, soybean oil) in 19.5%. Bottle feeding rate was 31.30%. Around 43% children were underweight and 10.25% children were severely underweight and common in between 12 to 23 months of age group. Around 29% children were stunted among 11.25% were severely stunted. About 13.5% children were wasted and among them 2.5% were severely wasted. Stunting prevalent over the age of 9 months and wasting started after 6 months of age. Malnutrition was common in partially breast fed and early weaning with carbohydrate rich food.

  9. DNA repair and aging: the impact of the p53 family

    PubMed Central

    Nicolai, Sara; Rossi, Antonello; Di Daniele, Nicola; Melino, Gerry; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Raschellà, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous factors that threaten the integrity of their DNA. The maintenance of genome stability is of paramount importance in the prevention of both cancer and aging processes. To deal with DNA damage, cells put into operation a sophisticated and coordinated mechanism, collectively known as DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR orchestrates different cellular processes, such as DNA repair, senescence and apoptosis. Among the key factors of the DDR, the related proteins p53, p63 and p73, all belonging to the same family of transcription factors, play multiple relevant roles. Indeed, the members of this family are directly involved in the induction of cell cycle arrest that is necessary to allow the cells to repair. Alternatively, they can promote cell death in case of prolonged or irreparable DNA damage. They also take part in a more direct task by modulating the expression of core factors involved in the process of DNA repair or by directly interacting with them. In this review we will analyze the fundamental roles of the p53 family in the aging process through their multifaceted function in DDR. PMID:26668111

  10. DNA repair and aging: the impact of the p53 family.

    PubMed

    Nicolai, Sara; Rossi, Antonello; Di Daniele, Nicola; Melino, Gerry; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Raschellà, Giuseppe

    2015-12-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous factors that threaten the integrity of their DNA. The maintenance of genome stability is of paramount importance in the prevention of both cancer and aging processes. To deal with DNA damage, cells put into operation a sophisticated and coordinated mechanism, collectively known as DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR orchestrates different cellular processes, such as DNA repair, senescence and apoptosis. Among the key factors of the DDR, the related proteins p53, p63 and p73, all belonging to the same family of transcription factors, play multiple relevant roles. Indeed, the members of this family are directly involved in the induction of cell cycle arrest that is necessary to allow the cells to repair. Alternatively, they can promote cell death in case of prolonged or irreparable DNA damage. They also take part in a more direct task by modulating the expression of core factors involved in the process of DNA repair or by directly interacting with them. In this review we will analyze the fundamental roles of the p53 family in the aging process through their multifaceted function in DDR.

  11. Supportive Family Environments Ameliorate the Link Between Racial Discrimination and Epigenetic Aging: A Replication Across Two Longitudinal Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Gregory E.; Yu, Tianyi; Beach, Steven R. H.; Chen, Edith

    2015-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that supportive family environments during adolescence will buffer exposure to racial discrimination, reducing its impact on biological weathering and its manifestation in cellular aging. Indicators of racial discrimination, supportive family environments, and covariates were collected for 3 consecutive years across adolescence from 2 independent cohorts of African American youth from rural Georgia. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected during young adulthood. Patterns of methylation were used to index epigenetic ages of these cells and the extent to which they differed from participants’ chronological ages. Among youth in supportive family environments, exposure to high levels of racial discrimination did not forecast epigenetic aging. Among youth in less supportive family environments, exposure to high levels of racial discrimination forecast faster epigenetic aging. The results did not change when confounder variables were included in the data analyses, and the results were replicated across cohorts. PMID:26917213

  12. Family Emotional Climate and Sibling Relationship Quality: Influences on Behavioral Problems and Adaptation in Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.

    2007-01-01

    We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…

  13. Welfare: Income and Relative Poverty Status of AFDC Families. Report to the Honorable William V. Roth, Jr., U.S. Senate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.

    This report assesses the income sources, amounts and relative poverty status of welfare families in the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program, and determines the implications of these results for federal welfare policy. Annually, about $15 billion in AFDC payments are made to needy families with children for such basics as food,…

  14. Family Life Education Project seeks to bring down illegitimate births, teen-age pregnancies and STD.

    PubMed

    Kondo, A

    1992-01-01

    Levels of teen pregnancy, illegitimate birth, sexually transmitted disease (STD), rape, wife-bashing, abandonment and abuse, abortion, school dropout, divorce, and drug abuse are on the rise in Fiji. 13.4% of 7,093 births to 7,093 mothers over the period January 1982-June 1983 were to mothers under age 19, of which 46.7% of the babies were illegitimate. 4% of all mothers harbored STD. Talks held by the Ministry of Education eventually led to the development and implementation of the Family Life Education Project in July 1985. The project's longterm goals are to reduce the incidence of adolescent pregnancy, unwanted births, STDs, and psychological stress. To attain these goals, family life education was incorporated in the curricula of 104 of 141 of the country's secondary schools. This core course was designed to change teen attitudes and behaviors relating to family life, population issues, and family planning, and was implemented with broad parental and community support. Anecdotal evidence suggests program success.

  15. Satisfaction with hospital rehabilitation: is it related to life satisfaction, functional status, age or education?

    PubMed

    Franchignoni, Franco; Ottonello, Marcella; Benevolo, Emilio; Tesio, Luigi

    2002-05-01

    Satisfaction with care, functional and cognitive status, life satisfaction, anxiety, and sociodemographic variables were correlated in 55 in-patients admitted to a rehabilitation unit after hip or knee surgery. The study aimed at investigating whether, as an index of care quality, patient satisfaction can be considered as a distinct domain or instead is subsidiary to other patient characteristics. Patient satisfaction with rehabilitation care was measured through a questionnaire, SAT-16. The SAT-16 scores were moderately correlated with a short form of the Life Satisfaction Index (LSI-11: rs = 0.41, p = 0.001), but did not correlate with either the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the STAI form X (the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), age or educational level. According to the "discrepancy model", the fair degree of correlation between SAT-16 and LSI-11 could be explained by connecting both expressions of satisfaction with personal background expectations and their perceived degree of fulfilment. The results confirm, also for rehabilitation care, that patient satisfaction should be considered as a valuable specific outcome, independent of most of the patient characteristics investigated (functional and cognitive status, anxiety, age, and education).

  16. Age and physical activity status effects on appetite and mood state in older humans.

    PubMed

    Apolzan, John W; Flynn, Michael G; McFarlin, Brian K; Campbell, Wayne W

    2009-04-01

    This study examined the influences of age and chronic physical activity status on appetite and mood state. Groups of younger inactive, younger active, older inactive, and older active men and women completed questionnaires each waking hour, rating appetite and mood state for 1 day. Maximal oxygen consumption was 20% lower in older than in younger (p < 0.001) subjects, and 32% lower in inactive than in active (p < 0.001) subjects. Mean hunger (older, 4 +/- 1; younger, 5 +/- 1 arbitrary units (AU); p < 0.01) and desire to eat (older, 3 +/- 1; younger, 4 +/- 1 AU; p < 0.01) were lower in older than in younger subjects. Nadir arousal was higher for the active subjects (active, 3 +/- 1; inactive, 2 +/- 1 AU; p < 0.05). Nadir arousal, nadir pleasantness, and mean pleasantness were higher for the older subjects (p < 0.05). Physical activity status does not influence appetite or the age-associated declines in hunger or desire to eat. The increased nadir arousal of the physically active and older groups is consistent with these subjects experiencing less extreme sleepiness.

  17. Family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals among Australian children aged 10-12years. Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with dietary patterns.

    PubMed

    Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J; Pearson, Natalie; Timperio, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β=0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β=1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.06, -0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence.

  18. Secular Trends in Growth and Nutritional Status of Mozambican School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A. R.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q. F.; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Prista, António

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. Methods 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Results Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p<0.05) across the three time points, where those from 2012 were the heaviest, but those in 1999 were the tallest, and for BMI the highest value was observed in 2012 (1992<2012, 1999<2012). Among girls, those from 1999 were the tallest (1992<1999, 1999>2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012). In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys), and normal-weight (in girls); no clear trend was evident for stunting. Conclusion Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. PMID:25473837

  19. Influence of HIV Status and Age on Cognitive Representations of Others

    PubMed Central

    Carstensen, Laura L.; Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2 studies the postulate that the perception of time left in life influences the ways that people conceptualize social relationships was explored. It was hypothesized that when time is limited, emotional aspects of relationships are highly salient. In Study 1, a card-sort paradigm involving similarity judgments demonstrated, for a sample of persons 18 to 88 years old, that the prominence of affect in the mental representations of prospective social partners is positively associated with age. In Study 2, the same experimental approach was applied to a sample of young gay men similar to one another in age, but notably different in their health status (that is, HIV negative; HIV positive, asymptomatic; and HIV positive, symptomatic). It was found that, with age held constant, increasing closeness to the end of life is also associated with an increasing prominence of affect in the mental representations of social partners. The results suggest that the perception of limited time, rather than chronological age, is the critical variable influencing mental representations of social partners. PMID:9848799

  20. Socioeconomic status, family background and other key factors influence the management of head lice in Norway.

    PubMed

    Rukke, Bjørn Arne; Soleng, Arnulf; Lindstedt, Heidi Heggen; Ottesen, Preben; Birkemoe, Tone

    2014-05-01

    How head lice infestations are managed by households is an important but generally neglected issue in head lice research. In the present study, we investigate actions taken against head lice by Norwegian households in association with socioeconomic status, family background, school-related variables and other key factors. Repeat questionnaires distributed to caretakers of the same elementary school children during a 2-year period enabled us to study both previous head lice management and any changes in this management through time. Households from 12 schools spanning the main socioeconomic variation found in Norway participated in the study. All students with active head lice infestation were treated in the four investigated periods. Most caretakers used a thorough head lice checking technique and informed others of own infestation. Checking frequency was low as most children were inspected less than monthly. The best determinant of increased checking frequency and thoroughness was personal experience with head lice. The increased awareness, however, seemed to be somewhat short-lived, as there was a decrease in checking frequency and thoroughness within 1 year after infestation. Personal experience with head lice also increased general knowledge related to the parasite. Parents born in developing countries checked their children for head lice more frequently, although less thoroughly, informed fewer contacts when infested, used pediculicides preventively more often and knew less about head lice than parents born in developed countries. Households with highly educated mothers had a lower checking frequency, but their knowledge and willingness to inform others was high. Single parents were more concerned about economic costs and kept children home from school longer while infested than other parents. As head lice management varied among socioeconomic groups and with parental background, differentiated advice should be considered in the control of head lice. The

  1. Physical Activity of Preschool-Aged Latino Children in Farmworker Families

    PubMed Central

    Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Zapata Roblyer, Martha I.; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Edward H.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe time spent in sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by children in Latino farmworker families; and delineate sources of variation in sedentary and MVPA. Method Data were from mother-child dyads (N = 248) in Latino farmworker households in North Carolina. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers; mothers described their children’s characteristics and their physical and social environments. Results Children spent 6.2 hours/day sedentary (Median=369 minutes), and 6.0 minutes/day in MVPA. Children in Head Start spent more time sedentary, whereas children living where dogs roam freely were less sedentary. Children whose mothers limited screen time spent 2 more minutes in MVPA. Conclusions Preschool-aged Latino children in farmworker families are sedentary, engaging in very little MVPA. PMID:24933141

  2. Status and Determinants of Motor Impairment in Preschool Children from Migrant Families in China

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Hua; Hua, Jing; Shen, Jianqiang; Feng, Lijuan; Gu, Guixiong

    2016-01-01

    Background Although poor health conditions and decreased developmental levels have been investigated in migrant children, no study in China has focused on these children’s individual motor development. Objectives This study aims to explore the prevalence of motor impairment in Chinese migrant children and to determine the contributory factors. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, a structured questionnaire was administered to primary caregivers of preschool children aged 3 - 6 (n = 2,976) in ten kindergartens from two districts of Suzhou, China, to assess the children’s home socioeconomic status and motor environment, that is, the presence of affordances for motor development. Motor ability was assessed using the Movement Assessment battery for children-second edition (MABC-2). Multiple logistic regression analysis was used to determine the risk factors for motor impairment in migrant children. Results Migrant children showed correlations with impairment in manual dexterity, aiming and catching, and motor development (odds ratios [ORs] = 1.320, 1.255, 1.260, respectively; P < 0.05). Outdoor movement affordances and toys for fine motor development were significantly associated with motor impairment in migrant children (ORs = 0.834 [movement affordances, 0.843 [toys], P < 0.05). Conclusions Chinese migrant children are at a high risk of motor impairment, which is associated with a lack of outdoor movement affordances and toys for fine motor development. Future prevention and intervention should focus on the motor environment of the home. PMID:28203332

  3. Age-related differences in white matter integrity and cognitive function are related to APOE status

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, despite growing evidence that ε4 increases cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine these relationships in a group of community-dwelling cognitively normal older adults. Data were obtained from a sample of 126 individuals (ages 52–92) that included 32 ε4 heterozygotes, 6 ε4 homozygotes, and 88 non-carriers. Two measures of diffusion, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), were obtained from six brain regions – frontal white matter, lateral parietal white matter, the centrum semiovale, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the temporal stem white matter – and were used to predict composite scores of cognitive function in two domains, executive function and memory function. Results indicated that ADC and FA differed with increasing age in all six brain regions, and these differences were significantly greater for ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Importantly, after controlling for age, diffusion measures predicted cognitive function in a region-specific way that was also influenced by ε4 status. Regardless of APOE status, frontal ADC and FA independently predicted executive function scores for all participants, while temporal lobe ADC additionally predicted executive function for ε4 carriers, but not noncarriers. Memory scores were predicted by temporal lobe ADC but not frontal diffusion for all participants, and this relationship was significantly stronger in ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Taken together, age and temporal lobe ADC accounted for a striking 53% of the variance in memory scores within the ε4 carrier

  4. Successful aging, dietary habits and health status of elderly individuals: a k-dimensional approach within the multi-national MEDIS study.

    PubMed

    Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Haro, Josep Maria; Mariolis, Anargiros; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Tsakountakis, Nikos; Zeimbekis, Akis; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2014-12-01

    The definition and determinants of successful aging is still controversial. Although dietary habits have long been associated with aging, eating habits and behaviors have rarely been included in various proposed indices of successful aging. The aim of this work was to evaluate determinants of successful aging together with assessment of dietary habits in relation to healthcare facility use among elders living in the Mediterranean basin. During 2005-2011, 2663 elderly (aged 65-100 years) individuals from 21 Mediterranean islands and rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) were voluntarily enrolled in the study. A successful aging index ranging from a score of 0 to a score of 10 was constructed using 10 attributes, i.e., education, financial status, physical activity, body mass index, depression, participation in social activities with friends and family, number of yearly excursions, number of cardiovascular disease risk factors and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. The applied factor analysis on the components of the index extracted three main components for successful aging: psychosocial-economic, bioclinical and lifestyle; confirming the multiple dimensions of aging. After adjusting for confounders, a 1/10-unit increase in the successful aging index was associated with 0.8 less annual visits to healthcare centers (95% CI -1.3 to-0.2). Stratified analysis by gender revealed heterogeneity of factors predicting successful aging. These findings suggest that successful aging is a multidimensional and complex concept that exhibits gender heterogeneity. Annual use of health care services by the elders was found to be related to level of successful aging.

  5. How Family Support and Internet Self-Efficacy Influence the Effects of E-Learning among Higher Aged Adults--Analyses of Gender and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Regina Ju-chun

    2010-01-01

    Gender and age differences in the effects of e-learning, including students' satisfaction and Internet self-efficacy, have been supported in prior research. What is less understood is how these differences are shaped, especially for higher aged adults. This article examines the utility of family support (tangible and emotional) and Internet…

  6. The Interaction Effect of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the effect of gender and socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool-aged children's overall development. Two hundred fifty-five preschoolers (125 boys and 130 girls), with a mean age of 56 plus or minus 9 months, were randomly selected from day care centers and kindergartens of different areas of…

  7. Association between Family and Friend Smoking Status and Adolescent Smoking Behavior and E-Cigarette Use in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Joung, Myoung Jin; Han, Mi Ah; Park, Jong; Ryu, So Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Smoking is harmful to the health of adolescents because their bodies are still growing. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between the smoking status of Korean adolescents’ parents and friends and their own smoking behavior. The study assessed a nationwide sample of 72,060 middle and high students from the 10th Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (2014). Descriptive analysis, chi-square tests, and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to probe the association between family and friend smoking status and adolescent smoking behavior. The current cigarette smoking rates were 13.3% of boys and 4.1% of girls. The corresponding rates for electronic cigarette smoking were 4.1% and 1.5%, respectively. Higher exposure to secondhand smoke, smoking by any family member, more friends smoking, and witnessed smoking at school were associated with current smoking and electronic smoking. The smoking status of family and friends was significantly related to adolescent smoking behavior. These results should be considered in designing programs to control adolescent smoking. PMID:27898019

  8. Social-Economic Status and Cognitive Performance among Chinese Aged 50 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fan; Guo, Yanfei; Zheng, Yang; Ma, Wenjun; Kowal, Paul; Chatterji, Somnath; Wang, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous population-based studies have suggested that socio-economic status (SES) is associated with cognitive performance, but few nationally representative epidemiological studies on cognitive performance with a large sample of older adults are available in China. And many studies explore the factors associated with cognitive performance, mainly focusing on individual level and more rarely on multiple levels that include the individual and community. Methods This study uses SAGE-China Wave 1 data which consisted of 13,157 adults aged 50 years and older to explore socioeconomic inequalities in the cognitive performance from a multilevel perspective (individual and community levels). The overall cognition score was based on the seven separate components of the cognition tests, including the four verbal recall trials, the verbal fluency test, the forward digit span test and the backward digit span test. Factor analysis was applied to evaluate and generate a single overall score. A two-level hierarchical linear model was used to evaluate the association between SES at these two levels and the overall cognition score adjusted for age, sex and marital status. Results At individual level, years of education was significantly associated with overall cognition score for both urban and rural dwellers. At the community level, a positive association was obtained between median household income and median years of education and overall cognition score among urban participants. Conclusion A significant association between SES at both individual-level and community-level (only for urban area) and cognitive performance were found in this study of a national sample of 13,157 Chinese aged 50 years and older, even after adjusting for demographic characteristics. Identifying community-based SES variables that are associated with cognitive performance in the older population provides further evidence for the need to address community characteristics associated with

  9. Induced abortion. Effects of marital status, age and parity on choice of pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Skjeldestad, F E; Borgan, J K; Daltveit, A K; Nymoen, E H

    1994-03-01

    Data from the Abortion File of the Central Bureau of Statistics in Norway for 1979-90 were used to examine the relative risks of induced abortion among groups varying by marital status, age, and parity for four 3-year time periods. Between January 1979 and December 1990, 639,551 births were registered and 174,590 pregnancies were terminated by abortion. The mean number of induced abortions in three-year periods increased from 12,800 to 14,600 (14%), and births increased from 50,700 to 58,800 (16%). The two prominent groups having abortions were unmarried women without children aged less than 30 years (40%) and married women with 2 or more children. Declines in abortion occurred among married women with two or more children, from 24% of all abortions in 1979-81 to 15% in 1988-90. Unmarried, pregnant women aged more than 20 years of age experienced a decline in abortion terminations. Unmarried teenage abortions remained stable. Pregnancy terminations increased primarily for married women aged 10-24 years without children. The lowest group with abortions comprised married childless women aged 25-29 years: the reference group. Unmarried women, regardless of age and parity, ended their pregnancies 40-50 times more often than the reference group. Registration of data affected the data by overestimation of abortions among single teenagers by 4% for all time periods. Although abortions increased among unmarried women aged over 20 years, there was still a decline in the proportion of pregnancies terminated by abortion among unmarried women aged over 20 years. Births among cohabiting or unmarried women increased more than the relative number of abortions among unmarried women. Cohabitation increased from 12% in 1977 to 30% in 1988. The suggestion was that the decreasing trend in abortion among pregnant unmarried women might be related to the changes in consensual unions. Data from the 1988 Norway Fertility Survey found that 40% of births were to childless married couples not

  10. ESCAP holds meet on implications of population future for families, aged.

    PubMed

    1996-01-01

    This news brief draws attention to the recent Expert Group Meeting in November 1996 in Bangkok of the ESCAP Population Division. The meeting focused on implications for future families and the elderly in Asia and was attended by 14 senior officials, resource persons, and study directors from 10 countries in the Asian and Pacific region. The ESCAP region is experiencing changes in population composition and distribution by age and sex and in family structure and functioning. There is a shift to an increasing number and proportion of elderly, elderly living in urban areas, and elderly living in nuclear families. China alone has 113 million elderly. The number of elderly is 13 million in Indonesia, about 6 million in Bangladesh, about 6 million in Pakistan, 4.5 million in Thailand, and 1.6 million in Sri Lanka. Elderly women generally outnumber elderly men and require economic support from others. Women face special problems in remaining active and healthy. This challenge will require assistance from families, communities, and government. Government will need to implement policies and programs to strengthen the role of the family and community in maintaining the elderly in independent and productive life styles that reduce dependency on government resources. The meeting provided detailed information about a regional study of support for the elderly that would include a household survey and analysis. The meeting resulted in the development of terms of reference for implementing operations research on the role and functions of nongovernmental groups that provide community-based services for the elderly. Participants adopted recommendations for incorporating elderly issues into national population and development plans and projects.

  11. Predicting infant maltreatment in low-income families: the interactive effects of maternal attributions and child status at birth.

    PubMed

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith

    2004-03-01

    Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm status), as moderated by mothers' attributions. The highest levels of maltreatment were shown within dyads that included a mother with low perceived power and an at-risk infant. Partial support was found for maternal depressive symptoms as mediators of harsh parenting among at-risk infants. It is suggested that lack of perceived parental power constrains investment in protective relationships and fosters sensitization to potential threat.

  12. Reconsidering Insider Status for Families during the Transition from Early Intervention to Preschool Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podvey, Mara C.; Hinojosa, Jim; Koenig, Kristie P.

    2013-01-01

    Scholars know little about families' experiences when receiving related services and how these services affect the shift from a family-centered to an educational program. In this qualitative interview study, the authors explored the transition experiences of six families over a 3-month period, focusing on the role of related therapy services and…

  13. The Drexon Product Family For Laser Recording And Digital-Data Storage --A Status Report--

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drexler, Jerome

    1983-11-01

    The Drexon medium is no longer a research project. After six years of research, development, and product engineering, it has emerged into a family of optical-data storage products. First delivered as a 30-cm disk in November 1980, this material is now available in card, tape, and minidisk formats. The card and tape products evolved from a fundamental differentiation--mass memories versus compact memories. Our original work concentrated in the mass memory area where 0.8-micron holes and 2 gigabytes per disk are desired. Today, approximately one-half of our effort is in this area. The other half is directed at compact optical data storage, using 5-micron holes and data capacities of 2 to 50 megabytes. The appearance of this market for compact memories parallels the emergence of the personal computer age. Our goal in the mass memory disk area is to develop long-life, low-cost products with sufficient sensitivity, CNR, and bit-error rate performance for advanced digital-data storage systems. Our goal for compact memories with similar qualities is to link our laser recordable cards, software ROM cards, and microtape cassettes to personal computers, video game machines, and office automation products.

  14. Does parental sexual orientation matter? A longitudinal follow-up of adoptive families with school-age children.

    PubMed

    Farr, Rachel H

    2017-02-01

    Controversy continues to surround parenting by lesbian and gay (LG) adults and outcomes for their children. As sexual minority parents increasingly adopt children, longitudinal research about child development, parenting, and family relationships is crucial for informing such debates. In the psychological literature, family systems theory contends that children's healthy development depends upon healthy family functioning more so than family structure. From the framework of family stress theory, it was expected that longitudinal outcomes for school-age children adopted in infancy could be distinct among those with same-sex versus other-sex parents (N = 96 families). Similar findings were hypothesized in terms of parent adjustment, couple relationships, and family functioning in comparing same-sex and other-sex parent families. Results indicated that adjustment among children, parents, and couples, as well as family functioning, were not different on the basis of parental sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, or heterosexual) when children were school-age. Rather, children's behavior problems and family functioning during middle childhood were predicted by earlier child adjustment issues and parenting stress. These findings are consistent with and extend previous literature about families headed by LG parents, particularly those that have adopted children. The results have implications for advancing supportive policies, practices, and laws related to adoption and parenting by sexual minority adults. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. The Role of Aging and Disability Resource Centers in Serving Adults Aging with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Families: Findings from Seven States

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Caitlin E.; Putman, Michelle; Kramer, John; Mutchler, Jan E.

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are living to experience old age. The purpose of this project was to assess the activities of Aging and Disability Resource Centers (ADRCs) as they seek to serve older adults with intellectual disabilities and their family caregivers. Data come from 21 in-depth qualitative interviews with ADRC staff in seven states. Results of this qualitative analysis indicate that ADRCs are not focusing explicitly on adults aging with intellectual and developmental disabilities and their family caregivers, but meeting the needs of this population is a future goal of ADRCs. Challenges related to accessing and providing information and referral services for adults aging with intellectual and developmental disabilities were described, which highlight existing unmet needs of this population. Supporting adults who simultaneously require aging and disability services requires true coordination of aging and disability service systems. PMID:26548867

  16. BIN1 Is Decreased in Sporadic but Not Familial Alzheimer’s Disease or in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Glennon, Elizabeth B. C.; Whitehouse, Isobel J.; Miners, J. Scott; Kehoe, Patrick G.; Love, Seth; Kellett, Katherine A. B.; Hooper, Nigel M.

    2013-01-01

    Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) has been implicated in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by a number of genome wide association studies (GWAS) in a variety of populations. Here we measured BIN1 in frontal cortex samples from 24 sporadic AD and 24 age-matched non-dementia brains and correlated the expression of this protein with markers of AD. BIN1 was reduced by 87% (p=0.007) in sporadic AD compared to non-dementia controls, but BIN1 in sporadic AD did not correlate with soluble Aβ (rs=-0.084, p=0.698), insoluble Aβ (rs=0.237, p=0.269), Aβ plaque load (rs=0.063, p=0.771) or phospho-tau load (rs=-0.160, p=0.489). In contrast to our findings in sporadic AD, BIN1 was unchanged in the hippocampus from 6 cases of familial AD compared to 6 age-matched controls (p=0.488). BIN1 declined with age in a cohort of non-dementia control cases between 25 and 88 years but the correlation was not significant (rs=-0.449, p=0.081). Although BIN1 is known to have a role in endocytosis, and the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to form amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is dependent on endocytosis, knockdown of BIN1 by targeted siRNA or the overexpression of BIN1 in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) had no effect on APP processing. These data suggest that the alteration in BIN1 is involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic, but not familial AD and is not a consequence of AD neurodegeneration or the ageing process, a finding in keeping with the numerous GWAS that implicate BIN1 in sporadic AD. However, the mechanism of its contribution remains to be established. PMID:24205320

  17. Marital Status and Mortality among Middle Age and Elderly Men and Women in Urban Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Va, Puthiery; Yang, Wan-Shui; Nechuta, Sarah; Chow, Wong-Ho; Cai, Hui; Yang, Gong; Gao, Shan; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Xiang, Yong-Bing

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous studies have suggested that marital status is associated with mortality, but few studies have been conducted in China where increasing aging population and divorce rates may have major impact on health and total mortality. Methods We examined the association of marital status with mortality using data from the Shanghai Women's Health Study (1996–2009) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (2002–2009), two population-based cohort studies of 74,942 women aged 40–70 years and 61,500 men aged 40–74 years at the study enrollment. Deaths were identified by biennial home visits and record linkage with the vital statistics registry. Marital status was categorized as married, never married, divorced, widowed, and all unmarried categories combined. Cox regression models were used to derive hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Unmarried and widowed women had an increased all-cause HR = 1.11, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.21 and HR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.20 respectively) and cancer (HR = 1.17, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.32 and HR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04, 1.34 respectively) mortality. Never married women had excess all-cause mortality (HR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.09). Divorce was associated with elevated cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in women (HR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.01, 2.13) and elevated all-cause mortality (HR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.55, 3.86) in men. Amongst men, not being married was associated with excess all-cause (HR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.88) and CVD (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.54) mortality. Conclusions Marriage is associated with decreased all cause mortality and CVD mortality, in particular, among both Chinese men and women. PMID:22073174

  18. Systemic, Integrated, and Sustainable Family Engagement across the Early Age Spectrum in San Mateo and Santa Clara Counties. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fehrer, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates the critical importance of appropriate supports for children and their families at early ages, as well as the potential for targeted interventions to make meaningful contributions to children's development. Family involvement in the early years of a child's learning and development can serve as a protective…

  19. Investigating Discontinuity of Age Relations in Cognitive Functioning, General Health Status, Activity Participation, and Life Satisfaction between Young-Old and Old-Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Ihle, Andreas; Jopp, Daniela S.; Oris, Michel; Fagot, Delphine; Kliegel, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Health research suggests that findings on young-old adults cannot be generalized to old-old adults and thus that old-old age seems not a simple continuation of young-old age due to qualitative changes that result in a discontinuity in old age. Specifically, it would be of conceptual and methodological importance to inform research regarding estimates around which chronological age the beginning of old-old age could be placed at a population level, and whether this is universal or domain-specific. To derive such criteria, we investigated potential discontinuity of age relations between young-old and old-old age in a large population-based sample considering measures in different domains (processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, activity participation, and life satisfaction). For processing speed, verbal abilities, general health status, and life satisfaction we observed some very small indication that there might be a discontinuity of age relations at the end of individuals’ eighties, and for activity participation already at the beginning of individuals’ eighties. In conclusion, models conceptualizing aging as a gradual development might not suffice to adequately represent the differences between the stages of young-old and old-old age due to some very small indication that there might be discontinuity in late adulthood. PMID:27827960

  20. Multiple Family Groups to reduce child disruptive behavior difficulties: Moderating effects of child welfare status on child outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil

    2015-01-01

    Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7–11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6 month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system. PMID:26188424

  1. Multiple Family Groups to reduce child disruptive behavior difficulties: moderating effects of child welfare status on child outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Geetha; Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil

    2015-08-01

    Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7-11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6-month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system.

  2. Changes in calcium status in aged rats fed Lactobacillus GG and Bifidobacterium lactis and oligofructose-enriched inulin.

    PubMed

    Naughton, Violetta; McSorley, Emeir; Naughton, Patrick J

    2011-02-01

    In this study we hypothesized that an increase in numbers of beneficial bacteria in the large intestine can affect calcium (Ca) status in the elderly. Adult and aged rats were fed a diet with or without synbiotics for 21 days. Synbiotics increased the numbers of lactobacilli and bifidobacteria in large intestine in both adult and aged rats. The plasma Ca concentration was significantly increased while osteocalcin concentration was significantly decreased only in aged rats fed synbiotics.

  3. A test of the Family Stress Model on toddler-aged children's adjustment among Hurricane Katrina impacted and nonimpacted low-income families.

    PubMed

    Scaramella, Laura V; Sohr-Preston, Sara L; Callahan, Kristin L; Mirabile, Scott P

    2008-07-01

    Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family Stress Model explained toddler-aged adjustment among Hurricane Katrina affected and nonaffected families. Two groups of very low-income mothers and their 2-year-old children participated (pre-Katrina, n = 55; post-Katrina, n = 47). Consistent with the Family Stress Model, financial strain and neighborhood violence were associated with higher levels of mothers' depressed mood; depressed mood was linked to less parenting efficacy. Poor parenting efficacy was associated to more child internalizing and externalizing problems.

  4. Clinicopathological features of familial Alzheimer's disease associated with the M139V mutation in the presenilin 1 gene. Pedigree but not mutation specific age at onset provides evidence for a further genetic factor.

    PubMed

    Fox, N C; Kennedy, A M; Harvey, R J; Lantos, P L; Roques, P K; Collinge, J; Hardy, J; Hutton, M; Stevens, J M; Warrington, E K; Rossor, M N

    1997-03-01

    Sixteen affected individuals are described from two families with early onset autosomal dominant familial Alzheimer's disease. A mutation at codon 139 in the presenilin 1 gene on chromosome 14 results in a methionine to valine substitution which cosegregates with the disease in these families. Onset of dementia was before the age of 50 years in all individuals. The ages at onset within each family were tightly clustered but were significantly different between the families; this difference could not be accounted for by apolipoprotein E status and suggests the existence of a further genetic factor that modifies age at disease onset. The pattern of cognitive decline was similar in both families: early memory loss (initially selective for verbal memory in some individuals) was followed soon after by loss of arithmetic skills while naming and object perception skills were relatively preserved. A speech production deficit was observed in three members of one family but not in the other. Seizures were common and usually predated by myoclonic jerks by a number of years. Serial MRIs showed progressive cortical atrophy with periventricular white matter change appearing 3-4 years into the disease. PET revealed parieto-temporal hypometabolism in all individuals scanned. The diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease was confirmed with typical histopathology in one individual from each family.

  5. Subjective evaluation of health in old age: the role of immigration status and social environment.

    PubMed

    Carmel, S

    2001-01-01

    The study investigated the role of immigration status on self-rated health, general health, and well-being among elderly persons by comparing two groups of elderly persons who immigrated from Eastern European countries to Israel-veterans and new immigrants. It also examined the factors that explain self-rated health in both groups. Data for this study (n = 784) were taken from a study based on structured home interviews of a random sample of Israeli Jewish elderly (70+) conducted in 1994. The results show that the new immigrants are younger and have higher education than the veterans, but their economic status is lower and they have a lower percentage of men and married persons. The new immigrants also rank themselves lower than the veterans on a variety of measures of health and psycho-social well-being. It is suggested that the stress caused by immigration and factors related to the standard of living and health services in the countries of origin outweigh the relative advantage that the new immigrants have, in terms of age and education, in influencing their health and well-being. Self-rated health among the new immigrants is explained mainly by objective measures of health, economic status and a feeling of control over life, while among the veterans it is explained by these variables as well as by other psycho-social variables such as self-esteem and social support. These findings suggest careful analyses of subjective evaluations of health in different socio-cultural subgroups in society for theoretical reasons and for purposes of planning interventions directed to promote health and psycho-social well-being of elderly persons on the community level.

  6. The development of family nursing in Denmark: current status and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Østergaard, Birte; Wagner, Lis

    2014-11-01

    Over the past 12 years, a strong foundation for family nursing has been built in Denmark, with rapid growth in the past 3 years. A review of nursing research conducted in Denmark and published between 2002 and 2013 found 15 studies that examined family phenomena. The majority of the studies used descriptive methods with data collected from surveys and interviews involving family members either together or individually. Only five of the studies examined interventions that included families' perspectives about the intervention being evaluated. Several current research projects lead by Danish nurses examine the implementation of family nursing knowledge to clinical settings. Integration of family nursing theory has begun in Denmark in undergraduate and graduate nursing curricula and in May 2013, the Danish Family Nursing Association was officially established. Infrastructure and financial conference support has made it possible to invite Nordic and international colleagues to meet in Denmark, which, reciprocally, expands understanding and support for family nursing within the country. Further collaboration between Danish nurse researchers, educators, and administrators will help sustain the growth of family nursing science and its application in family-focused nursing practice.

  7. Syllable Type Consistency is Related to Age, Social Status, and Reproductive Success in the Tropical Mockingbird.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Rossman, Rachel J; Caro, Lina M; Stenzler, Laura M; Lovette, Irby J; De Kort, Selvino R; Vehrencamp, Sandra L

    2009-03-01

    Many animals repeat standardized displays multiple times while attracting a mate or deterring a rival. In such contexts it is possible that the ability to perform each display or signal type in a consistent fashion is under direct selection. Studies on sexual selection on song learning in birds have focused on differences in repertoire size with less attention to the potential importance of being able to perform each song/syllable type with high consistency. We present evidence that tropical mockingbirds decrease the variation between renditions of each syllable type as they grow older (i.e., become more consistent) and that more consistent males in this species tend to have higher dominance status and reproductive success. These findings stress the importance of consistency in the performance of sexual displays and suggest that this parameter may be very relevant even in species that are selected for high vocal diversity (i.e., large repertoires). In addition to signalling dominance status and age, we hypothesize that syllable type consistency may also be an indicator of the integrity of brain function in birds analogous to the tests used for neuropsychological assessment in humans.

  8. Social Status and the Differential Impacts of Increasing Energy Costs on Families in Mississippi. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Marvel; Smith, James C.

    Research was undertaken to determine how differences in social status among various segments of the population in Mississippi contribute to differences in household energy costs and how socioeconomic differences coupled with social status have impact on energy consumption behavior. Two samples of the state's population were used for comparative…

  9. Population ageing in Lebanon: current status, future prospects and implications for policy.

    PubMed Central

    Sibai, Abla Mehio; Sen, Kasturi; Baydoun, May; Saxena, Prem

    2004-01-01

    During the past three decades, fast declines in fertility and mortality in Lebanon have created a compressed demographic transition, a growing trend towards survival into later life, and a larger proportion of elderly people in the population. Projections show that people aged 65 years and over are expected to constitute 10.2% of the population by 2025. Nevertheless, changes to the structure and composition of the population remain unmatched by any corresponding increase in support measures either through formal channels such as pension plans or through health or socioeconomic security measures such as the provision of subsidies for health care, home help or any form of nursing care. This means that an older person is forced to be dependent upon family support if it exists. We examine demographic trends of population ageing in Lebanon between 1970 and 1995 and provide projections until 2025. Variations in population ageing within the country are also considered. We also assess health care and social policy implications of demographic changes in the context of health and economic sector reforms initiated recently by the state, and explore their impact upon the expanding population of elderly people. PMID:15112011

  10. Satiety responsiveness in toddlerhood predicts energy intake and weight status at four years of age.

    PubMed

    Mallan, Kimberley M; Nambiar, Smita; Magarey, Anthea M; Daniels, Lynne A

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether maternal-report of child eating behaviour at two years predicted self-regulation of energy intake and weight status at four years. Using an 'eating in the absence of hunger' paradigm, children's energy intake (kJ) from a semi-standardized lunch meal and a standardized selection of snacks were measured. Participants were 37 mother-child dyads (16 boys, Median child age=4.4years, Inter-quartile range=3.7-4.5years) recruited from an existing longitudinal study (NOURISH randomised controlled trial). All participants were tested in their own home. Details of maternal characteristics, child eating behaviours (at age two years) reported by mothers on a validated questionnaire, and measured child height and weight (at age 3.5-4years) were sourced from existing NOURISH trial data. Correlation and partial correlation analyses were used to examine longitudinal relationships. Satiety responsiveness and Slowness in eating were inversely associated with energy intake of the lunch meal (partial r=-.40, p=.023, and partial r=-.40, p=.023) and the former was also negatively associated with BMI-for-age Z score (partial r=-.42, p=.015). Food responsiveness and Enjoyment of food were not related to energy intake or BMI Z score. None of the eating behaviours were significantly associated with energy intake of the snacks (i.e., eating in the absence of hunger). The small and predominantly 'healthy weight' sample of children may have limited the ability to detect some hypothesized effects. Nevertheless, the study provides evidence for the predictive validity of two eating behaviours and future research with a larger and more diverse sample should be able to better evaluate the predictive validity of other children's early eating behaviour styles.

  11. Generational Status, Neighborhood Context, and Mother-Child Resemblance in Dietary Quality in Mexican-origin Families

    PubMed Central

    Van Hook, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Children of immigrants in the United States often grow up in very different nutrition environments than their parents. As a result, parent-child concordance in diet may be particularly weak in immigrant families. Yet, little is known about parent-child dietary resemblance in immigrant families and how local contexts shape it. This study uses data from the 1999/2000–2009/2010 Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine mother-child resemblance in dietary quality in Mexican-origin families in the United States. We investigate how immigrant generational status and neighborhood context shape the association between mothers’ and children’s dietary quality. We find that mother-child resemblance in dietary quality is weaker for first-generation children relative to third-generation children. However, residence in an immigrant enclave strengthens the mother-child association in dietary quality for first-generation children. Findings offer a unique within-family perspective of immigrant health. Results suggest that the healthy eating advantage of Mexican immigrant mothers may not be sustained across family generations and that Mexican immigrant mothers may face unique challenges in promoting healthy eating among their children. PMID:26773704

  12. Generational status, neighborhood context, and mother-child resemblance in dietary quality in Mexican-origin families.

    PubMed

    Dondero, Molly; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2016-02-01

    Children of immigrants in the United States often grow up in very different nutrition environments than their parents. As a result, parent-child concordance in diet may be particularly weak in immigrant families. Yet, little is known about parent-child dietary resemblance in immigrant families and how local contexts shape it. This study uses data from the 1999/2000-2009/2010 Continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey to examine mother-child resemblance in dietary quality in Mexican-origin families in the United States. We investigate how immigrant generational status and neighborhood context shape the association between mothers' and children's dietary quality. We find that mother-child resemblance in dietary quality is weaker for first-generation children relative to third-generation children. However, residence in an immigrant enclave strengthens the mother-child association in dietary quality for first-generation children. Findings offer a unique within-family perspective of immigrant health. Results suggest that the healthy eating advantage of Mexican immigrant mothers may not be sustained across family generations and that Mexican immigrant mothers may face unique challenges in promoting healthy eating among their children.

  13. Lesser snow geese and ross's geese form mixed flocks during winter but differ in family maintenance and social status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jonsson, J.E.; Afton, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    Smaller species are less likely to maintain families (or other forms of social groups) than larger species and are more likely to be displaced in competition with larger species. We observed mixed-species flocks of geese in southwest Louisiana and compared frequencies of social groups and success in social encounters of Lesser Snow Geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens; hereafter Snow Geese) with that of the smaller, closely- related Ross's Geese (C. rossii). Less than 7% of adult and families, whereas 10-22% of adult and 12-15% of juvenile Snow Geese were in families. Snow Geese won 70% of interspecific social encounters and had higher odds of success against Ross's Geese than against individuals of their own species. The larger Snow Geese maintain families longer than Ross's Geese, which probably contributes to their dominance over Ross's Geese during winter. Predator vigilance probably is an important benefit of mixed flocking for both species. We suggest the long-standing association with Snow Geese (along with associated subordinate social status) has selected against family maintenance in Ross's Geese.

  14. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  15. Associations between physical activity of primary school first-graders during leisure time and family socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Dregval, Liudmila; Petrauskiene, Ausra

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, an international survey on obesity among first-graders and its risk factors was performed in Lithuania. The objective of this study was to assess physical activity of first-graders during leisure time according to family socioeconomic status. The study was performed in Siauliai region schools selected randomly in 2008. The anonymous questionnaires were distributed among 630 first-graders and filled out by 515 parents (response rate was 81.8%). It was showed that physical activity of first-graders during leisure time is insufficient. More than half of them (60.4%) did not attend sports or dancing clubs; children spent much time passively watching TV or playing on a computer. Mostly children watched TV for 2 hours on workdays (45.1%) and for 3 hours or more on weekends (41.4%). Mostly children spent about an hour per day playing on a computer: one-third of first-graders spent it on workdays; during weekends, the percentage of children spending about an hour per day playing on a computer was lower (28.5%). One-third of first-graders (36.9%) spent their leisure time outside for 3 or more hours on workdays and 87.1% on weekends independently of parents' educational level, income, and place of residence. The associations between family socioeconomic status and physical activity of children were observed. The lowest percentage of children attending sports or dancing clubs and playing computer games was seen in low-income families and families where parents had low educational level. They spent more time outside (on workdays) compared with those children whose parents had university education and high income. Fewer first-graders from families living in villages than those living in cities attended sports or dancing clubs and played on a computer, but more of them spent leisure time outside.

  16. Nutritional Status and Intestinal Parasite in School Age Children: A Comparative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. The objectives of this study were to determine the burden of underweight and intestinal parasitic infection in the urban and rural elementary school children. Methods. A comparative cross-sectional study design was conducted. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the determinants of malnutrition or intestinal parasites. Two independent samples' t-test was used to identify the effect of malnutrition on school performance or hemoglobin level. Results. A total of 2372 students were included. Quarters (24.8%) of school children were underweight. Underweight was associated with sex [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.61; 95% CI = 0.47–0.78], age [AOR = 0.21; 95% CI = 0.16–0.28], intestinal parasitic infection [AOR 2.67; 95% CI = 2–3.55], and family size [AOR 23; 95% CI = 17.67–30.02]. The prevalence of intestinal parasite among school children was 61.7% [95% CI = 60%–64%]. Shoe wearing practice [AOR 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58–0.87], personal hygiene [AOR 0.8; 95% CI = 0.65–0.99], availability of latrine [AOR 0.34; 95% CI = 0.27–0.44], age [AOR 0.58; 95% CI = 0.48–0.7], habit of eating raw vegetables [AOR 3.71; 95% CI = 3.01–4.46], and family size [AOR 1.96; 95% CI = 1.57–2.45] were the predictors of intestinal parasitic infection. PMID:27656219

  17. Intelligibility of foreign-accented speech: Effects of listening condition, listener age, and listener hearing status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2005-09-01

    It is well known that, for listeners with normal hearing, speech produced by non-native speakers of the listener's first language is less intelligible than speech produced by native speakers. Intelligibility is well correlated with listener's ratings of talker comprehensibility and accentedness, which have been shown to be related to several talker factors, including age of second language acquisition and level of similarity between the talker's native and second language phoneme inventories. Relatively few studies have focused on factors extrinsic to the talker. The current project explored the effects of listener and environmental factors on the intelligibility of foreign-accented speech. Specifically, monosyllabic English words previously recorded from two talkers, one a native speaker of American English and the other a native speaker of Spanish, were presented to three groups of listeners (young listeners with normal hearing, elderly listeners with normal hearing, and elderly listeners with hearing impairment; n=20 each) in three different listening conditions (undistorted words in quiet, undistorted words in 12-talker babble, and filtered words in quiet). Data analysis will focus on interactions between talker accent, listener age, listener hearing status, and listening condition. [Project supported by American Speech-Language-Hearing Association AARC Award.

  18. Health Insurance Stability and Health Status: Do Family-Level Coverage Patterns Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Robert B.; Garasky, Steven

    2008-01-01

    Being uninsured affects one's ability to access medical services and maintain health. Using longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, the authors investigated how individual and family insurance coverage affects adult health. They found that health insurance coverage often varies across family members and changes…

  19. Orthodontic treatment and socioeconomic status in Danish children aged 11-15 years.

    PubMed

    Rölling, S

    1982-06-01

    The orthodontic situation in 2042 children in 4th to 8th schoolgrades was described by placing each child in one of five orthodontic categories (percentage refers to observed frequencies): I. No anomaly (25%), II. Malocclusion-under observation only (40%). III. Undergoing orthodontic treatment (20%). IV. Orthodontic treatment completed (12%) and V. Orthodontic treatment discontinued (3%). The socioeconomic status of the child's family, determined by the occupation of the father or mother, was described by one of the following five terms: A. Low, B lower middle, C. Middle, D. Upper middle and E. Upper socioeconomic group. The distribution of the orthodontic categories within the socioeconomic groups were found to be almost equal, but three trends could be noted: a slightly higher frequency of malocclusion in the low socioeconomic group; children from the middle socioeconomic group represented a relatively large part of the orthodontic treatment group and children in the two lowest socioeconomic groups showed a greater frequency of discontinued orthodontic treatment than the rest of the children.

  20. A lifecourse study of bone resorption in men ages 49-51years: the Newcastle Thousand Families cohort study.

    PubMed

    Pearce, M S; Relton, C L; Groom, A; Peaston, R T; Francis, R M

    2010-04-01

    It has been suggested that bone health in adulthood is programmed by development in utero. Most previous investigations addressing this topic have focussed on bone mineral density or content, rather than other indicators of bone health, such as biochemical markers of bone turnover. This study investigated whether potential predictors, from different stages of life, influence bone resorption in men aged 49-51years in the Newcastle Thousand Families birth cohort. The cohort originally consisted of all 1142 births in the city of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK in May and June 1947. Detailed information was collected prospectively during childhood, including birth weight and socio-economic circumstances. At 49-51years of age, 574 study members completed a detailed 'Health and Lifestyle' questionnaire, including the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC) food frequency questionnaire and 412 study members attended for clinical examination, including 172 men in whom bone resorption was assessed by measurement of serum beta C-telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX). A significant trend was seen between increasingly disadvantaged socio-economic status at birth and increased bone resorption (p=0.04, r-squared 2.6%). However, birth weight, standardised for sex and gestational age, was not associated with serum CTX (p=0.77, r-squared 0.05%). Significant trends were also seen between increasing total energy intake (p=0.03, r-squared 2.9%), dietary intake of saturated fat (p=0.02, r-squared 2.6%), protein (p=0.04, r-squared 2.5%) and carbohydrates (p=0.04, r-squared 2.6%) and higher serum CTX. However, on adjustment for total energy intake, none of the other dietary variables was significant at the univariate level maintained significance. Our findings suggest that early socio-economic disadvantage and later dietary factors may be associated with increased bone resorption in middle aged men. However, as little of the variance in serum CTX was explained by the variables

  1. Influence of Age, Reproductive Cycling Status, and Menstruation on the Vaginal Microbiome in Baboons (Papio anubis)

    PubMed Central

    UCHIHASHI, M.; BERGIN, I. L.; BASSIS, C. M.; HASHWAY, S. A.; CHAI, D.; BELL, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    The vaginal microbiome is believed to influence host health by providing protection from pathogens and influencing reproductive outcomes such as fertility and gestational length. In humans, age-associated declines in diversity of the vaginal microbiome occur in puberty and persist into adulthood. Additionally, menstruation has been associated with decreased microbial community stability. Adult female baboons, like other non-human primates (NHPs), have a different and highly diverse vaginal microbiome compared to that of humans, which is most commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp. We evaluated the influence of age, reproductive cycling status (cycling vs. non-cycling) and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome of 38 wild-caught, captive female olive baboons (Papio anubis) by culture-independent sequencing of the V3–V5 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. All baboons had highly diverse vaginal microbial communities. Adult baboons had significantly lower microbial diversity in comparison to subadult baboons, which was attributable to decreased relative abundance of minor taxa. No significant differences were detected based on cycling state or menstruation. Predictive metagenomic analysis showed uniformity in relative abundance of metabolic pathways regardless of age, cycle stage, or menstruation, indicating conservation of microbial community functions. This study suggests that selection of an optimal vaginal microbial community occurs at puberty. Since decreased diversity occurs in both baboons and humans at puberty, this may reflect a general strategy for selection of adult vaginal microbial communities. Comparative evaluation of vaginal microbial community development and composition may elucidate mechanisms of community formation and function that are conserved across host species or across microbial community types. These findings have implications for host health, evolutionary biology, and microbe-host ecosystems. PMID:25676781

  2. Influence of age, reproductive cycling status, and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome in baboons (Papio anubis).

    PubMed

    Uchihashi, M; Bergin, I L; Bassis, C M; Hashway, S A; Chai, D; Bell, J D

    2015-05-01

    The vaginal microbiome is believed to influence host health by providing protection from pathogens and influencing reproductive outcomes such as fertility and gestational length. In humans, age-associated declines in diversity of the vaginal microbiome occur in puberty and persist into adulthood. Additionally, menstruation has been associated with decreased microbial community stability. Adult female baboons, like other non-human primates (NHPs), have a different and highly diverse vaginal microbiome compared to that of humans, which is most commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp. We evaluated the influence of age, reproductive cycling status (cycling vs. non-cycling) and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome of 38 wild-caught, captive female olive baboons (Papio anubis) by culture-independent sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. All baboons had highly diverse vaginal microbial communities. Adult baboons had significantly lower microbial diversity in comparison to subadult baboons, which was attributable to decreased relative abundance of minor taxa. No significant differences were detected based on cycling state or menstruation. Predictive metagenomic analysis showed uniformity in relative abundance of metabolic pathways regardless of age, cycle stage, or menstruation, indicating conservation of microbial community functions. This study suggests that selection of an optimal vaginal microbial community occurs at puberty. Since decreased diversity occurs in both baboons and humans at puberty, this may reflect a general strategy for selection of adult vaginal microbial communities. Comparative evaluation of vaginal microbial community development and composition may elucidate mechanisms of community formation and function that are conserved across host species or across microbial community types. These findings have implications for host health, evolutionary biology, and microbe-host ecosystems.

  3. Biomotor status and kinesiological education of girls aged 10 to 12 years--example: volleyball.

    PubMed

    Milić, Mirjana; Grgantov, Zoran; Katić, Ratko

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to define processes of orientation and/or selection towards sports game of volleyball in schoolgirls of Kastela, aged 10-12, by examining the relations between regular classes of physical education (PE) and extracurricular sport activities. For this purpose, two morphological measures were used (body height and body mass) and a set of 11 motor tests (6 basic motor abilities tests and 5 motor achievement tests) on a sample of 242 girls aged 10-12 was used, divided into a subsample of 42 girls participating in volleyball training (Volleyball players) and a subsample of 200 girls who do not participate in volleyball training (volleyball non-players). Based on the comparison of test results of schoolgirls from Kastela and Croatian norms, factor analysis of applied variables and discriminant analysis of these variables between volleyball players and non-players, processes and/or phases of selection in forming quality volleyball players were defined. Selection processes are preceded by orientation processes in physical education classes, i.e. choosing those sport activities which are in accordance with the biomotor status of students. Results have shown that orientation and initial selection in female volleyball needs to be executed based on the motor set of psychomotor speed, repetitive strength of the trunk and flexibility (muscle tone regulation), and body height. Volleyball training has affected the muscle mass development and the development of strength factors, so that explosive strength of jumping and/or takeoff along with body height, has predominantly differentiated female volleyball players from non-players, aged 10 to 12, and serve and spike quality will have dominant influence on the match outcome.

  4. Health Related Concerns and Psychological Well-Being of Middle-Aged Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baruch, Grace K.

    A two-stage study of women aged 35-55 focused on issues, concerns, and gratification and their relationship to family status, work status, age, and sense of psychological well-being. The sample was composed of women who occupied jointly one of three family statuses (never married, married without children, married with children) and one of six…

  5. Long-Term Impact of Family Arguments and Physical Violence on Adult Functioning at Age 30 Years: Findings from the Simmons Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paradis, Angela D.; Reinherz, Helen Z.; Giaconia, Rose M.; Beardslee, William R.; Ward, Kirsten; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.

    2009-01-01

    Family arguments by the age of 15 and family physical violence by the age of 18 is found to significantly compromise key domains of adult functioning at age 30. The findings are based on data from 346 participants whose psychosocial development has been followed since age 5.

  6. The Effects of On-Time, Delayed and Early Kindergarten Enrollment on Children's Mathematics Achievement: Differences by Gender, Race, and Family Socio-Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesil Dagli, Ummuhan; Jones, Ithel

    2012-01-01

    This study was an examination of the effect of delayed, early, and on-time kindergarten enrollment on children's kindergarten mathematics achievement. Central for this study was to explore if the relationship between the kindergarten enrollment status and mathematics achievement varies by children's gender, race, and family SES status. It used a…

  7. The Influence of Socio-Economic Status on the Long-Term Effect of Family-Based Obesity Treatment Intervention in Prepubertal Overweight Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langnase, Kristina; Asbeck, Inga; Mast, Mareike; Muller, Manfred J.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to assess the effect of the socio-economic status (SES) on long-term outcomes of a family-based obesity treatment intervention in prepubertal children. A total of 52 overweight and 26 normal weight children were investigated. Nutritional status, intake of fruit, vegetables and low fat foods, in-between meals, sports…

  8. Repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS) may be valid in men ages 18 to 201.

    PubMed

    Strunk, Kamden K; Sutton, Geoffrey W; Skadeland, Dean R

    2010-10-01

    The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) provides standardized scores for adults ages 20 to 89 years. However, there are situations in which the use of the RBANS for adults ages 18 to 20 years may be appropriate and have practical advantages. Thus, at present, an examiner who uses the RBANS for adult patients must rely on an entirely different evaluation tool for those adult patients under the age of 20 years. This preliminary investigation suggests the RBANS is a valid measure for men ages 18 to 20 years.

  9. Age and gender differential relationship between employment status and body mass index among middle-aged and elderly adults: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Jin-Won; Kim, Jinseok; Park, Jumin; Oh, In-Hwan; Kwon, Young Dae

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the influence of age and gender, respectively, on the association between employment status and body mass index (BMI) in Korean adults using a large, nationally representative sample. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting South Korea. Participants 7228 from fourth wave of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Aging (KLoSA), the survey's short form and year: ‘KLoSA 2012’. Main outcome measures BMI. Results BMI among the employed was higher than among the unemployed for those under 60. In terms of gender, employed men reported higher BMI than their unemployed counterparts, whereas employed women reported lower BMI than did unemployed women. Conclusions Employment status showed varying impacts on obesity by age and gender. Both unemployment at or after 60, as well as unemployment among women, is associated with increased BMI compared with unemployment among younger individuals or men, respectively. PMID:27852710

  10. Family predictors of continuity and change in social and physical aggression from ages 9 to 18.

    PubMed

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Brinkley, Dawn Y; Underwood, Marion K

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3-12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group-based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence.

  11. Family Predictors of Continuity and Change in Social and Physical Aggression from Ages 9 – 18

    PubMed Central

    Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Beron, Kurt J.; Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Underwood, Marion K.

    2014-01-01

    This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9–18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children’s social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3–12. Participants’ parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children’s behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340

  12. Meat quality, microbiological status and consumer preference of beef gluteus medius aged in a dry ageing bag or vacuum.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Babol, Jakub; Wallby, Anna; Lundström, Kerstin

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated meat quality and consumer preference after ageing beef gluteus medius in a water vapour-permeable dry-ageing bag or in vacuum for 14 days. Higher ageing and trim losses but lower thawing loss, cooking loss and water content were found in samples aged in dry ageing bags compared to those aged in vacuum. Samples aged in dry ageing bags had higher total bacteria and yeast counts but lower lactic acid bacteria counts than those aged in vacuum, both before and after trimming. Meat aged in dry ageing bag was more tender and juicier and overall preferred by consumers compared with samples aged in vacuum. Female participants outperformed the males in detecting differences in palatability. No differences were found in pH, smell, shear force, colour, Enterobacteriaceae, and mould counts. Thus, by using a dry ageing bag, it is possible to produce dry-aged meat in a more controlled condition without negative effects on sensory or other quality attributes.

  13. [Food insecurity in Brazilian families with children under five years of age].

    PubMed

    Poblacion, Ana Paula; Marín-León, Leticia; Segall-Corrêa, Ana Maria; Silveira, Jonas Augusto; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo

    2014-05-01

    This article analyzes food insecurity and hunger in Brazilian families with children under five years of age. This was a nationally representative cross-sectional study using data from the National Demographic and Health Survey on Women and Children (PNDS-2006), in which the outcome variable was moderate to severe food insecurity, measured by the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA). Prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios were generated with 95% confidence intervals. The results showed a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity, concentrated in the North and Northeast regions (30.7%), in economic classes D and E (34%), and in beneficiaries of conditional cash transfer programs (36.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that the socioeconomic relative risks (beneficiaries of conditional cash transfers), regional relative risks (North and Northeast regions), and economic relative risks (classes D and E) were 1.8, 2.0 and 2.4, respectively. Aggregation of the three risks showed 48% of families with moderate to severe food insecurity, meaning that adults and children were going hungry during the three months preceding the survey.

  14. Unmet need for family planning among married women of reproductive age group in urban Tamil Nadu

    PubMed Central

    Bhattathiry, Malini M.; Ethirajan, Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed. PMID:24696634

  15. The Family Environment in Early Childhood Has a Long-Term Effect on Self-Esteem: A Longitudinal Study From Birth to Age 27 Years.

    PubMed

    Orth, Ulrich

    2017-02-09

    A better understanding is needed of the factors that shape the development of individual differences in self-esteem. Using a prospective longitudinal design, this research tested whether the family environment in early childhood predicts self-esteem in later developmental periods. Data came from a nationally representative U.S. sample of 8,711 participants, who reported on their self-esteem biannually from age 8 to 27 years. Moreover, during the participants' first 6 years of life, biannual assessments of their mothers provided information on the quality of the home environment (covering quality of parenting, cognitive stimulation, and physical home environment), quality of parental relationship, presence of father, maternal depression, and poverty status of the family. The analyses were conducted using nonlinear regression analyses of age-dependent correlation coefficients, which were controlled for the effects of child gender and ethnicity. The results suggested that the family environment in early childhood significantly predicted self-esteem as the children grew up. Although the effects became smaller with age, the effects were still present during young adulthood. The largest effects emerged for quality of home environment. Moreover, the results suggested that the effects of home environment, presence of father, and poverty are enduring, as indicated by a nonzero asymptote in the time course of effects from age 8 to 27 years. Finally, quality of home environment partially accounted for the effects of the other predictors. The findings suggest that the home environment is a key factor in early childhood that influences the long-term development of self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  17. Food restriction enhances oxidative status in aging rats with neuroprotective effects on myenteric neuron populations in the proximal colon.

    PubMed

    Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Santi Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Cirilo, Carla Possani; Zapater, Mariana Cristina Umada; Vicentini, Fernando Augusto; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Bracht, Adelar; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal

    2014-03-01

    Food restriction may slow the aging process by increasing the levels of antioxidant defenses and reducing cell death. We evaluated the effects of food restriction on oxidative and nutritional status, myenteric cell populations, and the colonic muscle layer in aging rats. Wistar rats were distributed into control groups (7, 12, and 23months of age) and subjected to food restriction (50% of normal diet) beginning at 7months of age. The animals were sacrificed, and blood was collected to evaluate its components and markers of oxidative status, including thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, reduced glutathione, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity. The proximal colon was collected to evaluate HuC/D and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive and -negative myenteric neurons, S-100 glial cells, and the muscle layer. Age negatively affected oxidative status in the animals, which also increased the levels of total cholesterol, protein, and globulins and increased the thickness of the muscle layer. Aging also reduced the number and hypertrophied glial cell bodies, HuC/D neurons, and nNOS-negative and -positive neurons. An improvement was observed in oxidative status and the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides with food restriction, which also provided neuroprotection of the intrinsic innervation. However, food restriction accentuated the loss of enteric glia and caused hypertrophy in the muscle layer at 23months. Food restriction improved oxidative and nutritional status in rats and protected HuC/D neurons and nNOS-negative and -positive neurons against neuronal loss. Nevertheless, food restriction caused morphoquantitative changes in glial cell populations, with possible interference with colonic neuromuscular control.

  18. Nutritional Status and Food Habits of Middle-aged Adults in Selected Areas of Selangor.

    PubMed

    Karim, Norimah A; Mydenkather, Hajamohaideen

    2003-09-01

    A food habits and health status study was carried out among 100 Malay adults aged 40 years and above. The study protocol incorporated anthropometric measurements, evaluation of food habits and determination of blood glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure. Mean body mass index (BMI) for men and women were 27.2 ± 4.2 kg/m2 and 27.0 ± 5.2 kg/m2 respectively, which on average showed that the subjects were overweight. Food habits evaluation indicated that rice, fish and vegetables were the foods consumed almost everyday by the majority of the subjects. Meat, dairy products and fruits were eaten once to three times per week. Food intake score for sugar and salt demonstrated that a majority of men and women consumed moderate amounts of these foods. Most subjects exercised twice to three times a week for 15 min per session. Blood glucose tests revealed a mean of 5.04 ± 1.60 mmol/l in men and 4.86 ± 2.10 mmol/l for women. Mean cholesterol for men was 5.06 ± 1.22 mmol/l while it was 4.90 ± 1.34 mmol/l in women. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure in men was normal of 127.69 ± 13.60 mm Hg dan 85.87 ± 7.97 mm Hg, while in women it was 127.42 ± 17.54 mm Hg, 83.53 ± 9.50 mm Hg. The mean value for glucose, cholesterol and blood pressure increased with age. The food habits of these adults were satisfactory; however blood test for the nutrients of interest exhibited an increasing trend towards blood pressure, blood cholesterol and glucose with age. Middle-aged adults should adapt to a more active lifestyle and be more cautious of their food habits. This is to ensure a healthy well being throughout their life span.

  19. A systematic review of the nutritional status of women of a childbearing age with severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    McColl, Helen; Dhillon, Manpreet; Howard, Louise M

    2013-02-01

    Little is known about the nutritional status of pregnant women with severe mental illness. We therefore carried out a systematic review to investigate whether pregnant women and childbearing aged women with severe mental illness have significantly greater nutritional deficiencies compared with pregnant women and childbearing aged women with no mental illness. We carried out a search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and PsycINFO from January 1980 to January 2011 for studies on nutritional status of childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Identification of papers and quality rating of papers (using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale) was carried out by two reviewers independently. We identified and screened 4,130 potentially relevant studies from the electronic databases. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria (n = 587 women). There were no studies of pregnant women. There was some evidence of low serum folate and vitamin B(12) levels and elevated homocysteine levels in childbearing aged women with psychotic disorders. Further research into the nutritional status of childbearing aged women with severe mental illness is needed. Maternal nutrition has a profound impact on foetal outcome, is a modifiable risk factor and therefore needs prioritising in the care of all childbearing aged women with severe mental illness.

  20. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  1. TNFA gene variants related to the inflammatory status and its association with cellular aging: From the CORDIOPREV study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Several single nucleotide polymorphisms have been proposed as potential predictors of the development of age-related diseases. Objective: To explore whether Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNFA) gene variants were associated with inflammatory status, thus facilitating the rate of telomere s...

  2. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status at Age One, Opportunities to Learn and Achievement in Mathematics in Fourth Grade in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cueto, Santiago; Guerrero, Gabriela; Leon, Juan; Zapata, Mayli; Freire, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Using Young Lives longitudinal data from Peru, this paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) measured at the age of one, opportunities to learn (OTL) and achievement in mathematics ten years later. Four variables of OTL were measured: hours of class per year, curriculum coverage, quality of teachers' feedback, and level…

  3. Influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ajao, K O; Ojofeitimi, E O; Adebayo, A A; Fatusi, A O; Afolabi, O T

    2010-12-01

    Fertility pattern and reproductive behaviours affect infant death in Nigeria. Household food insecurity and poor care practices also place children at risk of morbidity and mortality. The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of family size, household food security status, and child care practices on the nutritional status of under-five children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional design. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect data from 423 mothers of under-five children and their children in the households selected through multistage sampling methods. Food-insecure households were five times more likely than secure households to have wasted children (crude OR = 5.707, 95 percent CI = 1.31-24.85). Children with less educated mothers were significantly more likely to be stunted. The prevalence of food insecurity among households in Ile-Ife was high. Households with food insecurity and less educated mothers were more likely to have malnourished children.

  4. BMI, Overweight Status and Obesity Adjusted by Various Factors in All Age Groups in the Population of a City in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ataíde Lima, Raquel Patrícia; de Carvalho Pereira, Danielle; Cristhine Pordeus Luna, Rafaella; Rodrigues Gonçalves, Maria da Conceição; Teixeira de Lima, Roberto; Batista Filho, Malaquias; Gouveia Filizola, Rosália; de Moraes, Ronei Marcos; Rios Asciutti, Luiza Sonia; de Carvalho Costa, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In Brazil, demographic, socioeconomic and epidemiological changes over time have led to a transition in nutritional standards, resulting in a gradual reduction of malnutrition and an increased prevalence of overweight and obese individuals, similar to the situation in developed countries in previous decades. This study assessed the body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of an overweight status and obesity, adjusted for various factors, in a population in northeastern Brazil including all age groups. Methods: This is a cross-sectional population-based epidemiological study using single sampling procedure composed of levels. Given the heterogeneity of the variable “income” and the relationship between income, prevalence of diseases and nutrition, a stratified sampling on blocks in the first level was used. In this, city districts were classified by income into 10 strata, according to information obtained from IBGE. A systematic sampling was applied on randomly selected blocks in order to choose the residences that would be part of the sample (second level), including 1165 participants from all age groups. Results and Discussion: The prevalence of an overweight status or obesity was adjusted for demographic, socioeconomic and lifestyle variables. When the Chi-square test was applied, a relationship was observed between the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity and the age group, gender, educational level and income of the participants. Regarding lifestyle parameters, only smoking was associated with the prevalence of an overweight status or obesity, in both adults and in the total sample. The results for the following groups were significant (p < 0.05): the age group from 20 to 59 years, when the individual presented an educational level greater than or equal to high school; and the age group ≥ 60 years, when the individual was female. It is noteworthy that educational level and being female were significant in adjusting for the total

  5. Vitamin D Status among Young Children Aged 1–3 Years: A Cross-Sectional Study in Wuxi, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xin; Xiao, Jianping; Liao, Xiangpeng; Cai, Liyi; Xu, Fei; Chen, Daozhen; Xiang, Jingying; Fang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Background The increasingly recognized importance of vitamin D has been discussed and vitamin D status among young children has attracted widespread attention in recent years. However, study on vitamin D status in young children aged 1–3 y is limited in China. Objective To evaluate the nutritional vitamin D status of young children aged 1–3 y in Wuxi, southeastern China. Methods A large cohort of 5,571 young children aged 1–3 y were recruited in this study who visited the child health clinics at the Wuxi Maternity and Child Health Hospital (latitude 31.57°N) during January 2014 to January 2015. Wuxi was located in southeastern China at a latitude of 31.57°N. Finger-stick blood sampling was conducted in all the subjects and serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were measured to evaluate their vitamin D status. Results In this study, serum 25(OH)D levels of young children at the age of 1–3 years ranged from 20.6–132.9 nmol/L (Median: 71.5 nmol/L). 16.1% of the population had vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L), while 38.8% of the subjects had a sufficient (50–74.9 nmol/L) vitamin D level. An optimal vitamin D status (≥75 nmol/L) was found in 45.1% of the young children. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was higher in autumn (19.5%) than in summer (12.1%). There was no significant difference in vitamin D status between genders. The binary logistic regression analysis revealed that child age was strongly associated with vitamin D deficiency (adjusted OR: 1.173; 95%CI: 1.053–1.308; P = 0.004). Conclusions The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency was 16.1% among young children aged 1–3 y in Wuxi. Season and child age were associated with their vitamin D status. It is implied that young children should receive adequate amounts of vitamin D supplementation and spend more time outdoors to prolong the sunlight exposure when they grow older. PMID:26505743

  6. Longitudinal association of dentition status with dietary intake in Japanese adults aged 75 to 80 years.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, M; Yoshihara, A; Ogawa, H; Sato, M; Muramatsu, K; Watanabe, R; Ansai, T; Miyazaki, H

    2016-10-01

    Limited information is available on the temporal association between dentition status and dietary intake. The aim of this 5-year prospective cohort study was to investigate whether impaired dentition was associated with subsequent decline in dietary intake in older Japanese adults. Two hundred and eighty-six community-dwelling Japanese individuals, all aged 75 years at baseline, were included in the study. Functional tooth units (FTUs), defined as a pair of opposing natural or prosthetic teeth excluding third molars (range: 0-14), were counted on the basis of baseline dental examinations. Individuals with ≤5 FTUs were defined as having impaired dentition. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline and 5 years later, using a validated dietary questionnaire. Robust regression analyses were used to evaluate the differences in change in dietary intake between participants with and without impaired functional dentition, after adjustment for potential confounders. Sixty-one study participants (21·3 %) were defined as having impaired dentition. Overall, mean values for all estimated dietary variables (energy, nutrients and food groups) declined over time. Notably, individuals with impaired dentition demonstrated a significantly (P < 0·05) greater degree of decline in the intake of multiple nutrients (protein, sodium, potassium, calcium, vitamin A, vitamin E and dietary fibre) and food groups (vegetable and meat) than those without impaired dentition, after adjusting for potential confounders. The results of this study describe the temporal association of impaired dentition with the decline in selected nutrient and food group intake among older Japanese adults.

  7. Parental feeding practices and child weight status in Mexican American families: A longitudinal analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parental feeding practices are thought to influence children's weight status, through children's eating behavior and nutritional intake. However, because most studies have been cross-sectional, the direction of influence is unclear. Moreover, although obesity rates are high among Latino children, fe...

  8. Maternal Teaching Talk within Families of Mexican Descent: Influences of Task and Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Ann R.

    2002-01-01

    The interactions of 20 middle-class and 20 working-class Mexican American mothers and their 4-year-old children were observed during a school-type construction task (block building) and a home-type construction task (baking biscuits). Both task and socioeconomic status had significant effects on mothers' and children's conversations and behaviors.…

  9. Improving risk assessment and familial aggregation of age at onset in schizophrenia using minor physical anomalies and craniofacial measures

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, I-Ning; Lin, Jin-Jia; Lu, Ming-Kun; Tan, Hung-Pin; Jang, Fong-Lin; Gan, Shu-Ting; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Age at onset is the most important feature of schizophrenia that could indicate its origin. Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) characterize potential marker indices of disturbances in early neurodevelopment. However, the association between MPAs and age at onset of schizophrenia is still unclear. We aimed to compare risk assessment and familial aggregation in patients with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) with MPAs and craniofacial measures. We estimated the risk assessment of MPAs among patients with EOS (n = 68), patients with AOS (n = 183), nonpsychotic relatives (n = 147), and healthy controls (n = 241) using 3 data-mining algorithms. In addition, we assessed the magnitude of familial aggregation of MPAs with respect to the age at onset of schizophrenia. The performance of EOS was superior to that of AOS, with discrimination accuracies of 89% and 76%, respectively. Combined MPA scores as the risk assessment were significantly higher in all schizophrenia subgroups and the nonpsychotic relatives of EOS patients than in the healthy controls. The recurrence risk ratio for familial aggregation of the MPA scores of EOS families (odds ratio 9.27) was substantially higher than that of AOS families (odds ratio 2.47). The results highlight that EOS improves risk assessment and has a severe magnitude of familial aggregation of MPAs. These findings indicate that EOS might result from a stronger genetic susceptibility to neurodevelopmental deficits. PMID:27472737

  10. Family-Based Treatment for Adolescent Eating Disorders: Current Status, New Applications and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Katharine L; le Grange, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Family-based treatment (FBT) is emerging as a treatment of choice for adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN). This paper reviews the history of FBT, core clinical and theoretical elements, and key findings from the FBT for AN and BN treatment outcome literature. In addition, we address clinical questions and controversies regarding FBT for eating disorders, including whether FBT is clinically appropriate for all adolescents (e.g., older adolescents, patients with comorbid conditions), and whether it indicated for all types of families (e.g., critical, enmeshed, and non-intact families). Finally, we outline recently manualized, innovative applications of FBT for new populations currently under early investigation, such as FBT as a preventive/early intervention for AN, FBT for young adults with eating disorders, and FBT for pediatric overweight. PMID:20191109

  11. Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles.

  12. The status of computerized cognitive testing in aging: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Katherine; Howieson, Diane; Webbe, Frank; Seelye, Adriana; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background Early detection of cognitive decline in the elderly has become of heightened importance in parallel with the recent advances in therapeutics. Computerized assessment may be uniquely suited to early detection of changes in cognition in the elderly. We present here a systematic review of the status of computer-based cognitive testing focusing on detection of cognitive decline in the aging population. Methods All studies purporting to assess or detect age-related changes in cognition or early dementia/mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by means of computerized testing were included. Each test battery was rated on availability of normative data, level of evidence for test validity and reliability, comprehensiveness, and usability. All published studies relevant to a particular computerized test were read by a minimum of two reviewers, who completed rating forms containing the above-mentioned criteria. Results Of the 18 test batteries identified from the initial search, eleven were appropriate to cognitive testing in the elderly and were subjected to systematic review. Of those 11, five were either developed specifically for application with the elderly or have been used extensively with that population. Even within the computerized testing genre, great variability existed in manner of administration, ranging from fully examiner administered to fully self-administered. All tests had at least minimal reliability and validity data, commonly reported in peer-reviewed articles. However, level of rigor of validity testing varied widely. Conclusion All test batteries exhibited some of the strengths of computerized cognitive testing: standardization of administration and stimulus presentation, accurate measures of response latencies, automated comparison in real-time with an individual’s prior performance as well as with age-related norms, and efficiencies of staffing and cost. Some, such as the MCIS, adapted complicated scoring algorithms to enhance the information

  13. Intergenerational Transmission of Educational Attitudes in Chinese American Families: Interplay of Socioeconomic Status and Acculturation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Yishan; Kim, Su Yeong; Wang, Yijie

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study examined the influence of parents' educational attitudes on adolescents' educational attitudes and identified antecedents (i.e., parent education, family income, and parent acculturation), consequences (i.e., academic achievement and engagement), and a potential moderator (i.e., adolescent acculturation) of the transmission…

  14. Status of Tamil Language in Singapore: An Analysis of Family Domain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadakara, Shanmugam

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the phenomenon of Language Maintenance and Language Shift through a qualitative study of Tamil language in the family domain in Singapore. The influence of Singapore's bilingual policy and the institutional support offered for maintenance of Tamil language provide the context in which the central research problem of the status…

  15. Identification of Early Child and Family Risk Factors for Aggressive Victim Status in First Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burk, Linnea R.; Park, Jong-hyo; Armstrong, Jeffrey M.; Klein, Marjorie H.; Goldsmith, H. Hill; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Essex, Marilyn J.

    2008-01-01

    This prospective investigation sought to discriminate children who were both aggressive towards and victimized by peers in the first grade, from those who were only aggressive, only victimized, or neither (i.e., socially adjusted), using early child and family risk factors. Two hundred thirty-eight children, their mothers, and teachers…

  16. [The vitamin D nutritional status in Chinese urban women of child-bearing age from 2010 to 2012].

    PubMed

    Lu, J X; Liu, X B; Chen, J; Hu, Y C; Yun, C F; Li, W D; Wang, R; Yang, Y H; Mao, D Q; Piao, J H; Yang, X G; Yang, L C

    2017-02-06

    Objective: To evaluate the vitamin D nutritional status in Chinese women of child-bearing age by analyzing serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level in 2010-2012. Methods: Data were obtained from the China Nutrition and Health Survey in 2010-2012. Using cluster sampling and proportional stratified random sampling, 1 514 women of child-bearing age (18-44 years old) from 34 metropolis and 41 small and medium-sized cities were included in this study. Demographic information was collected by questionnaire and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration was determined by radioimmunoassay, in accordance with the 2010 Institute of Medicine of the National Academies standards. We compared differences in vitamin D levels, specifically serious deficiency, lack of deficiency, insufficiency, and excess. Results: The overall serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of Chinese urban women of child-bearing age (P(50) (P(25)-P(75))) was 20.1 (15.1-26.3) ng/ml; minorities had a significantly higher serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level of 22.0 (15.9-27.5) ng/ml compared with women of Han nationality (19.8 (14.9-26.2) ng/ml) (χ(2)=7.02, P=0.008). The proportions of women with serious deficiency, lack of deficiency, insufficiency, and excess vitamin D were 11.6% (n=175), 37.9% (n=574), 35.1% (n=531), and 0.3% (n=5), respectively. Only 15.1% (n=229) of women of child-bearing age had normal vitamin D nutritional status. No significant differences in vitamin D nutritional status were observed according to age, body mass index, city, nationality, educational level, marital status, or household income per capita (P>0.05). Conclusion: Most Chinese urban women of child-bearing age have poor vitamin D levels and require vitamin D supplementation.

  17. Coenzyme Q10 serum concentration and redox status in European adults: influence of age, sex, and lipoprotein concentration

    PubMed Central

    Niklowitz, Petra; Onur, Simone; Fischer, Alexandra; Laudes, Matthias; Palussen, Michael; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is synthesized in almost all human tissues and presumably involved in age-related alterations and diseases. Here, we examined the impact of aging and sex on the serum CoQ10 status in 860 European adults ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. We identified an inverse U-shaped relationship between CoQ10 concentration and age. Women showed lower cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 levels than men, irrespective of age. As observed in both sexes, the decrease in CoQ10 concentration in older subjects was accompanied by a shift in the redox status in favour of the oxidized form. A strong positive correlation was found for total CoQ10 and cholesterol concentrations (Spearman’s, p≤1E-74). We found strong negative correlations between total (Spearman’s, p≤1E-07) and between cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 concentration (Spearman’s, p≤1E-14) and the proportion of the oxidized form of CoQ10. These correlations were not dependent on age and sex and were attenuated by supplementation with 150 mg/day reduced CoQ10 for 14 days. Overall, our results are useful to define risk groups with critical CoQ10 status in humans. In particular, older subjects were characterized by impaired CoQ10 status due to their lowered serum CoQ10 concentration and concomitant decrease of CoQ10 redox capacity. PMID:27257350

  18. Investigating the Visual-Motor Integration Skills of 60-72-Month-Old Children at High and Low Socio-Economic Status as Regard the Age Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…

  19. Living in the Nuclear Age: Families and the threat of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Demorest, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The main interest of this research was to add to the body of knowledge about the possible psychological impact of the nuclear threat on the family unit. Data were utilized from the Family Interaction, Stress and Nuclear War study conducted by Jules Riskin, M.D. and Victoria Dickerson, Ph.D. at the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto, California. The sample consisted of ten families who were recruited for this study. In order to examine family-interaction variables and the impact of the threat of nuclear war, a standardized semi-structured family interview was conducted. Topics ranged from ordinary activities to external, non-nuclear stresses such as landslides or hurricanes, to the topic of nuclear war. A distinction is drawn between a family's level of nuclear concern while they discuss nuclear issues and a family's level of nuclear concern when viewed in the context of their overall pattern of family communication. In terms of family coping, family nuclear concern was found to be significantly related to two family-coping strategies. Families who utilized the coping strategies of seeking spiritual support and mobilizing the family to acquire and accept help were significantly less concerned about the threat of nuclear war.

  20. 45 CFR 286.150 - Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because a parent refuses to work because (s...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can a family, with a child under age 6, be... TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.150 Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because... custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based...

  1. Dominance relationships in a family pack of captive arctic wolves (Canis lupus arctos): the influence of competition for food, age and sex

    PubMed Central

    Lazzaroni, Martina; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Background Dominance is one of the most pervasive concepts in the study of wolf social behaviour but recently its validity has been questioned. For some authors, the bonds between members of wolf families are better described as parent-offspring relationships and the concept of dominance should be used just to evaluate the social dynamics of non-familial captive pack members (e.g., Mech & Cluff, 2010). However, there is a dearth of studies investigating dominance relationships and its correlates in wolf family packs. Methods Here, we applied a combination of the most commonly used quantitative methods to evaluate the dominance relationships in a captive family pack of 19 Arctic wolves. Results We found a significant linear and completely transitive hierarchy based on the direction of submissive behaviours and found that dominance relationships were not influenced by the competitive contexts (feeding vs. non-feeding context). A significant linear hierarchy also emerges amongst siblings once the breeding pair (the two top-ranking individuals) is removed from analyses. Furthermore, results suggest that wolves may use greeting behaviour as a formal signal of subordination. Whereas older wolves were mostly dominant over younger ones, no clear effect of sex was found. However, frequency of agonistic (submissive, dominant and aggressive) behaviours was higher between female–female and male–male dyads than female–male dyads and sex-separated linear hierarchies showed a stronger linearity than the mixed one. Furthermore, dominance status was conveyed through different behavioural categories during intra-sexual and inter-sexual interactions. Discussion Current results highlight the importance of applying a systematic methodology considering the individuals’ age and sex when evaluating the hierarchical structure of a social group. Moreover, they confirm the validity of the concept of dominance relationships in describing the social bonds within a family pack of

  2. An accurate, simple prognostic model consisting of age, JAK2, CALR, and MPL mutation status for patients with primary myelofibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Rozovski, Uri; Verstovsek, Srdan; Manshouri, Taghi; Dembitz, Vilma; Bozinovic, Ksenija; Newberry, Kate; Zhang, Ying; Bove, Joseph E.; Pierce, Sherry; Kantarjian, Hagop; Estrov, Zeev

    2017-01-01

    In most patients with primary myelofibrosis, one of three mutually exclusive somatic mutations is detected. In approximately 60% of patients, the Janus kinase 2 gene is mutated, in 20%, the calreticulin gene is mutated, and in 5%, the myeloproliferative leukemia virus gene is mutated. Although patients with mutated calreticulin or myeloproliferative leukemia genes have a favorable outcome, and those with none of these mutations have an unfavorable outcome, prognostication based on mutation status is challenging due to the heterogeneous survival of patients with mutated Janus kinase 2. To develop a prognostic model based on mutation status, we screened primary myelofibrosis patients seen at the MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, USA, between 2000 and 2013 for the presence of Janus kinase 2, calreticulin, and myeloproliferative leukemia mutations. Of 344 primary myelofibrosis patients, Janus kinase 2V617F was detected in 226 (66%), calreticulin mutation in 43 (12%), and myeloproliferative leukemia mutation in 16 (5%); 59 patients (17%) were triple-negatives. A 50% cut-off dichotomized Janus kinase 2-mutated patients into those with high Janus kinase 2V617F allele burden and favorable survival and those with low Janus kinase 2V617F allele burden and unfavorable survival. Patients with a favorable mutation status (high Janus kinase 2V617F allele burden/myeloproliferative leukemia/calreticulin mutation) and aged 65 years or under had a median survival of 126 months. Patients with one risk factor (low Janus kinase 2V617F allele burden/triple-negative or age >65 years) had an intermediate survival duration, and patients aged over 65 years with an adverse mutation status (low Janus kinase 2V617F allele burden or triple-negative) had a median survival of only 35 months. Our simple and easily applied age- and mutation status-based scoring system accurately predicted the survival of patients with primary myelofibrosis. PMID:27686378

  3. Disparity between dietary iron intake and iron status of children aged 10-12 years.

    PubMed

    Spodaryk, K

    1999-12-01

    Iron status was assessed in a representative sample of 188 adolescents living in a medium-sized city in Poland. Dietary intakes were evaluated using records of diet over a period of seven consecutive days. Subjects were considered to be iron deficient when two or more of the following parameters were abnormal: serum ferritin, transferrin saturation or mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration. Based on this definition, the prevalence of iron deficiency in the investigated sample of children aged from ten to twelve years was 12.7%. Iron deficiency anaemia was defined using the following criteria: haemoglobin values less than 12.0 g. dl (-1) in girls or less than 12.2 g. dl(-1) in boys, combined with an iron deficiency. With such a definition, the prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia in all subjects was 6.3%. Four boys (3.9%) and six girls (6.8%) were diagnosed as anaemic. The values for Hb in the anaemic boys ranged from 10.9 to 12.2 g. dl (-1) and in anaemic girls from 8.7 to 12.0 g. (-1). It was found that the majority of the individuals studied had a dietary haem-iron intake lower than that recommended. No relationship was found between the level of serum ferritin and total iron and vitamin C dietary intake, but there was positive correlation between serum ferritin and intake of haem iron. A seven-day dietary history questionnaire correctly identified children at risk of iron deficiency anaemia.

  4. Support Networks for the Greek Family with Preschool or School-Age Disabled Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsibidaki, Assimina; Tsamparli, Anastasia

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The interaction of the family with disabled children with the support networks is a research area of high interest (Hendriks, De Moor, Oud & Savelberg, 2000). It has been shown that support networks may prove to be very helpful for a family and especially for a family with a disabled child. Support networks play a primordial role…

  5. Mothers' and Fathers' Couple and Family Contextual Influences, Parent Involvement, and School-Age Child Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly couples in two-parent families share the dual responsibilities of parenting and providing for their children financially. Parenting is embedded within and shaped by specific family contexts. This study examined 92 mothers' and fathers' responses on indices of couple and family contexts, parent involvement, and child-reported…

  6. Diverse Family Types and Out-of-School Learning Time of Young School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James

    2010-01-01

    Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological…

  7. Family Stress, Parenting Styles, and Behavioral Adjustment in Preschool-Age Adopted Chinese Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong

    2012-01-01

    This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…

  8. Family Distance Regulation and School Engagement in Middle-School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Younkin, Felisha Lotspeich; Day, Randal

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore how family distance regulation and other family demographic factors influence parenting behavior and family routines, which, in turn, influences the child's school engagement. The data from the project came from a larger study conducted in a large Northwestern urban area and included both two-parent and…

  9. The development of postinstitutionalized versus parent-reared Russian children as a function of age at placement and family type.

    PubMed

    McCall, Robert B; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J; Groark, Christina J; Palmov, Oleg I; Nikiforova, Natalia V; Salaway, Jennifer; Julian, Megan M

    2016-02-01

    A total of 149 children, who spent an average of 13.8 months in Russian institutions, were transferred to Russian families of relatives and nonrelatives at an average age of 24.7 months. After residing in these families for at least 1 year (average = 43.2 months), parents reported on their attachment, indiscriminately friendly behavior, social-emotional competencies, problem behaviors, and effortful control when they were 1.5-10.7 years of age. They were compared to a sample of 83 Russian parents of noninstitutionalized children, whom they had reared from birth. Generally, institutionalized children were rated similarly to parent-reared children on most measures, consistent with substantial catch-up growth typically displayed by children after transitioning to families. However, institutionalized children were rated more poorly than parent-reared children on certain competencies in early childhood and some attentional skills. There were relatively few systematic differences associated with age at family placement or whether the families were relatives or nonrelatives. Russian parent-reared children were rated as having more problem behaviors than the US standardization sample, which raises cautions about using standards cross-culturally.

  10. The Association Between Physical Activity, Mental Status, and Social and Family Support with Five Major Non-Communicable Chronic Diseases Among Elderly People: A Cross-Sectional Study of a Rural Population in Southern China

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xiang; Yang, Huajie; Wang, Harry H.X.; Qiu, Yongjun; Lai, Xiujuan; Zhou, Zhiheng; Li, Fangjian; Zhang, Liwei; Wang, Jiaji; Lei, Jimin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs) have become the top threat in China. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of major NCDs among the elderly population in rural areas in southern China and explore its associated social determinants. Methods: A multistage cluster random sampling methodology was adopted to select a total of 9245 rural elderly people from 3860 rural households in Guangdong Province. Interviews and physical examinations were performed to collect patient information. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore factors associated with the presence of major NCDs. Results: Over one-third (38.5%) of the study population suffered from five major NCDs. The grade of activities of daily living (ADL), mental status, and social relationship of elderly people without NCDs were better than those with NCDs. The major factors associated with the presence of NCDs among the elderly people included age (70–79 years group and 80–89 years group), education level (senior high/technical secondary school and junior college and above), mental status (concentration, enrichment and happy life and memory), relationship with neighbours, activities of daily living (ADL) (being able to climb three floors and bend over), physical activity, marital status (bereft), and living conditions (with offspring and family members). Conclusions: The study identified several social determinants associated with the presence of major NCDs. A higher level of family support and physical exercise might contribute to improved physical condition, mental status, and ADL among the elderly people in rural areas in southern China. PMID:26506364

  11. Clustering and age of onset in familial late onset Alzheimer`s disease are determined at the apoliopoprotein E locus

    SciTech Connect

    Houlden, H.; Rossor, M.

    1994-09-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype is of great importance in the etiology of Alzheimer`s disease (AD). Thus, inheritance of the ApoE4 allele predisposes to the occurrences of late onset disease and decreases the onset age in families with pathogenic mutations in the amyloid precursor protein gene. We analysed ApoE genotypes in 35 families multiply affected by AD and confirm that familial clustering in late onset AD is associated with the ApoE4 allele. This allele occurs in the great majority (82%) of late onset familial Alzheimer cases. Elderly unaffected sibs (80-90 years) have an allele frequency that is not significantly different to that of normal controls. Data presented from our family sets together previously published data is suggestive that the effect of a single ApoE4 allele is to increase the risk of developing AD by an amount equivalent to 5 years and that the effect of ApoE4 homozygosity is to increase the risk of developing AD by an amount equivalent to 10 years of age. Data shows significant difference between the frequency of the ApoE4 allele in the familial AD probands and controls and in both sets of unaffected sibs, p<0.01.

  12. Youth dietary intake and weight status: healthful neighborhood food environments enhance the protective role of supportive family home environments.

    PubMed

    Berge, Jerica M; Wall, Melanie; Larson, Nicole; Forsyth, Ann; Bauer, Katherine W; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate individual and joint associations of the home environment and the neighborhood built environment with adolescent dietary patterns and body mass index (BMI) z-score. Racially/ethnically and socioeconomically diverse adolescents (n=2682; 53.2% girls; mean age14.4 years) participating in the EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) study completed height and weight measurements and surveys in Minnesota middle and high schools. Neighborhood variables were measured using Geographic Information Systems data. Multiple regressions of BMI z-score, fruit and vegetable intake, and fast food consumption were fit including home and neighborhood environmental variables as predictors and also including their interactions to test for effect modification. Supportive family environments (i.e., higher family functioning, frequent family meals, and parent modeling of healthful eating) were associated with higher adolescent fruit and vegetable intake, lower fast food consumption, and lower BMI z-score. Associations between the built environment and adolescent outcomes were fewer. Interaction results, although not all consistent, indicated that the relationship between a supportive family environment and adolescent fruit and vegetable intake and BMI was enhanced when the neighborhood was supportive of healthful behavior. Public health interventions that simultaneously improve both the home environment and the neighborhood environment of adolescents may have a greater impact on adolescent obesity prevention than interventions that address one of these environments alone.

  13. Family welfare.

    PubMed

    Sinha, N K

    1992-01-01

    Between 1901-1921, India gained 12.9 million people because mortality remained high. The death rate fell between 1921-1951, but birth rates remained the same. Therefore 110 million people were added--2 times the population increase between 1891-1921. Between 1951-1981, the population increased to 324 million. Socioeconomic development was responsible for most of the downward trend in the birth rate during the 20th century. Even though large families were the norm in early India, religious leaders encouraged small family size. The 1st government family planning clinics in the world opened in Mysore and Bangalore in 1930. Right before Independence, the Bhore Committee made recommendations to reduce population growth such as increasing the age of marriage for girls. Since 1951 there has been a change in measures and policies geared towards population growth with each of the 7 5-Year Plans because policy makers applied what they learned from each previous plan. The 1st 5-Year Plan emphasized the need to understand what factors contribute to population growth. It also integrated family planning services into health services of hospitals and health centers. The government was over zealous in its implementation of the sterilization program (2nd 5-Year Plan, 1956-1961), however, which hurt family planning programs for many years. As of early 1992, sterilization, especially tubectomy, remained the most popular family planning method, however. The 7th 5-Year Plan changed its target of reaching a Net Reproductive Rate of 1 by 2001 to 2006-2011. It set a goal of 100% immunization coverage by 1990 but it did not occur. In 1986, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare planned to make free contraceptives available in urban and rural areas and to involve voluntary organizations. The government needs to instill measures to increase women's status, women's literacy, and age of marriage as well as to eliminate poverty, ensure old age security, and ensure child survival and

  14. Relationship between personal, maternal, and familial factors with mental health problems in school-aged children in Aceh province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa

    2017-02-01

    Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress.

  15. Associations among Child Care, Family, and Behavior Outcomes in a Nation-Wide Sample of Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Elisa; Kohen, Dafna; Findlay, Leanne C.

    2010-01-01

    Canadian data based on maternal reports for a nationally representative sample of 4,521 4-5-year-olds were used to examine associations among child care, family factors, and behaviors in preschool-aged children. Linear regressions testing for direct and moderated associations indicated that regulated home-based care was associated with less…

  16. Fathers' Involvement with Their Preschool-Age Children: How Fathers Spend Time with Their Children in Different Family Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halme, Nina; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe how fathers (n = 263) spent time with their preschool-age children and to compare it in different family structures. Data were gathered by structured questionnaires. The instrument included five categories of variables for the time spent: the quantity of time, physical activities, fathers' attitude towards…

  17. Establishing Children's Wishes and Feelings for Family Court Reports: The Significance Attached to the Age of the Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mantle, Greg; Leslie, Jane; Parsons, Sarah; Plenty, Jackie; Shaffer, Ray

    2006-01-01

    Current UK government policy is to promote mediation as a way of avoiding family court proceedings and there is a risk, therefore, that welfare report-writing practice may receive less critical attention than it merits. A largely unstudied aspect of this practice is the significance given by practitioners to the child's age. More widely, across a…

  18. The Impact of Gender, Family Type and Age on Undergraduate Parents' Perception of Causes of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoyase, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Impact of Gender, Family type and Age on undergraduate parents' perception of causes of child Sexual Abuse. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. There was a review of relevant literature. The population for the study were 2014 sandwich contact students of Delta State University, Abraka who…

  19. The Social Prerequisites of Literacy Development: Home and School Experiences of Preschool-Aged Children from Low-Income Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Catherine E.; And Others

    This document is a report of a symposium whose participants are involved with the Home-School Study of Language and Literacy Development, a project engaged in a longitudinal study of 80 low-income families with preschool-aged children in Boston (Massachusetts). The project was designed to identify possible success factors for children from…

  20. Emerging Trends in Family Caregiving Using the Life Course Perspective: Preparing Health Educators for an Aging Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eifert, Elise K.; Adams, Rebecca; Morrison, Sharon; Strack, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background: As life expectancy and morbidity related to chronic disease increase, the baby boomers will be called upon to provide care to aging members of their family or to be care recipients themselves. Purpose: Through the theoretical lens of the life course perspective, this review of the literature provides insight into what characteristics…

  1. Reducing Problem Behavior during Care-Giving in Families of Preschool-Aged Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plant, Karen M.; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated two variants of a behavioral parent training program known as Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) using 74 preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. Families were randomly allocated to an enhanced parent training intervention that combined parenting skills and care-giving coping skills (SSTP-E), standard parent…

  2. Resourceful Aging: Today and Tomorrow. Conference Proceedings (Arlington, Virginia, October 9-10, 1990). Volume III. Family/Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This document contains 16 papers on family roles and caregiving presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (grandparenting and caregiving), and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.…

  3. Health Profile of Aging Family Caregivers Supporting Adults with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities at Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamaki, Kiyoshi; Hsieh, Kelly; Heller, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    The health status of 206 female caregivers supporting adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities at home was investigated using objective (i.e., presence of chronic health conditions and activity limitations) and subjective (i.e., self-perceived health status) health measures compared with those of women in the general population in 2…

  4. [A Japanese family with familial Alzheimer's disease associated with presenilin 1 mutation: relationship between younger age of onset and ApoE gene polymorphism].

    PubMed

    Marui, Wami; Iseki, Eizo; Sugiyama, Naoya; Matsumura, Takehiko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Odawara, Toshinari; Hino, Hiroaki; Kosaka, Kenji

    2003-04-01

    We previously reported a Japanese family with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease associated with G 209 R presenilin 1(PS 1) mutation. There have been six patients across three generations in this family. In the present report, we described the clinical course, findings with neuroimaging and results of genetic examination of PS 1 and apolipoprotein E(ApoE) in three of six patients(II-1, III-1 and 2). The clinical course was common to all three patients. Memory disturbance, disorientation, amnestic aphasia, personality changes and perseveration appeared at early stages, whereas Gerstmann's syndrome, myoclonus and general convulsion were recognized at advanced stages. CT disclosed mild brain atrophy in the temporal lobes at early stages and diffuse brain atrophy predominantly in the fronto--temporal lobes at advanced stages. SPECT exhibited hypoperfusion in the fronto-temporal areas at early stages and hypoperfusion in the fronto-temporal and parieto-occipital areas at advanced stages. The age of onset in six patients demonstrated two clusters at age 53-55(I-1, II-1, 2 and 5) and age 46-48(III-1 and 2). PS 1 genotyping demonstrated that the heterozygous exonic missense mutation G 209 R was confirmed in all three patients. Regarding the ApoE genotyping, II-1(mother) was epsilon 3/epsilon 3, whereas III-1 and 2(children) were epsilon 3/epsilon 4. These findings suggest the possibility that there might be a gene dose effect, since the age of onset ranged from 5 to 7 years younger in patients who received epsilon 4 alleles from the father.

  5. Present status of obstetrics in family practice and the effects of malpractice issues.

    PubMed

    Bredfeldt, R; Colliver, J A; Wesley, R M

    1989-03-01

    A survey of 800 active members of the American Academy of Family Physicians 1985-1987 membership directory was conducted for the purpose of determining the impact, over time, of malpractice issues upon the practice of obstetrics by family physicians. The survey response rate was 60.4 percent. Almost 20 percent of all respondents reported that they have never provided obstetric care of any type. Another 40 percent have provided obstetric care previously but have now discontinued this care, while the remaining 40 percent currently offer obstetric care to their patients. The proportion of respondents who discontinued the practice of obstetrics because of increased risk of malpractice litigation increased significantly over the years from 1947 to 1986 (P = .0084). The proportion of respondents who discontinued obstetric practice because of increased malpractice insurance costs also increased significantly from 1945 to 1986 (P = .0002). The proportion of those entering practice during the past five years who decided not to offer obstetric services because of malpractice risks was significantly greater than the proportion entering practice earlier (21.0 percent vs 2.0 percent, P = .0090). Although the current patterns of obstetric practice showed regional variation, the accelerating impact of malpractice risk and insurance cost on these patterns was similar throughout the nation.

  6. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213

  7. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Menger, Katja E; James, Andrew M; Cochemé, Helena M; Harbour, Michael E; Chouchani, Edward T; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Partridge, Linda; Murphy, Michael P

    2015-06-30

    Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster.

  8. Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ram Ballabh; Upadhyay, Juhi; Agrawal, Pankaj; Rao, Nirmala N

    2012-01-01

    Background: With development and function, the mandibular angle has shown changes in size and shape. A variation in mandibular angle with age, gender, and even the dental status has been observed, which is supported by radiographic and anthropometric studies. Aims: The aim of this study were to evaluate relationship between complete loss of teeth and changes in the gonial angle; the study further intends to evaluate any variation in gonial angle with age and gender. The study intends to assess the reliability and accuracy of age and gender determination using gonial angle as a parameter. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 subjects (91 males; 89 females) were included in the study and were divided into five groups on the basis of the chronological age. Physico-forensic anthropometry and lateral cephalometric methods were used to record the gonial angle. Results: The present study shows a definite decrease in the gonial angle with advancing age, but the intergroup analysis does not follow a significant pattern. The study showed no correlation of gonial angle with gender. However, the study observed a 6° increase in gonial angle for edentulous subjects. Conclusion: Gonial angle has been used as an adjuvant forensic parameter, but its reliability is questionable, as the mandible does not follow one characteristic pattern. Gonial angle does show changes with dentition status, which may be attributed to physiologic function of the mandible. However, when evidence is scanty, it can be used to direct the investigation. PMID:23087579

  9. Differences in Family Size and Marriage Age Expectation and Aspirations of Anglo, Mexican American and Native American Rural Youth in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edington, Everett; Hays, Leonard

    1978-01-01

    In 1975, questionnaires were given to 587 sophomores and seniors in 12 rural high schools. Findings included significant differences between ethnic groups on expected and desired family size and marriage age; but no differences between age groups. (Author/SJL)

  10. Resolving the phylogenetic status and taxonomic relationships of the Hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) in the family Cervidae.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ved P; Thakur, Mukesh; Rajpoot, Ankita; Joshi, Bhim Dutt; Nigam, Parag; Ahmad, Khursheed; Kumar, Dhyanendra; Goyal, Surendra P

    2016-12-10

    The Hangul (Cervus elaphus hanglu) is a "Least Concern" deer species, and it is the only survivor of the Red Deer group in the Indian subcontinent. The phylogenetic status of the Hangul relative to the other members of the family Cervidae is not known because sequence data are not available in public databases. Therefore, this study was carried out to determine the phylogenetic status and delineate the genetic boundaries of the Hangul with respect to the other Red Deer subspecies on the basis of cytochrome b gene sequence data (ca 421 bp). There are three major monophyletic groups of the Red Deer in the phylogenetic tree, which are referred to as the western (Hap-01 to Hap-10), eastern (Hap-11 to Hap-20) and tarim (Hap-21 to Hap-25) groups. The overall haplotype diversity and per-site nucleotide diversity were 0.9771 (±0.0523) and 0.0388 (±0.00261), respectively. In the phylogenetic tree, the Hangul clustered with the tarim group (Yarkand and Bactrian Red Deer) with a strong bootstrap support (92%) and was found to be genetically closer to the Bactrian Red Deer than to the Yarkand Red Deer. Our molecular analysis supported the idea that the Hangul diverged from the Bactrian Red Deer and migrated to India from Tajikistan approximately 1.2 MYA.

  11. The Age-Crime Curve in Adolescence and Early Adulthood Is Not Due to Age Differences in Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"--the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice Policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and…

  12. Generational Status and Family Cohesion Effects on the Receipt of Mental Health Services Among Asian Americans: Findings From the National Latino and Asian American Study

    PubMed Central

    Holck, Peter; Gee, Gilbert C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the relative strengths of generational status and family cohesion effects on current use of mental health services (past 12 months) among Asian Americans. Methods. We conducted a secondary data analysis with data from the National Latino and Asian American Study, 2002 to 2003, restricted to Asian American respondents (n = 2087). The study's outcome was current use (past 12 months) of any mental health services. Respondents included Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, and other Asian Americans. Results. Multivariate analyses suggest no significant interaction exists between second- versus first-generation Asian Americans and family cohesion. The impact of generational status on mental health service use was significant for third- or later-generation Asian Americans (versus first-generation Asian Americans) and varied with family cohesion score. Conclusions. Family cohesion and generational status both affect the likelihood of Asian Americans to seek mental health services. Our findings also highlight the need for primary care and other providers to consistently screen for mental health status particularly among first-generation Asian Americans. Mental health service programs should target recent immigrants and individuals lacking a strong family support system. PMID:19910344

  13. Cognitive changes across the menopause transition: A longitudinal evaluation of the impact of age and ovarian status on spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Koebele, Stephanie V; Mennenga, Sarah E; Hiroi, Ryoko; Quihuis, Alicia M; Hewitt, Lauren T; Poisson, Mallori L; George, Christina; Mayer, Loretta P; Dyer, Cheryl A; Aiken, Leona S; Demers, Laurence M; Carson, Catherine; Bimonte-Nelson, Heather A

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive changes that occur during mid-life and beyond are linked to both aging and the menopause transition. Studies in women suggest that the age at menopause onset can impact cognitive status later in life; yet, little is known about memory changes that occur during the transitional period to the postmenopausal state. The 4-vinylcyclohexene diepoxide (VCD) model simulates transitional menopause in rodents by depleting the immature ovarian follicle reserve and allowing animals to retain their follicle-deplete ovarian tissue, resulting in a profile similar to the majority of perimenopausal women. Here, Vehicle or VCD treatment was administered to ovary-intact adult and middle-aged Fischer-344 rats to assess the trajectory of cognitive change across time with normal aging and aging with transitional menopause via VCD-induced follicular depletion, as well as to evaluate whether age at the onset of follicular depletion plays a role in cognitive outcomes. Animals experiencing the onset of menopause at a younger age exhibited impaired spatial memory early in the transition to a follicle-deplete state. Additionally, at the mid- and post- follicular depletion time points, VCD-induced follicular depletion amplified an age effect on memory. Overall, these findings suggest that age at the onset of menopause is a critical parameter to consider when evaluating learning and memory across the transition to reproductive senescence. From a translational perspective, this study illustrates how age at menopause onset might impact cognition in menopausal women, and provides insight into time points to explore for the window of opportunity for hormone therapy during the menopause transition period. Hormone therapy during this critical juncture might be especially efficacious at attenuating age- and menopause- related cognitive decline, producing healthy brain aging profiles in women who retain their ovaries throughout their lifespan.

  14. A prospective study of iron status in exclusively breastfed term infants up to 6 months of age

    PubMed Central

    Raj, Shashi; Faridi, MMA; Rusia, Usha; Singh, Om

    2008-01-01

    Background Can exclusive breastfeeding until six months of age maintain optimum iron status in term babies? We evaluated iron status of exclusively breastfed term infants in relation to breast milk iron and lactoferrin. Methods In this prospective study in Delhi, India, during the period 2003–2004 normally delivered babies of non-anemic [(Hemoglobin (Hb) = 11 g/dl, n = 68] and anemic (Hb 7 – 10.9 g/dl, n = 61) mothers were followed until 6 months of age. Iron parameters were measured in the cord blood at 14 weeks and 6 months. Breast milk iron and lactoferrin were measured at the same intervals. Results Iron parameters in babies of both groups were within normal limits at birth, 14 weeks and 6 months. Mean breast milk iron and lactoferrin in non-anemic (day 1: 0.89, 6 months: 0.26 mg/l; day 1: 12.02, 6 months: 5.85 mg/ml) and anemic mothers (day 1: 0.86, 6 months: 0.27 mg/l; day 1: 12.91, 6 months: 6.37 mg/ml) were not different on day one or at other times. No relationship was found between breast milk iron, lactoferrin and iron status of the babies. Conclusion Exclusively breastfed infants of non-anemic and anemic mothers did not develop iron deficiency or iron deficiency anemia by six months of age. PMID:18312681

  15. Polysomnographic evaluation of sleep quality and quantitative variables in women as a function of mood, reproductive status, and age.

    PubMed

    Orff, Henry J; Meliska, Charles J; Lopez, Ana; Martinez, Fernando; Sorenson, Diane; Parry, Barbara L

    2012-12-01

    This archival cross-sectional investigation examined the impact of mood, reproductive status (RS), and age on polysomnographic (PSG) measures in women. PSG was performed on 73 normal controls (NC) and 64 depressed patients (DP), in the course of studies in menstruating, pregnant, postpartum, and peri- and postmenopausal women. A two-factor, between-subjects multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the main effects of reproductive status (RS: menstrual vs pregnant vs postpartum vs menopausal) and diagnosis (NC vs DP), and their interaction, on PSG measures. To further refine the analyses, a two-factor, between subjects MANOVA was used to test the main effects of age (19 to 27 vs 28 to 36 vs 37 to 45 vs 46+ years) and diagnosis on the PSG data. Analyses revealed that in DP women, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage was significantly elevated relative to NC across both RS and age. Significant differences in sleep efficiency, Stage 1%, and REM density were associated with RS; differences in total sleep time, Stage 2 percentage, and Stage 4 percentage were associated with differences in age. Both RS and age were related to differences in sleep latency, Stage 3 percentage, and Delta percentage. Finally, wake after sleep onset time, REM percentage, and REM latency did not vary with respect to RS or age. Overall, this investigation examined three major variables (mood, RS, and age) that are known to impact sleep in women. Of the variables, age appeared to have the greatest impact on PSG sleep measures, reflecting changes occurring across the lifespan.

  16. Integrating GB and US census microdata for studying the impact of family migration on partnered women's labour market status.

    PubMed

    Boyle, P; Cooke, T; Halfacree, K; Smith, D

    1999-01-01

    This paper investigates the problems in integrating different data sets for social science research. A cross-national analysis of the effects of family migration on labor market participation rates for female partners was used as an example to concretize these problems. The data used in the cross national analysis came from the 1991 British Census Sample of Anonymised Records and the 1990 United States Public Use Microdata Sample. The problems addressed were the following: data collection; manipulation and reliability; question type and definition; and measurement of individual and family variables. As part of the analysis, some empirical findings were also presented. Significant overall differences between the US and Great Britain (GB) samples were observed, particularly concerning graduate qualifications, marital and employment status, and ethnic group. There were higher numbers of married partners and full-time workers in the US sample, while female partners undertaking part-time employment were greater in GB. Furthermore, the US sample had more couples with a female graduate as compared with the GB sample who had a higher proportion of nongraduate couples. Finally, this paper recognized the importance of cross- national research in the evaluation of national ideological and institutional structures.

  17. Epidemiological study on improving the QOL and oral conditions of the aged--Part 1: The relationship between the status of tooth preservation and QOL.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Y; Hatanaka, Y; Imaki, M; Ogawa, Y; Miyatani, S; Tanada, S

    2001-11-01

    In part 1 of this epidemiological study, a survey was conducted for all senior citizens aged 70 and over who resided in a mountainous village in the mid-section of Hyogo Prefecture. It focused on the relationship among the number of existing teeth, life environment, health status, and activities of daily living; and the correlation between oral status and QOL was analyzed. The daily activities of individuals were compared between those having one or more teeth and others who were totally edentulous. Subsequently, it was found that for both males and females, the odds ratio was significantly high for the dentulous individuals, in comparison with edentulous individuals, to exhibit a behavior indicative of a better QOL (such as "opportunity for conversation with family members or others)", "regular physical activities", and "attend meetings or group outings"). The result of this survey indicates that the presence of teeth is very closely related to one's daily activities. It was concluded that preventing tooth loss is vital for maintaining the masticatory function; so to prevent tooth loss, periodontal disease must be averted.

  18. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: correlations with age, sex, educational status and psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, P; Kaprinis, G; Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K

    2013-01-01

    extrapyramidal symptomatology. Factors such as sex, age or family history of schizophrenia, are said to influence the performance of neurological examination, whereas relative few studies have provided longitudinal follow-up data on neurological soft signs in a sufficient number of patients, in order to address a possible deterioration of neurological functions. Finally, one additional difficulty when analyzing the NSS literature lies in the diversity of symptoms that are evaluated in the studies and/or non-standardized procedures or scoring. We will review some basic issues concerning recurrent difficulties in the measurement and definition of soft signs, as well as controversies on the significance of these signs with respect to clinical subtyping of schizophrenia, and social and demographic variables.

  19. Psychological Well-Being among Mothers with School Age Children: Evolving Family Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Maxine Seaborn; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    1989-01-01

    Examines relationship between changing family living arrangements and psychological well-being of childrearing women. Finds long-term single parenting may be considered a chronic stressor. Reports death of a family member or close friend, unemployment, and residence change are associated with increased distress while friendship and church…

  20. Experiences of Supporting People with Down Syndrome and Alzheimer's Disease in Aged Care and Family Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carling-Jenkins, Rachel; Torr, Jennifer; Iacono, Teresa; Bigby, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Background: Research addressing the experiences of families of adults with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease in seeking diagnosis and gaining support is limited. The aim of this study was to gain a greater understanding of these processes by exploring the experiences of families and carers in supporting people with Down syndrome and…

  1. A Digital Program Informs Low-Income Caregivers of Preschool-Age Children about Family Meals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohse, Barbara; Rifkin, Robin; Arnold, Kristen; Least, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the digital program, "Mealtime is Family Time", as a means of educating caregivers of preschoolers on the importance of family meals within the division of feeding responsibility framework. Methods: Descriptive design using 2 approaches: focus group program review and discussion or self-report survey after independent…

  2. Shame, hope, intimacy and growth: Dementia distress and growth in families from the perspective of senior aged care professionals.

    PubMed

    Walmsley, Bruce; McCormack, Lynne

    2016-11-01

    Minimal research explores the impact of dementia and a dementia diagnosis on families from the unique vantage of senior health professionals. The participants of this study, eight senior aged care professionals, provided unique interpretative insights into family dynamics and sense-making on the journey with dementia, and their own role in that journey. Both positive and negative perspectives were sought. Data from semi-structured interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). One superordinate theme, Dementia naiveté; redefined intimacy, overarched Embarrassed shame; Maintaining hope; Redefining a model of intimacy; and Redefined relational intimacy and growth Within these themes, the participants shed light on hurtful embarrassment and shame experienced by families associated with the diagnostic label given to a loved one. This label was perceived to either trigger separation, hurt and immobility through ignorance, or precipitate a frenzy of naive yet hopeful energy for seeking that elusive cure. The participants saw their role as one of enacting a new way of connecting what was with what could be. Thus, they modelled advocacy, integral care and relational intimacy. Validation came in witnessing a redefining of intimacy in many families who were able to embrace that holistic and empathic approach to the shifting presentation of dementia. Psychological well-being was observed to occur when families embraced growthful domains, e.g. acceptance, hope, relational closeness and altruistic concern for other families. Implications for future care models are discussed.

  3. Modification Effects of Family Economic Status and School Factors on Depression Risk of Single-Father Family Children in Mid-Taiwan Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Lin, Fu-Gong

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of single-parent families has increased significantly in Taiwan in recent years. Children born in single-parent families are predisposed to suffering from emotional problems. We aimed to determine if the children of single-parent families are more depressive than children from both-parent families, and to examine the individual and…

  4. Familial factors related to lung function in children aged 6-10 years. Results from the PAARC epidemiologic study.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, F; Tager, I B; Muñoz, A; Speizer, F E

    1989-06-01

    Familial factors related to lung function between six and 10 years of age have been studied among 1,160 children whose both parents were examined in 1975 in the French PAARC (Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques) Cooperative Study. The three indices FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and FEF25-75 (forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 per cent of the vital capacity) were studied after adjustment for sex, town, age, and height (and weight for children's FVC and FEV1). Maternal (but not paternal) smoking was associated with a significant decrease in FEV1 and FEF25-75, but not in FVC. Familial resemblance was observed for all indices between children and parents and between siblings. None of the environmental factors considered (i.e., parental smoking or education) or body habitus explained the familial resemblance observed. Conversely, after taking into account the aggregation between siblings, associations between children's lung function and parental characteristics (smoking, lung function) remained significant. Parental-children correlations exhibited an increasing temporal trend with increasing age of the children. All but one correlation for FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75 residuals of children with mothers' residuals were higher in the oldest age group compared with the youngest age group at the 0.10 level. Furthermore, correlations between siblings of opposite sex were significantly lower than correlations between siblings of like sex, especially for FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC. Results suggest that different growth patterns between boys and girls may be a critical factor in the study of lung function familial resemblance.

  5. Parent behavior and child weight status among a diverse group of underserved rural families.

    PubMed

    Hennessy, Erin; Hughes, Sheryl O; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Hyatt, Raymond R; Economos, Christina D

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study was threefold: to investigate the association between three parenting behaviors (parenting style, feeding style, and feeding practices), to evaluate whether these behaviors were associated with child weight, and to determine whether style (parenting and feeding) moderated the relationship between feeding practice and child weight. Ninety-nine parent-child dyads were recruited for a cross-sectional study where parents self-reported their parenting style, feeding style, and feeding practices along with demographic characteristics. Height and weight were measured for each dyad. The relationship between parenting style and feeding style showed modest agreement. Feeding style, but not parenting style, was associated with child BMI z-score while controlling for known covariates. An indulgent feeding style was associated with a higher child weight status. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that feeding style moderated the association between restrictive feeding practices and child BMI z-score. No moderating relationship was found between feeding style and the practices of pressure to eat or monitoring and child weight. This research suggests that an indulgent feeding style may be predictive of higher child weight and that future studies should examine the possible moderating role of feeding style in the parent feeding practice-child weight relationship.

  6. Challenges for the Aging Family in the People's Republic of China.

    PubMed

    Phillips, David R; Feng, Zhixin

    2015-09-01

    The People's Republic of China has the largest population of older persons of any country in the world. It is a nation that has experienced enormous economic, social, and demographic changes over the past three and a half decades. Traditionally, the family was the main social support for older persons; this changed somewhat under early socialism, but in recent years, the importance of family support has been reasserted. However, over this time, the family's ability to support its older members has been considerably altered and arguably weakened. This article reviews four key issues (population change, the hukou system, economic reform, general features surrounding modernization) that have gradually changed families' capacity to provide support for older members. Research foci and public policy directions are considered under which the state might take some responsibilities from the family, support capacity to care, and improve the quality and quantity of support for older citizens.

  7. Maternal zinc status is associated with breast milk zinc concentration and zinc status in breastfed infants aged 4-6 months.

    PubMed

    Dumrongwongsiri, Oraporn; Suthutvoravut, Umaporn; Chatvutinun, Suthida; Phoonlabdacha, Phanphen; Sangcakul, Areeporn; Siripinyanond, Artitaya; Thiengmanee, Usana; Chongviriyaphan, Nalinee

    2015-01-01

    Breast milk provides adequate nutrients during the first 6 months of life. However, there are some reports of zinc deficiency in breastfed infants. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of zinc deficiency in infants aged 4-6 months and the associated factors. Healthy infants aged 4-6 months and their mothers were enrolled. They were classified by feeding types as breastfed (BF), formula-fed (FF), and mixed groups (MF). Data collection included demographic data, perinatal data, given diets, and anthropometric measurement. Blood from infants and lactating mothers, and breast milk samples were collected to assess plasma and breast milk zinc concentrations. From 158 infants, the prevalence of zinc deficiency (plasma level below 10.7 mol/L) was 7.6%, and according to feeding groups 14.9%, 5.3%, and 2.9% in the BF, the FF, and the MF groups, respectively. Breastfed infants with zinc deficiency had significantly lower maternal zinc concentrations compared with those without zinc deficiency. There was a higher proportion of maternal zinc deficiency in zinc-deficient infants than those without zinc deficiency (66.7% vs 16.2%, p=0.02). There was a positive correlation between zinc concentrations in breast milk and plasma zinc concentrations of infants (r=0.62, p=0.01) and plasma zinc concentrations of lactating mothers (r=0.56, p=0.016). Using the regression analysis, infant zinc status was associated with maternal plasma zinc concentrations among breastfed infants. The results of this study suggest that breastfed infants aged 4-6 months may have a risk of zinc deficiency and that risk is associated with maternal zinc status and breast milk zinc concentrations.

  8. Health Status, Social Support, and Quality of Life among Family Carers of Adults with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities (PIMD) in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Chiao, Chi; Fu, Li-Yeh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Primary family carers of adults with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) experience a range of considerable demands. Method: A census survey was conducted in a city of Taiwan; 796 family carers of adults (aged 18 or older) diagnosed with intellectual disability and/or with multiple disabilities living with the family…

  9. Age-related changes in the brain antioxidant status: modulation by dietary supplementation of Decalepis hamiltonii and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Ravikiran, Tekupalli; Sowbhagya, Ramachandregowda; Anupama, Sindhghatta Kariyappa; Anand, Santosh; Bhagyalakshmi, Dundaiah

    2016-08-01

    The synergistic effects of physical exercise and diet have profound benefits on brain function. The present study was aimed to determine the effects of exercise and Decalepis hamiltonii (Dh) on age-related responses on the antioxidant status in discrete regions of rat brain. Male Wistar albino rats of 4 and 18 months old were orally supplemented with Dh extract and swim trained at 3 % intensity for 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for a period of 30 days. Supplementation of 100 mg Dh aqueous extract/kg body weight and its combination with exercise significantly elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities irrespective of age. Age-related and region-specific changes were observed in superoxide levels, and protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents, and were found to be decreased in both trained and supplemented groups. Levels of total thiols, protein, and nonprotein thiols decreased with age and significantly increased in the SW-T(+100 mg) groups. Our results demonstrated that the interactive effects of two treatments enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the risk of protein and lipid oxidation in the rat brain.

  10. Biomarkers of oxidative stress and antioxidant status in children born small for gestational age: evidence of lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Franco, Maria C P; Kawamoto, Elisa M; Gorjão, Renata; Rastelli, Viviani M F; Curi, Rui; Scavone, Cristoforo; Sawaya, Ana Lydia; Fortes, Zuleica Bruno; Sesso, Ricardo

    2007-08-01

    Children born small for gestational age are known to be at increased risk for adult diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, and coronary heart disease. Oxidative stress is a common feature of these pathogenic conditions and can be the key link between size at birth and increased morbidity later in life. The purpose of this study was to analyze the parameters of lipoperoxidation and changes in antioxidant defense system as well as assess their relationship to birth weight. Concentrations of thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances and F2-isoprostanes, total antioxidant status, and the activity of both superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were measured in 65 children (33 boys, 32 girls; ages 8-13 y). Thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances and F2-isoprostane levels were significantly elevated in children born small for gestational age. Nevertheless, superoxide dismutase activity was significantly elevated in these children and the levels of both glutathione peroxidase activity and total antioxidant status were unchanged. Moreover, we found that systolic blood pressure was positively associated with thiobarbituric-acid-reactive-substances levels in race- and gender-adjusted models but not in a multivariable regression model. In conclusion, the current study revealed that there is evidence of oxidative stress in children born small for gestational age as supported by increased lipid peroxidation.

  11. Serum Copper Status in School-Age Children and Pregnant Women in China Nutrition and Health Survey 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaobing; Piao, Jianhua; Zhang, Yu; Li, Min; Li, Weidong; Yang, Lichen; Yang, Xiaoguang

    2016-10-01

    Serum copper is an insensitive but reliable biomarker reflecting the change of copper nutritional status in both depleted and replete populations. The current study aimed to establish the reference values of serum copper in school-age children and pregnant women in China and to explore the adequate range of serum copper for both these two categories of people. A multistage, stratified, random sampling combined with probability proportionate to regional size sampling method was employed. A total of 4019 subjects (2736 school-age children and 1283 pregnant women) were selected from China Nutrition and Health Survey 2010-2012 (CNHS 2010-2012). The concentration of serum copper was determined by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). The adequate range of serum copper was determined by the logistic sigmoid saturation curve of the median derivatives. The median concentration of serum copper was 1140.9 μg/L with a range of 746.7-1677.6 μg/L for school-age children and 1933.4 μg/L with a range of 947.4-3391.4 μg/L for pregnant women. The adequate range of serum copper was 905.7-1440.7 μg/L for school-age children and 1308.8-2537.8 μg/L for pregnant women. These parameters represent an essential prerequisite for the assessment of copper nutritional status, as well as nutrition interventions.

  12. Relationship between Peer Status and Health Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terre, Lisa; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated relative influence of background characteristics (age, gender, race, socioeconomic status, family type) and peer status on health-related behaviors (physical activity, eating habits, smoking, alcohol use, stress-related behaviors) in 589 junior high school students. Peer popularity provided no significant increment in prediction of…

  13. Examination of DNA methylation status of the ELOVL2 marker may be useful for human age prediction in forensic science.

    PubMed

    Zbieć-Piekarska, Renata; Spólnicka, Magdalena; Kupiec, Tomasz; Makowska, Żanetta; Spas, Anna; Parys-Proszek, Agnieszka; Kucharczyk, Krzysztof; Płoski, Rafał; Branicki, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Age estimation in forensic investigations may complement the prediction of externally visible characteristics and the inference of biogeographical ancestry, thus allowing a better description of an unknown individual. Multiple CpG sites that show linear correlation between age and degree of DNA methylation have been identified in the human genome, providing a selection of candidates for age prediction. In this study, we optimized an assay based on bisulfite conversion and pyrosequencing of 7 CpG sites located in the ELOVL2 gene. Examination of 303 blood samples collected from individuals aged 2-75 years allowed selection of the most informative site, explaining 83% of variation in age. The final linear regression model included two CpG sites in ELOVL2 and enabled age prediction with R(2)=0.859, prediction error=6.85 and mean absolute deviation MAD=5.03. Examination of a testing set of 124 blood samples (MAD=5.75) showed that 68.5% of samples were correctly predicted, assuming that chronological and predicted ages matched ± 7 years. It was found that the ELOVL2 methylation status in bloodstains had not changed significantly after 4 weeks of storage in room temperature conditions. Analysis of 45 bloodstains deposited on tissue paper after 5, 10 and 15 years of storage in room conditions indicated that although a gradual decrease of positive PCR results was observed, the general age prediction success rate remained similar and equaled 60-78%. The obtained results show that the ELOVL2 locus provides a very good source of information about human chronological age based on analysis of blood, including bloodstains, and it may constitute a powerful and reliable predictor in future forensic age estimation models.

  14. Heritability of Cognitive Functions in Families of Successful Cognitive Aging Probands from the Central Valley of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Beeri, Michal S.; Schmeidler, James; Valerio, Daniel; Raventós, Henriette; Mora-Villalobos, Lara; Camacho, Karla; Carrión-Baralt, José R.; Angelo, Gary; Almasy, Laura; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-01

    We sought to identify cognitive phenotypes for family/genetic studies of successful cognitive aging (SCA; maintaining intact cognitive functioning while living to late old age).We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to nondemented nonagenarians (n = 65; mean age = 93.4±3.0) and their offspring (n = 188; mean age = 66.4±5.0) from the Central Valley of Costa Rica. After covarying for age, gender, and years of education, as necessary, heritability was calculated for cognitive functions at three pre-defined levels of complexity: specific neuropsychological functions (e.g., delayed recall, sequencing), three higher level cognitive domains (memory, executive functions, attention), and an overall neuropsychological summary. The highest heritability was for delayed recall (h2 = 0.74, se = 0.14, p < 0.0001) but significant heritabilities involving memory were also observed for immediate recall (h2 = 0.50), memory as a cognitive domain (h2 = 0.53), and the overall neuropsychological summary (h2 = 0.42). Heritabilities for sequencing (h2 = 0.42), fluency (h2 = 0.39), abstraction (h2 = 0.36), and the executive functions cognitive domain (h2 = 0.35) were also significant. In contrast, the attention domain and memory recognition were not significantly heritable in these families. Among the heritable specific cognitive functions, a strong pleiotropic effect (i.e., evidence that these may be influenced by the same gene or set of genes) for delayed and immediate recall was identified (bivariate statistic = 0.934, p < 0.0001) and more modest but significant effects were found for four additional bivariate relationships. The results support the heritability of good cognitive function in old age and the utilization of several levels of phenotypes, and they suggest that several measures involving memory may be especially useful for family/genetic studies of SCA. PMID:21908911

  15. Behavioral responses of adult female tobacco hornworms, Manduca sexta, to hostplant volatiles change with age and mating status

    PubMed Central

    Mechaber, W.L.; Capaldo, C.T.; Hildebrand, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    We present evidence for two behaviors influenced by intact, vegetative plant odor — upwind flight and abdomen curling — in female Manduca sexta and demonstrate the influence of the age and mating status of the moths on these behaviors. We compared the behavioral responses of laboratory-reared M. sexta. of discrete ages and physiological states (2,3, and 4 day old for virgin; 2 and 3 day old for mated) as individual moths flew upwind in a flight tunnel to a source of hostplant volatiles. We monitored odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling in the presence of volatiles released by potted hostplants. Mated 3 day old females exhibited the highest incidence of odor-modulated flight and abdomen curling. Similarly, as virgin moths aged, a greater percentage of the individuals displayed odor-modulated flight patterns and abdomen curling. In contrast, younger virgin moths exhibited high levels of abdomen curling only after contact with the plant. PMID:15455039

  16. Age-, gender-, and socioeconomic status-specific incidence of Parkinson's disease and parkinsonism in northeast Scotland: the PINE study.

    PubMed

    Caslake, Robert; Taylor, Kate; Scott, Neil; Gordon, Joanna; Harris, Clare; Wilde, Katie; Murray, Alison; Counsell, Carl

    2013-05-01

    There have been few high quality incidence studies of Parkinson's disease (PD). We measured age-, gender- and socioeconomic-specific incidence rates for parkinsonism and PD in north-east Scotland, and compared our results with those of previous high quality studies. Incident patients were identified prospectively over three years by several overlapping methods from primary care practices (total population 311,357). Parkinsonism was diagnosed if patients had two or more cardinal motor signs. Drug-induced parkinsonism was excluded. Patients had yearly follow-up to improve diagnostic accuracy. Incidence rates using clinical diagnosis at latest follow-up were calculated for all parkinsonism and for PD by age, gender and socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis with similar studies was performed. Of 377 patients identified at baseline with possible or probable parkinsonism, 363 were confirmed as incident patients after median follow-up of 26 months (mean age 74.8 years, SD 9.8; 61% men). The crude annual incidence of parkinsonism was 28.7 per 100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI) 25.7-31.8) and PD 17.9 per 100,000 (95% CI 15.5-20.4). PD was more common in men (age-adjusted male to female ratio 1.87:1, 95% CI 1.55-2.23) but there was no difference by socioeconomic status. Meta-analysis of 12 studies showed an incidence of PD (adjusted to the 1990 Scottish population) of 14.6 per 100,000 (95% CI 12.2-17.3) with considerable heterogeneity (I(2) 95%), partially explained by population size and recruitment duration. The incidence of PD was similar to other high quality studies. The incidence of PD was not affected by socioeconomic status.

  17. Smoking Status, Physical Health–Related Quality of Life, and Mortality in Middle-Aged and Older Women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Women who smoke, particularly older women, have been relatively neglected in smoking research. There is a lack of knowledge concerning the relation of level of smoking to quality of life and mortality among middle-aged and older women smokers. Methods: This study examined the relation of smoking status to physical health–related quality of life (PHRQL) and total mortality in women in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants were 90,849 postmenopausal women, who were an average age of 63.6 years at baseline. Analyses used multiple linear and Cox proportional hazards regression and controlled for age, educational level, and ethnicity. Never-smokers were the reference group. Results: We found that smoking status was significantly related to PHRQL cross-sectionally at baseline and prospectively at a 3-year follow-up, with those who smoked having lower PHRQL. Heavier smokers showed large, clinically meaningful associations with PHRQL and light smokers showed small associations. In addition, we found that the smoking status at baseline was significantly related to 10-year total mortality. Both light and heavier smoking at baseline significantly correlated with higher mortality risk; however, the relationship of smoking to mortality was dose dependent. Among former smokers, those who had smoked longer showed significantly lower PHRQL and significantly increased mortality risk. Conclusions: Findings suggest that the risks of smoking may not be evident to light smokers and that educational interventions targeted to middle-aged and older women stressing the consequences of light smoking may be particularly beneficial. PMID:22965789

  18. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-03

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization.

  19. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  20. Individual, family, and peer affiliation factors predisposing to early-age onset of alcohol and drug use.

    PubMed

    Blackson, T C; Tarter, R E

    1994-08-01

    In this study, a multifactorial model of liability to early-age alcohol and drug use was elucidated on a sample of sons of substance-abusing fathers (n = 59) and sons of normal fathers (n = 71) at time 1 when the boys were 10-12 years of age. Three hierarchical regression analyses were computed to test models to identify salient risk characteristics associated with sons' perception of family dysfunction unconventional activities among peers, and affiliation with peers engaged in delinquent behaviors. The respective models explained 28% of the variance on sons' Dysfunctional Family Index scores, 21% of the variance on sons' Conventional Activities of Friends Scale scores, and 53% of the variance was accounted for on sons' Peer Delinquency Scale scores. In subsequent logistic regression analyses, a multifactorial model comprised of individual, family, and peer risk characteristics obtained at time 1 correctly predicted 83.7% of sons who had used alcohol and/or drugs by time 2 when they were 12-14 years old. The findings also suggest that temperament phenotype influences family interaction patterns that in turn influence the psychosocial development of the child.

  1. Families created through surrogacy: mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment at age 7.

    PubMed

    Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti

    2011-11-01

    Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years.

  2. Age-At-Onset Linkage Analysis in Caribbean Hispanics with Familial Late-Onset Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph H.; Barral, Sandra; Cheng, Rong; Chacon, Inara; Santana, Vincent; Williamson, Jennifer; Lantigua, Rafael; Medrano, Martin; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Stern, Yaakov; Tycko, Benjamin; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Wakutani, Yosuke; Kawarai, Toshitaka; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify chromosomal regions containing putative genetic variants influencing age-at-onset in familial late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Data from a genome-wide scan that included genotyping of APOE was analyzed in 1,161 individuals from 209 families of Caribbean Hispanic ancestry with a mean age-at-onset of 73.3 years multiply affected by late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Two-point and multipoint analyses were conducted using variance component methods from 376 microsatellite markers with an average inter-marker distance of 9.3 cM. Family-based test of association were also conducted for the same set of markers. Age-at-onset of symptoms among affected individuals was used as the quantitative trait. Our results showed that the presence of APOE-ε4 lowered the age-at-onset by three years. Using linkage analysis strategy, the highest LOD scores were obtained using a conservative definition of LOAD at 5q15 (LOD 3.1) 17q25.1 (LOD=2.94) and 14q32.12 (LOD=2.36) and 7q36.3 (LOD=2.29) in covariate adjusted models that included APOE-ε4. Both linkage and family-based association identified 17p13 as a candidate region. In addition, family-based association analysis showed markers at 12q13 (p=0.00002), 13q (p=0.00043) and 14q23 (p=0.00046) to be significantly associated with age at onset. The current study supports the hypothesis that there are additional genetic loci that could influence age-at-onset of late onset Alzheimer’s disease. The novel loci at 5q15, 17q25.1, 13q and 17p13, and the previously reported loci at 7q36.3, 12q13, 14q23 and 14q32 need further investigation. PMID:17940814

  3. Early Childbearing, Marital Status, and Women's Health and Mortality after Age 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henretta, John C.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between a woman's childbearing history and her later health and mortality, with primary focus on whether the association between them is due to early and later socioeconomic status. Data are drawn from the Health and Retirement Study birth cohort of 1931-1941. Results indicate that, conditional on reaching…

  4. A comparison of heart rate variability, n-3 PUFA status and lipid mediator profile in age- and BMI-matched middle-aged vegans and omnivores.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ana M; Sanders, Thomas A B; Kendall, Alexandra C; Nicolaou, Anna; Gray, Robert; Al-Khatib, Haya; Hall, Wendy L

    2017-04-03

    Low heart rate variability (HRV) predicts sudden cardiac death. Long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFA (C20-C22) status is positively associated with HRV. This cross-sectional study investigated whether vegans aged 40-70 years (n 23), whose diets are naturally free from EPA (20 : 5n-3) and DHA (22 : 6n-3), have lower HRV compared with omnivores (n 24). Proportions of LC n-3 PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, plasma fatty acids and concentrations of plasma LC n-3 PUFA-derived lipid mediators were significantly lower in vegans. Day-time interbeat intervals (IBI), adjusted for physical activity, age, BMI and sex, were significantly shorter in vegans compared with omnivores (mean difference -67 ms; 95 % CI -130, -3·4, P50 % and high-frequency power) were similarly lower in vegans, with no differences during sleep. In conclusion, vegans have higher 24 h SDNN, but lower day-time HRV and shorter day-time IBI relative to comparable omnivores. Vegans may have reduced availability of precursor markers for pro-resolving lipid mediators; it remains to be determined whether there is a direct link with impaired cardiac function in populations with low-n-3 status.

  5. Huntington CAG repeat size does not modify onset age in familial Parkinson’s disease: The GenePD Study

    PubMed Central

    McNicoll, Christopher F.; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Lew, Mark F.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Klein, Christine; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Mark, Margery H.; Growdon, John H.; Wooten, G. Frederick; Watts, Ray L.; Guttman, Mark; Racette, Brad A.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Ahmed, Anwar; Shill, Holly A.; Singer, Carlos; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Massood, Tiffany; Huskey, Karen W.; DeStefano, Anita L.; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Goldwurm, Stefano; Pezzoli, Gianni; Baker, Kenneth B.; Itin, Ilia; Litvan, Irene; Nicholson, Garth; Corbett, Alastair; Nance, Martha; Drasby, Edward; Isaacson, Stuart; Burn, David J.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Al-hinti, Jomana; Moller, Anette T.; Ostergaard, Karen; Sherman, Scott J.; Roxburgh, Richard; Snow, Barry; Slevin, John T.; Cambi, Franca; Gusella, James F.; Myers, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    The ATP/ADP ratio reflects mitochondrial function and has been reported to be influenced by the size of the Huntington disease gene (HD) repeat. Impaired mitochondrial function has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and therefore, we evaluated the relationship of the HD CAG repeat size to PD onset age in a large sample of familial PD cases. PD affected siblings (n=495) with known onset ages from 248 families, were genotyped for the HD CAG repeat. Genotyping failed in 11 cases leaving 484 for analysis, including 35 LRRK2 carriers. All cases had HD CAG repeats (range 15 to 34) below the clinical range for HD, although 5.2 percent of the sample (n=25) had repeats in the intermediate range (the intermediate range lower limit=27; upper limit=35 repeats), suggesting that the prevalence of intermediate allele carriers in the general population is significant. No relation between the HD CAG repeat size and the age at onset for PD was found in this sample of familial PD. PMID:18649400

  6. Food subsidy programs and the health and nutritional status of disadvantaged families in high income countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Less healthy diets are common in high income countries, although proportionally higher in those of low socio-economic status. Food subsidy programs are one strategy to promote healthy nutrition and to reduce socio-economic inequalities in health. This review summarises the evidence for the health and nutritional impacts of food subsidy programs among disadvantaged families from high income countries. Methods Relevant studies reporting dietary intake or health outcomes were identified through systematic searching of electronic databases. Cochrane Public Health Group guidelines informed study selection and interpretation. A narrative synthesis was undertaken due to the limited number of studies and heterogeneity of study design and outcomes. Results Fourteen studies were included, with most reporting on the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children in the USA. Food subsidy program participants, mostly pregnant or postnatal women, were shown to have 10–20% increased intake of targeted foods or nutrients. Evidence for the effectiveness of these programs for men or children was lacking. The main health outcome observed was a small but clinically relevant increase in mean birthweight (23–29g) in the two higher quality WIC studies. Conclusions Limited high quality evidence of the impacts of food subsidy programs on the health and nutrition of adults and children in high income countries was identified. The improved intake of targeted nutrients and foods, such as fruit and vegetables, could potentially reduce the rate of non-communicable diseases in adults, if the changes in diet are sustained. Associated improvements in perinatal outcomes were limited and most evident in women who smoked during pregnancy. Thus, food subsidy programs for pregnant women and children should aim to focus on improving nutritional status in the longer term. Further prospective studies and economic analyses are needed to confirm the health benefits and

  7. Household Crowding and Food Insecurity Among Inuit Families With School-Aged Children in the Canadian Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Muckle, Gina; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Ayotte, Pierre; Riva, Mylène

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relation of household crowding to food insecurity among Inuit families with school-aged children in Arctic Quebec. Methods. We analyzed data collected between October 2005 and February 2010 from 292 primary caregiver–child dyads from 14 Inuit communities. We collected information about household conditions, food security, and family socioeconomic characteristics by interviews. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between household crowding and food insecurity. Results. Nearly 62% of Inuit families in the Canadian Arctic resided in more crowded households, placing them at risk for food insecurity. About 27% of the families reported reducing the size of their children’s meals because of lack of money. The likelihood of reducing the size of children’s meals was greater in crowded households (odds ratio = 3.73; 95% confidence interval = 1.96, 7.12). After we adjusted for different socioeconomic characteristics, results remained statistically significant. Conclusions. Interventions operating across different levels (community, regional, national) are needed to ensure food security in the region. Targeting families living in crowded conditions as part of social and public health policies aiming to reduce food insecurity in the Arctic could be beneficial. PMID:25602890

  8. Influence of Family Structure on Health among Youths with Diabetes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Auslander, Wendy F.; White, Neil H.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the extent to which family structure is significantly associated with health in youth with Type 1 diabetes. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that family structure remains a significant predictor of youth's health when statistically controlling for race, child's age, family socioeconomic status, and adherence. (BF)

  9. Reconstructing the age and historical biogeography of the ancient flowering-plant family Hydatellaceae (Nymphaeales)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The aquatic flowering-plant family Hydatellaceae has a classic Gondwanan distribution, as it is found in Australia, India and New Zealand. To shed light on the biogeographic history of this apparently ancient branch of angiosperm phylogeny, we dated the family in the context of other seed-plant divergences, and evaluated its biogeography using parsimony and likelihood methods. We also explicitly tested the effect of different extinction rates on biogeographic inferences. Results We infer that the stem lineage of Hydatellaceae originated in the Lower Cretaceous; in contrast, its crown originated much more recently, in the early Miocene, with the bulk of its diversification after the onset of the Pliocene. Biogeographic reconstructions predict a mix of dispersal and vicariance events, but considerations of geological history preclude most vicariance events, besides a split at the root of the family between southern and northern clades. High extinction rates are plausible in the family, and when these are taken into account there is greater uncertainty in biogeographic inferences. Conclusions A stem origin for Hydatellaceae in the Lower Cretaceous is consistent with the initial appearance of fossils attributed to its sister clade, the water lilies. In contrast, the crown clade is young, indicating that vicariant explanations for species outside Australia are improbable. Although long-distance dispersal is likely the primary driver of biogeographic distribution in Hydatellaceae, we infer that the recent drying out of central Australia divided the family into tropical vs. subtropical/temperate clades around the beginning of the Miocene. PMID:24884487

  10. Vps10 family proteins and the retromer complex in aging-related neurodegeneration and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lane, Rachel F; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Hempstead, Barbara L; Small, Scott A; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Gandy, Sam

    2012-10-10

    Members of the vacuolar protein sorting 10 (Vps10) family of receptors (including sortilin, SorL1, SorCS1, SorCS2, and SorCS3) play pleiotropic functions in protein trafficking and intracellular and intercellular signaling in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Interactions have been documented between Vps10 family members and the retromer coat complex, a key component of the intracellular trafficking apparatus that sorts cargo from the early endosome to the trans-Golgi network. In recent years, genes encoding several members of the Vps10 family of proteins, as well as components of the retromer coat complex, have been implicated as genetic risk factors for sporadic and autosomal dominant forms of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and Parkinson's disease, with risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. In addition to their functions in protein trafficking, the Vps10 family proteins modulate neurotrophic signaling pathways. Sortilin can impact the intracellular response to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by regulating anterograde trafficking of Trk receptors to the synapse and direct control of BDNF levels, while both sortilin and SorCS2 function as cell surface receptors to mediate acute responses to proneurotrophins. This mini-review and symposium will highlight the emerging data from this rapidly growing area of research implicating the Vps10 family of receptors and the retromer in physiological intracellular trafficking signaling by neurotrophins and in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration.

  11. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension in Indonesian Adults Aged ≥40 Years: Findings from the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS)

    PubMed Central

    Mamun, Abdullah Al; Reid, Christopher; Huxley, Rachel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypertension is the major driver of the cardiovascular epidemic facing Indonesia in the 21st century. Understanding the socioeconomic inequalities associated with hypertension is essential for designing effective intervention strategies. The aim of the current study was to use sub-nationally representative survey data to examine socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, diagnosis and management of hypertension in Indonesian adults. Methods We investigated factors associated with hypertension prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and control using data on self-reported diagnosis and treatment, and blood pressure measurements, collected from 9755 respondents aged 40 years and up in the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS 4). Results Age-standardized prevalence of hypertension among the study participants was 47.8% (95% CI: 46.8, 48.9), of which almost 70% were undiagnosed. Hypertension was significantly higher in women than men (52.3% versus 43.1%, p-value<0.001). Prevalence of hypertension increased significantly with ageing (Pfor trend <0.001). Over 91% (men: 92.1%, women: 90.0%) of hypertension cases were uncontrolled. Gender, education and socioeconomic status had differential impact on the diagnosis of hypertension and in receiving treatment. Conclusions Overall, less than a third were aware of their hypertension and a quarter of those on medication had their blood pressure effectively controlled. Men and those of younger age were more vulnerable to have undiagnosed and untreated hypertension. Substantial effort should be given to improve awareness about the condition and making provision for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27556532

  12. Dietary habits and nutritional status of school aged children in Spain.

    PubMed

    Fernández San Juan, P M

    2006-01-01

    The different dietary habits and nutritional status of Spanish schoolchildren have been analyzed. Nutrition affects health throughout the life cycle, and it is best to begin to prevent harm early on. Habits are formed early in life, and habits are a major determinant of food choice in later life. Two trends in particular are worthy of mention in this regard: the progressive globalisation of the food supply and the increase of food intake such as snacks, soft drinks and fast food, wich tipically apport a significant part of daily diet. In Spain, young people are abandoning the "Mediterranean Diet" in favour of industrial products, full of calories and saturated fatty acids but low in nutritional components, wich is contributing to obesity and rising cholesterol levels. Also, breakfast consumption has been identified as an important factor in the nutritional status of children and in Spain we are observing that an increasing percentage of children are omitting breakfast.

  13. Rural Idaho Family Physicians' Scope of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Ed; Schmitz, David; Epperly, Ted; Nukui, Ayaka; Miller, Carissa Moffat

    2010-01-01

    Context: Scope of practice is an important factor in both training and recruiting rural family physicians. Purpose: To assess rural Idaho family physicians' scope of practice and to examine variations in scope of practice across variables such as gender, age and employment status. Methods: A survey instrument was developed based on a literature…

  14. Uterine peristalsis and junctional zone: correlation with age and postmenopausal status.

    PubMed

    Kiguchi, Kayo; Kido, Aki; Kataoka, Masako; Shitano, Fuki; Fujimoto, Koji; Himoto, Yuki; Moribata, Yusaku; Kurata, Yasuhisa; Fushimi, Yasutaka; Okada, Tomohisa; Togashi, Kaori

    2017-02-01

    Background Although age-related change of junctional zone (JZ) of the uterus has been known, there has been no previous systematic study of age-related changes of uterine peristalsis that is observed as the wave conduction of the thickest or darkest area within the JZ. Purpose To examine the age-related changes of uterine peristalsis in pre and postmenopausal women using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine the correlation between peristalsis and JZ on T2-weighted (T2W) imaging. Material and Methods Cine MRI analysis was performed in 64 premenopausal volunteers and in 43 postmenopausal women. The peristaltic frequency, JZ detectability, and JZ thickness were evaluated and compared between the two groups. In the premenopausal group, the correlations between age and each item was examined. In the postmenopausal group, the number of years after menopause was used instead of age. The correlation between peristaltic frequency and JZ detectability or thickness was also analyzed. Results Peristaltic frequency and JZ detectability significantly differed between the two groups, while JZ thickness did not. Peristaltic frequency did not vary significantly with age before menopause and no peristalsis was observed after menopause. JZ detectability did not change significantly with age or number of years after menopause, while JZ thickness significantly increased with age before menopause, but did not vary after menopause. A significant moderate correlation was observed between JZ detectability and peristaltic frequency, but not between JZ thickness and peristaltic frequency. Conclusion Uterine peristalsis frequency did not change significantly according to age, but observed peristalsis on MRI significantly decreased after menopause.

  15. Aging Study Of EPDM O-Ring Material For The H1616 Shipping Package - Three Year Status

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.

    2015-11-05

    This is a 3-year status report for tasks carried out per Task Technical Plan SRNL-STI-2011-00506. A series of tasks/experiments were performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to monitor the aging performance of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) O-rings used in the H1616 shipping package. The test data provide a technical basis to extend the annual maintenance of the H1616 shipping package to three years and to predict the life of the EPDM O-rings at the bounding service conditions.

  16. Probabilistic age classification with Bayesian networks: A study on the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Emanuele; Pinchi, Vilma; Taroni, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the rise of criminal, civil and asylum cases involving young people lacking valid identification documents has generated an increase in the demand of age estimation. The chronological age or the probability that an individual is older or younger than a given age threshold are generally estimated by means of some statistical methods based on observations performed on specific physical attributes. Among these statistical methods, those developed in the Bayesian framework allow users to provide coherent and transparent assignments which fulfill forensic and medico-legal purposes. The application of the Bayesian approach is facilitated by using probabilistic graphical tools, such as Bayesian networks. The aim of this work is to test the performances of the Bayesian network for age estimation recently presented in scientific literature in classifying individuals as older or younger than 18 years of age. For these exploratory analyses, a sample related to the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis available in scientific literature was used. Results obtained in the classification are promising: in the criminal context, the Bayesian network achieved, on the average, a rate of correct classifications of approximatively 97%, whilst in the civil context, the rate is, on the average, close to the 88%. These results encourage the continuation of the development and the testing of the method in order to support its practical application in casework.

  17. Narratives of attachment in middle childhood: do gender, age, and risk-status matter for the quality of attachment?

    PubMed

    Gloger-Tippelt, Gabriele; Kappler, Gregor

    2016-12-01

    Attachment in middle childhood increasingly attracts the interest of developmental psychologists and clinicians. Recent studies using attachment narratives elicited by story stems reported gender-specific aspects of attachment development, potentially evoked by developmental tasks during this period of the life span. There is evidence that children with risk factors present more insecure and disorganized attachment narratives compared to children without risk. Yet, there is little research concerning the joint effects of gender, risk, and age for attachment classifications. The paper presents a pooled analysis of 22 samples (eight risk samples) including 887 children (411 girls), aged between 4.5 and 8.5 years who were assessed with the same "German Attachment Story Completion Procedure" (GASCP). Girls were 1.8 times more likely to present secure and 0.4 times less likely to present disorganized narratives compared to boys when controlling for risk status and age. Children from risk samples were more likely (odd ratio 5.4) to display disorganized and less likely to show a secure attachment (odd ratio 0.3) compared to those from no-risk samples in multilevel logistic regressions. Remarkably, the effect of risk was not moderated by age and gender, and gender effects were not moderated by age.

  18. Epidemiology of Fractures in the United Kingdom 1988-2012: Variation with age, sex, geography, ethnicity and socioeconomic status

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Elizabeth M; van der Velde, Robert; Moon, Rebecca J; van den Bergh, Joop P W; Geusens, Piet; de Vries, Frank; van Staa, Tjeerd P; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2016-01-01

    Summary Rates of fracture worldwide are changing. Using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), age, and gender, geographical, ethnic and socioeconomic trends in fracture rates across the United Kingdom were studied over a 24 year period 1988-2012. Previously observed patterns in fracture incidence by age and fracture site were evident. New data on the influence of geographic location, ethnic group and socioeconomic status were obtained. Introduction With secular changes in age- and sex-specific fracture incidence observed in many populations, and global shifts towards an elderly demography, it is vital for health care planners to have an accurate understanding of fracture incidence nationally. We aimed to present up to date fracture incidence data in the UK, stratified by age, sex, geographic location, ethnicity and socioeconomic status. Methods The Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) contains anonymised electronic health records for approximately 6.9% of the UK population. Information comes from General Practitioners, and covers 11.3 million people from 674 practices across the UK, demonstrated to be representative of the national population. The study population consisted of all permanently registered individuals aged >=18 years. Validated data on fracture incidence were obtained from their medical records, as was information on socioeconomic deprivation, ethnicity and geographic location. Age and sex-specific fracture incidence rates were calculated. Results Fracture incidence rates by age and sex were comparable to those documented in previous studies and demonstrated a bimodal distribution. Substantial geographic heterogeneity in age and sex adjusted fracture incidence was observed, with rates in Scotland almost 50% greater than those in London and South East England. Lowest rates of fracture were observed in black individuals of both sexes; rates of fragility fracture in white women were 4.7 times greater than in black women. Strong

  19. Parental socioeconomic status and unintentional injury deaths in early childhood: consideration of injury mechanisms, age at death, and gender.

    PubMed

    Hong, Juhee; Lee, Boeun; Ha, Eun Hee; Park, Hyesook

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the socioeconomic status (SES) of parents influences early childhood unintentional injury deaths for different injury mechanisms and the gender and age at death of the child. Study design is a population-based retrospective study. Death certificate data from 1995 to 2004 were linked to birth certificate data from 1995 to 1996 for each child who died when aged < or = 8 years. Parental age, birth order, marital status, residence area, educational level, and occupation were used as indices for SES. Cox proportional-hazards analysis was employed. Our results indicate that nonmetropolitan residence, low parental education level, and a father working in a nonadministrative job or as a farmer were associated with a higher risk of death from injury for both boys and girls. A mother aged younger than 20 years and parents working in manual jobs were associated with a higher risk in boys only. The risks of some socioeconomic factors (low parental education and a father working in a manual job or as a farmer) were evident for children aged 1-4 years. The risks of rural residency tended to increase in older children, and the risk of injury from having a mother aged younger than 20 years increased for younger children. The risks of childhood injury deaths from traffic accidents, falls, and fire/burns were associated with the SES of the parents. Younger parents were associated with higher risks of injury deaths from traffic accidents (hazard ratio [HR]: father, 7.9; mother, 1.9) and falls (HR: father, 2.0; mother, 2.5). A father working as a farmer was associated with a higher risk of childhood injury death from fire/burns (HR = 4.0). In conclusion, the parental SES risk profiles of childhood injury deaths varied with the age and gender of the child, and with the injury mechanism. Therefore, reducing excess injury deaths during early childhood requires preventive efforts targeted at high-risk parents, and based on injury mechanism

  20. [Status and changes of soil nutrients in rhizosphere of Abelmoschus manihot different planting age].

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-Xia; Tan, Xian-He; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Ning

    2013-11-01

    Using soil chemical analysis method and combining with ICP-AES determination of mineral nutrition element content in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla Results show that along with the increase of planting age, the nitrogen (total N), available P and organic matter in rhizosphere soil of Abelmoschus Corolla content declined year by year and the soil got acidification. Heavy metal element content in agricultural land does not exceed national standards, but the content of element mercury (Hg) in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla declined. Request of microelement such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) had a increase tendency, but the content of magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) increased, and other nutrient elements had no changed rules or unchanged apparently. Consequently, exploring the change rules of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla soil in rhizosphere as theoretical guidance of rational fertilization and subducting continuous cropping obstscles.