Johnson, Colleen L.; Troll, Lillian
Using a cross-sectional analysis of 250 white individuals, 70-103 years of age, this article questions whether a vertical family structure is found with increasing age. Findings indicate, among other things, that at least until age 90 the proportion of individuals with a vertical family structure with four generations never exceeds the numbers of…
Mendels, Franklin F.
Emphasizes that the age of marriage was effective in determining the birth rate and the rate of population growth; measures the magnitude of the effects of the age of marriage; and offers some observations on the relationships between age of marriage, age of male and female fertility, and family structure. (Author)
Clark, C. Roberta
Discusses emotional, social, medical, and nutritional needs of older people, and stresses the need for education of the families of the elderly and the need for a coordinated approach to service delivery to this population. In this way, maximum independence of the aged can be achieved. (NRJ)
Halme, Nina; Astedt-Kurki, Paivi; Tarkka, Marja-Terttu
The purpose of this study was to describe how fathers (n = 263) spent time with their preschool-age children and to compare it in different family structures. Data were gathered by structured questionnaires. The instrument included five categories of variables for the time spent: the quantity of time, physical activities, fathers' attitude towards…
Three studies demonstrate that the Inventory of Family Feelings, a measure of family affective structure, has high reliability and construct and concurrent validity. It is appropriate for affective comparisons by age, sex, and ordinal position of children and for measuring change after family or marital therapy, or after predictable stress…
Thompson, Maxine Seaborn; Ensminger, Margaret E.
Examines relationship between changing family living arrangements and psychological well-being of childrearing women. Finds long-term single parenting may be considered a chronic stressor. Reports death of a family member or close friend, unemployment, and residence change are associated with increased distress while friendship and church…
Bernard van Leer Foundation Newsletter, 1993
This newsletter issue contains feature articles and short reports on how and why family structures are undergoing substantial change in many parts of the world. These articles include: (1) "The Changing Family Structure," a review of how families are changing and why; (2) "Peru: Families in the Andes"; (3) "Thailand:…
Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann
In this review, we summarize and critically evaluate the major empirical, conceptual, and theoretical directions that studies of aging families have taken during the first decade of the 21st century. The field has benefited from an expanded perspective based on four overarching themes: (a) complexity in emotional relations, (b) diversity in family structures and households, (c) interdependence of family roles and functions, and (d) patterns and outcomes of caregiving. Although research on aging families has advanced theory and applied innovative statistical techniques, the literature has fallen short in fully representing diverse populations and in applying the broadest set of methodological tools available. We discuss these and other frontier areas of scholarship in light of the aging of baby boomers and their families. PMID:22930600
Riley, Matilda White, Ed.; And Others
This book is built around a single concept--structural lag (the tendency of social structures and norms to lag behind people's rapidly changing lives). Each of the 12 chapters explores implications of that concept in a different domain, and all reflect the authors' shared conviction of its importance, both for social theory and for practical…
Kim, Juhee; Gallien, Tara L
The primary objective of this study is to examine the disparities in childcare and infant feeding practices by family structure (single-mother vs. two-parent households) and whether household income level may modify the observed associations by family structure. The cross-sectional data analysis was conducted using a nationally representative sample of children aged 0 to 2 years enrolled in the 2007 National Survey of Children's Health. The analytic sample is children from single mothers (n = 1801, 16.0%) and children from two parents (n = 11 337, 84.0%). Children of single mothers used more non-parental childcare [adjusted odds ratios (AOR) = 2.67, 95% confidence intervals (CI) = 1.99-3.58], especially relative care and centre care, than children of two parents. Lower rates of any breastfeeding for 6 months (AOR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.43-0.77) and ever breastfed (AOR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.50-0.89) were reported among children of single mothers than those of two parents. The many observed differences in childcare arrangements and breastfeeding by family structure remained significant in both low- and high-income households. However, children of low-income single mothers had more last-minute changes of childcare arrangement (AOR = 2.34, 95% CI = 1.55-3.52) than children of low-income two-parent households and children of high-income single mothers had more early introduction of complementary foods (AOR = 1.92, 95% CI = 1.12-3.29) than children of high-income two-parent households. This study documented disparities in childcare arrangements and infant feeding practices by family structure, regardless of income level. These findings support the need to for comprehensive policies that address maternal employment leave, childcare support and workplace accommodations and support for breastfeeding for children 0 to 2 years, especially among single mothers, regardless of income.
Zeiders, Katharine H.; Roosa, Mark W.; Tein, Jenn-Yun
Despite increases in single-parent families among Mexican Americans (MA), few studies have examined the association of family structure and family adjustment. Utilizing a diverse sample of 738 Mexican American families (21.7% single parent), the current study examined differences across family structure on early adolescent outcomes, family functioning, and parent-child relationship variables. Results revealed that early adolescents in single parent families reported greater school misconduct, CD/ODD and MDD symptoms, and greater parent-child conflict than their counterparts in two parent families. Single parent mothers reported greater economic hardship, depression and family stress. Family stress and parent-child conflict emerged as significant mediators of the association between family structure and early adolescent outcomes, suggesting important processes linking MA single parent families and adolescent adjustment. PMID:21361925
Myers, George C.; And Others
Includes "The World Ages, the Family Ages" (Myers, Agree); "Grandparents as Parents in Developing Countries" (Tout); "Grandparents as Parents: The American Experience" (Minkler); "Playing for Informal Care" (Evers, Leichsenring); "Family Care in America" (Keigher, Stone); "Concerns for Carers: Family Support in Denmark" (Leeson, Tufte);…
... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Family 2009 Assuring Healthy Aging Past Issues / Winter 2009 ... for steady, modest loss. Seek emotional support from family and friends. Expect setbacks; forgive yourself. Make physical ...
Copeland, Anne P.; And Others
This study examined the Family Relationships Grid (FRG), a new measure of family structure that evaluates alliances, identification, isolation, and the relative strength of sibling and marital relationships. Subjects were 52 female and 35 male adolescents who were recruited through a university course and who each had at least one sibling.…
Greenberg, Jan S.; Becker, Marion
Investigated extent to which aging parents experience stress when problems arise in lives of their adult children, and ways in which they serve as resources to their children in need. Findings from 29 couples over age 60 revealed that mothers experienced significant stress resulting from adult children's problems, whereas fathers experienced…
Litwak, Eugene; And Others
Two central issues relevant to services delivered to older adults by family members (including extended family) were analyzed: the method used in delivering the services and the geographic proximity required to deliver the service. The analysis involved a study of 1,400 people aged 65 and over and 800 of their helpers. Delivery of services was…
Vokrouhlický, David; Ďurech, Josef; Pravec, Petr; Kušnirák, Peter; Hornoch, Kamil; Vraštil, Jan; Krugly, Yurij N.; Inasaridze, Raguli Ya.; Ayvasian, Vova; Zhuzhunadze, Vasili; Pray, Donald; Husárik, Marek; Pollock, Joseph T.; Nesvorný, David
The Schulhof family, a tight cluster of small asteroids around the central main belt body (2384) Schulhof, belongs to a so far rare class of very young families (estimated ages less than 1 Myr). Characterization of these asteroid clusters may provide important insights into the physics of the catastrophic disruption of their parent body. The case of the Schulhof family has been up to now complicated by the existence of two proposed epochs of its origin. In this paper, we first use our own photometric observations, as well as archival data, to determine the rotation rate and spin axis orientation of the largest fragment (2384) Schulhof. Our data also allow us to better constrain the absolute magnitude of this asteroid, and thus also improve the determination of its geometric albedo. Next, using the up-to-date catalog of asteroid orbits, we perform a new search of smaller members in the Schulhof family, increasing their number by 50%. Finally, the available data are used to access Schulhof's family age anew. We now find that the younger of the previously proposed two ages of this family is not correct, resulting from a large orbital uncertainty of single-opposition members. Our new runs reveal a single age solution of about 800 kyr with a realistic uncertainty of 200 kyr.
Wolfinger, Nicholas H.; Wolfinger, Raymond E.
We use data from the Voting and Registration Supplement of the Current Population Survey to explore the effects of family structure on turnout in the 2000 presidential election. Our results indicate that family structure, defined as marital status and the presence of children, has substantial consequences for turnout. Married adults are more…
Gilmore, Deanna Peterschick; Bell, Kari
The structure of the American family has changed over the years. Although the traditional father, mother, child structure still dominates, other family patterns are emerging. In this article the authors present: (1) current statistics relating to diverse family structures; (2) reasons for using diverse family structure literature with children;…
Silverstein, Merril; Giarrusso, Roseann
In this review, we summarize and critically evaluate the major empirical, conceptual, and theoretical directions that studies of aging families have taken during the first decade of the 21st century. The field has benefited from an expanded perspective based on four overarching themes: (a) complexity in emotional relations, (b) diversity in family…
Thompson, Sanna J.; Auslander, Wendy F.; White, Neil H.
Discusses the extent to which family structure is significantly associated with health in youth with Type 1 diabetes. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that family structure remains a significant predictor of youth's health when statistically controlling for race, child's age, family socioeconomic status, and adherence. (BF)
Nobile, Maria; Rusconi, Marianna; Bellina, Monica; Marino, Cecilia; Giorda, Roberto; Carlet, Ombretta; Vanzin, Laura; Molteni, Massimo; Battaglia, Marco
Background: Both genetic and psychosocial risk factors influence the risk for depression in development. While the impacts of family structure and of serotonergic polymorphisms upon individual differences for affective problems have been investigated separately, they have never been considered together in a gene-environment interplay perspective.…
Brown, Susan L.; Rinelli, Lauren N.
This study examined whether family structure was associated with adolescent risk behaviors, including smoking and drinking. Family living arrangements have become increasingly diverse, yet research on adolescent risk behaviors has typically relied on measures of family structure that do not adequately capture this diversity. Data from the…
Levin, Kate A.; Kirby, Joanna; Currie, Candace
Family structure is associated with a range of adolescent risk behaviours, with those living in both parent families generally faring best. This study describes the association between family structure and adolescent risk behaviours and assesses the role of the family meal. Data from the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children survey were…
Gaudin, James M., Jr.
To identify remedial and preventive interventions that target dysfunctional processes in the family, this study compared the structure and processes of neglectful and non-neglectful families. A sample of 102 neglectful families was identified and recruited from the caseloads of protective service workers in Georgia. A comparison group of 103…
Wu, Lawrence L.; Thomson, Elizabeth
Examines the effects of family structure on age at first sexual intercourse before marriage for a recent cohort of women. For neither White nor Black women are results consistent with hypotheses positing earlier initiation of sexual activity for women with prolonged exposure to a single-mother or father-absent family. (BF)
Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell
Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The authors assess the potential capacity of schools to help meet the needs of working families through changes in school schedules and after-school programs and conclude that the flexibility parents need to balance family-work responsibilities probably cannot be found in the school setting. They argue that workplaces are better able than schools to offer the flexibility that working parents need to attend to basic needs of their children, as well as to engage in activities that enhance their children's academic performance and emotional and social well-being. Two types of flexible work practices seem especially well suited to parents who work: flextime arrangements that allow parents to coordinate their work schedules with their children's school schedules, and policies that allow workers to take short periods of time off--a few hours or a day or two-to attend a parent-teacher conference, for example, or care for a child who has suddenly fallen ill. Many companies that have instituted such policies have benefited through employees' greater job satisfaction and employee retention. Yet despite these measured benefits to employers, workplaces often fall short of being family friendly. Many employers do not offer such policies or offer them only to employees at certain levels or in certain types of jobs. Flexible work practices are almost nonexistent for low-income workers, who are least able to afford alternative child care and may need flexibility the most. Moreover the authors find that even employees in firms with flexible practices such as telecommuting may be reluctant to take advantage of them, because the workplace culture
Giordimaina, Alicia M; Sheldon, Jane P; Kiedrowski, Lesli A; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein
Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey, nondiabetic Mexican Americans (n = 385), Blacks (n = 387), and Whites (n = 396) reported family histories of T2DM. Negative binomial regressions used age and gender to predict the number of affected relatives reported. Models were examined for the gender gap, parabolic age effect, and gender-by-age interaction predicted by kinkeeping. Results demonstrated support for gender and parabolic age effects but only among Whites. Kinkeeping may have application to the study of White family medical historians, but not Black or Mexican American historians, perhaps because of differences in family structure, salience of T2DM, and/or gender roles.
Using data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families, this research investigates the association and pathways between family structure and child well-being among children age 6 to 17. Three indicators of child well-being are examined: parent-rated health, limiting health conditions, and child behavior. Results show that both stepfamilies…
Ganguli, Ashok K; Prakash, Jai; Thakur, Gohil S
The fascination of mankind towards a sudden change of a property, like colour, shape, elasticity, viscosity, electrical conductivity and magnetism, is well known. If the change in property is such that it leads to disapperance of an existing property or development of a new property then the effect is magical. It is for this reason that superconductivity remains an enigma for scientists for over a century after Kammerlingh Onnes discovered that the electrical resistance of mercury falls to zero below a temperature of 4.2 K. Since then scientists have been enchanted by superconductivity. Over these hundred years attempts have been made to discover materials which show this effect at higher temperatures. After a very exciting period of Cu oxide superconductors (1986-1993) there has been a lull in the search for high T(c) materials. The discovery of superconductivity in 2008 at 26 K in LaOFeAs (F-doped) has renewed the excitement in the field of superconductivity. This breakthrough in an Fe-containing compound led to the discovery of several new families of Fe-based superconductors having either pnictogens (P, As) or chalcogen (Se, Te) of the type AFFeAs (A = alkaline-earth metal), AFe(2)As(2), AFeAs (A = alkali metals), A(3)M(2)O(5)Fe(2)As(2) (M = transition metals) and A(4)M(2)O(6)Fe(2)As(2). This review article discusses in detail the structural aspects of these new Fe-based superconductors which primarily consist of edge-shared distorted FeX(4) (X = pnictogen and chalcogen) tetrahedra and these tetrahedral layers are reponsible for enabling superconductivity. Extremely large upper critical field (>200 Tesla) of these superconductors make them promising for high field application. Structural commonalities and differences among different families of these superconductors have been outlined. We also discuss the common features and differences with the copper-oxide based superconductors. Here we have discussed all the Fe-based oxypnictide families (like LnOFePn, AFe(2
Dworkin, Jodi B.; Larson, Reed
Utilized the Family Environment Scale and the Experience Sampling Method to evaluate how family discord was related to adolescents' age, in 101 single-mother families. Mothers' reports of overall discord decreased across adolescence. In immediate interactions, boys reported feeling more anger towards their mothers with age, while girls reported…
Rosenthal, Carolyn J.; And Others
Studied the succession of roles adopted from generation to generation as patterned in relation to the family life course, changes in health and dependency of various generations and factors such as family size, birth order, and sex. Proposes a conceptual framework for an analysis of aging and the family. (Author)
Lundeby, Hege; Tossebro, Jan
Background: The idea that raising a child with disabilities has a negative impact on the parents' relationship is still widely accepted despite contradictory research findings. This article addresses the impact of raising a child with disabilities on family structure in the present Norwegian context. Method: Family demographics were collected at…
Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Graves, H.L. III
Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure.
Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.
Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information of the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors of aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure.
Irizarry Castro, A
A perspective on the family, based on scientific knowledge and on its appreciation as a unit for health care, is suggested. The contemporary family because of its independent links with society has lived and resisted the consequences of a series of economic, political, technological, cultural and ideological transformations. These forces act as influential forces in the family and it responds adopting new forms to temper to these new times. For these reasons, society at present is characterized by a plurality of family structures. As part of that diversity in families, at present, there are families: nuclear biological, nuclear in series, father or mother alone, extended, and those that share the same sexual orientation. The term family should be redefined to enclose all those types of cohabitation. Is imperative that support is given to families with the greatest social disadvantages such as those families made up of women alone as they are expected to continue growing in all societies both developed and underdeveloped.
Miller, Michael B.; And Others
Case studies demonstrate that when chronic sexual conflict constitutes a factor in family homeostasis, nursing home placement of the aged ill is a likely event when either there is a shift in family dynamics due to death or illness of a key member or the aged becomes overtly psychiatrically disabled. (Author)
This study examines the relationship between industrialization and family structure in Hong Kong. Findings show that, as the development of industrialization increases, there have been corresponding changes in the structure of the family which evolves from a broken extended form, to a settled stem one, and currently toward a nuclear one. (Author)
Cavanagh, Shannon E.; Crissey, Sarah R.; Raley, R. Kelly
This study examined the association between family structure history and adolescent romance. Using a national sample drawn from Add Health (N = 13,570), family structure at Wave I was associated with the likelihood that adolescents were involved in a romantic relationship at Wave II and, among those in a relationship, the number of relationships…
Hammond, Ryan T.; Nichols, Michael P.
In response to the charge by "collaborative" therapies, such as solution focused and narrative, that structural family therapy is an aggressive, confrontational, and impositional approach, this investigation examines the role of therapist empathy in creating a collaborative partnership in structural family therapy. Twenty-four videotaped therapy…
Holland, Jennifer A; de Valk, Helga A G
This paper investigates ideal ages for marriage and parenthood among immigrants from over 160 countries origins living in 25 European countries. Ideals regarding the timing of family formation are indicative of how individuals perceive the family life course and provide insight into family-life aspirations and the meaning attached to these transitions. Using data from the European Social Survey (Round 3, 2006; N=6330) and a cross-classified multilevel modeling approach, we investigate associations between the influences of the dominant family formation timing patterns in countries of origin and settlement, individual-level characteristics, and ideal ages. We make innovative use of a standard demographic measure, the singulate mean age of marriage, to measure family formation patterns. Results suggest that residential context influences are associated with the timing ideals of all migrants, but origin influences seem to be associated with the ideals of only the most recent migrants.
Mitchell, Colter; McLanahan, Sara; Hobcraft, John; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Garfinkel, Irwin; Notterman, Daniel
The association between family structure instability and children’s life chances is well documented, with children reared in stable, two-parent families experiencing more favorable outcomes than children reared in other family arrangements. This study extends prior research by distinguishing between father-entrances into and father-exits from the household, by distinguishing between the entrance of a biological father and a social-father, and by testing for interactions between family structure instability and children’s age, gender and genetic characteristics. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (n=2493) and focusing on changes in family structure between birth and age 9, we find that father-exits are associated with increases in children’s anti-social behavior, which is a strong predictor of health and wellbeing in adulthood. The pattern for father-entrances is more complicated, with biological father entrances being associated with lower anti-social behavior among boys, and social-father entrances being associated with higher anti-social behavior among boys with certain genetic variants. Child’s age at the time of family change does not moderate the association with children’s behavior. However, incorporating genetic information into our models sharpens the findings substantially, showing how such data can enrich our understanding of the intergenerational mobility process. PMID:26046228
Christensen, Kathleen; Schneider, Barbara; Butler, Donnell
Most working parents face a common dilemma--how to care for their children when they are not in school but the parents are at work. In this article Kathleen Christensen, Barbara Schneider, and Donnell Butler describe the predictable and unpredictable scheduling demands school-age children place on working couples and single working parents. The…
Cole, T J; Cole, A J
It is well known that deprivation affects bone growth. The study was set up to investigate what aspects of deprivation are of greatest importance. Bone ages of 1593 child trauma patients aged 0-19 years from Middlesbrough General Hospital, Cleveland, were related to local authority ward indices of socioeconomic status (51 wards). After adjustment for chronological age and sex, the mean bone ages in each ward were highly significantly negatively associated with five ward indices of deprivation: the rate of single parent families, low care ownership, unemployment, rented housing, and overcrowding. There was a mean four month deficit in bone age among children living in wards with the highest single parent family rates. The inverse association between deprivation and bone age is unlikely to be causal throughout childhood, as older and younger children were affected to the same extent. However the bone age deficit could be caused by deprivation retarding skeletal maturation during a critical period in early life. PMID:1444529
Denton, Melinda Lundquist
Youth in the United States are experiencing increasing numbers of family transitions as parents move in and out of marriages and cohabiting relationships. Using three waves of survey data from the National Study of Youth and Religion, I examine the relationship between family structure, parental breakup, and adolescent religiosity. A person-centered measure of the religiosity of adolescents is used to identify youth as Abiders, Adapters, Assenters, Avoiders, or Atheists and to assess movement of youth between the religious profiles between 2003 and 2008. Wave 1 family structure is not significantly related to religious change among adolescents at Wave 3. In contrast, the experience of a parental breakup is related to a change in religious profiles over time. Parental breakup is associated with religious decline among Abiders and Adapters, youth characterized by high levels of religious salience. However, among Assenters who are marginally tied to religion, a parental breakup or divorce is associated with increased religious engagement.
Raymo, James M.; Liang, Jersey; Kobayashi, Erika; Sugihara, Yoko; Fukaya, Taro
In this paper, we investigate ways in which the relationship between health and labor force exit at older ages is moderated by family characteristics. Using two waves of data from a national sample of older Japanese men collected 1999 and 2002, we estimate logistic regression models for labor force exit beyond age 63 as a function of health change, family characteristics, and their interactions. We confirm that poor health is strongly associated with labor force exit and find evidence that moderating influences of family context depend upon the level of health. However, results are only partially consistent with hypotheses that the relationship between health and the likelihood of labor force exit should be stronger for (a) those with good health and family incentives to exit the labor force and (b) those with poor health and family incentives to remain in the labor force. PMID:23082037
Pfouts, Jane H.
Very close age spacing was an obstacle to high academic performance for later borns. In family relations and self-esteem, first borns scored better and performed in school as well as their potentially much more able younger siblings, regardless of age spacing. (Author)
Dunn, Loraine; And Others
Examined how preschoolers' experiences with mixed-age peers in family child care homes affect development. Found that interaction with younger and same-age peers was associated with less complex social and cognitive play and lower receptive language scores. Interaction with older peers was related to more complex cognitive play. The setting…
Barbarin, Oscar A.; Soler, Robin E.
Presents the frequency of behavioral, emotional, and academic adjustment problems in a national sample of 734 male and 724 female African-American children and adolescents from the National Health Interview Survey Child Health Supplement. Patterns of adjustment within specific groups also were examined, based on age, gender, socioeconomic status,…
Cooper, Carey E.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Meadows, Sarah O.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,176) are used to examine family structure transitions and maternal parenting stress. Using multilevel modeling, we found that mothers who exit coresidential relationships with biological fathers or enter coresidential relationships with nonbiological fathers reported higher levels of…
Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M
Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5′ flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5′ UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM
Zhu, Jing Yun A; Meyer, Irmtraud M
Protein-coding and non-coding RNA transcripts perform a wide variety of cellular functions in diverse organisms. Several of their functional roles are expressed and modulated via RNA structure. A given transcript, however, can have more than a single functional RNA structure throughout its life, a fact which has been previously overlooked. Transient RNA structures, for example, are only present during specific time intervals and cellular conditions. We here introduce four RNA families with transient RNA structures that play distinct and diverse functional roles. Moreover, we show that these transient RNA structures are structurally well-defined and evolutionarily conserved. Since Rfam annotates one structure for each family, there is either no annotation for these transient structures or no such family. Thus, our alignments either significantly update and extend the existing Rfam families or introduce a new RNA family to Rfam. For each of the four RNA families, we compile a multiple-sequence alignment based on experimentally verified transient and dominant (dominant in terms of either the thermodynamic stability and/or attention received so far) RNA secondary structures using a combination of automated search via covariance model and manual curation. The first alignment is the Trp operon leader which regulates the operon transcription in response to tryptophan abundance through alternative structures. The second alignment is the HDV ribozyme which we extend to the 5' flanking sequence. This flanking sequence is involved in the regulation of the transcript's self-cleavage activity. The third alignment is the 5' UTR of the maturation protein from Levivirus which contains a transient structure that temporarily postpones the formation of the final inhibitory structure to allow translation of maturation protein. The fourth and last alignment is the SAM riboswitch which regulates the downstream gene expression by assuming alternative structures upon binding of SAM. All
Dykhuis, Melissa J.; Molnar, Lawrence A.; Van Kooten, Samuel J; Greenberg, Richard
The Flora family resides in the densely populated inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the ν6 secular resonance and the Jupiter 3:1 mean motion resonance. The presence of several large families that overlap dynamically with the Floras (e.g. the Vesta, Baptistina, and Nysa-Polana families), and the removal of a significant fraction of Floras via the nearby ν6 resonance have historically complicated the Flora family's distinction in both proper orbital elements and reflectance properties. Here we use orbital information from AstDyS, color information from SDSS, and albedo information from WISE, to obtain the characteristic orbital and reflectance properties of the Floras, by sampling the core of the family in multidimensional phase space. We find the characteristic Flora SDSS colors to be a* = 0.127 ± 0.012 and i-z = -0.038 ± 0.008; the characteristic Flora albedo is pV = 0.295 ± 0.006. These properties allow us to select a high-purity sample of Floras with similar orbital and reflectance properties as required for a detailed dynamical study. We then use the young Karin family, for which we have an age determined via direct backward integration of members' orbits, to calibrate the Yarkovsky drift rates for the Flora family without having to estimate the Floras' material properties. The size-dependent dispersion of the Flora members in semimajor axis (the "V" plot) then yields an age for the family of 940+160-120 My. We discuss the effects on our age estimate of two independent processes that both introduce obliquity variations among the family members on short (My) timescales: 1) the capture of Flora members in spin-orbit resonance, and 2) YORP-driven obliquity variation through YORP cycles. Accounting for these effects does not significantly change the age determination.
Rohlfs, Rori V; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S
With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States.
Rohlfs, Rori V.; Fullerton, Stephanie Malia; Weir, Bruce S.
With the expansion of offender/arrestee DNA profile databases, genetic forensic identification has become commonplace in the United States criminal justice system. Implementation of familial searching has been proposed to extend forensic identification to family members of individuals with profiles in offender/arrestee DNA databases. In familial searching, a partial genetic profile match between a database entrant and a crime scene sample is used to implicate genetic relatives of the database entrant as potential sources of the crime scene sample. In addition to concerns regarding civil liberties, familial searching poses unanswered statistical questions. In this study, we define confidence intervals on estimated likelihood ratios for familial identification. Using these confidence intervals, we consider familial searching in a structured population. We show that relatives and unrelated individuals from population samples with lower gene diversity over the loci considered are less distinguishable. We also consider cases where the most appropriate population sample for individuals considered is unknown. We find that as a less appropriate population sample, and thus allele frequency distribution, is assumed, relatives and unrelated individuals become more difficult to distinguish. In addition, we show that relationship distinguishability increases with the number of markers considered, but decreases for more distant genetic familial relationships. All of these results indicate that caution is warranted in the application of familial searching in structured populations, such as in the United States. PMID:22346758
Kreager, Philip; Schröder-Butterfill, Elisabeth
This paper responds to recent calls for empirical study of the impact of age-structural transition. It begins by reviewing evidence of cohort oscillations in twentieth-century Indonesia, which indicates that current older generations are likely to have smaller numbers of children on whom they may rely than generations before and after them. However, to assess whether the imbalances implied by this situation are actually influencing people’s lives, attention to further factors shaping the availability and reliability of younger generations, notably differences in socio-economic status and in patterns of inter-generational support flows, is required. Community-level Indonesian data confirm that elders in the lower social strata are child-poor. Social structural and family network patterns, however, have a greater influence on the availability of inter-generational support than cohort differentials. PMID:27158254
Singer, Ellen; Krebs, Madeleine
Understanding the adoption experience can help health care providers develop sensitivity to the special tasks of adopted children and their families. Children who are adopted at older ages may face particular challenges. Age at adoptive placement, the burden of loss, pre-adoptive experiences, and the challenge of attachment are all significant issues in older-child adoption. Pediatric nurses demonstrate sensitivity and support to adopted children and their families by using appropriate language about adoption; understanding the significance of missing health information; providing appropriate referrals as needed; and displaying an open, caring attitude.
Krampe, Edythe M.; Newton, Rae R.
The researchers examined childhood family structure, age, and race/ethnicity as correlates of paternal relationships using the Father Presence Questionnaire. The sample consisted of 788 adult women aged 18 to 88 years from ethnically diverse backgrounds. The most consistent finding was the effect of family structure on participants' evaluations of…
Dykhuis, Melissa J.; Molnar, Lawrence; Van Kooten, Samuel J.; Greenberg, Richard
The Flora family resides in the densely populated inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the ν6 secular resonance and the Jupiter 3:1 mean motion resonance. The presence of several large families that overlap dynamically with the Floras (e.g., the Vesta, Baptistina, and Nysa-Polana families), and the removal of a significant fraction of Floras via the nearby ν6 resonance complicates the Flora family's distinction in both proper orbital elements and reflectance properties. Here we use orbital information from the Asteroids Dynamic Site (AstDyS), color information from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and albedo information from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) to obtain the median orbital and reflectance properties of the Floras by sampling the core of the family in multidimensional phase space. We find the median Flora SDSS colors to be a∗ = 0.126 ± 0.007 and i -z =-0.037±0.007 ; the median Flora albedo is pV = 0.291 ± 0.012. These properties allow us to define ranges for the Flora family in orbital and reflectance properties, as required for a detailed dynamical study. We use the young Karin family, for which we have an age determined via direct backward integration of members' orbits, to calibrate the Yarkovsky drift rates for the Flora family without having to estimate the Floras' material properties. The size-dependent dispersion of the Flora members in semimajor axis (the "V" plot) then yields an age for the family of 950-170+200 My, with the uncertainty dominated by the uncertainty in the material properties of the family members (e.g., density and surface thermal properties). We discuss the effects on our age estimate of two independent processes that both introduce obliquity variations among the family members on short (My) timescales: (1) the capture of Flora members in spin-orbit resonance, and (2) YORP-driven obliquity variation through YORP cycles. Accounting for these effects does not significantly change this age
Ganong, Lawrence; And Others
Assesses the effect of exposure to different family structures (single parent families, reconstituted families, intact families) on the marital socialization of 127 males and 194 female adolescents. (Author/CM)
Kusaba, Tesshu; Sato, Kotaro; Fukuma, Shingo; Yamada, Yukari; Matsui, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Satoshi; Ando, Takashi; Sakushima, Ken; Fukuhara, Shunichi
Background. Long-term care for the elderly is largely shouldered by their family, representing a serious burden in a hyper-aging society. However, although family dynamics are known to play an important role in such care, the influence of caring for the elderly on burden among caregiving family members is poorly understood. Objective. To examine the influence of family dynamics on burden experienced by family caregivers. Methods. We conducted a cross-sectional study at six primary care clinics, involving 199 caregivers of adult care receivers who need long-term care. Participants were divided into three groups based on tertile of Index of Family Dynamics for Long-term Care (IF-Long score), where higher scores imply poorer relationships between care receivers and caregiving family: best, <2; intermediate, 2 to <5; worst, ≥5. The mean differences in burden index of caregivers (BIC-11) between the three groups were estimated by linear regression model with adjustment for care receiver’s activity of daily living and cognitive function. Results. Mean age of caregivers was 63.2 years (with 40.7% aged ≥ 65 years). BIC-11 scores were higher in the worst IF-Long group (adjusted mean difference: 4.4, 95% confidence interval: 1.2 to 7.5) than in the best IF-Long group. We also detected a positive trend between IF-Long score and BIC-11 score (P-value for trend <0.01). Conclusion. Our findings indicate that family dynamics strongly influences burden experienced by caregiving family members, regardless of the care receiver’s degree of cognitive impairment. These results underscore the importance of evaluating relationships between care receivers and their caregivers when discussing a care regimen for care receivers. PMID:27450988
Lamberts, Martha Bullock; And Others
The general purpose of this investigation is to assess the impact of one and two parent family structures upon the consonance and dissonance of children's attitudes toward authority figures in other institutions; i.e. teachers. A random sample of 200 seventh and eighth grade pupils drawn from two of five public junior high schools in a midwestern…
Cavanagh, Shannon E.
As patterns of union formation and dissolution in adult lives become complex, the living arrangements of American children are becoming increasingly fluid. With a sample (N = 12,843) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study attempted to capture this complexity by mapping out children's family structure histories…
Wu, Zheng; Hou, Feng; Schimmele, Christoph M.
This article examines the influence of family structure on children's short-term psychosocial behavioral outcomes, including emotional disorder, conduct disorder, and prosocial behavior. The analysis uses five waves of data (1994-2003) from Canada's National Longitudinal Survey of Children and Youth to model how living in a cohabitational…
Navarre, S E
The structural approach to family therapy offers a useful perspective to the nurse therapist working with families with various cultural backgrounds. Asian and Hispanic families are examined to illustrate using Minuchin's approach to family counseling. The rationale for the structural approach is explored, and specific therapeutic techniques for practice are described. Nurses who work with culturally diverse families might profit by using this approach.
Flower, D R
The lipocalin protein family is a large group of small extracellular proteins. The family demonstrates great diversity at the sequence level; however, most lipocalins share three characteristic conserved sequence motifs, the kernel lipocalins, while a group of more divergent family members, the outlier lipocalins, share only one. Belying this sequence dissimilarity, lipocalin crystal structures are highly conserved and comprise a single eight-stranded continuously hydrogen-bonded antiparallel beta-barrel, which encloses an internal ligand-binding site. Together with two other families of ligand-binding proteins, the fatty-acid-binding proteins (FABPs) and the avidins, the lipocalins form part of an overall structural superfamily: the calycins. Members of the lipocalin family are characterized by several common molecular-recognition properties: the ability to bind a range of small hydrophobic molecules, binding to specific cell-surface receptors and the formation of complexes with soluble macromolecules. The varied biological functions of the lipocalins are mediated by one or more of these properties. In the past, the lipocalins have been classified as transport proteins; however, it is now clear that the lipocalins exhibit great functional diversity, with roles in retinol transport, invertebrate cryptic coloration, olfaction and pheromone transport, and prostaglandin synthesis. The lipocalins have also been implicated in the regulation of cell homoeostasis and the modulation of the immune response, and, as carrier proteins, to act in the general clearance of endogenous and exogenous compounds. PMID:8761444
Waite, Linda; Das, Aniruddha
As people age, many aspects of their lives tend to change, including the constellation of people with whom they are connected, their social context, their families, and their health--changes that are often interrelated. Wave I of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) has yielded rich information on intimate ties, especially dyads and families, and on social connections generally. Combined with extensive biological and other health measures, NSHAP enables researchers to address key questions on health and aging. We begin with recent findings on intimate dyads, then move to social participation, and finally to elder mistreatment. Among dyads, we find that whereas sexual activity drops sharply with age for both women and men, gender differences in partner loss as well as psychosocial and normative pressures constrain women's sex more than men's. However, surviving partnerships tend to be emotionally and physically satisfying and are marked by relatively frequent sex. In contrast to sex, nonsexual intimacy is highly prevalent at older ages, especially among women. Older adults are also socially resilient--adapting to the loss of social ties by increasing involvement with community and kin networks. Despite these social assets, older adults remain vulnerable to mistreatment. Overall, these findings yield a mixed picture of gender-differentiated vulnerabilities balanced by proactive adaptation and maintenance of social and dyadic assets.
Hampson, Robert B.; And Others
College students (n=141) completed Self-Report Family Inventory on Beavers Systems Model of Family Functioning, rating current family, family when they were 10 years old, and family when they were 16 years old. Found significant differences between age-of-recall groups, with recall ratings from age 10 significantly more competent, cohesive, and…
Rober, Peter; Rosenblatt, Paul C.
The first conversation of a family about a family death is a neglected but potentially important topic. In a first conversation in James Agee's (1957/2006) novel "A Death in the Family," the member who knows the most about the accidental death of another member discloses information selectively. The first conversation in Agee's novel suggests that…
Molnar, L. A.
The ancient and massive Koronis family now has four identified subfamilies (asteroid families made by the breakup of fragments of the ancient collision), with ages running from 5.7 to 290 My. This presents unique opportunities to explore space weathering processes, along with dynamical processes such as collisions and binary formation and destruction. Analysis of family members with accurate SDSS measurements shows a correlation of average subfamily color with age that for the first time is highly statistically significant. Yet Thomas et al. (2011) report a size dependence of the colors of the ancient family that demands caution when comparing subfamilies with differing size distributions. Reanalyis of the Thomas et al. data show the reported break near asteroid diameter 5 km is not significant. However, analysis of the much more extensive SDSS data set show a significant break past diameter 2.5 km, with smaller objects systematically bluer. The break is not present in the Karin subfamily (the youngest at 5.7 My), but is already fully developed in the Eriphyla subfamily (only 220 My). The reddening trend with age remains even when comparing only asteroids of similar size, confirming the presence of space weathering phenomena. The meaning of the trend with size is not immediately clear. We consider briefly the strengths and weaknesses of several interpretations of the bluer colors for small objects: 1) those objects receive more jolts from random collisions capable of shaking the regolith and exposing fresh material beneath; 2) those objects receive more jolts from the cycle of fission and recombination driven by YORP; and 3) the lower gravity on those objects retains regolith less well.
Clark, Jessica; Garbutt, Jennie S; McNally, Luke; Little, Tom J
Fundamental ecological processes, such as extrinsic mortality, determine population age structure. This influences disease spread when individuals of different ages differ in susceptibility or when maternal age determines offspring susceptibility. We show that Daphnia magna offspring born to young mothers are more susceptible than those born to older mothers, and consider this alongside previous observations that susceptibility declines with age in this system. We used a susceptible-infected compartmental model to investigate how age-specific susceptibility and maternal age effects on offspring susceptibility interact with demographic factors affecting disease spread. Our results show a scenario where an increase in extrinsic mortality drives an increase in transmission potential. Thus, we identify a realistic context in which age effects and maternal effects produce conditions favouring disease transmission.
Bartoszuk, Karin; Pittman, Joe F.
This exploratory study examines identity exploration and commitment in different domains and how family structure (original/alternative), gender, and age affect these processes in a convenience sample of 388 college students. Results reveal that participants from alternative family structures explore more in the political and gender role domains…
Despite many changing demographic processes in Mexico—declining adult mortality, rising divorce, and rising nonmarital fertility—Mexican children’s family structure has been most affected by rising migration rates. Data from five national surveys spanning three decades demonstrate that since 1976, migration has shifted from the least common to the most common form of father household absence. Presently, more than 1 in 5 children experience a father’s migration by age 15; 1 in 11 experiences his departure to the United States. The proportions are significantly higher among those children born in rural communities and those born to less-educated mothers. The findings emphasize the importance of framing migration as a family process with implications for children’s living arrangements and attendant well-being, particularly in resource-constrained countries. The stability of children’s family life in these regions constitutes a substantial but poorly measured cost of worldwide increases in migration. PMID:23355282
Rober, Peter; Rosenblatt, Paul C
The first conversation of a family about a family death is a neglected but potentially important topic. In a first conversation in James Agee's (1957/ 2006) novel A Death in the Family, the member who knows the most about the accidental death of another member discloses information selectively. The first conversation in Agee's novel suggests that communication and caring in the first family conversation about a death is attuned to family member emotions, particularly those of the family member considered most vulnerable, and that the aim is not a shared narrative that is true, but one that people can live with.
Tu, Yu-Kang; Law, Graham R.
A recent English study found that children from poor families who did well in cognitive tests at age three are expected to be overtaken in the cognitive test by the age of seven by children from rich families who did poorly in cognitive tests at age three. The conclusion was that family background seems to have a dominant influence on a child's…
Druz', V F
Clinical and sociopsychological studies of 28 families have shown that the familial status and role of elderly schizophrenics are usually higher than in young patients which depends not only on the clinical course, the age at the onset of the disease and its duration but also on the structure of the family and on how well the relatives understand the nature and manifestations of disease. On reaching middle age schizophrenic males become more adaptive in the family due to the fact that in the course of the disease their psychopathlike and asocial behaviour becomes less marked. Females both young and elderly usually have a higher status although in the course of disease it tends to show a gradual lowering. The field of communication becomes more definite and is typically restricted to the spouse or daughter. Depending on the dominant factors of relations, three types of families have been identified: integrated, partially integrated and disintegrated. Disintegrated families are less common as compared with integrated ones.
Gupta-Malhotra, Monesha; Hashmi, Syed Shahrukh; Barratt, Michelle S; Milewicz, Dianna M; Shete, Sanjay
The prevalence and effect of single-parent families in childhood-onset essential hypertension (EH) is unknown. Children with EH and age-, sex-, and ethnicity-matched controls were enrolled. Family structure data were obtained by in-person interview. A total of 148 families (76 hypertension probands, 72 control probands; median 14 years) were prospective-ly enrolled in the study. Single-parent status was seen in 42% of the families--with and without EH (38% vs 46%, P=.41; odds ratio, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.4). After multivariable analysis, a statistically significant sociofamilial contributor to the development of childhood-onset EH was not identified. A significant number of single-parent families (42%), the majority with single mothers, were found in our pedigree study. Sociofamilial factors are known to contribute to the expression of adult-onset EH, but findings in our study suggest that they appear to contribute less in the expression of childhood-onset EH.
Dykhuis, Melissa J.; Greenberg, Richard
The Nysa-Polana complex is a group of low-inclination asteroid families in the inner main belt, bounded in semimajor axis by the Mars-crossing region and the Jupiter 3:1 mean-motion resonance. This group is important as the most likely source region for the target of the OSIRIS-REx mission, (101955) Bennu; however, family membership in the region is complicated by the presence of several dynamically overlapping families with a range of surface reflectance properties. The large S-type structure in the region appears to be associated with the parent body (135) Hertha, and displays an (eP,aP) correlation consistent with a collision event near true anomaly of ∼180° with ejecta velocity vej ∼ 285m /s . The ejecta distribution from a collision with these orbital properties is predicted to have a maximum semimajor axis dispersion of δaej = 0.005 ± 0.008AU , which constitutes only a small fraction (7%) of the observed semimajor axis dispersion, the rest of which is attributed to the Yarkovsky effect. The age of the family is inferred from the Yarkovsky dispersion to be 300-50+60 My. Objects in a smaller cluster that overlaps the large Hertha family in proper orbital element space have reflectance properties more consistent with the X-type (135) Hertha than the surrounding S-type family. These objects form a distinct Yarkovsky "V" signature in (aP, H) space, consistent with a more recent collision, which appears to also be dynamically connected to (135) Hertha. Production of two families with different reflectance properties from a single parent could result from the partial differentiation of the parent, shock darkening effects, or other causes. The Nysa-Polana complex also contains a low-albedo family associated with (142) Polana (called "New Polana" by Walsh et al. (Walsh, K.J. et al. . Icarus 225, 283-297)), and two other low-albedo families associated with (495) Eulalia. The second Eulalia family may be a high-aP , low-eP , low-iP component of the first
=Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological parent families. In all four cases, however, the differentials are explained by the presence of siblings age 18+, lower levels of family income, or younger maternal age. PMID:21532970
Moore, Mignon R.; Dacus, Jagadisa-devasri; McCuller, William J.; Fernandez, Lawrence; Moore, Alison A.
The primary objective of this study was to explore how middle-aged gay men in recovery cope with stigma and family relationships. For gay men, perceptions of acceptance of their sexual orientation and degree of social connectedness can play a role in their recovery from alcohol and substance use disorders. Yet gay men may have a more difficult time accessing certain family-level health resources because their families of origin may stigmatize, reject or silence them on account of their sexual orientation. Semi-structured interviews were used to explore how participants in recovery constructed and coped with their experiences of stigma, family relationships, and alcohol and substance use. Participants (30 gay men aged 50–64) completed a questionnaire and interview. We used constructivist Grounded Theory method and Minority Stress Theory as a theoretical framework to interpret the data. We identified the following themes: Internalization of Stigma, Changes in Coping Strategies, and Ongoing Stigma. Future research should explore how to incorporate familial support into gay men’s recovery, address ongoing internalized stigma, and develop a social response to stigma, rather than leaving it to individuals to confront on their own. PMID:27092028
Stuby, Richard G.
A typological approach to the analysis of poverty, based on selected characteristics of family structure, is suggested since the family unit is a concrete or actual structure in society, and much of the research and many of the action programs of the war on poverty have implicitly invoked some concept of the family. The typology of family…
Goldberg, Rachel E; Tienda, Marta; Adserà, Alícia
This study builds on and extends previous research on nativity variations in adolescent health and risk behavior by addressing three questions: (1) whether and how generational status and age at migration are associated with timing of sexual onset among U.S. adolescents; (2) whether and how family instability mediates associations between nativity and sexual debut; and (3) whether and how these associations vary by gender. We find that first- and second-generation immigrant youth initiate sexual activity later than native youth. Foreign-born youth who migrate after the start of adolescence exhibit the latest sexual onset; boys' sexual behavior is particularly sensitive to age at migration. Parental union stability is protective for first- and second-generation youth, especially boys; however, instability in co-residence with parents accelerates sexual debut for foreign-born girls, and dilutes protections from parental marital stability. Use of a non-English language at home delays sexual onset for immigrant girls, but not boys.
Bergert, F W; Conrad, D; Ehrenthal, K; Fessler, J; Gross, J; Gundermann, K; Kluthe, B; Lang Heinrich, W; Liesenfeld, A; Loew, P G; Luther, E; Pchalek, R; Seffrin, J; Sterzing, A; Wolfring, H-J; Zimmermann, U
The part "Special pharmacology of the aged" of this guideline contains recommendations for typical conditions in the family doctors practice: in the January issue 2009 dementia and Morbus Parkinson, in this issue osteoporosis and urinary incontinence and in the next issue rectal incontinence and obstipation. This issue of the IJCPT contains the third part of the Pharmacotherapy guidelines for the aged by family doctors for family doctors. Part 3: Osteoporosis and urinary incontinence. Osteoporosis is a systematic disease characterized by low bone mass and declining bone structure. Exercise, adequate diet, nicotine abstinence as well as reduction of alcohol consumption may counteract the progression of the disease. Osteoporosis manifests in bone fractures with minimal trauma. Attention must be given to the risk of falling, e.g., by avoiding drugs that increase the risk of falling: e.g., psychotropic agents, analgesic drugs and antiarrhythmic agents. Specific osteoporosis medication e.g. calcium, vitamin D, biphosphonates and SERM (selective estrogen receptor modulators) is evaluated by family doctors according to indication, dosage, contraindications, long-term therapy and nature of any fracture. Duration of therapy is at least 3 - max. 5 years followed by reassessment of indication. There are 3 types of urine incontinence (urge-, stress-, and overflow-incontinence). Another standardization of urinary incontinence follows dysfunctions of the pelvic floor: detrusor muscle-dependent, due to sphincter spasm, prostate gland dependent. Urge incontinence with a dysfunction of the detrusor muscle is the most common type. Mixed types are frequent. Non-drug measures (e.g. pelvic muscle training, bladder training, toilet training are first choice treatments. Drug therapy (estrogen, imipramine) are without proven effect.
Obied, Vicky Macleroy
This article examines the emergence of biliteracy in school-aged Portuguese-English bilingual children growing up within diverse family structures in Portugal. The ethnographic research investigated the premise that some children have the opportunity to acquire biliteracy, like their bilingualism, in naturalistic contexts. There are gaps in…
Oman, Roy F.; Vesely, Sara K.; Aspy, Cheryl B.; Tolma, Eleni L.; John, Robert
Objectives. We examined the prospective association between negative life events and time to initiation of sexual intercourse and the influence of family structure and family income on this association. Methods. We followed up a randomly selected sample (n = 649) of ethnically diverse parents and their children aged 12 to 17 years over a 5-year period. We conducted Cox proportional hazards regression analysis to examine the relation between negative life events and time to initiation of sexual intercourse. Family structure and family income were assessed as confounders. Results. Negative life events were significant predictors of time to initiation of sexual intercourse in adolescents. After controlling for demographic variables, youths reporting 1 negative life event had a hazard of initiation of sexual intercourse 1.40 times greater and youths reporting 2 or more negative life events had a hazard of initiation of sexual intercourse 1.61 times greater compared with youths reporting no negative life events. Family structure and family income were not significant confounders of the relation between initiation of sexual intercourse and negative life events. Conclusions. Interventions to prevent initiation of sexual intercourse should focus on youths with recent negative life events, regardless of family income and structure. PMID:25602885
Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein
Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility... FAMILIES, HEAD START PROGRAM ELIGIBILITY, RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, ENROLLMENT AND ATTENDANCE IN HEAD START § 1305.4 Age of children and family income eligibility. (a) To be eligible for Head Start services,...
Bauer, Michael; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; Tarzia, Laura; Chenco, Carol
The aim of the study was to examine staff and family members' perceptions of each other's roles and responsibilities in the Australian residential aged care setting. Data was collected by interview and focus group from 27 staff and 14 family members at five residential aged care facilities in the state of Victoria, Australia. Findings highlight "communication" as the core category supporting the formation of constructive staff-family relationships, as described by three main themes; "building trust," "involvement," and "keeping the family happy." Staff attitudes, mutual cooperation, meaningful engagement, and shared expectations lay the foundation for relationships. Findings suggest that further efforts to establish and sustain good relationships with families are required by facilities. Characteristics, roles, and expectations of staff and family that can both promote and hinder the formation of constructive staff-family relationships are discussed.
Farr, Rachel H
Controversy continues to surround parenting by lesbian and gay (LG) adults and outcomes for their children. As sexual minority parents increasingly adopt children, longitudinal research about child development, parenting, and family relationships is crucial for informing such debates. In the psychological literature, family systems theory contends that children's healthy development depends upon healthy family functioning more so than family structure. From the framework of family stress theory, it was expected that longitudinal outcomes for school-age children adopted in infancy could be distinct among those with same-sex versus other-sex parents (N = 96 families). Similar findings were hypothesized in terms of parent adjustment, couple relationships, and family functioning in comparing same-sex and other-sex parent families. Results indicated that adjustment among children, parents, and couples, as well as family functioning, were not different on the basis of parental sexual orientation (lesbian, gay, or heterosexual) when children were school-age. Rather, children's behavior problems and family functioning during middle childhood were predicted by earlier child adjustment issues and parenting stress. These findings are consistent with and extend previous literature about families headed by LG parents, particularly those that have adopted children. The results have implications for advancing supportive policies, practices, and laws related to adoption and parenting by sexual minority adults. (PsycINFO Database Record
Lockhart, Samuel N.
During the course of normal aging, biological changes occur in the brain that are associated with changes in cognitive ability. This review presents data from neuroimaging studies of primarily “normal” or healthy brain aging. As such, we focus on research in unimpaired or nondemented older adults, but also include findings from lifespan studies that include younger and middle aged individuals as well as from populations with prodromal or clinically symptomatic disease such as cerebrovascular or Alzheimer’s disease. This review predominantly addresses structural MRI biomarkers, such as volumetric or thickness measures from anatomical images, and measures of white matter injury and integrity respectively from FLAIR or DTI, and includes complementary data from PET and cognitive or clinical testing as appropriate. The findings reveal highly consistent age-related differences in brain structure, particularly frontal lobe and medial temporal regions that are also accompanied by age-related differences in frontal and medial temporal lobe mediated cognitive abilities. Newer findings also suggest that degeneration of specific white matter tracts such as those passing through the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum may also be related to age-related differences in cognitive performance. Interpretation of these findings, however, must be tempered by the fact that comorbid diseases such as cerebrovascular and Alzheimer’s disease also increase in prevalence with advancing age. As such, this review discusses challenges related to interpretation of current theories of cognitive aging in light of the common occurrence of these later-life diseases. Understanding the differences between “Normal” and “Healthy” brain aging and identifying potential modifiable risk factors for brain aging is critical to inform potential treatments to stall or reverse the effects of brain aging and possibly extend cognitive health for our aging society. PMID:25146995
Zito, Rena Cornell; De Coster, Stacy
Family structure influences the risk of early onset of sexual intercourse. This study proposes that the family structures associated with risk-single-mother, step-parent, and cohabiting-influence early sexual debut due to family instability, including shifts in family structure and maternal dating, which can undermine parental control and transmit messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Previous research has not considered maternal dating as a component of family instability, assuming single mothers who date and those who do not date experience comparable levels of family disruption and transmit similar messages about the acceptability of nonmarital sex. Hypotheses are assessed using logistic regression models predicting the odds of early onset of sexual intercourse among 9959 respondents (53 % female, 47 % male) from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health. Respondents were ages 12-17 at the first wave of data collection and 18-26 at the third wave, when respondents reported the age at which they first had sexual intercourse. Results show that maternal dating is a source of family instability with repercussions for early sexual debut. Parental control and permissive attitudes towards teenage sex and pregnancy link at-risk family structures and maternal dating to early sexual initiation among females, though these variables do not fully explain family structure and maternal dating effects. Among males, the influence of maternal dating on early sexual debut is fully explained by the learning of permissive sexual attitudes.
Broman, Clifford L.; Li, Xin; Reckase, Mark
This study investigates how family structure is associated with adolescent drug use and how parenting, peer use, religiosity, and neighborhood problems may mediate the relationship. The authors use structural equation modeling to examine the relationship between family structure and drug use across race, and examine potential mediators. Using data…
Ver Ploeg, Michele
Investigates the relationship between family structure and 4-year college enrollment and completion. Uses 1980 High School and Beyond Sophomore cohort and its subsequent followup surveys. Finds that family-income differences can explain much of the differences in college attendance and completion rates between students from disrupted families and…
Padilla-Walker, Laura M.; Harper, James M.; Bean, Roy A.
The purpose of the current study was (a) to examine the role of family process on child disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental knowledge and (b) to examine how patterns might differ as a function of family structure. Data for this study were taken from the Flourishing Families Project, which consists of 353 two- and 147 single-parent…
Davis, Erin Calhoun; Friel, Lisa V.
Growing up in single parent, step parent, cohabiting, or lesbian families has been suggested to have negative effects on adolescent sexual behavior. However, analysis reveals that family structure does not significantly influence adolescents' sexual initiation. Rather, family context-more specifically the mother-child relationship-is associated…
Pilgrim, Nanlesta A.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H.; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.
This study assessed the association between household family structure and early sexual debut among adolescent girls, ages 15-19, in rural Rakai District, Uganda. Early sexual debut is associated with detrimental physical, emotional and social outcomes, including increased risk of HIV. However, research on the family's role on adolescents' sexual risk behaviors in sub-Sahara Africa has been minimal and rarely takes into account the varying family structures within which African adolescents develop. Using six rounds of survey data (2001-2008) from the Rakai Community Cohort Study, unmarried adolescent girls (n=1940) aged 15-17 at their baseline survey, were followed until age 19. Parametric survival models showed that compared to adolescent girls living with both biological parents, girls who headed their own household and girls living with step-fathers, grandparents, siblings, or other relatives had significantly higher hazards of early sexual debut before age 16. Adolescent girls were significantly more likely to debut sexually if neither parent resided in the household, either due to death or other reasons. In addition, absence of the living biological father from the home was associated with higher risk of sexual debut, regardless of the biological mother's presence in the home. Our study's findings suggest that family structure is important to adolescent girls' sexual behavior. There is need for research to understand the underlying processes, interactions and dynamics of both low and high risk family structures in order to devise and strategically target interventions targeted for specific types of family structures. PMID:25317199
Carr, Stacie; Tienda, Marta
We use the Immigrants Admitted to the United States (micro-data) supplemented with special tabulations from the Department of Homeland Security to examine how family reunification impacts the age composition of new immigrant cohorts since 1980. We develop a family migration multiplier measure for the period 1981 to 2009 that improves on prior studies by including immigrants granted legal status under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and relaxing unrealistic assumptions required by synthetic cohort measures. Results show that every 100 initiating immigrants admitted between 1981–85 sponsored an average of 260 family members; the comparable figure for initiating immigrants for the 1996–2000 cohort is 345 family members. Furthermore, the number of family migrants ages 50 and over rose from 44 to 74 per 100 initiating migrants. The discussion considers the health and welfare implications of late-age immigration in a climate of growing fiscal restraint and an aging native population. PMID:24415816
Carr, Stacie; Tienda, Marta
We use the Immigrants Admitted to the United States (micro-data) supplemented with special tabulations from the Department of Homeland Security to examine how family reunification impacts the age composition of new immigrant cohorts since 1980. We develop a family migration multiplier measure for the period 1981 to 2009 that improves on prior studies by including immigrants granted legal status under the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act and relaxing unrealistic assumptions required by synthetic cohort measures. Results show that every 100 initiating immigrants admitted between 1981-85 sponsored an average of 260 family members; the comparable figure for initiating immigrants for the 1996-2000 cohort is 345 family members. Furthermore, the number of family migrants ages 50 and over rose from 44 to 74 per 100 initiating migrants. The discussion considers the health and welfare implications of late-age immigration in a climate of growing fiscal restraint and an aging native population.
Alves, Elisabete; Silva, Susana; Martins, Simone; Barros, Henrique
This cross-sectional study intended to assess the use of prenatal care according to the family structure in a population with free universal access to prenatal care. In 2005-2006, the Portuguese birth cohort was assembled by the recruitment of puerperae at public maternity wards in Porto, Portugal. In the current analysis, 7,211 were included. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, obstetric history, and prenatal care were self-reported. Single mothers were considered as those whose household composition did not include a partner at delivery. Approximately 6% of the puerperae were single mothers. These women were more likely to have an unplanned pregnancy (OR = 6.30; 95%CI: 4.94-8.04), an inadequate prenatal care (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.32-4.02), and to miss the ultrasound and the intake of folic acid supplements during the first trimester of pregnancy (OR = 1.71; 95%CI: 1.30-2.27; and OR = 1.67; 95%CI: 1.32-2.13, respectively). The adequacy and use of prenatal care was less frequent in single mothers. Educational interventions should reinforce the use and early initiation of prenatal care.
Hoffman, John P.
A number of models have been proposed to explain the relationship between family structure and adolescent problem behaviors, including several that consider parent-child relations, family income, stress, and residential mobility. However, studies have not explored whether the different types of communities within which families reside affect the…
Ravanera, Zenaida R.; Rajulton, Fernando
Social capital has often been invoked to explain differences in children's well-being by family structure. That is, developmental outcome for children in lone or step parent family is not at par with that of children from intact family because parental investments on children may be lower not only in financial and human capital but also in social…
Boake, Corwin; Salmon, Paul G.
Factor analyzed the Family Environment Scale (FES) subscale scores of 204 families and correlated them with family demographic characteristics. The obtained factor structure showed two major factors similar to "control" and "acceptance-rejection" dimensions in previous research. Results support the FES as part of multimethod…
Al'pin, Yu A.; Al'pina, V. S.
Protasov's Theorem on the combinatorial structure of k-primitive families of non-negative matrices is generalized to k-semiprimitive matrix families. The main tool is the binary relation of colour compatibility on the vertices of the coloured graph of the matrix family. Bibliography: 14 titles.
McMillan, Rachel; McIsaac, Michael; Janssen, Ian
Organized sport is one way that youth participate in physical activity. There are disparities in organized sport participation by family-related factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-traditional family structure and physical custody arrangements are associated with organized sport participation in youth, and if so whether this relationship is mediated by socioeconomic status. Data were from the 2009-10 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children survey, a nationally representative cross-section of Canadian youth in grades 6-10 (N = 21,201). Information on family structure was derived from three survey items that asked participants the number of adults they lived with, their relationship to these adults, and if applicable, how often they visited another parent outside their home. Participants were asked whether or not they were currently involved in an organized sport. Logistic regression was used to compare the odds of organized sport participation according to family structure. Bootstrap-based mediation analysis was used to assess mediation by perceived family wealth. The results indicated that by comparison to traditional families, boys and girls from reconstituted families with irregular visitation of a second parent, reconstituted families with regular visitation of a second parent, single-parent families with irregular visitation of a second parent, and single-parent families with regular visitation of a second parent were less likely to participate in organized sport than those from traditional families, with odds ratios ranging from 0.48 (95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.61) to 0.78 (95% confidence interval: 0.56-1.08). The relationship between family structure and organized sport was significantly mediated by perceived family wealth, although the magnitude of the mediation was modest (ie, <20% change in effect estimate). In conclusion, youth living in both single-parent and reconstituted families experienced significant disparities in
Walton, Emily; Takeuchi, David T.
This article examines how facets of family structure and processes are linked to self-rated health and psychological distress in a national sample of Asian Americans. The authors find little support for well-established theories predicting the effects of family structure. Marital status does not affect self-rated health and has limited effects on…
Seabrook, Jamie A; Avison, William R
With the proliferation of different family forms in many western countries over the last few decades, research investigating the influence of family structure on children's socioeconomic status attainment has expanded dramatically, especially in the United States. The purpose of this study was to estimate the relative influence of family structure, maternal resources, and family mental health on predicting socioeconomic attainment in young adulthood. Data for this study were derived from a case-comparison, three-wave panel study of single-parent, and two-parent families living in London, Ontario, with interviews conducted in 1993 (wave 1), 1994 (wave 2), and between 2005 and 2008 (wave 3). There were virtually no differences in status attainment by family structure. Unexpectedly, however, we found that children raised in temporally stable single-parent families, and those whose mothers transitioned from a single-parent family to a two-parent family had higher socioeconomic status occupations for their longest job held than did children raised in temporally stable two-parent families. Maternal education was positively related to the likelihood that children would graduate from college/university. For those concerned with social policy, this implies that greater attention ought to be paid to addressing disparities in education and family income than to concerns with the kinds of families in which children grow up.
Mcguire, Jack F.; Goranson, Ulf G.
A multitude of design considerations is involved in ensuring the structural integrity of Boeing jet transports that have common design concepts validated by extensive analyses, tests, and three decades of service. As airplanes approach their design service objectives, the incidences of fatigue and corrosion may become widespread. Continuing airworthiness of the aging jet fleet requires diligent performance from the manufacturer, the airlines, and airworthiness authorities. Aging fleet support includes timely development of supplemental structural inspection documents applicable to selected older airplanes, teardown inspections of high-time airframes retired from service, fatigue testing of older airframes, and structural surveys of more than 130 airplanes operated throughout the world. Lessons learned from these activities are incorporated in service bulletin recommendations, production line modifications, and design manual updates. An overview of traditional Boeing fleet support activities and the anticipated benefits for future generations of commercial airplanes based on the continuous design improvement process are presented.
Bjorn, Piia Maria; Kyttala, Minna
This study investigated whether family structure accounts for adolescent academic performance in Finland in the analysis. The thirteen- to fourteen-year-old (grade 8) students' (N = 171) literacy skills were measured and their mathematical performance was tested. Information about family structure was gathered via a questionnaire sent to their…
This article describes brief therapy using a structural approach. During the course of therapy the encopretic behavior of a pre-adolescent boy was observed in relation to the interaction and structure of the family system. The presenting problem was analyzed as a sign of family dysfunction. (Author)
Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bradley, Robert; Conners, Nicola; Bokony, Patti
The Family Map is a semistructured interview developed to assess important aspects of the family and home environment associated with well-being in 3- to 5-year old children. The measure is designed so that it can be used during home visits with Head Start families. Accordingly, it was developed in collaboration with Head Start providers and…
Riley, A P; Weinstein, M; Ridley, J C; Mormino, J; Gorrindo, T
We examine whether age at menarche affects age at first marriage or first birth using two samples of U.S. women. Data are drawn from the Tremin Trust, a longitudinal study of menstrual cycles that recruited white women who were students at the University of Minnesota and from a survey of a nationally representative sample of white women born between 1900 and 1910. Regression models with cubic splines were used to analyze the relationship between age at menarche and age at first marriage. Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine the effect of age at menarche on the interval between marriage and first birth. Unlike earlier work, we found that once secular trends in both age at marriage and age at menarche were taken into account, there was no evidence that age at menarche affects either age at marriage or the timing of first births in these U.S. women.
Seven, Serdal; Ogelman, Hulya Gulay
Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to identify whether the attachment security of children living in nuclear and extended families is stable from ages 6 to 9 years in a sample of Turkish children. In total, 54 children participated in the study, of whom 27 lived in nuclear families and the other 27 lived in extended families in Mus…
Lindblom, Jallu; Peltola, Mikko J.; Vänskä, Mervi; Hietanen, Jari K.; Laakso, Anu; Tiitinen, Aila; Tulppala, Maija; Punamäki, Raija-Leena
The family environment shapes children's social information processing and emotion regulation. Yet, the long-term effects of early family systems have rarely been studied. This study investigated how family system types predict children's attentional biases toward facial expressions at the age of 10 years. The participants were 79 children from…
Bass, Loretta E; Warehime, M Nicole
We use categorical and logistic regression models to investigate the extent that family structure affects children’s health outcomes at age five (i.e., child’s type of health insurance coverage, the use of a routine medical doctor, and report of being in excellent health) using a sample of 4,898 children from the "Fragile Families and Child Well-Being Study." We find that children with married biological parents are most likely to have private health insurance compared with each of three other relationship statuses. With each additional child in the home, a child is less likely to have private insurance compared with no insurance and Medicaid insurance. Children with cohabiting biological parents are less likely to have a routine doctor compared with children of married biological parents, yet having additional children in the household is not associated with having a routine doctor. Children with biological parents who are not romantically involved and those with additional children in the household are less likely to be in excellent health, all else being equal.
Royle, Nick J; Pike, Thomas W; Heeb, Philipp; Richner, Heinz; Kölliker, Mathias
Social structures such as families emerge as outcomes of behavioural interactions among individuals, and can evolve over time if families with particular types of social structures tend to leave more individuals in subsequent generations. The social behaviour of interacting individuals is typically analysed as a series of multiple dyadic (pair-wise) interactions, rather than a network of interactions among multiple individuals. However, in species where parents feed dependant young, interactions within families nearly always involve more than two individuals simultaneously. Such social networks of interactions at least partly reflect conflicts of interest over the provision of costly parental investment. Consequently, variation in family network structure reflects variation in how conflicts of interest are resolved among family members. Despite its importance in understanding the evolution of emergent properties of social organization such as family life and cooperation, nothing is currently known about how selection acts on the structure of social networks. Here, we show that the social network structure of broods of begging nestling great tits Parus major predicts fitness in families. Although selection at the level of the individual favours large nestlings, selection at the level of the kin-group primarily favours families that resolve conflicts most effectively.
Royle, Nick J.; Pike, Thomas W.; Heeb, Philipp; Richner, Heinz; Kölliker, Mathias
Social structures such as families emerge as outcomes of behavioural interactions among individuals, and can evolve over time if families with particular types of social structures tend to leave more individuals in subsequent generations. The social behaviour of interacting individuals is typically analysed as a series of multiple dyadic (pair-wise) interactions, rather than a network of interactions among multiple individuals. However, in species where parents feed dependant young, interactions within families nearly always involve more than two individuals simultaneously. Such social networks of interactions at least partly reflect conflicts of interest over the provision of costly parental investment. Consequently, variation in family network structure reflects variation in how conflicts of interest are resolved among family members. Despite its importance in understanding the evolution of emergent properties of social organization such as family life and cooperation, nothing is currently known about how selection acts on the structure of social networks. Here, we show that the social network structure of broods of begging nestling great tits Parus major predicts fitness in families. Although selection at the level of the individual favours large nestlings, selection at the level of the kin-group primarily favours families that resolve conflicts most effectively. PMID:23097505
Notes that many from across the ideological spectrum suggest that welfare reform address policies that promote marriage and two-parent families. Discusses marriage, family structure and economic well-being, the benefits of marriage for adults and children, and low-income unwed mothers and marriage. Suggests that marriage and two-parent families…
Gibson-Davis, Christina M.
Using longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Survey, a birth cohort study, this study analyzes the effect of family structure on parenting for 3,402 mothers and 2,615 fathers. To address the problem of omitted variable bias, fixed effects methods are used to control for the presence of time-invariant unobserved…
Wijeyesakere, Sanjeeva J.; Richardson, Rudy J.; Stuckey, Jeanne A.
Patatin is a non-specific plant lipase and the eponymous member of a broad class of serine hydrolases termed the patatin-like phospholipase domain containing proteins (PNPLAs). Certain PNPLA family members can be inhibited by organophosphorus (OP) compounds. Currently, no structural data are available on the modes of interaction between the PNPLAs and OP compounds or their native substrates. To this end, we present the crystal structure of patatin-17 (pat17) in its native state as well as following inhibition with methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (MAFP) and inhibition/aging with diisopropylphosphorofluoridate (DFP). The native pat17 structure revealed the existence of two portals (portal1 and portal2) that lead to its active-site chamber. The DFP-inhibited enzyme underwent the aging process with the negatively charged phosphoryl oxygen, resulting from the loss of an isopropyl group, being within hydrogen-binding distance to the oxyanion hole. The MAFP-inhibited pat17 structure showed that MAFP did not age following its interaction with the nucleophilic serine residue (Ser77) of pat17 since its O-methyl group was intact. The MAFP moiety is oriented with its phosphoryl oxygen in close proximity to the oxyanion hole of pat17 and its O-methyl group located farther away from the oxyanion hole of pat17 relative to the DFP-bound state. The orientation of the alkoxy oxygens within the two OP compounds suggests a role for the oxyanion hole in stabilizing the emerging negative charge on the oxygen during the aging reaction. The arachidonic acid side chain of MAFP could be contained within portals 1 or 2. Comparisons of pat17 in the native, inhibited, and aged states showed no significant global conformational changes with respect to their Cα backbones, consistent with observations from other α/β hydrolases such as group VIIA phospholipase A2. PMID:25248161
Boivin, J; Rice, Frances; Hay, Dale; Harold, Gordon; Lewis, Allyson; van den Bree, Marianne M B; Thapar, Anita
Maternal age effects on parenting and family outcomes are of increasing interest because of the demographic shift toward older maternal age at first birth. Maternal age is also of interest because of the greater use of assisted reproductive techniques (ART) to bypass age-related infertility in couples trying to conceive late in the reproductive life cycle of the woman. The aim of the present study was to investigate maternal age effects associated with delayed parenting by comparing families of mothers who gave birth at a younger (<31 years) or older (>38 years) age and to ascertain whether associations were linear associations by comparing these groups to women who had conceived in between these ages (i.e., >31 and <38 years). All children (4-11 year olds) were first-born and conceived using ART. Participants were recruited from one of 20 fertility clinics and mothers (n=642) and fathers (n=439) completed a postal questionnaire about demographic and reproductive characteristics, family environment as well as parent and child wellbeing. Our results demonstrate that parenthood via assisted conception later in the reproductive life cycle is not associated with a negative impact on child wellbeing. Despite maternal age-group differences on demographic (education, income) and reproductive characteristics (bleeding during pregnancy, caesarean rate, breast feeding), and parental warmth and depressive symptoms, child wellbeing was similar across mother age groups. We conclude that the parenting context is different for older mother families (more depressive symptoms in mothers and fathers, less expressed warmth in the couple) but that this difference is not associated with child wellbeing in early and middle childhood.
Hofferth, Sandra L; Goldscheider, Frances
With the rise in out-of-wedlock childbearing and divorce in the last quarter of the twentieth century, an increasing proportion of children have been exposed to a variety of new family forms. Little research has focused on the consequences of childhood family structure for men's transition to fatherhood or on the family processes that account for the effects of family structure on the likelihood that young women and men become first-time unmarried parents, what we now call "fragile families." The data come from the linked Children and Young Adult samples of the 1979 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), which provide information on the children of the women of the NLSY79 from birth until they enter young adulthood. Females growing up with a single parent and males experiencing an unstable family transition to parenthood early, particularly to nonresidential fatherhood for males. For males, the effects are strongly mediated by parenting processes and adolescent behaviors and are shaped by economic circumstances. Having experienced multiple transitions as a child is associated with a reduced likelihood that males father their first child within marriage and an increased likelihood that they become fathers within cohabitation, demonstrating how changes in family structure alter family structure patterns over time and generations.
Relationships between family structure and perceived life satisfaction in overall life and five domains of the Brief Multidimensional Students' Life Satisfaction Scale, family life, friendships, school experience, myself, and where I live were examined among 4,502 Chinese adolescent secondary school students in Hong Kong. Bivariate analyses showed…
Lichter, Daniel T.; Landale, Nancy S.
Evaluates the extent to which differences in the economic well-being of Latino and non-Latino white children reside in divergent parental work patterns and/or family living arrangement. Results indicate that group differences in family structure undermine efforts to eliminate racial and ethnic inequalities in children's economic well-being. (RJM)
Carlson, Daniel L.; Knoester, Chris
Using data from the National Survey of Families and Households, this study explores how single-parent, stepparent, and two-parent biological family structures may affect the transmission of gender ideology from parents to their adult children. Results indicate that biological parents' ideologies are strong predictors of their children's…
Schombert, James M.
Using isophotal radius correlations for a sample of Two Micron All Sky Survey ellipticals, we have constructed a series of template surface brightness profiles to describe the profile shapes of ellipticals as a function of luminosity. The templates are a smooth function of luminosity, yet are not adequately matched to any fitting function supporting the view that ellipticals are weakly nonhomologous with respect to structure. Through comparison to the templates, it is discovered that ellipticals are divided into two families: those well matched to the templates, and a second class of ellipticals with distinctly shallower profile slopes. We refer to this second type of ellipticals as D class, an old morphological designation acknowledging diffuse appearance on photographic material. D ellipticals cover the same range of luminosity, size, and kinematics as normal ellipticals, but maintain a signature of recent equal-mass dry mergers. We propose that normal ellipticals grow after an initial dissipation formation era by accretion of low-mass companions as outlined in hierarchical formation scenarios, while D ellipticals are the result of later equal-mass mergers producing shallow luminosity profiles.
Moss, Miriam S.; Moss, Sidney Z.
Researchers and clinicians have traditionally explored widowhood as an intrapersonal process. We expand the paradigm of bereavement research to explore the widow's perceptions of her experience within a family context. In a study of family bereavement, 24 widows each participated in 2 separate qualitative interviews, followed by standard qualitative analyses of the transcribed narratives. Three inter-related central topics emerged. (1) Widows stress the importance of their independence vis a vis their family as central to their sense of identity. (2) Widows perceive that they and their adult children avoid expressing their feelings of sadness and loss with each other. (3) Widows believe that their children are unable to understand the meaning of the widows' loss because of differences in generations and life situations. Two inter-woven underlying themes emerged: protection of self and of other, and boundaries between widow and children. Just as protection is rooted in a dynamic of separation between widow and child, boundaries are rooted in their deep bond. When researchers and clinicians recognize the dynamics of these two themes they can potentially increase understanding of widowhood within the context of the family. PMID:24655677
Moss, Miriam S; Moss, Sidney Z
Researchers and clinicians have traditionally explored widowhood as an intrapersonal process. We expand the paradigm of bereavement research to explore the widow's perceptions of her experience within a family context. In a study of family bereavement, 24 widows each participated in 2 separate qualitative interviews, followed by standard qualitative analyses of the transcribed narratives. Three inter-related central topics emerged. (1) Widows stress the importance of their independence vis a vis their family as central to their sense of identity. (2) Widows perceive that they and their adult children avoid expressing their feelings of sadness and loss with each other. (3) Widows believe that their children are unable to understand the meaning of the widows' loss because of differences in generations and life situations. Two inter-woven underlying themes emerged: protection of self and of other, and boundaries between widow and children. Just as protection is rooted in a dynamic of separation between widow and child, boundaries are rooted in their deep bond. When researchers and clinicians recognize the dynamics of these two themes they can potentially increase understanding of widowhood within the context of the family.
This news brief draws attention to the recent Expert Group Meeting in November 1996 in Bangkok of the ESCAP Population Division. The meeting focused on implications for future families and the elderly in Asia and was attended by 14 senior officials, resource persons, and study directors from 10 countries in the Asian and Pacific region. The ESCAP region is experiencing changes in population composition and distribution by age and sex and in family structure and functioning. There is a shift to an increasing number and proportion of elderly, elderly living in urban areas, and elderly living in nuclear families. China alone has 113 million elderly. The number of elderly is 13 million in Indonesia, about 6 million in Bangladesh, about 6 million in Pakistan, 4.5 million in Thailand, and 1.6 million in Sri Lanka. Elderly women generally outnumber elderly men and require economic support from others. Women face special problems in remaining active and healthy. This challenge will require assistance from families, communities, and government. Government will need to implement policies and programs to strengthen the role of the family and community in maintaining the elderly in independent and productive life styles that reduce dependency on government resources. The meeting provided detailed information about a regional study of support for the elderly that would include a household survey and analysis. The meeting resulted in the development of terms of reference for implementing operations research on the role and functions of nongovernmental groups that provide community-based services for the elderly. Participants adopted recommendations for incorporating elderly issues into national population and development plans and projects.
Fowler, Patrick C.
Presents the maximum likelihood factor structure of the Family Environment Scale. The first bipolar dimension, "cohesion v conflict," measures relationship-centered concerns, while the second unipolar dimension is an index of "organizational and control" activities. (Author)
Troxel, Wendy M.; Lee, Laisze; Hall, Martica; Matthews, Karen A.
Objectives Sleep is critical for adolescent health and is influenced by the family environment. In our study, we examined if family structure defined as single- vs 2-parent households affected adolescent sleep. Methods Participants were 242 (57% black; 47% boys) healthy adolescents (mean age, 15.7 years). Sleep was measured using self-report and wrist actigraphy over 7 consecutive nights. Outcomes were actigraphy-assessed sleep duration and sleep efficiency (SE) for the full week and weekends and weekdays separately, as well as self-reported sleep-wake problems and variability in bedtimes. Linear regression examined the relationship between family structure and sleep, after adjusting for age, sex, race, body mass index, and depressive symptoms, parental education, family conflict, and financial strain. Race and sex were examined as potential moderators. Results After adjusting for covariates, adolescents from single-parent households had poorer SE across the week and shorter sleep duration on weekends. White adolescents from 2-parent households had the fewer sleep-wake problems and lower bedtime variability, whereas black adolescents from single-parent households had the lowest weekend SE. There were no significant differences in family structure*sex interactions. Conclusion Our findings are the first to demonstrate that single-parent family structure is an independent correlate of sleep problems in adolescents, and they highlight the moderating role of race. PMID:24424100
Tatosyan, A G; Mizenina, O A
Tyrosine kinases of the Src family are involved in different signal transduction pathways in cells. The corresponding genes participate in such vital processes as growth, differentiation, adhesion, transcription, etc. Specific structural changes confer oncogenic properties to the Src protein. In this review, we summarize the available data on the structure, substrates, regulation mechanisms, and role of nonreceptor tyrosine kinases by the example of the src gene product (as the prototype member of this family) and a number of related proteins.
Nomaguchi, Kei M.
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1997 (N = 4,190), this study examined adolescents' reports of primary confidants. Results showed that nearly 30% of adolescents aged 16-18 nominated mothers as primary confidants, 25% nominated romantic partners, and 20% nominated friends. Nominating romantic partners or friends was related…
Rüütel, Erik; Sisask, Merike; Värnik, Airi; Värnik, Peeter; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina W.; Sarchiapone, Marco; Apter, Alan; Balazs, Judit; Bobes, Julio; Brunner, Romuald; Corcoran, Paul; Cosman, Doina; Haring, Christian; Iosue, Miriam; Kaess, Michael; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Poštuvan, Vita; Sáiz, Pilar A.; Wasserman, Danuta
There is expedient evidence showing that differences in adolescent alcohol consumption and other risk-behaviour depend on both family structure and family member drunkenness exposure. Data were obtained among adolescents (N = 12,115, mean age 14.9 ± 0.89) in Austria, Estonia, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Romania, Slovenia and Spain within the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme funded project, ‘Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe (SEYLE)’. The current study reveals how adolescents’ alcohol consumption patterns are related to their family structure and having seen their family member drunk. The results revealed statistically significant differences in adolescent alcohol consumption depending on whether the adolescent lives in a family with both birth parents, in a single-parent family or in a family with one birth parent and one step-parent. The study also revealed that the abstaining from alcohol percentage among adolescents was greater in families with both birth parents compared to other family types. The study also showed that the more often adolescents see their family member drunk the more they drink themselves. There is no difference in adolescent drinking patterns whether they see their family member drunk once a month or once a week. This study gives an insight on which subgroups of adolescents are at heightened risk of alcohol abuse and that decrease of family member drunkenness may have positive effects on the drinking habits of their children. PMID:25493392
This paper studies the properties of a new class of demographic parameters for age-structured populations and analyzes the effect of natural selection on these parameters. Two new demographic variables are introduced: the entropy of a population and the reproductive potential. The entropy of a population measures the variability of the contribution of the different age classes to the stationary population. The reproductive potential measures the mean of the contribution of the different age classes to the Malthusian parameter. The Malthusian parameter is precisely the difference between the entropy and the reproductive potential. The effect of these demographic variables on changes in gene frequency is discussed. The concept of entropy of a genotype is introduced and it is shown that in a random mating population in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and under slow selection, the rate of change of entropy is equal to the genetic variance in entropy minus the covariance in entropy and reproductive potential. This result is an information theoretic analog of Fisher's fundamental theorem of natural selection.
Gayer, Debra; Ganong, Lawrence
The purpose of this investigation is to examine differences in the experiences of mothers of children with cystic fibrosis who are in diverse family structures (first-marriage families, stepfamily households, single-parent households). In particular, mothers' perceptions of children's health, adherence to prescribed treatments, and help received from others were compared and predictors of treatment adherence were examined. Children's health and adherence to treatment regimens were not related to family structure. Mothers had the major responsibility for seeing that cystic fibrosis treatments were followed, regardless of family structure. Single mothers received less help than married and repartnered mothers. Married fathers helped with treatments more than nonresidential divorced fathers and stepfathers. Implications for nursing practice and suggestions for future research are offered.
Farrer, L A; Myers, R H; Cupples, L A; St George-Hyslop, P H; Bird, T D; Rossor, M N; Mullan, M J; Polinsky, R; Nee, L; Heston, L
We evaluated age at onset and lifetime risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in 70 kindreds with familial AD (designated FAD) composed of 541 affected and 1,066 unaffected offspring of demented parents who were identified retrospectively. Using a survival analysis method which takes into account affected persons with unknown onset ages and unaffected persons with unknown censoring ages, we found lifetime risk of AD among at-risk offspring by age 87 to be 64%. Analysis of age at onset among kindreds showed evidence for a bimodal distribution: in this sample, families with a mean onset age of less than 58 years were designated as having early-onset, while late-onset families had a mean onset age greater than 58 years. At-risk offspring in early-onset families had an estimated lifetime risk for dementia of 53%, which is significantly less than the risk of 86% that was estimated for offspring in late-onset families. Men and women in early-onset families had equivalent risk of dementia. In late-onset families, the risk to female offspring was somewhat higher than to male offspring but this difference was marginally significant. Lifetime risk of dementia in early-onset FAD kindreds is consistent with an autosomal dominant inheritance model. Our results may suggest that late-onset FAD has at least 2 etiologies; AD in some families may be transmitted as a dominant trait, whereas a proportion of cases in these and other late-onset families may be caused by other genetic or shared environmental factors.
McConnell, Stephen C.; And Others
This document notes that the literature addressing children's nuclear fears suggests that children are introduced to the nuclear threat by ways that do not provide dialogue and without regard to the age appropriate needs of the child, and that parents seem to be protecting their children from the horror of a holocaust by not talking about the…
Ravert, April A; Martin, Jennifer
Examines family-of-origin stress, age of first menarche, and the perceptions of pregnancy as a life event in 97 pregnant adolescents. Participants' reported high levels of family stress with only a moderate level of impact or stress attributed to the pregnancy. As a group, the girls' first menarche matched national averages. (RJM)
A teacher introduced folklore to multiage groups of students aged 5-12 by encouraging them to work together on projects that included locating family origins on a map, collecting family recipes for a cookbook, compiling a photo album, and writing a play based on war stories gathered from relatives. (LP)
... Talk to a School Age Child about a Suicide Attempt in Your Family This information is intended to help inform and ... six to twelve year old child after a suicide attempt in the family. It is not intended to replace the advice ...
Kosberg, Jordan I.
This paper addresses issues related to the care of the aged by informal caregivers, government support of such care, and policy changes that might result in improved care of the elderly population. In its treatment of family responsibility for the elderly, it calls attention to several trends: (1) family members will be increasingly unavailable to…
Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie
Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…
Wickrama, K. A. S.; Surjadi, Florensia F.; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.; O'Neal, Catherine Walker
Using prospective data from 370 middle-aged husbands and wives during a 12-year period, we investigated the intra-individual and dyadic influence of family economic hardship on the levels of depressive symptoms of husbands and wives over their middle years. The results suggest that family economic hardship during the early middle years contributes…
Schneider, Brian W.; Gerdes, Alyson C.; Haack, Lauren M.; Lawton, Katie E.
Premature treatment dropout is a problem for many families seeking mental health services for their children. Research is currently limited in identifying factors that increase the likelihood of dropout in families of school-aged children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Thus, the goal of the current study was to examine…
Harris, M B; Begay, C; Page, P
This study looked at ethnic and gender differences in activities, family relationships, and feelings about aging in 128 American Indian, Anglo, and Hispanic adults over sixty. Reading, visiting, and watching television were the most popular activities for all subjects, with a number of sex and ethnic differences appearing. Most subjects reported improved relationships with their families on various dimensions after turning sixty. A number of advantages and disadvantages of aging were mentioned. Few ethnic or gender differences were found on these latter variables.
Polaro, Sandra Helena Isse; Gonçalves, Lucia Hisako Takase; Nassar, Silvia Modesto; Lopes, Márcia Maria Bragança; Ferreira, Viviane Ferraz; Monteiro, Hellen Karinna
This study aimed to determine the pattern of family functioning on everyday care relationships of adults in the fourth age. This is a study of diagnostic-evaluative nature of adults with 80 or more years old who depend on care, and of their relatives as caregivers. The participants were selected among the registered patients of a Family Health Unit in a district in the suburbs of Belém-PA, Brazil. They were evaluated according to the dynamics of their family, and quality of life related health lifestyle. Most of the elderly rated their families with good functionality. However, data on the elderly and caregivers' quality of life and caregivers' life style only reached the median level, showing some difficulty in the family functioning system. It was concluded that the multiple results obtained through the assessments indicate some practical implications of care to the family unity and confirm the need for multidimensional assessment about the family intervention.
Milani, Andrea; Farinella, Paolo
ASTEROID families are groups of objects produced in disruptive collisions of a parent body. Although family members are widely dispersed in real space, they cluster in the parameter space defined by their so-called proper elements, and can thus be distinguished from the background asteroid population1-3. For most asteroids, these parameters are very close to being invariants of motion and families are still apparent billions of years after their formation4'5. But these parameters undergo chaotic diffusion, and in some cases the rate of diffusion might be large enough that a family member exits from the region of proper-element space occupied by the family after a characteristic time which is shorter than the lifetime of the Solar System. In this case, the characteristic time should provide an approximate upper bound to the age of the family. Here we use this 'chaotic chronology' method to estimate the lifetime of the unusually compact Veritas family. Calculations of the evolu-tion of the proper elements of the family show that two members (including the largest, 490 Veritas) wander outside the borders of the family on a timescale of about 50 Myr, indicating that the family has an age of less than this.
Van Houtven, Courtney Harold; Coe, Norma B; Konetzka, R Tamara
While it has long been assumed that family structure and potential sources of informal care play a large role in the purchase decisions for long-term care insurance (LTCI), current empirical evidence is inconclusive. Our study examines the relationship between family structure and LTCI purchase and addresses several major limitations of the prior literature by using a long panel of data and considering modern family relationships, such as the presence of stepchildren. We find that family structure characteristics from one's own generation, particularly about one's spouse, are associated with purchase, but that few family structure attributes from the younger generation have an influence. Family factors that may indicate future caregiver supply are negatively associated with purchase: having a coresidential child, signaling close proximity, and having a currently working spouse, signaling a healthy and able spouse, that long-term care planning has not occurred yet or that there is less need for asset protection afforded by LTCI. Dynamic factors, such as increasing wealth or turning 65, are associated with higher likelihood of LTCI purchase.
Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin
Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions.
Qian, Hong; Chen, Shengbin
Species assemblage in a local community is determined by the interplay of evolutionary and ecological processes. The Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis proposes mechanisms underlying patterns of biodiversity in biological communities along environmental gradients. This hypothesis predicts that, among other things, clades in areas with warm or wet environments are, on average, older than those in areas with cold or dry environments. Focusing on angiosperm trees in forests, this study tested the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. We related the mean family age of angiosperm trees in 57 local forests from across China with 23 current and paleo-environmental variables, which included all major temperature- and precipitation-related variables. Our study shows that the mean family age of angiosperm trees in local forests was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation. This finding is consistent with the age-related prediction of the Tropical Niche Conservatism hypothesis. Approximately 85% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by temperature-related variables, and 81% of the variance in the mean family age of angiosperm trees was explained by precipitation-related variables. Climatic conditions at the Last Glacial Maximum did not explain additional variation in mean family age after accounting for current environmental conditions. PMID:27354109
Allen, Tammy D; Finkelstein, Lisa M
Based on cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study investigates relationships between gender, age, and work-family conflict across 6 family life stages. Participants were 690 married/partnered employees who worked 35 or more hours a week. Results indicated a small but negative relationship between age and work-family conflict. Work-family conflict was also associated with family stage, with the least amount of conflict occurring during the empty nest stage and the most occurring when the youngest child in the home was 5 years of age or younger. Gender differences were also observed. Specifically, men reported more work interference with family than did women when the youngest child in the home was a teen. Women overall reported more family interference with work than did men. Results concerning age and gender revealed a different pattern demonstrating that family stage is not simply a proxy for age. Age had a main effect on work-to-family conflict that was monotonic in nature and on family to-work conflict that was linear in nature. In conclusion, the results indicate gender, age, and family stage each uniquely relate to work-family conflict.
Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Rahmatizadeh, Masoumeh; Shaghelanilor, Hossein; Pocock, Lesley
Background: Adolescence denotes a time in which youth begins to experience dangerous behaviors like substance use and delinquency. Objectives: In this study, we investigated the family power structure and identity style in delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles residing in Tehran, Iran. Materials and Methods: To accomplish the goal of the study, 80 adolescent delinquents of the correction and rehabilitation centers aged between 15 and 18 years were selected with convenience sampling method and 80 students of secondary school age between 15 and 18 years in Tehran, Iran in 2012. They answered the instrument of family power structure (Saidian, 2004) and identity style (ISI-6G: White et al. 1998). The obtained data were analyzed using the independent t-test, chi-square test, and Levene’s test. Results: The findings indicated a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent juveniles with regard to family power structure, its subscales (P < 0.001), and identity style (P < 0.001). Moreover, the informational identity style was associated with lower levels of delinquency. In addition, a diffuse-evident identity style was related to the delinquency. Conclusions: These results emphasize that the inappropriate decision-making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior and identity style in adolescents. So, family power structure can be considered in therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment) for adolescent delinquency. PMID:26834795
Yorinaga, Yutaka; Kumasaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Masaki; Hamada, Kensaku; Kawamukai, Makoto
Chitosanases belong to glycoside hydrolase families 5, 7, 8, 46, 75 and 80 and hydrolyse glucosamine polymers produced by partial or full deacetylation of chitin. Herein, we determined the crystal structure of chitosanase from the β-proteobacterium, Mitsuaria chitosanitabida, (McChoA) at 1.75 Å resolution; the first structure of a family 80 chitosanase. McChoA is a 34 kDa extracellular protein of 301 amino acids that fold into two (upper and lower) globular domains with an active site cleft between them. Key substrate-binding features are conserved with family 24 lysozymes and family 46 chitosanases. The distance between catalytic residues E41 and E61 (10.8 Å) indicates an inverting type mechanism. Uniquely, three disulphide bridges and the C terminus might contribute to enzyme activity.
The main interest of this research was to add to the body of knowledge about the possible psychological impact of the nuclear threat on the family unit. Data were utilized from the Family Interaction, Stress and Nuclear War study conducted by Jules Riskin, M.D. and Victoria Dickerson, Ph.D. at the Mental Research Institute in Palo Alto, California. The sample consisted of ten families who were recruited for this study. In order to examine family-interaction variables and the impact of the threat of nuclear war, a standardized semi-structured family interview was conducted. Topics ranged from ordinary activities to external, non-nuclear stresses such as landslides or hurricanes, to the topic of nuclear war. A distinction is drawn between a family's level of nuclear concern while they discuss nuclear issues and a family's level of nuclear concern when viewed in the context of their overall pattern of family communication. In terms of family coping, family nuclear concern was found to be significantly related to two family-coping strategies. Families who utilized the coping strategies of seeking spiritual support and mobilizing the family to acquire and accept help were significantly less concerned about the threat of nuclear war.
Fingerman, Karen L.; VanderDrift, Laura E.; Dotterer, Aryn M.; Birditt, Kira S.; Zarit, Steven H.
Purpose: Black and White middle-aged adults typically are in a pivot position of providing support to generations above and below. Racial differences in support to each generation in the family remain unclear, however. Different factors may account for racial differences in support of grown children versus aging parents. Design and Methods:…
Turley, Ruth N. Lopez
Data from national sample of 3- to 16-year-olds show that lower test scores and increased behavior problems of children of younger mothers resulted from family background rather than maternal age. For nonfirstborns, maternal age at first birth, not at child's birth, influenced test scores. Disadvantage of children born to younger mothers was…
Salier, J P; Rouet, P; Raguenez, G; Daveau, M
Inter-alpha-inhibitor (IalphaI) and related molecules, collectively referred to as the IalphaI family, are a group of plasma protease inhibitors. They display attractive features such as precursor polypeptides that give rise to mature chains with quite distinct fates and functions, and inter-chain glycosaminoglycan bonds within the various molecules. The discovery of an ever growing number of such molecules has raised pertinent questions about their pathophysiological functions. The knowledge of this family has long been structure-oriented, whereas the structure/function and structure/regulation relationships of the family members and their genes have been largely ignored. These relationships are now being elucidated in events such as gene transcription, precursor processing, changes in plasma protein levels in health and disease and binding capacities that involve hyaluronan as well as other plasma proteins as ligands. This review presents some recent progress made in these fields that paves the way for an understanding of the functions of IalphaI family members in vivo. Finally, given the wealth of heterogeneous, complicated and sometimes contradictory nomenclatures and acronyms currently in use for this family, a new, uniform, nomenclature is proposed for IalphaI family genes, precursor polypeptides and assembled proteins. PMID:8670091
Talen, Mary R.; Lehr, Maura L.
Examines the unique differences of 34 adoptive families from other family systems. Defines the context of the adopted child's symptoms and the families' characteristics. The relationship between adoption and the family's structure and development are analyzed. (Author/JAC)
Parish, T S
In the present study, 334 youths evaluated their families by responding to the Personal Attribute Inventory for Children. An analysis of variance revealed no significant main effects due to respondents' birth order or gender, but did find a significant main effect due to family structure and a significant two-way interaction effect between respondents' family structure and gender. Specifically, males from divorced remarried families and females from divorced nonremarried families were found to evaluate their respective families significantly more negatively than did their counterparts from other familial configurations. Implications of these findings are discussed.
Recent fertility declines in non-Western countries may have the potential to transform gender systems. One pathway for such transformations is the creation of substantial proportions of families with children of only one gender. Such families, particularly those with only daughters, may facilitate greater symmetry between sons and daughters. This article explores whether such shifts may influence gendered expectations of old age support. In keeping with patriarchal family systems, old age support is customarily provided by sons, but not daughters, in India. Using data from the 2005 Indian Human Development Survey, I find that women with sons overwhelmingly expect old age support from a son. By contrast, women with only daughters largely expect support from a daughter or a source besides a child. These findings suggest that fertility decline may place demographic pressure on gendered patterns of old age support and the gender system more broadly.
Institute of Family Studies, Melbourne (Australia).
First in a series of seven volumes containing the proceedings of the 1983 Australian Family Research Conference, this publication deals with the formation, structure, and values of family life in Australia. Papers and authors included are: "Priorities in Family Research and Family Law" (Gareth Evans), "The Baby Boom Generation as…
Colas, Claire; Pajor, Ana M.; Schlessinger, Avner
In mammals, citric acid cycle intermediates play a key role in regulating various metabolic processes, such as fatty acid synthesis and glycolysis. Members of the sodium dependent SLC13 transporter family mediate the transport of di and tricarboxylates into cells. SLC13 members have been implicated in lifespan extension and resistance to high fat diets, thus, they are emerging drug targets for aging and metabolic disorders. We previously characterized key structural determinants of substrate and cation binding for the human NaDC3/SLC13A3 transporter using a homology model. Here, we combine computational modeling and virtual screening with functional and biochemical testing, to identify 9 previously unknown inhibitors for multiple members of the SLC13 family from human and mouse. Our results reveal previously unknown substrate selectivity determinants for the SLC13 family, including key residues that mediate ligand binding and transport, as well as promiscuous and specific SLC13 small molecule ligands. The newly discovered ligands can serve as chemical tools to further characterize the SLC13 family or as lead molecules for future development of potent inhibitors for the treatment of metabolic diseases and aging. Our results improve our understanding of the structural components that are important for substrate specificity in this physiologically important family as well as in other structurally related transport systems. PMID:26176240
Lundahl, L H; Davis, T M; Adesso, V J; Lukas, S E
To explore the effects of gender, age, and positive (FH+) and negative (FH-) family history of alcoholism on alcohol-related expectancies, the Alcohol Expectancy Questionnaire (AEQ) was administered to 627 college students (female n = 430). In an attempt to control for consumption effects, only individuals who described themselves as heavy drinkers were included in the study. A 2 (Family History) x 2 (Gender) x 2 (Age Range) multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was conducted on the six scales of the AEQ. Results indicated that FH+ females under the age of 20 years reported stronger expectancies of social and physical pleasure than did FH- females. Results also suggested that females over the age of 20 reported significantly lower expectancies of global, positive effects compared to all other subjects, regardless of family history of alcoholism. Finally, both male and female subjects under the age of 20 reported greater expectancies of global, positive effects, sexual enhancement, feelings of increased power and aggression, and social assertion compared to individuals over the age of 20. These results indicate that alcohol-related expectancies vary as a function of age, gender, and family history of alcoholism.
Ernst, Andreas; Appleton, Brent A; Ivarsson, Ylva; Zhang, Yingnan; Gfeller, David; Wiesmann, Christian; Sidhu, Sachdev S
PDZ (PSD-95/Discs-large/ZO1) domains are interaction modules that typically bind to specific C-terminal sequences of partner proteins and assemble signaling complexes in multicellular organisms. We have analyzed the existing database of PDZ domain structures in the context of a specificity tree based on binding specificities defined by peptide-phage binding selections. We have identified 16 structures of PDZ domains in complex with high-affinity ligands and have elucidated four additional structures to assemble a structural database that covers most of the branches of the PDZ specificity tree. A detailed comparison of the structures reveals features that are responsible for the diverse specificities across the PDZ domain family. Specificity differences can be explained by differences in PDZ residues that are in contact with the peptide ligands, but these contacts involve both side-chain and main-chain interactions. Most PDZ domains bind peptides in a canonical conformation in which the ligand main chain adopts an extended β-strand conformation by interacting in an antiparallel fashion with a PDZ β-strand. However, a subset of PDZ domains bind peptides with a bent main-chain conformation and the specificities of these non-canonical domains could not be explained based on canonical structures. Our analysis provides a structural portrait of the PDZ domain family, which serves as a guide in understanding the structural basis for the diverse specificities across the family.
Caporino, Nicole E; Morgan, Jessica; Beckstead, Jason; Phares, Vicky; Murphy, Tanya K; Storch, Eric A
Family accommodation of symptoms is counter to the primary goals of cognitive-behavioral therapy for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and can pose an obstacle to positive treatment outcomes. Although increased attention has been given to family accommodation in pediatric OCD, relatively little is known about associated child and parent characteristics, and their mediating/moderating effects. This study examined a structural equation model of parent and child variables related to parent reports of family accommodation. Sixty-one children with OCD (ages 6-17 years, 39% female) and their parents were recruited from a university-based clinic. They were administered clinician- and parent-rated measures of child OCD symptom severity, OCD-specific impairment, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems as well as parent anxiety, depression, empathy, consideration of future consequences, and accommodation. Results generally supported the hypothesized model. Family accommodation mediated the relationship between OCD symptom severity and parent-rated functional impairment; child internalizing problems mediated the relationship between parent anxiety and family accommodation; and parent empathy and consideration of future consequences interacted to predict family accommodation. Child externalizing problems were significantly associated with family accommodation but neither of these two variables was associated with parent depression. Findings suggest that reductions in family accommodation might be maximized by routinely screening for comorbid psychopathology in children with OCD and their parents, and using prescriptive or modular approaches to intervention. Directions for future research are discussed.
Holm, L; Ouzounis, C; Sander, C; Tuparev, G; Vriend, G
The availability of fast and robust algorithms for protein structure comparison provides an opportunity to produce a database of three-dimensional comparisons, called families of structurally similar proteins (FSSP). The database currently contains an extended structural family for each of 154 representative (below 30% sequence identity) protein chains. Each data set contains: the search structure; all its relatives with 70-30% sequence identity, aligned structurally; and all other proteins from the representative set that contain substructures significantly similar to the search structure. Very close relatives (above 70% sequence identity) rarely have significant structural differences and are excluded. The alignments of remote relatives are the result of pairwise all-against-all structural comparisons in the set of 154 representative protein chains. The comparisons were carried out with each of three novel automatic algorithms that cover different aspects of protein structure similarity. The user of the database has the choice between strict rigid-body comparisons and comparisons that take into account interdomain motion or geometrical distortions; and, between comparisons that require strictly sequential ordering of segments and comparisons, which allow altered topology of loop connections or chain reversals. The data sets report the structurally equivalent residues in the form of a multiple alignment and as a list of matching fragments to facilitate inspection by three-dimensional graphics. If substructures are ignored, the result is a database of structure alignments of full-length proteins, including those in the twilight zone of sequence similarity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Wagner, Karla D.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Chou, Chih-Ping; Pokhrel, Pallav; Duan, Lei; Baezconde-Garbanati, Lourdes; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.
This study examined the role of family structure and functioning in predicting substance use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents, surveyed in 9th and 10th grade. The sample (N=1433) was half female, mostly of Mexican descent, and the majority was born in the U.S. Living with a single father was associated with less parental monitoring and less family cohesion (γ = −0.07, −0.06, respectively). Living with a single mother was associated with less parental monitoring (γ = −0.10). Living with neither parent was associated with less communication (γ = −0.08), less parental monitoring (γ = −0.09), more family conflict (γ = 0.06), and less family cohesion (γ = −0.06). Less monitoring was associated with substance use at follow-up (β = −0.17). Low rates of parental monitoring appear to mediate the association between parental family structure and substance use. Results suggest that improving basic parenting skills, and offering additional social support and resources to assist parents in monitoring adolescents may help prevent substance use. These interventions may be particularly beneficial for single parents. PMID:20307116
Buhs, Eric S.; Welch, Greg; Burt, Jennifer; Knoche, Lisa
This study evaluated a data-set drawn using "The Familia"--a measure originally developed to evaluate shared-reading activities. A newly developed set of conceptual supports and a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were applied to a new factor structure/model. Data were drawn from 219 young children and their families (mean age = 43…
Lawrence, Barbara S.
Age grading, the differentiation of social groups by members' age judgments, is widely regarded to be a universal aspect of social life. Most studies have examined age structurally (demographically), rather than normatively (modally). This study presents survey data measuring employees' age judgments of managerial careers collected from an…
Walmsley, Bruce; McCormack, Lynne
Minimal research explores the impact of dementia and a dementia diagnosis on families from the unique vantage of senior health professionals. The participants of this study, eight senior aged care professionals, provided unique interpretative insights into family dynamics and sense-making on the journey with dementia, and their own role in that journey. Both positive and negative perspectives were sought. Data from semi-structured interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). One superordinate theme, Dementia naiveté; redefined intimacy, overarched Embarrassed shame; Maintaining hope; Redefining a model of intimacy; and Redefined relational intimacy and growth Within these themes, the participants shed light on hurtful embarrassment and shame experienced by families associated with the diagnostic label given to a loved one. This label was perceived to either trigger separation, hurt and immobility through ignorance, or precipitate a frenzy of naive yet hopeful energy for seeking that elusive cure. The participants saw their role as one of enacting a new way of connecting what was with what could be. Thus, they modelled advocacy, integral care and relational intimacy. Validation came in witnessing a redefining of intimacy in many families who were able to embrace that holistic and empathic approach to the shifting presentation of dementia. Psychological well-being was observed to occur when families embraced growthful domains, e.g. acceptance, hope, relational closeness and altruistic concern for other families. Implications for future care models are discussed.
Examined relationship between aggregate measures of family structure and homicide victimization rates of infants and children in 17 developed nations since 1965. Results indicated infant homicide rates were higher where rates of births to teenage mothers were higher; child homicide rates were higher where illegitimacy rates, births to teenage…
The goal of this book is to examine the relationship between parental family structure, especially parental divorce and/or remarriage, and the academic achievement of children. Much has been written about the need to raise the academic achievement of students from minority backgrounds. However, minority is often defined in terms of skin color and…
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel
Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth merged mother-child file, this article examines the relationship between living in four different family structures on key measures of youth well-being, studied separately by race. The authors also examine whether contextual factors mediate these associations. For Black youth, we find no…
Ganong, Lawrence H.; And Others
A meta-analytic review examined 26 research studies on stereotypes related to family structure. Three hypotheses were explored: that married adults, parents, and children of married parents are all perceived more favorably than their single, nonparent, or child-of-single-parent counterparts. For all three comparisons, traditional nuclear family…
Ganong, Lawrence; And Others
Effects of information about an adolescent's family structure and behavior on perceptions of education majors were studied for 45 male and 98 female college students. College students made subtle judgments based on this minimal information, but how strongly such judgments affect perceptions and behavior toward adolescents is not known. (SLD)
Heimdahl, Mats P. E.
In this project we have investigated how formal specifications should be structured to allow for requirements reuse, product family engineering, and ease of requirements change, The contributions of this work include (1) a requirements specification methodology specifically targeted for critical avionics applications, (2) guidelines for how to structure state-based specifications to facilitate ease of change and reuse, and (3) examples from the avionics domain demonstrating the proposed approach.
Kang, Jeong-Han; Kim, Jibum; Lee, Min-Ah
It is well known that marital status is significantly associated with mortality risk. Little is known, however, regarding whether and how the effects of marital status are moderated by one's own family structure in childhood. The purposes of this study are to examine whether marital status (i.e., family structure in adulthood) and living with both biological parents in childhood (i.e., family structure in childhood) are associated with mortality risk, and whether and how the effects of marital status vary depending on family structure in childhood and gender. We analyze the risk of death in five waves of the General Social Survey (GSS) from 1994 through 2002 after linking the GSS data to death certificate data from the National Death Index through 2008. The findings indicate that being widowed increases the risk of mortality, while living with both parents in childhood lowers it. Interestingly, analysis of the interaction between marital status and family structure in childhood reveals that the disadvantage of widowhood in terms of mortality is significantly stronger for those who lived with both parents in childhood than for those who did not. Subsample analysis by gender shows that the moderating effect of living with both parents is largely equal across men and women, though statistically more robust for men. These findings suggest that living with both parents during childhood may increase vulnerability to marital disruptions due to unwanted life events such as spousal loss. Childhood advantages, ironically, may form more stressful contexts of spousal loss by lowering one's adaptability or immunity to adulthood hardships, especially when the hardships in adulthood are characteristically opposite from the childhood advantages.
Gibbs, Susannah E.; Choiriyyah, Ifta; Sonenstein, Freya L.; Astone, Nan M.; Pleck, Joseph H.; Dariotis, Jacinda K.
Objectives. To estimate national need for family planning services among men in the United States according to background characteristics, access to care, receipt of services, and contraception use. Methods. We used weighted data from the 2006–2010 National Survey of Family Growth to estimate the percentage of men aged 15 to 44 years (n = 10 395) in need of family planning, based on sexual behavior, fecundity, and not trying to get pregnant with his partner. Results. Overall, 60% of men were in need of family planning, defined as those who ever had vaginal sex, were fecund, and had fecund partner(s) who were not trying to get pregnant with partner or partner(s) were not currently pregnant. The greatest need was among young and unmarried men. Most men in need of family planning had access to care, but few reported receiving family planning services (< 19%), consistently using condoms (26%), or having partners consistently using contraception (41%). Conclusions. The need for engaging men aged 15 to 44 years in family planning education and care is substantial and largely unmet despite national public health priorities to include men in reducing unintended pregnancies. PMID:26890180
This study is part of a project focusing on co-operation between receivers of habilitation services (families) and professionals. The study focuses on the organisation and co-ordination of the services, and compares two structures for their accomplishment. The first is the typical multiprofessional habilitation team (MHT), and the second is the individualised team (ISP). MHT teams are organised within the habilitation agency, while ISP teams span institutional boundaries. An ISP team is formed around the individual child who receives services from the habilitation centre, and includes parents (sometimes the child), professionals from the habilitation centre, and professionals from other service-providing institutions that are actively involved (for instance pre-school teacher, schoolteacher etc.). The team maps child and family needs, organises assessments and services and formulates goals that subsequently are monitored and followed up. A questionnaire (Measures of Processes of Care) was used to assess the experiences of 385 service receivers. The questionnaire focuses on service receivers' experiences of the family-centredness of the service, operationalised in 56 items, along with five items concerning perceptions of level of control over service provision. The experiences of families having individualised teams were compared to those not having these teams. Significant differences were obtained, suggesting the impact of the form of service organisation on the content. Families having ISP teams report both more family-centred service, and a greater level of control over service provision. Results are discussed in terms of organising structures and co-ordination of services, and in terms of family participation.
Smith, Justin D.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Winter, Charlotte C.; Patterson, Gerald R.
The emergence and persistence of conduct problems during early childhood is a robust predictor of behavior problems in school and future maladaptation. In this study we examined the reciprocal influences between observed coercive interactions between children and caregivers, oppositional and aggressive behavior, and growth in parent report of early childhood (ages 2–5) and school-age conduct problems (age 7.5 and 8.5). Participants were drawn from the Early Steps multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse sample of male and female children and their families (N = 731). A parallel process growth model combining latent trajectory and cross-lagged approaches revealed the amplifying effect of observed coercive caregiver–child interactions on children's noncompliance, whereas child oppositional and aggressive behaviors did not consistently predict increased coercion. The slope and initial levels of child oppositional and aggressive behaviors and the stability of caregiver–child coercion were predictive of teacher-reported oppositional behavior at school age. Families assigned to the Family Check-Up condition had significantly steeper declines in child oppositional and aggressive behavior and moderate reductions in oppositional behavior in school and in coercion at age 3. Results were not moderated by child gender, race/ethnicity, or assignment to the intervention condition. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding the early development of conduct problems and to designing optimal strategies for reducing problem behavior in early childhood with families most in need. PMID:24690305
Bernabé, E; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Murasko, J E; Marcenes, W
This study explored whether the association of family income with tooth decay changes with age among children in the United States. A second objective was to explore the role of access to dental health care services in explaining the interrelationships between family income, child age and tooth decay. Data from 7,491 2- to 15-year-old children who participated in the 1999-2004 National and Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. The association of family income with the prevalence of tooth decay in primary, permanent and primary or permanent teeth was first estimated in logistic regression models with all children, and then, separately in four age groups that reflect the development of the dentition (2-5, 6-8, 9-11 and 12-15 years, respectively). Findings showed that the income gradient in tooth decay attenuated significantly in 9- to 11-year-olds only to re-emerge in 12- to 15-year-olds. The age profile of the income gradient in tooth decay was not accounted for by a diverse set of family and child characteristics. This is the first study providing some evidence for age variations in the income gradient in tooth decay among children in the United States.
Smith, Justin D; Dishion, Thomas J; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin N; Winter, Charlotte C; Patterson, Gerald R
The emergence and persistence of conduct problems (CPs) during early childhood is a robust predictor of behavior problems in school and of future maladaptation. In this study we examined the reciprocal influences between observed coercive interactions between children and caregivers, oppositional and aggressive behavior, and growth in parent report of early childhood (ages 2-5) and school-age CPs (ages 7.5 and 8.5). Participants were drawn from the Early Steps multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse sample of male and female children and their families (N = 731). A parallel-process growth model combining latent trajectory and cross-lagged approaches revealed the amplifying effect of observed coercive caregiver-child interactions on children's noncompliance, whereas child oppositional and aggressive behaviors did not consistently predict increased coercion. The slope and initial levels of child oppositional and aggressive behaviors and the stability of caregiver-child coercion were predictive of teacher-reported oppositional behavior at school age. Families assigned to the Family Check-Up condition had significantly steeper declines in child oppositional and aggressive behavior and moderate reductions in oppositional behavior in school and in coercion at age 3. Results were not moderated by child gender, race/ethnicity, or assignment to the intervention condition. The implications of these findings are discussed with respect to understanding the early development of CPs and to designing optimal strategies for reducing problem behavior in early childhood with families most in need.
ter Avest, Ewoud; Sniderman, Allan D; Bredie, Sebastian J H; Wiegman, Albert; Stalenhoef, Anton F H; de Graaf, Jacqueline
The aim of the present study was to delineate the mechanism(s) responsible for the increased secretion of VLDL (very-low-density lipoprotein) particles in patients with FCH (familial combined hyperlipidaemia). In 194 young adults (<25 years of age) recruited from families with FCH, we investigated how plasma lipids, (apo)lipoproteins and BMI (body mass index) varied with age. Furthermore, we performed a 5-year follow-up study of clinical and biochemical characteristics of a subset of this population (n=85) stratified by apoB (apolipoprotein B) levels (below or above the 75th percentile adjusted for age and gender). Plasma apoB concentration (r=0.45, P<0.0001), triacylglycerol (triglyceride) concentration (r=0.45, P<0.0001), LDL (low-density lipoprotein) subfraction profile (r=-0.46, P<0.0001) and BMI (r=0.51, P<0.0001) were significantly associated with age. Plasma apoB concentration in the hyperapoB group was already elevated at a young age, whereas other characteristics of FCH, as observed in adults, including triacylglycerol levels >1.5 mmol/l and/or small-dense LDL, were observed only sporadically. After the 5-year follow-up, BMI increased in both groups, and this increase was associated with changes in apoB (r=0.27, P<0.05), triacylglycerol (r=0.30, P<0.01), VLDL cholesterol (r=0.22, P<0.05), VLDL triacylglycerol (r=0.25, P<0.05) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=-0.27, P<0.05). In conclusion, we have found indirect evidence of a primary, presumably genetically determined, increase in plasma apoB concentration occurring early in life of offspring from families with FCH. However, aging-related post-maturation increases in adipose tissue mass also appear to contribute to an aggravation and/or modulation of this genetically determined apoB overproduction.
Yuan, Su-Chuan; Weng, Shuo-Chun; Chou, Ming-Chih; Tang, Yih-Jing; Lee, Shu-Hsin; Chen, Der-Yuan; Chuang, Ya-Wen; Yu, Chia-Hui; Kuo, Hsien-Wen
The more support elderly people have from their family, the less likely they are to suffer from chronic diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate how family support affects the PA middle-aged and elderly people engage in before and after they suffer from chronic diseases. We interviewed 428 middle-aged and elderly people using a structured questionnaire to measure their aerobic PA. Eighteen percent of middle-aged and elderly people did participate in PA after suffering from chronic diseases. Using multivariate logistic regression models, we found that middle-aged and elderly people who rely on family members when they are sick (OR=1.87, 95%CI=1.08-3.25) and who are accompanied by family members (OR=2.09, 95%CI=1.20-3.62) when they are healthy are more likely to exercise. The more middle-aged and elderly people are supported by their family, the more likely they are to exercise. Strengthening family relationships should help reduce the prevalence of chronic diseases among middle-aged and elderly people.
Dias, Cristina; Santos, Carla; Varadinov, Maria; Mexia, João T.
Symmetric stochastic matrices width a width a dominant eigenvalue λ and the corresponding eigenvector α appears in many applications. Such matrices can be written as M =λ α αt+E¯. Thus β = λ α will be the structure vector. When the matrices in such families correspond to the treatments of a base design we can carry out a ANOVA like analysis of the action of the treatments in the model on the structured vectors. This analysis can be transversal-when we worked width homologous components and - longitudinal when we consider contrast on the components of each structure vector. The analysis will be briefly considered at the end of our presentation.
Hsiao, Peng-Ching; Chu, Chi-Ming; Sung, Pei-Yi; Perng, Wann-Cherng; Wang, Kwua-Yun
Background Because Taiwan has the fastest aging rate among developed countries, care for the elderly is becoming more prominent in the country. Primary family caregivers play an important role in patient health and health promotion behavior. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), an age-related disease, is a major public health problem with high morbidity and mortality and can be a long-term burden for family members; however, little attention has been given to the differences in COPD care between elder caregivers and other caregivers. This study aimed to investigate the differences between elder family caregivers and non-elder family caregivers caring for COPD patients in Taiwan, including caring behavior, caregiver response, and caring knowledge. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted between March 2007 and January 2008; 406 primary family caregivers of COPD patients from the thoracic outpatient departments of 6 hospitals in north-central Taiwan were recruited to answer questionnaires measuring COPD characteristics, care behavior, caregiver response, and COPD knowledge. All questionnaires, which addressed caregiver knowledge, care behaviors, and care reactions, were shown to have acceptable validity and reliability, and the data were analyzed using univariate and generalized linear model techniques. Results The elder caregivers group had 79 participants, and the non-elder caregivers comprised 327 participants. The COPD-related knowledge scale results were positively correlated with the family caregiver caring behavior scale, suggesting that better COPD-related knowledge among family caregivers may result in improved caring behavior. After adjusting for all possible confounding factors, the elder caregivers had significantly lower COPD-related knowledge than the non-elder caregivers (P<0.001). However, there were no significant differences in the family caregiver caring behavior scale or the caregiver reaction assessment scale between the two
Jaffe, L. D.; Bulkley, E. O.
An analysis has been made of the tendency of large lunar craters to lie along circles. A catalog of the craters at least 50 km in diameter was prepared first, noting position, diameter, rim sharpness and completion, nature of underlying surface, and geological age. The subset of those craters 50-400 km in diameter was then used as input to computer programs which identified each 'family' of four or more craters of selected geological age lying on a circular arc. For comparison, families were also identified for randomized crater models in which the crater spatial density was matched to that on the moon, either overall or separately for mare and highland areas. The observed frequency of lunar arcuate families was statistically highly significantly greater than for the randomized models, for craters classified as either late-pre-Imbrian (Nectarian), middle pre-Imbrian, or early pre-Imbrian, as well as for a number of larger age-classes. The lunar families tend to center in specific areas of the moon; these lie in highlands rather than maria and are different for families of Nectarian craters than for pre-Nectarian. The origin of the arcuate crater groupings is not understood.
Langevin, Ron; Langevin, Mara; Curnoe, Suzanne
A sample of 1823 male paraphilics, sex offenders, and non-sex offender controls were compared on family size, birth order, and parents' ages at the time of the probands' births. Sample data were also compared to population data from Statistics Canada. The men in all groups were from larger than average Canadian families and they tended to be later born. Paraphilics and sex offenders had even larger families than offender controls. Their parents tended to be older at their birth with 34.2% of mothers and 51.3% of fathers over 30 years of age, but there were no statistically significant subgroup differences. There were also significantly more multiparous teenage mothers than expected and more paraphilics' fathers who were younger than the mothers, both factors associated in the literature with increased risk of perinatal complications and abnormalities. The confounding influences of parental age, birth order, and family size were examined and indicated the need for large samples and multivariate analysis in evaluating the role of family variables associated with paraphilics and sex offenders.
Utilizing 2000 data on 1,618 counties and seemingly unrelated regression, I assess whether family structure effects on homicide vary across family structure measures and gender. There is evidence of robust, multidimensional family structure effects across constructs reflecting the presence of two-parent families: mother/father absence, shortages…
Khan, Shahista; Khan, M Afzal; Miyan, Kaish; Lone, Faisal Ahmad
The present study was undertaken with a view to compare the precision of age readings obtained from different ageing structures of some important freshwater teleosts viz., Hypophthalmichthys molitrix, Mastacembelus armatus and Ompok pabda. Standard procedures were followed to study the ageing structures. Based on the highest percent agreement and lowest average percentage of error and coefficient of variation values, precise age estimates were exhibited by opercular bones in H. molitrix and vertebrae in the remaining two fish, M. armatus and O. pabda. When precise age estimates were compared among the age estimates of other ageing structures, highest percent agreement and lowest average percent error and coefficient of variation values were exhibited by vertebrae (versus opercular bones) in H. molitrix and opercular bones (versus vertebrae) in both M. armatus and O. pabda. When mean age estimates from different ageing structures were compared, vertebrae and opercular bones exhibited comparable values in H. molitrix. In M. armatus, mean values of precise age estimates from vertebrae were significantly different from the values of other ageing structures. However, in O. pabda, vertebrae as well as opercular bones showed insignificantly different age readings.
Sobczak, Iwona; Lolkema, Juke S.
The 2-hydroxycarboxylate transporter family is a family of secondary transporters found exclusively in the bacterial kingdom. They function in the metabolism of the di- and tricarboxylates malate and citrate, mostly in fermentative pathways involving decarboxylation of malate or oxaloacetate. These pathways are found in the class Bacillales of the low-CG gram-positive bacteria and in the gamma subdivision of the Proteobacteria. The pathways have evolved into a remarkable diversity in terms of the combinations of enzymes and transporters that built the pathways and of energy conservation mechanisms. The transporter family includes H+ and Na+ symporters and precursor/product exchangers. The proteins consist of a bundle of 11 transmembrane helices formed from two homologous domains containing five transmembrane segments each, plus one additional segment at the N terminus. The two domains have opposite orientations in the membrane and contain a pore-loop or reentrant loop structure between the fourth and fifth transmembrane segments. The two pore-loops enter the membrane from opposite sides and are believed to be part of the translocation site. The binding site is located asymmetrically in the membrane, close to the interface of membrane and cytoplasm. The binding site in the translocation pore is believed to be alternatively exposed to the internal and external media. The proposed structure of the 2HCT transporters is different from any known structure of a membrane protein and represents a new structural class of secondary transporters. PMID:16339740
Hill-Burns, Erin M.; Ross, Owen A.; Wissemann, William T.; Soto-Ortolaza, Alexandra I.; Zareparsi, Sepideh; Siuda, Joanna; Lynch, Timothy; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.; Silburn, Peter A.; Mellick, George D.; Ritz, Beate; Scherzer, Clemens R.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Factor, Stewart A.; Breheny, Patrick J.; Payami, Haydeh
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the most common cause of neurodegenerative movement disorder and the second most common cause of dementia. Genes are thought to have a stronger effect on age-at-onset of PD than on risk, yet there has been a phenomenal success in identifying risk loci but not age-at-onset modifiers. We conducted a genome-wide study for age-at-onset. We analysed familial and non-familial PD separately, per prior evidence for strong genetic effect on age-at-onset in familial PD. GWAS was conducted in 431 unrelated PD individuals with at least one affected relative (familial PD) and 1544 non-familial PD from the NeuroGenetics Research Consortium (NGRC); an additional 737 familial PD and 2363 non-familial PD were used for replication. In familial PD, two signals were detected and replicated robustly: one mapped to LHFPL2 on 5q14.1 (PNGRC = 3E-8, PReplication = 2E-5, PNGRC + Replication = 1E-11), the second mapped to TPM1 on 15q22.2 (PNGRC = 8E-9, PReplication = 2E-4, PNGRC + Replication = 9E-11). The variants that were associated with accelerated onset had low frequencies (<0.02). The LHFPL2 variant was associated with earlier onset by 12.33 [95% CI: 6.2; 18.45] years in NGRC, 8.03 [2.95; 13.11] years in replication, and 9.79 [5.88; 13.70] years in the combined data. The TPM1 variant was associated with earlier onset by 15.30 [8.10; 22.49] years in NGRC, 9.29 [1.79; 16.79] years in replication, and 12.42 [7.23; 17.61] years in the combined data. Neither LHFPL2 nor TPM1 was associated with age-at-onset in non-familial PD. LHFPL2 (function unknown) is overexpressed in brain tumours. TPM1 encodes a highly conserved protein that regulates muscle contraction, and is a tumour-suppressor gene. PMID:27402877
This paper presents a comparative analysis of eight research projects funded by the Administration on Aging during the 1970s which focused on the family as caregivers and support systems for elderly relatives. A brief description is provided for each project analyzed in this report as well as highlights of major findings, including that the family…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Are disabled children age 22 or over eligible as family members? 894.307 Section 894.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) FEDERAL EMPLOYEES DENTAL AND VISION INSURANCE...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Age of children and family income eligibility. 1305.4 Section 1305.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH...
Rozing, Maarten P.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; Frölich, Marijke; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Beekman, Marian; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Mooijaart, Simon P.; Blauw, Gerard-Jan; Slagboom, P. Eline; van Heemst, Diana; Group, on behalf of the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS)
Recently, we have shown that compared to controls, long-lived familial nonagenarians (mean age: 93.4 years) from the Leiden Longevity Study displayed a lower mortality rate, and their middle-aged offspring displayed a lower prevalence of cardio-metabolic diseases, including diabetes mellitus. The evolutionarily conserved insulin/IGF-1 signaling (IIS) pathway has been implicated in longevity in model organisms, but its relevance for human longevity has generated much controversy. Here, we show that compared to their partners, the offspring of familial nonagenarians displayed similar non-fasted serum levels of IGF-1, IGFBP3 and insulin but lower non-fasted serum levels of glucose, indicating that familial longevity is associated with differences in insulin sensitivity. PMID:20157552
Udevitz, M.S.; Ballachey, B.E.
We developed a general statistical model that provides a comprehensive framework for inference about survival rates based on standing age-structure and ages-at-death data. Previously available estimators are maximum likelihood under the general model, but they use only 1 type of data and require the assumption of a stable age structure and a known population growth rate. We used the general model to derive new survival rate estimators that use both types of data and require only the assumption of a stable age structure or a known population growth rate. Our likelihood-based approach allows use of standard model-selection procedures to test hypotheses about age-structure stability, population growth rates, and age-related patterns in survival. We used this approach to estimate survival rates for female sea otters (Enhydra lutris) in Prince William Sound, Alaska.
Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.
Research has been conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory to address aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. The purpose was to identify potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments. Primary program accomplishments have included formulation of a Structural Materials Information Center that contains data and information on the time variation of material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors and aging factors for 144 materials, an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors that can potentially impact their performance, guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments of reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current condition assessments and estimations of future performance of reinforced concrete nuclear power plant structures. In addition, the Structural Aging Program conducted in-depth evaluations of several nondestructive evaluation and repair-related technologies to develop guidance on their applicability.
Capron, Christiane; Therond, Carine; Duyme, Michel
The study investigated the relationship between depressive symptoms and emotional/behavioural problems in adolescent girls (N = 553) aged 12-13 years, menarcheal status and family structure, and considered whether the effect of family structure was the same in the presence or absence of menses. The Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the…
Zhao, Jinying; Zhu, Yun; Uppal, Karan; Tran, ViLinh T; Yu, Tianwei; Lin, Jue; Matsuguchi, Tet; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Jones, Dean; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V
Short telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with age-related metabolic disorders. Telomere attrition induces profound metabolic dysfunction in animal models, but no study has examined the metabolome of telomeric aging in human. Here we studied 423 apparently healthy American Indians participating in the Strong Family Heart Study. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) was measured by qPCR. Metabolites in fasting plasma were detected by untargeted LC/MS. Associations of LTL with each metabolite and their combined effects were examined using generalized estimating equation adjusting for chronological age and other aging-related factors. Multiple testing was corrected using the q-value method (q<0.05). Of the 1,364 distinct m/z features detected, nineteen metabolites in the classes of glycerophosphoethanolamines, glycerophosphocholines, glycerolipids, bile acids, isoprenoids, fatty amides, or L-carnitine ester were significantly associated with LTL, independent of chronological age and other aging-related factors. Participants with longer (top tertile) and shorter (bottom tertile) LTL were clearly separated into distinct groups using a multi-marker score comprising of all these metabolites, suggesting that these newly detected metabolites could be novel metabolic markers of biological aging. This is the first study to interrogate the human metabolome of telomeric aging. Our results provide initial evidence for a metabolic control of LTL and may reveal previously undescribed new roles of various lipids in the aging process.
Weiergräber, O H; Schwarten, M; Strodel, B; Willbold, D
Atg8 family members were the first autophagy-related proteins to be investigated in structural detail and continue to be among the best-understood molecules of the pathway. In this review, we will first provide a concise outline of the major methods that are being applied for structural characterization of these proteins and the complexes they are involved in. This includes a discussion of the strengths and limitations associated with each method, along with guidelines for successful adoption to a specific problem. Subsequently, we will present examples illustrating the application of these techniques, with a particular focus on the complementarity of information they provide.
Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A.; Best, Lyle G.; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B.; Roman, Mary J.; Lee, Elisa T.; Howard, Barbara V.; Zhao, Jinying
Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians. PMID:27540694
Fears, Scott C; Schür, Remmelt; Sjouwerman, Rachel; Service, Susan K; Araya, Carmen; Araya, Xinia; Bejarano, Julio; Knowles, Emma; Gomez-Makhinson, Juliana; Lopez, Maria C; Aldana, Ileana; Teshiba, Terri M; Abaryan, Zvart; Al-Sharif, Noor B; Navarro, Linda; Tishler, Todd A; Altshuler, Lori; Bartzokis, George; Escobar, Javier I; Glahn, David C; Thompson, Paul M; Lopez-Jaramillo, Carlos; Macaya, Gabriel; Molina, Julio; Reus, Victor I; Sabatti, Chiara; Cantor, Rita M; Freimer, Nelson B; Bearden, Carrie E
Recent theories regarding the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder suggest contributions of both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative processes. While structural neuroimaging studies indicate disease-associated neuroanatomical alterations, the behavioural correlates of these alterations have not been well characterized. Here, we investigated multi-generational families genetically enriched for bipolar disorder to: (i) characterize neurobehavioural correlates of neuroanatomical measures implicated in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder; (ii) identify brain-behaviour associations that differ between diagnostic groups; (iii) identify neurocognitive traits that show evidence of accelerated ageing specifically in subjects with bipolar disorder; and (iv) identify brain-behaviour correlations that differ across the age span. Structural neuroimages and multi-dimensional assessments of temperament and neurocognition were acquired from 527 (153 bipolar disorder and 374 non-bipolar disorder) adults aged 18-87 years in 26 families with heavy genetic loading for bipolar disorder. We used linear regression models to identify significant brain-behaviour associations and test whether brain-behaviour relationships differed: (i) between diagnostic groups; and (ii) as a function of age. We found that total cortical and ventricular volume had the greatest number of significant behavioural associations, and included correlations with measures from multiple cognitive domains, particularly declarative and working memory and executive function. Cortical thickness measures, in contrast, showed more specific associations with declarative memory, letter fluency and processing speed tasks. While the majority of brain-behaviour relationships were similar across diagnostic groups, increased cortical thickness in ventrolateral prefrontal and parietal cortical regions was associated with better declarative memory only in bipolar disorder subjects, and not in non-bipolar disorder family
Martin-Storey, Alexa; Crosnoe, Robert
Objectives. We investigated how state-level firearms legislation is associated with firearm ownership and storage among families with preschool-aged children. Methods. Using 2005 nationally representative data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n = 8100), we conducted multinomial regression models to examine the associations between state-level firearms legislation generally, child access prevention (CAP) firearms legislation specifically, and parental firearm ownership and storage safety practices. Results. Overall, 8% of families with children aged 4 years living in states with stronger firearm laws and CAP laws owned firearms compared with 24% of families in states with weaker firearm laws and no CAP laws. Storage behaviors of firearm owners differed minimally across legislative contexts. When we controlled for family- and state-level characteristics, we found that firearm legislation and CAP laws interacted to predict ownership and storage behaviors, with unsafe storage least likely among families in states with both CAP laws and stronger firearm legislation. Conclusions. Broader firearm legislation is linked with the efficacy of child-specific legislation in promoting responsible firearm ownership. PMID:24825210
Bradbury, Angela R.; Patrick-Miller, Linda; Schwartz, Lisa; Egleston, Brian; Sands, Colleen Burke; Chung, Wendy K.; Glendon, Gord; McDonald, Jasmine A.; Moore, Cynthia; Rauch, Paula; Tuchman, Lisa; Andrulis, Irene L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Frost, Caren J.; Keegan, Theresa H.M.; Knight, Julia A.; Terry, Mary Beth; John, Esther M.; Daly, Mary B.
OBJECTIVE Understanding how young girls respond to growing up with breast cancer family histories is critical given expansion of genetic testing and breast cancer messaging. We examined the impact of breast cancer family history on psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors among >800 girls in the multicenter LEGACY Girls Study. METHODS Girls aged 6 to 13 years with a family history of breast cancer or familial BRCA1/2 mutation (BCFH+), peers without a family history (BCFH−), and their biological mothers completed assessments of psychosocial adjustment (maternal report for 6- to 13-year-olds, self-report for 10- to 13-year-olds), breast cancer–specific distress, perceived risk of breast cancer, and health behaviors (10- to 13-year-olds). RESULTS BCFH+ girls had better general psychosocial adjustment than BCFH− peers by maternal report. Psychosocial adjustment and health behaviors did not differ significantly by self-report among 10- to 13-year-old girls. BCFH+ girls reported higher breast cancer–specific distress (P = .001) and were more likely to report themselves at increased breast cancer risk than BCFH− peers (38.4% vs 13.7%, P < .001), although many girls were unsure of their risk. In multivariable analyses, higher daughter anxiety was associated with higher maternal anxiety and poorer family communication. Higher daughter breast cancer–specific distress was associated with higher maternal breast cancer-specific distress. CONCLUSIONS Although growing up in a family at risk for breast cancer does not negatively affect general psychosocial adjustment among preadolescent girls, those from breast cancer risk families experience greater breast cancer–specific distress. Interventions to address daughter and mother breast cancer concerns and responses to genetic or familial risk might improve psychosocial outcomes of teen daughters. PMID:26482668
Santos, Daniel M. V.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Diego, Vincent P.; Blangero, John; Souza, Michele C.; Freitas, Duarte L.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Gomes, Thayse N.; Santos, Fernanda K.; Maia, José A. R.
Sedentary behavior (SB) expression and its underlying causal factors have been progressively studied, as it is a major determinant of decreased health quality. In the present study we applied Genotype x Age (GxAge) and Genotype x Sex (GxSex) interaction methods to determine if the phenotypic expression of different SB traits is influenced by an interaction between genetic architecture and both age and sex. A total of 1345 subjects, comprising 249 fathers, 327 mothers, 334 sons and 325 daughters, from 339 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family Study were included in the analysis. SB traits were assessed by means of a 3-d physical activity recall, the Baecke and IPAQ questionnaires. GxAge and GxSex interactions were analyzed using SOLAR 4.0 software. Sedentary behaviour heritability estimates were not always statistically significant (p>0.05) and ranged from 3% to 27%. The GxSex and GxAge interaction models were significantly better than the single polygenic models for TV (min/day), EEsed (kcal/day), personal computer (PC) usage and physical activty (PA) tertiles. The GxAge model is also significantly better than the polygenic model for Sed (min/day). For EEsed, PA tertiles, PC and Sed, the GxAge interaction was significant because the genetic correlation between SB environments was significantly different from 1. Further, PC and Sed variance heterogeneity among distinct ages were observed. The GxSex interaction was significant for EEsed due to genetic variance heterogeneity between genders and for PC due to a genetic correlation less than 1 across both sexes. Our results suggest that SB expression may be influenced by the interactions between genotype with both sex and age. Further, different sedentary behaviors seem to have distinct genetic architectures and are differentially affected by age and sex. PMID:25302714
Gundersen, Craig; Ziliak, James P
We examined the effects of macroeconomic performance and social policy on the extent and depth of poverty in America using state-level panel data from the 1981-2000 waves of the Current Population Survey. We found that a strong macroeconomy at both the state and national levels reduced both the number of families who were living in poverty and the severity of poverty. The magnitude and source of these antipoverty effects, however, were not uniform across family structures and racial groups or necessarily over time. While gains in the eradication of poverty, in general, were tempered by rising wage inequality, simulations indicated that female-headed families and families that were headed by black persons experienced substantial reductions in poverty in the 1990s largely because of the growth in median wages. An auxiliary time-series analysis suggests that the expansions in the federal Earned Income Tax Credit of the 1990s accounted for upward of 50% of the reduction in after-tax income deprivation.
Jacobs, Wura; Barry, Adam E.; Xu, Lei; Valente, Thomas W.
Background: Family structure and value system among Hispanic/Latino population are changing. However, very few studies have examined the combination of the influence of family structure, parental and sibling alcohol use, perceived peer norms about drinking, and alcohol use among Hispanic/Latino adolescents. Purpose: This study examined the…
Kofman, Amber E; Huszar, Jessica M; Payne, Christopher J
The differentiation of adult stem cells involves extensive chromatin remodeling, mediated in part by the gene products of histone deacetylase (HDAC) family members. While the transcriptional downregulation of HDACs can impede stem cell self-renewal in certain contexts, it may also promote stem cell maintenance under other circumstances. In self-renewing, differentiating, and aging spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs), the gene expression dynamics of HDACs have not yet been characterized. To gain further insight with these studies, we analyzed the transcriptional profiles of six HDAC family members, previously identified to be the most highly expressed in self-renewing SSCs, during stem cell differentiation and aging. Here we discovered that in both differentiating and aging SSCs the expression of Sirt4 increases, while the expression of Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 decreases. When SSCs are exposed to the lifespan-enhancing drug rapamycin in vivo, the resultant HDAC gene expression patterns are opposite of those seen in the differentiating and aging SSCs, with increased Hdac2, Hdac6, and Sirt1 and decreased Hdac8, Hdac9, and Sirt4. Our findings suggest that HDACs important for stem cell maintenance and oxidative capacity are downregulated as adult stem cells differentiate or age. These results provide important insights into the epigenetic regulation of stem cell differentiation and aging in mammals.
Suenkel, B; Steegborn, C
Lysine acetylation is long known as a regulatory posttranslational modification of histone proteins and is emerging as a ubiquitous intracellular protein modification. Additional lysine acylations such as succinylation and glutarylation have also been found on histones and other proteins. Acylations are reversibly attached through nonenzymatic acylation mechanisms and the action of protein acyl transferases and protein deacylases (PDACs). Sirtuins are an evolutionary defined class of PDACs and act as metabolic sensors by catalyzing a unique deacylation reaction that requires the cosubstrate NAD(+). Sirtuins are found in all domains of life, and the mammalian sirtuin family comprises seven isoforms in different cellular compartments. They regulate a wide range of cellular targets and functions, such as energy metabolism and stress responses, and they have been implicated in aging processes and aging-related diseases. A large body of functional, biochemical, biophysical, and structural work on isolated sirtuins has provided many important insights that complement the many physiological studies on this enzyme family. They enabled the comprehensive structural and biochemical analysis of sirtuin catalysis, substrate selectivity, and regulation. Here, we describe the recombinant production of sirtuin proteins, with an emphasis on the mammalian isoforms. We then describe their application in activity and binding assays and for crystal structure analysis. We provide protocols for these procedures, and we discuss typical pitfalls in studying this enzyme family and how to avoid them. This information will support further molecular studies on sirtuin mechanisms and functions.
Schleider, Jessica L; Chorpita, Bruce F; Weisz, John R
Links between parents' psychiatric symptoms and their children's behavioral and emotional problems have been widely documented in previous research, and the search for moderators of this association has begun. However, family structure (single versus dual-parent households) has received little attention as a potential moderator, despite indirect evidence that risk may be elevated in single-parent homes. Two other candidate moderators-youth gender and age-have been tested directly, but with inconsistent findings across studies, perhaps in part because studies have differed in whether they used youth clinical samples and in which informants (parents vs. youths) reported on youth problems. In the present study, we examined these three candidate moderators using a sample of exclusively clinic-referred youths (N = 333, 34 % girls, aged 7-14,) and assessing youth problems through both parent- and youth-reports. Both family structure and youth gender emerged as robust moderators across parent and youth informants. Parent symptoms were associated with youth internalizing and externalizing problems in single-parent but not dual-parent homes; and parent symptoms were associated with youth internalizing problems among boys, but not girls. The moderator findings suggest that the risks associated with parent psychopathology may not be uniform but may depend, in part, on family structure and youth gender.
Thompson, W D; Schildkraut, J M
As part of a multi-centre epidemiological study of cancer in women between the ages of 20 and 54, data were collected concerning family history of gynaecological cancers in the female relatives of 4730 women with newly diagnosed breast cancer and the relatives of 4688 women from the general population. Women who were diagnosed with breast cancer prior to age 45 were more likely than controls to have a mother or sister with ovarian cancer (odds ratio (OR): 1.50), endometrial cancer (1.29), and cervical cancer (1.53), although none of these elevations achieved statistical significance. The corresponding odds ratios for women diagnosed with breast cancer between the ages of 45 and 54 were 1.88, 0.84 and 0.93. The association with ovarian cancer was statistically significant in this group (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.11-3.19). In this latter group, having a first degree relative with ovarian cancer was associated approximately as strongly with breast cancer as was having a first degree relative with breast cancer. The results suggest that there may be a shared genetic basis for some cancers of the breast and ovary. From a clinical perspective, the results indicate that in setting appropriate levels of screening for breast cancer and in establishing an appropriate age at which to begin such screening for a particular woman, her family history of ovarian cancer should be considered in addition to her family history of breast cancer.
Gesell, Sabina B.; Po’e, Eli K.; Escarfuller, Juan; Tempesti, Tommaso
OBJECTIVE: To test the effect of a culturally tailored, family-centered, short-term behavioral intervention on BMI in Latino-American preschool-aged children. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, 54 parent–child dyads were allocated to the intervention and 52 dyads were allocated to an alternative school-readiness program as the control condition. Parent–child dyads were eligible if the parent self-defined Latino, was at least 18 years old, had a 2- to 6-year-old child not currently enrolled in another healthy lifestyle program, had a valid telephone number, and planned on remaining in the city for the next 6 months. The Salud Con La Familia (Health with the Family) program consisted of 12 weekly 90-minute skills-building sessions designed to improve family nutritional habits and increase physical activity. Both programs were conducted in a community recreation center serving an urban neighborhood of mostly Spanish-speaking residents. RESULTS: Forty-two percent of participating preschool-aged children were overweight or obese. Controlling for child age, gender, and baseline BMI, the effect of the treatment condition on postintervention absolute BMI was B = –0.59 (P < .001). The intervention effect seemed to be strongest for obese children. CONCLUSIONS: A skills-building, culturally tailored intervention involving parent–child dyads changed short-term early growth patterns in these Latino-American preschool-aged children. Examining long-term effects would be a prudent next step. PMID:22869834
Henry, Isabelle M; Carpentier, Sebastien C; Pampurova, Suzana; Van Hoylandt, Anais; Panis, Bart; Swennen, Rony; Remy, Serge
Abscisic acid, stress, ripening proteins (ASR) are a family of plant-specific small hydrophilic proteins. Studies in various plant species have highlighted their role in increased resistance to abiotic stress, including drought, but their specific function remains unknown. As a first step toward their potential use in crop improvement, we investigated the structure and regulation of the Asr gene family in Musa species (bananas and plantains). We determined that the Musa Asr gene family contained at least four members, all of which exhibited the typical two exons, one intron structure of Asr genes and the "ABA/WDS" (abscisic acid/water deficit stress) domain characteristic of Asr genes. Phylogenetic analyses determined that the Musa Asr genes were closely related to each other, probably as the product of recent duplication events. For two of the four members, two versions corresponding to the two sub-genomes of Musa, acuminata and balbisiana were identified. Gene expression and protein analyses were performed and Asr expression could be detected in meristem cultures, root, pseudostem, leaf and cormus. In meristem cultures, mAsr1 and mAsr3 were induced by osmotic stress and wounding, while mAsr3 and mAsr4 were induced by exposure to ABA. mASR3 exhibited the most variation both in terms of amino acid sequence and expression pattern, making it the most promising candidate for further functional study and use in crop improvement.
Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard
This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain. PMID:27078854
Guzy, Grażyna; Polczyk, Romuald; Szpitalak, Malwina; Vernon, Howard
This cross-sectional clinical study was designed to explore the relationships between family functioning, coping styles, and neck pain and neck disability. It was hypothesized that better family functioning and more effective coping styles would be associated with less pain and pain-related disability. It also was hypothesized that these relationships would be stronger in older people because they have fewer resources, more limited coping styles, and may depend more on their family for support. In this study, 88 women with chronic non-traumatic neck pain completed the Family Assessment Measure (FAM), Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), and a Visual-Analogue Scale (VAS) measuring the subjective intensity of neck pain. Zero-order and partial correlations and hierarchical stepwise regression were performed. CISS was not correlated with the NDI orVAS. Good family functioning was correlated with lower NDI and VAS scores. Age was found to moderate the relationship between the FAM and both NDI and VAS. This relationship was significant and positive in older patients, but non-significant in younger patients. It was concluded that better family functioning is associated with lower neck disability and pain intensity, especially in the case of older women suffering from non-traumatic neck pain.
There is significant recent interest in Peto's paradox and the related problem of the evolution of large, long-lived organisms in terms of cancer robustness. Peto's paradox refers to the expectation that large, long-lived organisms have a higher lifetime cancer risk, which is not the case: a paradox. This paradox, however, is circular: large, long-lived organisms are large and long-lived because they are cancer robust. Lifetime risk, meanwhile, depends on the age distributions of both cancer and competing risks: if cancer strikes before competing risks, then lifetime risk is high; if not, not. Because no set of competing risks is generally prevalent, it is instructive to temporarily dispose of competing risks and investigate the pure age dynamics of cancer under the multistage model of carcinogenesis. In addition to augmenting earlier results, I show that in terms of cancer-free lifespan large organisms reap greater benefits from an increase in cellular cancer robustness than smaller organisms. Conversely, a higher cellular cancer robustness renders cancer-free lifespan more resilient to an increase in size. This interaction may be an important driver of the evolution of large, cancer-robust organisms. PMID:27629030
Susperreguy Jorquera, Maria Ines
Early math skills are the strongest predictors of later math achievement in school. This two-wave study addressed three research questions about the role of families in fostering these skills in preschool-aged children. First, how do families talk about math at home? Second, how do these conversations vary across families with different…
Roberts, D. G.; Masson, D. G.; Miles, P. R.
The Rockall Trough separates the Rockall Plateau microcontinent from the shelf and slope west of the British Isles. The structure and age of the trough has been the source of considerable discussion. Although widely considered to be of oceanic origin, postulated ages for the spreading range from Permian to Cretaceous. New seismic profiles linked to the IPOD sites in the Bay of Biscay and to oceanic anomalies of known age are used to present a new assessment of the age and structure of the southern Rockall Trough. It is concluded that about 120 km of ocean crust is present in the trough and that spreading took place in the Albian-Maastrichtian interval.
Noble, Kimberly G; Houston, Suzanne M; Brito, Natalie H; Bartsch, Hauke; Kan, Eric; Kuperman, Joshua M; Akshoomoff, Natacha; Amaral, David G; Bloss, Cinnamon S; Libiger, Ondrej; Schork, Nicholas J; Murray, Sarah S; Casey, B J; Chang, Linda; Ernst, Thomas M; Frazier, Jean A; Gruen, Jeffrey R; Kennedy, David N; Van Zijl, Peter; Mostofsky, Stewart; Kaufmann, Walter E; Kenet, Tal; Dale, Anders M; Jernigan, Terry L; Sowell, Elizabeth R
Socioeconomic disparities are associated with differences in cognitive development. The extent to which this translates to disparities in brain structure is unclear. We investigated relationships between socioeconomic factors and brain morphometry, independently of genetic ancestry, among a cohort of 1,099 typically developing individuals between 3 and 20 years of age. Income was logarithmically associated with brain surface area. Among children from lower income families, small differences in income were associated with relatively large differences in surface area, whereas, among children from higher income families, similar income increments were associated with smaller differences in surface area. These relationships were most prominent in regions supporting language, reading, executive functions and spatial skills; surface area mediated socioeconomic differences in certain neurocognitive abilities. These data imply that income relates most strongly to brain structure among the most disadvantaged children.
Dagna Bricarelli, F; Pierluigi, M; Landucci, M; Arslanian, A; Coviello, D A; Ferro, M A; Strigini, P
Several studies have attempted to define the role of parental age in determining the prevalence of 47, +21 according to the origin of nondisjunction. This report analyzes the original data of 197 informative families from Italy and reviews the available literature (96 families from Denmark and 201 from other countries). Mothers whose gametes showed nondisjunction are treated as cases, and those with normal meiosis as controls within each study. To utilize the data fully, maternal age at birth of a 47, +21 individual is treated as a continuous variable in a nonparametric comparison. The combined evidence indicates that nondisjunction in the female is associated with a significant age difference between cases and controls which is mostly due to errors in the second meiotic division. It may be inferred that in the general population, aging enhances nondisjunction at both first and second division in the female, while aging in the male is presumably associated mostly (or only) with first division errors. Implications and alternative models are discussed.
Petralia, Ronald S; Mattson, Mark P; Yao, Pamela J
Impaired synaptic plasticity is implicated in the functional decline of the nervous system associated with ageing. Understanding the structure of ageing synapses is essential to understanding the functions of these synapses and their role in the ageing nervous system. In this review, we summarize studies on ageing synapses in vertebrates and invertebrates, focusing on changes in morphology and ultrastructure. We cover different parts of the nervous system, including the brain, the retina, the cochlea, and the neuromuscular junction. The morphological characteristics of aged synapses could shed light on the underlying molecular changes and their functional consequences.
Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Wither, Robert G; Shulyakova, Natalya; Fisher, Carl; Ratnam, Melanie; Aarts, Michelle; Lilge, Lothar; Monnier, Philippe P; Eubanks, James H
The sirtuins are NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that play roles in metabolic homeostasis, stress response and potentially aging. This enzyme family resides in different subcellular compartments, and acts on a number of different targets in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. Despite their recognized ability to regulate metabolic processes, the roles played by specific sirtuins in the brain-the most energy demanding tissue in the body-remains less well investigated and understood. In the present study, we examined the regional mRNA and protein expression patterns of individual sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain. Our results show that while each sirtuin is expressed in the brain at each of these different stages, they display unique spatial and temporal expression patterns within the brain. Further, for specific members of the family, the protein expression profile did not coincide with their respective mRNA expression profile. Moreover, using primary cultures enriched for neurons and astrocytes respectively, we found that specific sirtuin members display preferential neural lineage expression. Collectively, these results provide the first composite illustration that sirtuin family members display differential expression patterns in the brain, and provide evidence that specific sirtuins could potentially be targeted to achieve cell-type selective effects within the brain.
NAJAFI, Mohammad Reza; NAJAFI, Mohammad Amin; SAFAEI, Ali
Objective Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is supposedly the most frequent subtype of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of JME and comparison of patients’ demographics as well as timeline of the disease between positive family history epileptic patients (PFHE) and negative family history epileptic patients (NFHE) among sample of Iranian epileptic patients. Materials & Methods From Feb. 2006 to Oct. 2009, 1915 definite epileptic patients (873 females) referred to epilepsy clinics in Isfahan, central Iran, were surveyed and among them, 194 JME patients were diagnosed. JME was diagnosed by its specific clinical and EEG criteria. Patients were divided into two groups as PFHE and NFHE and data were compared between them. Results JME was responsible for 10% (194 patients) of all types of epilepsies. Of JME patients, 53% were female. In terms of family history of epilepsy, 40% were positive. No significant differences was found between PFHE and NFHE groups as for gender (P>0.05). Age of epilepsy onset was significantly earlier in PFHE patients (15 vs. 22 yr, P<0.001). Occurrence of JME before 18 yr old among PFHE patients was significantly higher (OR=2.356, P=0.007). Conclusion A family history of epilepsy might be associated with an earlier age of onset in patients with JME. PMID:27247579
Xiao, Lily Dongxia; Willis, Eileen; Harrington, Ann; Gillham, David; De Bellis, Anita; Morey, Wendy; Jeffers, Lesley
Similar to many developed nations, older people living in residential aged care homes in Australia and the staff who care for them have become increasingly multicultural. This cultural diversity adds challenges for residents in adapting to the care home. This study explores: (i) residents' and family members' perceptions about staff and cultural diversity, and (ii) culturally and linguistically diverse residents' and family members' experiences. An interpretive study design employing a thematic analysis was applied. Twenty-three residents and seven family members participated in interviews. Four themes were identified from interpreting residents and family members' perceptions of the impact of cultural diversity on their adaptation to aged care homes: (i) perceiving diversity as an attraction; (ii) adapting to cross-cultural communication; (iii) adjusting to diet in the residential care home; and (iv) anticipating individualized psychosocial interactions. The findings have implications for identifying strategies to support staff from all cultural backgrounds in order to create a caring environment that facilitates positive relationships with residents and supports residents to adjust to the care home.
Sidorova-Darmos, Elena; Wither, Robert G.; Shulyakova, Natalya; Fisher, Carl; Ratnam, Melanie; Aarts, Michelle; Lilge, Lothar; Monnier, Philippe P.; Eubanks, James H.
The sirtuins are NAD+-dependent protein deacetylases and/or ADP-ribosyltransferases that play roles in metabolic homeostasis, stress response and potentially aging. This enzyme family resides in different subcellular compartments, and acts on a number of different targets in the nucleus, cytoplasm and in the mitochondria. Despite their recognized ability to regulate metabolic processes, the roles played by specific sirtuins in the brain—the most energy demanding tissue in the body—remains less well investigated and understood. In the present study, we examined the regional mRNA and protein expression patterns of individual sirtuin family members in the developing, adult, and aged rat brain. Our results show that while each sirtuin is expressed in the brain at each of these different stages, they display unique spatial and temporal expression patterns within the brain. Further, for specific members of the family, the protein expression profile did not coincide with their respective mRNA expression profile. Moreover, using primary cultures enriched for neurons and astrocytes respectively, we found that specific sirtuin members display preferential neural lineage expression. Collectively, these results provide the first composite illustration that sirtuin family members display differential expression patterns in the brain, and provide evidence that specific sirtuins could potentially be targeted to achieve cell-type selective effects within the brain. PMID:25566066
The study objective was to examine the age structure of selected countries in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region, using available data and frequently applied indices such as the population pyramid, aged-child ratio, and median age. Based on the overall picture of the age structure thus obtained, age trends and their implication for the near future were arrived at. Countries are grouped into 4 types based on the fertility and mortality levels. Except for Japan, Hong Kong, and Singapore, the age structure in the 18 ESCAP region countries changed comparatively little over the 1950-80 period. The largest structural change occurred in Singapore, where the proportion of children under age 15 in the population declined significantly from 41-27%, while that of persons 65 years and older more than doubled. This was due primarily to the marked decline in fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 6.7-1.8 during the period. Hong Kong also had a similar major transformation during the same period: the proportion of the old age population increased 2 1/2 times, from 2.5-6.3%. The age structures of the 18 ESCAP countries varied greatly by country. 10 countries of the 2 high fertility and mortality types showed a similar young age structural pattern, i.e., they have higher dependency ratios, a higher proportion of children under 15 years, a lower proportion of population 65 years and older, lower aged-child ratios, and younger median ages than the average countries in the less developed regions of the world. With minimal changes over the 1950-80 period, the gap between these countries and the average of the less developed regions widened. Unlike these 10 (mostly South Asian) countries, moderately low fertility and mortality countries (China, Korea, and Sri Lanka) are located between the world average and the less developed region in most of the indices, particularly during the last decade. Although their rate of population aging is not
Garssen, Joop; Deerenberg, Ingeborg; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Kerkhof, Ad; Kunst, Anton E.
To determine familial risk of early suicide, data on cause of death of all Dutch residents aged 20-55 years who died between 1995 and 2001 were linked to data of their parents. Men whose father died by suicide had a higher odds of suicide themselves, relative to men whose father died of other causes (Odds Ratio (OR): 2.5; 95% confidence interval:…
Goodro, Matt; Sameti, Mohammad; Patenaude, Brian; Fein, George
Cross-sectional age effects in normal control volunteers were investigated in 8 subcortical structures: lateral ventricles, thalamus, caudate, putamen, pallidum, hippocampus, amygdala and nucleus accumbens. Two hundred and twenty six control subjects, ranging in age from 19 to 85 years, were scanned on a 1.5T GE system (n = 184) or a 3.0T Siemens system (n = 42). Cranium-size adjusted subcortical structure volumes were estimated using FSL’s FIRST software, which is fully automated. Significant age effects were found for all volumes when the entire age range was analyzed, however the older subjects (60–85 years of age) showed a stronger correlation between age and structural volume for the ventricles, hippocampus, amygdala and accumbens than middle-aged (35–60 years of age) subjects. Middle-aged subjects were studied at both sites, and age effects in these groups were comparable, despite differences in magnet strength and acquisition systems. This agreement lends support to the validity of the image analysis tools and procedures used in the present study. PMID:22863654
Colorado Children's Campaign, 2011
Family structure and maternal age at birth can have a significant influence on the physical, mental and economic well-being of mothers and their children. Children born to single mothers in poverty are more likely to face unemployment as adults, drop out of high school and encounter barriers to accessing quality health care. Children of teen…
The principal objective of the study reported on in this article, was to find out if nuclearization of the family influenced fertility and contraceptive usage. Earlier studies in this area had been conflicting with some suggesting no relationship, others a decrease and at least 1 an increase in fertility levels. This study was also designed to uncover the causal dynamics of a possible linkage between the 2 variables. Controlling for length of marriage, the study results show no significant difference in fertility between nuclear and non-nuclear family structures. The validity of the conventional definition of the 2 concepts in the context of traditional societies, like Pakistan, is questioned. As a result, a tentative measure of functional extendedness is developed which takes into account patterns of mutual visitation, services, decision making and commitments within the kinship network. The tool still needs validation but initial findings show that a low level of "extendedness" is associated with high fertility. This may be due to the fact that such families are less exposed to the influence of fertility controlling individuals within the kinship network. The study reaches a number of negative findings, significant for those who expect substantial demographic dividends from social change. Results show that urbanization decreases child mortality but not fertility; that the association between education and fertility is consistent but slight; that husband's dominance is associated both positively and negatively with fertility, depending on length of marriage. Husband-wife communication does not appear to be a consequential factor and a "fatalistic" outlook has no clear relationship with fertility. Moderate but consistent falls in fertility were associated with an increase in visits to friends and relatives, which again highlights the importance of social networks. Findings indicate that, despicte the existance of a nationally administered and active family planning
Unruh, Lynn Y; Raffenaud, Amanda; Fottler, Myron
Conflict between work and family is a human resource management issue that is particularly relevant for nurses. Nursing is a demanding profession, and a high proportion of nurses are women, who tend to have greater family responsibilities than men. Little is known regarding work-family conflict among nurses, and even less is known about how this affects newly licensed registered nurses (NLRNs), who can be stressed from their new jobs and careers. This study empirically tests a model of antecedents and outcomes of work-family and family-work conflict among a sample of NLRNs. We developed a model of the relationships between personal and work environment characteristics, work-family and family-work conflicts, job satisfaction, and intent to leave the job and profession. We used structural equation modeling (Amos, IBM SPSS) to test the model with data from.a survey of NLRNs. We examined a number of latent variables, as well as direct and mediating relationships. The measurement models for all latent variables were validated. The final model indicated that age, health, and family responsibilities are antecedents of family-work conflict; job demands lead to work-family conflict; family-work conflict contributes to job difficulties, which lowers job satisfaction, which, in turn, increases the intent to leave the job and profession; and work-family conflict increases the intent to leave the job and profession (but does not directly affect job satisfaction). Policies to help NLRNs with family responsibilities could reduce family-work conflict, which might reduce job difficulties and improve satisfaction and retention. In addition, policies to reduce job demands could reduce work-family conflict and improve retention.
Helpman, Liat; Rachamim, Lilach; Aderka, Idan M; Gabai-Daie, Ayala; Schindel-Allon, Inbal; Gilboa-Schechtman, Eva
The applicability of diagnostic criteria of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder to the pediatric population has been a focus of much debate (e.g., Carrion, Weems, Ray, & Reiss, 2002 ), informing changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5). The current study examined the factor structure of posttraumatic distress among adult versus pediatric samples using confirmatory factor analysis. The analysis was performed on the DSM-IV-adherent Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (Foa, Cashman, Jaycox, & Perry, 1997 ) and Child Posttraumatic Symptom Scale (Foa, Johnson, Feeny, & Treadwell, 2001 ). The sample included 378 adult and 204 child and adolescent victims of diverse single-event traumas. A series of models based on previous findings and DSM-IV specification were evaluated. A 4-factor model (Intrusions, Avoidance, Dysphoria, and Hyperarousal), similar to the DSM-5 model, best fit the data among adults, and a different 4-factor model (Intrusion, Avodiance, Numbing, and Hyperarousal) best fit the data among children and adolescents. Despite some similarity, the posttraumatic symptom profiles of pediatric and adult samples may differ. These differences are not fully incorporated into the DSM-5, and warrant further examination.
Toll-Riera, Macarena; Bostick, David; Albà, M. Mar; Plotkin, Joshua B.
What factors determine a protein's rate of evolution are actively debated. Especially unclear is the relative role of intrinsic factors of present-day proteins versus historical factors such as protein age. Here we study the interplay of structural properties and evolutionary age, as determinants of protein evolutionary rate. We use a large set of one-to-one orthologs between human and mouse proteins, with mapped PDB structures. We report that previously observed structural correlations also hold within each age group – including relationships between solvent accessibility, designabililty, and evolutionary rates. However, age also plays a crucial role: age modulates the relationship between solvent accessibility and rate. Additionally, younger proteins, despite being less designable, tend to evolve faster than older proteins. We show that previously reported relationships between age and rate cannot be explained by structural biases among age groups. Finally, we introduce a knowledge-based potential function to study the stability of proteins through large-scale computation. We find that older proteins are more stable for their native structure, and more robust to mutations, than younger ones. Our results underscore that several determinants, both intrinsic and historical, can interact to determine rates of protein evolution. PMID:22693443
Gäde, Gerd; Marco, Heather G.
Abstract The presented work is a hybrid of an overview and an original research paper on peptides belonging to the adipokinetic hormone (AKH) family that are present in the corpora cardiaca of Chrysomeloidea. First, we introduce the AKH/red pigment-concentrating hormone (RPCH) peptide family. Second, we collate the available primary sequence data on AKH peptides in Cerambycidae and Chrysomelidae, and we present new sequencing data (from previously unstudied species) obtained by liquid-chromatography coupled with ion trap electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Our expanded data set encompasses the primary structure of AKHs from seven species of Cerambycidae and three species of Chrysomelidae. All of these species synthesise the octapeptide code-named Peram-CAH-I (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Ser-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). Whereas this is the sole AKH peptide in Cerambycidae, Chrysomelidae demonstrate a probable event of AKH gene duplication, thereby giving rise to an additional AKH. This second AKH peptide may be either Emppe-AKH (pGlu-Val-Asn-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide) or Peram-CAH-II (pGlu-Leu-Thr-Phe-Thr-Pro-Asn-Trp amide). The peptide distribution and structural data suggest that both families are closely related and that Peram-CAH-I is the ancestral peptide. We hypothesise on the molecular evolution of Emppe-AKH and Peram-CAH-II from the ancestral peptide due to nonsynonymous missense single nucleotide polymorphism in the nucleotide coding sequence of prepro-AKH. Finally, we review the biological significance of the AKH peptides as hyperprolinaemic hormones in Chrysomeloidea, i.e. they cause an increase in the circulating concentration of proline. The mobilisation of proline has been demonstrated during flight in both cerambycid and chrysomelid beetles. PMID:22303105
Bzostek, Sharon H; Berger, Lawrence M
A vast amount of literature has documented negative associations between family instability and child development, with the largest associations being in the socioemotional (behavioral) domain. Yet, prior work has paid limited attention to differentiating the role of the number, types, and sequencing of family transitions that children experience, as well as to understanding potential heterogeneity in these associations by family structure at birth. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and hierarchical linear models to examine associations of family structure states and transitions with children's socioemotional development during the first nine years of life. We pay close attention to the type and number of family structure transitions experienced and examine whether associations differ depending on family structure at birth. For children born to cohabiting or noncoresident parents, we find little evidence that subsequent family structure experiences are associated with socioemotional development. For children born to married parents, we find associations between family instability and poorer socioemotional development. However, this largely reflects the influence of parental breakup; we find little evidence that socioemotional trajectories differ for children with various family structure experiences subsequent to their parents' breakup.
Jiang, Quanbao; Li, Xiaomin; Li, Shuzhuo; Feldman, Marcus W
Most recent studies of marriage patterns in China have emphasized the male-biased sex ratio but have largely neglected age structure as a factor in China's male marriage squeeze. In this paper we develop an index we call "spousal sex ratio" (SSR) to measure the marriage squeeze, and a method of decomposing the proportion of male surplus into age and sex structure effects within a small spousal age difference interval. We project that China's marriage market will be confronted with a relatively severe male squeeze. For the decomposition of the cohort aged 30, from 2010 to 2020 age structure will be dominant, while from 2020 through 2034 the contribution of age structure will gradually decrease and that of sex structure will increase. From then on, sex structure will be dominant. The index and decomposition, concentrated on a specific female birth cohort, can distinguish spousal competition for single cohorts which may be covered by a summary index for the whole marriage market; these can also be used for consecutive cohorts to reflect the situation of the whole marriage market.
Fisher, Carla L; Nussbaum, Jon F
Interpersonal communication is a fundamental part of being and key to health. Interactions within family are especially critical to wellness across time. Family communication is a central means of adaptation to stress, coping, and successful aging. Still, no theoretical argument in the discipline exists that prioritizes kin communication in health. Theoretical advances can enhance interventions and policies that improve family life. This article explores socioemotional selectivity theory (SST), which highlights communication in our survival. Communication partner choice is based on one's time perspective, which affects our prioritization of goals to survive-goals sought socially. This is a first test of SST in a family communication study on women's health and aging. More than 300 women of varying ages and health status participated. Two time factors, later adulthood and late-stage breast cancer, lead women to prioritize family communication. Findings provide a theoretical basis for prioritizing family communication issues in health reform.
Bailey, Carol A.
Family variables derived from the Family Environment Scale are examined using data from 174 college women at a Pacific Northwest university and 2 universities in Houston (Texas) with varying degrees of bulimia. Subjects' self-reports indicate family dysfunctions, but the study illustrates the complexity of the family's role in bulimia. (SLD)
Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L. III; Norris, W.E.
Research is being conducted by ORNL under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of nuclear power plant containment and other safety-related structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Accomplishments include development of a Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, evaluation of models for potential concrete containment degradation factors, development of a procedure to identify critical structures and degradation factors important to aging management, evaluations of nondestructive evaluation techniques. assessments of European and North American repair practices for concrete, review of parameters affecting corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and development of methodologies for making current condition assessments and service life predictions of new or existing reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants.
Heller, Tamar; Gibbons, Hailee M; Fisher, Dora
This scoping review addressed the following questions: (a) What types of caregiver interventions are being done in both aging and developmental disability research? (b) How are these interventions similar and different? (c) What kinds of outcomes do these interventions have? (d) What innovative approaches are these interventions using? and (e) What can each field (developmental disabilities and gerontology) learn from the other based on this review? The disability review spanned 20 years (1992-2012), resulting in 14 studies; the aging review spanned 5 years (2008-2012), resulting in 55 studies. Data from the final selected studies were then extracted and compared on research design, type of intervention (governmental programs, small-group psychosocial, and other), and outcomes. Generally, in both fields, family-support interventions benefited participants' well-being and improved service access and satisfaction. Increased partnership between the fields of aging and developmental disabilities is critical to future scholarship in caregiving for both populations.
Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath
The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…
Feichtinger, Gustav; Prskawetz, Alexia; Veliov, Vladimir M
This paper brings both intertemporal and age-dependent features to a theory of population policy at the macro-level. A Lotka-type renewal model of population dynamics is combined with a Solow/Ramsey economy. We consider a social planner who maximizes an aggregate intertemporal utility function which depends on per capita consumption. As control policies we consider migration and saving rate (both age-dependent). By using a new maximum principle for age-structured control systems we derive meaningful results for the optimal migration and saving rate in an aging population. The model used in the numerical calculations is calibrated for Austria.
Link, William A; Royle, J Andrew; Hatfield, Jeff S
Demographic analyses of age-structured populations typically rely on life history data for individuals, or when individual animals are not identified, on information about the numbers of individuals in each age class through time. While it is usually difficult to determine the age class of a randomly encountered individual, it is often the case that the individual can be readily and reliably assigned to one of a set of age classes. For example, it is often possible to distinguish first-year from older birds. In such cases, the population age structure can be regarded as a latent variable governed by a process prior, and the data as summaries of this latent structure. In this article, we consider the problem of uncovering the latent structure and estimating process parameters from summaries of age class information. We present a demographic analysis for the critically endangered migratory population of whooping cranes (Grus americana), based only on counts of first-year birds and of older birds. We estimate age and year-specific survival rates. We address the controversial issue of whether management action on the breeding grounds has influenced recruitment, relating recruitment rates to the number of seventh-year and older birds, and examining the pattern of variation through time in this rate.
Link, William A.; Royle, J. Andrew; Hatfield, Jeff S.
Demographic analyses of age-structured populations typically rely on life history data for individuals, or when individual animals are not identified, on information about the numbers of individuals in each age class through time. While it is usually difficult to determine the age class of a randomly encountered individual, it is often the case that the individual can be readily and reliably assigned to one of a set of age classes. For example, it is often possible to distinguish first-year from older birds. In such cases, the population age structure can be regarded as a latent variable governed by a process prior, and the data as summaries of this latent structure. In this article, we consider the problem of uncovering the latent structure and estimating process parameters from summaries of age class information. We present a demographic analysis for the critically endangered migratory population of whooping cranes (Grus americana), based only on counts of first-year birds and of older birds. We estimate age and year-specific survival rates. We address the controversial issue of whether management action on the breeding grounds has influenced recruitment, relating recruitment rates to the number of seventh-year and older birds, and examining the pattern of variation through time in this rate.
Ducrot, Arnaut; Magal, Pierre; Ruan, Shigui
Age-structured epidemic models have been used to describe either the age of individuals or the age of infection of certain diseases and to determine how these characteristics affect the outcomes and consequences of epidemiological processes. Most results on age-structured epidemic models focus on the existence, uniqueness, and convergence to disease equilibria of solutions. In this paper we investigate the existence of travelling wave solutions in a deterministic age-structured model describing the circulation of a disease within a population of multigroups. Individuals of each group are able to move with a random walk which is modelled by the classical Fickian diffusion and are classified into two subclasses, susceptible and infective. A susceptible individual in a given group can be crisscross infected by direct contact with infective individuals of possibly any group. This process of transmission can depend upon the age of the disease of infected individuals. The goal of this paper is to provide sufficient conditions that ensure the existence of travelling wave solutions for the age-structured epidemic model. The case of two population groups is numerically investigated which applies to the crisscross transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and some sexual transmission diseases.
Nicolai, Sara; Rossi, Antonello; Di Daniele, Nicola; Melino, Gerry; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Raschellà, Giuseppe
Cells are constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous factors that threaten the integrity of their DNA. The maintenance of genome stability is of paramount importance in the prevention of both cancer and aging processes. To deal with DNA damage, cells put into operation a sophisticated and coordinated mechanism, collectively known as DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR orchestrates different cellular processes, such as DNA repair, senescence and apoptosis. Among the key factors of the DDR, the related proteins p53, p63 and p73, all belonging to the same family of transcription factors, play multiple relevant roles. Indeed, the members of this family are directly involved in the induction of cell cycle arrest that is necessary to allow the cells to repair. Alternatively, they can promote cell death in case of prolonged or irreparable DNA damage. They also take part in a more direct task by modulating the expression of core factors involved in the process of DNA repair or by directly interacting with them. In this review we will analyze the fundamental roles of the p53 family in the aging process through their multifaceted function in DDR. PMID:26668111
Nicolai, Sara; Rossi, Antonello; Di Daniele, Nicola; Melino, Gerry; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; Raschellà, Giuseppe
Cells are constantly exposed to endogenous and exogenous factors that threaten the integrity of their DNA. The maintenance of genome stability is of paramount importance in the prevention of both cancer and aging processes. To deal with DNA damage, cells put into operation a sophisticated and coordinated mechanism, collectively known as DNA damage response (DDR). The DDR orchestrates different cellular processes, such as DNA repair, senescence and apoptosis. Among the key factors of the DDR, the related proteins p53, p63 and p73, all belonging to the same family of transcription factors, play multiple relevant roles. Indeed, the members of this family are directly involved in the induction of cell cycle arrest that is necessary to allow the cells to repair. Alternatively, they can promote cell death in case of prolonged or irreparable DNA damage. They also take part in a more direct task by modulating the expression of core factors involved in the process of DNA repair or by directly interacting with them. In this review we will analyze the fundamental roles of the p53 family in the aging process through their multifaceted function in DDR.
Brody, Gene H.; Miller, Gregory E.; Yu, Tianyi; Beach, Steven R. H.; Chen, Edith
This study tested the hypothesis that supportive family environments during adolescence will buffer exposure to racial discrimination, reducing its impact on biological weathering and its manifestation in cellular aging. Indicators of racial discrimination, supportive family environments, and covariates were collected for 3 consecutive years across adolescence from 2 independent cohorts of African American youth from rural Georgia. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood mononuclear cells collected during young adulthood. Patterns of methylation were used to index epigenetic ages of these cells and the extent to which they differed from participants’ chronological ages. Among youth in supportive family environments, exposure to high levels of racial discrimination did not forecast epigenetic aging. Among youth in less supportive family environments, exposure to high levels of racial discrimination forecast faster epigenetic aging. The results did not change when confounder variables were included in the data analyses, and the results were replicated across cohorts. PMID:26917213
Eitle, Tamela McNulty; Johnson-Jennings, Michelle; Eitle, David J
Competing explanations of the relationship between family structure and alcohol use problems are examined using a sample of American Indian adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Living in a single-parent family is found to be a marker for the unequal distribution of stress exposure and parental alcohol use, but the effects of other family structures like non-parent families and the presence of under 21-year-old extended family or non-family members emerge or remain as risk or protective factors for alcohol use problems after a consideration of SES, family processes, peer socialization, and social stress. In particular, a non-parent family structure that has not been considered in prior research emerged as a protective family structure for American Indian adolescent alcohol use problems.
Kendall, Earline D., Ed.; And Others
Current changes in the American nuclear family, the impact of changes in family structure on children, and a rationale for day care services are delineated in this literature review. The family modifications examined are (1) divorce, (2) remarriage, (3) single parenting, (4) father absence, (5) teenage parenting, and (6) extended families.…
Modry-Mandell, Kerri L.; Gamble, Wendy C.; Taylor, Angela R.
We examined the impact of family emotional climate and sibling relationship quality on behavioral problems and adaptation in preschool-aged children. Participants were 63 mothers with a preschool-aged child enrolled in a Southern Arizona Head Start Program. Siblings were identified as children closest in age to target child. Mothers of…
Levels of teen pregnancy, illegitimate birth, sexually transmitted disease (STD), rape, wife-bashing, abandonment and abuse, abortion, school dropout, divorce, and drug abuse are on the rise in Fiji. 13.4% of 7,093 births to 7,093 mothers over the period January 1982-June 1983 were to mothers under age 19, of which 46.7% of the babies were illegitimate. 4% of all mothers harbored STD. Talks held by the Ministry of Education eventually led to the development and implementation of the Family Life Education Project in July 1985. The project's longterm goals are to reduce the incidence of adolescent pregnancy, unwanted births, STDs, and psychological stress. To attain these goals, family life education was incorporated in the curricula of 104 of 141 of the country's secondary schools. This core course was designed to change teen attitudes and behaviors relating to family life, population issues, and family planning, and was implemented with broad parental and community support. Anecdotal evidence suggests program success.
Bauger, Lars; Bongaardt, Rob
In response to the ever-increasing longevity in Western societies, old age has been divided into two different periods, labelled the third and fourth age. Where the third age, with its onset at retirement, mostly involves positive aspects of growing old, the fourth age involves functional decline and increased morbidity. This article focuses on the entry to the third age and its potential for health promotion initiatives. Well-being is an important factor to emphasize in such health promotion, and this article views the lifestyle of third agers as essential for their well-being. The structural developmental theory of Robert Kegan delineates how a person's way of knowing develops throughout the life course. This theory is an untapped and salient perspective for health promotion initiatives in the third age. This article outlines Kegan's approach as a tool for developing psychologically spacious health promotion, and suggests future directions for research on the topic.
Leech, Rebecca M; McNaughton, Sarah A; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J; Pearson, Natalie; Timperio, Anna
Involvement in meal preparation and eating meals with the family are associated with better dietary patterns in adolescents, however little research has included older children or longitudinal study designs. This 3-year longitudinal study examines cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between family food involvement, family dinner meal frequency and dietary patterns during late childhood. Questionnaires were completed by parents of 188 children from Greater Melbourne, Australia at baseline in 2002 (mean age=11.25years) and at follow-up in 2006 (mean age=14.16years). Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify dietary patterns. Factor analysis (FA) was used to determine the principal factors from six indicators of family food involvement. Multiple linear regression models were used to predict the dietary patterns of children and adolescents at baseline and at follow-up, 3years later, from baseline indicators of family food involvement and frequency of family dinner meals. PCA revealed two dietary patterns, labeled a healthful pattern and an energy-dense pattern. FA revealed one factor for family food involvement. Cross-sectionally among boys, family food involvement score (β=0.55, 95% CI: 0.02, 1.07) and eating family dinner meals daily (β=1.11, 95% CI: 0.27, 1.96) during late childhood were positively associated with the healthful pattern. Eating family dinner meals daily was inversely associated with the energy-dense pattern, cross-sectionally among boys (β=-0.56, 95% CI: -1.06, -0.06). No significant cross-sectional associations were found among girls and no significant longitudinal associations were found for either gender. Involvement in family food and eating dinner with the family during late childhood may have a positive influence on dietary patterns of boys. No evidence was found to suggest the effects on dietary patterns persist into adolescence.
Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Zapata Roblyer, Martha I.; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A.; Ip, Edward H.; Lang, Wei; Quandt, Sara A.
Objective To describe time spent in sedentary and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) by children in Latino farmworker families; and delineate sources of variation in sedentary and MVPA. Method Data were from mother-child dyads (N = 248) in Latino farmworker households in North Carolina. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers; mothers described their children’s characteristics and their physical and social environments. Results Children spent 6.2 hours/day sedentary (Median=369 minutes), and 6.0 minutes/day in MVPA. Children in Head Start spent more time sedentary, whereas children living where dogs roam freely were less sedentary. Children whose mothers limited screen time spent 2 more minutes in MVPA. Conclusions Preschool-aged Latino children in farmworker families are sedentary, engaging in very little MVPA. PMID:24933141
Jansen, Hailey J.; Moghtadaei, Motahareh; Mackasey, Martin; Rafferty, Sara A.; Bogachev, Oleg; Sapp, John L.; Howlett, Susan E.; Rose, Robert A.
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is prevalent in aging populations; however not all individuals age at the same rate. Instead, individuals of the same chronological age can vary in health status from fit to frail. Our objective was to determine the impacts of age and frailty on atrial function and arrhythmogenesis in mice using a frailty index (FI). Aged mice were more frail and demonstrated longer lasting AF compared to young mice. Consistent with this, aged mice showed longer P wave duration and PR intervals; however, both parameters showed substantial variability suggesting differences in health status among mice of similar chronological age. In agreement with this, P wave duration and PR interval were highly correlated with FI score. High resolution optical mapping of the atria demonstrated reduced conduction velocity and action potential duration in aged hearts that were also graded by FI score. Furthermore, aged mice had increased interstitial fibrosis along with changes in regulators of extracellular matrix remodelling, which also correlated with frailty. These experiments demonstrate that aging results in changes in atrial structure and function that create a substrate for atrial arrhythmias. Importantly, these changes were heterogeneous due to differences in health status, which could be identified using an FI. PMID:28290548
Poterba, J M
"This paper investigates the association between population age structure, particularly the share of the population in the 'prime saving years' 45-60, and the returns on stocks and bonds. The paper is motivated by the claim that the aging of the 'Baby Boom' cohort in the United States is a key factor in explaining the recent rise in asset values. It also addresses the associated claim that asset prices will decline when this large cohort reaches retirement age and begins to reduce its asset holdings. This paper begins by considering household age-asset accumulation profiles. Data from the Survey of Consumer Finances suggest that while cross-sectional age-wealth profiles peak for households in their early 60s, cohort data on the asset ownership of the same households show a much less pronounced peak.... The paper then considers the historical relationship between demographic structure and real returns on Treasury bills, long-term government bonds, and corporate stock. The results do not suggest any robust relationship between demographic structure and asset returns.... The paper concludes by discussing factors such as international capital flows and forward-looking behavior on the part of market participants that could weaken the relationship between age structure and asset returns in a single nation."
Myers, John N; Zhang, Chi; Lee, Kang-Wook; Williamson, Jaimal; Chen, Zhan
Interfacial properties such as adhesion are determined by interfacial molecular structures. Adhesive interfaces in microelectronic packages that include organic polymers such as epoxy are susceptible to delamination during accelerated stress testing. Infrared-visible sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy (SFG) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) were used to study molecular structures at buried epoxy interfaces during hygrothermal aging to relate molecular structural changes at buried interfaces to decreases in macroscopic adhesion strength. SFG peaks associated with strongly hydrogen bonded water were detected at hydrophilic epoxy interfaces. Ordered interfacial water was also correlated to large decreases in interfacial adhesion strength that occurred as a result of hygrothermal aging, which suggests that water diffused to the interface and replaced original hydrogen bond networks. No water peaks were observed at hydrophobic epoxy interfaces, which was correlated with a much smaller decrease in adhesion strength from the same aging process. ATR-FTIR water signals observed in the epoxy bulk were mainly contributed by relatively weakly hydrogen bonded water molecules, which suggests that the bulk and interfacial water structure was different. Changes in interfacial methyl structures were observed regardless of the interfacial hydrophobicity which could be due to water acting as a plasticizer that restructured both the bulk and interfacial molecular structure. This research demonstrates that SFG studies of molecular structural changes at buried epoxy interfaces during hygrothermal aging can contribute to the understanding of moisture-induced failure mechanisms in electronic packages that contain organic adhesives.
Examines relationship between structural family model and self-psychology constructs. College women (n=164) completed the Structural Family Interaction Scale-Revised (SFIS-R), the Parental Relations Inventory, and the Goal Instability and Superiority scales from the Self-Expression Inventory. Indicated that women raised in families with strong…
Denic, Aleksandar; Glassock, Richard J; Rule, Andrew D
Senescence or normal physiologic aging portrays the expected age-related changes in the kidney as compared to a disease that occurs in some but not all individuals. The microanatomical structural changes of the kidney with older age include a decreased number of functional glomeruli from an increased prevalence of nephrosclerosis (arteriosclerosis, glomerulosclerosis, and tubular atrophy with interstitial fibrosis), and to some extent, compensatory hypertrophy of remaining nephrons. Among the macroanatomical structural changes, older age associates with smaller cortical volume, larger medullary volume until middle age, and larger and more numerous kidney cysts. Among carefully screened healthy kidney donors, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) declines at a rate of 6.3 mL/min/1.73 m(2) per decade. There is reason to be concerned that the elderly are being misdiagnosed with CKD. Besides this expected kidney function decline, the lowest risk of mortality is at a GFR of ≥75 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for age <55 years but at a lower GFR of 45 to 104 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for age ≥65 years. Changes with normal aging are still of clinical significance. The elderly have less kidney functional reserve when they do actually develop CKD, and they are at higher risk for acute kidney injury.
Nenadić, Igor; Sauer, Heinrich; Smesny, Stefan; Gaser, Christian
Background: Although mostly conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental disorder, there is an increasing interest in progressive changes of cognitive deficits and brain structure and function in schizophrenia across the life span. Methods: In this study, we investigated age-related changes in regional gray matter using voxel-based morphometry in a sample of 99 patients (age range 18–65 years) with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV schizophrenia and 113 healthy controls (age range 19–59 years) using a cross-sectional design. Results: We found steeper age-related decline in gray matter in patients in a cluster comprising the left superior temporal cortex and adjacent inferior parietal lobule. We then divided the schizophrenia sample in 3 subgroups based on a 3-factor model of psychopathology ratings. Age-related changes were markedly different in each of the 3 subgroups (compared with healthy controls). While patients with predominantly paranoid symptoms showed stronger age-related progression in the left superior temporal cortex and right inferior frontal gyrus, those of the disorganized subgroup had stronger gray matter loss in the left lateral cerebellum, while the predominantly negative subgroup showed minor effects in the left superior temporal gyrus. Conclusions: Our findings show that differences in brain structural changes associated with aging diverge between schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects and that different subgroups within a patient sample might be at higher risk of age-related regional gray matter loss. PMID:21296908
Bartolomucci, Alessandro; Possenti, Roberta; Mahata, Sushil K.; Fischer-Colbrie, Reiner; Loh, Y. Peng
The chromogranins (chromogranin A and chromogranin B), secretogranins (secretogranin II and secretogranin III), and additional related proteins (7B2, NESP55, proSAAS, and VGF) that together comprise the granin family subserve essential roles in the regulated secretory pathway that is responsible for controlled delivery of peptides, hormones, neurotransmitters, and growth factors. Here we review the structure and function of granins and granin-derived peptides and expansive new genetic evidence, including recent single-nucleotide polymorphism mapping, genomic sequence comparisons, and analysis of transgenic and knockout mice, which together support an important and evolutionarily conserved role for these proteins in large dense-core vesicle biogenesis and regulated secretion. Recent data further indicate that their processed peptides function prominently in metabolic and glucose homeostasis, emotional behavior, pain pathways, and blood pressure modulation, suggesting future utility of granins and granin-derived peptides as novel disease biomarkers. PMID:21862681
MacRae, Ian J; Doudna, Jennifer A
Ribonuclease III (RNase III) enzymes occur ubiquitously in biology and are responsible for processing RNA precursors into functional RNAs that participate in protein synthesis, RNA interference and a range of other cellular activities. Members of the RNase III enzyme family, including Escherichia coli RNase III, Rnt1, Dicer and Drosha, share the ability to recognize and cleave double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), typically at specific positions or sequences. Recent biochemical and structural data have shed new light on how RNase III enzymes catalyze dsRNA hydrolysis and how substrate specificity is achieved. A major theme emerging from these studies is that accessory domains present in different RNase III enzymes are the key determinants of substrate selectivity, which in turn dictates the specialized biological function of each type of RNase III protein.
Chu, Regina Ju-chun
Gender and age differences in the effects of e-learning, including students' satisfaction and Internet self-efficacy, have been supported in prior research. What is less understood is how these differences are shaped, especially for higher aged adults. This article examines the utility of family support (tangible and emotional) and Internet…
Gamelon, Marlène; Grøtan, Vidar; Engen, Steinar; Bjørkvoll, Eirin; Visser, Marcel E; Saether, Bernt-Erik
Classical approaches for the analyses of density dependence assume that all the individuals in a population equally respond and equally contribute to density dependence. However, in age-structured populations, individuals of different ages may differ in their responses to changes in population size and how they contribute to density dependence affecting the growth rate of the whole population. Here we apply the concept of critical age classes, i.e., a specific scalar function that describes how one or a combination of several age classes affect the demographic rates negatively, in order to examine how total density dependence acting on the population growth rate depends on the age-specific population sizes. In a 38-yr dataset of an age-structured great tit (Parus major) population, we find that the age classes, including the youngest breeding females, were the critical age classes for density regulation. These age classes correspond to new breeders that attempt to take a territory and that have the strongest competitive effect on other breeding females. They strongly affected population growth rate and reduced recruitment and survival rates of all breeding females. We also show that depending on their age class, females may differently respond to varying density. In particular, the negative effect of the number of breeding females was stronger on recruitment rate of the youngest breeding females. These findings question the classical assumptions that all the individuals of a population can be treated as having an equal contribution to density regulation and that the effect of the number of individuals is age independent. Our results improve our understanding of density regulation in natural populations.
Demuth, Stephen; Brown, Susan L.
One third of all children are born to unmarried mothers and over one half of children will spend some time in a single-parent family. In fact, single-father families are the fastest growing family form. Using data from the 1995 National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health, the authors extend prior research that has investigated the effects of…
Matsuda, Takashi; Matsukawa, Junko
Research on retrieval-induced forgetting has shown that remembering can cause forgetting of related information. This study examined whether such forgetting occurred for associatively structured lists and if aging influenced such forgetting. We compared retrieval-induced forgetting during a free recall test by using Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) lists with an associative structure as the stimulus. Two age groups of young and old adult participants were tested. The results indicated that both age groups showed the same degree of retrieval-induced forgetting of the lists. These results suggest that the association between items causes retrieval-induced forgetting and that the inhibitory function of the association in retrieval-induced forgetting does not decline with age.
The aim of this review is to examine two factors that may be associated with development of childhood overweight: early feeding, namely exclusive breastfeeding practices; family structure. Findings from the Identification and prevention of Dietary- and lifestyle-induced health EFfects In Children and infantS (IDEFICS) study are presented in the context of the literature. IDEFICS is a multi-centre European study exploring the risks for overweight and obesity in children, which recruited 16,224 children aged 2-9 years from September 2007 to June 2008 at survey centres in Italy, Estonia, Cyprus, Belgium, Sweden, Hungary, Germany and Spain. Among the IDEFICS sample, after controlling for confounders, exclusive breastfeeding for 4-6 months was protective of overweight (including obesity) when compared with children never exclusively breastfed (OR 0·73, 95% CI 0·63, 0·85). Family structure and number of siblings may also be associated with overweight. IDEFICS children without siblings were more likely (OR 1·52, 95% CI 1·34, 1·72) to be overweight than their peers with siblings when controlling for factors related to childhood overweight such as country, parental education, parental weight, maternal age, child's age, birth weight and gender. Both early feeding practices and family structure play a role in the future development of obesity. The impact of breastfeeding on future development of overweight is dependent upon the dose. Exclusive breastfeeding for the recommended 6 months appears to be protective of overweight. Family structure is also an important component and emerging research suggests only children are at increased risk for overweight in comparison with those with siblings. In European countries, approximately 22 million children are overweight. Early dietary exposures, genetic, environmental and social factors have all been proposed as potential causal factors. Two such factors include exclusive breastfeeding and the impact of being an only child. We
Coyle, Caitlin E.; Putman, Michelle; Kramer, John; Mutchler, Jan E.
For the first time, adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are living to experience old age. The purpose of this project was to assess the activities of Aging and Disability Resource Centers (ADRCs) as they seek to serve older adults with intellectual disabilities and their family caregivers. Data come from 21 in-depth qualitative interviews with ADRC staff in seven states. Results of this qualitative analysis indicate that ADRCs are not focusing explicitly on adults aging with intellectual and developmental disabilities and their family caregivers, but meeting the needs of this population is a future goal of ADRCs. Challenges related to accessing and providing information and referral services for adults aging with intellectual and developmental disabilities were described, which highlight existing unmet needs of this population. Supporting adults who simultaneously require aging and disability services requires true coordination of aging and disability service systems. PMID:26548867
Fama, Rosemary; Sullivan, Edith V.
The thalamus, with its cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar connections, is a critical node in networks supporting cognitive functions known to decline in normal aging, including component processes of memory and executive functions of attention and information processing. The macrostructure, microstructure, and neural connectivity of the thalamus changes across the adult lifespan. Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have demonstrated, regional thalamic volume shrinkage and microstructural degradation, with anterior regions generally more compromised than posterior regions. The integrity of selective thalamic nuclei and projections decline with advancing age, particularly those in thalamofrontal, thalamoparietal, and thalamolimbic networks. This review presents studies that assess the relations between age and aging and the structure, function, and connectivity of the thalamus and associated neural networks and focuses on their relations with processes of attention, speed of information processing, and working and episodic memory. PMID:25862940
Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.
The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.
Glennon, Elizabeth B. C.; Whitehouse, Isobel J.; Miners, J. Scott; Kehoe, Patrick G.; Love, Seth; Kellett, Katherine A. B.; Hooper, Nigel M.
Bridging integrator 1 (BIN1) has been implicated in sporadic Alzheimer’s disease (AD) by a number of genome wide association studies (GWAS) in a variety of populations. Here we measured BIN1 in frontal cortex samples from 24 sporadic AD and 24 age-matched non-dementia brains and correlated the expression of this protein with markers of AD. BIN1 was reduced by 87% (p=0.007) in sporadic AD compared to non-dementia controls, but BIN1 in sporadic AD did not correlate with soluble Aβ (rs=-0.084, p=0.698), insoluble Aβ (rs=0.237, p=0.269), Aβ plaque load (rs=0.063, p=0.771) or phospho-tau load (rs=-0.160, p=0.489). In contrast to our findings in sporadic AD, BIN1 was unchanged in the hippocampus from 6 cases of familial AD compared to 6 age-matched controls (p=0.488). BIN1 declined with age in a cohort of non-dementia control cases between 25 and 88 years but the correlation was not significant (rs=-0.449, p=0.081). Although BIN1 is known to have a role in endocytosis, and the processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to form amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides is dependent on endocytosis, knockdown of BIN1 by targeted siRNA or the overexpression of BIN1 in a human neuroblastoma cell line (SH-SY5Y) had no effect on APP processing. These data suggest that the alteration in BIN1 is involved in the pathogenesis of sporadic, but not familial AD and is not a consequence of AD neurodegeneration or the ageing process, a finding in keeping with the numerous GWAS that implicate BIN1 in sporadic AD. However, the mechanism of its contribution remains to be established. PMID:24205320
McFarlane, A H; Bellissimo, A; Norman, G R
This study assessed the association between parental style, family functioning and adolescent well being, contrasting intact families with those of changed configuration. Eight hundred and one grade 10 general level teenagers in 11 high schools of a single educational system were the subjects. Results indicated that the configuration of the family was not the key determinant of effectiveness of family functioning. Instead the style of parenting turned out to be the main determinant of both family functioning and well being of the adolescents. While both "parents" were judged to have contributed to these outcomes cross gender effects were found.
While in external or high-redshift galaxies we can only measure integrated stellar properties at best, the Milky Way offers us the unique opportunity to study its individual baryonic components, including stars. We use oscillations measured in red giant stars by the Kepler satellite to derive stellar ages and explore the vertical age structure across few kpc of the Milky Way disc. We find that old stars dominate at increasing Galactic heights, whereas closer to the plane a rich zoology of ages exists. The age distribution of stars shows a smooth distribution over the last 10 Gyr, which together with a flat age-metallicity relation is consistent with a quiescent evolution for the Milky Way disc since a redshift of about two.
A growing body of evidence indicates the critical importance of appropriate supports for children and their families at early ages, as well as the potential for targeted interventions to make meaningful contributions to children's development. Family involvement in the early years of a child's learning and development can serve as a protective…
Elbedour, S; Bart, William; Hektner, Joel
Previous studies of polygamy and child mental health have primarily focused on younger children. The present studies are among the first to focus on adolescents. The first study involved 210 randomly selected Bedouin Arab adolescents (mean age 15.9), who were administered instruments assessing their family environment and mental health. The second study involved 182 Bedouin Arab adolescents in which the student participants completed a single instrument about themselves and in which the teachers of the students completed the Teachers' Report Form of the Child Behaviour Checklist by Achenbach. The Bedouin Arab adolescents fell into two groups: (a) adolescents in monogamous family structures and (b) adolescents in polygamous family structures. The findings of the first study suggest that the two groups did not differ significantly in the majority of the assessed variables, even though there were significant differences obtained between groups for 4 of the 13 assessed variables. The two groups did not differ significantly in the second study. Results were discussed in terms of their cultural and developmental significance.
Ayllón, Sara; Ferreira-Batista, Natalia N
This paper studies the relationship between single motherhood and children's height-for-age z-scores in Brazil. In order to isolate the causal effect between family structure and children's condition, we estimate an econometric model that uses male preference for firstborn sons and local sex ratios to instrument the probability of a woman becoming a single mother. Our results have a local average treatment effect interpretation (LATE). We find that children being raised by a single mother (whose marital status is affected by a firstborn girl and a low sex ratio) have a height-for-age z-score that is lower than that of children of similar characteristics that cohabit with both progenitors. We claim that the increasing trend of single motherhood in Brazil should be of concern in health policy design.
Koval'skiĭ, G B
Histoenzymological assay was used to investigate various structures of the ovaries of rats of two groups aged 3-4 and 12-14 months during estral cycle. The activity of 3 beta-, 17 beta- and 20 alpha-steroid dehydrogenases, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, NAD and NADP-diaphorases, esterase, acid and alkaline phosphatases was studied. It has been shown that transport alterations in the microcirculation including the hematofollicular barrier play, the leading part in age-dependent depression of reproductive and endocrine functions. Ageing rats demonstrated no linkage between endothelial, thecal and granular cells, which points to the injury of the histophysiological mechanisms of the follicular system integration.
Angel, Ronald J.
Successful or healthful aging are terms that draw attention to life course issues related to individual, physical, and psychologic development and maturation, but they also draw attention to the material basis of successful aging and the social structures that determine one’s place in the social hierarchy. This article focuses on barriers to optimal aging for Hispanics, especially those of Mexican origin, and argues that cultural factors and social class are closely associated. The reduction of health disparities and equity in medical and long-term care requires an understanding of both cultural and material sources of differential health levels. PMID:19065093
Shah, Q; Sonuga-Barke, E
The relationship between family structure and mental health was examined in a British Pakistani Muslim community. Mothers completed an inventory of psychological symptoms of depression and anxiety while a teacher rated their children's behavioural adjustment. Mothers living in extended families reported feeling more depressed and anxious than those in nuclear families; their children, however, were better adjusted. The significance and reasons for the different patterns of association between family structure and psychological well-being for mothers and children are discussed.
Dickie, David Alexander; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Karama, Sherif; Pattie, Alison; Royle, Natalie A.; Corley, Janie; Aribisala, Benjamin S.; Valdés Hernández, Maria; Muñoz Maniega, Susana; Starr, John M.; Bastin, Mark E.; Evans, Alan C.; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Deary, Ian J.
Objective: To investigate how associations between education and brain structure in older age were affected by adjusting for IQ measured at age 11. Methods: We analyzed years of full-time education and measures from an MRI brain scan at age 73 in 617 community-dwelling adults born in 1936. In addition to average and vertex-wise cortical thickness, we measured total brain atrophy and white matter tract fractional anisotropy. Associations between brain structure and education were tested, covarying for sex and vascular health; a second model also covaried for age 11 IQ. Results: The significant relationship between education and average cortical thickness (β = 0.124, p = 0.004) was reduced by 23% when age 11 IQ was included (β = 0.096, p = 0.041). Initial associations between longer education and greater vertex-wise cortical thickness were significant in bilateral temporal, medial-frontal, parietal, sensory, and motor cortices. Accounting for childhood intelligence reduced the number of significant vertices by >90%; only bilateral anterior temporal associations remained. Neither education nor age 11 IQ was significantly associated with total brain atrophy or tract-averaged fractional anisotropy. Conclusions: The association between years of education and brain structure ≈60 years later was restricted to cortical thickness in this sample; however, the previously reported associations between longer education and a thicker cortex are likely to be overestimates in terms of both magnitude and distribution. This finding has implications for understanding, and possibly ameliorating, life-course brain health. PMID:27664981
Scaramella, Laura V; Sohr-Preston, Sara L; Callahan, Kristin L; Mirabile, Scott P
Hurricane Katrina dramatically altered the level of social and environmental stressors for the residents of the New Orleans area. The Family Stress Model describes a process whereby felt financial strain undermines parents' mental health, the quality of family relationships, and child adjustment. Our study considered the extent to which the Family Stress Model explained toddler-aged adjustment among Hurricane Katrina affected and nonaffected families. Two groups of very low-income mothers and their 2-year-old children participated (pre-Katrina, n = 55; post-Katrina, n = 47). Consistent with the Family Stress Model, financial strain and neighborhood violence were associated with higher levels of mothers' depressed mood; depressed mood was linked to less parenting efficacy. Poor parenting efficacy was associated to more child internalizing and externalizing problems.
Merry, Justin W; Kemp, Darrell J; Rutowski, Ronald L
Studies of compound eyes have revealed that variation in eye structure can substantially affect visual performance. Here, we investigate the degree to which a stressful rearing environment, which decreases body size, affects the eye phenotype. Full siblings of the Orange Sulphur butterfly, Colias eurytheme, were collected from known parents and split within families among two diet treatments that varied in quality. In both sexes, individuals reared on the high-quality diet had larger eye height and anterior facet diameter, and therefore, by inference, superior vision. However, relative to their reduced body size, individuals reared on low-quality diet had proportionally larger eyes and facets than individuals reared on high-quality diet. We interpret this finding as evidence that butterflies encountering nutritional stress increased proportional investment in eye development to reduce loss of visual performance. We also found significant broad-sense genetic variation underlying eye structure in both males and females, and report novel heritability estimates for eye height and facet diameter. Surprisingly, there was greater genetic variation in eye height among males than among females, despite apparently stronger directional selection on male vision. We discuss the implications of these data for our understanding of eye development and evolution.
Liu, Ying; Yang, Jichun; Chen, Li-Ming
The solute carrier SLC4 family consists of 10 members, nine of which are HCO3- transporters, including three Na+-independent Cl−/HCO3- exchangers AE1, AE2, and AE3, five Na+-coupled HCO3- transporters NBCe1, NBCe2, NBCn1, NBCn2, and NDCBE, as well as “AE4” whose Na+-dependence remains controversial. The SLC4 HCO3- transporters play critical roles in pH regulation and transepithelial movement of electrolytes with a broad range of demonstrated physiological relevances. Dysfunctions of these transporters are associated with a series of human diseases. During the past decades, tremendous amount of effort has been undertaken to investigate the topological organization of the SLC4 transporters in the plasma membrane. Based upon the proposed topology models, mutational and functional studies have identified important structural elements likely involved in the ion translocation by the SLC4 transporters. In the present article, we review the advances during the past decades in understanding the structure and function of the SLC4 transporters. PMID:26648873
Cabinio, Monia; Rossetto, Federica; Blasi, Valeria; Savazzi, Federica; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Valle, Annalisa; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Marchetti, Antonella; Baglio, Francesca
The Mind-Reading ability through the eyes is an important component of the affective Theory of Mind (ToM), which allows people to infer the other’s mental state from the eye gaze. The aim of the present study was to investigate to which extent age-associated structural brain changes impact this ability and to determine if this association is related to executive functions in elderly subjects. For this purpose, Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine both gray matter and white matter (WM) areas associated with aging. The resulting areas have been included in a subsequent correlation analysis to detect the brain regions whose structure was associated with the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes, assessed with the Italian version of the “Reading the Mind in the Eyes” (RME) test, in a sample of 36 healthy subjects ranging from 24 to 79 years of age. The analysis resulted in three important findings: (1) the performance to the RME test is relatively stable across the decades 20–70 (despite a slight decrease of this ability with aging) and independent from executive functions; (2) structural brain imaging demonstrated the involvement of a great number of cortical ToM areas for the execution of the RME test: the bilateral precentral gyrus, the bilateral posterior insula, the left superior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, which also showed a significant volume decrease with age; (3) an age and task-related decline in WM connectivity on left fronto-temporal portion of the brain. Our results confirm the age-related structural modifications of the brain and show that these changes have an influence on the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes. PMID:26635702
Cabinio, Monia; Rossetto, Federica; Blasi, Valeria; Savazzi, Federica; Castelli, Ilaria; Massaro, Davide; Valle, Annalisa; Nemni, Raffaello; Clerici, Mario; Marchetti, Antonella; Baglio, Francesca
The Mind-Reading ability through the eyes is an important component of the affective Theory of Mind (ToM), which allows people to infer the other's mental state from the eye gaze. The aim of the present study was to investigate to which extent age-associated structural brain changes impact this ability and to determine if this association is related to executive functions in elderly subjects. For this purpose, Magnetic Resonance Imaging was used to determine both gray matter and white matter (WM) areas associated with aging. The resulting areas have been included in a subsequent correlation analysis to detect the brain regions whose structure was associated with the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes, assessed with the Italian version of the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" (RME) test, in a sample of 36 healthy subjects ranging from 24 to 79 years of age. The analysis resulted in three important findings: (1) the performance to the RME test is relatively stable across the decades 20-70 (despite a slight decrease of this ability with aging) and independent from executive functions; (2) structural brain imaging demonstrated the involvement of a great number of cortical ToM areas for the execution of the RME test: the bilateral precentral gyrus, the bilateral posterior insula, the left superior temporal gyrus and the left inferior frontal gyrus, which also showed a significant volume decrease with age; (3) an age and task-related decline in WM connectivity on left fronto-temporal portion of the brain. Our results confirm the age-related structural modifications of the brain and show that these changes have an influence on the Mind-Reading ability through the eyes.
Blaser, Nello; Zahnd, Cindy; Hermans, Sabine; Salazar-Vizcaya, Luisa; Estill, Janne; Morrow, Carl; Egger, Matthias; Keiser, Olivia; Wood, Robin
Background Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of death in South Africa. The burden of disease varies by age, with peaks in TB notification rates in the HIV-negative population at ages 0-5, 20-24 and 45-49 years. There is little variation between age groups in the rates in the HIV-positive population. The drivers of this age pattern remain unknown. Methods We developed an age-structured simulation model of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) transmission in Cape Town, South Africa. We considered five states of TB progression: susceptible, infected (latent TB), active TB, treated TB and treatment default. Latently infected individuals could be re-infected; a previous Mtb infection slowed progression to active disease. We further considered three states of HIV progression: HIV negative, HIV positive, on antiretroviral therapy. To parameterize the model, we analysed treatment outcomes from the Cape Town electronic TB register, social mixing patterns from a Cape Town community and literature estimates for other parameters. To investigate the main drivers behind the age patterns, we conducted sensitivity analyses on all parameters related to the age structure. Results The model replicated the age patterns in HIV-negative TB notification rates of Cape Town in 2009. Simulated TB notification rate in HIV-negative patients was 1,000/100,000 person-years (pyrs) in children aged < 5 years and decreased to 51/100,000 in children 5-15 years. The peak in early adulthood occurred at 25-29 years (463/100,000 pyrs). After a subsequent decline, simulated TB notification rates gradually increased from the age of 30 years. Sensitivity analyses showed that the dip after the early adult peak was due to the protective effect of latent TB and that retreatment TB was mainly responsible for the rise in TB notification rates from the age of 30 years. Conclusion The protective effect of a first latent infection on subsequent infections and the faster progression in previously treated patients
Fish, Linda Stone; Piercy, Fred P.
Examined the similarities and differences in the theory and practice of structural and strategic family therapy. A national panel of structural and strategic therapists identified items they thought important to a profile of either structural or strategic family therapy. Mental Research Institute, Haley/Madanes, and Milan/Ackerman approaches to…
Light, John M.; And Others
Suggests that the heterogeneity of human personality characteristics increases with age. Examines reasons for this phenomenon in terms of individual differentiation, social structure/allocation, and behavioral genetics. Develops a model synthesizing various study designs that prevent variation and covariation errors from occurring in life course…
Gracy, Jérome; Fournier, Elisabeth; Kroj, Thomas; Padilla, André
Phytopathogenic ascomycete fungi possess huge effector repertoires that are dominated by hundreds of sequence-unrelated small secreted proteins. The molecular function of these effectors and the evolutionary mechanisms that generate this tremendous number of singleton genes are largely unknown. To get a deeper understanding of fungal effectors, we determined by NMR spectroscopy the 3-dimensional structures of the Magnaporthe oryzae effectors AVR1-CO39 and AVR-Pia. Despite a lack of sequence similarity, both proteins have very similar 6 β-sandwich structures that are stabilized in both cases by a disulfide bridge between 2 conserved cysteins located in similar positions of the proteins. Structural similarity searches revealed that AvrPiz-t, another effector from M. oryzae, and ToxB, an effector of the wheat tan spot pathogen Pyrenophora tritici-repentis have the same structures suggesting the existence of a family of sequence-unrelated but structurally conserved fungal effectors that we named MAX-effectors (Magnaporthe Avrs and ToxB like). Structure-informed pattern searches strengthened this hypothesis by identifying MAX-effector candidates in a broad range of ascomycete phytopathogens. Strong expansion of the MAX-effector family was detected in M. oryzae and M. grisea where they seem to be particularly important since they account for 5–10% of the effector repertoire and 50% of the cloned avirulence effectors. Expression analysis indicated that the majority of M. oryzae MAX-effectors are expressed specifically during early infection suggesting important functions during biotrophic host colonization. We hypothesize that the scenario observed for MAX-effectors can serve as a paradigm for ascomycete effector diversity and that the enormous number of sequence-unrelated ascomycete effectors may in fact belong to a restricted set of structurally conserved effector families. PMID:26506000
Tan, Bo; Wu, Fu-zhong; Yang, Wan-qin; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Zhen-feng; Liu, Yang; Gou, Xiao-lin
An investigation was conducted on the population structure of soil arthropod community in the 3-, 8-, 14-, 31-, and 40-years old Pinus massoniana plantations in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River in spring (May) and autumn (October), 2011, aimed to search for the scientific management of the plantation. A total of 4045 soil arthropods were collected, belonging to 57 families. Both the individual density and the taxonomic group number of the soil arthropod community decreased obviously with increasing soil depth, and this trend increased with increasing stand age. The dominant groups and ordinary groups of the soil arthropod community varied greatly with the stand age of P. massoniana plantation, and a significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in the individual density and taxonomic group number among different age P. massoniana plantations. In comparison with other stand age P. massoniana plantations, 3years old P. massoniana plantation had a significant difference in the structure and diversity of soil arthropod community, and the similarity index of the soil arthropod community was lower. The individual density, taxonomic group number, and diversity of soil arthropod community were the highest in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation, and then, decreased obviously with increasing stand age. It was suggested that the land fertility of the P. massoniana plantations could be degraded with increasing stand age, and it would be appropriate to make artificial regulation and restoration in 8-years old P. massoniana plantation.
Pilgrim, Nanlesta A.; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Gray, Ronald H.; Sekasanvu, Joseph; Lutalo, Tom; Nalugoda, Fred K.; Serwadda, David; Wawer, Maria J.
Studies on adolescent girls’ vulnerability to sexual coercion in sub-Saharan Africa have focused mainly on individual and partner risk factors, rarely investigating the role the family might play in their vulnerability. This study examined whether household family structure and parental vital status were associated with adolescent girls’ risk of sexual coercion in Rakai, Uganda. Modified Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risk of sexual coercion in the prior twelve months among 1985 unmarried and married adolescent girls aged 15–19 who were participants in the Rakai Community Cohort Study between 2001 and 2008. Among sexually active girls, 11% reported coercion in a given past year. Unexpectedly, living with a single mother was protective against experiencing coercion. 4.1% of never-married girls living with single mothers reported coercion, compared to 7.8% of girls living with biological fathers (adjRR 2.24; 95% CI: 0.98–5.08) and 20% of girls living in step-father households (adjRR 4.73; 95% CI: 1.78–12.53). Ever-married girls whose mothers alone were deceased were more likely to report coercion than those with both parents alive (adjRR 1.56; 95% CI: 1.08–2.30). Protecting adolescent girls from sexual coercion requires prevention approaches which incorporate the family, with particular emphasis on including the men that affect young girls’ sexual development into prevention efforts. Understanding the family dynamics underlying the risk and protective effects of a given household structure might highlight new ways in which to prevent sexual coercion. PMID:23295373
Cai, Xiao-Hui; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Wooley, John; Godzik, Adam
The protein universe can be organized in families that group proteins sharing common ancestry. Such families display variable levels of structural and functional divergence, from homogenous families, where all members have the same function and very similar structure, to very divergent families, where large variations in function and structure are observed. For practical purposes of structure and function prediction, it would be beneficial to identify sub-groups of proteins with highly similar structures (iso-structural) and/or functions (iso-functional) within divergent protein families. We compared three algorithms in their ability to cluster large protein families and discuss whether any of these methods could reliably identify such iso-structural or iso-functional groups. We show that clustering using profile-sequence and profile-profile comparison methods closely reproduces clusters based on similarities between 3D structures or clusters of proteins with similar biological functions. In contrast, the still commonly used sequence-based methods with fixed thresholds result in vast overestimates of structural and functional diversity in protein families. As a result, these methods also overestimate the number of protein structures that have to be determined to fully characterize structural space of such families. The fact that one can build reliable models based on apparently distantly related templates is crucial for extracting maximal amount of information from new sequencing projects.
Naus, D.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Norris, W.E.; Graves, H.L. III
Research addressing aging management of nuclear power plant concrete and steel containment structures is summarized. Accomplishments related to concrete containment structures include formation of a materials` property database; an aging assessment methodology to identify critical structures and degradation factors; guidelines and evaluation criteria for use in condition assessments; and a time-dependent reliability-based methodology for condition assessments and estimations of future performance. Under the steel containments and liners activity, a degradation assessment methodology has been developed, mathematical models that describe time-dependent changes in the containment due to aggressive environmental factors have been identified, and statistical data supporting the use of these models in time-dependent reliability analysis have been summarized.
Högnäs, Robin S.; Thomas, Jason R.
The association between childhood family structure and offspring wellbeing is well-documented. Recent research shows that adult children of divorced parents will likely marry someone whose parents’ divorced (i.e., family structure homogamy) and are subsequently likely to divorce themselves. This literature has focused primarily on marital unions, despite the rise in cohabitation and nonmarital childbearing. Research suggests that marriage and cohabitation are different types of unions and have different implications for the wellbeing of children. Therefore, we extend the literature by examining the role of family structure homogamy in matching patterns and union stability among unmarried, cohabiting couples. Data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study suggest that unmarried, cohabiting mothers and fathers are both more likely to be from nonintact childhood family structures and are significantly more likely to dissolve their unions compared to married parents who both tend to be from intact childhood family structures. PMID:26640313
De Bruycker, Trees
This article focuses on one aspect of family networks, namely, the frequency of contact with close kin for adults living in different traditional and new family types. Two mechanisms are hypothesized to account for the differences. The first focuses on structural factors such as the number and type of persons in the primary family network,…
Santisteban, Daniel A.; Coatsworth, J. Douglas; Perez-Vidal, Angel; Mitrani, Victoria; Jean-Gilles, Michele; Szapocnik, Jose
The intervention described in this paper used Brief Strategic/Structural Family Therapy (BSFT) to reduce the likelihood that African American and Hispanic youth would initiate drug use by decreasing existing behavior problems at the individual level and improving maladaptive family functioning at the family level. The program targeted African…
Brown, Susan L.
Data from the 1999 National Survey of America's Families N=35,938 were used to examine the relationship between family structure and child well-being. I extended prior research by including children in two-biological-parent cohabiting families, as well as co-habiting stepfamilies, in an investigation of the roles of economic and parental resources…
Pollak, Robert A.; Ginther, Donna K.
This paper examines correlations between children's educational outcomes and family structure. Although popular discussions focus on distinctions between two-parent and single-parent families, earlier research shows that outcomes for stepchildren are similar to outcomes for children in single-parent families, and earlier researchers suggested that…
Nephew, Benjamin C; Pittet, Florent
The evolution of ultrasociality in humans may have involved the evolutionarily significant mechanisms that govern family social structure in many animal species. Adverse effects of ultrasociality in humans may be mediated by maladaptive effects of modern civilization on family groups, as many of the effects on both families and societies are especially severe in dense populations made possible by agriculture.
Quarmby, Thomas; Dagkas, Symeon
Families are increasingly recognised as informal sites of learning, especially with regard to healthy eating. Through the use of Bourdieu's conceptual tools, this paper explores the role of family meals within different family structures and the informal pedagogic encounters that take place. How they help to construct young people's healthy eating…
Randall, Jan A.; McCowan, Brenda; Collins, Kellie C.; Hooper, Stacie L.; Rogovin, Konstantin
The great gerbil, Rhombomys opinus, is a highly social rodent that usually lives in family groups consisting of related females, their offspring, and an adult male. The gerbils emit alarm vocalizations in the presence of diverse predators with different hunting tactics. Alarm calls were recorded in response to three predators, a monitor lizard, hunting dog, and human, to determine whether the most common call type, the rhythmic call, is functionally referential with regard to type of predator. Results show variation in the alarm calls of both adults and subadults with the type of predator. Discriminant function analysis classified an average of 70% of calls to predator type. Call variation, however, was not limited to the predator context, because signal structure also differed by sex, age, individual callers, and family groups. These variations illustrate the flexibility of the rhythmic alarm call of the great gerbil and how it might have multiple functions and communicate in multiple contexts. Three alarm calls, variation in the rhythmic call, and vibrational signals generated from foot-drumming provide the gerbils with a varied and multi-channel acoustic repertoire.
Paradis, Angela D.; Reinherz, Helen Z.; Giaconia, Rose M.; Beardslee, William R.; Ward, Kirsten; Fitzmaurice, Garrett M.
Family arguments by the age of 15 and family physical violence by the age of 18 is found to significantly compromise key domains of adult functioning at age 30. The findings are based on data from 346 participants whose psychosocial development has been followed since age 5.
Supriatna, A. K.; Rachmadani, Q.; Ilahi, F.; Anggriani, N.; Nuraini, N.
The Blue Mountains Water Skink, Eulamprus leuraensis, is listed as an endangered species under the IUCN Red List. This lizard species has a typical characteristic of growth with a low fecundity. It is known that the offspring quality may decline with maternal age of the parents despite they can grow rapidly from neonatal size to adult size within two to three years. It is also believed that low adult survival rates and specialization on rare and fragmented type of habitat are the main cause leading to the endangered status of the lizard. A mathematical model with age structure for Eulamprus leuraensis, taking into account the variation of survival rate in each structure and the declining of offspring quality with respect to maternal age is considered here. Stable coexistence of non-trivial equilibriumis shown. It is also shown that an endangered status is due to combination oflow reproductive output and low rates of adult survival. Further, understanding the age structure within populations can facilitate efective management of the endangered species.
Ehrenreich, Samuel E; Beron, Kurt J; Brinkley, Dawn Y; Underwood, Marion K
This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9 to 18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children's social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3-12. Participants' parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group-based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children's behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence.
Ehrenreich, Samuel E.; Beron, Kurt J.; Brinkley, Dawn Y.; Underwood, Marion K.
This research examined developmental trajectories for social and physical aggression for a sample followed from age 9–18, and investigated possible family predictors of following different trajectory groups. Participants were 158 girls and 138 boys, their teachers, and their parents (21% African American, 5.3% Asian, 51.6% Caucasian, and 21% Hispanic). Teachers rated children’s social and physical aggression yearly in grades 3–12. Participants’ parent (83% mothers) reported on family income, conflict strategies, and maternal authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. The results suggested that both social and physical aggression decline slightly from middle childhood through late adolescence. Using a dual trajectory model, group based mixture modeling revealed three trajectory groups for both social and physical aggression: low-, medium-, and high-desisting for social aggression, and stably-low, stably-medium, and high-desisting for physical aggression. Membership in higher trajectory groups was predicted by being from a single-parent family, and having a parent high on permissiveness. Being male was related to both elevated physical aggression trajectories and the medium-desisting social aggression trajectory. Negative interparental conflict strategies did not predict social or physical aggression trajectories when permissive parenting was included in the model. Permissive parenting in middle childhood predicted following higher social aggression trajectories across many years, which suggests that parents setting fewer limits on children’s behaviors may have lasting consequences for their peer relations. Future research should examine transactional relations between parenting styles and practices and aggression to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to changes in involvement in social and physical aggression across childhood and adolescence. PMID:24888340
Doyle, Antoinette; Zhang, Jing
Intervention programs to improve the educational outcomes of young children have become increasingly popular. Studies suggest that family literacy programs involving parents can result in positive effects on children's language and literacy development. Issues continue to arise, however, regarding the recruitment and retention of families. One…
Keefe, Dennis R.
The purpose of the paper is to present a model and suggest hypotheses relating the family as a social system to the concepts of human and natural energy. Human energy is interpreted as the capacity of humans, in this case, family members, for doing work and natural energy as resources such as natural gas, carbon dioxide, and heat. A behavioral…
Poblacion, Ana Paula; Marín-León, Leticia; Segall-Corrêa, Ana Maria; Silveira, Jonas Augusto; Taddei, José Augusto de Aguiar Carrazedo
This article analyzes food insecurity and hunger in Brazilian families with children under five years of age. This was a nationally representative cross-sectional study using data from the National Demographic and Health Survey on Women and Children (PNDS-2006), in which the outcome variable was moderate to severe food insecurity, measured by the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale (EBIA). Prevalence estimates and prevalence ratios were generated with 95% confidence intervals. The results showed a high prevalence of moderate to severe food insecurity, concentrated in the North and Northeast regions (30.7%), in economic classes D and E (34%), and in beneficiaries of conditional cash transfer programs (36.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that the socioeconomic relative risks (beneficiaries of conditional cash transfers), regional relative risks (North and Northeast regions), and economic relative risks (classes D and E) were 1.8, 2.0 and 2.4, respectively. Aggregation of the three risks showed 48% of families with moderate to severe food insecurity, meaning that adults and children were going hungry during the three months preceding the survey.
Bhattathiry, Malini M.; Ethirajan, Narayanan
Context: Unmet need for family planning (FP), which refers to the condition in which there is the desire to avoid or post-pone child bearing, without the use of any means of contraception, has been a core concept in the field of international population for more than three decades. Objectives: The very objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of “unmet need for FP” and its socio-demographic determinants among married reproductive age group women in Chidambaram. Materials and Methods: The study was a community-based cross-sectional study of married women of the reproductive age group, between 15 and 49 years. The sample size required was 700. The cluster sampling method was adopted. Unmarried, separated, divorced and widows were excluded. Results: The prevalence of unmet need for FP was 39%, with spacing as 12% and limiting as 27%. The major reason for unmet need for FP among the married group was 18%, for low perceived risk of pregnancy, 9%, feared the side effects of contraception 5% lacked information on contraceptives, 4% had husbands who opposed it and 3% gave medical reasons. Higher education, late marriage, more than the desired family size, poor knowledge of FP, poor informed choice in FP and poor male participation were found to be associated with high unmet need for FP. Conclusion: Unmet need for younger women was spacing of births, whereas for older women, it was a limitation of births. Efforts should be made to identify the issues in a case by case approach. Male participation in reproductive issues should be addressed. PMID:24696634
Hubbard, C; Singleton, D; Rauch, M; Jayasinghe, S; Cafiso, D; Castle, D
Secretory carrier membrane proteins (SCAMPs) are integral membrane proteins found in secretory and endocytic carriers implicated to function in membrane trafficking. Using expressed sequence tag database and library screens and DNA sequencing, we have characterized several new SCAMPs spanning the plant and animal kingdoms and have defined a broadly conserved protein family. No obvious fungal homologue has been identified, however. We have found that SCAMPs share several structural motifs. These include NPF repeats, a leucine heptad repeat enriched in charged residues, and a proline-rich SH3-like and/or WW domain-binding site in the N-terminal domain, which is followed by a membrane core containing four putative transmembrane spans and three amphiphilic segments that are the most highly conserved structural elements. All SCAMPs are 32-38 kDa except mammalian SCAMP4, which is approximately 25 kDa and lacks most of the N-terminal hydrophilic domain of other SCAMPs. SCAMP4 is authentic as determined by Northern and Western blotting, suggesting that this portion of the larger SCAMPs encodes the functional domain. Focusing on SCAMP1, we have characterized its structure further by limited proteolysis and Western blotting with the use of isolated secretory granules as a uniformly oriented source of antigen and by topology mapping through expression of alkaline phosphatase gene fusions in Escherichia coli. Results show that SCAMP1 is degraded sequentially from the N terminus and then the C terminus, yielding an approximately 20-kDa membrane core that contains four transmembrane spans. Using synthetic peptides corresponding to the three conserved amphiphilic segments of the membrane core, we have demonstrated their binding to phospholipid membranes and shown by circular dichroism spectroscopy that the central amphiphilic segment linking transmembrane spans 2 and 3 is alpha-helical. In the intact protein, these segments are likely to reside in the cytoplasm-facing membrane
Yardimci, Hasan; Leheny, Robert L.
Using frequency-dependent dielectric susceptibility measurements we characterize the aging in two supercooled liquids, sorbitol and xylitol, below their calorimetric glass transition temperatures, Tg. In addition to the alpha relaxation that tracks the structural dynamics, the susceptibilities of both liquids possess a secondary Johari-Goldstein relaxation at higher frequencies. Following a quench below Tg, the susceptibility slowly approaches equilibrium behavior. For both liquids, features of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation display a dependence on the time since the quench, or aging time, that is very similar to the age dependence of the alpha peak. However, one can not assign a single fictive temperature to both the alpha and Johari-Goldstein relaxations. For example, the peak frequency of the Johari-Goldstein relaxation remains constant during aging for sorbitol while it increases with age for xylitol, inconsistent with a decreasing fictive temperature. This behavior contrasts with that of the high frequency tail of the alpha peak whose shape and position track the aging of the main part of the peak.
Scholars traditionally argued that industrialization, urbanization, and educational expansion lead to a decline in extended families and complementary rise in nuclear families. Some have suggested that such transitions are good for young married women because living in nuclear families benefits their health. However, extended families may also present advantages for young women's health that outweigh any disadvantages. Using the Indian National Family Health Survey, this article examines whether young married women living in nuclear families have better health than those in patrilocal extended families. It also examines whether young married women's living arrangements are changing over time and, if so, how such changes will affect their health. Results show that young married women living in nuclear families do not have better health than those in patrilocal extended families. Of eight health outcomes examined, only five differ significantly by family structure. Further, of the five outcomes that differ, four are patrilocal extended-family advantages and only one is a nuclear-family advantage. From 1992 to 2006, the percentage of young married women residing in nuclear families increased, although the majority remained in patrilocal extended families. This trend toward nuclear families will not benefit young women's health.
Aarons, Gregory A; McDonald, Elizabeth J; Connelly, Cynthia D; Newton, Rae R
The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Family Assessment Device (FAD) among a national sample of Caucasian and Hispanic American families receiving public sector mental health services. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted to test model fit yielded equivocal findings. With few exceptions, indices of model fit, reliability, and validity were poorer for Hispanic Americans compared with Caucasian Americans. Contrary to our expectation, an exploratory factor analysis did not result in a better fitting model of family functioning. Without stronger evidence supporting a reformulation of the FAD, we recommend against such a course of action. Findings highlight the need for additional research on the role of culture in measurement of family functioning.
Gordon, N G
An analysis of the familial relationships in Brian DePalma's five major horror films reveals a persistent unconscious fantasy formation involving the nuclear family. These single-parent, only-child families are all tragically destroyed because of an inability to adequately mourn the absent parent. Although the asexual young adults in the films are spared the completely disastrous effects of madness and violence, they are still psychologically traumatized. This hidden subtextual theme involving the family parallels DePalma's bleak view of authority figures outside the home, as well as American society in general. Adequate identity formation requires that people both inside and outside the family accept the adolescent as a separate person. The grim psychological truth threading its way throughout DePalma's horror films is that these young adults are psychically devastated by the effects of a primitive, fused symbiotic relationship in interaction with a society that does not provide an adequate role for the developing person. Consequently, their attempt to psychologically move outside the family, which includes the maturation of their sexuality, results in the destruction of the family itself.
Gallitre, E.; Dauffer, D.
This paper presents EDF practice about concrete structure ageing management, from the mechanisms analysis to the formal procedure which allows the French company to increase 900 MWe NPP lifetime until 40 years; it will also introduce its action plan for 60 years lifetime extension. This practice is based on a methodology which identifies every ageing mechanism; both plants feedback and state of the art are screened and conclusions are drawn up into an "ageing analysis data sheet". That leads at first to a collection of 57 data sheets which give the mechanism identification, the components that are concerned and an analysis grid which is designed to assess the safety risk. This analysis screens the reference documents describing the mechanism, the design lifetime hypotheses, the associated regulation or codification, the feedback experiences, the accessibility, the maintenance actions, the repair possibility and so one. This analysis has to lead to a conclusion about the risk taking into account monitoring and maintenance. If the data sheet conclusion is not clear enough, then a more detailed report is launched. The technical document which is needed, is a formal detailed report which summarizes every theoretical knowledge and monitoring data: its objective is to propose a solution for ageing management: this solution can include more inspections or specific research development, or additional maintenance. After a first stage on the 900 MWe units, only two generic ageing management detailed reports have been needed for the civil engineering part: one about reactor building containment, and one about other structures which focuses on concrete inflating reactions. The second stage consists on deriving this generic analysis (ageing mechanism and detailed reports) to every plant where a complete ageing report is required (one report for all equipments and structures of the plant, but specific for each reactor). This ageing management is a continuous process because the
Girgsdies, Frank; Behrens, Malte
The crystal structures of malachite Cu(2)(OH)(2)CO(3) and rosasite (Cu,Zn)(2)(OH)(2)CO(3), though not isotypic, are closely related. A previously proposed approach explaining this relation via a common hypothetical parent structure is elaborated upon on the basis of group-subgroup considerations, leading to the conclusion that the aristotype of malachite and rosasite should crystallize in the space group Pbam (No. 55). An ICSD database search for actual representatives of this aristotype leads to the interesting observation that the structure type of ludwigite (Mg,Fe)(2)FeO(2)BO(3), which is adopted by several natural and synthetic oxide orthoborates M(3)O(2)BO(3), is closely related to the proposed malachite-rosasite aristotype and thus to the malachite-rosasite family of hydroxide carbonates M(2)(OH)(2)CO(3) in general. Relations within both structure families and their analogies are summarized in a joint simplified Bärnighausen tree.
Kurby, Christopher A; Zacks, Jeffrey M
Everyday activities break down into parts and subparts, and appreciating this hierarchical structure is an important component of understanding. In two experiments we found age differences in the ability to perceive hierarchical structure in continuous activity. In both experiments, younger and older adults segmented movies of everyday activities into large and small meaningful events. Older adults' segmentation deviated more from group norms than did younger adults' segmentation, and older adults' segmentation was less hierarchically organized than that of younger adults. Older adults performed less well than younger adults on event memory tasks. In some cases, measures of event segmentation discriminated between those older adults with better and worse memory. These results suggest that the hierarchical encoding of ongoing activity declines with age, and that such encoding may be important for memory.
Kurby, Christopher A.; Zacks, Jeffrey M.
Everyday activities break down into parts and subparts, and appreciating this hierarchical structure is an important component of understanding. In two experiments we found age differences in the ability to perceive hierarchical structure in continuous activity. In both experiments, younger and older adults segmented movies of everyday activities into large and small meaningful events. Older adults’ segmentation deviated more from group norms than did younger adults’ segmentation, and older adults’ segmentation was less hierarchically organized than that of younger adults. Older adults performed less well than younger adults on event memory tasks. In some cases, measures of event segmentation discriminated between those older adults with better and worse memory. These results suggest that the hierarchical encoding of ongoing activity declines with age, and that such encoding may be important for memory. PMID:21264613
Sandhu, Jaswinder S.; Wang, Honghui; Popek, Witold J.; Sincebaugh, Patrick J.
Military and commercial aircraft structures are being fielded well beyond their designed life cycle, resulting in escalating maintenance costs. The principle driver behind these costs is the need to nondestructively interrogate large areas to detect and quantify anomalies such as corrosion, cracks, and delaminations. Manual ultrasonic techniques are routinely applied to inspect aircraft structures, but these techniques are time consuming, laborious, and are prone to errors such as operator fatigue and subjectivity. Automated ultrasonic systems require costly, complex scanning systems that are often difficult to adapt to complex shaped structures. Acoustography can provide full-field ultrasonic images in near real-time, making it a suitable method for high-speed, wide area inspection applications. This paper will report on progress being made toward developing acoustography for NDE of aging aircraft structures.
McCurdy, Susan J.; Scherman, Avraham
Examined the effects of college students' (n=90) family structures on the separation-individuation process. Family structure groups investigated were intact; divorced, mother-custody, no remarriage; and divorced, mother-custody, remarried. The components of the separation-individuation process examined were attachment to parents, conflictual…
Kiecolt, K. Jill; Acock, Alan C.
Using 1972-1986 General Social Surveys data, investigated effect of family structure during adolescence on adult gender-role attitudes. Found family structure to selectively affect gender-role attitudes. Adults who grew up in single-parent household with divorced mother favored greater political power for women. Adults from intact and nonintact…
Ryan, Suzanne; Franzetta, Kerry; Schelar, Erin; Manlove, Jennifer
Using data from three waves of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 4,667), we examined the intergenerational link between parental family structure history and relationship formation in young adulthood. We investigated (a) whether parental family structure history is associated with young adults' own relationship formation…
Bandy, Robert; Ottoni-Wilhelm, Mark
This study investigated whether family structure transition and low income are risk factors in the development of prosocial behavior. Models of young adults' prosocial behavior--charitable giving and volunteering--were estimated as functions of their family structure and income during the stages of childhood. Participants were a representative…
Hampden-Thompson, Gillian; Galindo, Claudia
Research in the area of family structure and educational outcomes has often failed to account for instability in family structure. Furthermore, prior research in this area has been dominated by North American studies with a smaller body emerging from Europe. This study draws upon 10,783 young people and their parents from the Longitudinal Study of…
Mandara, Jelani; Rogers, Sheba Y.; Zinbarg, Richard E.
The relationship between family structure and marijuana use throughout adolescence was assessed among 1,069 African Americans from the NLSY. A model was also tested suggesting that the effects of family structure on marijuana use would be mediated by poverty, neighborhood quality, and adolescents' self-control. As most prior studies have found,…
Quarmby, T.; Dagkas, S.; Bridge, M.
This mixed method paper explored the effect of family structure on children's physical activities and sedentary pursuits. It furthers the limited understanding of how family structure impacts on children's time in, and reasons behind engaging in, certain physical activities. Children from three inner city comprehensive schools in the Midlands,…
Hamacher, Duane W.
Archaeological excavations of sites dating from 2200 BCE and 1200 BCE in the Middle East, Asia Minor, and southeast Europe provide evidence that a large scale disaster affected Bronze Age civilizations. There are numerous debates as to whether this was caused by warfare, a large-scale natural disaster, or some other factor. In 2001, Sharad Master used satellite images to discover a possible Holocene impact structure in the Al 'Amarah marshes of southern Iraq, known as Umm al Binni lake. With an estimated age of < 5000 years and a diameter of ~3.4 km, this structure may help explain this disaster. Using numerical models and scaling equations for a cosmic impact, I show that although destructive forces would have damaged Sumerian cities within a few hundred km of the coast, it is unlikely that this single impact would have caused the large-scale destruction seen over the larger region. The impact origin of the structure is unconfirmed and any connection to Bronze Age catastrophes remains speculative. Errata: Table 4 provides a list of impact sites, three of which are associated with nickel-iron impactors and therefore cannot be from a "fragmented comet".
Lopoo, Leonard M; DeLeire, Thomas
An extensive literature on the relationship between family structure and children's outcomes consistently shows that living with a single parent is associated with negative outcomes. Few US studies, however, examine how a child's family structure affects outcomes for the child once he/she reaches adulthood. We directly examine, using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, whether family structure during childhood is related to the child's economic wellbeing both during childhood as well as during adulthood. We find that living with a single parent is associated with the level of family resources available during childhood. This finding persists even when we remove time invariant factors within families. We also show that family structure is related to the child's education, marital status, and adult family income. Once we control for the child's demography and economic wellbeing in childhood, however, the associations into adulthood become trivial in size and statistically insignificant, suggesting that the relationship between family structure and children's long-term, economic outcomes is due in large part to the relationship between family structure and economic wellbeing in childhood.
Szapocznik, Jose; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Smith, Lila; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Robbins, Michael S.
This study tests the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family-ecological intervention, in improving psychosocial functioning when compared with an attention-comparison person-centered condition and a community control condition. A sample of 209 HIV-seropositive, urban, low-income, African American women was randomized into 1 of…
Tsai, I-Ning; Lin, Jin-Jia; Lu, Ming-Kun; Tan, Hung-Pin; Jang, Fong-Lin; Gan, Shu-Ting; Lin, Sheng-Hsiang
Abstract Age at onset is the most important feature of schizophrenia that could indicate its origin. Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) characterize potential marker indices of disturbances in early neurodevelopment. However, the association between MPAs and age at onset of schizophrenia is still unclear. We aimed to compare risk assessment and familial aggregation in patients with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS) and adult-onset schizophrenia (AOS) with MPAs and craniofacial measures. We estimated the risk assessment of MPAs among patients with EOS (n = 68), patients with AOS (n = 183), nonpsychotic relatives (n = 147), and healthy controls (n = 241) using 3 data-mining algorithms. In addition, we assessed the magnitude of familial aggregation of MPAs with respect to the age at onset of schizophrenia. The performance of EOS was superior to that of AOS, with discrimination accuracies of 89% and 76%, respectively. Combined MPA scores as the risk assessment were significantly higher in all schizophrenia subgroups and the nonpsychotic relatives of EOS patients than in the healthy controls. The recurrence risk ratio for familial aggregation of the MPA scores of EOS families (odds ratio 9.27) was substantially higher than that of AOS families (odds ratio 2.47). The results highlight that EOS improves risk assessment and has a severe magnitude of familial aggregation of MPAs. These findings indicate that EOS might result from a stronger genetic susceptibility to neurodevelopmental deficits. PMID:27472737
Hofferth, S.; Lee, Yoonjoo
Father’s child care time increased substantially between 1965 and 2011. The objective of this paper is to examine whether there was continued change in father care time and whether father time was linked to family structure and partner’s employment. Data on the time use of men 18 to 64 living with children under age 18 were drawn from the American Time Use Survey from 2003 to 2013 (N = 20,609). Not all fathers reported child care time; the proportion of fathers reporting primary child care increased during the recession but by 2013 had returned to pre-recessionary levels. Fathers’ total time in child care increased significantly as did their time in play and management activities. The additional amount of child care time contributed by unemployed fathers was substantial − 40 to 55 minutes per day – compared to employed fathers with employed wives. The recession impacted single father’ care more than partnered fathers’. PMID:27162563
Lee, Dohoon; McLanahan, Sara
A growing literature documents the importance of family instability for child wellbeing. In this article, we use longitudinal data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to examine the impacts of family instability on children’s cognitive and socioemotional development in early and middle childhood. We extend existing research in several ways: (1) by distinguishing between the number and types of family structure changes; (2) by accounting for time-varying as well as time-constant confounding; and (3) by assessing racial/ethnic and gender differences in family instability effects. Our results indicate that family instability has a causal effect on children’s development, but the effect depends on the type of change, the outcome assessed, and the population examined. Generally speaking, transitions out of a two-parent family are more negative for children’s development than transitions into a two-parent family. The effect of family instability is stronger for children’s socioemotional development than for their cognitive achievement. For socioemotional development, transitions out of a two-parent family are more negative for white children, whereas transitions into a two-parent family are more negative for Hispanic children. These findings suggest that future research should pay more attention to the type of family structure transition and to population heterogeneity. PMID:27293242
Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine
We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles.
Bandyopadhyay, Deepak; Huan, Jun; Liu, Jinze; Prins, Jan; Snoeyink, Jack; Wang, Wei; Tropsha, Alexander
We describe a method to assign a protein structure to a functional family using family-specific fingerprints. Fingerprints represent amino acid packing patterns that occur in most members of a family but are rare in the background, a nonredundant subset of PDB; their information is additional to sequence alignments, sequence patterns, structural superposition, and active-site templates. Fingerprints were derived for 120 families in SCOP using Frequent Subgraph Mining. For a new structure, all occurrences of these family-specific fingerprints may be found by a fast algorithm for subgraph isomorphism; the structure can then be assigned to a family with a confidence value derived from the number of fingerprints found and their distribution in background proteins. In validation experiments, we infer the function of new members added to SCOP families and we discriminate between structurally similar, but functionally divergent TIM barrel families. We then apply our method to predict function for several structural genomics proteins, including orphan structures. Some predictions have been corroborated by other computational methods and some validated by subsequent functional characterization. PMID:16731985
Berge, Jerica M; Jin, Seok Won; Hannan, Peter; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne
The last decade of research has suggested that family meals play an important role in promoting healthful dietary intake in youth. However, little is known about the structural characteristics and interpersonal dynamics of family meals that might help to inform why family meals are protective for youth. The current mixed methods, cross-sectional study conducted in 2010-2011 includes adolescents and parents who participated in two linked population-based studies. Participants included 40 parents (91.5% female) and adolescents (57.5% female) from the Minneapolis/St Paul, MN, area participating in EAT (Eating and Activity Among Teens) 2010 and F-EAT (Families and Eating and Activity Among Teens). The structural (eg, length of the meal, types of foods served) and interpersonal characteristics (eg, communication, emotion/affect management) of family meals were described, and associations between interpersonal dynamics at family meals and adolescent body mass index and dietary intake were examined via direct observational methods. Families were videorecorded during two mealtimes in their homes. Results indicated that family meals were approximately 20 minutes in length, included multiple family members, were typically served family style (70%), and occurred in the kitchen 62% of the time and 38% of the time in another room (eg, family room, office). In addition, significant associations were found between positive interpersonal dynamics (ie, communication, affect management, interpersonal involvement, overall family functioning) at family meals and lower adolescent body mass index and higher vegetable intake. These findings add to the growing body of literature on family meals by providing a better understanding of what is happening at family meals in order to inform obesity-prevention studies and recommendations for providers working with families of youth.
Russell, Mark; Haddad, Raphael; Creighton, Tom; Hendrich, Louis; Hensley, Doug; Morgan, Louise; Swift, Jerry
The purpose is to present the implementation of structural commonality in the family of commuter airplanes. One of the main goals is implementation of structural commonality to as high a degree as possible. The structural layouts of those parts of the airplanes in which commonality is possible with all members of the family will be presented. The following airplane sections, which are common on all of the airplanes in the family, will be presented: common nose cone design; common wing torque box design; and common tail cone design. A proposed production and manufacturing breakdown is described. The advantages and disadvantages of implementing structural commonality and recommendations for further work will be discussed.
Pilkauskas, Natasha V.
Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,898), this study investigated how the share, correlates, transition patterns, and duration of 3-generation households vary by mother's relationship status at birth. Nine percent of married mothers, 17% of cohabiting mothers, and 45% of single mothers lived in a 3-generation…
GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.
A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (NM) impedance technique are sighted and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency EIM impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acoustic-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens, (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.
GIURGIUTIU,VICTOR; REDMOND,JAMES M.; ROACH,DENNIS P.; RACKOW,KIRK A.
A project to develop non-intrusive active sensors that can be applied on existing aging aerospace structures for monitoring the onset and progress of structural damage (fatigue cracks and corrosion) is presented. The state of the art in active sensors structural health monitoring and damage detection is reviewed. Methods based on (a) elastic wave propagation and (b) electro-mechanical (E/M) impedance technique are cited and briefly discussed. The instrumentation of these specimens with piezoelectric active sensors is illustrated. The main detection strategies (E/M impedance for local area detection and wave propagation for wide area interrogation) are discussed. The signal processing and damage interpretation algorithms are tuned to the specific structural interrogation method used. In the high-frequency E/M impedance approach, pattern recognition methods are used to compare impedance signatures taken at various time intervals and to identify damage presence and progression from the change in these signatures. In the wave propagation approach, the acousto-ultrasonic methods identifying additional reflection generated from the damage site and changes in transmission velocity and phase are used. Both approaches benefit from the use of artificial intelligence neural networks algorithms that can extract damage features based on a learning process. Design and fabrication of a set of structural specimens representative of aging aerospace structures is presented. Three built-up specimens (pristine, with cracks, and with corrosion damage) are used. The specimen instrumentation with active sensors fabricated at the University of South Carolina is illustrated. Preliminary results obtained with the E/M impedance method on pristine and cracked specimens are presented.
Kletzien, Heidi; Russell, John A.; Connor, Nadine P.
Levels of Evidence NA (animal study) Objective Age-related changes in laryngeal muscle structure and function may contribute to deficits in voice and swallowing observed in elderly people. We hypothesized that treadmill running, an exercise that increases respiratory drive to upper airway muscles, would induce changes in thyroarytenoid muscle myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms consistent with a fast-slow transformation in muscle fiber type. Study Design Randomized parallel group controlled trial. Methods Fifteen young adult and 14 old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats received either treadmill running or no exercise (5 days/week/8 weeks). Myosin heavy chain isoform composition in the thyroarytenoid muscle was examined at the end of 8 weeks. Results Significant age and treatment effects were found. The young adult group had the greatest proportion of superfast contracting MHCIIL. The treadmill running group had the lowest proportion of MHCIIL and the greatest proportion of MHCIIx. Conclusion Thyroarytenoid muscle structure was affected both by age and treadmill running in a fast-slow transition that is characteristic of exercise manipulations in other skeletal muscles. PMID:26256100
Pickwell, S M
Relatively little data has been collected documenting the scope of family nurse practitioner (FNP) clinical practice, and virtually no research definitively describes the quality of that practice. Physicians have led the way in quantitative collection of practice content information. The resulting analyses have determined not only the most common diagnoses in primary care but also the content of teaching and research in family practice. Nurse clinicians, educators, and researchers have assumed this content to be pertinent to FNP practice as well. This article describes the major studies of family physician practice and the few studies of nurse practitioner/FNP practice, and advocates intensified review of FNP clinical content as an empirical basis for practice, education, and research.
Dash, S.; Ravindren, S.; Chen, P.; Boolchand, P.
We examine weakly cross-linked GexSe100-x (0%
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can a family, with a child under age 6, be... TANF Plan Content and Processing § 286.150 Can a family, with a child under age 6, be penalized because... custodial parent caring for a child under age six, the Tribe may not reduce or terminate assistance based...
Abdulridha-Aboud, Wissam; Kjellström, Ulrika; Andréasson, Sten
Purpose To study the phenotype in two families with genetically identified autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP) focusing on macular structure and function. Methods Clinical data were collected at the Department of Ophthalmology, Lund University, Sweden, for affected and unaffected family members from two pedigrees with adRP. Examinations included optical coherence tomography (OCT), full-field electroretinography (ffERG), and multifocal electroretinography (mfERG). Molecular genetic screening was performed for known mutations associated with adRP. Results The mode of inheritance was autosomal dominant in both families. The members of the family with a mutation in the PRPF31 (p.IVS6+1G>T) gene had clinical features characteristic of RP, with severely reduced retinal rod and cone function. The degree of deterioration correlated well with increasing age. The mfERG showed only centrally preserved macular function that correlated well with retinal thinning on OCT. The family with a mutation in the RHO (p.R135W) gene had an extreme intrafamilial variability of the phenotype, with more severe disease in the younger generations. OCT showed pathology, but the degree of morphological changes was not correlated with age or with the mfERG results. The mother, with a de novo mutation in the RHO (p.R135W) gene, had a normal ffERG, and her retinal degeneration was detected merely with the reduced mfERG. Conclusions These two families demonstrate the extreme inter- and intrafamilial variability in the clinical phenotype of adRP. This is the first Swedish report of the clinical phenotype associated with a mutation in the PRPF31 (p.IVS6+1G>T) gene. Our results indicate that methods for assessment of the central retinal structure and function may improve the detection and characterization of the RP phenotype. PMID:27212874
Qin, Zilong; Hu, Zhenhua; Zhou, Xiaoping; Yi, Jingzhang
Our proposed model imitates the growth of a population and describes the age structure and the level of cooperation in games on dynamic network with continuous changes of structure and topology. The removal of nodes and links caused by age-dependent attack, together with the nodes addition standing for the newborns of population, badly ruins Matthew effect in this coevolutionary process. Though the network is generated by growth and preferential attachment, it degenerates into random network and it is no longer heterogeneous. When the removal of nodes and links is equal to the addition of nodes and links, the size of dynamic network is maintained in steady-state, so is the low level of cooperation. Severe structure variation, homogeneous topology and continuous invasion of new defection jointly make dynamic network unsuitable for the survival of cooperator even when the probability with which the newborn players initially adopt the strategy cooperation is high, while things change slightly when the connections of newborn players are restricted. Fortunately, moderate interactions in a generation trigger an optimal recovering process to encourage cooperation. The model developed in this paper outlines an explanation of the cohesion changes in the development process of an organization. Some suggestions for cooperative behavior improvement are given in the end.
Slater, Joyce; Sevenhuysen, Gustaaf; Edginton, Barry; O'neil, John
This research examined the aetiology of employed mothers' food choice and food provisioning decisions using a qualitative, grounded theory methodology. Semi-structured interviews using the Food Choice Map were conducted with eleven middle-income employed mothers of elementary school-age children. Results demonstrated that the women exhibited conflicting identities with respect to food choice and provisioning. As 'good mothers' they were the primary food and nutrition caregivers for the family, desiring to provide healthy, homemade foods their families preferred at shared family meals. They also sought to be independent selves, working outside the home, within the context of a busy modern family. Increased food autonomy of children, and lack of time due to working outside the home and children's involvement in extracurricular activities, were significant influences on their food choice and provisioning. This resulted in frequently being unable to live up to their expectations of consistently providing healthy homemade foods and having shared family meals. To cope, the women frequently relied on processed convenience and fast foods despite their acknowledged inferior nutritional status. Using Giddens' structuration theory, the dynamic relationships between the women's food choice and provisioning actions, their identities and larger structures including socio-cultural norms, conditions of work and the industrial food system were explored. The ensuing dietary pattern of the women and their families increases the risk of poor health outcomes, including obesity. These results have implications for public health responses to improve population health by shifting the focus from individual-level maternal influences to structural influences on diet.
Tsibidaki, Assimina; Tsamparli, Anastasia
Introduction: The interaction of the family with disabled children with the support networks is a research area of high interest (Hendriks, De Moor, Oud & Savelberg, 2000). It has been shown that support networks may prove to be very helpful for a family and especially for a family with a disabled child. Support networks play a primordial role…
Coyl-Shepherd, Diana D.; Newland, Lisa A.
Increasingly couples in two-parent families share the dual responsibilities of parenting and providing for their children financially. Parenting is embedded within and shaped by specific family contexts. This study examined 92 mothers' and fathers' responses on indices of couple and family contexts, parent involvement, and child-reported…
Ono, Hiromi; Sanders, James
Sources of differentials in out-of-school learning time between children in first marriage biological parent families and children in six nontraditional family types are identified. Analyses of time diaries reveal that children in four of the six nontraditional family types spend fewer minutes learning than do children in first marriage biological…
Tan, Tony Xing; Camras, Linda A.; Deng, Huihua; Zhang, Minghao; Lu, Zuhong
This study seeks to extend previous research on family stress, parenting, and child adjustment to families with adopted Chinese children. In doing so, we also seek to strengthen inferences regarding the experiential underpinnings of previously obtained relationships among these variables by determining if they also occur in families where parents…
Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Younkin, Felisha Lotspeich; Day, Randal
The purpose of this study was to explore how family distance regulation and other family demographic factors influence parenting behavior and family routines, which, in turn, influences the child's school engagement. The data from the project came from a larger study conducted in a large Northwestern urban area and included both two-parent and…
This instructional unit, which is intended for Australians working toward a Certificate in General Education for Adults, contains activities to help learners develop the skills and knowledge to read and write complex texts while examining human relationships and the family. Aimed at both native and nonnative English speakers, the unit contains…
Research into the social history of African American men in deteriorating socioeconomic conditions has enhanced the understanding of the family. This research helps to understand the different experiences of diverse groups within the society and different group reactions to social change. Yet, social scientists and policymakers have shown a…
von Mühlendahl, Karl Ernst
Demographic developments - birth rates are sharply declining in most European countries - have the effect that in very many families children are growing up without brothers or sisters, often with one parent only. This may lead to a lack of social experiences and skills in the next generation.
Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Dunifon, Rachel
Using data from the 1996 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79) merged mother-child sample, we investigate the impact of two family events, parental divorce and the birth of a sibling, on the cognitive stimulation and emotional support provided to children in the home. We use fixed-effect regression techniques to control for unmeasured…
McCall, Robert B; Muhamedrahimov, Rifkat J; Groark, Christina J; Palmov, Oleg I; Nikiforova, Natalia V; Salaway, Jennifer; Julian, Megan M
A total of 149 children, who spent an average of 13.8 months in Russian institutions, were transferred to Russian families of relatives and nonrelatives at an average age of 24.7 months. After residing in these families for at least 1 year (average = 43.2 months), parents reported on their attachment, indiscriminately friendly behavior, social-emotional competencies, problem behaviors, and effortful control when they were 1.5-10.7 years of age. They were compared to a sample of 83 Russian parents of noninstitutionalized children, whom they had reared from birth. Generally, institutionalized children were rated similarly to parent-reared children on most measures, consistent with substantial catch-up growth typically displayed by children after transitioning to families. However, institutionalized children were rated more poorly than parent-reared children on certain competencies in early childhood and some attentional skills. There were relatively few systematic differences associated with age at family placement or whether the families were relatives or nonrelatives. Russian parent-reared children were rated as having more problem behaviors than the US standardization sample, which raises cautions about using standards cross-culturally.
Storå, Bent; Hagtvet, Knut A; Heyerdahl, Sonja
The reliability of observations of parenting by parenting therapists was assessed. An important predictor of externalizing behavior in children is quality of parenting. Data were videotapes of structured interactions in families with a child age 8–12 years referred to the evidence based Parent Management Training Oregon (PMTO) treatment program for child behavior problems. The therapists had clinical PMTO training but no training in systematic observation. PMTO observational coders with specific coder training were included as a reference for the therapists. Five therapists and two coders observed videotapes of 10 families and performed global evaluations of mothers’ parenting skills. They used the coder’s impression measure used in PMTO research. Scores were analyzed in a generalizability theory framework for the two groups of observers separately. Both observer types reliably rank-ordered the mothers and assessed the level of parenting skills. PMTO therapists without coder training provided reliable ratings of parenting constructs relevant to the clinical PMTO program in a manner comparable to that of the trained reference coders. PMID:24237459
Houlden, H.; Rossor, M.
Recent work has demonstrated that the apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype is of great importance in the etiology of Alzheimer`s disease (AD). Thus, inheritance of the ApoE4 allele predisposes to the occurrences of late onset disease and decreases the onset age in families with pathogenic mutations in the amyloid precursor protein gene. We analysed ApoE genotypes in 35 families multiply affected by AD and confirm that familial clustering in late onset AD is associated with the ApoE4 allele. This allele occurs in the great majority (82%) of late onset familial Alzheimer cases. Elderly unaffected sibs (80-90 years) have an allele frequency that is not significantly different to that of normal controls. Data presented from our family sets together previously published data is suggestive that the effect of a single ApoE4 allele is to increase the risk of developing AD by an amount equivalent to 5 years and that the effect of ApoE4 homozygosity is to increase the risk of developing AD by an amount equivalent to 10 years of age. Data shows significant difference between the frequency of the ApoE4 allele in the familial AD probands and controls and in both sets of unaffected sibs, p<0.01.
Karlin, S; Williams, P T
A collection of functions that contrast familial trait values between and across generations is proposed for studying transmission effects and other collateral influences in nuclear families. Two classes of structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) statistics are derived from ratios of these functions. SEDA-functionals are the empirical cumulative distributions of the ratio of the two contrasts computed within each family. SEDA-indices are formed by first averaging the numerator and denominator contrasts separately over the population and then forming their ratio. The significance of SEDA results are determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffle the trait values across families. The process systematically alters certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. The methodology is applied to five data examples of plasma total cholesterol concentrations, reported height values, dermatoglyphic pattern intensity index scores, measurements of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity, and psychometric cognitive test results.
Karlin, S; Williams, P T
A collection of functions that contrast familial trait values between and across generations is proposed for studying transmission effects and other collateral influences in nuclear families. Two classes of structured exploratory data analysis (SEDA) statistics are derived from ratios of these functions. SEDA-functionals are the empirical cumulative distributions of the ratio of the two contrasts computed within each family. SEDA-indices are formed by first averaging the numerator and denominator contrasts separately over the population and then forming their ratio. The significance of SEDA results are determined by a spectrum of permutation techniques that selectively shuffle the trait values across families. The process systematically alters certain family structure relationships while keeping other familial relationships intact. The methodology is applied to five data examples of plasma total cholesterol concentrations, reported height values, dermatoglyphic pattern intensity index scores, measurements of dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity, and psychometric cognitive test results. PMID:6475959
Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence M.
Using longitudinal data from the Maternal and Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,862) and Hierarchical Linear Models, we estimated associations of family structure states and transitions with children’s achievement and behavior trajectories during middle childhood. Results suggest that residing in a single-mother family was associated with small increases in behavior problems and decreases in achievement, and that residing in a social-father family was associated with small increases in behavior problems. Family structure transitions, in general, were associated with increases in behavior problems and marginally associated with decreases in achievement. Transitioning to a single-mother family was associated with increases in behavior problems whereas transitioning to a social-father family was associated with decreases in reading achievement. PMID:20228952
Saputra, Fauzan; Yunibhand, Jintana; Sukratul, Sunisa
Recently, mental health problems (MHP) in school-aged children have become a global phenomenon. Yet, the number of children affected remains unclear in Indonesia, and the effects of mental health problems are of concern. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of MHP in school-aged children and its relationship to personal, maternal, and familial factors in Aceh province, Indonesia. Participants were 143 school-aged children with MHP and their mothers. They completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Social Competence Questionnaire, Brief Family Relationship Scale, Parental Stress Scale, Parent's Report Questionnaire, and Indonesian Version of the Beck Depression Inventory-II. Mainly, children were rated to have emotional symptoms by their mothers (37.8%). Factors such as academic competence, family relationships, and maternal parenting stress are related to MHP. Given the high prevalence of school-aged children that have emotional symptoms, child psychiatric mental health nurses should give special attention to assist them during their school years. Moreover, nurses should aim to improve family relationships and reduce maternal parenting stress.
Romano, Elisa; Kohen, Dafna; Findlay, Leanne C.
Canadian data based on maternal reports for a nationally representative sample of 4,521 4-5-year-olds were used to examine associations among child care, family factors, and behaviors in preschool-aged children. Linear regressions testing for direct and moderated associations indicated that regulated home-based care was associated with less…
Mantle, Greg; Leslie, Jane; Parsons, Sarah; Plenty, Jackie; Shaffer, Ray
Current UK government policy is to promote mediation as a way of avoiding family court proceedings and there is a risk, therefore, that welfare report-writing practice may receive less critical attention than it merits. A largely unstudied aspect of this practice is the significance given by practitioners to the child's age. More widely, across a…
The purpose of this study was to investigate the Impact of Gender, Family type and Age on undergraduate parents' perception of causes of child Sexual Abuse. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. There was a review of relevant literature. The population for the study were 2014 sandwich contact students of Delta State University, Abraka who…
Snow, Catherine E.; And Others
This document is a report of a symposium whose participants are involved with the Home-School Study of Language and Literacy Development, a project engaged in a longitudinal study of 80 low-income families with preschool-aged children in Boston (Massachusetts). The project was designed to identify possible success factors for children from…
Eifert, Elise K.; Adams, Rebecca; Morrison, Sharon; Strack, Robert
Background: As life expectancy and morbidity related to chronic disease increase, the baby boomers will be called upon to provide care to aging members of their family or to be care recipients themselves. Purpose: Through the theoretical lens of the life course perspective, this review of the literature provides insight into what characteristics…
Plant, Karen M.; Sanders, Matthew R.
This study evaluated two variants of a behavioral parent training program known as Stepping Stones Triple P (SSTP) using 74 preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities. Families were randomly allocated to an enhanced parent training intervention that combined parenting skills and care-giving coping skills (SSTP-E), standard parent…
American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.
This document contains 16 papers on family roles and caregiving presented at a conference on aging. The papers, grouped into themes of trends and implications, resourceful roles (grandparenting and caregiving), and an agenda for the future, include the following: "Demographic Potential and the Quiet Revolution" (Opening Remarks by Robert A.…
When Daniel Patrick Moynihan raised the issue of family structure half a century ago, his concern was the increase in black families headed by women. Since then, the share of children raised in single-parent families in the United States has grown across racial and ethnic groups and with it evidence regarding the impact of family structure on…
Yurtsever, Zeynep; Scheaffer, Suzanne M.; Romero, Arthur G.; Holtzman, Michael J.; Brett, Tom J.
The p38 MAP kinases (p38 MAPKs) represent an important family centrally involved in mediating extracellular signaling. Recent studies indicate that family members such as MAPK13 (p38δ) display a selective cellular and tissue expression and are therefore involved in specific diseases. Detailed structural studies of all p38 MAPK family members are crucial for the design of specific inhibitors. In order to facilitate such ventures, the structure of MAPK13 was determined in both the inactive (unphosphorylated; MAPK13) and active (dual phosphorylated; MAPK13/pTpY) forms. Here, the first preparation, crystallization and structure determination of MAPK13/pTpY are presented and the structure is compared with the previously reported structure of MAPK13 in order to facilitate studies for structure-based drug design. A comprehensive analysis of inactive versus active structures for the p38 MAPK family is also presented. It is found that MAPK13 undergoes a larger interlobe configurational rearrangement upon activation compared with MAPK14. Surprisingly, the analysis of activated p38 MAPK structures (MAP12/pTpY, MAPK13/pTpY and MAPK14/pTpY) reveals that, despite a high degree of sequence similarity, different side chains are used to coordinate the phosphorylated residues. There are also differences in the rearrangement of the hinge region that occur in MAPK14 compared with MAPK13 which would affect inhibitor binding. A thorough examination of all of the active (phosphorylated) and inactive (unphosphorylated) p38 MAPK family member structures was performed to reveal a common structural basis of activation for the p38 MAP kinase family and to identify structural differences that may be exploited for developing family member-specific inhibitors. PMID:25849390
Yurtsever, Zeynep; Scheaffer, Suzanne M; Romero, Arthur G; Holtzman, Michael J; Brett, Tom J
The p38 MAP kinases (p38 MAPKs) represent an important family centrally involved in mediating extracellular signaling. Recent studies indicate that family members such as MAPK13 (p38δ) display a selective cellular and tissue expression and are therefore involved in specific diseases. Detailed structural studies of all p38 MAPK family members are crucial for the design of specific inhibitors. In order to facilitate such ventures, the structure of MAPK13 was determined in both the inactive (unphosphorylated; MAPK13) and active (dual phosphorylated; MAPK13/pTpY) forms. Here, the first preparation, crystallization and structure determination of MAPK13/pTpY are presented and the structure is compared with the previously reported structure of MAPK13 in order to facilitate studies for structure-based drug design. A comprehensive analysis of inactive versus active structures for the p38 MAPK family is also presented. It is found that MAPK13 undergoes a larger interlobe configurational rearrangement upon activation compared with MAPK14. Surprisingly, the analysis of activated p38 MAPK structures (MAP12/pTpY, MAPK13/pTpY and MAPK14/pTpY) reveals that, despite a high degree of sequence similarity, different side chains are used to coordinate the phosphorylated residues. There are also differences in the rearrangement of the hinge region that occur in MAPK14 compared with MAPK13 which would affect inhibitor binding. A thorough examination of all of the active (phosphorylated) and inactive (unphosphorylated) p38 MAPK family member structures was performed to reveal a common structural basis of activation for the p38 MAP kinase family and to identify structural differences that may be exploited for developing family member-specific inhibitors.
Reid, Daniel R.; Lyubimov, Ivan; Ediger, M. D.; de Pablo, Juan J.
Glass films prepared by a process of physical vapour deposition have been shown to have thermodynamic and kinetic stability comparable to those of ordinary glasses aged for thousands of years. A central question in the study of vapour-deposited glasses, particularly in light of new knowledge regarding anisotropy in these materials, is whether the ultra-stable glassy films formed by vapour deposition are ever equivalent to those obtained by liquid cooling. Here we present a computational study of vapour deposition for a two-dimensional glass forming liquid using a methodology, which closely mimics experiment. We find that for the model considered here, structures that arise in vapour-deposited materials are statistically identical to those observed in ordinary glasses, provided the two are compared at the same inherent structure energy. We also find that newly deposited hot molecules produce cascades of hot particles that propagate far into the film, possibly influencing the relaxation of the material. PMID:27762262
Jack, Clifford R
Biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are increasingly important. All modern AD therapeutic trials employ AD biomarkers in some capacity. In addition, AD biomarkers are an essential component of recently updated diagnostic criteria for AD from the National Institute on Aging--Alzheimer's Association. Biomarkers serve as proxies for specific pathophysiological features of disease. The 5 most well established AD biomarkers include both brain imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) measures--cerebrospinal fluid Abeta and tau, amyloid positron emission tomography (PET), fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography, and structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This article reviews evidence supporting the position that MRI is a biomarker of neurodegenerative atrophy. Topics covered include methods of extracting quantitative and semiquantitative information from structural MRI; imaging-autopsy correlation; and evidence supporting diagnostic and prognostic value of MRI measures. Finally, the place of MRI in a hypothetical model of temporal ordering of AD biomarkers is reviewed.
Crosnoe, Robert; Smith, Chelsea; Leventhal, Tama
Applying latent class and regression techniques to data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (n = 997), this study explored the potential academic advantages of time spent in out-of-school activities. Of particular interest was how these potential advantages played out in relation to the timing and duration of activity participation and the family contexts in which it occurred. Participation closer to the start of high school—including consistent participants and latecomers—was associated with higher grades at the transition into high school, especially for youth from low-income families. Sensitivity analyses indicated that this link between school-age activity participation and adolescent academic progress was unlikely to be solely a function of selection. It also tended to be more pronounced among youth from lower-income families, although without varying by other aspects of family status or process. PMID:26279615
Nichols, Michael; Tafuri, Sydney
The trajectory of assessment in structural family therapy moves from a linear perspective, in which problems are located in the identified patient, to an interactional perspective, in which problems are seen as involving other members of the family. Minuchin, Nichols, & Lee (2007) developed a 4-step model for assessing couples and families consisting of: (1) broadening the definition of the presenting complaint to include its context, (2) identifying problem-maintaining interactions, (3) a structurally focused exploration of the past, and (4) developing a shared vision of pathways to change. To study how experts actually implement this model, judges coded video recordings of 10 initial consultations conducted by three widely recognized structural family therapists. Qualitative analyses identified 25 distinct techniques that these clinicians used to challenge linear thinking and move families toward a systemic understanding of their problems. We discuss and locate these techniques in the framework of the 4-step model.
Elklit, Ask; Shevlin, Mark
This study estimated the risk of sexual victimization associated with different family structures. Based on the Danish Civil Registration System, all female visitors to the Centre for Rape Victims (CRV) at the University Hospital in Aarhus, during a two-year period (January 2005 to December 2006) were identified (N = 214) along with a control group (N = 4,343) that was matched by age and residential location. The family structure in the preceding year was used as a predictor variable in a logistic regression model. Results indicted that, compared to those who were married with children at home, being single with children at home significantly increased the likelihood of having visited the CRV. This is consistent with the research literature that has shown that single women with children are at risk for disadvantage on a range of socioeconomic and psychological factors as well as at risk for interpersonal violence.
Zhang, Wenhui; Li, Jingxia; Li, Hong; Liu, Xiangjun
Kindonia uniflora is a perennial clone herbaceous plant, and also, a native endangered plant in China. This paper studied its age structure, life table and survivorship curve in different habitats in Taibai mountain area. The results indicated that the age structure and dynamics of K. uniflora populations in the Betula utilis forest at altitude 2500-2700 m, in the Abies fargesii forest at altitude 2700-2900 m, and in the Larix chinensis forest at altitude 2900-3100 m had the similar pattern and developing tendency. The number of younger ramets at 1-2 years old or older than 5 years was less, and the number of ramets at 3-5 years old was the highest in the age structures. The negative values of dx (dead number), qx (mortality rate) and Kx (Killing rate) in the life table showed the increasing rate of the population sizes during the age stage. The survivorship curve of K. uniflora populations in different habitats belonged to Deevey C after 3-5 years old. The mortality rate of populations during 5-10 years stage was higher, and was stable after 10 years old. As for the characters of asexual propagation and clone growth, the rhizomes of the populations were in humus of soil, and developed and expanded as guerilla line style. During growth season, only one leaf grew above ground at every inter-node, and the population growth and development were rarely influenced by external factors. The forest communities, such as Betula utilis, Abies fargesii and Larix chinensis forest, in which K. uniflora populations lived, were at middle or higher mountain, where there were rarely disturbance from human being. Therefore, the habitats for K. uniflora populations to live were relatively stable. As the altitude increased, the disturbances from human being became less, the density of K. uniflora populations increased, the life cycle expanded, the peak of population death delayed, and the population living strategy changed to adapt to the habitats. K. uniflora populations preferred to
Hemovich, Vanessa; Crano, William D.
Data from the 2004 Monitoring the Future survey examined a nationally representative cross-sectional sample of 8th to 12th grade adolescents in rural and urban schools from across the United States (N = 37,507). Results found that drug use among daughters living with single fathers significantly exceeded that of daughters living with single mothers, while gender of parent was not associated with sons’ usage. This distinction in adolescent drug use between mother-only versus father-only households is largely overlooked in contemporary studies. Factors responsible for variations in sons’ and daughters’ usage in single-parent families have important implications for future drug prevention efforts. PMID:20001697
"The Austrian population is presently in the middle of its age structure transition which started with World War I and will continue until the 40s of the next century. Within this time period the number of people aged 60 years or over will increase from about half a million to 2.8 million (1995: 1.6 million) and the share of the elderly will mount from about 9 percent to more than 35 percent (1995: 20 percent). The present article points out the demographic causes for population aging asking whether high fertility and/or high numbers of migrants can stop the aging process. Different measurements of demographic aging in Austria (share of various age groups, mean age and median age, dependency ratios, several aging indices) are calculated for the time period 1869 to 2050. Special attention is paid to regional differences within Austria and to changes of the sex ratio at older ages over time." (EXCERPT)
Ellingwood, B.; Song, J.
The Structural Aging Program is addressing the potential for degradation of concrete structural components and systems in nuclear power plants over time due to aging and aggressive environmental stressors. Structures are passive under normal operating conditions but play a key role in mitigating design-basis events, particularly those arising from external challenges such as earthquakes, extreme winds, fires and floods. Structures are plant-specific and unique, often are difficult to inspect, and are virtually impossible to replace. The importance of structural failures in accident mitigation is amplified because such failures may lead to common-cause failures of other components. Structural condition assessment and service life prediction must focus on a few critical components and systems within the plant. Components and systems that are dominant contributors to risk and that require particular attention can be identified through the mathematical formalism of a probabilistic risk assessment, or PRA. To illustrate, the role of structural degradation due to aging on plant risk is examined through the framework of a Level 1 seismic PRA of a nuclear power plant. Plausible mechanisms of structural degradation are found to increase the core damage probability by approximately a factor of two.
Weaver, Addie; Greeno, Catherine G.; Marcus, Steven C.; Fusco, Rachel A.; Zimmerman, Tina; Anderson, Carol
Objective: This pilot study examined the effect of structural family therapy (SFT) on children's impairment and depressive symptomatology and mothers' depressive symptomatology and anxiety for 31 families served by a community mental health clinic. Method: A one group predesign/postdesign, with a baseline and two follow-up time points, was used.…
Lindholm, Byron W.; And Others
This study examined the influence of family structure and school variables on behavior disorders of children (N=1,162). Results indicated grade in school, sex, social class, ordinal position in the family, and teacher were important variables in the determination of behavior disorders. (Author)
Yoshida, Toru; Sugano, Yasushi
Dye-decolorizing peroxidase from the basidiomycete Bjerkandera adusta Dec 1 (DyP) is a heme peroxidase. This name reflects its ability to degrade several anthraquinone dyes. The substrate specificity, the amino acid sequence, and the tertiary structure of DyP are different from those of the other heme peroxidase (super)families. Therefore, many proteins showing the similar amino acid sequences to that of DyP are called DyP-type peroxidase which is a new family of heme peroxidase identified in 2007. In fact, all structures of this family show a similar structure fold. However, this family includes many proteins whose amino acid sequence identity to DyP is lower than 15% and/or whose catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) is a few orders of magnitude less than that of DyP. A protein showing an activity different from peroxidase activity (dechelatase activity) has been also reported. In addition, the precise physiological roles of DyP-type peroxidases are unknown. These facts raise a question of whether calling this family DyP-type peroxidase is suitable. Here, we review the differences and similarities of structure and function among this family and propose the reasonable new classification of DyP-type peroxidase family, that is, class P, I and V. In this contribution, we discuss the adequacy of this family name.
Meadows, Sarah O.
The association between marital status and health among men has been well documented, but few studies track health trajectories following family structure transitions among unmarried fathers. Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study this article examines trajectories of paternal mental health and self-rated health, focusing on…
Defo, Barthelemy Kuate; Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala
There is no research on the timing, sequencing and number of changes in family environment and their influences on sexual and reproductive health outcomes in Africa. Using a population-based survey with data on family structure at three points in the life course, this paper examines the influences of these family structure dynamics on the timing of first sex among unmarried males and females aged 12-24 years in Cameroon. The number and timing of family transitions significantly impacted the timing of sexual debut for both males and females. The median age at first sex (18.7 years) is higher among young people without family transition than among those with one transition (18.2 years) or two transitions (17.7 years). Family transitions occurring during childhood were significantly associated with premature sexual initiation for females but not for males. Reproductive health and social development interventions for young people in Africa should integrate the changing contexts and transitions in family structure.
Marui, Wami; Iseki, Eizo; Sugiyama, Naoya; Matsumura, Takehiko; Suzuki, Kyoko; Odawara, Toshinari; Hino, Hiroaki; Kosaka, Kenji
We previously reported a Japanese family with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease associated with G 209 R presenilin 1(PS 1) mutation. There have been six patients across three generations in this family. In the present report, we described the clinical course, findings with neuroimaging and results of genetic examination of PS 1 and apolipoprotein E(ApoE) in three of six patients(II-1, III-1 and 2). The clinical course was common to all three patients. Memory disturbance, disorientation, amnestic aphasia, personality changes and perseveration appeared at early stages, whereas Gerstmann's syndrome, myoclonus and general convulsion were recognized at advanced stages. CT disclosed mild brain atrophy in the temporal lobes at early stages and diffuse brain atrophy predominantly in the fronto--temporal lobes at advanced stages. SPECT exhibited hypoperfusion in the fronto-temporal areas at early stages and hypoperfusion in the fronto-temporal and parieto-occipital areas at advanced stages. The age of onset in six patients demonstrated two clusters at age 53-55(I-1, II-1, 2 and 5) and age 46-48(III-1 and 2). PS 1 genotyping demonstrated that the heterozygous exonic missense mutation G 209 R was confirmed in all three patients. Regarding the ApoE genotyping, II-1(mother) was epsilon 3/epsilon 3, whereas III-1 and 2(children) were epsilon 3/epsilon 4. These findings suggest the possibility that there might be a gene dose effect, since the age of onset ranged from 5 to 7 years younger in patients who received epsilon 4 alleles from the father.
Edington, Everett; Hays, Leonard
In 1975, questionnaires were given to 587 sophomores and seniors in 12 rural high schools. Findings included significant differences between ethnic groups on expected and desired family size and marriage age; but no differences between age groups. (Author/SJL)
Wagner, Karla D.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Soto, Daniel W.; Unger, Jennifer B.
Family structure is one factor that can help explain drug use among adolescents. In 2005 a study was conducted with 255 ninth-grade students from an urban, predominantly Latino Los Angeles area high school. Students were 83% Latino, 58% female, and from mostly low SES households. Half of all students reported having ever used alcohol, 30% had ever smoked a cigarette, and 18% had ever used marijuana. Family structure was measured using a single open-ended question and logistic regression was employed to determine the effects of various family structures on the use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana. The presence of older siblings in the home was associated with alcohol and marijuana use, and living with a cousin was associated with marijuana use. Results suggest that influential others, including siblings and cousins, should be included in measures of family structure. Study limitations are noted. PMID:18570026
Lund, Lori K; Zimmerman, Toni Schindler; Haddock, Shelley A
Many barriers prevent therapists from including young children in family therapy, despite the theoretical belief that every family member should be present. Although there is a wealth of literature describing how to include children, the information has not been compiled in a way that is easily accessible to therapists. In this article, we report the findings of an exhaustive and systematic literature review of 64 publications, published between 1972 and 1999, related to including children in family therapy. The purpose of this article is to offer therapists a succinct compilation of theoretical, structural, and practical aspects as well as a comprehensive listing of specific techniques for including children in family therapy.
Lin, Fu-Gong; Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Tung, Ho-Jui
Depression is an important health problem in children and the onset of depression is occurring at a younger age than previously suggested. The associations of being overweight and low socioeconomic status in childhood depression have been well documented; nevertheless few studies have addressed the combined effects of socioeconomic status and body weight, with depression in school-age children. We intended to examine if the relationship between socioeconomic status and childhood depression could be modified by abnormal body weight. A cross-sectional study was performed with a total of 559 subjects from 29 elementary schools in Taiwan. A depression scale was used to determine the depression status. Children receiving governmental monetary assistance for after-school class were categorized as being in the lower socioeconomic group. Data for depression-related demographic characteristics, family and school variables were collected. Children in the lower socioeconomic status group have a higher prevalence of depression (23.5%) than those in higher socioeconomic status groups(16.4%). Being overweight demonstrates the opposite effect on depression risk in the different socioeconomic groups. In lower socioeconomic families, the risk of depression in overweight children is three times higher than that for normal weight children; whereas in higher socioeconomic families, overweight children have a lower risk for depression than normal weight children. We concluded that a qualitative interactive effect existed between being overweight and socioeconomic status with childhood depression. More attention should be paid to overweight children from lower socioeconomic status families to prevent depression in school-age children.
Noordam, Raymond; Oudt, Charlotte H.; Deelen, Joris; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; van Heemst, Diana
Offspring of long-lived families are characterized by beneficial metabolic phenotypes in glucose and lipid metabolism and low 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Although the genetic basis for human longevity remains largely unclear, the contribution of variation at the APOE locus has been repeatedly demonstrated. We aimed to assess whether ApoE isoforms mark the familial longevity status in middle age and subsequently to test to what extend this association is mediated by the metabolic characteristics marking this status. From the Leiden Longevity Study (LLS), we included offspring from nonagenarian siblings and partners as controls. Using the metabolic phenotypes of familial longevity as mediators, we investigated how APOE gene variants associated with LLS offspring/control status (in 1,515 LLS offspring and 715 controls). Within the LLS (mean age = 59.2 years), ApoE ε4 was not associated with a lower likelihood of being an LLS offspring, whereas ApoE ɛ2 was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of being an LLS offspring (odds ratio = 1.43), but this difference was not mediated (p-values>0.05) by any of the investigated metabolic phenotypes (e.g., diabetes and glucose). Therefore, variation at the APOE locus may not influence familial longevity status in middle age significantly through any of the metabolic mechanisms investigated. PMID:27540764
Sheehan, Moira J; Farmer, Phyllis R; Brutnell, Thomas P
To begin the study of phytochrome signaling in maize, we have cloned and characterized the phytochrome gene family from the inbred B73. Through DNA gel blot analysis of maize genomic DNA and BAC library screens, we show that the PhyA, PhyB, and PhyC genes are each duplicated once in the genome of maize. Each gene pair was positioned to homeologous regions of the genome using recombinant inbred mapping populations. These results strongly suggest that the duplication of the phytochrome gene family in maize arose as a consequence of an ancient tetraploidization in the maize ancestral lineage. Furthermore, sequencing of Phy genes directly from BAC clones indicates that there are six functional phytochrome genes in maize. Through Northern gel blot analysis and a semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assay, we determined that all six phytochrome genes are transcribed in several seedling tissues. However, expression from PhyA1, PhyB1, and PhyC1 predominate in all seedling tissues examined. Dark-grown seedlings express higher levels of PhyA and PhyB than do light-grown plants but PhyC genes are expressed at similar levels under light and dark growth conditions. These results are discussed in relation to phytochrome gene regulation in model eudicots and monocots and in light of current genome sequencing efforts in maize. PMID:15280251
Kelly, Katherine Patterson; Ganong, Lawrence
Few researchers have studied how parents from diverse family structures cope with childhood chronic illness. We designed this study to discern the childhood cancer treatment decision-making (TDM) process in these families. Using grounded theory, we interviewed 15 custodial parents, nonresidential parents, and stepparents who had previously made a major treatment decision for their children with cancer. "Moving to place" was the central psychosocial process by which parents negotiated involvement in TDM. Parents moved toward or were moved away from involvement based on parent position in the family (custodial, nonresidential, and stepparent), prediagnosis family dynamics, and time since diagnosis. Parents used the actions of stepping up, stepping back, being pushed, and stepping away to respond to the need for TDM. Parents faced additional stressors because of their family situations, which affected the TDM process. Findings from this study provide important insight into diverse families and their unique parental TDM experiences.
Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter
This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14–24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's self-confidence and interactional competence, limiting discussion of sexual health and shaping economic provision for children, which in turn affected parental authority and daughters' engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Sexual norms are reproduced both through parents' explicit prohibitions and their own behaviours. Girls are socialised to accept men's superiority, which shapes their negotiation of sexual relationships. Interventions to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health should recognise the structural effects of parenting, both in terms of direct influences on children and the dynamics by which structural barriers such as gendered power relations and cultural norms around sexuality are transmitted across generations. PMID:25597368
Wamoyi, Joyce; Wight, Daniel; Remes, Pieter
This paper explores the structural role of the family and parenting in young people's sexual and reproductive health. The study involved eight weeks of participant observation, 26 in-depth interviews, and 11 group discussions with young people aged 14-24 years, and 20 in-depth interviews and 6 group discussions with parents/carers of children in this age group. At an individual level, parenting and family structure were found to affect young people's sexual behaviour by influencing children's self-confidence and interactional competence, limiting discussion of sexual health and shaping economic provision for children, which in turn affected parental authority and daughters' engagement in risky sexual behaviour. Sexual norms are reproduced both through parents' explicit prohibitions and their own behaviours. Girls are socialised to accept men's superiority, which shapes their negotiation of sexual relationships. Interventions to improve young people's sexual and reproductive health should recognise the structural effects of parenting, both in terms of direct influences on children and the dynamics by which structural barriers such as gendered power relations and cultural norms around sexuality are transmitted across generations.
Evans, D G; Thomas, S; Caunt, J; Roberts, L; Howell, A; Wilson, M; Fox, R; Sibbering, D M; Moss, S; Wallis, M G; Eccles, D M; Duffy, S
Although there have been encouraging recent studies showing a potential benefit from annual mammography in women aged 40-49 years of age with an elevated breast cancer risk due to family history there is little evidence of efficacy in women aged <40 years of age. A prospective study (FH02) has been developed to assess the efficacy of mammography screening in women aged 35-39 years of age with a lifetime breast cancer risk of ≥ 17 % who are not receiving MRI screening. Retrospective analyses from five centres with robust recall systems identified 47 breast cancers (n = 12 in situ) with an interval cancer rate of 15/47 (32%). Invasive tumour size, lymph node status and current vital status were all significantly better than in two control groups of unscreened women (including those with a family history) recruited to the POSH study. Further evaluation of the prospective arm of FH02 is required to assess the potential added value of digital mammography and the cancer incidence rates in moderate and high risk women in order to inform cost effectiveness analyses.
Carling-Jenkins, Rachel; Torr, Jennifer; Iacono, Teresa; Bigby, Christine
Background: Research addressing the experiences of families of adults with Down syndrome and Alzheimer's disease in seeking diagnosis and gaining support is limited. The aim of this study was to gain a greater understanding of these processes by exploring the experiences of families and carers in supporting people with Down syndrome and…
Lohse, Barbara; Rifkin, Robin; Arnold, Kristen; Least, Christine
Objective: To evaluate the digital program, "Mealtime is Family Time", as a means of educating caregivers of preschoolers on the importance of family meals within the division of feeding responsibility framework. Methods: Descriptive design using 2 approaches: focus group program review and discussion or self-report survey after independent…
Giacomini, Lorenza; Massironi, Matteo; Rothery, David; Di Achille, Gaetano; Marchi, Simone; Galluzzi, Valentina; Ferrari, Sabrina; Fassett, Caleb; Cremonese, Gabriele
At a global scale, Mercury is dominated by contractional features manifested as lobate scarps, wrinkle ridges and high-relief ridges. Here, we show that some of these features are associated with strike-slip kinematic indicators, which we identified using flyby and orbital Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) data and digital terrain models. We recognize oblique-shear kinematics along lobate scarps and high-relief ridges by means of (1) map geometries of fault patterns (frontal thrusts bordered by lateral ramps, strike-slip duplexes, restraining bends); (2) structural morphologies indicating lateral shearing (en echelon folding, pop-ups, pull-aparts); and (3) estimates of offsets based on displaced crater rims and differences in elevation between pop-up structures and pull-apart basins and their surroundings. Transpressional faults, documented across a wide range of latitudes, are found associated with reactivated rims of ancient buried basins and, in most cases, linked to frontal thrusts as lateral ramps hundreds of kilometres long. This latter observation suggests stable directions of tectonic transport over wide regions of Mercury's surface. In contrast, global cooling would imply an overall isotropic contraction with limited processes of lateral shearing induced by pre-existent lithospheric heterogeneities. Mantle convection therefore may have played an important role during the early tectonic evolution of Mercury. Estimating absolute model ages for compressional features and comparing it from what it is envisaged with thermal modeling based on cooling alone can be useful in determining if other processes could have been responsible for lobate scarps nucleation. In particular, ages more ancient that the one predicted by the models would imply other kind of tectonic processes ongoing during the early evolution of Mercury . For this reason, we date an extended thrust system, which we term the Blossom Thrust System, located between 80°E and 100°E, and 30°N and 15
Kauffmann, F; Tager, I B; Muñoz, A; Speizer, F E
Familial factors related to lung function between six and 10 years of age have been studied among 1,160 children whose both parents were examined in 1975 in the French PAARC (Pollution Atmosphérique et Affections Respiratoires Chroniques) Cooperative Study. The three indices FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in one second), and FEF25-75 (forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75 per cent of the vital capacity) were studied after adjustment for sex, town, age, and height (and weight for children's FVC and FEV1). Maternal (but not paternal) smoking was associated with a significant decrease in FEV1 and FEF25-75, but not in FVC. Familial resemblance was observed for all indices between children and parents and between siblings. None of the environmental factors considered (i.e., parental smoking or education) or body habitus explained the familial resemblance observed. Conversely, after taking into account the aggregation between siblings, associations between children's lung function and parental characteristics (smoking, lung function) remained significant. Parental-children correlations exhibited an increasing temporal trend with increasing age of the children. All but one correlation for FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75 residuals of children with mothers' residuals were higher in the oldest age group compared with the youngest age group at the 0.10 level. Furthermore, correlations between siblings of opposite sex were significantly lower than correlations between siblings of like sex, especially for FEV1/FVC and FEF25-75/FVC. Results suggest that different growth patterns between boys and girls may be a critical factor in the study of lung function familial resemblance.
Phillips, David R; Feng, Zhixin
The People's Republic of China has the largest population of older persons of any country in the world. It is a nation that has experienced enormous economic, social, and demographic changes over the past three and a half decades. Traditionally, the family was the main social support for older persons; this changed somewhat under early socialism, but in recent years, the importance of family support has been reasserted. However, over this time, the family's ability to support its older members has been considerably altered and arguably weakened. This article reviews four key issues (population change, the hukou system, economic reform, general features surrounding modernization) that have gradually changed families' capacity to provide support for older members. Research foci and public policy directions are considered under which the state might take some responsibilities from the family, support capacity to care, and improve the quality and quantity of support for older citizens.
Ikäheimo, Olli; Laukkanen, Matti; Hakko, Helinä; Räsänen, Pirkko
The influence of family structure on criminality in adolescents is well acknowledged in population based studies of delinquents, but not regarding adolescent psychiatric inpatients. The association of family structure to criminality was examined among 508 adolescents receiving psychiatric inpatient treatment between 2001 and 2006. Family structure and DSM-IV based psychiatric diagnoses were based on the K-SADS-PL-interview and criminality on criminal records provided by the Finnish Legal Register Centre. After adjusting for socio-demographic, clinical and family factors, the adolescents from single parent families, child welfare placements and those not living with their biological parents showed an increased risk of committing crimes at an earlier age than adolescents from two parent families. Lack of a safe and stable family environment has important implications for adolescents with severe mental disorder. When these adolescents are discharged from hospital, special attention should be focused on organizing stable and long term psychosocial support which compensates for the lack of stable family environment and seeks to prevent future adversities.
Hsuing, P C
Based on the data from a nationwide survey of labor force participation conducted in 1985 by the Office of the Directorate-General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics, Executive Yuan, Republic of China, this project tries to modify Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory in order to analyze fertility behavior of married women. Caldwell's Wealth Flows Theory indicates that a patriarchal family has a significant effect on fertility. Unless the patriarchal family structure is replaced by a nuclear family system, he claims, fertility levels will remain relatively high in developing countries. However, he does not discuss social factors which may influence the process of change in the family structure and which factors in the patriarchal family may influence fertility. To make up this shortcoming, this paper shows that female educational level, employment patterns, and occupational prestige brings about change in the family structure. This research also indicates that women with higher education and occupational prestige have lower fertility. In addition, it finds that female occupational status is a main factor to bring about change in the family structure. (author's)
Coombes, Courtney E; Yamamoto, Ami; Kenzie, Madeline R; Odde, David J; Gardner, Melissa K
Microtubules are key structural and transport elements in cells. The dynamics at microtubule ends are characterized by periods of slow growth, followed by stochastic switching events termed "catastrophes," in which microtubules suddenly undergo rapid shortening. Growing microtubules are thought to be protected from catastrophe by a GTP-tubulin "cap": GTP-tubulin subunits add to the tips of growing microtubules but are subsequently hydrolyzed to GDP-tubulin subunits once they are incorporated into the microtubule lattice. Loss of the GTP-tubulin cap exposes GDP-tubulin subunits at the microtubule tip, resulting in a catastrophe event. However, the mechanistic basis for sudden loss of the GTP cap, leading to catastrophe, is not known. To investigate microtubule catastrophe events, we performed 3D mechanochemical simulations that account for interactions between neighboring protofilaments. We found that there are two separate factors that contribute to catastrophe events in the 3D simulation: the GTP-tubulin cap size, which settles into a steady-state value that depends on the free tubulin concentration during microtubule growth, and the structure of the microtubule tip. Importantly, 3D simulations predict, and both fluorescence and electron microscopy experiments confirm, that microtubule tips become more tapered as the microtubule grows. This effect destabilizes the tip and ultimately contributes to microtubule catastrophe. Thus, the likelihood of a catastrophe event may be intimately linked to the aging physical structure of the growing microtubule tip. These results have important consequences for catastrophe regulation in cells, as microtubule-associated proteins could promote catastrophe events in part by modifying microtubule tip structures.
Ungar, Lea; Alperin, Mordechai; Amiel, Gilad E; Beharier, Zvi; Reis, Shmuel
Previous research has shown that physicians experience incompetence and difficulty in dealing with patients' feelings after they have broken bad news to them. During the past 10 years, we have implemented a longitudinal training program targeting these issues. The present article describes this training and discusses its contribution to doctors' skills at approaching distressed patients. In order to cope with breaking bad news to patients and their families, physicians should be skilled at crisis intervention and communication techniques. They should also be aware of their personal attitudes and emotional reactions when breaking bad news. Each session encompassed these areas, as well as the most prominent issues arising when breaking bad news. In a 1-5 Likert scale, the course received an overall score of 4.47 (S.D. 0.51). Participants noted that they had gained relevant communication skills for future patient encounters.
Salter, Jason D; Bennett, Ryan P; Smith, Harold C
The APOBEC (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide-like) family of proteins have diverse and important functions in human health and disease. These proteins have an intrinsic ability to bind to both RNA and single-stranded (ss) DNA. Both function and tissue-specific expression varies widely for each APOBEC protein. We are beginning to understand that the activity of APOBEC proteins is regulated through genetic alterations, changes in their transcription and mRNA processing, and through their interactions with other macromolecules in the cell. Loss of cellular control of APOBEC activities leads to DNA hypermutation and promiscuous RNA editing associated with the development of cancer or viral drug resistance, underscoring the importance of understanding how APOBEC proteins are regulated.
Tay, Kay Chai Peter; Seow, Chuen Chai Dennis; Xiao, Chunxiang; Lee, Hui Min Julian; Chiu, Helen F K; Chan, Sally Wai-Chi
Dementia is a global health issue and the effects on caregivers are substantial. The study aimed to examine the associations of burden, coping, self-efficacy with quality of life among family caregivers of persons with dementia in Singapore. Structured interviews were conducted in a convenience sample of 84 family caregivers caring and seeking clinical care for the persons with dementia in an outpatient clinic of a public hospital in Singapore. The outcome measures included the Family Burden Interview Schedule, Family Crisis Oriented Personal Evaluation Scale, General Perceived Self-Efficacy Scale, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale - Brief Version. In general, significant correlations were observed between the quality of life scores with coping strategy and family burden scores, but not between the coping strategy and family burden scores. Compared to demographic factors such as caregiver age and household income, psychosocial factors including family burden, coping strategies, and self-efficacy demonstrated greater association with quality of life in the participants. However, the dynamics of these associations will change with an increasing population of persons with dementia, decreasing nuclear family size, and predicted changes in family living arrangements for the persons with dementia in future. As such, it necessitates continuous study examining the needs and concerns of family caregivers and the relevance of ongoing interventions specific to caregivers of persons with dementia.
Sijtsema, J J; Oldehinkel, A J; Veenstra, R; Verhulst, F C; Ormel, J
Both structural (i.e., SES, familial psychopathology, family composition) and dynamic (i.e., parental warmth and rejection) family characteristics have been associated with aggressive and depressive problem development. However, it is unclear to what extent (changes in) dynamic family characteristics have an independent effect on problem development while accounting for stable family characteristics and comorbid problem development. This issue was addressed by studying problem development in a large community sample (N = 2,230; age 10-20) of adolescents using Linear Mixed models. Paternal and maternal warmth and rejection were assessed via the Egna Minnen Beträffande Uppfostran for Children (EMBU-C). Aggressive and depressive problems were assessed via subscales of the Youth/Adult Self-Report. Results showed that dynamic family characteristics independently affected the development of aggressive problems. Moreover, maternal rejection in preadolescence and increases in paternal rejection were associated with aggressive problems, whereas decreases in maternal rejection were associated with decreases in depressive problems over time. Paternal and maternal warmth in preadolescence was associated with fewer depressive problems during adolescence. Moreover, increases in paternal warmth were associated with fewer depressive problems over time. Aggressive problems were a stable predictor of depressive problems over time. Finally, those who increased in depressive problems became more aggressive during adolescence, whereas those who decreased in depressive problems became also less aggressive. Besides the effect of comorbid problems, problem development is to a large extent due to dynamic family characteristics, and in particular to changes in parental rejection, which leaves much room for parenting-based interventions.
... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water AGENCY... Staff Guidance (LR-ISG), LR- ISG-2011-01, ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and... Learned (GALL) Report for the aging management of stainless steel structures and components exposed...
Greenwood, Tiffany A.; Beeri, Michal S.; Schmeidler, James; Valerio, Daniel; Raventós, Henriette; Mora-Villalobos, Lara; Camacho, Karla; Carrión-Baralt, José R.; Angelo, Gary; Almasy, Laura; Sano, Mary; Silverman, Jeremy M.
We sought to identify cognitive phenotypes for family/genetic studies of successful cognitive aging (SCA; maintaining intact cognitive functioning while living to late old age).We administered a battery of neuropsychological tests to nondemented nonagenarians (n = 65; mean age = 93.4±3.0) and their offspring (n = 188; mean age = 66.4±5.0) from the Central Valley of Costa Rica. After covarying for age, gender, and years of education, as necessary, heritability was calculated for cognitive functions at three pre-defined levels of complexity: specific neuropsychological functions (e.g., delayed recall, sequencing), three higher level cognitive domains (memory, executive functions, attention), and an overall neuropsychological summary. The highest heritability was for delayed recall (h2 = 0.74, se = 0.14, p < 0.0001) but significant heritabilities involving memory were also observed for immediate recall (h2 = 0.50), memory as a cognitive domain (h2 = 0.53), and the overall neuropsychological summary (h2 = 0.42). Heritabilities for sequencing (h2 = 0.42), fluency (h2 = 0.39), abstraction (h2 = 0.36), and the executive functions cognitive domain (h2 = 0.35) were also significant. In contrast, the attention domain and memory recognition were not significantly heritable in these families. Among the heritable specific cognitive functions, a strong pleiotropic effect (i.e., evidence that these may be influenced by the same gene or set of genes) for delayed and immediate recall was identified (bivariate statistic = 0.934, p < 0.0001) and more modest but significant effects were found for four additional bivariate relationships. The results support the heritability of good cognitive function in old age and the utilization of several levels of phenotypes, and they suggest that several measures involving memory may be especially useful for family/genetic studies of SCA. PMID:21908911
Khodabakhshi Koolaee, Anahita; Shaghelani Lor, Hossein; Soleimani, Ali Akbar; Rahmatizadeh, Masoumeh
Background: Few studies indicate that most behavioral problems are due to family dysfunction and inappropriate family environment. It seems that the family of the delinquent adolescent is unbalanced in the power structure and parenting style. Objectives: The present study compares the family power structure and parent-child relationship quality in delinquent and non-delinquent young subjects in Tehran. Patients and Methods: Eighty students of secondary schools aged between 15 and 18 in Tehran were enrolled with cluster sampling method and 80 delinquent adolescents of the Correction and Rehabilitation Centers aged between 15 and 18 were chosen with a convenience sampling method. They responded to an instrument of family power structure (Child–parents relationship inventory). Data was compared between these two groups by utilizing the independent and dependent t-test and Levene’s test. Results: The findings indicated there is a significant difference between delinquent and non-delinquent adolescents in family power structure and its subscales (P < 0.001) and father-child relationship quality (P < 0.005). Also, there is no statistically significant difference between these two groups in mother-child relationship quality (P < 0.005). Besides, the results revealed that delinquent adolescents were significantly different regarding the quality of parent-child relationship (P < 0.001). Conclusions: These results emphasize that an inappropriate decision making process pattern in a family has a significant effect on deviant behavior in adolescents. The fathers’ parenting is more strongly linked to their sons’ delinquency. So, family power structure and parent-child relationship can be considered in therapeutic interventions (prevention and treatment) for adolescents’ delinquency. PMID:25032158
Lallukka, Tea; Rahkonen, Ossi; Lahelma, Eero; Arber, Sara
This study aimed to examine how physical working conditions, psychosocial working conditions and work-family conflicts are associated with sleep complaints, and whether health behaviours explain these associations. We used pooled postal questionnaire surveys collected in 2001-2002 among 40-60-year-old employees of the City of Helsinki (n = 5819, response rate 66%). Participants were classified as having sleep complaints if they reported sleep complaints at least once a week on average (24% of women and 20% of men). Independent variables included environmental work exposures, physical workload, computer work, Karasek's job strain and work-family conflicts. Age, marital status, occupational class, work arrangements, health behaviours and obesity were adjusted for. Most working conditions were associated strongly with sleep complaints after adjustment for age only. After adjustment for work-family conflicts, the associations somewhat attenuated. Work-family conflicts were also associated strongly with women's [odds ratio (OR) 5.90; confidence interval (CI) 4.16-8.38] and men's sleep (OR 2.56; CI 1.34-4.87). The associations remained robust even after controlling for unhealthy behaviours, obesity, health status, depression and medications. Physically strenuous working conditions, psychosocial job strain and work-family conflicts may increase sleep complaints. Efforts to support employees to cope with psychosocial stress and reach a better balance between paid work and family life might reduce sleep complaints. Sleep complaints need to be taken into account in worksite health promotion and occupational health care in order to reduce the burden of poor sleep.
Kowalewska, Anna; Mazur, Joanna
The aim of the research was to present the prevalence of the regular tobacco smoking, the age of Polish adolescents' smoking onset, as well as the trends in these behaviours in 2010-2014, and to identify the fam- ily factors related to early tobacco initiation, and regular smoking. The study was conducted in 2013/2014 as a part of the HBSC--Health Behaviour in School-aged Children: A WHO collaborative cross-national study, in a representative sample of Polish students (n=4545; 2263 boys, and 2282 girls), in three age groups, in mean age 11.6; 13.6; 15.6. The international, standard HBSC questionnaire was used. Results showed that prevalence of adolescents smoking onset, as well as regular smoking increased with age. There was no statistically significant difference comparing to HBSC study conducted in 2009/10. The important predictors of early tobacco initiation were: the male gender, living in broken or reconstructed family, and living in the rural area. Considering regular smoking, the most important risk factors were: older age (13,15 y.o.) and living with single parent or in reconstructed family. In planning the prevention strategies there is a need to take into account the family role in children and adolescents' smoking prevention, as well as how to support single parents.
Blackson, T C; Tarter, R E
In this study, a multifactorial model of liability to early-age alcohol and drug use was elucidated on a sample of sons of substance-abusing fathers (n = 59) and sons of normal fathers (n = 71) at time 1 when the boys were 10-12 years of age. Three hierarchical regression analyses were computed to test models to identify salient risk characteristics associated with sons' perception of family dysfunction unconventional activities among peers, and affiliation with peers engaged in delinquent behaviors. The respective models explained 28% of the variance on sons' Dysfunctional Family Index scores, 21% of the variance on sons' Conventional Activities of Friends Scale scores, and 53% of the variance was accounted for on sons' Peer Delinquency Scale scores. In subsequent logistic regression analyses, a multifactorial model comprised of individual, family, and peer risk characteristics obtained at time 1 correctly predicted 83.7% of sons who had used alcohol and/or drugs by time 2 when they were 12-14 years old. The findings also suggest that temperament phenotype influences family interaction patterns that in turn influence the psychosocial development of the child.
Brody, Leslie R.; And Others
This study explored relations between emotions (including shame, guilt, and the intensity of positive and negative affects), family structure (alliances between family members and boundaries between family members), and family process (disengagement, enmeshment, and cohesiveness). The sample consisted of either students enrolled in a general…
Golombok, Susan; Readings, Jennifer; Blake, Lucy; Casey, Polly; Marks, Alex; Jadva, Vasanti
Each year, an increasing number of children are born through surrogacy and thus lack a genetic and/or gestational link with their mother. This study examined the impact of surrogacy on mother-child relationships and children's psychological adjustment. Assessments of maternal positivity, maternal negativity, mother-child interaction, and child adjustment were administered to 32 surrogacy, 32 egg donation, and 54 natural conception families with a 7-year-old child. No differences were found for maternal negativity, maternal positivity, or child adjustment, although the surrogacy and egg donation families showed less positive mother-child interaction than the natural conception families. The findings suggest that both surrogacy and egg donation families function well in the early school years.
The majority of Map gene products have no known function. In order to better understand the pathobiology of this mycobacterium, we have begun to study the structure-function relationship of a subset of Map proteins. We have selected a number of gene products unique to Map, which are either predict...
Lee, Joseph H.; Barral, Sandra; Cheng, Rong; Chacon, Inara; Santana, Vincent; Williamson, Jennifer; Lantigua, Rafael; Medrano, Martin; Jimenez-Velazquez, Ivonne Z.; Stern, Yaakov; Tycko, Benjamin; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Wakutani, Yosuke; Kawarai, Toshitaka; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard
The aim of the study was to identify chromosomal regions containing putative genetic variants influencing age-at-onset in familial late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Data from a genome-wide scan that included genotyping of APOE was analyzed in 1,161 individuals from 209 families of Caribbean Hispanic ancestry with a mean age-at-onset of 73.3 years multiply affected by late-onset Alzheimer’s disease. Two-point and multipoint analyses were conducted using variance component methods from 376 microsatellite markers with an average inter-marker distance of 9.3 cM. Family-based test of association were also conducted for the same set of markers. Age-at-onset of symptoms among affected individuals was used as the quantitative trait. Our results showed that the presence of APOE-ε4 lowered the age-at-onset by three years. Using linkage analysis strategy, the highest LOD scores were obtained using a conservative definition of LOAD at 5q15 (LOD 3.1) 17q25.1 (LOD=2.94) and 14q32.12 (LOD=2.36) and 7q36.3 (LOD=2.29) in covariate adjusted models that included APOE-ε4. Both linkage and family-based association identified 17p13 as a candidate region. In addition, family-based association analysis showed markers at 12q13 (p=0.00002), 13q (p=0.00043) and 14q23 (p=0.00046) to be significantly associated with age at onset. The current study supports the hypothesis that there are additional genetic loci that could influence age-at-onset of late onset Alzheimer’s disease. The novel loci at 5q15, 17q25.1, 13q and 17p13, and the previously reported loci at 7q36.3, 12q13, 14q23 and 14q32 need further investigation. PMID:17940814
McNicoll, Christopher F.; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Lew, Mark F.; Suchowersky, Oksana; Klein, Christine; Golbe, Lawrence I.; Mark, Margery H.; Growdon, John H.; Wooten, G. Frederick; Watts, Ray L.; Guttman, Mark; Racette, Brad A.; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Ahmed, Anwar; Shill, Holly A.; Singer, Carlos; Saint-Hilaire, Marie H.; Massood, Tiffany; Huskey, Karen W.; DeStefano, Anita L.; Gillis, Tammy; Mysore, Jayalakshmi; Goldwurm, Stefano; Pezzoli, Gianni; Baker, Kenneth B.; Itin, Ilia; Litvan, Irene; Nicholson, Garth; Corbett, Alastair; Nance, Martha; Drasby, Edward; Isaacson, Stuart; Burn, David J.; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Al-hinti, Jomana; Moller, Anette T.; Ostergaard, Karen; Sherman, Scott J.; Roxburgh, Richard; Snow, Barry; Slevin, John T.; Cambi, Franca; Gusella, James F.; Myers, Richard H.
The ATP/ADP ratio reflects mitochondrial function and has been reported to be influenced by the size of the Huntington disease gene (HD) repeat. Impaired mitochondrial function has long been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and therefore, we evaluated the relationship of the HD CAG repeat size to PD onset age in a large sample of familial PD cases. PD affected siblings (n=495) with known onset ages from 248 families, were genotyped for the HD CAG repeat. Genotyping failed in 11 cases leaving 484 for analysis, including 35 LRRK2 carriers. All cases had HD CAG repeats (range 15 to 34) below the clinical range for HD, although 5.2 percent of the sample (n=25) had repeats in the intermediate range (the intermediate range lower limit=27; upper limit=35 repeats), suggesting that the prevalence of intermediate allele carriers in the general population is significant. No relation between the HD CAG repeat size and the age at onset for PD was found in this sample of familial PD. PMID:18649400
Attard, Guillaume; Rossier, Yvan; Eisenlohr, Laurent
In this paper, underground structures are shown to have a major influence on the groundwater mean age distribution described as a dispersive piston effect. Urban underground development does not occur without impacts on subsoil resources. In particular, groundwater resources can be vulnerable and generate disturbances when this space is exploited. Groundwater age spatial distribution data are fundamental for resource management as it can provide operational sustainability indicators. However, the application of groundwater age modeling is neglected regarding the potential effect of underground structures in urban areas. A three dimensional modeling approach was conducted to quantify the impact of two underground structures: (1) an impervious structure and (2) a draining structure. Both structures are shown to cause significant mixing processes occurring between shallow and deeper aquifers. The design technique used for draining structures is shown to have the greatest impact, generating a decrease in mean age of more than 80% under the structure. Groundwater age modeling is shown to be relevant for highlighting the role played by underground structures in advective-dispersive flows in urban areas.
Elbedour, S.; Bart, William; Hektner, Joel
Previous studies of polygamy and child mental health have primarily focused on younger children. The present studies are among the first to focus on adolescents. The first study involved 210 randomly selected Bedouin Arab adolescents (mean age 15.9), who were administered instruments assessing their family environment and mental health. The second…
Additionally, familial stressors originating from both spouses and children are associated with angina pectoris (37) and worsened CAD outcomes (57). Besides...negative aspects of social relations predictive of angina pectoris ? a 6-year follow-up study of middle-aged Danish women and men. J. of Epid. and
Muckle, Gina; Dewailly, Éric; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Ayotte, Pierre; Riva, Mylène
Objectives. We examined the relation of household crowding to food insecurity among Inuit families with school-aged children in Arctic Quebec. Methods. We analyzed data collected between October 2005 and February 2010 from 292 primary caregiver–child dyads from 14 Inuit communities. We collected information about household conditions, food security, and family socioeconomic characteristics by interviews. We used logistic regression models to examine the association between household crowding and food insecurity. Results. Nearly 62% of Inuit families in the Canadian Arctic resided in more crowded households, placing them at risk for food insecurity. About 27% of the families reported reducing the size of their children’s meals because of lack of money. The likelihood of reducing the size of children’s meals was greater in crowded households (odds ratio = 3.73; 95% confidence interval = 1.96, 7.12). After we adjusted for different socioeconomic characteristics, results remained statistically significant. Conclusions. Interventions operating across different levels (community, regional, national) are needed to ensure food security in the region. Targeting families living in crowded conditions as part of social and public health policies aiming to reduce food insecurity in the Arctic could be beneficial. PMID:25602890
Many complex cellular events depend on multiprotein complexes known as molecular machines to efficiently couple the energy derived from adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis to the generation of mechanical force. Members of the AAA+ ATPase superfamily (ATPases Associated with various cellular Activities) are critical components of many molecular machines. AAA+ proteins are defined by conserved modules that precisely position the active site elements of two adjacent subunits to catalyze ATP hydrolysis. In many cases, AAA+ proteins form a ring structure that translocates a polymeric substrate through the central channel using specialized loops that project into the central channel. We discuss the major features of AAA+ protein structure and function with an emphasis on pivotal aspects elucidated with archaeal proteins. PMID:27703410
Namburu, Raju R.; Tamma, Kumar K.
A generalized gamma(s)-family of self-starting single-step formulations are presented in order to provide simplified yet effective dynamic attributes to include features towards eliminating the need to involve accelerations in the computational process for structural dynamic problems. By appropriately selecting the parameters pertaining to gamma(s)(s = 1, 2, 3), both explicit and implicit formulations are obtained. The stability and accuracy characteristics of the gamma(s)-family of representations are presented to validate the robustness of the formulations for structural dynamic problems. Numerous illustrative examples are described and the results are in excellent agreement and validate the applicability of these formulations for structural dynamic computations.
Epley, Pamela; Gotto, George S., IV; Summers, Jean Ann; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Turnbull, Ann P.; Friend, Anna
This article presents findings from two early intervention agencies examining how administrative structures affect providers' ability to serve families of young children with disabilities. Based on previous research identifying three administrative structures (i.e., vision/leadership, organizational climate, and resources), this article…
Isaacs, B.; Wang, M.; Samuel, P.; Ajuwon, P.; Baum, N.; Edwards, M.; Rillotta, F.
Background: Although the Family Quality of Life Survey--2006 (FQOLS-2006) is being used in research, there is little evidence to support its hypothesised domain structure. The purpose of this study was to test the domain structure of the survey using confirmatory factor analysis. Method: Samples from Australia, Canada, Nigeria and the USA were…
Background The aquatic flowering-plant family Hydatellaceae has a classic Gondwanan distribution, as it is found in Australia, India and New Zealand. To shed light on the biogeographic history of this apparently ancient branch of angiosperm phylogeny, we dated the family in the context of other seed-plant divergences, and evaluated its biogeography using parsimony and likelihood methods. We also explicitly tested the effect of different extinction rates on biogeographic inferences. Results We infer that the stem lineage of Hydatellaceae originated in the Lower Cretaceous; in contrast, its crown originated much more recently, in the early Miocene, with the bulk of its diversification after the onset of the Pliocene. Biogeographic reconstructions predict a mix of dispersal and vicariance events, but considerations of geological history preclude most vicariance events, besides a split at the root of the family between southern and northern clades. High extinction rates are plausible in the family, and when these are taken into account there is greater uncertainty in biogeographic inferences. Conclusions A stem origin for Hydatellaceae in the Lower Cretaceous is consistent with the initial appearance of fossils attributed to its sister clade, the water lilies. In contrast, the crown clade is young, indicating that vicariant explanations for species outside Australia are improbable. Although long-distance dispersal is likely the primary driver of biogeographic distribution in Hydatellaceae, we infer that the recent drying out of central Australia divided the family into tropical vs. subtropical/temperate clades around the beginning of the Miocene. PMID:24884487
Lane, Rachel F; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Hempstead, Barbara L; Small, Scott A; Strittmatter, Stephen M; Gandy, Sam
Members of the vacuolar protein sorting 10 (Vps10) family of receptors (including sortilin, SorL1, SorCS1, SorCS2, and SorCS3) play pleiotropic functions in protein trafficking and intracellular and intercellular signaling in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Interactions have been documented between Vps10 family members and the retromer coat complex, a key component of the intracellular trafficking apparatus that sorts cargo from the early endosome to the trans-Golgi network. In recent years, genes encoding several members of the Vps10 family of proteins, as well as components of the retromer coat complex, have been implicated as genetic risk factors for sporadic and autosomal dominant forms of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, and Parkinson's disease, with risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerosis. In addition to their functions in protein trafficking, the Vps10 family proteins modulate neurotrophic signaling pathways. Sortilin can impact the intracellular response to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) by regulating anterograde trafficking of Trk receptors to the synapse and direct control of BDNF levels, while both sortilin and SorCS2 function as cell surface receptors to mediate acute responses to proneurotrophins. This mini-review and symposium will highlight the emerging data from this rapidly growing area of research implicating the Vps10 family of receptors and the retromer in physiological intracellular trafficking signaling by neurotrophins and in the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration.
Gall, H; Schmid, M; Schmidtke, J; Schempp, W; Weber, L
Cytogenetic studies on a patient with Klinefelter's syndrome revealed an inherited, structural aberration of the Y-chromosome which has not been described before. The aberrant Y-chromosome was characterized by eight different banding methods. The value of individual staining techniques in studies on Y-heterochromatin aberrations is emphasized. Analysis of the cytogenetic studies (banding methods, restriction endonuclease of DNA, and measurement of the length of the Y-chromosome) permits an interpretation to be made on how the aberrant Y-chromosome originated. The functions of the Y-chromosome are discussed. The decrease in fertility (cryptozoospermia) in the two brothers with the same aberrant Y-chromosome was striking.
Martinez, Charles R; Forgatch, Marion S
This study examined links between family structure transitions and children's academic, behavioral, and emotional outcomes in a sample of 238 divorcing mothers and their sons in Grades 1-3. Multiple methods and agents were used in assessing family process variables and child outcomes. Findings suggest that greater accumulations of family transitions were associated with poorer academic functioning, greater acting-out behavior, and worse emotional adjustment for boys. However, in all three cases, these relationships were mediated by parenting practices: Parental academic skill encouragement mediated the relationship between transitions and academic functioning, and a factor of more general effective parenting practices mediated the relationships between transitions and acting out and emotional adjustment.
Addawe, Joel M.; Lope, Jose Ernie C.
We propose an age-structured malaria transmission model and perform sensitivity analyses to determine the relative importance of model parameters to disease transmission. We subdivide the human population into two: preschool humans (below 5 years) and the rest of the human population (above 5 years). We then consider two sets of baseline parameters, one for areas of high transmission and the other for areas of low transmission. We compute the sensitivity indices of the reproductive number and the endemic equilibrium point with respect to the two sets of baseline parameters. Our simulations reveal that in areas of either high or low transmission, the reproductive number is most sensitive to the number of bites by a female mosquito on the rest of the human population. For areas of low transmission, we find that the equilibrium proportion of infectious pre-school humans is most sensitive to the number of bites by a female mosquito. For the rest of the human population it is most sensitive to the rate of acquiring temporary immunity. In areas of high transmission, the equilibrium proportion of infectious pre-school humans and the rest of the human population are both most sensitive to the birth rate of humans. This suggests that strategies that target the mosquito biting rate on pre-school humans and those that shortens the time in acquiring immunity can be successful in preventing the spread of malaria.
Shi, Dashuang; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel
N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS) catalyzes the production of N-acetylglutamate (NAG) from acetyl-CoA and l-glutamate. In microorganisms and plants, the enzyme functions in the arginine biosynthetic pathway, while in mammals, its major role is to produce the essential co-factor of carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 (CPS1) in the urea cycle. Recent work has shown that several different genes encode enzymes that can catalyze NAG formation. A bifunctional enzyme was identified in certain bacteria, which catalyzes both NAGS and N-acetylglutamate kinase (NAGK) activities, the first two steps of the arginine biosynthetic pathway. Interestingly, these bifunctional enzymes have higher sequence similarity to vertebrate NAGS than those of the classical (mono-functional) bacterial NAGS. Solving the structures for both classical bacterial NAGS and bifunctional vertebrate-like NAGS/K has advanced our insight into the regulation and catalytic mechanisms of NAGS, and the evolutionary relationship between the two NAGS groups. PMID:26068232
Wu, Menghao; Fu, Huahua; Zhou, Ling; Yao, Kailun; Zeng, Xiao Cheng; Huazhong University of Science; Technology Team; University of Nebraska-Lincoln Team
We predict a new class of monolayer phosphorous allotropes, namely, ɛ-P, ζ-P, η-P and θ-P. Distinctly different from the monolayer α-P (black) and previously predicted β-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 176802 (2014)), γ-P and δ-P (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 046804 (2014)) with buckled honeycomb lattice, the new allotropes are composed of P4 square or P5 pentagon units that favor tricoordination for P atoms. The new four phases, together with 5 hybrid phases, are confirmed stable by first-principles calculations. In particularly, the θ-P is shown to be equally stable as the α-P (black) and more stable than all previously reported phosphorene allotropes. Prediction of nonvolatile ferroelastic switching and structural transformation among different phases under strains points out their potential applications via strain engineering. MHW was supported by start-up fund from Huazhong University of Science and Technology.
Steinauer, Michelle L.; Christie, Mark R.; Blouin, Michael S.; Agola, Lelo E.; Mwangi, Ibrahim N.; Maina, Geoffrey M.; Mutuku, Martin W.; Kinuthia, Joseph M.; Mkoji, Gerald M.; Loker, Eric S.
For ethical and logistical reasons, population-genetic studies of parasites often rely on the non-invasive sampling of offspring shed from their definitive hosts. However, if the sampled offspring are naturally derived from a small number of parents, then the strong family structure can result in biased population-level estimates of genetic parameters, particularly if reproductive output is skewed. Here, we document and correct for the strong family structure present within schistosome offspring (miracidia) that were collected non-invasively from humans in western Kenya. By genotyping 2,424 miracidia from 12 patients at 12 microsatellite loci and using a sibship clustering program, we found that the samples contained large numbers of siblings. Furthermore, reproductive success of the breeding schistosomes was skewed, creating differential representation of each family in the offspring pool. After removing the family structure with an iterative jacknifing procedure, we demonstrated that the presence of relatives led to inflated estimates of genetic differentiation and linkage disequilibrium, and downwardly-biased estimates of inbreeding coefficients (FIS). For example, correcting for family structure yielded estimates of FST among patients that were 27 times lower than estimates from the uncorrected samples. These biased estimates would cause one to draw false conclusions regarding these parameters in the adult population. We also found from our analyses that estimates of the number of full sibling families and other genetic parameters of samples of miracidia were highly intercorrelated but are not correlated with estimates of worm burden obtained via egg counting (Kato-Katz). Whether genetic methods or the traditional Kato-Katz estimator provide a better estimate of actual number of adult worms remains to be seen. This study illustrates that family structure must be explicitly accounted for when using offspring samples to estimate the genetic parameters of adult
Elder, Todd E.; Lubotsky, Darren H.
We present evidence that the positive relationship between kindergarten entrance age and school achievement primarily reflects skill accumulation prior to kindergarten, rather than a heightened ability to learn in school among older children. The association between achievement test scores and entrance age appears during the first months of…
Minnes, Patricia; Woodford, Lynn; Passey, Jennifer
Background: Increasing numbers of adults with an intellectual disability are being cared for at home by ageing parents. The purpose of this study was to determine whether carer resources (i.e. social support and formal service use) and carer appraisals of ageing and stress/burden mediate the relationships between (1) maladaptive behaviour and…
Hernandez, Donald J.; Denton, Nancy A.; Macartney, Suzanne E.
Background/Context: By the year 2030, when the baby boom generation born between 1946 and 1964 will be in the retirement ages, 72% of the elderly will be non-Hispanic Whites, compared with 56% for working-age adults, and 50% for children. As the predominantly White baby boomers reach retirement, they will increasingly depend for economic support…
Burton, Rob J. F.
In studies of farming, the age of the principal decision-maker (PDM) has been associated with numerous farm structural and managerial features and has been widely accepted as a good indicator of the influence of life-cycle factors on decision-making. As such, it has become an important aspect of many quantitative studies of agricultural change.…
Wright, Kim McGee
According to Simplico (2005), critics who were led by parents have argued, "Children are spending too much time doing homework, which has no impact on their learning" (p. 138). This research study is significant for students, parents, teachers, educators, and administrators who wish to compare beliefs of families, students, and teachers regarding…
Emily Hall Tremaine Foundation, Inc., Hartford, CT.
This learning guide is designed to connect personal, family, and job responsibilities for adults and out-of-school youth in economically depressed areas of the state (including transitional ex-offenders and corrections populations) so that these individuals learn to manage and balance these aspects of their lives in order to prepare for or…
This book examines the political and economic consequences of the United States' growing reliance on the market and the effects that this growing reliance is having on U.S. workers and their families. The following are among the topics discussed in the book's 10 chapters: (1) consequences of the turn to the market (disinvestment, imbalance between…
Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Dudovitz, Bonnie
Objective: To conduct focus groups to identify parents' perceptions of barriers to family meals and elucidate ideas to guide the development of interventions to overcome barriers. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 27 working parents in urban community settings. Results: Parents reported enjoying the sharing/bonding…
To explore families as networks and communities from an evolutionary perspective, two studies were conducted with rural elders in West Virginia. In the first study, examining the social factors that influenced the use of public transportation, 28 elderly individuals, divided into three groups by transportation styles (users of public…
Reading, writing, and communicating, also known as literacy, are important cognitive skills to teach within society. Early literacy is knowledge about reading and writing before actually being able to read and write and is the foundation to future reading and writing skills (Ghoting & Martin-Diaz, 2006). The role of families in developing early…
Jia, Rongfang; Schoppe-Sullivan, Sarah J.
A sample (N = 112) composed primarily of European American and middle-class two-parent families with a resident father and a 4-year-old child (48% girls) participated in a longitudinal study of associations between coparenting and father involvement. At the initial assessment and 1 year later, fathers reported on their involvement in play and…
Lazzaroni, Martina; Marshall-Pescini, Sarah
Background Dominance is one of the most pervasive concepts in the study of wolf social behaviour but recently its validity has been questioned. For some authors, the bonds between members of wolf families are better described as parent-offspring relationships and the concept of dominance should be used just to evaluate the social dynamics of non-familial captive pack members (e.g., Mech & Cluff, 2010). However, there is a dearth of studies investigating dominance relationships and its correlates in wolf family packs. Methods Here, we applied a combination of the most commonly used quantitative methods to evaluate the dominance relationships in a captive family pack of 19 Arctic wolves. Results We found a significant linear and completely transitive hierarchy based on the direction of submissive behaviours and found that dominance relationships were not influenced by the competitive contexts (feeding vs. non-feeding context). A significant linear hierarchy also emerges amongst siblings once the breeding pair (the two top-ranking individuals) is removed from analyses. Furthermore, results suggest that wolves may use greeting behaviour as a formal signal of subordination. Whereas older wolves were mostly dominant over younger ones, no clear effect of sex was found. However, frequency of agonistic (submissive, dominant and aggressive) behaviours was higher between female–female and male–male dyads than female–male dyads and sex-separated linear hierarchies showed a stronger linearity than the mixed one. Furthermore, dominance status was conveyed through different behavioural categories during intra-sexual and inter-sexual interactions. Discussion Current results highlight the importance of applying a systematic methodology considering the individuals’ age and sex when evaluating the hierarchical structure of a social group. Moreover, they confirm the validity of the concept of dominance relationships in describing the social bonds within a family pack of
Sheppard, Paula; Garcia, Justin R; Sear, Rebecca
Childhood family structure has been shown to play an important role in shaping a child's life course development, especially in industrialised societies. One hypothesis which could explain such findings is that parental investment is likely to be diluted in families without both natural parents. Most empirical studies have examined the influence of only one type of family disruption or composition (e.g. father absence) making it difficult to simultaneously compare the effects of different kinds of family structure on children's future outcomes. Here we use a large, rich data source (n=16,207) collected by Alfred Kinsey and colleagues in the United States from 1938 to 1963, to examine the effects of particular childhood family compositions and compare between them. The dataset further allows us to look at the effects of family structure on an array of traits relating to sexual maturity, reproduction, and risk-taking. Our results show that, for both sexes, living with a single mother or mother and stepfather during childhood was often associated with faster progression to life history events and greater propensity for risk-taking behaviours. However, living with a single father or father and stepmother was typically not significantly different to having both natural parents for these outcomes. Our results withstand adjustment for socioeconomic status, age, ethnicity, age at puberty (where applicable), and sibling configuration. While these results support the hypothesis that early family environment influences subsequent reproductive strategy, the different responses to the presence or absence of different parental figures in the household rearing environment suggests that particular family constructions exert independent influences on childhood outcomes. Our results suggest that father-absent households (i.e. single mothers or mothers and stepfathers) are most highly associated with subsequent fast life history progressions, compared with mother-absent households
Nearly three decades of research evaluating the impact of family structure on the health and well-being of children demonstrates that children living with their married, biological parents consistently have better physical, emotional, and academic well-being. Pediatricians and society should promote the family structure that has the best chance of producing healthy children. The best scientific literature to date suggests that, with the exception of parents faced with unresolvable marital violence, children fare better when parents work at maintaining the marriage. Consequently, society should make every effort to support healthy marriages and to discourage married couples from divorcing. PMID:25473135
Nearly three decades of research evaluating the impact of family structure on the health and well-being of children demonstrates that children living with their married, biological parents consistently have better physical, emotional, and academic well-being. Pediatricians and society should promote the family structure that has the best chance of producing healthy children. The best scientific literature to date suggests that, with the exception of parents faced with unresolvable marital violence, children fare better when parents work at maintaining the marriage. Consequently, society should make every effort to support healthy marriages and to discourage married couples from divorcing.
Kasakoff, A B; Adams, J W
The empirical findings of this study challenge the premise that stayers in a population, historical or otherwise, capture the changes over time that occurred in populations as a whole. Systematic differences between stayers and movers occur and result in differences in ages at vital events. This paper aims to show how two kinds of differences can be distinguished in a set of data. The data used in this analysis was obtained from nine published genealogies on New England families with ancestors who migrated prior to 1650 and settled throughout the northern region of the United States until 1880. The most complete data on births and deaths pertained to 3612 men descended in the male line before 1840. 72% of this sample moved from the native towns during their lifetimes. The findings lend support to Ruggles' hypothesis about migration censorship--that studies based on family reconstructions systematically underestimate ages at vital events because of the exclusion of migrants. The aim was not to support or disprove his hypothesis but to distinguish two sources of differences due to migration censorship and due to different socioeconomic opportunities in which movers and stayers have lived their lives. The data document the differences in marriage age and age at death between movers and stayers. Movers were found to marry and die at later ages than stayers. Some socioeconomic factors might delay the ages at vital events and counteract the increases in age associated with migration censorship and thus reflect similar age patterns as stayers. Socioeconomic opportunities are considered as factors affecting both stayers and movers. The conclusion is reached that a "correction" factor is not possible to extrapolate from stayers to the larger population because of changing migration rates over time. Migration censorship is described as being the product of boundary making that is typical of colonizing populations. Few options are available for eliminating censorship. This
Ferrari, Sabrina; Massironi, Matteo; Martellato, Elena; Giacomini, Lorenza; Cremonese, Gabriele; Rothery, David; Prockter, Louise M.
During its second and thirds flybys MESSENGER imaged a new large and well-preserved basin called Rembrandt Basin (Watters et al., 2009) in Mercury's southern hemisphere. Rembrandt is partially filled by volcanic overlay and is crossed by a marked lobate scarp with some similarities to another prominent mercurian lobate scarp, Beagle Rupes. In attempt to reveal Rembrandt Basin evolution, we mapped its geological units inferring -where possible -their stratigraphic relationships. In addition, we performed crater counts on several of these units and derived age estimates by applying Model Production Function (MPF) absolute-model chronology (Marchi et al., 2009). Since Rembrandt basin (in contrast to other well-seen basins) displays evidence of global-scale in addition to basin-localized deformation (Watters et al. 2009), it is characterized by different tectonic features that in some cases may be controlled by rheological layering within the crust. We attempted to map the contractional and extensional local patterns and the global tectonic features. Notably, the pronounced scarp transecting a 60 km crater near the edge of Rembrandt's inner ring and other structural features in the surrounding regions suggest a linked fault system. The apparent bow shape of this feature could be compared with Beagle Rupes, and similarly may imply special conditions of weakness inside the crust (Rothery and Massironi, 2010). Ref. Watters, T. R., Head, J. W., Solomon, S. C., Robinson, M. S., Chapman, C. R., Denevi, B. W., Fassett, C. I., Murchie, S. L., and Strom, R. G., 2009. Evolution of the Rembrandt Impact Basin on Mercury. Science, 324 , 618-621. Marchi, S., Mottola, S., Cremonese, G., Massironi, M., and Martellato, E., 2009. A new Chronology for the Moon and Mercury. Astronomical Journal, 137 , 4936-4948. Rothery, D. A. and Massironi, M., 2010. Beagle Rupes -evidence for a basal decollement of regional extent in Mercury's lithosphere. Icarus (In Press).
... that you are angry with her. • Understand that young children may only be able to deal with a little bit of information at a time, and may ask more questions over time. • Ask your child age- ...
Parage, Claire; Tavares, Raquel; Réty, Stéphane; Baltenweck-Guyot, Raymonde; Poutaraud, Anne; Renault, Lauriane; Heintz, Dimitri; Lugan, Raphaël; Marais, Gabriel A B; Aubourg, Sébastien; Hugueney, Philippe
Stilbenes are a small family of phenylpropanoids produced in a number of unrelated plant species, including grapevine (Vitis vinifera). In addition to their participation in defense mechanisms in plants, stilbenes, such as resveratrol, display important pharmacological properties and are postulated to be involved in the health benefits associated with a moderate consumption of red wine. Stilbene synthases (STSs), which catalyze the biosynthesis of the stilbene backbone, seem to have evolved from chalcone synthases (CHSs) several times independently in stilbene-producing plants. STS genes usually form small families of two to five closely related paralogs. By contrast, the sequence of grapevine reference genome (cv PN40024) has revealed an unusually large STS gene family. Here, we combine molecular evolution and structural and functional analyses to investigate further the high number of STS genes in grapevine. Our reannotation of the STS and CHS gene families yielded 48 STS genes, including at least 32 potentially functional ones. Functional characterization of nine genes representing most of the STS gene family diversity clearly indicated that these genes do encode for proteins with STS activity. Evolutionary analysis of the STS gene family revealed that both STS and CHS evolution are dominated by purifying selection, with no evidence for strong selection for new functions among STS genes. However, we found a few sites under different selection pressures in CHS and STS sequences, whose potential functional consequences are discussed using a structural model of a typical STS from grapevine that we developed.
Ranum, Laura P. W.; Chung, Ming-Yi; Banfi, Sandro; Bryer, Alan; Schut, Lawrence J.; Ramesar, Raj; Duvick, Lisa A.; McCall, Alanna; Subramony, S. H.; Goldfarb, Lev; Gomez, Christopher; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk A.; Orr, Harry T.; Zoghbi, Huda Y.
The spinocerebellar ataxias are a group of debilitating neurodegenerative diseases for which a clinical classification system has proved unreliable. We have recently isolated the gene for spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) and have shown that the disease is caused by an expanded, unstable, CAG trinucleotide repeat within an expressed gene. Normal alleles have a size range of 19–36 repeats, while SCA1 alleles have 42-81 repeats. In this study, we examined the frequency and variability of the SCA1 repeat expansion in 87 kindreds with diverse ethnic backgrounds and dominantly inherited ataxia. All nine families for which linkage to the SCA1 region of 6p had previously been established showed repeat expansion, while 3 of the remaining 78 showed a similar abnormality. For 113 patients from the families with repeat expansion, inverse correlations between CAG repeat size and both age at onset and disease duration were observed. Repeat size accounted for 66% of the variation in age at onset in these patients. After correction for repeat size, interfamilial differences in age at onset remained significant, suggesting that additional genetic factors affect the expression of the SCA1 gene product. PMID:8037204
Smith-Greenaway, Emily; Trinitapoli, Jenny
Contextual characteristics influence infant mortality above and beyond family-level factors. The widespread practice of polygyny is one feature of many sub-Saharan African contexts that may be relevant to understanding patterns of infant mortality. Building on evidence that the prevalence of polygyny reflects broader economic, social, and cultural features, and has implications for how families engage in the practice, we investigate whether and how the prevalence of polygyny (1) spills over to elevate infant mortality for all families, and (2) conditions the survival disadvantage for children living in polygynous families (i.e., compared to monogamous families). We use data from Demographic and Health Surveys to estimate multilevel hazard models that identify associations between infant mortality and region-level prevalence of polygyny among 236,336 children in 260 subnational regions across 29 sub-Saharan African countries. We find little evidence that the prevalence of polygyny influences mortality for infants in non-polygynous households net of region-level socioeconomic factors and gender inequality. However, the prevalence of polygyny significantly amplifies the survival disadvantage for infants in polygynous families. Our findings demonstrate that considering the broader marital context reveals important insights into the relationship between family structure and child wellbeing. PMID:24402794
Zielinski, Julia; Kondrashov, Fyodor
Multicellular eukaryotes have evolved a range of mechanisms for immune recognition. A widespread family involved in innate immunity are the NACHT-domain and leucine-rich-repeat-containing (NLR) proteins. Mammals have small numbers of NLR proteins, whereas in some species, mostly those without adaptive immune systems, NLRs have expanded into very large families. We describe a family of nearly 400 NLR proteins encoded in the zebrafish genome. The proteins share a defining overall structure, which arose in fishes after a fusion of the core NLR domains with a B30.2 domain, but can be subdivided into four groups based on their NACHT domains. Gene conversion acting differentially on the NACHT and B30.2 domains has shaped the family and created the groups. Evidence of positive selection in the B30.2 domain indicates that this domain rather than the leucine-rich repeats acts as the pathogen recognition module. In an unusual chromosomal organization, the majority of the genes are located on one chromosome arm, interspersed with other large multigene families, including a new family encoding zinc-finger proteins. The NLR-B30.2 proteins represent a new family with diversity in the specific recognition module that is present in fishes in spite of the parallel existence of an adaptive immune system. PMID:27248802
Ratti, L A; Humphrey, L L; Lyons, J S
This study compared perceived relationships and interaction patterns among 44 families with externalizing (polydrug-dependent), internalizing (bulimic), or normal adolescent daughters. Data from L.S. Benjamin's (1974) structural analysis of social behavior rating scales and observational coding system were subjected to a pattern analysis of effect sizes. Results revealed that families of polydrug-dependent girls were less well attached and less autonomous than were families of daughters with bulimia who were, in turn, less attached and autonomous than controls. Observed interactions also showed that parents of drug-dependent teenagers communicated a mixed message of blaming the daughter while pseudo-affirming her. The findings were interpreted as evidence for specific disturbances in the critical elements of attachment and autonomy in both clinical disorders, with more pronounced and pervasive problems in the families of polydrug-dependent girls.
Knodel, John; Williams, Nathalie; Kim, Sovan Kiry; Puch, Sina; Saengtienchai, Chanpen
Accounts of community reaction to persons with HIV/AIDS and their families typically focus only on negative reactions stemming from stigmatization with little acknowledgement of variation over time and across settings. To usefully guide local interventions, a broader view is needed that also encompasses attitudes and actions stemming from sympathy and friendship. We examine community reaction in Cambodia to families from the perspective of parents of adults who died of AIDS or currently receive antiretroviral therapy. Survey evidence and open-ended interviews reveal a mixture of reactions with respect to social relations, interactions with local officials, gossip, business patronage, funeral participation, and orphaned grandchildren. Positive support is often dominant and reactions typically improve substantially over time. Misplaced fears of contagion through casual contact underlie most negative reactions. Moral condemnation or blame is not evident as a source of negative reactions. Overall a sufficiently supportive atmosphere likely exists in many localities to facilitate community based efforts to mitigate the epidemic’s impact on affected families. PMID:20161630
Liu, Dandan; Hinton, Ladson; Tran, Cindy; Hinton, Devon; Barker, Judith C.
Prior literature emphasizes that Asian Americans with dementia may be particularly vulnerable to the stigma of chronic mental illness. However, there is a dearth of empirical research to support this claim. This study examines the relationship of stigma and dementia in 32 qualitative interviews with Chinese and Vietnamese family caregivers. Stigma was a common theme in the interviews (91%). Further analysis of stigma revealed two sources: chronic mental illness stigma and stigma reflecting negative stereotypes of aging or the aged. Chinese and Vietnamese cultural views of normal aging are not a unitary category but accommodate different trajectories of aging, some more and some less desired. When applied to persons with dementia, a “normalized” but negative trajectory of aging carried with it significant stigma that was distinct from but in addition to the stigma of chronic and severe mental illness. Older Chinese and Vietnamese with dementia are thus at risk of experiencing multiple stigmas that include but go beyond the stigma associated with chronic and severe mental illness. PMID:18665444
Neuhäuser, Markus; Krackow, Sven
The neonatal incidence rate of Down syndrome (DS) is well-known to accelerate strongly with maternal age. This non-linearity renders mere accumulation of defects at recombination during prolonged first meiotic prophase implausible as an explanation for DS rate increase with maternal age, but might be anticipated from chromosomal drive (CD) for trisomy 21. Alternatively, as there is selection against genetically disadvantaged embryos, the screening system that eliminates embryos with trisomy 21 might decay with maternal age. In this paper, we provide the first evidence for relaxed filtering stringency (RFS) to represent an adaptive maternal response that could explain accelerating DS rates with maternal age. Using historical data, we show that the proportion of aberrant live births decrease with increased family size in older mothers, that inter-birth intervals are longer before affected neonates than before normal ones, and that primiparae exhibit elevated levels of DS incidence at higher age. These findings are predicted by adaptive RFS but cannot be explained by the currently available alternative non-adaptive hypotheses, including CD. The identification of the relaxation control mechanism and therapeutic restoration of a stringent screen may have considerable medical implications.
MacGregor, E A; Janecek, S; Svensson, B
The hydrolases and transferases that constitute the alpha-amylase family are multidomain proteins, but each has a catalytic domain in the form of a (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel, with the active site being at the C-terminal end of the barrel beta-strands. Although the enzymes are believed to share the same catalytic acids and a common mechanism of action, they have been assigned to three separate families - 13, 70 and 77 - in the classification scheme for glycoside hydrolases and transferases that is based on amino acid sequence similarities. Each enzyme has one glutamic acid and two aspartic acid residues necessary for activity, while most enzymes of the family also contain two histidine residues critical for transition state stabilisation. These five residues occur in four short sequences conserved throughout the family, and within such sequences some key amino acid residues are related to enzyme specificity. A table is given showing motifs distinctive for each specificity as extracted from 316 sequences, which should aid in identifying the enzyme from primary structure information. Where appropriate, existing problems with identification of some enzymes of the family are pointed out. For enzymes of known three-dimensional structure, action is discussed in terms of molecular architecture. The sequence-specificity and structure-specificity relationships described may provide useful pointers for rational protein engineering.
... COMMISSION Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water AGENCY..., ``Aging Management of Stainless Steel Structures and Components in Treated Borated Water.'' This LR-ISG... stainless steel structures and components exposed to treated borated water. The NRC published Revision 2...
Hayashi, Kousuke; Nagano, Takanori; Moriyama, Michihiko; Wang, Xishu; Kawagoishi, Norio
Effects of aging structures and humidity on fatigue properties of 350 grade 18% Ni maraging steel were investigated under rotating bending in relative humidity of 25% and 85%. Aging conditions tested were a conventional single aging and a double one which was aged at low temperature after the conventional aging. In each aging, under and peak aged steels were prepared. Tensile strength was increased by the double aging without reduction of the ductility. Proportional relation between fatigue limit and Vickers hardness held until 750HV in low humidity. However fatigue strength was largely decreased by high humidity, especially in the peak aged steel at the single aging. The decrease in fatigue strength by high humidity was mainly caused by the acceleration of a crack initiation due to the anodic dissolution. The acceleration of a crack initiation was larger in the steel peak aged at the single aging with larger precipitated particles.
Kavikondala, Sushma; Stewart, Sunita M; Ni, Michael Y; Chan, Brandford H Y; Lee, Paul H; Li, Kin-Kit; McDowell, Ian; Johnston, Janice M; Chan, Sophia S; Lam, T H; Lam, Wendy W T; Fielding, Richard; Leung, Gabriel M
Culture plays a role in mental health, partly by defining the characteristics that are indicative of positive adjustment. In Chinese cultures, positive family relationships are considered central to well-being. The culturally emphasized characteristic of family harmony may be an important factor associated with psychopathology. This article presents the development and psychometric examination of the Family Harmony Scale (FHS), an indigenously developed 24-item instrument tapping family harmony in 17,461 Hong Kong residents from 7,791 households. A higher-order model with 1 second-order factor and 5 first-order factors fit the data well and showed factorial invariance across sex and participants in different family roles. A 5-item short form (FHS-5) was also developed, with 1 item from each first-order factor. The short scale showed, as expected, a single-factor structure with good fit. Both scales demonstrated high internal consistency, acceptable test-retest reliability, and good convergent and discriminant validity. The 24-item FHS was negatively associated with depressive symptoms after accounting for individual risk factors and general family function. Family harmony moderated the relationship between life stress and depressive symptoms such that those individuals who reported low family harmony had stronger associations between life stress and depressive symptoms. This study adds to the literature a systematically developed, multidimensional measure of family harmony, which may be an important psychological protective factor, in a large urban Chinese sample. The FHS-5 minimizes operational and respondent burdens, making it an attractive tool for large-scale epidemiological studies with Chinese populations in urban settings, where over half of China's 1.4 billion people reside.
Odimegwu, Clifford; Adedini, Sunday A
This study examined sexual practices in a Nigerian University community with a view to understanding the role of family structure and poverty on risky sexual behaviours. A representative sample of 1,301 undergraduate students was randomly selected from the various faculties that made up the University. Using a questionnaire instrument, information was obtained on sexual behaviours of interest such as sexual initiation, multi-partnered sexual activity and condom use. Findings showed a noticeable variation in the relationship between family structure and risky sexual behaviour. Contrary to expectations, students from single parent homes showed lower likelihood of having multiple sexual partners. Also poverty was found not to be a critical determinant of risky sexual behaviour. Given the unclear nature of the findings, future study should explore further understanding of the relationship between family characteristics, poverty rating and risky sexual behaviour among students.
Bauer, Michael; Nay, Rhonda; Tarzia, Laura; Fetherstonhaugh, Deirdre; Wellman, David; Beattie, Elizabeth
This paper reports on a study which explored the views and attitudes of family members towards the sexual expression of residents with dementia in residential aged care facilities in two states in Australia. Recruitment was challenging and only seven family members agreed to an interview on this topic. Data were analysed using a constant comparative method. Family were generally supportive of residents' rights to sexual expression, but only some types of behaviours were approved of. There was an acknowledgement that responding to residents' sexuality was difficult for staff and many families believed that they should be kept informed of their relative's sexual behaviours and moreover be involved in decision making about it. Findings suggest the need for family education and a larger study to better understand the views and motivations of family carers and how these might impact on the sexual expression of the older person with dementia living in residential aged care.
Aging-related changes occur for multiple domains of cognitive functioning. An accumulating body of research indicates that, rather than representing statistically independent phenomena, aging-related cognitive changes are moderately to strongly correlated across domains. However, previous studies have typically been conducted in age-heterogeneous samples over longitudinal time lags of 6 or more years, and have failed to consider whether results are robust to a comprehensive set of controls. Capitalizing on 3-year longitudinal data from the Lothian Birth Cohort of 1936, we took a longitudinal narrow age cohort approach to examine cross-domain cognitive change interrelations from ages 70 to 73 years. We fit multivariate latent difference score models to factors representing visuospatial ability, processing speed, memory, and crystallized ability. Changes were moderately interrelated, with a general factor of change accounting for 47% of the variance in changes across domains. Change interrelations persisted at close to full strength after controlling for a comprehensive set of demographic, physical, and medical factors including educational attainment, childhood intelligence, physical function, APOE genotype, smoking status, diagnosis of hypertension, diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, and diagnosis of diabetes. Thus, the positive manifold of aging-related cognitive changes is highly robust in that it can be detected in a narrow age cohort followed over a relatively brief longitudinal period, and persists even after controlling for many potential confounders. PMID:24955992
Lorimer, Donald D; Choi, Ryan; Abramov, Ariel; Nakazawa Hewitt, Stephen; Gardberg, Anna S; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Staker, Bart L; Myler, Peter J; Edwards, Thomas E
Three structures of the histidine triad family protein from Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of amoebic dysentery, were solved at high resolution within the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID). The structures have sulfate (PDB entry 3oj7), AMP (PDB entry 3omf) or GMP (PDB entry 3oxk) bound in the active site, with sulfate occupying the same space as the α-phosphate of the two nucleotides. The C(α) backbones of the three structures are nearly superimposable, with pairwise r.m.s.d.s ranging from 0.06 to 0.13 Å.
Omariba, D. Walter Rasugu; Boyle, Michael H.
This study applies multilevel logistic regression to Demographic and Health Survey data from 22 sub-Saharan African countries to examine whether the relationship between child mortality and family structure, with a specific emphasis on polygyny, varies cross-nationally and over time. Hypotheses were developed on the basis of competing theories on…
Perosa, Linda M.; And Others
Relationships among S. Minuchin's structural family model, adolescent separation-individuation, and identity development were studied with 164 female undergraduates. Factor analysis of results from measures of ego identity support Minuchin's model and provide a framework for understanding individuation in the adolescent female. (SLD)
Bumpus, Matthew F.; Rodgers, Kathleen Boyce
This study aims to examine patterns of parental knowledge and its sources (adolescent reports of disclosure, parental solicitation, and parental trust) among adolescents who differ as a function of family structure and race. Data are drawn from adolescents (N = 2,374, M = 14 years, SD = 1.68) participating in a school-based study. Adolescent…
Adams, Jennifer R.; Benshoff, James M.; Harrington, Sonja Y.
This article reports on a study addressing student referral differences based on family structure, gender, and race in teacher-initiated contact to school counselors. Researchers used secondary data from the National Education Longitudinal Study. They used logit log linear analyses in this data analysis. Significant differences existed for all…
Röttig, Marc; Rausch, Christian; Kohlbacher, Oliver
An important aspect of the functional annotation of enzymes is not only the type of reaction catalysed by an enzyme, but also the substrate specificity, which can vary widely within the same family. In many cases, prediction of family membership and even substrate specificity is possible from enzyme sequence alone, using a nearest neighbour classification rule. However, the combination of structural information and sequence information can improve the interpretability and accuracy of predictive models. The method presented here, Active Site Classification (ASC), automatically extracts the residues lining the active site from one representative three-dimensional structure and the corresponding residues from sequences of other members of the family. From a set of representatives with known substrate specificity, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) can then learn a model of substrate specificity. Applied to a sequence of unknown specificity, the SVM can then predict the most likely substrate. The models can also be analysed to reveal the underlying structural reasons determining substrate specificities and thus yield valuable insights into mechanisms of enzyme specificity. We illustrate the high prediction accuracy achieved on two benchmark data sets and the structural insights gained from ASC by a detailed analysis of the family of decarboxylating dehydrogenases. The ASC web service is available at http://asc.informatik.uni-tuebingen.de/.
Sherr, Michael E.; Crow, Janet; Stamey, James; Jones, Johnny; Dyer, Preston
This study examined the influence of family structure on the outcomes of a sex education program in Miami, Florida. Using an experimental design, data collection occurred at pretest, 3-month, and 6-month follow-up with a sample of teenagers from high schools with a large majority of minority youth, assigned into treatment (n = 549) and control (n…
Liebes, Tamar; Livingstone, Sonia
Offers a new approach for the study of soap opera, aimed at discovering the social boundaries within which a particular culture negotiates its primordial relationships. Reveals the interaction between culture, power, genre, and gender by tracing the complex kinship structures of family and romance among soap opera characters and by observing how…
Miller, John K.
The field of marriage and family therapy (MFT) has recently engaged in the process of defining core competencies for the profession. Many MFT training programs are adapting their curriculum to develop more competency-based training strategies. The Objective Structured Clinical "Examination" (OSCE) is widely used in the medical profession to assess…
Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence M.
Using longitudinal data from the Maternal and Child Supplement of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (N = 3,862) and Hierarchical Linear Models, we estimated associations of family structure states and transitions with children's achievement and behavior trajectories during middle childhood. Results suggest that residing in a single-mother…
Bjarnason, Thoroddur; Bendtsen, Pernille; Arnarsson, Arsaell M.; Borup, Ina; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Lofstedt, Petra; Haapasalo, Ilona; Niclasen, Birgit
This paper examines differences in life satisfaction among children in different family structures in 36 western, industrialised countries (n = 184 496). Children living with both biological parents reported higher levels of life satisfaction than children living with a single parent or parent-step-parent. Children in joint physical custody…
Mokrue, Kathariya; Chen, Yung Y.; Elias, Maurice
Previous studies have reported that children from single-parent households fare worse behaviorally than those from two-parent households. Studies examining single-parent households often fail to distinguish between single-mother and single-father households. Further, there are inconsistent findings regarding the effect of family structure on boys…
Fowler, Patrick C.
Presented for 64 subjects a replication of the Family Environment Scale's maximum likelihood factor structure for which the two-factor, Varimax-rotated solution was found to be stable when the correlations among the subscales were corrected for the effects of social desirability response bias. (Author)
Jemmott, Loretta Sweet; Jemmott, John B., III
Family structure, parental strictness, and sexual behavior were examined among black male adolescents (n=200). Those living with both parents used condoms more frequently. Those who believed that their mothers were more strict than others reported less frequent coitus with fewer women, while those perceiving their father to be more strict used…
Chakraborty, Chiranjib; Doss, C George Priya; Bandyopadhyay, Sanghamitra; Sarkar, Bimal Kumar; Haneef, S A Syed
Structural topologies of proteins play significant roles in analyzing their biological functions. Converting the amino acid data in a protein sequence into structural information to outline the function of a protein is a major challenge in post-genome research which can add an extra room in understanding the protein sequence-structure-function relationships. In this study, we performed a comprehensive bioinformatics analysis of structural topology of the IRS family members such as IRS-1, IRS-2, IRS-3, IRS-4, IRS-5 and IRS-6. Based on this assessment, we found that IRS-2 encloses the highest number of α helices, β sheets and β turns in the secondary structure topology compared to IRS-1 and IRS-6. IRS family members are rich in serine or leucine residues. Among the IRS family members, the highest percentage of serine and leucine was observed in IRS-1 (15%) and IRS-5 (10%), respectively. Notably, the highest number of disulphide bonds was observed in IRS-1 (10) which is responsible for structural stability of the protein. Hydrogen bond pattern in α helices and β sheet was recorded in IRS-1, IRS-2 and IRS-6. By conservation analysis, the longest protein IRS-3 was found to be highly conserved among the IRS family members. The cluster of sequence logo present in the N terminus of these cascades was noted, and highly conserved residues in N-terminal region help in the formation of the two highly conserved domains such as PH domain and PTB domain. Results generated from this analysis will be more beneficial to researchers in understanding more about insulin signalling mechanism(s) as well as insulin resistance pathway. We discuss here that bioinformatics tools utilized in this study can play a vital role in addressing the complexity of structural topology to understand structure-function relationships in insulin signalling cascades.
Hess, Cheryl L.
Alcoholism is a growing problem in America today. Children are becoming addicted to chemicals at a much younger age. Those children who have alcoholic parents and/or grandparents are more susceptible to addiction because of hereditary factors. Children of alcoholic parents live amidst conflict and confusion. Because of this conflict and confusion,…
Moore, Kristin A.; Hofferth, Sandra L.
Examined in this document is the effect the age at which a young woman has her first birth has on her later childbearing. Data from the Michigan Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the National Longitudinal Survey of Young Women are used in conjunction with a review of related literature in examining such factors as fertility, premarital pregnancy,…
Brennan, Lauretta M.; Shelleby, Elizabeth C.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin
This project examined the hypothesis that the impact of the Family Check-Up on parent use of positive behavior support would indirectly improve academic achievement scores at school age. The study included a sample of 731 high-risk families recruited from Women, Infant, and Children Supplemental Nutrition Program settings in 3 geographically…
Van Voorhis, Frances L.; Maier, Michelle F.; Epstein, Joyce L.; Lloyd, Chrishana M.
This report summarizes research conducted primarily over the past 10 years on how families' involvement in children's learning and development through activities at home and at school affects the literacy, mathematics, and social-emotional skills of children ages 3 to 8. A total of 95 studies of family involvement are reviewed. These include both…
Shi, Dashuang; Allewell, Norma M.; Tuchman, Mendel
Enzymes in the transcarbamylase family catalyze the transfer of a carbamyl group from carbamyl phosphate (CP) to an amino group of a second substrate. The two best-characterized members, aspartate transcarbamylase (ATCase) and ornithine transcarbamylase (OTCase), are present in most organisms from bacteria to humans. Recently, structures of four new transcarbamylase members, N-acetyl-l-ornithine transcarbamylase (AOTCase), N-succinyl-l-ornithine transcarbamylase (SOTCase), ygeW encoded transcarbamylase (YTCase) and putrescine transcarbamylase (PTCase) have also been determined. Crystal structures of these enzymes have shown that they have a common overall fold with a trimer as their basic biological unit. The monomer structures share a common CP binding site in their N-terminal domain, but have different second substrate binding sites in their C-terminal domain. The discovery of three new transcarbamylases, l-2,3-diaminopropionate transcarbamylase (DPTCase), l-2,4-diaminobutyrate transcarbamylase (DBTCase) and ureidoglycine transcarbamylase (UGTCase), demonstrates that our knowledge and understanding of the spectrum of the transcarbamylase family is still incomplete. In this review, we summarize studies on the structures and function of transcarbamylases demonstrating how structural information helps to define biological function and how small structural differences govern enzyme specificity. Such information is important for correctly annotating transcarbamylase sequences in the genome databases and for identifying new members of the transcarbamylase family. PMID:26274952
Langton, Callie E.; Berger, Lawrence M.
This study uses data from the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics to examine family structure's associations with adolescent physical health, behavior, and emotional well-being. Findings suggest that adolescents in most other family types tend to have poorer outcomes than those in two-biological-parent families. Adolescents living with their biological father but not their mother have similar outcomes to those living with their single, biological mother. Although transitioning to a single-parent family is adversely associated with multiple outcomes, few associations are found for other types of transitions, and there are few differences in adolescent outcomes by parental marital status. Estimates from models utilizing adolescent- and caregiver-reported outcome measures, though similar with regard to behavior problems, differ considerably with regard to physical health and emotional well-being such that those using adolescent reports suggest a stronger relation between family structure and adolescent well-being than those using caregiver reports. PMID:23788821
Chairi, Hicham; Gonzalez, Laureana Rebordinos
The U2 snRNA multigene family has been analyzed in four species of the Engraulidae family--Engraulis encrasicolus, Engraulis mordax, Engraulis ringens, and Engraulis japonicas--with the object of understanding more about the structure of this multigene family in these pelagic species and studying their phylogenetic relationships. The results showed that the cluster of this gene family in the Engraulis genus is formed by the U2-U5 snRNA with highly conserved sequences of mini- and micro-satellites, such as (CTGT)n, embedded downstream of the transcription unit; findings indicate that this gene family evolved following the concerted model. The phylogenetic analysis of the non-transcribed spacer of cluster U2-U5 snDNA in the 4 species showed that the sequences of the species E. encrasicolus and E. japonicus are closely related; these two are genetically close to E. mordax and slightly more distant from E. ringens. The data obtained by molecular analysis of U2-U5 snDNA and their secondary structure, with the presence of the micro-satellite (CTGT)n and mini-satellites, show clearly that the species E. encrasicolus and E. japonicus are closely related and would be older than E. mordax and E. ringens.