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Sample records for age figo stage

  1. [Intraoperative complications of surgical treatment of cervical cancer stages I and II in FIGO].

    PubMed

    Kornovski, Y; Iamail, E; Ivanov, S; Kovachev, E

    2013-01-01

    With this study are presented the types of intraoperative complications and their frequency in radical hysterectomy and lymph node dissection (pelvic and paraaortic) as surgical treatment of 294 patients with invasive cervical cancer FIGO stages I and II.

  2. Tumor Heterogeneity of FIGO Stage III Carcinoma of the Uterine Cervix

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Yong Bae; Lee, Ik Jae; Kim, Song Yih; Kim, Jun Won; Yoon, Hong In; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Young Tae; Suh, Chang Ok; Kim, Gwi Eon

    2009-12-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to analyze tumor heterogeneity based on tumor extent and suggest reappraisal of the system of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) for Stage III carcinoma of the uterine cervix from a radiotherapeutic viewpoint. Methods and Materials: Between 1986 and 2004, 407 patients with FIGO Stage III (FIGO Stage IIIa in 19 and IIIb in 388) were treated with external beam radiotherapy (RT) and high-dose rate brachytherapy. All patients were reviewed with respect to tumor extent. Patterns of failure and survival parameters were analyzed by use of the chi{sup 2} test and Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The complete response rate was 79.6%, and the 5-year overall survival rates for Stage IIIa and Stage IIIb carcinoma of the cervix were 82.1% and 54.8%, respectively. To determine which parameters of tumor extent had an influence on prognosis for Stage IIIb patients, pelvic wall (PW) extension and hydronephrosis (HD) retained significance on multivariate analysis. Stage IIIb patients were divided into three subgroups according to PW extension and HD: low risk (unilateral PW extension without HD), intermediate risk (HD without PW extension or bilateral PW extension without HD), and high risk (unilateral or bilateral PW extension with HD). The high-risk group had a remarkably low complete response rate, high locoregional failure rate, and low 5-year survival rate compared with the intermediate- and low-risk groups. Conclusions: FIGO Stage III carcinoma of the cervix covers considerably heterogeneous subgroups according to tumor extent. Before initiation of treatment, we suggest that physicians determine a tailored treatment policy based on tumor heterogeneity for each Stage III patient.

  3. Comparison of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiation in patients with intermediate risk factors after radical surgery in FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, K-B; Lee, J-M; Ki, K-D; Lee, S-K; Park, C-Y; Ha, S-Y

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of chemotherapy or radiation as adjuvant therapy for patients with FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer and surgically confirmed intermediate risk factors. Data were collected from patients with uterine cervical cancer FIGO stage IB-IIA who had adjuvant chemotherapy following radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node dissection (RHLND, cases) or adjuvant radiotherapy following RHLND (controls). The study groups consisted of 38 cases and 42 controls. Adjuvant treatment was given to the patients with a combination of intermediate risk factors including deep stromal invasion (>50%), lymphvascular space invasion, large tumor size (3-6 cm), or close vaginal resection margin (<1 cm). Comparison of the cases with the controls revealed no significant differences in variables studied including median age (P = 0.18), stage distribution (P = 0.30), histologic subtype (P = 0.93), pathologic tumor size (P = 0.46), depth of the stromal invasion (P = 0.29), lymphvascular space invasion (P = 0.50), and close vaginal resection margin (P = 0.62). The difference in disease-free survival rates was not significant (P = 0.68). However, the overall survival analysis was incomplete due to the limited number of events available at the end of the study period. The findings of this study suggest that adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with FIGO stage IB-IIA uterine cervical cancer and surgically confirmed intermediate risk factors may be effective.

  4. Gene Set-Based Functionome Analysis of Pathogenesis in Epithelial Ovarian Serous Carcinoma and the Molecular Features in Different FIGO Stages

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chia-Ming; Chuang, Chi-Mu; Wang, Mong-Lien; Yang, Ming-Jie; Chang, Cheng-Chang; Yen, Ming-Shyen; Chiou, Shih-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Serous carcinoma (SC) is the most common subtype of epithelial ovarian carcinoma and is divided into four stages by the Federation of Gynecologists and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system. Currently, the molecular functions and biological processes of SC at different FIGO stages have not been quantified. Here, we conducted a whole-genome integrative analysis to investigate the functions of SC at different stages. The function, as defined by the GO term or canonical pathway gene set, was quantified by measuring the changes in the gene expressional order between cancerous and normal control states. The quantified function, i.e., the gene set regularity (GSR) index, was utilized to investigate the pathogenesis and functional regulation of SC at different FIGO stages. We showed that the informativeness of the GSR indices was sufficient for accurate pattern recognition and classification for machine learning. The function regularity presented by the GSR indices showed stepwise deterioration during SC progression from FIGO stage I to stage IV. The pathogenesis of SC was centered on cell cycle deregulation and accompanied with multiple functional aberrations as well as their interactions. PMID:27275818

  5. Treatment of FIGO stage IV ovarian carcinoma: results of primary surgery or interval surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rafii, A; Deval, B; Geay, J-F; Chopin, N; Paoletti, X; Paraiso, D; Pujade-Lauraine, E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the study is to determine whether surgery influences the outcome of stage IV ovarian cancer. The study design is as follows: From May 1995 to December 2000, 129 patients with FIGO stage IV ovarian cancer, recruited in 42 centers, were prospectively included in GINECO first-line randomized studies of platinum-based regimens with paclitaxel administered simultaneously or sequentially. In all, 109 were eligible for this study. Standard peritoneal cytoreductive surgery was defined as a procedure including at least total hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, omentectomy, and peritoneal debulking. Surgery was considered optimal if residual lesions were smaller than 1 cm. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare survival. Initial abdominopelvic cytoreductive surgery was considered standard in 55 (54%) patients. Abdominopelvic surgery was optimal in 29 patients and nonoptimal in 26. Twenty-two (22%) patients had a simple biopsy, and 25 (24%) patients underwent substandard surgery. Twenty-two of these 47 patients without initial standard surgery underwent a second surgical procedure, and 17 of the 22 patients completed standard surgery. The median overall survival time in the entire population was 24.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 19.5-29.1 months). Patients treated without a cytoreductive surgical procedure had significantly worse median survival (15.1 months; 95% CI, 5.4-24.9 months) than patients who had optimal primary surgery (22.9 months; 95% CI, 15.6-30.1 months), nonoptimal primary surgery (27.1 months; 95% CI, 21.2-32.9 months), or neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery (45.5 months; 95% CI, 23.5-67.5 months) (P= .001). In conclusion, this study shows a significant benefit of debulking surgery in stage IV ovarian cancer patients who responded to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy can help to select patients for surgery.

  6. Extracorporeal spread and its prognostic impact in stages I and II (FIGO) endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sakuragi, N; Tanaka, T; Satoh, C; Nishiya, M; Ohkouchi, T; Tsumura, N; Takeda, N; Hirahatake, K; Sagawa, T; Ohkubo, H

    1991-09-01

    Prognostic risk factors were statistically analyzed from the histopathologic data obtained from 90 Japanese women with stages I and II endometrial carcinoma treated surgically, including systemic retroperitoneal lymph node dissection, between June 1979 and June 1989. In stage Ia endometrial carcinoma, pelvic and paraaortic nodes metastasis were seen in 13.8(4/29)% and 0.0(0/19)% of patients, respectively. In stage Ib, the incidence of pelvic and paraaortic node metastasis was 25.6(11/43)% and 9.7(3/31)%, respectively. In stage II, the incidence was 38.9(7/18)% and 13.3(2/15)%, respectively. Prognosis of patients even with deep myometrial invasion (greater than or equal to 2/3) or G3 tumor was fairly good (5-year survival rate: 87.5% and 85.7%, respectively) if the disease was histologically confined to the uterine corpus. Once the tumor spread outside the corpus uteri, the survival rate of patients was strongly affected by the grade of the tumor, moderate to marked lymph-vascular space invasion of tumor cells, or tumor invading middle or outer third of myometrium (P less than 0.05 for each factor). In summary, endometrial cancer frequently metastasize to pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes even in the early stages, and lymph node metastasis and other extracorporeal spread of disease have a serious impact on patient survival. Prognosis of patients with extracorporeal spread of disease seems to be determined by the high grade of tumor and lymph-vascular space invasion. These results suggest that surgical exploration including paraaortic lymph node dissection to accurately evaluate the extent of the disease is essential to estimate the patient's prognostic risk and to individualize the treatment schedule.

  7. Multifocal FIGO Stage IA1 Squamous Carcinoma of the Cervix: Criteria for Identification, Staging, and its Good Clinical Outcome.

    PubMed

    Day, Elizabeth; Duffy, Siobhan; Bryson, Gareth; Syed, Sheeba; Shanbhag, Smruta; Burton, Kevin; Lindsay, Rhona; Siddiqui, Nadeem; Millan, David

    2016-09-01

    Multifocal squamous cervical carcinomas account for up to 25% of IA1 tumors identified on excisional biopsy, yet there are no uniformly accepted histopathologic criteria for defining and staging these lesions. Here, we use a strict case definition and meticulous specimen processing from colposcopist to pathologist to identify and follow-up 25 cases of multifocal IA1 cervical squamous carcinomas identified in excisional biopsies. We stage these tumors using the dimensions of the largest focus and a minimum of 2 mm between each foci to define multifocality. The cases are followed up for a median of 7 yr with no episodes of tumor recurrence or metastasis. We also show that the prevalence of residual preinvasive (20%) and invasive disease (5%) on repeat excision/surgery are comparable to data available for unifocal IA1 cases. Our study supports the hypothesis that multifocal lesions should be staged according to largest individual focus of invasion and we emphasize the importance of meticulous specimen handling to appropriately identify multifocal tumors. In addition, our analysis suggests that outcomes are comparable to unifocal lesions and supports the hypothesis that they may be managed in a similar manner. PMID:26863478

  8. Revised FIGO staging system for cancer of the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum: important implications for radiologists.

    PubMed

    Saida, Tsukasa; Tanaka, Yumiko Oishi; Matsumoto, Koji; Satoh, Toyomi; Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki; Minami, Manabu

    2016-02-01

    Ovarian cancer is the seventh most common cancer diagnosis among women worldwide. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recently significantly revised staging criteria for cancer of the ovary. The latest revision was based on the concept that high-grade serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) may be the origin of some high-grade serous carcinomas of the ovary and peritoneum. Therefore, staging criteria for the ovary, fallopian tube, and peritoneum have been unified. Understanding this background and other important revised points are essential for radiologists concerned with imaging diagnosis in gynecologic oncology. Through this review, we introduce the STIC theory and show examples of diseases in accordance with the new staging criteria based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) results.

  9. Impact of hospital type and treatment on long-term survival among patients with FIGO Stage IIIC epithelial ovarian cancer: follow-up through two recurrences and three treatment lines in search for predictors for survival.

    PubMed

    Szczesny, W; Vistad, I; Kaern, J; Nakling, J; Tropé, C; Paulsen, T

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of hospital type determined at primary treatment and find possible predictors of survival in a cohort of patients with advanced epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) who recurred twice and received three lines of treatment during eight-year follow-up. Using the Norwegian Cancer Registry, the authors identified 174 women with FIGO Stage IIIC EOC diagnosed in 2002. First-line treatment consisted of up-front debulking surgery and chemotherapy, received in either a teaching hospital (TH, n = 84) or a non-teaching hospital (NTH, n = 90). After recurrence all patients in Norway are equally consulted at TH. Survival determined for three time intervals (TI): TI-1, from end date of first-line treatment to first recurrence or death, TI-2, from beginning of second-line treatment until second recurrence or death, and TI-3, from beginning of third-line treatment to death or end of follow-up. Extensive surgery carried out in TH followed by at least six cycles of platinol-taxan chemotherapy resulted in longer survival in the TH group during TI-1. Altogether, the majority of those who receive treatment for recurrences were primary better debulked with following platinol-taxane chemotherapy. Survival in TI-2 was influenced by platinol-sensitivity. During TI-3 the majority (96%) had good performance status and their mean age at primary diagnosis at either hospital type was 57 years. Extensive primary surgery at TH, platinol sensitivity, age, and performance status were predictors of survival in this cohort. PMID:27352555

  10. FIGO Stage III Metastatic Gestational Choriocarcinoma Developed From an Antecedent Partial Hydatidiform Molar Pregnancy Bearing a Numerical Chromosomal Aberration 68, XX: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Ma, Naili; Litkouhi, Babak; Mannion, Ciaran M

    2016-03-01

    A 36-yr-old, gravida 5 para 4 woman presented with uterine bleeding and was discovered to have a 3.7-cm uterine mass with multiple, bilateral, lung metastases. Six months earlier, the patient was diagnosed with a partial hydatidiform mole that demonstrated a rare chromosomal karyotype 68, XX[12]. The patient's serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin was elevated from baseline to 12,039 mIU/mL before the treatment. A total hysterectomy was performed and revealed a markedly hemorrhagic, extensively necrotic choriocarcinoma. The tumor mass invaded to a depth of 1/3 of the uterine wall thickness. Cytogenetic analysis of the choriocarcinoma revealed the same 68, XX karyotype, as observed in the antecedent partial hydatidiform mole. A clinical diagnosis of advanced stage invasive choriocarcinoma was rendered, with a risk factor score of 5. Following the development of chemoresistance to a single-agent (methotrexate) regimen, the patient subsequently received 5 cycles of chemotherapy (EMA-CO), without any major complication. She is currently >5 yr posttreatment and is asymptomatic. Her most recent imaging studies, including scans of chest and brain, show no evidence of disease, and her serum β-human chorionic gonadotropin level has remained consistently below detectable levels.

  11. Ages & Stages Questionnaire–Brazil–2011

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Cristina M. T.; Filgueiras, Alberto; Landeira-Fernandez, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Professionals who assess early childhood development highly benefit from reliable development screening measures. The Ages & Stages Questionnaire was adapted Brazil in 2010 and named ASQ-BR. Modifications in some items were required to improve the instrument’s psychometric properties. The present study modified the ASQ-BR to verify if those changes increase its characteristics. Method. This study researched 67 522 children from 972 public day care centers and preschools. Changes in items were made considering Cronbach’s α and item-to-total correlations. Reliability, dimensionality, and item-to-total correlations were calculated. Results. Regarding dimensionality, 86.2% of the scales in ASQ-BR-2011 were unidimensional. Internal consistency showed improvement from 2010 to 2011: 53.8% of the scales increased the α statistics against 41.2% that decreased, and 5.0% remained the same. Finally, 65.2% of the modified items showed improvement. Conclusions. Overall, the instrument’s psychometrics improved from 2010 to 2011, especially in the personal/social domain. However, it still leaves room for improvement in future studies. PMID:27335984

  12. The FIGO initiative for the prevention of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2010-07-01

    Unsafe abortion is a recognized public health problem that contributes significantly to maternal mortality. At least 13% of maternal mortality is caused by unsafe abortion, mostly in poor and marginalized women. The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) launched an initiative in 2007 to prevent unsafe abortion and its consequences, building on its work on other major causes of maternal mortality. A Working Group was identified with collaborators from many international organizations and terms of reference provided direction from the FIGO Executive Board as to possible evidence-based interventions. A total of 54 member associations of FIGO, representing almost half its member societies, requested participation in the initiative, with 43 subsequently producing action plans that are country specific and involve the national government and multiple collaborators. Obstetrician/gynecologists have demonstrated the importance of the initiative by an unprecedented level of engagement in efforts to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity in country and by sharing experiences regionally.

  13. Development: Ages & Stages--Emerging Physical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss how children develop their motor skills at different age levels. Newborn's movements are jerky and uncoordinated. Spending lots of floor time with a baby lying on her back or stomach helps her develop coordination, balance, and muscle strength during her earliest months. As locomotion enters a baby's life, she…

  14. Age or stage structure? A comparison of dynamic outcomes from discrete age- and stage-structured population models.

    PubMed

    Wikan, Arild

    2012-06-01

    Discrete stage-structured density-dependent and discrete age-structured density-dependent population models are considered. Regarding the former, we prove that the model at hand is permanent (i.e., that the population will neither go extinct nor exhibit explosive oscillations) and given density dependent fecundity terms we also show that species with delayed semelparous life histories tend to be more stable than species which possess precocious semelparous life histories. Moreover, our findings together with results obtained from other stage-structured models seem to illustrate a fairly general ecological principle, namely that iteroparous species are more stable than semelparous species. Our analysis of various age-structured models does not necessarily support the conclusions above. In fact, species with precocious life histories now appear to possess better stability properties than species with delayed life histories, especially in the iteroparous case. We also show that there are dynamical outcomes from semelparous age-structured models which we are not able to capture in corresponding stage-structured cases. Finally, both age- and stage-structured population models may generate periodic dynamics of low period (either exact or approximate). The important prerequisite is to assume density-dependent survival probabilities. PMID:22297621

  15. Age and correlation of California Paleogene benthic foraminiferal stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poore, Richard Z.

    1980-01-01

    Comparisons of age determinations and correlations derived from calcareous plankton with those derived from benthic foraminifers in a number of sections in California show significant overlap in time of the Ynezian through the Ulatisian Stages. Thus interbasin time correlations deduced from these stage assignments must be treated with caution. Calcareous plankton occasionally associated with benthic foraminifers diagnostic of the Narizian through the Zemorrian Stages indicate that the Narizian-Refugian boundary is within the upper Eocene of international usage and that the Refugian is entirely upper Eocene. Overlap of the Narizian and the Refugian appears to be minimal. The Zemorrian correlates, mostly, with the Oligocene, although the upper limit of the Zemorrian might be in the lower Miocene.

  16. Automatic age-related macular degeneration detection and staging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Grinsven, Mark J. J. P.; Lechanteur, Yara T. E.; van de Ven, Johannes P. H.; van Ginneken, Bram; Theelen, Thomas; Sánchez, Clara I.

    2013-03-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a degenerative disorder of the central part of the retina, which mainly affects older people and leads to permanent loss of vision in advanced stages of the disease. AMD grading of non-advanced AMD patients allows risk assessment for the development of advanced AMD and enables timely treatment of patients, to prevent vision loss. AMD grading is currently performed manually on color fundus images, which is time consuming and expensive. In this paper, we propose a supervised classification method to distinguish patients at high risk to develop advanced AMD from low risk patients and provide an exact AMD stage determination. The method is based on the analysis of the number and size of drusen on color fundus images, as drusen are the early characteristics of AMD. An automatic drusen detection algorithm is used to detect all drusen. A weighted histogram of the detected drusen is constructed to summarize the drusen extension and size and fed into a random forest classifier in order to separate low risk from high risk patients and to allow exact AMD stage determination. Experiments showed that the proposed method achieved similar performance as human observers in distinguishing low risk from high risk AMD patients, obtaining areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curve of 0.929 and 0.934. A weighted kappa agreement of 0.641 and 0.622 versus two observers were obtained for AMD stage evaluation. Our method allows for quick and reliable AMD staging at low costs.

  17. Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Female Adolescents According to Age, Bone Age and Pubertal Breast Stage

    PubMed Central

    Moretto, M.R; Silva, C.C; Kurokawa, C.S; Fortes, C.M; Capela, R.C; Teixeira, A.S; Dalmas, J.C; Goldberg, T.B

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate bone mineral density (BMD) in healthy female Brazilian adolescents in five groups looking at chronological age, bone age, and pubertal breast stage, and determining BMD behavior for each classification. Methods: Seventy-two healthy female adolescents aged between 10 to 20 incomplete years were divided into five groups and evaluated for calcium intake, weight, height, body mass index (BMI), pubertal breast stage, bone age, and BMD. Bone mass was measured by bone densitometry (DXA) in lumbar spine and proximal femur regions, and the total body. BMI was estimated by Quetelet index. Breast development was assessed by Tanner’s criteria and skeletal maturity by bone age. BMD comparison according to chronologic and bone age, and breast development were analyzed by Anova, with Scheffe’s test used to find significant differences between groups at P≤0.05. Results: BMD (g·cm-2) increased in all studied regions as age advanced, indicating differences from the ages of 13 to 14 years. This group differed to the 10 and 11 to 12 years old groups for lumbar spine BMD (0.865±0.127 vs 0.672±0.082 and 0.689±0.083, respectively) and in girls at pubertal development stage B3, lumbar spine BMD differed from B5 (0.709±0.073 vs 0.936±0.130) and whole body BMD differed from B4 and B5 (0.867±0.056 vs 0.977±0.086 and 1.040±0.080, respectively). Conclusion: Bone mineralization increased in the B3 breast maturity group, and the critical years for bone mass acquisition were between 13 and 14 years of age for all sites evaluated by densitometry. PMID:21966336

  18. Staging for vulvar cancer.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Neville F; Barlow, Ellen L

    2015-08-01

    Vulvar cancer has been staged by the International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) since 1969, and the original staging system was based on clinical findings only. This system provided a very good spread of prognostic groupings. Because vulvar cancer is virtually always treated surgically, the status of the lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor and this can only be determined with certainty by histological examination of resected lymph nodes, FIGO introduced a surgical staging system in 1988. This was modified in 1994 to include a category of microinvasive vulvar cancer (stage IA), because such patients have virtually no risk of lymph node metastases. This system did not give a reasonably even spread of prognostic groupings. In addition, patients with stage III disease were shown to be a heterogeneous group prognostically, and the number of positive nodes and the morphology of those nodes were not taken into account. A new surgical staging system for vulvar cancer was introduced by FIGO in 2009. Initial retrospective analyses have suggested that this new staging system has overcome the major deficiencies in the 1994 system.

  19. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in western Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Li, Guo; Ren, Jiayin; Zhao, Shuping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Li, Na; Wu, Wanhong; Yuan, Shanshan; Wang, Hu

    2012-06-10

    The purpose of this study is to provide reference data about estimating dental age from third molars of the western Chinese population for comparing with other populations and being applied to the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents. A total of 2078 digital panoramic radiographs of 989 male and 1089 female Chinese subjects aged between 5 and 23 years were examined. The mineralization status of the third molars was assessed using the formation stages described by Demirjian et al. with two modifications. The results showed that the development of third molars in the western Chinese population was likely to begin at age 5 in both males and females. The third molars 28 and 48 showed significantly higher frequency in females than in males. The third molars 18 in the stage 1, 38 in the stages 1, A and G, and 48 in the stage H showed significantly older average age in females than in males. The Demirjian's stages C and D could be used as a reference stage to determine dichotomously whether a western Chinese is more likely to be under or above age 14 or 16, respectively. This study provided reference data for the age estimation of western Chinese juveniles and adolescents by the mineralization stages of the third molar. Apart from forensic age determination in living subjects, the presented reference data can also be used for age estimations of unidentified corpses and skeletons.

  20. "Life Stage-Specific" Variations in Performance in Response to Age Stereotypes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hehman, Jessica A.; Bugental, Daphne Blunt

    2013-01-01

    In a test of life stage-specific responses to age-based stigma, older (n = 54, ages 62-92) and younger (n = 81, ages 17-22) adults were told that a task (Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale-III block design) required either (a) speed/contemporary knowledge (YA; "youth advantage") or (b) life experience/wisdom (OA; "age…

  1. The role of health professional organizations in improving maternal and newborn health: The FIGO LOGIC experience.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David J

    2015-10-01

    The FIGO Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) Initiative in Maternal and Newborn Health improved the internal and external capacity of eight national professional organizations of obstetrics and gynecology in six African and two Asian countries. The initiative was funded by a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and had three key objectives: to support the eight FIGO member associations to strengthen their capacity to work effectively; to influence national policies on maternal and newborn health; and to work toward improving clinical practice in this area. Through improved capacity, and underpinned by Memoranda of Understanding with their governments, the associations influenced national policy in maternal and newborn health, impacted clinical care through the development of over forty national clinical guidelines, delivered national curricula, trained clinical and management staff, and led the development of national maternal death and near-miss review programs.

  2. Origins of the FIGO initiative to reduce the burden of unsafe abortion.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Dorothy

    2014-07-01

    The origins of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Initiative for the Prevention of Unsafe Abortion and its Consequences began in 1969 when a young British medical student encountered a young woman in Canada with complications of unsafe abortion. Through evolving understanding of the context of women's lives, including the role of family planning and access to safe abortion globally in preventing the deaths and imprisonment of women, I was able to contribute to FIGO's advocacy through a collaborative initiative with country-led action plans based on a situational analysis. Forty-six member associations rapidly agreed to participate with results of situational analyses-an unprecedented result in FIGO's history. Professor Anibal Faúndes' role has been pivotal to the success of this initiative, including the establishment of a working group of regional coordinators and collaborating agencies to oversee the implementation of action plans involving in-country partners and the Ministry of Health. Deaths from unsafe abortion and its complications are preventable. PMID:24745693

  3. Statement by the Kommission Ovar of the AGO: The New FIGO and WHO Classifications of Ovarian, Fallopian Tube and Primary Peritoneal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Meinhold-Heerlein, I.; Fotopoulou, C.; Harter, P.; Kurzeder, C.; Mustea, A.; Wimberger, P.; Hauptmann, S.; Sehouli, J.

    2015-01-01

    More than 25 years after the last revision, in 2012 the FIGO Oncology Committee began revising the FIGO classification for staging ovarian, Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancers. The new classification has become effective with its publication at the beginning of 2014. Following recent findings on the pathogenesis of ovarian, Fallopian tube and primary peritoneal cancer and reflecting standard clinical practice, the three entities have now been classified uniformly. The histological subtype is included (high-grade serous – HGSC; low-grade serous – LGSC; mucinous – MC; clear cell – CCC; endometrioid – EC). Stages III and IV have been fundamentally changed: stage IIIA now refers to a localized tumor limited to the pelvis with (only) retroperitoneal lymph node metastasis (formerly classified as IIIC). Stage IV has been divided into IVA and IVB, with IVA defined as malignant pleural effusion and IVB as parenchymatous or extra-abdominal metastasis including inguinal and mediastinal lymph node metastasis as well as umbilical metastasis. A new WHO classification was published almost concurrently. The classification of serous tumors addresses the issue of the tubal carcinogenesis of serous ovarian cancer, even if no tubal precursor lesions are found for up to 30 % of serous high-grade cancers. The number of subgroups was reduced and subgroups now include only high-grade serous, low-grade serous, mucinous, seromucinous, endometrioid, clear cell and Brenner tumors. The category “transitional cell carcinomas” has been dropped and the classification “seromucinous tumors” has been newly added. More attention has been focused on the role of borderline tumors as a stage in the progression from benign to invasive lesions. PMID:26556905

  4. Median ages at stages of sexual maturity and excess weight in school children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We aimed to estimate the median ages at specific stages of sexual maturity stratified by excess weight in boys and girls. Materials and method This was a cross-sectional study made in 2007 in Florianopolis, Brazil, with 2,339 schoolchildren between 8 to 14 years of age (1,107 boys) selected at random in two steps (by region and type of school). The schoolchildren were divided into: i) those with excess weight and ii) those without excess weight, according to the WHO 2007 cut-off points for gender and age. Sexual maturity was self-evaluated by the subjects according to the Tanner sexual development stages, and utilizing median ages for the genitalia, breasts, and pubic hair stages. Results In the boys with excess weight, precocity was observed in the stages 4 for genitals and pubic hair and 2 for pubic hair, with the values for excess and normal weight. The median ages at the beginning of puberty (stage 2–sexual development) for boys and girls in Florianopolis were 10.8 and 10.3 years, respectively. Conclusion Excess weight is associated with lower median ages in the sexual maturity stages in boys and girls and that it should be taken into account when evaluating sexual maturity in children and adolescents. PMID:24139334

  5. Management of cervical cancer and surgical-pathological staging (SPS). Report of our clinical case series.

    PubMed

    Onnis, A; Marchetti, M; Maggino, T; Cascio, A; Cerri, G; Dipasquale, C; Meneghello, E; Romagnolo, C; Rozzo, M L

    1988-01-01

    FIGO staging is imprecise in a relevant number of cases of cervical cancer, especially in advanced stages, when the prognosis and the choice of the therapy are most delicate. The Authors examine their case series about the index of correction of FIGO staging after Surgical Pathological Staging (SPS). Surgical Pathological Staging was applied systematically in 788 cases and revealed errors in FIGO staging in 16% of cases at stage I; 77% at stage II; and 96% at stage III. SPS allows a more precise knowledge of neoplastic diffusion and consequently to the elimination of many false advanced stages and to adequate the treatment. Furthermore 5 year survival rate confirms the role of SPS and Surgical therapy alone or combined with Radiotherapy and Chemotherapy in every stages of diffusion of cervical cancer. PMID:3383889

  6. How Applicable Are "Ages and Stages Questionnaires" for Use with Turkish Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapci, Emine Gul; Kucuker, Sevgi; Uslu, Runa I.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of eligible children cannot access early intervention services in Turkey, often because they are not assessed. The authors adapted the "Ages and Stages Questionnaires" (ASQ) for Turkish children ages 3 to 72 months. Study participants consisted of 375 children who were classified as at risk for developmental delays, 564 children…

  7. RACIAL DISPARITIES IN BREAST CANCER SURVIVAL: AN ANALYSIS BY AGE AND STAGE

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anjali D.; Jeffe, Donna B.; Gnerlich, Jennifer; Iqbal, Ayesha Z.; Thummalakunta, Abhishek; Margenthaler, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Black women often present with advanced-stage breast cancer compared with White women, which may result in the observed higher mortality among Black women. Age-related factors (e.g., comorbidity) also affect mortality. Whether racial disparities in mortality are evident within age and/or stage groups has not been reported, and risk factors for greater mortality among Black women are not well defined. Methods Using the 1988–2003 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program data, we conducted a retrospective, population-based cohort study to compare overall and stage-specific breast-cancer mortality between Black and White women within each age (<40, 40–49, 50–64, and 65+) and stage (stage 0–IV and unstaged) group at diagnosis. Cox regression models calculated unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), the latter controlling for potential confounders of the relationship between race and survival. Results In the 1988–2003 SEER data, 20,424 Black and 204,506 White women were diagnosed with first primary breast cancer. In unadjusted models, Black women were more likely than White women to die from breast cancer (HR: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.83–1.96) and from all causes (HR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.48–1.55) during follow-up. In models stratified by age and stage, Black women were at increased risk of breast-cancer-specific mortality within each stage group among women <65 years. Conclusion Racial disparities in breast-cancer-specific mortality were predominantly observed within each stage at diagnosis among women <65 years old. This greater mortality risk for Black women was largely not observed among women ≥65 years of age. PMID:19084242

  8. Reassessing the NTCTCS Staging Systems for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer, Including Age at Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Donald S.A.; Jonklaas, Jacqueline; Brierley, James D.; Ain, Kenneth B.; Cooper, David S.; Fein, Henry G.; Haugen, Bryan R.; Ladenson, Paul W.; Magner, James; Ross, Douglas S.; Skarulis, Monica C.; Steward, David L.; Xing, Mingzhao; Litofsky, Danielle R.; Maxon, Harry R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Thyroid cancer is unique for having age as a staging variable. Recently, the commonly used age cut-point of 45 years has been questioned. Objective: This study assessed alternate staging systems on the outcome of overall survival, and compared these with current National Thyroid Cancer Treatment Cooperative Study (NTCTCS) staging systems for papillary and follicular thyroid cancer. Methods: A total of 4721 patients with differentiated thyroid cancer were assessed. Five potential alternate staging systems were generated at age cut-points in five-year increments from 35 to 70 years, and tested for model discrimination (Harrell's C-statistic) and calibration (R2). The best five models for papillary and follicular cancer were further tested with bootstrap resampling and significance testing for discrimination. Results: The best five alternate papillary cancer systems had age cut-points of 45–50 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. No significant difference in C-statistic was found between the best alternate and current NTCTCS systems (p = 0.200). The best five alternate follicular cancer systems had age cut-points of 50–55 years, with the highest scoring model using 50 years. All five best alternate staging systems performed better compared with the current system (p = 0.003–0.035). There was no significant difference in discrimination between the best alternate system (cut-point age 50 years) and the best system of cut-point age 45 years (p = 0.197). Conclusions: No alternate papillary cancer systems assessed were significantly better than the current system. New alternate staging systems for follicular cancer appear to be better than the current NTCTCS system, although they require external validation. PMID:26203804

  9. Emerging lessons from the FIGO LOGIC initiative on maternal death and near-miss reviews.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Gwyneth

    2014-10-01

    This short paper describes some early findings from an overview of the maternal death or severe morbidity "near-miss" reviews that have been undertaken to improve clinical care by the eight societies participating in the FIGO Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) Initiative in Maternal and Newborn Health aimed at strengthening the role of professional obstetric associations. While it is expected that each will publish its own report, generalizable lessons emerged and valuable solutions were implemented that will help others planning such reviews and audits in future.

  10. Recent decline in prostate cancer incidence in the United States, by age, stage, and Gleason score.

    PubMed

    Herget, Kimberly A; Patel, Darshan P; Hanson, Heidi A; Sweeney, Carol; Lowrance, William T

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer incidence is sensitive to screening practices, however the impact of recent screening recommendations from the United States Preventative Services Task Force on prostate cancer incidence by age, stage, race, and Gleason score is unknown. This study described the timing and magnitude of changes in prostate cancer incidence trends in the United States by month of diagnosis, and evaluated trends by age, Gleason score, and stage at diagnosis. We analyzed prostate cancer incidence trends using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program data for men diagnosed with invasive prostate cancer from 2007 through 2012. JoinPoint analysis was used to detect changes in the rate of annual percent change (APC) in prostate cancer incidence for all diagnoses and by age, Gleason score, race, and stage. Prostate cancer incidence declined at an estimated -19.6% APC beginning May 2011. This decline was observed in all age groups. Low-grade tumors (Gleason score ≤6) showed a steeper decline (-29.1% APC) than high-grade tumors (Gleason score 8-10: -10.8% APC). Only stage I/II and stage III tumors saw declines (-24.2% and -16.7% APC, respectively). A sharp decline in prostate cancer incidence began before release of the United States Preventative Services Task Force October 2011 draft and May 2012 final screening recommendation. The greatest change occurred with incidence of low-grade tumors, although there is concern that some high-grade tumors may now go undetected.

  11. Estimation of legal age using calcification stages of third molars in living individuals.

    PubMed

    Streckbein, Philipp; Reichert, Isabelle; Verhoff, Marcel A; Bödeker, Rolf-Hasso; Kähling, Christopher; Wilbrand, Jan-Falco; Schaaf, Heidrun; Howaldt, Hans-Peter; May, Andreas

    2014-12-01

    The increased number of adolescents and young adults with unknown or inaccurately given date of birth is a current issue in justice and legal medicine. The objective of this study was to determine the extent to which third molar calcification stages assessed on panoramic X-rays could be useful as additional criteria for forensic age estimation in living individuals, focusing on the legally important ages 17 and 18. In a retrospective multi-center study, the developmental stage of each individual's third molar was analyzed using Demirjian's scale in 2360 cases. Additionally, sex, age and ancestry were assessed. Individuals with the lowest calcification stage of all present molars in stage H were ≥18 years with a likelihood of ≥99.05% in the female (n=388), and ≥99.24% in the male (n=482) population. The lowest calcification stage of all present third molars proved to be useful as an additional reliable criterion for the determination of an age ≥18 years.

  12. The Relationship among Pubertal Stage, Age, and Drinking in Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faden, Vivian B.; Ruffin, Beverly; Newes-Adeyi, Gabriella; Chen, Chiung

    2010-01-01

    This study used data from the Third National Household and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to examine the association between pubertal status (Tanner staging for boys and girls and menarche for girls) and alcohol use in a nationally representative sample of youths ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression was used to model the relationship. In…

  13. Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed with Late-Stage Lung Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Middle-Aged More Often Diagnosed With Late-Stage Lung Cancer British study highlights the need for better early detection, researchers say To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. (*this news item will not ...

  14. Developmental Screening Using the Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Standardized versus Real-World Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Antonio, Marianne C.; Fenick, Ada M.; Shabanova, Veronika; Leventhal, John M.; Weitzman, Carol C.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental screens are often used in nonstandardized conditions, such as pediatric waiting rooms, despite validation under standardized conditions. We examined the reproducibility of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ), a developmental screening instrument commonly used in pediatric practices, under standardized versus nonstandardized…

  15. From stage to age in variable environments: life expectancy and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Horvitz, Carol C

    2006-06-01

    Stage-based demographic data are now available on many species of plants and some animals, and they often display temporal and spatial variability. We provide exact formulas to compute age-specific life expectancy and survivorship from stage-based data for three models of temporal variability: cycles, serially independent random variation, and a Markov chain. These models provide a comprehensive description of patterns of temporal variation. Our formulas describe the effects of cohort (birth) environmental condition on mortality at all ages, and of the effects on survivorship of environmental variability experienced over the course of life. This paper complements existing methods for time-invariant stage-based data, and adds to the information on population growth and dynamics available from stochastic demography. PMID:16869426

  16. From stage to age in variable environments: life expectancy and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad; Horvitz, Carol C

    2006-06-01

    Stage-based demographic data are now available on many species of plants and some animals, and they often display temporal and spatial variability. We provide exact formulas to compute age-specific life expectancy and survivorship from stage-based data for three models of temporal variability: cycles, serially independent random variation, and a Markov chain. These models provide a comprehensive description of patterns of temporal variation. Our formulas describe the effects of cohort (birth) environmental condition on mortality at all ages, and of the effects on survivorship of environmental variability experienced over the course of life. This paper complements existing methods for time-invariant stage-based data, and adds to the information on population growth and dynamics available from stochastic demography.

  17. Dating age and stage as correlates of adolescent sexual attitudes and behavior.

    PubMed

    Miller, B C; Mccoy, J K; Olson, T D

    1986-01-01

    Dating experiences, especially the type or stage of dating, have consistently been found to be related to premarital sexual behavior. Findings regarding the age at 1st date and sexual behavior have been less consistent. This paper examined the age at which dating began and the type of dating relationship as correlates of premarital sexual attitudes and behavior among mid-teen adolescents. The analyses were based on a sample of high school students (n=836), most of whom were between the ages of 15 and 18 when the surveys were conducted. Early dating, especially early steady dating, was related to permissive attitudes and to premarital sexual experience among both males and females. The relationship between early dating and intercourse experience was particulary strong among Mormons, a religious group which has institutionalized age 16 as the legitimate age to begin dating. PMID:12341601

  18. Transitions in Physiologic Coupling: Sleep Stage and Age Dependence of Cardio-respiratory Phase Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2012-02-01

    Recent studies have focused on various features of cardiac and respiratory dynamics with the aim to better understand key aspects of the underlying neural control of these systems. We investigate how sleep influences cardio-respiratory coupling, and how the degree of this coupling changes with transitions across sleep stages in healthy young and elderly subjects. We analyze full night polysomnographic recordings of 189 healthy subjects (age range: 20 to 90 years). To probe cardio-respiratory coupling, we apply a novel phase synchronization analysis method to quantify the adjustment of rhythms between heartbeat and breathing signals. We investigate how cardio-respiratory synchronization changes with sleep-stage transitions and under healthy aging. We find a statistically significant difference in the degree of cardio-respiratory synchronization during different sleep stages for both young and elderly subjects and a significant decline of synchronization with age. This is a first evidence of how sleep regulation and aging influence a key nonlinear mechanism of physiologic coupling as quantified by the degree of phase synchronization between the cardiac and respiratory systems, which is of importance to develop adequate modeling approaches.

  19. Influence of age, breed, and stage of pregnancy on hepatic ultrasonographic findings in cows.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Gerber, D

    1994-09-01

    Influence of age, breed, and stage of pregnancy on hepatic ultrasonographic findings of cows was determined. In addition, the relation between body weight, height at the withers, milk production, and the measurements determined via ultrasonography was investigated. The liver of 186 cows was examined ultrasonographically. The cows comprised Swiss Braunvieh, Simmental, and Holstein breeds, and age ranged from 2.5 to 11.5 years. The ultrasonographic findings of the liver, gallbladder, caudal vena cava, and portal vein were described, and the position, size, thickness, and distal angle of the liver were determined. In addition, the position and diameter of the caudal vena cava and portal vein were determined. There was no significant difference between any of the variables determined and breed or age. Therefore, measurements for the 3 breeds and for the various ages were summarized into 1 group. There were significant correlations between body weight, milk production, and size and thickness of the liver. In 3 pregnant cows, the liver was examined ultrasonographically 8 times during the course of pregnancy. Positive correlation was detected between stage of pregnancy and diameter of the caudal vena cava. There was a negative correlation between stage of pregnancy and diameter of the portal vein. In 23 cows, the ultrasonographically determined measurements of the liver were compared with those determined at slaughter. Weight of the liver correlated well to thickness of the liver determined via ultrasonography.

  20. Identification of morphological markers of sarcopenia at early stage of aging in skeletal muscle of mice.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Ramy K A; de Leonardis, Erika Chacin; Guerrero-Martínez, José A; Rahim, Ibtissem; Mokhtar, Doaa M; Saleh, Abdelmohaimen M; Abdalla, Kamal E H; Pozo, María J; Escames, Germaine; López, Luis C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2016-10-01

    The gastrocnemius muscle (GM) of young (3months) and aged (12months) female wild-type C57/BL6 mice was examined by light and electron microscopy, looking for the presence of structural changes at early stage of the aging process. Morphometrical parameters including body and gastrocnemius weights, number and type of muscle fibers, cross section area (CSA), perimeter, and Feret's diameter of single muscle fiber, were measured. Moreover, lengths of the sarcomere, A-band, I-band, H-zone, and number and CSA of intermyofibrillar mitochondria (IFM), were also determined. The results provide evidence that 12month-old mice had significant changes on skeletal muscle structure, beginning with the reduction of gastrocnemius weight to body weight ratio, compatible with an early loss of skeletal muscle function and strength. Moreover, light microscopy revealed increased muscle fibers size, with a significant increase on their CSA, perimeter, and diameter of both type I and type II muscle fibers, and a reduction in the percentage of muscle area occupied by type II fibers. Enhanced connective tissue infiltrations, and the presence of centrally nucleated muscle fibers, were also found in aged mice. These changes may underlie an attempt to compensate the loss of muscle mass and muscle fibers number. Furthermore, electron microscopy discovered a significant age-dependent increase in the length of sarcomeres, I and H bands, and reduction on the overlapped actin/myosin length, supporting contractile force loss with age. Electron microscopy also showed an increased number and CSA of IFM with age, which may reveal more endurance at 12months of age. Together, mice at early stage of aging already show significant changes in gastrocnemius muscle morphology and ultrastructure that are suggestive of the onset of sarcopenia.

  1. Aging Effects on Cardiac and Respiratory Dynamics in Healthy Subjects across Sleep Stages

    PubMed Central

    Schumann, Aicko Y.; Bartsch, Ronny P.; Penzel, Thomas; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Kantelhardt, Jan W.

    2010-01-01

    Study Objectives: Respiratory and heart rate variability exhibit fractal scaling behavior on certain time scales. We studied the short-term and long-term correlation properties of heartbeat and breathing-interval data from disease-free subjects focusing on the age-dependent fractal organization. We also studied differences across sleep stages and night-time wake and investigated quasi-periodic variations associated with cardiac risk. Design: Full-night polysomnograms were recorded during 2 nights, including electrocardiogram and oronasal airflow. Setting: Data were collected in 7 laboratories in 5 European countries. Participants: 180 subjects without health complaints (85 males, 95 females) aged from 20 to 89 years. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: Short-term correlations in heartbeat intervals measured by the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) exponent α1 show characteristic age dependence with a maximum around 50–60 years disregarding the dependence on sleep and wake states. Long-term correlations measured by α2 differ in NREM sleep when compared with REM sleep and wake, besides weak age dependence. Results for respiratory intervals are similar to those for α2 of heartbeat intervals. Deceleration capacity (DC) decreases with age; it is lower during REM and deep sleep (compared with light sleep and wake). Conclusion: The age dependence of α1 should be considered when using this value for diagnostic purposes in post-infarction patients. Pronounced long-term correlations (larger α2) for heartbeat and respiration during REM sleep and wake indicate an enhanced control of higher brain regions, which is absent during NREM sleep. Reduced DC possibly indicates an increased cardiovascular risk with aging and during REM and deep sleep. Citation: Schumann AY; Bartsch RP; Penzel T; Ivanov PC; Kantelhardt JW. Aging effects on cardiac and respiratory dynamics in healthy subjects across sleep stages. SLEEP 2010;33(7):943-955. PMID:20614854

  2. Identification of morphological markers of sarcopenia at early stage of aging in skeletal muscle of mice.

    PubMed

    Sayed, Ramy K A; de Leonardis, Erika Chacin; Guerrero-Martínez, José A; Rahim, Ibtissem; Mokhtar, Doaa M; Saleh, Abdelmohaimen M; Abdalla, Kamal E H; Pozo, María J; Escames, Germaine; López, Luis C; Acuña-Castroviejo, Darío

    2016-10-01

    The gastrocnemius muscle (GM) of young (3months) and aged (12months) female wild-type C57/BL6 mice was examined by light and electron microscopy, looking for the presence of structural changes at early stage of the aging process. Morphometrical parameters including body and gastrocnemius weights, number and type of muscle fibers, cross section area (CSA), perimeter, and Feret's diameter of single muscle fiber, were measured. Moreover, lengths of the sarcomere, A-band, I-band, H-zone, and number and CSA of intermyofibrillar mitochondria (IFM), were also determined. The results provide evidence that 12month-old mice had significant changes on skeletal muscle structure, beginning with the reduction of gastrocnemius weight to body weight ratio, compatible with an early loss of skeletal muscle function and strength. Moreover, light microscopy revealed increased muscle fibers size, with a significant increase on their CSA, perimeter, and diameter of both type I and type II muscle fibers, and a reduction in the percentage of muscle area occupied by type II fibers. Enhanced connective tissue infiltrations, and the presence of centrally nucleated muscle fibers, were also found in aged mice. These changes may underlie an attempt to compensate the loss of muscle mass and muscle fibers number. Furthermore, electron microscopy discovered a significant age-dependent increase in the length of sarcomeres, I and H bands, and reduction on the overlapped actin/myosin length, supporting contractile force loss with age. Electron microscopy also showed an increased number and CSA of IFM with age, which may reveal more endurance at 12months of age. Together, mice at early stage of aging already show significant changes in gastrocnemius muscle morphology and ultrastructure that are suggestive of the onset of sarcopenia. PMID:27435496

  3. The Benefit of Adjuvant Chemotherapy in Elderly Patients with Stage III Colorectal Cancer is Independent of Age and Comorbidity

    PubMed Central

    Wildes, Tanya M.; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Powers, Brian; Vlahiotis, Anna; Mutch, Matthew; Spitznagel, Edward L.; Tan, Benjamin; Piccirillo, Jay F.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the combined effect of age and comorbidity on receipt of chemotherapy and its impact on survival in elderly patients with stage III colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and methods All patients over age 65 with Stage III CRC diagnosed 1996–2006 were identified from the Barnes-Jewish Hospital Oncology Data Services registry. An age/comorbidity staging system was created using the ACE-27 comorbidity index and data from both Stage II and III CRC. The staging system was then applied to patients with Stage III CRC. Odds of receiving chemotherapy were calculated, and survival analyses determined the impact of chemotherapy on overall survival in each age/comorbidity stage. Results 435 patients with Stage III CRC were evaluated [median age 75 years (range 65–99)]. Advancing age/comorbidity stage (Alpha, Beta, Gamma) was associated with decreasing odds of receiving chemotherapy for Stage III CRC [Odds Ratio 0.83 (95% CI, 0.51–1.35) for Beta and 0.14 (95% CI, 0.08–0.24) for Gamma, compared to Alpha]. Chemotherapy was associated with lower risk of death in each of the age/comorbidity stages, compared to those who underwent surgery only. The hazard ratio for death in patients who did not receive chemotherapy, relative to those who did, within each age/comorbidity stage was 1.8 [95%CI 1.06–3.06] for Alpha, 2.24 [95%CI 1.38–3.63] for Beta and 2.10 [95% CI 1.23–3.57] for Gamma. Conclusion While stage III CRC patients with increasing age and comorbidity are less likely to receive chemotherapy, receipt of chemotherapy is associated with a lower risk of death. PMID:21113435

  4. Microstructural evolution of 7012 alloy during the early stages of artificial ageing

    SciTech Connect

    Ferragut, R.; Somoza, A.; Tolley, A.

    1999-11-26

    A study of the microstructural evolution of a commercial 7012 (Al-Zn-Mg-Cu) age-hardenable alloy following artificial ageing by high resolution and conventional transmission electron microscopy and positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy is presented. At the early stages of decomposition, the microstructure included precipitation of either pre-precipitate solute clusters or Guinier-Preston zones and semi-coherent {eta}{prime} precipitates, with typical sizes between 1 and 10 nm. Quantitative information on the size, number density and morphology of the particles present in the microstructure was obtained. The results were correlated with those obtained using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy.

  5. Aging assessment and license renewals: Plant life management for the first stage boiling water reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tezuka, Kenichi; Kawamura, Shinichi; Aoki, Masataka; Mori, Tsuguo

    1996-09-01

    The first stage Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) have been operating more than 25 years. Some components have potential of failure by aging. So, evaluations have been done for the main components such as Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), Reactor Internals, Primary Coolant Piping, Reactor Recirculation Pump, Cable (Inside PCV), Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) and Concrete Structure. This evaluation has been done by joint study between electric utilities and manufacturers to confirm integrity and identify necessary development.

  6. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: Accuracy of age predictions not using country specific information.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Alqerban, A; Asaumi, J; Kahveci, F; Kaur, J; Kim, Y K; Pittayapat, P; Van Vlierberghe, M; Zhang, Y; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    Unquestionable forensic age investigations are based on statistical models constructed on a sample containing subjects of identical origin as the examined individual. In cases where corresponding models are unavailable, the established report has to describe the possible effects of this unrelated information on the predicted age outcome. The aim of this study is to collect country specific databases of third molar development and to verify how the related dental age estimations are influenced if we were to use dental developmental information only from Belgium or from all collected countries together. Data containing third molar developmental stages scored following Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Köhler) were collected from 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India). Age predictions were obtained from a training dataset and validated on a test dataset. Bayes rule using the repeated third molar scores is applied to get age predictions and prediction intervals. Three age predictions were compared for males and females separately. For the first prediction, the training dataset contains only Belgian subjects. For the second prediction, the training dataset for each country consists only of subjects of the country itself. For the final prediction, subjects from all countries are pooled into one common training dataset. Besides the (absolute) difference between the chronological age and the predicted age, specific interest lies in the juvenile-adult distinction. In the age range from 16 to 22 years 6982 subjects (3189 male and 3793 female) were analyzed. Using information on third molar development from Belgium compared to information from the country specific databases hardly increased the mean absolute differences (MAD) and mean squared errors (MSE): the MAD and MSE increased on average with 0.5 and 2.5 months with maximal increases of, respectively 1.6 and 7.3 months. Using information from all

  7. Human dental age estimation using third molar developmental stages: Accuracy of age predictions not using country specific information.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Alqerban, A; Asaumi, J; Kahveci, F; Kaur, J; Kim, Y K; Pittayapat, P; Van Vlierberghe, M; Zhang, Y; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2010-09-10

    Unquestionable forensic age investigations are based on statistical models constructed on a sample containing subjects of identical origin as the examined individual. In cases where corresponding models are unavailable, the established report has to describe the possible effects of this unrelated information on the predicted age outcome. The aim of this study is to collect country specific databases of third molar development and to verify how the related dental age estimations are influenced if we were to use dental developmental information only from Belgium or from all collected countries together. Data containing third molar developmental stages scored following Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Köhler) were collected from 9 country specific populations (Belgium, China, Japan, Korea, Poland, Thailand, Turkey, Saudi-Arabia and South-India). Age predictions were obtained from a training dataset and validated on a test dataset. Bayes rule using the repeated third molar scores is applied to get age predictions and prediction intervals. Three age predictions were compared for males and females separately. For the first prediction, the training dataset contains only Belgian subjects. For the second prediction, the training dataset for each country consists only of subjects of the country itself. For the final prediction, subjects from all countries are pooled into one common training dataset. Besides the (absolute) difference between the chronological age and the predicted age, specific interest lies in the juvenile-adult distinction. In the age range from 16 to 22 years 6982 subjects (3189 male and 3793 female) were analyzed. Using information on third molar development from Belgium compared to information from the country specific databases hardly increased the mean absolute differences (MAD) and mean squared errors (MSE): the MAD and MSE increased on average with 0.5 and 2.5 months with maximal increases of, respectively 1.6 and 7.3 months. Using information from all

  8. Age estimation by dental developmental stages in children and adolescents in Iceland.

    PubMed

    Vidisdottir, Sigridur Rosa; Richter, Svend

    2015-12-01

    Studies have shown that it is necessary to create a database for dental maturity for every population and compare it to others. The present study is the first one for dental development in the Icelandic population the age range being 4-24 years. It will help in forensic dental age estimation and will also help dentists, physicians, anthropologists, archaeologists and other professionals who rely on developmental age assessment in children and adolescents. In this present retrospective cross-sectional study, dental maturity was determined in 1100 Icelandic children and adolescents from orthopantomograms (OPGs). The first 100 were used for a pilot study and the remaining 1000 for the main study. A total of 23 subjects were excluded. The sample consisted of 508 girls and 469 boys from the age of 4-24 years and a dental developmental scoring system was used as a standard for determination of dental maturity stages. A total of 200 OPGs were studied both on the left and right side and the remaining on the right side. Dental maturity was established for all teeth and both genders, when the sample permitted, from the beginning of crown formation to the root apex closure. The Cronbach's Alpha reliability test showed high reliability, R=0.982. Girls in Iceland reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 17.81 years of age for the maxillary and at 18.47 years for the mandibular teeth. Boys reach dental maturity root completed (stage 10, Rc) at 18.00 years of age in the maxilla and 17.63 in the mandible. There was no significant difference between left and right side (r=0.95-1.00) and there was no gender difference, except in root formation in maxillary and mandibular canines where girls reached root completed earlier than boys. A reliable database has been established in Iceland for tooth development in the age range of 4-24 years, which is compatible with international studies. These results will help forensic odontologists and other professionals to estimate with

  9. Understanding age-related reductions in visual working memory capacity: Examining the stages of change detection

    PubMed Central

    Duda, Bryant; Hussey, Erin; Mason, Emily; Molitor, Robert J.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.; Ally, Brandon A.

    2014-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) capacity is reduced in older adults. Research has shown age-related impairments to VWM encoding, but aging is likely to affect multiple stages of VWM. In the present study, we recorded the event-related potentials (ERPs) of younger and older adults during VWM maintenance and retrieval. We measured encoding-stage processing with the P1 component, maintenance-stage processing with the contralateral delay activity (CDA), and retrieval-stage processing by comparing the activity for old and new items (old–new effect). Older adults showed lower behavioral capacity estimates (K) than did younger adults, but surprisingly, their P1 components and CDAs were comparable to those of younger adults. This remarkable dissociation between neural activity and behavior in the older adults indicated that the P1 and CDA did not accurately assess their VWM capacity. However, the neural activity evoked during VWM retrieval yielded results that helped clarify the age-related differences. During retrieval, younger adults showed early old–new effects in frontal and occipital areas and a late central–parietal old–new effect, whereas older adults showed a late right-lateralized parietal old–new effect. The younger adults’ early old–new effects strongly resembled an index of perceptual fluency, suggesting that perceptual implicit memory was activated. The activation of implicit memory could have facilitated the younger adults’ behavior, and the lack of these early effects in older adults may suggest that they have much lower-resolution memory than do younger adults. From these data, we speculated that younger and older adults store the same number of items in VWM, but that younger adults store a higher-resolution representation than do older adults. PMID:24420648

  10. A behavioral stages model of classical (Pavlovian) conditioning: application to cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Powell, D A

    1999-01-01

    In the present article, it is argued that a five-stage sequential model of the behavioral and neurophysiological events that occur when organisms are exposed to signals predicting significant events suggests that classical conditioning produces multiple memory traces involving both excitatory and inhibitory processes. Further, these multiple brain structures and associated neurophysiological mechanisms are beginning to be understood; thus, using Pavlovian conditioning techniques to study aging and cognitive functions may provide insights into which brain structures or mechanisms are responsible for more general age-related declines in associative learning and memory. The evidence for this model is briefly reviewed and studies suggesting age-related effects on classical conditioning of various response systems are described within the context of the brain structures implicated by the model.

  11. [Research of Embryonic Mortality Stages of Drosophila melanogaster Depending on Age and Starvation of an Imago].

    PubMed

    Kostenko, V V; Kolot, N V; Vorobyova, L I

    2015-01-01

    Influence of age of parents and duration of starvation on egg production and demonstration of embryonic mortality at different stages of egg development has been studied. It is shown that, with increasing age of organisms, the overall egg production reduces and the percentage of embryonic mortality increases at 0-5.5 and 5.5-17 h of development. An increase in the duration of starvation also promotes a reduction in egg production in 3- and 10-day-old adult D. melanogaster compared with short-term starvation. A statistically significant effect of factors, such as the allelic state of the white locus, the genetic background, the age of the parents, and the duration of starvation, on all studied parameters was established.

  12. Individualized Prediction of Overall Survival After Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Patients With Early-Stage Cervical Cancer: A Korean Radiation Oncology Group Study (KROG 13-03)

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyun Jin; Han, Seungbong; Kim, Young Seok; Nam, Joo-Hyun; Kim, Hak Jae; Kim, Jae Weon; Park, Won; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Kim, Jin Hee; Cha, Soon Do; Kim, Juree; Lee, Ki-Heon; Yoon, Mee Sun; and others

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: A nomogram is a predictive statistical model that generates the continuous probability of a clinical event such as death or recurrence. The aim of the study was to construct a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after postoperative radiation therapy for stage IB to IIA cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: The clinical data from 1702 patients with early-stage cervical cancer, treated at 10 participating hospitals from 1990 to 2011, were reviewed to develop a prediction nomogram based on the Cox proportional hazards model. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic variables were included and analyzed to formulate the nomogram. The discrimination and calibration power of the model was measured using a concordance index (c-index) and calibration curve. Results: The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 75.6 months, and the 5-year overall survival probability was 87.1%. The final model was constructed using the following variables: age, number of positive pelvic lymph nodes, parametrial invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and the use of concurrent chemotherapy. The nomogram predicted the 5-year overall survival with a c-index of 0.69, which was superior to the predictive power of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system (c-index of 0.54). Conclusions: A survival-predicting nomogram that offers an accurate level of prediction and discrimination was developed based on a large multi-center study. The model may be more useful than the FIGO staging system for counseling individual patients regarding prognosis.

  13. Age and petrology of alkalic postshield and rejuvenated-stage lava from Kauai, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1988-01-01

    At the top of the Waimea Canyon Basalt on the island of Kauai, rare flows of alkalic postshield-stage hawaiite and mugearite overlie tholeiitic flows of the shield stage. These postshield-stage flows are 3.92 Ma and provide a younger limit for the age of the tholeiitic shield stage. The younger Koloa Volcanics consist of widespread alkalic rejuvenated-stage flows and vents of alkalic basalt, basanite, nephelinite, and nepheline melilitite that erupted between 3.65 and 0.52 Ma. All the flows older than 1.7 Ma occur in the west-northwestern half of the island and all the flows younger than 1.5 Ma occur in the east-southeastern half. The lithologies have no spatial or chronological pattern. The flows of the Koloa Volcanics are near-primary magmas generated by variable small degrees of partial melting of a compositionally heterogeneous garnet-bearing source that has about two-thirds the concentration of P2O5, rare-earth elements, and Sr of the source of the Honolulu Volcanics on the island of Oahu. The same lithology in the Koloa and Honolulu Volcanics is generated by similar degrees of partial melting of distinct source compositions. The lavas of the Koloa Volcanics can be generated by as little as 3 percent to as much as 17 percent partial melting for nepheline melilitite through alkalic basalt, respectively. Phases that remain in the residue of the Honolulu Volcanics, such as rutile and phlogopite, are exhausted during formation of the Koloa Volcanics at all but the smallest degrees of partial melting. The mantle source for Kauai lava becomes systematically more depleted in 87Sr/86Sr as the volcano evolves from the tholeiitic shield stage to the alkalic postshield stage to the alkalic rejuvenated stage: at the same time, the lavas become systematically more enriched in incompatible trace elements. On a shorter timescale, the lavas of the Koloa Volcanics display the same compositional trends, but at a lower rate of change. The source characteristics of the Koloa

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of MRI, DWI MRI, FDG-PET/CT and FEC PET/CT in the Detection of Lymph Node Metastases in Surgically Staged Endometrial and Cervical Carcinoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-01-21

    Surgically Staged Endometrial and Cervical Carcinoma; Cervical Cancer: Invasive Disease, FIGO Stage 1B1 or Higher; Endometrial Cancer:; Stage 1A With Myometrial Invasion or Any Higher Stage and Grade 3; Stage 1A With Myometrial Invasion or Any Other Higher Stage and Serous Papillary or Clear Cell Sub-types; Stage II Disease or Above and Any Histology Grade

  15. Decreased growth rate of P. falciparum blood stage parasitemia with age in a holoendemic population.

    PubMed

    Pinkevych, Mykola; Petravic, Janka; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Vulule, John; Kazura, James W; Moormann, Ann M; Davenport, Miles P

    2014-04-01

    In malaria holoendemic settings, decreased parasitemia and clinical disease is associated with age and cumulative exposure. The relative contribution of acquired immunity against various stages of the parasite life cycle is not well understood. In particular, it is not known whether changes in infection dynamics can be best explained by decreasing rates of infection, or by decreased growth rates of parasites in blood. Here, we analyze the dynamics of Plasmodium falciparum infection after treatment in a cohort of 197 healthy study participants of different ages. We use both polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microscopy detection of parasitemia in order to understand parasite growth rates and infection rates over time. The more sensitive PCR assay detects parasites earlier than microscopy, and demonstrates a higher overall prevalence of infection than microscopy alone. The delay between PCR and microscopy detection is significantly longer in adults compared with children, consistent with slower parasite growth with age. We estimated the parasite multiplication rate from delay to PCR and microscopy detections of parasitemia. We find that both the delay between PCR and microscopy infection as well as the differing reinfection dynamics in different age groups are best explained by a slowing of parasite growth with age.

  16. Dental age estimation from the developmental stage of the third molars in Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Rai, Balwant; Kaur, Jasdeep; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2010-08-01

    A sharp increase in forensic age estimation of living persons has been observed in recent years. However, ethnic populations residing in different countries have been insufficiently analyzed. The aim of this study was to achieve a referral database and regression equations for dental age estimation of unaccompanied minors of Iran nationality. A total of 1200 orthopantomograms were collected from original Iran and equally divided in age categories between 10 and 27 years. On the radiographs, the developmental stage of the third molars was scored applying a Demirjian et al. scoring technique. Inter- and intra-observer reliabilities were tested using kappa statistics. Correlation between the scores of all four wisdom maxillary and mandibular third molars teeth and left/right symmetry were evaluated with spearman correlation coefficient. Student's t-test on asymmetry was performed and regression formulas were calculated. The present database was the first to assemble third molar developmental scores on radiographs of Iran individuals and provided more appropriate dental age estimation of unaccompanied Iran minors. To enhance the accuracy of forensic age estimates based on third molars mineralization, the use of population-specific standards is recommended.

  17. Variation in honey bee gut microbial diversity affected by ontogenetic stage, age and geographic location.

    PubMed

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  18. Variation in Honey Bee Gut Microbial Diversity Affected by Ontogenetic Stage, Age and Geographic Location

    PubMed Central

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  19. Variation in honey bee gut microbial diversity affected by ontogenetic stage, age and geographic location.

    PubMed

    Hroncova, Zuzana; Havlik, Jaroslav; Killer, Jiri; Doskocil, Ivo; Tyl, Jan; Kamler, Martin; Titera, Dalibor; Hakl, Josef; Mrazek, Jakub; Bunesova, Vera; Rada, Vojtech

    2015-01-01

    Social honey bees, Apis mellifera, host a set of distinct microbiota, which is similar across the continents and various honey bee species. Some of these bacteria, such as lactobacilli, have been linked to immunity and defence against pathogens. Pathogen defence is crucial, particularly in larval stages, as many pathogens affect the brood. However, information on larval microbiota is conflicting. Seven developmental stages and drones were sampled from 3 colonies at each of the 4 geographic locations of A. mellifera carnica, and the samples were maintained separately for analysis. We analysed the variation and abundance of important bacterial groups and taxa in the collected bees. Major bacterial groups were evaluated over the entire life of honey bee individuals, where digestive tracts of same aged bees were sampled in the course of time. The results showed that the microbial tract of 6-day-old 5th instar larvae were nearly equally rich in total microbial counts per total digestive tract weight as foraging bees, showing a high percentage of various lactobacilli (Firmicutes) and Gilliamella apicola (Gammaproteobacteria 1). However, during pupation, microbial counts were significantly reduced but recovered quickly by 6 days post-emergence. Between emergence and day 6, imago reached the highest counts of Firmicutes and Gammaproteobacteria, which then gradually declined with bee age. Redundancy analysis conducted using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis identified bacterial species that were characteristic of each developmental stage. The results suggest that 3-day 4th instar larvae contain low microbial counts that increase 2-fold by day 6 and then decrease during pupation. Microbial succession of the imago begins soon after emergence. We found that bacterial counts do not show only yearly cycles within a colony, but vary on the individual level. Sampling and pooling adult bees or 6th day larvae may lead to high errors and variability, as both of these stages may

  20. The FIGO Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) Initiative in Maternal and Newborn Health.

    PubMed

    Taylor, David J; Vander Plaetse, Bart

    2014-10-01

    The FIGO Leadership in Obstetrics and Gynecology for Impact and Change (LOGIC) Initiative in Maternal and Newborn Health developed the organizational capacity of national professional organizations of obstetrics and gynecology in eight African and Asian countries. The initiative was funded by a grant from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and had three key objectives. These goals were to support the eight FIGO member associations to strengthen their capacity to work effectively; to influence national policies on maternal and newborn health; and to work toward improving clinical practice in this area. The current supplement presents evidence that the focus and effectiveness of a national obstetric and gynecologic association-as well as its influence on major public health issues (such as United Nations Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5)-can be substantially broadened and enhanced by the provision of external support.

  1. Influences of competition level, gender, player nationality, career stage and playing position on relative age effects.

    PubMed

    Schorer, J; Cobley, S; Büsch, D; Bräutigam, H; Baker, J

    2009-10-01

    Relative age, referring to the chronological age differences between individuals within annually age-grouped cohorts, is regarded as influential to an athlete's development, constraining athletic skill acquisition. While many studies have suggested different mechanisms for this effect, they have typically examined varying sports, precluding an examination of the possible inter-play between factors. Our three studies try to bridge this gap by investigating several moderators for relative age effects (RAEs) in one sport. Handball is a sport with position-specific demands, high cultural relevance and a performance context with established developmental structures and levels of representation for males and females. In Study 1, we investigated the influence of competition level and gender on RAEs before adulthood. In Study 2, elite participation, player nationality and stage of career are considered during adulthood. In Study 3, playing position and laterality (i.e., right vs left handedness) are investigated as moderators. Collectively, the results emphasize the complex inter-play of direct and indirect influences on RAEs in sports, providing evidence toward explaining how RAEs influence the development and maintenance of expertise.

  2. Age and the Association of Kidney Measures with Mortality and End-Stage Renal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hallan, Stein I.; Matsushita, Kunihiro; Sang, Yingying; Mahmoodi, Bakhtawar K.; Black, Corri; Ishani, Areef; Kleefstra, Nanne; Naimark, David; Roderick, Paul; Tonelli, Marcello; Wetzels, Jack F.M.; Astor, Brad C.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Levin, Adeera; Wen, Chi-Pang; Coresh, Josef

    2014-01-01

    Context Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is prevalent in older individuals, but the risk implications of low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and high albuminuria across the full age range are controversial. Objective To evaluate possible effect modification (interaction) of age on the association of estimated GFR and albuminuria with clinical risk examining both relative and absolute risk. Design, Setting, Participants We investigated 2,051,244 participants from 33 general population or high-risk (of vascular disease) cohorts and 13 CKD cohorts from Asia, Australesia, Europe, and North/South America conducted during 1972–2011 with mean follow-up time of 5.8 years (range 0–31 years). Main Outcome Measures Hazard ratios (HRs) of mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) according to eGFR and albuminuria were meta-analyzed across age categories after adjusting for sex, race, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, systolic blood pressure, cholestserol, body mass index, and smoking. Absolute risks were estimated using HRs and average incidence rates. Results Mortality (112,325 deaths) and ESRD (8,411 events) risk were higher at lower eGFR and higher albuminuria in every age category. In general/high-risk cohorts, relative mortality risk for reduced eGFR decreased with increasing age: e.g., adjusted HRs (95% CI) at eGFR 45 vs. 80 ml/min/1.73m2 were 3.50 (2.55–4.81), 2.21 (2.02–2.41), 1.59 (1.42–1.77), and 1.35 (1.23–1.48) in age categories 18–54, 55–64, 65–74 and 75+ years, respectively (P-values for age interaction <0.05). Absolute risk differences for the same comparisons were higher at older age (9.0 [95% CI, 6.0–12.8], 12.2 [10.3–14.3], 13.3 [9.0–18.6], and 27.2 [13.5–45.5] excess deaths per 1,000 person-years, respectively). For increased albuminuria, reduction of relative risk with increasing age were less evident, while differences in absolute risk were higher in the older age categories (7.5 [95% CI, 4.3–11.9], 12.2 [7.9–17

  3. Genetics of Unilateral and Bilateral Age-Related Macular Degeneration Severity Stages

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Tina; Altay, Lebriz; Viehweger, Eva; Hoyng, Carel B.; den Hollander, Anneke I.; Felsch, Moritz; Fauser, Sascha

    2016-01-01

    Background Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a common disease causing visual impairment and blindness. Various gene variants are strongly associated with late stage AMD, but little is known about the genetics of early forms of the disease. This study evaluated associations of genetic factors and different AMD stages depending on unilateral and bilateral disease severity. Methods In this case-control study, participants were assigned to nine AMD severity stages based on the characteristics of each eye. 18 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped and attempted to correlate with AMD severity stages by uni- and multivariate logistic regression analyses and trend analyses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC) were calculated. Results Of 3444 individuals 1673 were controls, 379 had early AMD, 333 had intermediate AMD and 989 showed late AMD stages. With increasing severity of disease and bilateralism more SNPs with significant associations were found. Odds ratios, especially for the main risk polymorphisms in ARMS2 (rs10490924) and CFH (rs1061170), gained with increasing disease severity and bilateralism (exemplarily: rs1061170: unilateral early AMD: OR = 1.18; bilateral early AMD: OR = 1.20; unilateral intermediate AMD: OR = 1.28; bilateral intermediate AMD: OR = 1.39, unilateral geographic atrophy (GA): OR = 1.50; bilateral GA: OR = 1.71). Trend analyses showed p<0.0001 for ARMS2 (rs10490924) and for CFH (rs1061170), respectively. AUC of risk models for various AMD severity stages was lowest for unilateral early AMD (AUC = 0.629) and showed higher values in more severely and bilaterally affected individuals being highest for late AMD with GA in one eye and neovascular AMD in the other eye (AUC = 0.957). Conclusion The association of known genetic risk factors with AMD became stronger with increasing disease severity, which also led to an increasing discriminative ability of AMD cases and controls. Genetic predisposition was

  4. Atomic structure of Cu-10. 9 at % Be alloys in the early stages of aging

    SciTech Connect

    Koo, Y.M.

    1987-01-01

    Diffuse x-ray scattering was employed to investigate the local atomic structure and static strains in a single crystal of a Cu-10.9 at. % Be alloy in the early stages of aging. In addition to these experiments, neutron elastic and inelastic scattering were obtained to investigate the phonon properties in the as-quenched state of this alloy. In the as-quenched state, there is a nearly regular array of small ellipsoidal Be clusters aligned along <100> directions (This produces the tweed contrast seen in TEM). The density of these clusters is 7.5 x 10/sup 26//m/sup 3/. The diffuse streaks seen in electron diffraction patterns are due largely to thermal diffuse scattering. Phonon-dispersion curves show no large differences from those of pure copper, except at (xi xi xi)/sub T/ zone boundary, where there is softening. This difference may be due to a Kohn anomaly. The elastic anisotropy of this alloy increases considerably with alloying, which probably leads to the plate-like GP zone morphology in subsequent aging treatments. The structure of the GP zones is a mixture of Be-rich single- and multi-layered zones. As aging proceeds, the zones grow in thickness.

  5. The Living Stage Improvisational Theatre Demonstration Project for Orthopedically Handicapped Children, Ages 4-8. Overview, 1978-1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Robert; Haynes, Wendy

    The Living Stage Improvisational Theatre Demonstration Project (Washington, D.C.) conducts weekly workshops to enhance the creative expression and self esteem of orthopedically handicapped children, aged 4 to 8 years. The Living Stage program is designed to demonstrate that methods of improvisational theatre can have a positive impact on parental…

  6. FIGO's ethical recommendations on female sterilisation will do more harm than good: a commentary

    PubMed Central

    Verkuyl, D A A

    2015-01-01

    The International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Committee for the Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction and Women's Health advises against tubal occlusion (TO) performed at the time of caesarean section (CS/TO) or following a vaginal delivery (VD/TO) if this sterilisation has not been discussed with the woman in an earlier phase of her pregnancy. This advice is neither in accordance with existing medical custom nor evidence based. Particularly in less-resourced locations, adherence to it would deny much wanted one-off sterilisation opportunities to hundreds of thousands of women, many of whom have no reliable contraceptive alternative. To be sure, a well-timed discussion in pregnancy about a potential peripartum TO is preferable and, if conducted as a matter of course (as the Committee appears to promote), would represent an enormous improvement on current practice. Earlier counselling has the advantage that it results in fewer women who regret having rejected the CS/TO or VD/TO option. However, there is no evidence that earlier counselling leads to a smaller proportion of regretted sterilisations. Consequently, where early TO counselling has been impossible, forgotten or deliberately omitted on pronatalist, traditional, financial, cultural or religious grounds, offering a perinatal sterilisation belatedly and in an unbiased, culturally sensitive manner is often verifiably better than not presenting that option at all, notably where high parity and uterine scars are particularly dangerous. Belated counselling, as will be demonstrated in this paper, saves many lives. The Committee's blanket rejection of belated counselling on perinatal sterilisation is therefore unjustified. PMID:25009073

  7. Age and stage dependency of estrogen receptor expression by lymphocyte precursors

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Hideya; Kouro, Taku; Yokota, Takafumi; Comp, Phillip C.; Kincade, Paul W.

    2001-01-01

    Sex steroids negatively regulate B lymphopoiesis in adult mice. Paradoxically, lymphocytes arise during fetal life, when estrogen levels are high and maternal lymphopoiesis is suppressed. Here we demonstrate that embryonic B lymphopoiesis was unaffected by estrogen, but sensitive to glucocorticoids. Both fetal and adult precursors contained glucocorticoid receptor transcripts, but only adult precursors expressed estrogen receptor α and β together with the androgen receptor. Fetal hematopoietic cells did not efficiently acquire functional estrogen receptors after transplantation to irradiated adult mice. Sex steroid receptors were also expressed in a stage- and developmental age-dependent fashion in human precursors. A developmental switch in responsiveness of hematopoietic cells to sex steroids may be essential for formation of the immune system. PMID:11752459

  8. Effect of age, sex and physiological stages on hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Mehul D.; Lateef, Abdul; Das, Hemen; Patel, Ajay S.; Patel, Ajay G.; Joshi, Axay B.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine the physiological baseline values for hematological indices of Banni buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as well as to assess their alteration due to age, sex and physiological stages. Materials and Methods: A total of 42 clinically healthy Banni buffaloes were categorized into seven groups (n=6): Group I (male calves ≤1 year), Group II (bulls >1 year), Group III (female calves ≤1 year), Group IV (pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group V (non-pregnant lactating buffaloes), Group VI (pregnant dry buffaloes), and Group VII (non-pregnant dry buffaloes). Blood samples collected aseptically from all the experimental groups were analyzed employing automated hematology analyzer. The data obtained were statistically analyzed; the mean and standard deviations were calculated and set as the reference values. Results: The erythrocytic indices viz. total erythrocytes count (TEC), hemoglobin, and packed cell volume (PCV) were significantly higher in bulls as compared to that of male calves unlike mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and MCH concentration. The female calves had higher TEC and PCV than the adult buffaloes irrespective of sex. The total leukocyte count (TLC) and neutrophil counts in male calves were significantly lower than the bulls unlike the eosinophil, while monocyte and basophil remained unchanged with age. The TLC, differential leukocyte count and platelet count varied non-significantly among the adult female groups at different physiological stages. However, neutrophils were found to be apparently higher in lactating buffaloes. Conclusion: The present study would be helpful for physiological characterization of this unique buffalo breed of Gujarat. Further, data generated may be a tool for monitoring the health and prognosis as well as diagnosis of diseases. PMID:27051182

  9. Age matters: Developmental stage of Danio rerio larvae influences photomotor response thresholds to diazinion or diphenhydramine

    PubMed Central

    Kristofco, Lauren A.; Cruz, Luis Colon; Haddad, Samuel P.; Behra, Martine L; Chambliss, C. Kevin; Brooks, Bryan W.

    2016-01-01

    Because basic toxicological data is unavailable for the majority of industrial compounds, High Throughput Screening (HTS) assays using the embryonic and larval zebrafish provide promising approaches to define bioactivity profiles and identify potential adverse outcome pathways for previously understudied chemicals. Unfortunately, standardized approaches, including HTS experimental designs, for examining fish behavioral responses to contaminants are rarely available. In the present study, we examined movement behavior of larval zebrafish over 7 days (4–10 days post fertilization or dpf) during typical daylight workday hours to determine whether intrinsic activity differed with age and time of day. We then employed an early life stage approach using the Fish Embryo Test (FET) at multiple developmental ages to evaluate whether photomotor response (PMR) behavior differed with zebrafish age following exposure to diazinon (DZN), a well-studied orthophosphate insecticide, and diphenhydramine (DPH), an antihistamine that also targets serotonin reuptake transporters and the acetylcholine receptor. 72 h studies were conducted at 1–4, 4–7 and 7–10 dpf, followed by behavioral observations using a ViewPoint system at 4, 7 and 10 dpf. Distance traveled and swimming speeds were quantified; nominal treatment levels were analytically verified by isotope-dilution LC-MSMS. Larval zebrafish locomotion displayed significantly different (p < 0.05) activity profiles over the course of typical daylight and workday hours, and these time of day PMR activity profiles were similar across ages examined (4–10 dpf). 10 dpf zebrafish larvae were consistently more sensitive to DPH than either the 4 or 7 dpf larvae with an environmentally realistic lowest observed effect concentration of 200 ng/L. Though ELS and FET studies with zebrafish typically focus on mortality or teratogenicity in 0–4 dpf organisms, behavioral responses of slightly older fish were several orders of magnitude more

  10. Association of Insurance Status and Age With Cervical Cancer Stage at Diagnosis: National Cancer Database, 2000–2007

    PubMed Central

    Cokkinides, Vilma; Virgo, Katherine S.; Bandi, Priti; Saslow, Debbie; Ward, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the relationship of age at diagnosis and insurance status with stage among cervical cancer patients aged 21 to 85 years. Methods. We selected data on women (n = 69 739) diagnosed with invasive cervical cancer between 2000 and 2007 from the National Cancer Database. We evaluated the association between late stage (stage III/IV) and both insurance and age, with adjustment for race/ethnicity and other sociodemographic and clinical factors. We used multivariable log binomial models to estimate risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results. The proportion of late-stage disease increased with age: from 16.53% (21–34 years) to 42.44% (≥ 70 years). The adjusted relative risk of advanced-stage disease among women aged 50 years and older was 2.2 to 2.5 times that of patients aged 21 to 34 years. Uninsured (RR = 1.44; 95% CI = 1.40, 1.49), Medicaid (RR = 1.37, 95% CI = 1.34, 1.41), younger Medicare (RR = 1.12, 95% CI = 1.06, 1.19), and older Medicare (RR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.26) patients had a higher risk of late-stage disease than did privately insured patients. Conclusions. Screening should be encouraged for women at high risk for advanced-stage disease. PMID:22742058

  11. Mandibular third molar development staging to chronologic age and sex in north Indian children and young adults.

    PubMed

    Rai, B; Kaur, J; Anand, S C

    2009-12-01

    Age estimation is not only important for clinical but also for medico-legal purposes. The present study is an attempt to estimate the chronologic age based on the stages of third molar development following the eight stages (A-H) method of Demirjian et al8 and to compare third molar development by sex and age. We examined 250 orthopantomograms of young north Indian subjects of known chronologic age (range, 7-26 years). Statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and the Wilcoxon test between sex and age. Regression analysis was performed to obtain BR regression formulae for dental age calculation with the chronologic age. Statistically significant differences in mandibular third-molar development between males and females were revealed regarding the calcification stages D and G. The results further indicated that third-molar formation was attained earlier in females than in males. Statistical analysis showed a strong correlation between age and third-molar development for both the sexes.

  12. Prognostic Value of Residual Disease after Interval Debulking Surgery for FIGO Stage IIIC and IV Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rutten, Marianne J; Sonke, Gabe S; Westermann, Anneke M; van Driel, Willemien J; Trum, Johannes W; Kenter, Gemma G; Buist, Marrije R

    2015-01-01

    Although complete debulking surgery for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is more often achieved with interval debulking surgery (IDS) following neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT), randomized evidence shows no long-term survival benefit compared to complete primary debulking surgery (PDS). We performed an observational cohort study of patients treated with debulking surgery for advanced EOC to evaluate the prognostic value of residual disease after debulking surgery. All patients treated between 1998 and 2010 in three Dutch referral gynaecological oncology centres were included. The prognostic value of residual disease after surgery for disease specific survival was assessed using Cox-regression analyses. In total, 462 patients underwent NACT-IDS and 227 PDS. Macroscopic residual disease after debulking surgery was an independent prognostic factor for survival in both treatment modalities. Yet, residual tumour less than one centimetre at IDS was associated with a survival benefit of five months compared to leaving residual tumour more than one centimetre, whereas this benefit was not seen after PDS. Leaving residual tumour at IDS is a poor prognostic sign as it is after PDS. The specific prognostic value of residual tumour seems to depend on the clinical setting, as minimal instead of gross residual tumour is associated with improved survival after IDS, but not after PDS.

  13. Cervical Cancer Histology, Staging and Survival before and after Implementation of Organised Cervical Screening Programme in Poland.

    PubMed

    Nowakowski, Andrzej; Cybulski, Marek; Buda, Irmina; Janosz, Iwona; Olszak-Wąsik, Katarzyna; Bodzek, Piotr; Śliwczyński, Andrzej; Teter, Zbigniew; Olejek, Anita; Baranowski, Włodzimierz

    2016-01-01

    A population-based organised cervical cancer screening programme (OCCSP) was introduced in Poland in 2006. In this study we have aimed to analyse whether selected parameters related to invasive cervical cancer (ICC) of patients diagnosed in two distant gynaecological oncology centres changed after the first screening round of the programme run between 2006-2008. We have run a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of 189 women diagnosed with ICC between 2002-2005 (directly before introduction of the programme) and 165 patients diagnosed between 2009-2012 (just after the first screening round of the programme) and compared their age at diagnosis, histology, stage of tumours and overall survival (OS). Mean age of patients diagnosed in years 2002-2005 and 2009-2012 was 52.1 and 52.6 years respectively. Squamous cell carcinomas constituted 90.5% and 86.1% of tumours diagnosed in years 2002-2005 and 2009-2012 respectively and the rest of tumours had glandular and other histologies. 74.5% and 61.0% of women diagnosed in years 2002-2005 and 2009-2012 respectively had early ICC (FIGO-International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics stages I-IIA) and the rest had advanced disease (FIGO IIB-IV). We have noticed no significant differences in mean age of patients, histology of tumours and OS of patients with ICC diagnosed before and after the first screening round of OCSSP in Poland. Advanced stages of ICC were more commonly diagnosed after the introduction of OCSSP. Changes only in some clinical parameters of patients with ICC were noticed before and after the first screening round of OCSSP in Poland but OS of patients remained the same. PMID:27196050

  14. Age-dependent postdiapause development in the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae) life stage model.

    PubMed

    Gray, David R

    2009-02-01

    For the last approximately 10 yr, the Gypsy Moth Life Stage (GLS) model has been used by pest managers to predict when important events in the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar L., life cycle will occur (e.g., peak second larval instar population and male moth flight). Although the GLS model has been shown to outperform other gypsy moth phenology models, its predictions have not always been as accurate as desired. Differences between predicted and observed egg hatch phenology prompted a re-examination of the original experimental data that were used in the construction of the egg hatch submodels of the original GLS model, and a data processing error was discovered to have truncated the postdiapause experimental data. Analysis of the complete data set confirmed that developmental rates in the postdiapause phase were age and temperature dependent but that the developmental response to temperature is distinctly nonlinear at postdiapause initiation, in contrast to the indeterminate response previously reported. By incorporating the new estimates of developmental rate patterns and parameters into the GLS model, errors in the GLS-simulated egg hatch period were reduced by 33-71% and error in date of 50% cumulative egg hatch by 25-100%.

  15. Lymph-vascular space involvement and outer one-third myometrial invasion are strong predictors of distant haematogeneous failures in patients with stage I-II endometrioid-type endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Gadducci, Angiolo; Cavazzana, Andrea; Cosio, Stefania; DI Cristofano, Claudio; Tana, Roberta; Fanucchi, Antonio; Teti, Giancarlo; Cristofani, Renza; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo

    2009-05-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the predictive value of different clinicopathological variables (patient age, tumour size, FIGO grade, myometrial invasion, lymph-vascular space involvement [LVSI], invasion margins, peri-tumour phlogistic infiltrate and mitotic activity) for the risk of distant haematogenous recurrences in patients with endometrioid-type stage Ib-II endometrial cancer. Between August 1990 and April 2005, 259 patients had undergone laparotomy, peritoneal washing, total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, with or without pelvic +/- para-aortic lymphadenectomy for endometrioid-type endometrial cancer. Thirty-six (13.9%) patients had developed recurrent disease after a median time of 17 months (range, 2-128 months). The relapse had been locoregional in 9, distant in 21 and both locoregional plus distant in 6 cases. This study assessed 12 patients with FIGO stage Ib-II disease who had developed distant haematogenous recurrences and 20 randomly chosen control patients with FIGO stage Ib-II disease who had remained recurrence-free after a median follow-up of 52 months (range, 37-66 months). Adjuvant therapy had been: no further treatment in 15 patients, external pelvic irradiation in 14 patients, adjuvant external pelvic irradiation plus brachytherapy in 2 patients and platinum-based chemotherapy followed by external pelvic irradiation in 1 patient. The site of distant failure had been the lung in 9 patients, liver in 2 patients and lung plus liver in 1 patient. A concomitant locoregional relapse (vagina or lymph nodes) had occurred in 3 patients. The median interval between surgery and the development of distant failure had been 16.5 months (range, 5-113 months). On univariate analysis, a higher incidence of FIGO grade 3 (50% versus 10%, p=0.0114), outer one-third myometrial invasion (91.7% versus 35.0%, p=0.0051) and LVSI (75.0.% versus 20.0%, p=0.0022) was found in the patients who had developed distant

  16. Static Strain Aging Behavior of a Manganese-Silicon Steel After Single and Multi-stage Straining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seraj, P.; Serajzadeh, S.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, static strain aging behavior of an alloy steel containing high amounts of silicon and manganese was examined while the influences of initial microstructure and pre-strain on the aging kinetics were evaluated as well. The rate of strain aging in a low carbon steel was also determined and compared with that occurred in the alloy steel. The rates of static strain aging in the steels were defined at room temperature and at 95 °C by means of double-hit tensile testing and hardness measurements. In addition, three-stage aging experiments at 80 °C were carried out to estimate aging behavior under multi-pass deformation processing. The results showed that in-solution manganese and silicon atoms could significantly affect the aging behavior of the steel and reduce the kinetics of static strain aging as compared to the low carbon steel. The initial microstructure also played an important role on the aging behavior. The rapidly cooled steel having mean ferrite grain size of 9.7 μm showed the least aging susceptibility index during the aging experiments. Accordingly, the activation energies for static strain aging were calculated as 93.2 and 85.7 kJ/mole for the alloy steel having fine and coarse ferrite-pearlite structures, respectively while it was computed as 79.1 kJ/mole for the low carbon steel with ferrite mean grain size of about 16.2 μm.

  17. Testosterone related to age and life-history stages in male baboons and geladas

    PubMed Central

    Beehner, Jacinta C.; Gesquiere, Laurence; Seyfarth, Robert M.; Cheney, Dorothy L.; Alberts, Susan C.; Altmann, Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant advances in our knowledge of how testosterone mediates life-history trade-offs, this research has primarily focused on seasonal species. We know comparatively little about the relationship between testosterone and life-history stages for non-seasonally breeding species. Here we examine testosterone profiles across the lifespan of males from three non-seasonally breeding primates: yellow baboons (Papio cynocephalus or P. hamadryas cynocephalus), chacma baboons (Papio ursinus or P. h. ursinus), and geladas (Theropithecus gelada). First, we predict that testosterone profiles will track the reproductive profiles of each taxon across their respective breeding years. Second, we evaluate age-related changes in testosterone to determine whether several life-history transitions are associated with these changes. Subjects include males (>2.5 years) from wild populations of each taxon from whom we had fecal samples for hormone determination. Although testosterone profiles across species were broadly similar, considerable variability was found in the timing of two major changes: (1) the attainment of adult levels of testosterone, and (2) the decline in testosterone after the period of maximum production. Attainment of adult testosterone levels was delayed by one year in chacmas compared with yellows and geladas. With respect to the decline in testosterone, geladas and chacmas exhibited a significant drop after three years of maximum production, while yellows declined so gradually that no significant annual drop was ever detected. For both yellows and chacmas, increases in testosterone production preceded elevations in social dominance rank. We discuss these differences in the context of ecological and behavioral differences exhibited by these taxa. PMID:19712676

  18. Validity of the Fine Motor Area of the 12-Month Ages and Stages Questionnaire in Infants Following Major Surgery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Cally; Wallen, Margaret; Walker, Karen; Bundy, Anita; Rolinson, Rachel; Badawi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The Ages and Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) are parent-report screening tools to identify infants at risk of developmental difficulties. The purpose of this study was to examine validity and internal reliability of the fine motor developmental area of the ASQ, 2nd edition (ASQ2-FM) for screening 12-month-old infants following major surgery. The…

  19. Effect of Maternal Age on the Ratio of Cleavage and Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Early Developmental Stage Bovine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    TAKEO, Shun; GOTO, Hiroya; KUWAYAMA, Takehito; MONJI, Yasunori; IWATA, Hisataka

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Age-associated deterioration in both the quality and quantity of mitochondria occurs in older women. The main aim of this study was to examine the effect of age on mitochondrial DNA copy number (mtDNA number) in early developmental stage bovine embryos as well as the dynamics of mtDNA number during early embryo development. Real-time PCR was used to determine mtDNA number. In vitro-produced embryos 48 h after insemination derived from Japanese black cows, ranging in age from 25 to 209 months were categorized based on their cleavage status. There was an overall negative relationship between the age of the cow and cleavage status, to the extent that the ratio of embryos cleaved over the 4-cell stage was greater in younger cows. The mtDNA number did not differ among the cleaved status of embryos. In the next experiment, oocytes collected from each donor cow were divided into 2 groups containing 10 oocytes each, in order to compare the mtDNA number of mature oocytes and early developmental stage embryos within individuals. Upon comparing the mtDNA number between oocytes at the M2 stage and early developmental stage 48 h post insemination, mtDNA number was found to decrease in most cows, but was found to increase in some cows. In conclusion, age affects the cleaving ability of oocytes, and very old cows (> 180 months) tend to have lower mtDNA numbers in their oocytes. The change in mtDNA number during early development varied among individual cows, although overall, it showed a tendency to decrease. PMID:23269452

  20. Learning Multiple Band-Pass Filters for Sleep Stage Estimation: Towards Care Support for Aged Persons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takadama, Keiki; Hirose, Kazuyuki; Matsushima, Hiroyasu; Hattori, Kiyohiko; Nakajima, Nobuo

    This paper proposes the sleep stage estimation method that can provide an accurate estimation for each person without connecting any devices to human's body. In particular, our method learns the appropriate multiple band-pass filters to extract the specific wave pattern of heartbeat, which is required to estimate the sleep stage. For an accurate estimation, this paper employs Learning Classifier System (LCS) as the data-mining techniques and extends it to estimate the sleep stage. Extensive experiments on five subjects in mixed health confirm the following implications: (1) the proposed method can provide more accurate sleep stage estimation than the conventional method, and (2) the sleep stage estimation calculated by the proposed method is robust regardless of the physical condition of the subject.

  1. Prognostic value of preoperative intratumoral FDG uptake heterogeneity in early stage uterine cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-01-01

    Objective We investigated the prognostic value of intratumoral [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake heterogeneity (IFH) derived from positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) in patients with cervical cancer. Methods Patients with uterine cervical cancer of the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO) stage IB to IIA were imaged with [18F]FDG PET/CT before radical surgery. PET/CT parameters such as maximum and average standardized uptake values (SUVmax and SUVavg), metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and IFH were assessed. Regression analyses were used to identify clinicopathological and imaging variables associated with progression-free survival (PFS). Results We retrospectively reviewed clinical data of 85 eligible patients. Median PFS was 32 months (range, 6 to 83 months), with recurrence observed in 14 patients (16.5%). IFH at an SUV of 2.0 was correlated with primary tumor size (p<0.001), SUVtumor (p<0.001), MTVtumor (p<0.001), TLGtumor (p<0.001), depth of cervical invasion (p<0.001), and negatively correlated with age (p=0.036). Tumor recurrence was significantly associated with TLGtumor (p<0.001), MTVtumor (p=0.001), SUVLN (p=0.004), IFH (p=0.005), SUVtumor (p=0.015), and FIGO stage (p=0.015). Multivariate analysis identified that IFH (p=0.028; hazard ratio, 756.997; 95% CI, 2.047 to 279,923.191) was the only independent risk factor for recurrence. The Kaplan-Meier survival graphs showed that PFS significantly differed in groups categorized based on IFH (p=0.013, log-rank test). Conclusion Preoperative IFH was significantly associated with cervical cancer recurrence. [18F]FDG based heterogeneity may be a useful and potential predicator of patient recurrence before treatment. PMID:26768781

  2. Clinical stage of breast cancer by parity, age at birth, and time since birth: a progressive effect of pregnancy hormones?

    PubMed

    Albrektsen, Grethe; Heuch, Ivar; Thoresen, Steinar; Kvåle, Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    Breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy or 1 to 2 years after birth often occurs at a late stage. Little is known about tumor characteristics in the high-risk period shortly after a childbirth. We here explore whether stage of disease differs according to timing of births. Results are based on 22,351 Norwegian breast cancer patients of parity 0 to 5, ages 20 to 74 years. The proportion of stage II to IV tumors was considerably higher among parous than nulliparous women at age <30 years (52.7% versus 36.8%, P=0.009), but similar or lower in other age groups (P(interaction)=0.029). In general, the largest proportion of stage II to IV tumors was found among women diagnosed during pregnancy or <2 years after birth. However, among women with late-age births (first or second birth >or=30 years, third birth >or=35 years), as well as women with an early second birth (<25 years), the proportion with advanced disease was rather similar or even higher among those diagnosed 2 to 6 years after birth (49.3-56.0%). The association between clinical stage and time since birth reached statistical significance among women with a late first or second birth and among all triparous women (P

  3. The new life stage of emerging adulthood at ages 18-29 years: implications for mental health.

    PubMed

    Arnett, Jeffrey J; Žukauskienė, Rita; Sugimura, Kazumi

    2014-12-01

    Since 1960 demographic trends towards longer time in education and late age to enter into marriage and of parenthood have led to the rise of a new life stage at ages 18-29 years, now widely known as emerging adulthood in developmental psychology. In this review we present some of the demographics of emerging adulthood in high-income countries with respect to the prevalence of tertiary education and the timing of parenthood. We examine the characteristics of emerging adulthood in several regions (with a focus on mental health implications) including distinctive features of emerging adulthood in the USA, unemployment in Europe, and a shift towards greater individualism in Japan. PMID:26361316

  4. Variation in body condition indices of crimson finches by sex, breeding stage, age, time of day, and year

    PubMed Central

    Milenkaya, Olga; Weinstein, Nicole; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Body condition indices are increasingly applied in conservation to assess habitat quality, identify stressed populations before they decline, determine effects of disturbances, and understand mechanisms of declines. To employ condition indices in this manner, we need first to understand their baseline variability and sources of variation. Here, we used crimson finches (Neochmia phaeton), a tropical passerine, to describe the variation in seven commonly used condition indices by sex, age, breeding stage, time of day, and year. We found that packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total plasma protein, and scaled mass were all significantly affected by an interaction between sex and breeding stage. Furcular fat varied by sex and breeding stage and also trended by year, scaled mass showed a positive trend with age and varied by time of day, and haemoglobin additionally varied by year. Pectoral muscle scores varied and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio trended only by year. Year effects might reflect a response to annual variation in environmental conditions; therefore, those indices showing year effects may be especially worthy of further investigation of their potential for conservation applications. Pectoral muscle scores and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio may be particularly useful due to the lack of influence of other variables on them. For the other indices, the large variation that can be attributed to individual covariates, such as sex and breeding stage, suggests that one should not interpret the physiological condition of an individual as measured by these indices from their absolute value. Instead, the condition of an individual should be interpreted relative to conspecifics by sex, breeding stage, and possibly age. PMID:27293604

  5. Variation in body condition indices of crimson finches by sex, breeding stage, age, time of day, and year.

    PubMed

    Milenkaya, Olga; Weinstein, Nicole; Legge, Sarah; Walters, Jeffrey R

    2013-01-01

    Body condition indices are increasingly applied in conservation to assess habitat quality, identify stressed populations before they decline, determine effects of disturbances, and understand mechanisms of declines. To employ condition indices in this manner, we need first to understand their baseline variability and sources of variation. Here, we used crimson finches (Neochmia phaeton), a tropical passerine, to describe the variation in seven commonly used condition indices by sex, age, breeding stage, time of day, and year. We found that packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total plasma protein, and scaled mass were all significantly affected by an interaction between sex and breeding stage. Furcular fat varied by sex and breeding stage and also trended by year, scaled mass showed a positive trend with age and varied by time of day, and haemoglobin additionally varied by year. Pectoral muscle scores varied and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio trended only by year. Year effects might reflect a response to annual variation in environmental conditions; therefore, those indices showing year effects may be especially worthy of further investigation of their potential for conservation applications. Pectoral muscle scores and heterophil to lymphocyte ratio may be particularly useful due to the lack of influence of other variables on them. For the other indices, the large variation that can be attributed to individual covariates, such as sex and breeding stage, suggests that one should not interpret the physiological condition of an individual as measured by these indices from their absolute value. Instead, the condition of an individual should be interpreted relative to conspecifics by sex, breeding stage, and possibly age.

  6. White Matter Integrity and Reaction Time Intraindividual Variability in Healthy Aging and Early-Stage Alzheimer Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Jonathan D.; Balota, David A.; Duchek, Janet M.; Head, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Aging and early-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) have been shown to be associated with increased RT intraindividual variability (IIV, as reflected by the coefficient of variation) and an exaggeration of the slow tail of the RT distribution in attentional control tasks, based on ex-Gaussian analyses. The current study examined associations between white matter volume, IIV, and ex-Gaussian RT distribution parameters in cognitively normal aging and early-stage AD. Three RT attention tasks (Stroop, Simon, and a consonant-vowel odd-even switching task) in conjunction with MRI-based measures of cerebral and regional white matter volume were obtained in 133 cognitively normal and 33 early-stage AD individuals. Larger volumes were associated with less IIV and less slowing in the tail of the RT distribution, and larger cerebral and inferior parietal white matter volumes were associated with faster modal reaction time. Collectively, these results support a role of white matter integrity in IIV and distributional skewing, and are consistent with the hypothesis that IIV and RT distributional skewing are sensitive to breakdowns in executive control processes in normal and pathological aging. PMID:22172547

  7. APPLYING TEP MEASUREMENTS TO ASSESS THE AGING STAGE OF MARAGING 250 STEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Y.; Gelbstein, Y.; Pinkas, M.; Yeheskel, O.; Landau, A.

    2008-02-28

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements had been proved as an effective method for evaluating the metallurgical state of various alloys. The current work was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of the aging state of Maraging 250 steel on TEP values. Commercial Maraging 250 steel was aged at 500 deg. C for 0.5-6 hours (hrs). TEP, hardness (Rc) and ultrasonic (US) measurements, were preformed on the as received and aged specimens. XRD measurements were used to identify the formation of precipitates (mainly Ni{sub 3}(Ti,Mo)), reverted austenite and to evaluate changes in the microstrain caused by the precipitation process. A correlation was found between the TEP and the various measurements as a function of the aging time.

  8. Applying Tep Measurements to Assess the Aging Stage of Maraging 250 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snir, Y.; Pinkas, M.; Gelbstein, Y.; Yeheskel, O.; Landau, A.

    2008-02-01

    Thermoelectric power (TEP) measurements had been proved as an effective method for evaluating the metallurgical state of various alloys. The current work was conducted in order to evaluate the influence of the aging state of Maraging 250 steel on TEP values. Commercial Maraging 250 steel was aged at 500 °C for 0.5-6 hours (hrs). TEP, hardness (Rc) and ultrasonic (US) measurements, were preformed on the as received and aged specimens. XRD measurements were used to identify the formation of precipitates (mainly Ni3(Ti,Mo)), reverted austenite and to evaluate changes in the microstrain caused by the precipitation process. A correlation was found between the TEP and the various measurements as a function of the aging time.

  9. Dental and Chronological Ages as Determinants of Peak Growth Period and Its Relationship with Dental Calcification Stages

    PubMed Central

    Litsas, George; Lucchese, Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between dental, chronological, and cervical vertebral maturation growth in the peak growth period, as well as to study the association between the dental calcification phases and the skeletal maturity stages during the same growth period. Methods: Subjects were selected from orthodontic pre-treatment cohorts consisting of 420 subjects where 255 were identified and enrolled into the study, comprising 145 girls and 110 boys. The lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs were examined from the archives of the Department of Orthodontics, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece. Dental age was assessed according to the method of Demirjian, and skeletal maturation according to the Cervical Vertebral Maturation Method. Statistical elaboration included Spearman Brown formula, descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation coefficient and regression analysis, paired samples t-test, and Spearman’s rho correlation coefficient. Results: Chronological and dental age showed a high correlation for both gender(r =0.741 for boys, r = 0.770 for girls, p<0.001). The strongest correlation was for the CVM Stage IV for both males (r=0.554) and females (r=0.68). The lowest correlation was for the CVM Stage III in males (r=0.433, p<0.001) and for the CVM Stage II in females (r=0.393, p>0.001). The t-test revealed statistically significant differences between these variables (p<0.001) during the peak period. A statistically significant correlation (p<0.001) between tooth calcification and CVM stages was determined. The second molars showed the highest correlation with CVM stages (CVMS) (r= 0.65 for boys, r = 0.72 for girls). Conclusion: Dental age was more advanced than chronological for both boys and girls for all CVMS. During the peak period these differences were more pronounced. Moreover, all correlations between skeletal and dental stages were statistically significant. The second molars showed the highest correlation whereas the

  10. [Diagnostics and therapy of dysphonia suitable for the ages and developmental stages of children and adolescents (part 2)].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, M

    2008-02-01

    The incidence of dysphonia among children and adolescents is evaluated internationally at 6 % to 25 %. Nonetheless, hoarseness as a leading symptom among children is often insufficiently recognized by their parents/attachment figures, by the young patients themselves, and even by physicians. In an overview, the hereditary and acquired organic and functional causes - including secondary organic lesions of the vocal folds - their pathomechanisms and the symptoms typical for this age group are presented. For diagnostics suitable for these age groups and developmental stages, modern methods of laryngoscopy (including stoboscopy and real-time laryngoscopy), of functional diagnostics of vocal capacity and quality as well as anamnestic and psychometric procedures for the investigation of possible psychosomatic genesis are available. Frequent therapeutic measures are vocal hygienic counseling and psycho- and family dynamic therapies. Vocal exercise treatments are particularly employed for the consequences of laryngeal surgery and with voice techniques unfavorable as a precondition for increased vocal activity. Operative measures in the sound-producing areas of the vocal apparatus and in the framework of plastic reconstruction concentrate on the optimizing of vocal capacity and quality. In clinical routine, symptoms of dysphonia in children and adolescents should be consciously registered, and any long-term hoarseness, in this age group as well, should be examined by specialized physicians using the methods suitable to the age group and the developmental stage. When the appropriate indications are present, all of the therapeutic options currently available should be discussed.

  11. [GENDER AND AGE DIFFERENCES IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AT HOSPITAL OBSERVATIONS STAGE].

    PubMed

    Dadashova, G M

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of literature shows that very little data are available on gender differences and age-specific drug use in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). In this work, the character of drug therapy was studied as dependent on the age and sex of patients with CHF under in-hospital observation conditions. Among hospitalized patients with CHF, an important role is played by modern drug therapy. Gender differences were found in respect of therapy with ACE inhibitors, which was used in men more frequently than in women (89 and 78%, respectively, p <0.001). Aldosterone antagonists were used in the treatment of women much less frequently than in men (32.9 and 42%, respectively, p < 0.001). Loop diuretics are more frequently prescribed to men (48 and 40%, respectively, p < 0.001) and thiazide diuretics, to women (38.9 and 27%, respectively, p < 0.001). In older age groups, CHF treatment both in men (p < 0.05) and in women (p < 0.001) is characterized by decreased use of beta-adrenoblockers and increased use of aldosterone antagonists (p < 0.05). In women, older age groups meet increased prescription frequency of ACE inhibitors/ARBs (from 79.1 to 95.3%p < 0.01) and aldosterone antagonists (from 29.3 to 38.2% p < 0.001). PMID:27416677

  12. Development: Ages & Stages--How Children Develop a Sense of Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents suggestions on how to increase awareness of a sense of time for infants up to age 6. It recommends using children's personal experiences to help them understand time concepts. Individual components of this article include: (1) "I Go Now!"--Birth to 2 (Carla Poole); (2) "Today's My Birthday!"--3 to 4 (Susan A. Miller); and (3)…

  13. Novel modulators of senescence, aging, and longevity: Small non-coding RNAs enter the stage.

    PubMed

    Grillari, Johannes; Grillari-Voglauer, Regina

    2010-04-01

    During the last decade evidence has accumulated that the aging process is driven by limited allocation of energy to somatic maintenance resulting in accumulation of stochastic damage. This damage, affecting molecules, cells, and tissues, is counteracted by genetically programmed repair, the efficiency of which thus importantly determines the life and 'health span' of organisms. Therefore, understanding the regulation of gene expression during cellular and organismal aging as well as upon exposure to various damaging events is important to understand the biology of aging and to positively influence the health span. The recent identification of small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), has added an additional layer of complexity to the regulation of gene expression with the classes of endogenous small inhibitory RNAs (siRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), QDE1-interacting RNAs (qiRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs). Some of these ncRNAs have not yet been identified in mammalian cells and are dependent on RNA-dependent RNA polymerases. The first mammalian enzyme with such activity has only now emerged and surprisingly consists of the catalytic subunit of telomerase (hTERT) together with RMPR, an alternative RNA component. The so far most studied small non-coding RNAs, miRNAs, however, are now increasingly found to operate in the complex network of cellular aging. Recent findings show that (i) miRNAs are regulated during cellular senescence in vitro, (ii) they contribute to tissue regeneration by regulation of stem cell function, and (iii) at least one miRNA modulates the life span of the model organism C. elegans. Additionally, (iv) they act as inhibitors of proteins mediating the insulin/IGF1 and target of rapamycin (TOR) signalling, both of which are conserved modulators of organism life span. Here we will give an overview on the current status of these topics. Since little is so far known on the functions of small ncRNAs in the context of aging and longevity, the entry of the

  14. The Prognostic Impact of Molecular Subtypes and Very Young Age on Breast Conserving Surgery in Early Stage Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    McGuire, Kandace; Alco, Gul; Nur Pilanci, Kezban; Koksal, Ulkuhan I; Elbüken, Filiz; Erdogan, Zeynep; Agacayak, Filiz; Ilgun, Serkan; Sarsenov, Dauren; Öztürk, Alper; İğdem, Şefik; Okkan, Sait; Eralp, Yeşim; Dincer, Maktav; Ozmen, Vahit

    2016-01-01

    Background Premenopausal breast cancer with a triple-negative phenotype (TNBC) has been associated with inferior locoregional recurrence free survival (LRFS) and overall survival (OS) after breast conserving surgery (BCS). The aim of this study is to analyze the association between age, subtype, and surgical treatment on survival in young women (≤40 years) with early breast cancer in a population with a high rate of breast cancer in young women. Methods Three hundred thirty-two patients ≤40 years old with stage I-II invasive breast cancer who underwent surgery at a single institution between 1998 and 2012 were identified retrospectively. Uni- and multivariate analysis evaluated predictors of LRFS, OS, and disease free survival (DFS). Results Most patients (64.2%) underwent BCS. Mean age and follow-up time were 35 (25 ± 3.61) years, and 72 months (range, 24–252), respectively. In multivariate analysis, multicentricity/multifocality and young age (<35 years) independently predicted for poorer DFS and OS. Those aged 35–40 years had higher LRFS and DFS than those <35 in the mastectomy group (p=0.007 and p=0.039, respectively). Patients with TNBC had lower OS compared with patients with luminal A subtype (p=0.042), and those who underwent BCS had higher OS than patients after mastectomy (p=0.015). Conclusion Young age (< 35 years) is an independent predictor of poorer OS and DFS as compared with ages 35–40, even in countries with a lower average age of breast cancer presentation. In addition, TNBC in the young predicts for poorer OS. BCS can be performed in young patients with TNBC, despite their poorer overall survival. PMID:27433412

  15. Apolipoprotein D takes center stage in the stress response of the aging and degenerative brain☆

    PubMed Central

    Dassati, Sarah; Waldner, Andreas; Schweigreiter, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein D (ApoD) is an ancient member of the lipocalin family with a high degree of sequence conservation from insects to mammals. It is not structurally related to other major apolipoproteins and has been known as a small, soluble carrier protein of lipophilic molecules that is mostly expressed in neurons and glial cells within the central and peripheral nervous system. Recent data indicate that ApoD not only supplies cells with lipophilic molecules, but also controls the fate of these ligands by modulating their stability and oxidation status. Of particular interest is the binding of ApoD to arachidonic acid and its derivatives, which play a central role in healthy brain function. ApoD has been shown to act as a catalyst in the reduction of peroxidized eicosanoids and to attenuate lipid peroxidation in the brain. Manipulating its expression level in fruit flies and mice has demonstrated that ApoD has a favorable effect on both stress resistance and life span. The APOD gene is the gene that is upregulated the most in the aging human brain. Furthermore, ApoD levels in the nervous system are elevated in a large number of neurologic disorders including Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, and stroke. There is increasing evidence for a prominent neuroprotective role of ApoD because of its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. ApoD emerges as an evolutionarily conserved anti-stress protein that is induced by oxidative stress and inflammation and may prove to be an effective therapeutic agent against a variety of neuropathologies, and even against aging. PMID:24612673

  16. Age-stage, two-sex life table of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae) feeding on four palm plant varieties.

    PubMed

    Jin, Tao; Lin, Yu-Ying; Jin, Qi-An; Wen, Hai-Bo; Peng, Zheng-Qiang

    2012-10-01

    The life history of Brontispa longissima (Gestro) (Coleoptera: Hispidae), reared under laboratory conditions on leaves of coconut (Cocos nucifera L.), royal palm [Roystonea regia (Kunth) O.F.Cook], bottle palm [Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (L. Bailey) H.E.Moore], and fishtail palm (Caryota ochlandra Hance) was analyzed using age-stage, two-sex life table. Means and standard errors of population growth parameters were calculated using the jackknife method. Moreover, survival rate and fecundity data were applied to project the population for revealing the different stage structure. The mean intrinsic rates of population growth when reared on each respective leaf type were 0.032, 0.031, 0.019, and 0.044. Individuals reared on C. nucifera achieved the highest net reproduction rate at 114.5 offspring per female. The mean generation times of B. longissima ranged from 93.2 d (reared on C. ochlandrai) to 161.5 d (reared on H. lagenicaulis). Projections from survival rate and fecundity data indicated that B. longissima populations can row considerably faster on C. ochlandra than on the other three host plants. The results validate the two-stage life history approach taken, providing an essential tool for developing and testing future control strategies. PMID:23068179

  17. Prognosis of Pregnancy-Associated Gastric Cancer: An Age-, Sex-, and Stage-Matched Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min Jeong; Park, Young Soo; Song, Ho June; Park, Se Jeong; Ahn, Ji Yong; Choi, Kee Don; Lee, Gin Hyug; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Byung Sik

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Pregnancy-associated gastric cancer is a rare condition. This case-control study was performed to identify the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of pregnancy-associated gastric cancer. Methods All consecutive patients who presented to our tertiary referral hospital with pregnancy-associated gastric cancer from 1991 to 2012 were identified. Two age-, sex-, and stage-matched controls for each case were also identified from the records. Clinicopathological, gynecological, and oncological outcomes were recorded. Immunohistochemical staining was performed for estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, epidermal growth factor receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor, and E-cadherin. Fluorescence in situ hybridization was performed for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2. Results The median overall survival rates of the pregnancy-associated gastric cancer and control groups were 7.0 months and 15.0 months, respectively (p=0.189). Poor prognostic factors included advanced stage and tumor location in the corpus or the entire stomach but not pregnancy status or loss of E-cadherin. Pregnancy-associated gastric cancer was associated with a longer time from diagnosis to treatment (21 days vs 7 days, p=0.021). The two groups did not differ in the expression of the receptors or E-cadherin. Conclusions The dismal prognosis of pregnancy-associated gastric cancer may related to the tumor stage and location rather than to pregnancy itself. PMID:27114414

  18. Age-Stage, Two-Sex Life Table Characteristics of Aedes albopictus and Aedes Aegypti in Penang Island, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Maimusa, Hamisu A; Ahmad, Abu Hassan; Kassim, Nur Faeza A; Rahim, Junaid

    2016-03-01

    The life table developmental attributes of laboratory colonies of wild strains of Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti were analyzed and compared based on the age-stage, two-sex life table. Findings inclusive in this study are: adult preoviposition periods, total preoviposition period, mean intrinsic rate of increase (r), mean finite rate of increase (λ), net reproductive rates (R0), and mean generation time (T). The total preadult development time was 9.47 days for Ae. albopictus and 8.76 days for Ae. aegypti. The life expectancy was 19.01 days for Ae. albopictus and 19.94 days for Ae. aegypti. Mortality occurred mostly during the adult stage. The mean development time for each stage insignificantly correlated with temperature for Ae. albopictus (r  =  -0.208, P > 0.05) and (r  =  -0.312, P > 0.05) for Ae. aegypti. The population parameters suggest that Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti populations are r-strategists characterized by a high r, a large R0, and short T. This present study provides the first report to compare the life parameters of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti strains from Penang island, Malaysia.

  19. Work-family conflict among members of full-time dual-earner couples: an examination of family life stage, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Allen, Tammy D; Finkelstein, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    Based on cross-sectional data from the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce, this study investigates relationships between gender, age, and work-family conflict across 6 family life stages. Participants were 690 married/partnered employees who worked 35 or more hours a week. Results indicated a small but negative relationship between age and work-family conflict. Work-family conflict was also associated with family stage, with the least amount of conflict occurring during the empty nest stage and the most occurring when the youngest child in the home was 5 years of age or younger. Gender differences were also observed. Specifically, men reported more work interference with family than did women when the youngest child in the home was a teen. Women overall reported more family interference with work than did men. Results concerning age and gender revealed a different pattern demonstrating that family stage is not simply a proxy for age. Age had a main effect on work-to-family conflict that was monotonic in nature and on family to-work conflict that was linear in nature. In conclusion, the results indicate gender, age, and family stage each uniquely relate to work-family conflict.

  20. Age-dependent role for Ras-GRF1 in the late stages of adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Michael J; Trouche, Stéphanie; Jin, Shan-Xue; Feig, Larry A

    2014-03-01

    The dentate gyrus of the hippocampus plays a pivotal role in pattern separation, a process required for the behavioral task of contextual discrimination. One unique feature of the dentate gyrus that contributes to pattern separation is adult neurogenesis, where newly born neurons play a distinct role in neuronal circuitry. Moreover,the function of neurogenesis in this brain region differs in adolescent and adult mice. The signaling mechanisms that differentially regulate the distinct steps of adult neurogenesis in adolescence and adulthood remain poorly understood. We used mice lacking RASGRF1(GRF1), a calcium-dependent exchange factor that regulates synaptic plasticity and participates in contextual discrimination performed by mice, to test whether GRF1 plays a role in adult neurogenesis.We show Grf1 knockout mice begin to display a defect in neurogenesis at the onset of adulthood (~2 months of age), when wild-type mice first acquire the ability to distinguish between closely related contexts. At this age, young hippocampal neurons in Grf1 knockout mice display severely reduced dendritic arborization. By 3 months of age, new neuron survival is also impaired. BrdU labeling of new neurons in 2-month-old Grf1 knockout mice shows they begin to display reduced survival between 2 and 3 weeks after birth, just as new neurons begin to develop complex dendritic morphology and transition into using glutamatergic excitatory input. Interestingly, GRF1 expression appears in new neurons at the developmental stage when GRF1 loss begins to effect neuronal function. In addition, we induced a similar loss of new hippocampal neurons by knocking down expression of GRF1 solely in new neurons by injecting retrovirus that express shRNA against GRF1 into the dentate gyrus. Together, these findings show that GRF1 expressed in new neurons promotes late stages of adult neurogenesis. Overall our findings show GRF1 to be an age-dependent regulator of adult hippocampal neurogenesis, which

  1. Dental age assessment of adolescents and emerging adults in United Kingdom Caucasians using censored data for stage H of third molar roots.

    PubMed

    Boonpitaksathit, Teelana; Hunt, Nigel; Roberts, Graham J; Petrie, Aviva; Lucas, Victoria S

    2011-10-01

    The root of the third permanent molar is the only dental structure that continues development after completion of growth of the second permanent molar. It is claimed that the lack of a clearly defined end point for completion of growth of the third permanent molar means that this tooth cannot be used for dental age assessment. The aim of this study was to estimate the mean age of attainment of the four stages (E, F, G, and H) of root development of the third molar. The way in which the end point of completion of stage H can be identified is described. A total of 1223 dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs) available in the archives of the Eastman Dental Hospital, London, were used for this study. The ages of the subjects ranged from 12.6 to 24.9 years with 63 per cent of the sample being female. Demirjan's tooth development stages (TDSs), for the first and second molars, were applied to the third molars by a single examiner. For each of stages E, F, and G and for stage H censored data, the mean ages of the males and females were compared, separately within each tooth morphology type using the two sample t-test (P < 0.01). The same test was used to compare the mean ages of the upper and lower third molars on each side, separately for each gender. The mean age of attainment and the 99 per cent confidence interval (CI) for each TDS were calculated for each third molar. The final stage H data were appropriately censored to exclude data above the age of completion of root growth. The results showed that, for each gender, the age in years at which individuals attained each of the four TDSs was approximately normally distributed. The mean age for appropriately censored data was always lower than the corresponding mean age of the inappropriately censored data for stage H (male UR8 19.57, UL8 19.53, LL8 19.91, and LR8 20.02 and female UR8 20.08, UL8 20.13, LL8 20.78, and LR8 20.70). This inappropriately censored data overestimated the mean age for stage H. The appropriately

  2. Regular physical activity is associated with improved small artery distensibility in young to middle-age stage 1 hypertensives.

    PubMed

    Saladini, Francesca; Benetti, Elisabetta; Mos, Lucio; Mazzer, Adriano; Casiglia, Edoardo; Palatini, Paolo

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the association of physical activity with small artery elasticity in the early stage of hypertension. We examined 366 young-to-middle-age stage 1 hypertensives (mean blood pressure 145.6±10.3/92.5±5.8 mmHg), divided into two categories of physical activity, sedentary (n=264) and non-sedentary (n=102) subjects. The augmentation index was measured using the Specaway DAT System. Small artery compliance (C2) was measured by applanation tonometry, at the radial artery, with an HDI CR2000 device. After 6 years of follow-up, arterial distensibility assessment was repeated in 151 subjects. Heart rate was lower in active than in sedentary subjects (71.2±8.9 vs 76.6±9.7 bpm, p<0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, heart rate, smoking, and blood pressure, C2 was higher (8.0±2.6 vs 6.4±3.0 ml/mmHg × 100, p=0.008) in non-sedentary than in sedentary patients. The augmentation index was smaller in the former (8.8±20.1 vs 16.8±26.5%, p=0.044) but the difference lost statistical significance after further adjustment for blood pressure. After 6 years, C2 was still higher in the non-sedentary than sedentary subjects. In addition, an improvement in the augmentation index accompanied by a decline in total peripheral resistance was found in the former. These data show that regular physical activity is associated with improved small artery elasticity in the early phase of hypertension. This association persists over time and is independent of blood pressure and heart rate.

  3. Ages and Stages: Teen

    MedlinePlus

    ... Featured Article Meningococcal Disease: Information for Teens and College Students Certain teens and young adults have a higher ... Managing Money Meningococcal Disease: Information for Teens and College Students Mental Health and Teens: Watch for Danger Signs ...

  4. The assessment of developmental status using the Ages and Stages questionnaire-3 in nutritional research in north Indian young children

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective and background For large epidemiological studies in low and middle-income countries, inexpensive and easily administered developmental assessment tools are called for. This report evaluates the feasibility of the assessment tool Ages and Stages Questionnaire 3.edition (ASQ-3) “home procedure” in a field trial in 422 North Indian young children. Methods ASQ-3 was translated and adjusted for a North Indian Hindi setting. Three examiners were trained by a clinical psychologist to perform the assessments. During the main study, ten % of the assessments were done by two examiners to estimate inter-observer agreement. During all sessions, the examiners recorded whether the scoring was based on observation of the skill during the session, or on caregiver’s report of the child’s skill. Intra class correlation coefficient was calculated to estimate the agreement between the raters and between the raters and a gold standard. Pearson product moment correlation coefficient and standardized alphas were calculated to measure internal consistency. Principal findings Inter-observer agreement was strong both during training exercises and during the main study. In the Motor subscales and the Problem Solving subscale most items could be observed during the session. The standardized alphas for the total ASQ-3 scale across all ages were strong, while the alpha values for the different subscales and age levels varied. The correlations between the total score and the subscale scores were consistently strong, while the correlations between subscale scores were moderate. Conclusions/significance We found that the translated and adjusted ASQ-3 “home procedure” was a feasible procedure for the collection of reliable data on the developmental status in infants and young children. Examiners were effectively trained over a short period of time, and the total ASQ scores showed adequate variability. However, further adjustments are needed to obtain satisfying alpha values in

  5. Palynology, geochemistry and Re-Os age of the Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian stage boundary, central Appalachian basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geboy, N.; Tripathy, G. R.; Ruppert, L. F.; Eble, C. F.; Blake, B. M.; Hannah, J. L.; Stein, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    Wales and Germany and therefore has implications across the Carboniferous Euramerican Belt. Further, the Betsie has been interpreted to represent the Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian stage boundary in North America, making this directly measured age an important marker not only within the CAB but also for refinement of the Carboniferous timescale.

  6. The comparison between measurement of open apices of third molars and Demirjian stages to test chronological age of over 18 year olds in living subjects.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; Ferrante, L; De Angelis, D; Scarpino, F; Galli, F

    2008-11-01

    This paper concerns a method for assessing adult age based on the relationship between age and the third molar maturity index (I(3M)), which is related to the measurement of the open apices of the third molar. Furthermore, this method was compared to those based on Demirjian's stages G and H. The sample consisted of 906 Caucasian individuals aged between 14 and 23 years (53.6% females and 46.4% males). Orthopantomographs were analyzed by two observers and calibrated by means of the concordance correlation coefficient for the reproducibility of the third molar maturity index (I(3M)) and kappa statistics for reproducibility of the Demirjian stages. Probabilities for an individual to be older than 18 years of age (adult age) were derived using the measurements of the third molar maturity index (I(3M)). These results were exploited to set out a threshold value to assign an individual to juvenile or adult age. A cutoff value of I(3M) = 0.08 was taken. The sensitivity of this test was 70% and specificity was 98%. Furthermore, the proportion of individuals with a correct classification was 83%. The results of the test showed a better specificity when compared to the choice of stage G and a better sensitivity when compared to the choice of stage H for adult age.

  7. Incremental prognostic value of MRI in the staging of early cervical cancer: a prospective study and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bourgioti, Charis; Chatoupis, Konstantinos; Rodolakis, Alexandros; Antoniou, Aristeidis; Tzavara, Chara; Koutoulidis, Vassilis; Moulopoulos, Lia Angela

    2016-01-01

    This is to evaluate the predictive ability of clinical examination and preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the staging of early cervical cancer. We prospectively evaluated 115 patients with cervical cancer, International Federation of Gynecologic and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage staging. Surgery was the standard of reference. MRI was more accurate than clinical examination for tumor estimate, parametrial or internal os involvement. When combined with MRI, the predictive ability of clinical examination for overall staging [area under the curve (AUC)=0.59, P>.05) increased significantly (AUC=0.84, P<.05). Our results support the official incorporation of MRI into FIGO classification system.

  8. The experiences of close persons caring for people with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on conservative kidney management: Contested discourses of ageing

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jason; Smith, Glenn; Higgs, Paul; Burns, Aine; Hopkins, Katherine; Jones, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease stage 5 is a global health challenge in the context of population ageing across the world. The range of treatment options available to patients at all ages has increased and includes transplantation and dialysis. However, these options are often seen as inappropriate for older frailer patients who are now offered the option of conservative kidney management, which is presented as a non-invasive alternative to dialysis, involving symptom management and addressing psychosocial needs. In this study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 26 close persons caring for someone with chronic kidney disease stage 5 in the United Kingdom to investigate how conservative kidney management interacted with implicit ideas of ageing, in both the experience of conservative kidney management and the understanding of the prognosis and future care of the kidney disease. Our findings highlighted participant confusion about the nature of conservative kidney management, which stems from an initial lack of clarity about how conservative kidney management differed from conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease stage 5. In particular, some respondents were not aware of the implicit palliative nature of the intervention or indeed the inevitable end-of-life issues. Although these findings can be situated within the context of communication failure, we would further argue that they also bring to the surface tensions in the discourses surrounding ageing and old age, drawing on the use of a ‘natural’ and a ‘normal’ paradigm of ageing. In the context of chronic kidney disease stage 5, more patients are being dialysed at older ages, but conservative kidney management is being advanced as a better option than dialysis in terms of quality of life and experience. However, in doing so, conservative kidney management implicitly draws on a notion of older age that echoes natural ageing rather than advocate a more interventionist approach. The role of discourses

  9. The experiences of close persons caring for people with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on conservative kidney management: contested discourses of ageing.

    PubMed

    Low, Joe; Myers, Jason; Smith, Glenn; Higgs, Paul; Burns, Aine; Hopkins, Katherine; Jones, Louise

    2014-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease stage 5 is a global health challenge in the context of population ageing across the world. The range of treatment options available to patients at all ages has increased and includes transplantation and dialysis. However, these options are often seen as inappropriate for older frailer patients who are now offered the option of conservative kidney management, which is presented as a non-invasive alternative to dialysis, involving symptom management and addressing psychosocial needs. In this study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 26 close persons caring for someone with chronic kidney disease stage 5 in the United Kingdom to investigate how conservative kidney management interacted with implicit ideas of ageing, in both the experience of conservative kidney management and the understanding of the prognosis and future care of the kidney disease. Our findings highlighted participant confusion about the nature of conservative kidney management, which stems from an initial lack of clarity about how conservative kidney management differed from conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease stage 5. In particular, some respondents were not aware of the implicit palliative nature of the intervention or indeed the inevitable end-of-life issues. Although these findings can be situated within the context of communication failure, we would further argue that they also bring to the surface tensions in the discourses surrounding ageing and old age, drawing on the use of a 'natural' and a 'normal' paradigm of ageing. In the context of chronic kidney disease stage 5, more patients are being dialysed at older ages, but conservative kidney management is being advanced as a better option than dialysis in terms of quality of life and experience. However, in doing so, conservative kidney management implicitly draws on a notion of older age that echoes natural ageing rather than advocate a more interventionist approach. The role of discourses of ageing

  10. The experiences of close persons caring for people with chronic kidney disease stage 5 on conservative kidney management: contested discourses of ageing.

    PubMed

    Low, Joe; Myers, Jason; Smith, Glenn; Higgs, Paul; Burns, Aine; Hopkins, Katherine; Jones, Louise

    2014-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease stage 5 is a global health challenge in the context of population ageing across the world. The range of treatment options available to patients at all ages has increased and includes transplantation and dialysis. However, these options are often seen as inappropriate for older frailer patients who are now offered the option of conservative kidney management, which is presented as a non-invasive alternative to dialysis, involving symptom management and addressing psychosocial needs. In this study, we conducted qualitative interviews with 26 close persons caring for someone with chronic kidney disease stage 5 in the United Kingdom to investigate how conservative kidney management interacted with implicit ideas of ageing, in both the experience of conservative kidney management and the understanding of the prognosis and future care of the kidney disease. Our findings highlighted participant confusion about the nature of conservative kidney management, which stems from an initial lack of clarity about how conservative kidney management differed from conventional treatments for chronic kidney disease stage 5. In particular, some respondents were not aware of the implicit palliative nature of the intervention or indeed the inevitable end-of-life issues. Although these findings can be situated within the context of communication failure, we would further argue that they also bring to the surface tensions in the discourses surrounding ageing and old age, drawing on the use of a 'natural' and a 'normal' paradigm of ageing. In the context of chronic kidney disease stage 5, more patients are being dialysed at older ages, but conservative kidney management is being advanced as a better option than dialysis in terms of quality of life and experience. However, in doing so, conservative kidney management implicitly draws on a notion of older age that echoes natural ageing rather than advocate a more interventionist approach. The role of discourses of ageing

  11. Chemical immobilization of adult female Weddell seals with tiletamine and zolazepam: effects of age, condition and stage of lactation

    PubMed Central

    Wheatley, Kathryn E; Bradshaw, Corey JA; Harcourt, Robert G; Davis, Lloyd S; Hindell, Mark A

    2006-01-01

    Background Chemical immobilization of Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) has previously been, for the most part, problematic and this has been mainly attributed to the type of immobilizing agent used. In addition to individual sensitivity, physiological status may play an important role. We investigated the use of the intravenous administration of a 1:1 mixture of tiletamine and zolazepam (Telazol®) to immobilize adult females at different points during a physiologically demanding 5–6 week lactation period. We also compared performance between IV and IM injection of the same mixture. Results The tiletamine:zolazepam mixture administered intravenously was an effective method for immobilization with no fatalities or pronounced apnoeas in 106 procedures; however, there was a 25 % (one animal in four) mortality rate with intramuscular administration. Induction time was slightly longer for females at the end of lactation (54.9 ± 2.3 seconds) than at post-parturition (48.2 ± 2.9 seconds). In addition, the number of previous captures had a positive effect on induction time. There was no evidence for effects due to age, condition (total body lipid), stage of lactation or number of captures on recovery time. Conclusion We suggest that intravenous administration of tiletamine and zolazepam is an effective and safe immobilizing agent for female Weddell seals. Although individual traits could not explain variation in recovery time, we suggest careful monitoring of recovery times during longitudinal studies (> 2 captures). We show that physiological pressures do not substantially affect response to chemical immobilization with this mixture; however, consideration must be taken for differences that may exist for immobilization of adult males and juveniles. Nevertheless, we recommend a mass-specific dose of 0.50 – 0.65 mg/kg for future procedures with adult female Weddell seals and a starting dose of 0.50 mg/kg for other age classes and other phocid seals. PMID

  12. Developmental screening in a Canadian First Nation (Mohawk): psychometric properties and adaptations of ages & stages questionnaires (2nd edition)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The need for early intervention tools adapted to the First Nation culture is well documented. However, standards derived from First Nation communities are absent from the literature. This study examines the psychometric properties of an adaptation of a caregiver-completed screening tool, the Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ), for the Mohawk population. Methods Participants who completed the questionnaires include 17 teachers, along with the parents of 282 children (130 girls and 152 boys) between the ages of 9 and 66 months who attend the Child and Family Center Mohawk Territory, Quebec. Results For the internal consistency of the four questionnaires (36-, 42-, 48- and 54-month intervals), Cronbach’s alphas varied between .61 and .84. Five results were below 0.60: “gross motor” (Q36 and Q42), “problem solving” (Q36) and “personal-social” (Q36 and Q42). A comparison of the results shows that parents and teachers agreed in 85% of the cases concerning the referral of the child for further evaluation. Moreover, the group discussion with the parents revealed that the use of the questionnaire was appreciated and was deemed appropriate for use within the community. Conclusion The results show that the ASQ is a screening test that may be appropriate for use with children from communities that are seemingly very different in terms of geographic, climatic and cultural backgrounds. This preliminary study with the Child and Family Center appears to support further study and the use of the ASQ with the Mohawk population. PMID:24467769

  13. Relationship between Age and pre-End Stage Renal Disease Care in Elderly Patients Treated With Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Rubette; Clark, Mary Jo; Norris, Keith C.; Yan, Guofen

    2016-01-01

    Receipt of pre-end-stage renal disease (ESRD) clinical care can improve outcomes for patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis (MHD). The study addressed age-related variations in receipt of a composite of recommended care to include nephrologist and dietician care and use of arterio-venous fistula at first outpatient MHD. Less than 2% of patients treated with MHD received all three forms of pre-ESRD care, and 63.3% received none of the three elements of care. The mean number of pre-ESRD care elements received by the oldest group (≥80 years) did not differ from the youngest group (<55 years), but was less than the 55-66 and 67-79 years groups; adjusted ratios of 0.93 (0.92-0.94; p<0.001) and 0.94 (0.92-0.95; p<0.001), respectively. A major effort is needed to ensure comprehensive pre-ESRD care for all patients with advanced CKD, especially for the youngest and oldest patient groups, who were less likely to receive recommended pre-ESRD care. PMID:27254965

  14. Electrodeposition and isothermal aging of Co and Mn layers on stainless steel for interconnectors: Initial stages of spinel phase formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, R.; Carmezim, M. J.; Montemor, M. F.

    2014-06-01

    Electrodeposited Co and Mn spinel phase oxides for application as coatings for metallic interconnectors in Solid Oxide Fuel Cells were prepared. The study aims at understanding the initial stages of transformation of the metallic layers into the spinel phase. Co and Mn metallic layers were sequentially deposited over AISI 430 stainless steel substrate from acidic sulfate solutions and annealed in oxidizing and inert atmospheres between 600 °C and 800 °C. The coatings obtained showed a thickness above 20 μm. After 1 h of isothermal aging the coatings were composed of layers of un-reacted metallic elements and Mn based oxides. The spinel phase was studied by XRD and revealed Mn based tetragonal structure Mn3O4 with Co in solid solution and a non-determined Co/Mn ratio. According to EDS measurements this ratio should vary with depth. Full conversion was not obtained at these time frames with the presence other Mn oxides (MnO and Mn2O3). In inert atmosphere, the allotropic Mn transformation from α to β phase was detected. No outward diffusion of Cr was detected, due to the short exposure times.

  15. Relationship Between Age and Pre-End Stage Renal Disease Care in Elderly Patients Treated with Maintenance Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Harford, Rubette; Clark, Mary Jo; Norris, Keith C; Yan, Guofen

    2016-01-01

    Receipt of pre-end stage renal disease (ESRD) clinical care can improve outcomes for patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis (HD). This study addressed age-related variations in receipt of a composite of recommended care to include nephrologist and dietician care, and use of an arteriovenous fistula at first outpatient maintenance HD. Less than 2% of patients treated with maintenance HD received all three forms of pre-ESRD care, and 63.3% received none of the three elements of care. The mean number of pre-ESRD care elements received by the oldest group (80 years and older) did not differ from the youngest group (less than 55 years), but was less than the 55 to 66 and 67 to 79 years groups; adjusted ratios of 0.93 (0.92 to 0.94; p < 0.001) and 0.94 (0.92 to 0.95; p < 0.001), respectively. A major effort is needed to ensure comprehensive pre-ESRD care for all patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially for the youngest and oldest patient groups, who were less likely to receive recommended pre-ESRD care.

  16. Relationship Between Age and Pre-End Stage Renal Disease Care in Elderly Patients Treated with Maintenance Hemodialysis.

    PubMed

    Harford, Rubette; Clark, Mary Jo; Norris, Keith C; Yan, Guofen

    2016-01-01

    Receipt of pre-end stage renal disease (ESRD) clinical care can improve outcomes for patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis (HD). This study addressed age-related variations in receipt of a composite of recommended care to include nephrologist and dietician care, and use of an arteriovenous fistula at first outpatient maintenance HD. Less than 2% of patients treated with maintenance HD received all three forms of pre-ESRD care, and 63.3% received none of the three elements of care. The mean number of pre-ESRD care elements received by the oldest group (80 years and older) did not differ from the youngest group (less than 55 years), but was less than the 55 to 66 and 67 to 79 years groups; adjusted ratios of 0.93 (0.92 to 0.94; p < 0.001) and 0.94 (0.92 to 0.95; p < 0.001), respectively. A major effort is needed to ensure comprehensive pre-ESRD care for all patients with advanced chronic kidney disease (CKD), especially for the youngest and oldest patient groups, who were less likely to receive recommended pre-ESRD care. PMID:27254965

  17. Practical issues related to uterine pathology: staging, frozen section, artifacts, and Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Soslow, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    This review covers three areas in endometrial tumor pathology: International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging, the use of frozen section, and Lynch syndrome. The section on FIGO staging will emphasize problems that practicing pathologists often confront, such as measuring the depth of myometrial invasion, assessing for the presence of cervical stromal invasion, detecting low-volume lymph node metastases, and recognizing synchronous endometrial and ovarian tumors and artifacts. The frozen section portion of this review will focus on the performance characteristics of intraoperative examination of the uterus to determine tumor grade and depth of myometrial invasion, including suggestions for alternative methods. The last portion of this review will provide an overview of Lynch syndrome and a discussion of the rationale and methods of screening for Lynch syndrome.

  18. Practical issues related to uterine pathology: staging, frozen section, artifacts, and Lynch syndrome.

    PubMed

    Soslow, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    This review covers three areas in endometrial tumor pathology: International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging, the use of frozen section, and Lynch syndrome. The section on FIGO staging will emphasize problems that practicing pathologists often confront, such as measuring the depth of myometrial invasion, assessing for the presence of cervical stromal invasion, detecting low-volume lymph node metastases, and recognizing synchronous endometrial and ovarian tumors and artifacts. The frozen section portion of this review will focus on the performance characteristics of intraoperative examination of the uterus to determine tumor grade and depth of myometrial invasion, including suggestions for alternative methods. The last portion of this review will provide an overview of Lynch syndrome and a discussion of the rationale and methods of screening for Lynch syndrome. PMID:26715174

  19. Sustained expression of a neuron-specific isoform of the Taf1 gene in development stages and aging in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Jambaldorj, Jamiyansuren; Makino, Satoshi; Munkhbat, Batmunkh; Tamiya, Gen

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified the mouse homologue of neuron-specific TAF1 (N-Taf1). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taf1 mRNA was expressed in most tissues and cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N-Taf1 mRNA was expressed in the brain and Neuroblastoma N2a cell lines. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taf1 and N-Taf1 showed different expression profile in development stage and aging. -- Abstract: TATA-box binding protein associated factor 1 (TAF1) protein is the largest and the essential component of the TFIID complex in the pathway of RNA polymerase II-mediated gene transcription, and it regulates transcription of a large number of genes related to cell division. The neuron-specific isoform of the TAF1 gene (N-TAF1), which we reported previously, may have an essential role in neurons through transcriptional regulation of many neuron-specific genes. In the present study, we cloned the full-length cDNA that encodes the mouse homologue of N-TAF1 (N-Taf1) protein. By carrying out of real time RT-PCR, we investigated the expression analysis of the N-Taf1 mRNA in mouse tissues and cell lines. As well as the human N-TAF1, the N-Taf1 showed limited expression in the brain and neuroblastoma, whereas Taf1 expressed elsewhere. Furthermore, in mouse embryo head or mouse brain, mRNA expression of TAF1 changes dramatically during development but N-Taf1 showed sustained expression. Our result suggests that the N-Taf1 gene has an important role in non-dividing neuronal cell rather than in cell division and proliferation during neurogenesis.

  20. The rates of change of the stochastic trajectories of acceleration variability are a good predictor of normal aging and of the stage of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Elizabeth B.

    2013-01-01

    The accelerometer data from mobile smart phones provide stochastic trajectories that change over time. This rate of change is unique to each person and can be well-characterized by the continuous two-parameter family of Gamma probability distributions. Accordingly, on the Gamma plane each participant can be uniquely localized by the shape and the scale parameters of the Gamma probability distribution. The scatter of such points contains information that can unambiguously separate the normal controls (NC) from those patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) that are at a later stage of the disease. In general normal aging seems conducive of more predictable patterns of variation in the accelerometer data. Yet this trend breaks down in PD where the statistical signatures seem to be a more relevant predictor of the stage of the disease. Those patients at a later stage of the disease have more random and noisier patterns than those in the earlier stages, whose statistics resemble those of the older NC. Overall the peak rates of change of the stochastic trajectories of the accelerometer are a good predictor of the stage of PD and of the age of a “normally” aging individual. PMID:23882193

  1. The influence of number of high risk factors on clinical outcomes in patients with early-stage cervical cancer after radical hysterectomy and adjuvant chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Soyi; Lee, Seok-Ho; Park, Chan-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognosis according to the number of high risk factors in patients with high risk factors after radical hysterectomy and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy for early stage cervical cancer. Methods Clinicopathological variables and clinical outcomes of patients with FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage IB1 to IIA cervical cancer who had one or more high risk factors after radical hysterectomy and adjuvant chemoradiation therapy were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were divided into two groups according to the number of high risk factors (group 1, single high risk factor; group 2, two or more high risk factors). Results A total of 93 patients were enrolled in the present study. Forty nine out of 93 (52.7%) patients had a single high risk factor, and 44 (47.3%) had two or more high risk factors. Statistically significant differences in stage and stromal invasion were observed between group 1 and group 2. However, age, histology, tumor size, and lymphovascular space invasion did not differ significantly between the groups. Distant recurrence occurred more frequently in group 2, and the probability of recurrence and death was higher in group 2. Conclusion Patients with two or more high risk factors had worse prognosis in early stage cervical cancer. For these patients, consideration of new strategies to improve survival may be worthwhile. Conduct of further clinical trials is warranted for development of adjuvant treatment strategies individualized to each risk group. PMID:27200308

  2. Generation Changes over the Period of 1986-2006 in the Physical Fitness of Boys Aged 7-19 from Eastern Poland at Particular Stages of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saczuk, Jerzy; Wasiluk, Agnieszka; Zalech, Miroslaw

    2012-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the size of secular trends in the physical fitness of boys from eastern Poland taking into consideration stages of education. Material and methods: The physical fitness results of boys aged 7-19 years living in eastern regions of Poland were analyzed: 3188 students were examined in 1986 while in 2006 the research included 10…

  3. Evaluation of the Turkish Version of the "Ages and Stages Questionnaires: Social-Emotional" in Identifying Children with Social-Emotional Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kucuker, Sevgi; Kapci, Emine Gul; Uslu, Runa Idil

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of the Age and Stages Questionnaires: Social Emotional (ASQ-SE; J. Squires, D. Bricker & E. Twombly, 2003) for Turkish children was examined. A total of 608 mothers completed the ASQ-SE's. Overall sensitivity and overall specificity were 83.7% and 89.9%, respectively. Test-retest reliability, assessed by classifying children as…

  4. Multi-stage uplift of the Colorado Plateau and the age of Grand Canyon and precursor canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karlstrom, K. E.; Lee, J. P.; Kelley, S. A.; Crow, R.

    2012-12-01

    Debates about the age of Grand Canyon link to debates about the timing of surface uplift(s) of the Colorado Plateau- Rocky Mountain (CP-RM) region. One "old Grand Canyon" model proposes that a paleocanyon of almost the same depth and location as today's Grand Canyon was carved by a NE-flowing "California" paleoriver 80-70 Ma, then was re-used at ~55 Ma by a SW-flowing "Arizona" paleoriver. This model postulates the CP-RM region was uplifted to near modern elevations during the Laramide orogeny. A second model postulates a 17 Ma Grand Canyon; this time corresponds to Basin and Range extension and postulated mantle-driven surface uplift. The "young Grand Canyon" model postulates that >2/3 of modern Grand Canyon was carved by W-flowing Colorado River that became integrated to the Gulf of California at 5-6 Ma during Neogene mantle-driven uplift of the CP/RM region. Thermochronologic data are poised to substantially resolve these debates. Our thermochronology dataset combines published and new apatite fission-track and helium analyses, and joint thermal history modeling using both systems. This dataset reveals three major cooling episodes: 1) a multi-stage Sevier-Laramide contraction episode from about 90 Ma to 50 Ma with structural relief on upwarps on the order 0.5-1 km, compatible with a similar magnitude of surface uplift; 2) 30-20 Ma cooling that was associated with denudation and northward cliff retreat of most of the Mesozoic section from Grand Canyon region; 3) <10 Ma cooling that is best documented in eastern Grand Canyon as part of a general pattern of decreasing age of cooling/denudation to the NE. Combined geologic and thermochronologic data define the age and 3-D geometry of Cenozoic paleotopography that led to Grand Canyon carving. Combined AHe and AFT data indicate 2-4 km of sedimentary rocks covered the Grand Canyon region until about 40 Ma, negating the California River model. These strata were not removed from the Marble Canyon area until after about

  5. Informing school sex education using the stages of change construct: sexual behaviour and attitudes towards sexual activity and condom use of children aged 13-16 in England.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Louise M; Evers, Kerry E; Wareing, Hilary; Dunn, Orla M; Newby, Kate; Paiva, Andrea; Johnson, Janet L

    2007-01-01

    A survey of 3820 school children in England aged 13-16 years examined sexual activity using the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) Stages of Change. A quarter (26%) of teens were sexually experienced, 44.8 per cent did not use contraception and 48.9 per cent did not use condoms, every time. Past history of condom and contraceptive use, and partner willingness to use condoms were the best predictors of being in Action or Maintenance stage for condom use. Of virgins, 19.82 per cent were in Contemplation or Preparation stages for intercourse, and 85.4 per cent would use condoms every time. Sex education should be tailored to Stage, and signposting to sexual health and contraception services.

  6. Disparities in receipt of radiotherapy and survival by age, sex and ethnicity among patients with stage I diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Binay Kumar; Bista, Amir; Shafii, Bahman

    2015-04-01

    Disparities in cancer care have been documented. However, less is known about the disparities in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). We reviewed the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results database to evaluate disparities in receipt of radiotherapy (RT) and relative survival among patients diagnosed with stage I DLBCL between 1998 and 2008 on the basis of age, sex and ethnicity. African Americans and other races were significantly less likely to receive RT compared to Caucasians (adjusted odds ratio [OR] of 0.743 and 0.81, respectively). Similarly, patients aged 60 + years and males were less likely to receive RT compared to their counterparts (p < 0.001). Caucasian race, younger age and female sex were associated with better survival among patients receiving RT. This study showed that 38.2% of patients with stage I DLBCL received radiotherapy. Survival rates were significantly higher for patients who received RT.

  7. The global epidemic of abuse and disrespect during childbirth: History, evidence, interventions, and FIGO's mother-baby friendly birthing facilities initiative.

    PubMed

    Miller, Suellen; Lalonde, Andre

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence indicates that disrespectful/abusive/coercive service delivery by skilled providers in facilities, which results in actual or perceived poor quality of care, is directly and indirectly associated with adverse maternal and newborn outcomes. The present article reviews the evidence for disrespectful/abusive care during childbirth in facilities (DACF), describes examples of DACF, discusses organizations active in a rights-based respectful maternity care movement, and enumerates some strategies and interventions that have been identified to decrease DACF. It concludes with a discussion of one strategy, which has been recently implemented by FIGO with global partners-the International Pediatrics Association, International Confederation of Midwives, the White Ribbon Alliance, and WHO. This strategy, the Mother and Baby Friendly Birth Facility (MBFBF) Initiative, is a criterion-based audit process based on human rights' doctrines, and modeled on WHO/UNICEF's Baby Friendly Facility Initiative. PMID:26433506

  8. Stages of Adolescence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Stages of Adolescence Page Content Article Body Adolescence, these years from puberty to adulthood, may be roughly divided into three stages: early adolescence, generally ages eleven to fourteen; middle adolescence, ages ...

  9. Serum inhibin B in healthy pubertal and adolescent boys: relation to age, stage of puberty, and follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone, testosterone, and estradiol levels.

    PubMed

    Andersson, A M; Juul, A; Petersen, J H; Müller, J; Groome, N P; Skakkebaek, N E

    1997-12-01

    Inhibin B levels were measured in serum from 400 healthy Danish prepubertal, pubertal, and adolescent males, aged 6-20 yr, in a cross-sectional study using a recently developed immunoassay that is specific for inhibin B, the physiologically important inhibin form in men. In addition, serum levels of FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol levels were measured. Serum levels of inhibin B, FSH, LH, testosterone, and estradiol all increased significantly between stages I and II of puberty. From stage II of puberty the inhibin B level was relatively constant, whereas the FSH level continued to increase between stages II and III. From stage III of puberty the FSH level was also relatively constant, although there was a nonsignificant trend of slightly decreased FSH levels at pubertal stage V compared to stage IV. The levels of serum LH, testosterone, and estradiol increased progressively throughout puberty. In prepubertal boys younger than 9 yr, there were no correlation between inhibin B and the other three hormones. In prepubertal boys older than 9 yr, a significant positive correlation was observed between inhibin B and FSH, LH, and testosterone. However, at this pubertal stage, each hormone correlated strongly with age, and when the effect of age was taken into account, only the partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone remained statistically significant. At stage II of puberty, the positive partial correlation between inhibin B and LH/testosterone was still present. At stage III of puberty, an negative partial correlation between inhibin B and FSH, LH, and estradiol was present, whereas no correlation between inhibin B and testosterone could be observed from stage III onward. The negative correlation between inhibin B and FSH persisted from stage III of puberty onward, whereas the correlation between inhibin B and LH and between inhibin B and estradiol was nonsignificant at stages IV and V of puberty. In conclusion, in boys, serum inhibin B levels

  10. Reliability of Schmeling's stages of ossification of medial clavicular epiphyses and its validity to assess 18 years of age in living subjects.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, R; De Luca, S; De Angelis, D; Merelli, V; Giuliodori, A; Cingolani, M; Cattaneo, C; Ferrante, L

    2012-11-01

    Nowadays, due to the global increase in migration movements, forensic age estimation of living young adults has become an important focus of interest. Minors often have no identification documents providing their correct birth dates. Establishing the age of majority is therefore fundamental in order to determine whether juvenile penal systems or penal systems in force for adults are to be applied. Radiological examination of the clavicles is one of the methods recommended by the Study Group on Forensic Age Diagnostics. In this retrospective study, a sample of chest radiographs of 274 subjects, aged between 12 and 25 years, was studied according to Schmeling's method in order to examine the ossification of both medial clavicular epiphyses. All stage classifications were evaluated by five examiners. Intra- and inter-examiner reliability was analysed by Cohen's K statistic. Intra-examiner agreement was insufficient for two of the experts. Inter-examiner agreement, among the other three operators, was moderate (K = 0.509). Study of reliability highlighted difficulties in interpretation, the need to select qualified personnel and choice of the best radiographic image in order to reduce any anatomic overlaps. Although ossification of the medial clavicular epiphyses is recommended to assess whether an individual has already reached the age of majority or not, these results suggested that it is very difficult to clearly identify the five stages of ossification by using conventional chest radiography.

  11. Effects of leaf age within growth stages of pepper and sorghum plants on leaf thickness, water, chlorophyll, and light reflectance. [in spectral vegetation discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gausman, H. W.; Cardenas, R.; Berumen, A.

    1974-01-01

    Pepper and sorghum plants (characterized by porous and compact leaf mesophylls, respectively) were used to study the influence of leaf age on light reflectance. Measurements were limited to the upper five nodal positions within each growth stage, since upper leaves make up most of the reflectance surfaces remotely sensed. The increase in leaf thickness and water content with increasing leaf age was taken into consideration, since each of these factors affects the reflectance as well as the selection of spectral wavelength intervals for optimum discrimination of vegetation.

  12. AGING AND LIFE-STAGE SUSCEPTIBILITY: TOLUENE EFFECTS ON BRAIN OXIDATIVE STRESS PARAMETERS IN BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is poorly understood. The objectives of this study were to test whether oxidative stress (OS) is a potential toxicity pathway following toluene exposure and to determine if these effects are age-dependent. We ...

  13. DNA damage response (DDR) and senescence: shuttled inflamma-miRNAs on the stage of inflamm-aging.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Fabiola; Albertini, Maria Cristina; Orciani, Monia; Ceka, Artan; Cricca, Monica; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Bonafè, Massimiliano

    2015-11-01

    A major issue in aging research is how cellular phenomena affect aging at the systemic level. Emerging evidence suggests that DNA damage response (DDR) signaling is a key mechanism linking DNA damage accumulation, cell senescence, and organism aging. DDR activation in senescent cells promotes acquisition of a proinflammatory secretory phenotype (SASP), which in turn elicits DDR and SASP activation in neighboring cells, thereby creating a proinflammatory environment extending at the local and eventually the systemic level. DDR activation is triggered by genomic lesions as well as emerging bacterial and viral metagenomes. Therefore, the buildup of cells with an activated DDR probably fuels inflamm-aging and predisposes to the development of the major age-related diseases (ARDs). Micro (mi)-RNAs - non-coding RNAs involved in gene expression modulation - are released locally and systemically by a variety of shuttles (exosomes, lipoproteins, proteins) that likely affect the efficiency of their biological effects. Here we suggest that some miRNAs, previously found to be associated with inflammation and senescence - miR-146, miR-155, and miR-21 - play a central role in the interplay among DDR, cell senescence and inflamm-aging. The identification of the functions of shuttled senescence-associated miRNAs is expected to shed light on the aging process and on how to delay ARD development. PMID:26431329

  14. DNA damage response (DDR) and senescence: shuttled inflamma-miRNAs on the stage of inflamm-aging.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, Fabiola; Albertini, Maria Cristina; Orciani, Monia; Ceka, Artan; Cricca, Monica; Procopio, Antonio Domenico; Bonafè, Massimiliano

    2015-11-01

    A major issue in aging research is how cellular phenomena affect aging at the systemic level. Emerging evidence suggests that DNA damage response (DDR) signaling is a key mechanism linking DNA damage accumulation, cell senescence, and organism aging. DDR activation in senescent cells promotes acquisition of a proinflammatory secretory phenotype (SASP), which in turn elicits DDR and SASP activation in neighboring cells, thereby creating a proinflammatory environment extending at the local and eventually the systemic level. DDR activation is triggered by genomic lesions as well as emerging bacterial and viral metagenomes. Therefore, the buildup of cells with an activated DDR probably fuels inflamm-aging and predisposes to the development of the major age-related diseases (ARDs). Micro (mi)-RNAs - non-coding RNAs involved in gene expression modulation - are released locally and systemically by a variety of shuttles (exosomes, lipoproteins, proteins) that likely affect the efficiency of their biological effects. Here we suggest that some miRNAs, previously found to be associated with inflammation and senescence - miR-146, miR-155, and miR-21 - play a central role in the interplay among DDR, cell senescence and inflamm-aging. The identification of the functions of shuttled senescence-associated miRNAs is expected to shed light on the aging process and on how to delay ARD development.

  15. An Alternative to Farmer Age as an Indicator of Life-Cycle Stage: The Case for a Farm Family Age Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Rob J. F.

    2006-01-01

    In studies of farming, the age of the principal decision-maker (PDM) has been associated with numerous farm structural and managerial features and has been widely accepted as a good indicator of the influence of life-cycle factors on decision-making. As such, it has become an important aspect of many quantitative studies of agricultural change.…

  16. Outcomes of Patients With Surgically and Pathologically Staged IIIA-IVB Pure Endometrioid-type Endometrial Cancer: A Taiwanese Gynecology Oncology Group (TGOG-2005) Retrospective Cohort Study (A STROBE-Compliant Article).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jen-Ruei; Chang, Ting-Chang; Fu, Hung-Chun; Lau, Hei-Yu; Chen, I-Hui; Ke, Yu-Min; Liang, Yu-Ling; Chiang, An-Jen; Huang, Chia-Yen; Chen, Yu-Chieh; Hong, Mun-Kun; Wang, Yu-Chi; Huang, Kuo-Feng; Hsiao, Sheng-Mou; Wang, Peng-Hui

    2016-04-01

    In the management of patients with advanced-stage pure endometrioid-type endometrial cancer (E-EC), such as positive lymph nodes (stage III) or stage IV, treatment options are severely limited. This article aims to investigate the outcome of women with FIGO III-IV E-EC (based on FIGO 2009 system). The retrospective cohort study, based on the Taiwanese Gynecologic Oncology Group (TGOG-2005), enrolled patients undergoing staging surgery to have a pathologically confirmed FIGO III-IV E-EC from 22-member hospitals between 1991 and 2010. This cohort included 541 patients (stage III, n = 464; stage IV, n = 77). Five-year overall survival (OS) was 70.4%. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 43 months (range 0-258 months) and median OS was 52 months (range 1-258 months). Multivariate analysis showed that FIGO stage, >1/2 myometrial invasion (hazard ratio [HR] 1.53, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-2.09; P = 0.007), histological grade 3 (HR 2.0, 95% CI 1.47-2.75; P < 0.001), and metastases of pelvic and para-aortic lymph nodes (PLN and PALN) (HR 2.75, 95% CI 1.13-6.72; P < 0.001) were independent risk factors for PFS. FIGO stage, >1/2 myometrial invasion (HR 1.89, 95% CI 1.34-2.64; P < 0.001), and histological grade 3 (HR 2.42, 95% CI 1.75-3.35; P < 0.001) influenced OS. Complete dissection of PLN and PALN (HR 0.27, 95% CI 0.16-0.45; P < 0.001, and HR 0.14, 95% CI 0.08-0.26; P < 0.001) and the following paclitaxel-based therapy (HR 0.61, 95% CI 0.79-0.92; P = 0.017, and HR 0.48; 95% CI 0.31-0.75; P = 0.001) provided the better PFS and OS, respectively. In management of women with FIGO III-V E-EC, combination of complete staging surgery (complete dissection of PLN and PALN is included) and the following paclitaxel-based therapy could provide the better chance to survive. Patients with tumor >1/2 myometrial invasion and histological grade 3 are risky for disease-related mortality. PMID:27082583

  17. Young and Middle-Aged Rats Exhibit Isometric Forelimb Force Control Deficits in a Model of Early-Stage Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bethel-Brown, Crystal S.; Morris, Jill K.; Stanford, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Deficits in manual motor control often accompany the early stages of Parkinson’s disease (PD), and are often revealed through isometric force tasks. In order to determine whether similar deficits occur in a rat model of early-stage PD, young (8 months) and middle-aged (18 months) rats were trained to produce sustained press-hold-release isometric forelimb responses that allowed for analyses of force output and spectral analysis of forelimb stability and tremor. Rats then received a 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) infusion into the striatum contralateral to the trained forelimb and were tested for four weeks post-lesion. The resulting partial striatal dopamine depletions (which at 41 ± 12% and 43 ± 6% in young and middle-aged rats, respectively, did not differ between the two groups) resulted in isometric forelimb deficits. Specifically, rats exhibited significantly diminished force stability and increased high frequency (10–25 Hz) tremor, indicating potential postural disturbances and increased postural tremor respectively. Durations of press-hold-release bouts were also increased post-lesion, suggesting difficulty in task disengagement. Despite pre-lesion differences in some of the force measures, the effects of partial nigrostriatal DA depletion did not differ between the two age groups. These results support the use of the press-while-licking task in preclinical studies modeling isometric force control deficits in PD. PMID:21767573

  18. Advanced maternal age and the risk of Down syndrome characterized by the meiotic stage of the chromosomal error: A population-based study

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, P.W.; Khoury, M.J.; Freeman, S.B.

    1996-03-01

    The identification of DNA polymorphisms makes it possible to classify trisomy 21 according to the parental origin and stage (meiosis I [MI], meiosis II [MII], or postzygotic mitotic) of the chromosomal error. Studying the effect of parental age on these subgroups could shed light on parental exposures and their timing. From 1989 through 1993, 170 infants with trisomy 21 and 267 randomly selected control infants were ascertained in a population-based, case-control study in metropolitan Atlanta. Blood samples for genetic studies were obtained from case infants and their parents. Using logistic regression, we independently examined the association between maternal and paternal age and subgroups of trisomy 21 defined by parental origin and meiotic stage. The distribution of trisomy 21 by origin was 86% maternal (75% MI and 25% MII), 9% paternal (50% MI and 50% MII), and 5% mitotic. Compared with women <25 years of age, women {>=}40 years old had an odds ratio of 5.2 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-27.4) for maternal MI (MMI) errors and 51.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.3-999.0) for maternal MII (MMII) errors. Birth-prevalence rates for women {>=}40 years old were 4.2/1,000 births for MMI errors and 1.9/1,000 births for MMII errors. These results support an association between advanced maternal age and both MMI and MMII errors. The association with MI does not pinpoint the timing of the error; however, the association with MII implies that there is at least one maternal age-related mechanism acting around the time of conception. 16 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  19. Optimization of the extent of surgical treatment in patients with stage I in cervical cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshova, A. L.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Chernov, V. I.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.

    2016-08-01

    The study included 26 patients with FIGO stage Ia1-Ib1 cervical cancer who underwent fertility-sparing surgery (transabdominaltrachelectomy). To visualize sentinel lymph nodes, lymphoscintigraphy with injection of 99mTc-labelled nanocolloid was performed the day before surgery. Intraoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes using hand-held gamma probe was carried out to determine the radioactive counts over the draining lymph node basin. The sentinel lymph node detection in cervical cancer patients contributes to the accurate clinical assessment of the pelvic lymph node status, precise staging of the disease and tailoring of surgical treatment to individual patient.

  20. Proposal for therapeutic approach based on prognostic factors including morphometric and flow-cytometric features in stage III-IV ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Wils, J; van Geuns, H; Baak, J

    1988-05-01

    In 73 patients with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage III and IV ovarian cancer the prognostic significance of morphometric and flow-cytometric features has been evaluated in comparison with more commonly used prognostic factors such as stage and tumor mass. Single features associated with prognosis were as follows: FIGO stage, bulky disease, mean and standard deviation of nuclear area, cellular DNA content, mitotic activity index, and volume percentage epithelium. Multivariate analysis showed that the most significant prognostic combination of features consisted of mean nuclear area, presence or absence of bulky disease, and FIGO stage (in sequence of decreasing importance; Mantel-Cox = 23.07, P less than 0.00001). On the basis of these factors patients with a poor prognosis can be identified. On the other hand two features were associated with an excellent prognosis namely a low mitotic index and a low-volume percentage epithelium. It is concluded that morphometric and flow-cytometric analysis in combination with clinical features can provide significant information to predict the prognosis of patients with advanced ovarian cancer treated with debulking surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy. On the basis of our data a tentative proposal for future therapeutic approaches is made.

  1. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with nedaplatin in patients with stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fujioka, Toru; Yasuoka, Toshiaki; Koizumi, Masae; Tanaka, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Hisashi; Nabeta, Motoo; Koizumi, Koji; Matsubara, Yuko; Hamada, Katsuyuki; Matsubara, Keiichi; Katayama, Tomihiro; Nawa, Akihiro

    2013-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of nadaplatin-based concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) in patients with stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma. Patients with an International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma were treated with nadaplatin-based CCRT, using high-dose rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) or radiotherapy (RT) alone, in patients with FIGO stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma. CCRT with nedaplatin (80 mg/m(2)) was administered on Days 1 and 29. The records of 17 women treated either with nadaplatin-based CCRT using HSR-ICBT (n=8) or RT alone (n=9), for stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma were retrospectively reviewed. The activity and toxicity were compared in the two treatment groups. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were the main endpoints. The 5-year overall survival rates in the CCRT and RT groups were 68.6 and 77.8%, respectively. The median OS of the CCRT and RT groups was 38.5 and 27.3 months, respectively. There was no significant difference in either PFS (P=0.618) or OS (P= 0.231). The most common grade 3-4 or higher toxicities in the CCRT groups were leuko-/neutropenia (37.5%). The frequency of acute grade 3-4 toxicity was higher in the CCRT compared to the RT group. However, no statistically significant difference was observed. Nedaplatin-based CCRT was safely performed. Although the prognosis of patients with FIGO stage IIA to IVA cervical carcinoma was not significantly improved, fewer distant relapses were observed in this treatment. Consequently, nedaplatin-based CCRT may be considered as a potential alternative to cisplatin-based CCRT in this patient population.

  2. Factors Associated with Blood Culture Contamination in the Emergency Department: Critical Illness, End-Stage Renal Disease, and Old Age

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Jan; Wu, Chi-Jung; Hsu, Hsiang-Chin; Wu, Chiu-Hui; Shih, Fang-Ying; Wang, Shou-Wen; Wu, Yi-Hui; Chang, Chia-Ming; Tu, Yi-Fang; Chi, Chih-Hsien; Shih, Hsin-I

    2015-01-01

    Background Blood culture contamination in emergency departments (ED) that experience a high volume of patients has negative impacts on optimal patient care. It is therefore important to identify risk factors associated with blood culture contamination in EDs. Methodology/Principal Findings A prospectively observational study in a university-affiliated hospital were conducted between August 2011 and December 2012. Positive monomicrobial and negative blood cultures drawn from adult patients in the ED were analyzed to evaluate the possible risk factors for contamination. A total of 1,148 positive monomicrobial cases, 391 contamination cases, and 13,689 cases of negative blood culture were identified. Compared to patients with negative blood cultures, patients in triage levels 1 and 2 (Incidence Rate Ratio, IRR = 2.24), patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) (IRR = 2.05), and older patients (IRR: 1.02 per year) were more likely to be associated with ED blood culture contamination. Conclusions/Significance Critical patients (triage levels 1 and 2), ESRD patients, and older patients were more commonly associated with blood culture contamination in the ED. Further studies to evaluate whether the characteristics of skin commensals contribute to blood culture contamination is warranted, especially in hospitals populated with high-risk patients. PMID:26448628

  3. Nature and Age of Neighbours Matter: Interspecific Associations among Tree Species Exist and Vary across Life Stages in Tropical Forests.

    PubMed

    Ledo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Detailed information about interspecific spatial associations among tropical tree species is scarce, and hence the ecological importance of those associations may have been underestimated. However, they can play a role in community assembly and species diversity maintenance. This study investigated the spatial dependence between pairs of species. First, the spatial associations (spatial attraction and spatial repulsion) that arose between species were examined. Second, different sizes of trees were considered in order to evaluate whether the spatial relationships between species are constant or vary during the lifetime of individuals. Third, the consistency of those spatial associations with the species-habitat associations found in previous studies was assessed. Two different tropical ecosystems were investigated: a montane cloud forest and a lowland moist forest. The results showed that spatial associations among species exist, and these vary among life stages and species. The rarity of negative spatial interactions suggested that exclusive competition was not common in the studied forests. On the other hand, positive interactions were common, and the results of this study strongly suggested that habitat associations were not the only cause of spatial attraction among species. If this is true, habitat associations and density dependence are not the only mechanisms that explain species distribution and diversity; other ecological interactions, such as facilitation among species, may also play a role. These spatial associations could be important in the assembly of tropical tree communities and forest succession, and should be taken into account in future studies. PMID:26581110

  4. Nature and Age of Neighbours Matter: Interspecific Associations among Tree Species Exist and Vary across Life Stages in Tropical Forests.

    PubMed

    Ledo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Detailed information about interspecific spatial associations among tropical tree species is scarce, and hence the ecological importance of those associations may have been underestimated. However, they can play a role in community assembly and species diversity maintenance. This study investigated the spatial dependence between pairs of species. First, the spatial associations (spatial attraction and spatial repulsion) that arose between species were examined. Second, different sizes of trees were considered in order to evaluate whether the spatial relationships between species are constant or vary during the lifetime of individuals. Third, the consistency of those spatial associations with the species-habitat associations found in previous studies was assessed. Two different tropical ecosystems were investigated: a montane cloud forest and a lowland moist forest. The results showed that spatial associations among species exist, and these vary among life stages and species. The rarity of negative spatial interactions suggested that exclusive competition was not common in the studied forests. On the other hand, positive interactions were common, and the results of this study strongly suggested that habitat associations were not the only cause of spatial attraction among species. If this is true, habitat associations and density dependence are not the only mechanisms that explain species distribution and diversity; other ecological interactions, such as facilitation among species, may also play a role. These spatial associations could be important in the assembly of tropical tree communities and forest succession, and should be taken into account in future studies.

  5. Nature and Age of Neighbours Matter: Interspecific Associations among Tree Species Exist and Vary across Life Stages in Tropical Forests

    PubMed Central

    Ledo, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Detailed information about interspecific spatial associations among tropical tree species is scarce, and hence the ecological importance of those associations may have been underestimated. However, they can play a role in community assembly and species diversity maintenance. This study investigated the spatial dependence between pairs of species. First, the spatial associations (spatial attraction and spatial repulsion) that arose between species were examined. Second, different sizes of trees were considered in order to evaluate whether the spatial relationships between species are constant or vary during the lifetime of individuals. Third, the consistency of those spatial associations with the species-habitat associations found in previous studies was assessed. Two different tropical ecosystems were investigated: a montane cloud forest and a lowland moist forest. The results showed that spatial associations among species exist, and these vary among life stages and species. The rarity of negative spatial interactions suggested that exclusive competition was not common in the studied forests. On the other hand, positive interactions were common, and the results of this study strongly suggested that habitat associations were not the only cause of spatial attraction among species. If this is true, habitat associations and density dependence are not the only mechanisms that explain species distribution and diversity; other ecological interactions, such as facilitation among species, may also play a role. These spatial associations could be important in the assembly of tropical tree communities and forest succession, and should be taken into account in future studies. PMID:26581110

  6. Improving quality of life in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration: focus on miniature ocular implants.

    PubMed

    Singer, Michael A; Amir, Nancy; Herro, Angela; Porbandarwalla, Salman S; Pollard, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Low vision devices in the past have been mainly extraocular. There are now four new devices in different stages of development and implementation that are currently available. Three of them, the Implantable Miniature Telescope (IMT, VisionCare Ophthalmic Technologies, Saratoga, CA), Intraocular Lens for Visually Impaired People (IOL-VIP, IOL-VIP System, Soleko, Pontecorvo, Italy), and Lipschitz Mirror Implant (LMI, Optolight Vision Technology, Herzlia, Israel) are implanted into the anterior segment while the Argus II (Second Sight Medical Products, Sylmar, CA) is implanted into the posterior segment. The goal of these devices is to increase the patient quality of life which has been measured by Visual Functioning Questionnaire (VFQ) scales. The IMT is the only device that has been shown to increase the VFQ score by seven points at 6 months compared to baseline. It is the only FDA-approved device in the US while the Argus has been approved in Europe. Each of these prosthetics has potential benefits for patients.

  7. Effect of Advancing Age and Multiple Chronic Conditions on Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease after Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswami, Ashok; Kiley, Mary-Lou; Anthony, Faith F; Chen, Yuexin; Chen, Jason; Rajagopal, Sumanth; Liu, Taylor I; Young, Charlie; Paxton, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Context: There is insufficient information on the effect that advancing age and multiple chronic conditions (MCC) have on mortality after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vs non-ESRD. Objective: To assess whether a differential effect of age and MCC exists between ESRD and non-ESRD. Design: Population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the national Kaiser Permanente Cardiac Device Registry of patients who underwent placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013. Main Outcome Measures: All-cause mortality. Results: Of 7825 patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement, ESRD-affected patients constituted 4.0% of the cohort (n = 311), were similar in age (p = 0.91), and presented with a larger comorbidity burden (3.3 ± 1.3 vs 2.4 ± 1.5, p < 0.001). The effect of advancing age (every 5 years) on mortality in the ESRD cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–1.20) was less than in the non-ESRD cohort (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.25–1.32). Similarly, the effect of each additional comorbidity in the ESRD cohort was less (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91–1.19) than in the non-ESRD group (HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.16–1.25). Lastly, ESRD was independently associated with a 3-fold greater hazard of mortality. Conclusions: Advancing age and increasing number of MCC have a differential effect on mortality risk in patients with ESRD compared with their non-ESRD counterparts. Future studies should focus on assessment of nonlinear relationships of age, MCC, and naturally occurring clusters of MCC on mortality. PMID:26562307

  8. [Neuromuscular status of children of different gestational age on the stage of transition from intrauterine immersion to the earth's gravity].

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    The work was aimed at describing the neuromuscular status of premature baby in the context of the ontogenetic and zero gravity model using the results of superficial interference electromyography (IEMG). Throughout six postnatal weeks, IEMG of premature babies is similar to EMG of full-term child on the first days of extrauterine life; IEMG is characterized by a "simplified" temporal structure, low amplitude and frequency, IEMG dynamics of fullterm child is slow in contrast to premature baby; the reason seems to be maximum long intrauterine life during which the motor system gets better prepared and maturates. On the other hand, complexity and high amplitude of premature baby IEMG as compared with full-term child of the same postconceptual age are associated with the inevitable sensory stimulation after birth. Abilitation procedures provided to premature baby could be adapted to the purposes of post-flight rehabilitation of cosmonauts.

  9. Highly retentive core domains in K-feldspar preserve argon ages from high temperature stages of granite exhumation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, Marnie; Lister, Gordon

    2016-04-01

    Retentive core domains are characterized by diffusion parameters that imply K-feldspar should be able to retain argon even at temperatures near or above the granite solidus. In this case it should be possible to date granite emplacement using argon geochronology, and the same answer should be obtained as by using other methods. We present one case study where this is the case, from the elevated Capoas granite stock on Palawan, in the Philippines, and another where it is not, from the South Cyclades Shear Zone, on Ios, Greece. We attempt to determine the factors such as the role of fluid ingress in triggering the in situ recrystallization that can eliminate and/or modify the core domains, leading to relatively youthful ages. Thermochronology is still possible, because less retentive diffusion domains exist, but different methods need to be applied to interpret the data. The work also demonstrates that K-feldspar can be sufficiently retentive as to allow direct dating of processes that reduce the dimensions of diffusion domains, e.g., cataclased and/or recrystallized K-feldspar in fault rock and/or mylonite. These are important developments in the methodology of 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, but to further advance we need to clarify the nature of these highly retentive core domains. In particular, we need better understand how they are modified by microstructural processes during deformation and metamorphism. We need also to assess the role of any crystal structural changes during step-heating in vacuo.

  10. Regarding the real diversity of Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) in the late Pliocene (Chapadmalalan Age/Stage) of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Alfredo E; Taglioretti, Matías; DE Los Reyes, Martín; Cuadrelli, Francisco; Poire, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    A large diversity of Glyptodontidae has been proposed as characterizing the Chapadmalalan Age (Pliocene). Most of these taxa were recognized on the basis of partial dorsal carapaces and/or caudal tubes, whereas the main diagnostic characteristic is a particular morphology of the exposed surface of the osteoderms. From a biostratigraphic point of view some species are biostratigraphically important. The Upper Chapadmalalan is based on the Paraglyptodon chapadmalensis biozone. Both the re-evaluation of the type and referred materials and new significant findings from the Chapadmalal and El Polvorín Formations indicate that the diversity of Pliocene Glyptodontidae is more limited than previously supposed. The particular morphology of the exposed surface of the osteoderms that characterizes some of the species actually corresponds to a taphonomic alteration, which results in a non-real ornamentation pattern. Thus, the Glyptodontinae P. chapadmalensis must be replaced as a fossil guide because neither this species nor the species included in the genera Urotherium, Trachycalyptus and Lomaphorus are well characterized. Taking into account the diversity of Glyptodontidae for this lapse, the Glyptodontinae are very scarce (a situation that contrasts with its records in the Pleistocene), whereas Eosclerocalyptus, "Plohophorini" (Plohophorus) and Doedicurinae (cf. Eleutherocercus antiquus) are among the most recorded taxa. PMID:27276376

  11. Regarding the real diversity of Glyptodontidae (Mammalia, Xenarthra) in the late Pliocene (Chapadmalalan Age/Stage) of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Zurita, Alfredo E; Taglioretti, Matías; DE Los Reyes, Martín; Cuadrelli, Francisco; Poire, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    A large diversity of Glyptodontidae has been proposed as characterizing the Chapadmalalan Age (Pliocene). Most of these taxa were recognized on the basis of partial dorsal carapaces and/or caudal tubes, whereas the main diagnostic characteristic is a particular morphology of the exposed surface of the osteoderms. From a biostratigraphic point of view some species are biostratigraphically important. The Upper Chapadmalalan is based on the Paraglyptodon chapadmalensis biozone. Both the re-evaluation of the type and referred materials and new significant findings from the Chapadmalal and El Polvorín Formations indicate that the diversity of Pliocene Glyptodontidae is more limited than previously supposed. The particular morphology of the exposed surface of the osteoderms that characterizes some of the species actually corresponds to a taphonomic alteration, which results in a non-real ornamentation pattern. Thus, the Glyptodontinae P. chapadmalensis must be replaced as a fossil guide because neither this species nor the species included in the genera Urotherium, Trachycalyptus and Lomaphorus are well characterized. Taking into account the diversity of Glyptodontidae for this lapse, the Glyptodontinae are very scarce (a situation that contrasts with its records in the Pleistocene), whereas Eosclerocalyptus, "Plohophorini" (Plohophorus) and Doedicurinae (cf. Eleutherocercus antiquus) are among the most recorded taxa.

  12. Treatment of early-stage human epidermal growth factor 2-positive cancers among medicare enrollees: age and race strongly associated with non-use of trastuzumab.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Luis, Ines; Lin, Nancy U; Keating, Nancy L; Barry, William T; Lii, Joyce; Burstein, Harold J; Winer, Eric P; Freedman, Rachel A

    2016-08-01

    Adjuvant trastuzumab for human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer is highly efficacious regardless of age. Recent data suggested that many older patients with HER2-positive disease do not receive adjuvant trastuzumab. Nevertheless, some of this 'under-treatment' may be clinically appropriate. We used Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER)-Medicare data to identify patients aged ≥ 66 with stage ≥ Ib-III, HER2-positive breast cancer diagnosed during 2010-2011 (HER2 status available) who did not have a history of congestive heart failure. We described all systemic treatments received and sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with treatment patterns. Among 770 women 44.4 % did not receive trastuzumab, including 21.8 % who received endocrine therapy only, 6.3 % who received chemotherapy (±endocrine therapy) and 16.2 % who did not receive any systemic therapy. In addition to age and grade, race was strongly associated with non-use of trastuzumab (64.4 % of Non-Hispanic blacks vs. 43.6 % of whites did not receive trastuzumab, adjusted ORNon-Hispanic black vs. white = 3.14, 95 %CI = 1.38-7.17), and many patients with stage III disease did not receive trastuzumab. Further, 16.2 % of patients did not receive any systemic treatment and this occurred more frequently for black patients. Over 40 % of older patients with indication to receive adjuvant trastuzumab did not receive it and nearly 20 % of these patients did not receive any other treatment. Although treatment omission may be appropriate in some cases, we observed concerning differences in trastuzumab receipt, particularly for black women. Strategies to optimize care for older patients and to eliminate treatment disparities are urgently needed. PMID:27484879

  13. Atlantic Ocean Circulation During the Last Ice Age: A 231Pa/230Th Record of Marine Isotope Stage 3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Major, C. O.; McManus, J. F.; Keigwin, L. D.; Francois, R.; Brown-Leger, S.

    2005-12-01

    Millennial-scale oscillations in climate-sensitive geochemical proxies are seen throughout Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS3, ~30 to 60 ka BP) in marine and ice-core records, with variability nearly as large as that seen on the last deglaciation. Nutrient proxies, such as δ13C, have been widely used to reconstruct water mass reorganizations associated with this so-called stadial-interstadial variability. While such passive tracers are invaluable in determining the configuration of water masses they cannot provide direct information about the rate of thermohaline circulation. The burial ratio of unsupported 231Pa:230Th in bulk North Atlantic sediments is a function of the residence time of water in this basin, and thus serves as a dynamical proxy sensitive to the vigor of thermohaline circulation and an important complement to passive proxies. We present a suite of data, including 231Pa/230Th, 230Th-normalized fluxes, and stable isotopes, from the Blake Outer Ridge (BOR) (core KNR140-8JPC, ~3400 m), a drift deposit underlying the deep western boundary current in the subtropical north Atlantic. 231Pa/230Th data indicate moderate-amplitude millennial-scale variations in circulation rate during MIS3. 231Pa/230Th ranges between maximum values less than the production rate ratio (0.093) and minimum values close to the core-top ratio (~0.058), with high and low ratios associated with stadials and interstadials, respectively. These data indicate continuous but on average less vigorous ventilation of the western basin compared to present, with substantially reduced circulation during stadials. Heinrich events during MIS3 do not appear to be associated with the particularly dramatic drop in circulation rate seen in the deglacial H1 interval on the Bermuda Rise (McManus et al., 2004). 230Th-normalized fluxes account for only 10 to 50 percent of the total mass accumulation, indicating significant sediment focusing at this site particularly during the stadials. Benthic δ18O from

  14. Natural growth and diet of known-age pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) early life stages in the upper Missouri River basin, Montana and North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Braaten, P.J.; Fuller, D.B.; Lott, R.D.; Haddix, T.M.; Holte, L.D.; Wilson, R.H.; Bartron, M.L.; Kalie, J.A.; DeHaan, P.W.; Ardren, W.R.; Holm, R.J.; Jaeger, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    Prior to anthropogenic modifications, the historic Missouri River provided ecological conditions suitable for reproduction, growth, and survival of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. However, little information is available to discern whether altered conditions in the contemporary Missouri River are suitable for feeding, growth and survival of endangered pallid sturgeon during the early life stages. In 2004 and 2007, nearly 600 000 pallid sturgeon free embryos and larvae were released in the upper Missouri River and survivors from these releases were collected during 2004–2010 to quantify natural growth rates and diet composition. Based on genetic analysis and known-age at release (1–17 days post-hatch, dph), age at capture (dph, years) could be determined for each survivor. Totals of 23 and 28 survivors from the 2004 and 2007 releases, respectively, were sampled. Growth of pallid sturgeon was rapid (1.91 mm day-1) during the initial 13–48 dph, then slowed as fish approached maximum length (120–140 mm) towards the end of the first growing season. The diet of young-of-year pallid sturgeon was comprised of Diptera larvae, Diptera pupae, and Ephemeroptera nymphs. Growth of pallid sturgeon from ages 1–6 years was about 48.0 mm year-1. This study provides the first assessment of natural growth and diet of young pallid sturgeon in the wild. Results depict pallid sturgeon growth trajectories that may be expected for naturally produced wild stocks under contemporary habitat conditions in the Missouri River and Yellowstone River.

  15. Late-Stage HIMU-Type Volcanism on the Walvis Ridge: Not just Part of an Age-Progressive Tristan-Gough Hotspot Track

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homrighausen, S.; Hoernle, K.; Hauff, F.; Portnyagin, M.; Werner, R.; Geldmacher, J.; Garbe-Schoenberg, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    The Walvis Ridge forms the NE portion of the Tristan-Gough hotspot track. It links the Etendeka large igneous province (LIP) in Africa, initially connected to the Parana LIP in South America, to the Guyot Province, that ends at the active volcanic islands of Tristan da Cunha and Gough. After the plume head stage, the hotspot changed from a ridge-centered plume tail, forming the Walvis Ridge and Rio Grande Rise (130-60 Ma), to an intraplate setting resulting in the geochemical distinct Tristan and Gough subtracks (Rohde et al. 2013; Geology 41). New major and trace element and radiogenic isotope data have been generated from 36 new dredge locations on the Walvis Ridge during R/V Sonne cruises SO233 and SO234. Based on the bathymetric data, we have identified tectonic structures and subsidence rates which indicate a complex geodynamic interplay of the Walvis Ridge formation and westward migration of the Mid Atlantic Ridge and the Rio Grande Rise. Our new results confirm that the age-progressive basement of the Walvis Ridge reflects only the enriched Gough component with no evidence of the Tristan component being present (Hoernle et al., 2015; Nat. Comm.). Superimposed large seamounts (including ridge- and guyot-like structures), especially in the SE portion of the Walvis Ridge, belong to a later-stage of alkalic volcanism with distinct HIMU incompatible element and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic composition. The HIMU late-stage volcanism (206Pb/204Pb up to 20.8) is similar in composition to St. Helena and a late-stage (Eocene) sample from the Rio Grande Rise (Rohde et al., 2013; Tectonophysics 604). The new geochemical, bathymetric and existing age data indicate a magmatic reactivation c. 20-40 Ma after the formation of the Walvis Ridge basement, which may be related to passage of the Walvis Ridge over a batch of upwelling St. Helena type plume material. Our new results indicate a more complex formation of the Walvis Ridge than previously thought, which included two major

  16. The Role of Vaginal Brachytherapy in the Treatment of Surgical Stage I Papillary Serous or Clear Cell Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Barney, Brandon M.; Petersen, Ivy A.; Mariani, Andrea; Dowdy, Sean C.; Bakkum-Gamez, Jamie N.; Haddock, Michael G.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The optimal adjuvant therapy for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage I papillary serous (UPSC) or clear cell (CC) endometrial cancer is unknown. We report on the largest single-institution experience using adjuvant high-dose-rate vaginal brachytherapy (VBT) for surgically staged women with FIGO stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. Methods and Materials: From 1998-2011, 103 women with FIGO 2009 stage I UPSC (n=74), CC (n=21), or mixed UPSC/CC (n=8) endometrial cancer underwent total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy followed by adjuvant high-dose-rate VBT. Nearly all patients (n=98, 95%) also underwent extended lymph node dissection of pelvic and paraortic lymph nodes. All VBT was performed with a vaginal cylinder, treating to a dose of 2100 cGy in 3 fractions. Thirty-five patients (34%) also received adjuvant chemotherapy. Results: At a median follow-up time of 36 months (range, 1-146 months), 2 patients had experienced vaginal recurrence, and the 5-year Kaplan Meier estimate of vaginal recurrence was 3%. The rates of isolated pelvic recurrence, locoregional recurrence (vaginal + pelvic), and extrapelvic recurrence (including intraabdominal) were similarly low, with 5-year Kaplan-Meier estimates of 4%, 7%, and 10%, respectively. The estimated 5-year overall survival was 84%. On univariate analysis, delivery of chemotherapy did not affect recurrence or survival. Conclusions: VBT is effective at preventing vaginal relapse in women with surgical stage I UPSC or CC endometrial cancer. In this cohort of patients who underwent comprehensive surgical staging, the risk of isolated pelvic or extrapelvic relapse was low, implying that more extensive adjuvant radiation therapy is likely unnecessary.

  17. Modeling the Effects of Constant and Variable Temperatures on the Vital Rates of an Age-, Stage-, and Sex-Structured Population by Means of the SANDY Approach.

    PubMed

    Nachman, G; Gotoh, T

    2015-06-01

    We present a general and flexible mathematical model (called SANDY) that can be used to describe many biological phenomena, including the phenology of arthropods. In this paper, we demonstrate how the model can be fitted to vital rates (i.e., rates associated with development, survival, hatching, and oviposition) of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae (Koch)) exposed to different constant temperatures ranging from 15°C to 37.5°C. SANDY was incorporated into an age-, stage- and sex-structured dynamic model, which was fitted to cohort life-tables of T. urticae conducted at five constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 30, and 35°C). Age- and temperature-dependent vital rates for the three main stages (eggs, immatures, and adults) constituting the life-cycle of mites were adequately described by the SANDY model. The modeling approach allows for simulating the growth of a population in a variable environment. We compared the predicted net reproductive rate (R0) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) at fluctuating temperatures with empirical values obtained from life-table experiments conducted at temperatures that changed with a daily amplitude (±0, ±3, ±6, ±9, and ±12°C) around an average of 22°C. Results show that R0 decreases with increasing amplitude, while rm is more robust to variable temperatures. An advantage of SANDY is that the same simple mathematical expression can be applied to describe all the vital rates. Besides, the approach is not confined to modeling the influence of a single factor on population growth but allows for incorporating the combined effect of several limiting factors, provided that the combined effect of the factors is multiplicative. PMID:26313989

  18. The Effects of Comorbidity and Age on RTOG Study Enrollment in Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients Who Are Eligible for RTOG Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Firat, Selim; Byhardt, Roger W.; Gore, Elizabeth

    2010-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the influence of measured comorbidity in Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) combined modality therapy (CMT) study enrollment in Stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: One hundred and seventy-one patients with a Karnofsky Performance Score {>=}70 and clinical Stage III NSCLC were analyzed retrospectively for comorbidity, RTOG study eligibility, and enrollment at initial consultation. Effect of comorbidity scores (Cumulative Illness Rating Scale) were tested on patient selection for CMT, RTOG enrollment, and overall survival. Results: Comorbidity (Grade 4; p < 0.005) and use of radiation only (p {<=} 0.001) were associated with inferior survival independent of other factors. Patient selection for CMT was affected by age ({>=}70, p < 0.001), comorbidity (severity index [SI]> 2, p = 0.001), and weight loss (>5%, p = 0.001). Thirty-three patients (19%) were enrolled in a CMT RTOG study (Group 1). Forty-nine patients (29%) were eligible but not enrolled (Group 2), and 57 (33%) were ineligible (Group 3). The most common ineligibility reasons were weight loss (67%) and comorbidity in the exclusion criteria of the RTOG studies (63%). Group 1 patients were the youngest (p = 0.02), with the lowest comorbidity scores (p < 0.001) and SI (p < 0.001) compared with Groups 2 and 3. Group 3 patients were the oldest with the most unfavorable comorbidity profile. Comorbidity scores (SI >2; p = 0.006) and age ({>=}70; p = 0.05) were independent factors influencing RTOG study enrollment in patients meeting study eligibility requirements (Groups 1 and 2). Conclusions: Comorbidity scales could be useful in stratification of patients in advanced lung cancer trials and interpretation of results particularly regarding the elderly population.

  19. Elevated pentraxin 3 level at the early stage of exercise training is associated with reduction of arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Zempo-Miyaki, A; Fujie, S; Sato, K; Hasegawa, N; Sanada, K; Maeda, S; Hamaoka, T; Iemitsu, M

    2016-09-01

    Regular exercise improves aging-induced deterioration of arterial stiffness, and is associated with elevated production of pentraxin 3 (PTX3) and anti-inflammatory as well as anti-atherosclerotic effects. However, the time-dependent effect of exercise training on arterial stiffness and PTX3 production remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the time course of the association between the effects of training on the circulating PTX3 level and arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults. Thirty-two healthy Japanese subjects (66.2±1.3 year) were randomly divided into two groups: training (exercise intervention) and sedentary controls. Subjects in the training group completed 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training (60-70% peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) for 45 min, 3 days per week); during the training period, we evaluated plasma PTX3 concentration and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) every 2 wk. cfPWV gradually declined over the 8-week training period, and was significantly reduced after 6 and 8 week of exercise intervention (P<0.05). Plasma PTX3 level was significantly increased after 4 weeks of the intervention (P<0.05). In addition, the exercise training-induced reduction in cfPWV was negatively correlated with the percent change in plasma PTX3 level after 6 week (r=-0.54, P<0.05) and 8 weeks (r=-0.51, P<0.05) of the intervention, but not correlated at 4 weeks. Plasma PTX3 level was elevated at the early stage of the exercise training intervention, and was subsequently associated with training-induced alteration of arterial stiffness in middle-aged and older adults.

  20. Stage IV and age over 45 years are the only prognostic factors of the International Prognostic Score for the outcome of advanced Hodgkin lymphoma in the Spanish Hodgkin Lymphoma Study Group series.

    PubMed

    Guisado-Vasco, Pablo; Arranz-Saez, Reyes; Canales, Miguel; Cánovas, Araceli; Garcia-Laraña, José; García-Sanz, Ramón; Lopez, Andrés; López, José Luis; Llanos, Marta; Moraleda, José Maria; Rodriguez, José; Rayón, Consuelo; Sabin, Pilar; Salar, Antonio; Marín-Niebla, Ana; Morente, Manuel; Sánchez-Godoy, Pedro; Tomás, José Francisco; Muriel, Alfonso; Abraira, Victor; Piris, Miguel A; Garcia, Juán F; Montalban, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    The International Prognostic Score (IPS) is the most widely used system to date for identifying risk groups for the outcome of patients with advanced Hodgkin lymphoma, although important limitations have been recognized. We analyzed the value of the IPS in a series of 311 patients with advanced classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL) (Ann Arbor stage III, IV or stage II with B symptoms and/or bulky masses) treated with first-line chemotherapy including adriamycin (adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine [ABVD] or equivalent variants). In univariate and multivariate analyses, stage IV disease and age ≥ 45 years were the only factors with independent predictive significance for overall survival (OS) (p = 0.002 and p < 0.001, respectively). Stage IV was still significant for freedom from progression (FFP) (p = 0.001) and age ≥ 45 years was borderline significant (p = 0.058). IPS separates prognostic groups, as in the original publication, but this is mainly due to the high statistical significance of stage IV and age ≥ 45 years. Moreover, the combination of these two factors enables a simpler system to be constructed that separates groups with different FFP and OS. In conclusion, in our series, stage IV and age ≥ 45 years are the key prognostic factors for the outcome of advanced cHL.

  1. Validity of the ages and stages questionnaires in Korean compared to Bayley Scales of infant development-II for screening preterm infants at corrected age of 18-24 months for neurodevelopmental delay.

    PubMed

    Kwun, Yoojin; Park, Hye Won; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Byong Sop; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the ages and stages questionnaire in Korean (ASQ 1st edition, Korean Questionnaires, Seoul Community Rehabilitation Center, 2000) for premature infants. The study population consisted of 90 premature infants born between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, who were tested using the ASQ (Korean) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) (II) at a corrected age of 18-24 months. The validity of the ASQ (Korean) using cut-off values set at < -2 SD was examined by comparing it to the BSID (II) components, namely, the mental developmental index (MDI) or psychomotor developmental index (PDI), which were both set at < 85. The calculation of the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the ASQ (Korean) components revealed that they detected infants with neurodevelopmental delay with low sensitivity and positive predictive values, however, the communication domain showed moderate correlations with MDI. The failure in more than one domain of the ASQ (Korean) was significantly correlated with the failure in MDI. The ASQ (Korean) showed low validity for screening neurodevelopmentally delayed premature infants. PMID:25829813

  2. Validity of the ages and stages questionnaires in Korean compared to Bayley Scales of infant development-II for screening preterm infants at corrected age of 18-24 months for neurodevelopmental delay.

    PubMed

    Kwun, Yoojin; Park, Hye Won; Kim, Min-Ju; Lee, Byong Sop; Kim, Ellen Ai-Rhan

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the validity of the ages and stages questionnaire in Korean (ASQ 1st edition, Korean Questionnaires, Seoul Community Rehabilitation Center, 2000) for premature infants. The study population consisted of 90 premature infants born between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2011, who were tested using the ASQ (Korean) and Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID) (II) at a corrected age of 18-24 months. The validity of the ASQ (Korean) using cut-off values set at < -2 SD was examined by comparing it to the BSID (II) components, namely, the mental developmental index (MDI) or psychomotor developmental index (PDI), which were both set at < 85. The calculation of the sensitivities, specificities, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values of the ASQ (Korean) components revealed that they detected infants with neurodevelopmental delay with low sensitivity and positive predictive values, however, the communication domain showed moderate correlations with MDI. The failure in more than one domain of the ASQ (Korean) was significantly correlated with the failure in MDI. The ASQ (Korean) showed low validity for screening neurodevelopmentally delayed premature infants.

  3. Inhibin B, follicle stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and testosterone during childhood and puberty in males: changes in serum concentrations in relation to age and stage of puberty.

    PubMed

    Chada, M; Průsa, R; Bronský, J; Kotaska, K; Sídlová, K; Pechová, M; Lisá, L

    2003-01-01

    Inhibin B is a gonadal dimeric polypeptide hormone that regulates synthesis and secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) in a negative feedback loop. The aim of the present study was to determine changes in serum inhibin B, gonadotropins and testosterone concentrations during childhood and puberty in males. We studied the relationship between circulating inhibin B, gonadotropins and testosterone in serum of healthy boys during the first two years of life and then in pubertal development. Using a recently developed two-side enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), inhibin B levels were measured in the serum of 78 healthy boys divided into eleven age groups from birth to the end of pubertal development. In addition, serum levels of gonadotropins and testosterone were measured. Serum inhibin B, gonadotropins and testosterone increased during the first months of postnatal life. A peak in serum inhibin B and gonadotropins concentrations was observed around 3-4 months of age. There was a significant positive correlation between serum inhibin B and gonadotropins and testosterone levels during the first 2 years of life. After this early increase, serum inhibin B, gonadotropins and testosterone levels decreased significantly and remained low until puberty followed by an increase beginning with the onset of puberty. Serum levels of inhibin B reached a peak at stage G3 of puberty. Around midpuberty, inhibin B lost its positive correlation with luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone from early puberty, and developed a strong negative correlation with FSH, which persisted into adulthood. We conclude that inhibin B plays a key role in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal hormonal axis during male childhood and pubertal development. Inhibin B is a direct marker of the presence and function of Sertoli cells and appears to reflect testicular function in boys.

  4. Age-related changes in protein metabolism of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds during alleviation of dormancy and in the early stage of germination.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Ewelina; Kalemba, Ewa M; Pukacka, Stanislawa

    2015-09-01

    The long-term storage of seeds generally reduces their viability and vigour. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of long-term storage on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds at optimal conditions, over 9 years, on the total and soluble protein levels and activity of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, carboxypeptidases and aminopeptidases, as well as free amino acid levels and protein synthesis, in dry seeds, after imbibition and during cold stratification leading to dormancy release and germination. The same analyses were conducted in parallel on seeds gathered from the same tree in the running growing season and stored under the same conditions for only 3 months. The results showed that germination capacity decreased from 100% in freshly harvested seeds to 75% in seeds stored for 9 years. The levels of total and soluble proteins were highest in freshly harvested seeds and decreased significantly during storage, these proportions were retained during cold stratification and germination of seeds. Significant differences between freshly harvested and stored seeds were observed in the activities of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases, and in the levels of free amino acids. The neosynthesis of proteins during dormancy release and in the early stage of seed germination was significantly weaker in stored seeds. These results confirm the importance of protein metabolism for seed viability and the consequences of its reduction during seed ageing.

  5. Tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue in patients over 1 year of age with stage 4 neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Sung, K W; Lee, S H; Yoo, K H; Jung, H L; Cho, E J; Koo, H H; Lee, S K; Kim, J; Lim, D H; Suh, Y L; Kim, D W

    2007-07-01

    From June 1997 to August 2005, 52 consecutive newly diagnosed stage 4 neuroblastoma patients over 1 year of age were assigned to receive tandem high-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell rescue (HDCT/ASCR) as consolidation therapy. Fifty of the 52 patients underwent a first HDCT/ASCR and 44 patients underwent a second HDCT/ASCR. Eight patients (15.4%) died from treatment-related toxicity (seven during the second HDCT/ASCR). Total body irradiation (TBI) in the first HDCT/ASCR and a shorter interval (< 12 weeks) between the first and second HDCT/ASCR were associated with a higher rate of treatment-related death in the second HDCT/ASCR (P = 0.032 and 0.095, respectively). The tumor relapsed or progressed in 11 patients, and 33 patients remained event free with a median follow-up of 53 months (range 19-117) from diagnosis. The 5-year event-free survival (EFS) (+/- 95% confidence interval) for all 52 patients was 62.1+/-13.7%. The application of TBI and local radiotherapy, and a longer interval between the first and second HDCT/ASCR were independently associated with a better EFS (P = 0.026, 0.007 and 0.020, respectively). However, further studies will be needed to decrease the toxic death rate in the second HDCT/ASCR while reducing the relapse rate.

  6. Age-related changes in protein metabolism of beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds during alleviation of dormancy and in the early stage of germination.

    PubMed

    Ratajczak, Ewelina; Kalemba, Ewa M; Pukacka, Stanislawa

    2015-09-01

    The long-term storage of seeds generally reduces their viability and vigour. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of long-term storage on beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) seeds at optimal conditions, over 9 years, on the total and soluble protein levels and activity of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, carboxypeptidases and aminopeptidases, as well as free amino acid levels and protein synthesis, in dry seeds, after imbibition and during cold stratification leading to dormancy release and germination. The same analyses were conducted in parallel on seeds gathered from the same tree in the running growing season and stored under the same conditions for only 3 months. The results showed that germination capacity decreased from 100% in freshly harvested seeds to 75% in seeds stored for 9 years. The levels of total and soluble proteins were highest in freshly harvested seeds and decreased significantly during storage, these proportions were retained during cold stratification and germination of seeds. Significant differences between freshly harvested and stored seeds were observed in the activities of proteolytic enzymes, including endopeptidases, aminopeptidases and carboxypeptidases, and in the levels of free amino acids. The neosynthesis of proteins during dormancy release and in the early stage of seed germination was significantly weaker in stored seeds. These results confirm the importance of protein metabolism for seed viability and the consequences of its reduction during seed ageing. PMID:26071872

  7. Trends in 'cure' fraction from colorectal cancer by age and tumour stage between 1975 and 2000, using population-based data, Osaka, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuri; Nakayama, Tomio; Miyashiro, Isao; Sugimoto, Tomoyuki; Ioka, Akiko; Tsukuma, Hideaki; Abdel-Rahman, Manar E; Rachet, Bernard

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1960s, Japan has experienced a striking increase in the incidence of colorectal cancer, now the second most common cancer in the country. Meanwhile, the management of colorectal cancer has changed dramatically with the implementation of, for example, screening, endoscopy and adjuvant chemotherapy. It is therefore of interest to monitor the long-term trends in population 'cure' in Japan. We analysed 33 885 colorectal cancer cases diagnosed between 1975 and 2000 in Osaka. We applied the multivariable mixture cure model to estimate cure fraction and median survival time (MST) for 'uncured' patients, by sex, age, stage, period at diagnosis and subsite. For colon cancer, the cure fraction increased by about 25%, while MST for the uncured was prolonged from 8 to 12 months. The cure fraction was 5% higher in men than in women, while MST was similar in both. The cure fraction also increased for localized and regional tumours. For rectal cancer, the cure fraction increased by about 25-30%, but remained lower than for colon cancer. From the late 1970s, the cure fraction for colorectal cancer increased dramatically due to better management of detection and care for colorectal cancer. This improvement was obtained at the cost of shorter MST for uncured patients.

  8. Assessment of Stage of Change, Decisional Balance, Self-Efficacy, and Use of Processes of Change of Low-Income Parents for Increasing Servings of Fruits and Vegetables to Preschool-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Deana A.; Betts, Nancy M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Use the Transtheoretical Model of Behavior Change (TTM) to determine the proportionate stage of change of low-income parents and primary caregivers (PPC) for increasing accessibility, measured as servings served, of fruits and vegetables (FV) to their preschool-aged children and evaluate response differences for theoretical constructs.…

  9. Long-term (60-month) results for the implantable miniature telescope: efficacy and safety outcomes stratified by age in patients with end-stage age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, David; Freund, K Bailey; Regillo, Carl; Levy, Marc H; Garg, Sumit

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of an implantable miniature telescope (IMT) in patients with bilateral, end-stage, age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods A prospective, open-label, multicenter clinical trial with fellow eye controls enrolled 217 patients (mean age 76 years) with AMD and moderate-to-profound bilateral central visual acuity loss (20/80–20/800) resulting from untreatable geographic atrophy, disciform scars, or both. A subgroup analysis was performed with stratification for age (patient age 65 to <75 years [group 1; n=70] and patient age ≥75 years [group 2; n=127]), with a comparative evaluation of change in best-corrected distance visual acuity (BCDVA), quality of life, ocular complications from surgery, adverse events, and endothelial cell density (ECD). Follow-up in an extension study was 60 months. Results Data were available for 22, 38, and 31 patients in group 1 and 42, 46, and 32 patients in group 2 at 36, 48, and 60 months, respectively. Mean BCDVA improvement from baseline to 60 months was 2.41±2.69 lines in all patients (n=76), with 2.64±2.55 lines in group 1 and 2.09±2.88 lines in group 2. Quality of life scores were significantly higher in group 1. The most common significant surgery-related ocular complications in group 1 were iritis >30 days after surgery (7/70; 10%) and persistent corneal edema (3/70; 4.3%); and in group 2 were a decrease in BCDVA in the implanted eye or IMT removal (10/127 each; 7.9%), corneal edema >30 days after surgery (9/127; 7.1%), and persistent corneal edema (6/127; 4.7%). Significant adverse events included four corneal transplants, comprising two (2.9%) in group 1 and two (1.6%) in group 2. At 60 months, one patient in group 1 (3.2%) and three patients in group 2 (9.4%) had lost ≥2 lines of vision. The IMT was removed in one (1.4%) and ten (7.9%) patients in group 1 and group 2, respectively. Mean ECD loss was 20% at 3 months. Chronic loss was 3% per

  10. Age, Growth and Spatial Distribution of the Life Stages of the Shortfin Mako, Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque, 1810) Caught in the Western and Central Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Rodrigo R; de Farias, Wialla K T; Andrade, Humber; Santana, Francisco M; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-01-01

    The shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a highly migratory pelagic shark that preferentially inhabits oceanic regions in practically all oceans. The wide distribution range of this species renders it susceptible to coastal and oceanic fishing operations. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) consider this species to be highly vulnerable, especially due to its biological parameters, which are different from those of other sharks that occupy the same niche (e.g., Prionace glauca). Consequently, considerable declines in abundance have been detected over various parts of its range, most of which are linked to oceanic longline fishing. The species has conflicting life history parameters in studies conducted in the last 30 years, especially with regard to age and growth. The main discrepancies regard the interpretation of the periodicity of the deposition of band pairs (BPs) on vertebrae and the possibility of ontogenetic variations in growth. Shortfin mako sharks (n = 1325) were sampled by onboard observers of the Brazilian chartered pelagic longline fleet based in northeast Brazil from 2005 to 2011. Lengths were 79 to 250 and 73 to 296 cm (fork length, FL) for males and females, respectively, with a statistically significant difference in size between sexes and differences in the proportion of individuals in each size class. The onboard observers collected a subsample of vertebrae (n = 467), only 234 of which were suitable for analyses. Reliability between readings was satisfactory. However, it was not possible to validate periodicity in the formation of age bands in the sample. Thus, the von Bertalanffy growth function was used to calculate growth rates for the species through the interpretation of BPs in different scenarios: one BP per year (s1), two BPs per year (s2) and two BPs per year until five years of life (s3). Growth parameters varied for both females (Linf

  11. Age, Growth and Spatial Distribution of the Life Stages of the Shortfin Mako, Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque, 1810) Caught in the Western and Central Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Rodrigo R.; de Farias, Wialla K. T.; Andrade, Humber; Santana, Francisco M.; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-01-01

    The shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a highly migratory pelagic shark that preferentially inhabits oceanic regions in practically all oceans. The wide distribution range of this species renders it susceptible to coastal and oceanic fishing operations. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) consider this species to be highly vulnerable, especially due to its biological parameters, which are different from those of other sharks that occupy the same niche (e.g., Prionace glauca). Consequently, considerable declines in abundance have been detected over various parts of its range, most of which are linked to oceanic longline fishing. The species has conflicting life history parameters in studies conducted in the last 30 years, especially with regard to age and growth. The main discrepancies regard the interpretation of the periodicity of the deposition of band pairs (BPs) on vertebrae and the possibility of ontogenetic variations in growth. Shortfin mako sharks (n = 1325) were sampled by onboard observers of the Brazilian chartered pelagic longline fleet based in northeast Brazil from 2005 to 2011. Lengths were 79 to 250 and 73 to 296 cm (fork length, FL) for males and females, respectively, with a statistically significant difference in size between sexes and differences in the proportion of individuals in each size class. The onboard observers collected a subsample of vertebrae (n = 467), only 234 of which were suitable for analyses. Reliability between readings was satisfactory. However, it was not possible to validate periodicity in the formation of age bands in the sample. Thus, the von Bertalanffy growth function was used to calculate growth rates for the species through the interpretation of BPs in different scenarios: one BP per year (s1), two BPs per year (s2) and two BPs per year until five years of life (s3). Growth parameters varied for both females (Linf

  12. Age, Growth and Spatial Distribution of the Life Stages of the Shortfin Mako, Isurus oxyrinchus (Rafinesque, 1810) Caught in the Western and Central Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Rodrigo R; de Farias, Wialla K T; Andrade, Humber; Santana, Francisco M; Lessa, Rosangela

    2016-01-01

    The shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus) is a highly migratory pelagic shark that preferentially inhabits oceanic regions in practically all oceans. The wide distribution range of this species renders it susceptible to coastal and oceanic fishing operations. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT) consider this species to be highly vulnerable, especially due to its biological parameters, which are different from those of other sharks that occupy the same niche (e.g., Prionace glauca). Consequently, considerable declines in abundance have been detected over various parts of its range, most of which are linked to oceanic longline fishing. The species has conflicting life history parameters in studies conducted in the last 30 years, especially with regard to age and growth. The main discrepancies regard the interpretation of the periodicity of the deposition of band pairs (BPs) on vertebrae and the possibility of ontogenetic variations in growth. Shortfin mako sharks (n = 1325) were sampled by onboard observers of the Brazilian chartered pelagic longline fleet based in northeast Brazil from 2005 to 2011. Lengths were 79 to 250 and 73 to 296 cm (fork length, FL) for males and females, respectively, with a statistically significant difference in size between sexes and differences in the proportion of individuals in each size class. The onboard observers collected a subsample of vertebrae (n = 467), only 234 of which were suitable for analyses. Reliability between readings was satisfactory. However, it was not possible to validate periodicity in the formation of age bands in the sample. Thus, the von Bertalanffy growth function was used to calculate growth rates for the species through the interpretation of BPs in different scenarios: one BP per year (s1), two BPs per year (s2) and two BPs per year until five years of life (s3). Growth parameters varied for both females (Linf

  13. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    PubMed

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging.

  14. Cervical cancer: screening, diagnosis and staging.

    PubMed

    Tsikouras, Panagiotis; Zervoudis, Stefanos; Manav, Bachar; Tomara, Eirini; Iatrakis, George; Romanidis, Constantinos; Bothou, Anastasia; Galazios, George

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the widespread screening programs, cervical cancer remains the third most common cancer in developing countries. Based on the implementation of cervical screening programs with the referred adoption of improved screening methods in cervical cytology with the knowledge of the important role of the human papilloma virus (HPV) it's incidence is decreased in the developed world. Even if cervical HPV infection is incredibly common, cervical cancer is relatively rare. Depending on the rarity of invasive disease and the improvement of detection of pre-cancerous lesions due to the participation in screening programs, the goal of screening is to detect the cervical lesions early in order to be treated before cancer is developed. In populations with many preventive screening programs, a decrease in cervical cancer mortality of 50-75% is mentioned over the past 50 years. The preventive examination of vagina and cervix smear, Pap test, and the HPV DNA test are remarkable diagnostic tools according to the American Cancer Association guidelines, in the investigation of asymptomatic women and in the follow up of women after the treatment of pre-invasive cervical cancer. The treatment of cervical cancer is based on the FIGO 2009 cervical cancer staging. PMID:27273940

  15. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  16. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study

    PubMed Central

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD.

  17. Expression of Phenotypic Astrocyte Marker Is Increased in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease versus Age-Matched Controls: A Presymptomatic Stage Study.

    PubMed

    Doméné, Aurélie; Cavanagh, Chelsea; Page, Guylène; Bodard, Sylvie; Klein, Christophe; Delarasse, Cécile; Chalon, Sylvie; Krantic, Slavica

    2016-01-01

    Recent mouse studies of the presymptomatic stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) have suggested that proinflammatory changes, such as glial activation and cytokine induction, may occur already at this early stage through unknown mechanisms. Because TNFα contributes to increased Aβ production from the Aβ precursor protein (APP), we assessed a putative correlation between APP/Aβ and TNFα during the presymptomatic stage as well as early astrocyte activation in the hippocampus of 3-month-old APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. While Western blots revealed significant APP expression, Aβ was not detectable by Western blot or ELISA attesting that 3-month-old, APPswe/PS1dE9 mice are at a presymptomatic stage of AD-like pathology. Western blots were also used to show increased GFAP expression in transgenic mice that positively correlated with both TNFα and APP, which were also mutually correlated. Subregional immunohistochemical quantification of phenotypic (GFAP) and functional (TSPO) markers of astrocyte activation indicated a selective and significant increase in GFAP-immunoreactive (IR) cells in the dentate gyrus of APPswe/PS1dE9 mice. Our data suggest that subtle morphological and phenotypic alterations, compatible with the engagement of astrocyte along the activation pathway, occur in the hippocampus already at the presymptomatic stage of AD. PMID:27672476

  18. Estimating Stage-Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis Bahia Using Digital Imaging (NAC SETAC 2011)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  19. Estimating Stage Specific Vital Rate Responses to Stress Within Mixed Age Populations of the Opossum Shrimp Americamysis bahia Using Digital Imaging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most observations of stressor effects on marine crustaceans are made on individuals or even-aged cohorts. Results of these studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions, either because life cycle models are incomplete, or because stressor effects on mixed age po...

  20. Stage design

    DOEpatents

    Shacter, J.

    1975-12-01

    A method is described of cycling gases through a plurality of diffusion stages comprising the steps of admitting the diffused gases from a first diffusion stage into an axial compressor, simultaneously admitting the undiffused gases from a second diffusion stage into an intermediate pressure zone of said compressor corresponding in pressure to the pressure of said undiffused gases, and then admitting the resulting compressed mixture of diffused and undiffused gases into a third diffusion stage.

  1. Effect of Aging in the Perception of Health-Related Quality of Life in End-Stage Renal Disease Patients under Online-Hemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Moura, Alexandra; Madureira, José; Alija, Pablo; Fernandes, João Carlos; Oliveira, José Gerardo; Lopez, Martin; Filgueiras, Madalena; Amado, Leonilde; Sameiro-Faria, Maria; Miranda, Vasco; Santos-Silva, Alice; Costa, Elísio

    2015-02-01

    This work aimed to evaluate how aging could influence patients' perception of health quality of life (HRQOL), as well as, the effect of aging on dialysis adequacy and in hematological, iron status, inflammatory and nutritional markers. In this transversal study were enrolled 305 ESRD patients under online-hemodiafiltration (OL-HDF) (59.67% males; 64.9 ± 14.3 years old). Data about comorbidities, hematological data, iron status, dialysis adequacy, nutritional and inflammatory markers were collected from patient's records. Moreover, HRQOL score, by using the Kidney Disease Quality of Life-Short Form (KDQOL-SF), was assessed. Analyzing the results according to quartiles of age, significant differences were found for some parameters evaluated by the KDQOL-SF instrument, namely for work status, physical functioning and role-physical, which decreased with increasing age. We also found a higher proportion of diabetic patients, a decrease in creatinine, iron, albumin serum levels, transferrin saturation and nPCR, with increasing age. Moreover, significant negative correlations were found between age and mean cell hemoglobin concentration, iron, transferrin saturation, albumin, nPCR, work status, physical functioning and role-physical. In conclusion, our results showed that aging is associated with a decreased work status, physical functioning and role-physical, with a decreased dialysis adequacy, iron availability and nutritional status, and with an increased proportion of diabetic patients and of patients using central venous catheter, as the vascular access. The knowledge of these changes associated with aging, which have impact in the quality of life of the patients, could be useful in their management.

  2. Unravelling Orbital Climatic Cycles from Devonian Magnetic Susceptibility Signal - The Quest for a Better Age Model for the Lochkovian and Pragian Stages (Czech Republic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, A. C.; Chadimova, L.; Hladil, J.; Slavik, L.; Hilgen, F. J.; Dekkers, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    The uncertainties on the Devonian stage boundaries are currently in the order of several millions of years. When shown to reflect a detrital signal, which is influenced by climatic variations, Magnetic Susceptibility (MS) has been proven as a useful tool for identifying climatic cycles; which can subsequently be used to improve the time scale. Here, we focus on two sections from the Prague Synform (Czech Republic) cutting through the Lochkovian, Pragian and the lower part of the Emsian. Sedimentation is rhythmic, dominated by slightly clayey offshore limestones, being mostly calciturbidites and hemipelagites. We provide hysteresis analysis in order to get insight into the nature and the origin of the magnetic minerals driving the variation in the MS signal. The results point to a MS signal mostly carried by clay minerals. Subsequently, to improve estimation of the duration of the stages, we apply different spectral analysis techniques on this MS signal. From the Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT), Evolutive Harmonic Analysis (EHA) and field observations, we subdivide the section into portions with a steady sedimentation rate (a first estimate of this rate is also delivered by these analyzes). Then, we apply Multitaper Method (MTM) and Multitaper harmonic Analysis (F-test) and extract the frequencies reaching 95% Confidence Level. These frequencies are then implemented into the Average Spectral Misfit procedures (ASM) which enables comparison with orbital targets. By combining these different techniques, 405 kyr cyclicty is identifed, a powerful duration paleochronometer. These new results indicate a duration of 7.7 ± 2 Myr for the Lochkovian stage and of 1.7 Myr ± 1.4 for the Pragian stage (compared to respectively 8.4 ± 6 Myr and 3.2 ± 5.4 Myr in the 2012 Geological Time Scale).

  3. [Age-related changes of the mineral component content in the hemolymph of 2d- and 3d-stage larvae of the reindeer warble fly (Hypodermatidae)].

    PubMed

    Borozdina, N I

    1979-01-01

    A mineral components concentration in the haemolymph of the IInd- and IIIrd-stage larvae of Oedemagena tarandi depends on the physiological state of parasites. Metabolism of mineral components is most intensive in a young actively growing organism and during moulting. The moulting is characterized by the decrease in the concentration of inorganic phosphorus and potassium and by the increase of calcium, magnesium and natrium.

  4. Thermochronology of economic mineral deposits: dating the stages of mineralization at Panasqueira, Portugal, by high-precision 40Ar/ 39Ar age spectrum techniques on muscovite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snee, L.W.; Sutter, J.F.; Kelly, W.C.

    1988-01-01

    This study is an example of a new and powerful application of 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum dating of muscovite. It is now possible to establish time constraints necessary for solving some of the long-standing problems in economic geology. Beyond this, the unique geologic situation of Panasqueira has allowed us to quantify the thermal characteristics of muscovite. Published fluid inclusion data have been used to estimate a muscovite argon closure temperature of ~325??C during rapid cooling or short reheating and a temperature of ~270??C during slow cooling or extended reheating. Argon-loss patterns displayed by all dated muscovites resulted from reheating after original closure; the mechanism for this argon loss appears to have been argon transport by volume diffusion. Thus, 40Ar/39Ar age spectrum dating of muscovite can be used to evaluate thermal conditions controlling argon diffusion as well as age, duration, and number of episodes of mineralization. -from Authors

  5. Expression of ERα and PR in Various Morphological Patterns of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding-Endometrial causes in Reproductive Age Group

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pallavi; Chaurasia, Amrita; Dhingra, Vishal; Misra, Vatsala

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Abnormal Uterine Bleeding (AUB) is most common gynaecological problem but its management is not well defined. So FIGO/PALMCOEIN classification was developed to provide clear management options as treatment is different in PALM and AUB-E group. FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification and immunohistochemistry with ERα and PR expression in AUB-E group will be helpful in management of these patients, thus preventing surgical interventions. Aim To study histomorphological classification according to FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification in patients presenting with AUB into PALM and AUB-E group. To study the receptor expression of ERα and PR in AUB-E group. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study was performed in patients presenting with AUB in reproductive age group (15-45 years). Six hundred endometrial specimens were stained with H&E for histolomorphological examination and classified as per FIGO/PALM-COEIN classification of AUB in non-gravid women in reproductive age group. Fifty endometrial biopsies were of pregnancy and pregnancy related complications and were excluded from study. A total of 550 samples were evaluated in present study. IHC for quantification of ERα and PR expression was carried out in AUB-E (100) cases and control group endometrium (20) cases due to technical constraints. Statistical Analysis Unpaired student t-test was performed. p-value ≤ 0.05 was taken as critical level of significance. Results Endometrial (58.19%) (AUB-E) causes were most common cause of AUB. Most common morphology was AUB-E (Proliferative endometrium), AUB-L (Leiomyoma) and AUB-E (Secretory endometrium) respectively. Statistically significant expression of ERα and PR was found in AUB-E endometrium as compared to control group endometrium. In Non secretory/Proliferative endometrium AUB-E group. Proliferative endometrium and hyperplasia without atypia had significant expression of ERα and PR in glands and stroma when compared with proliferative phase control group

  6. The Treatment Decision-Making Process: Age Differences in a Sample of Women Recently Diagnosed with Nonrecurrent Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrisek, Ann C.; Laliberte, Linda L.; Allen, Susan M.; Mor, Vincent

    1997-01-01

    Using retrospective, self-report data collected from women recently diagnosed with breast cancer (N=179), examines the influence of age differences in the treatment decision-making process. Findings indicate that older women were less likely than their younger counterparts to have desired participation in therapy selection or sought out medical…

  7. AGING AND LIFE-STAGE SUSCEPTIBILITY: TOLUENE EFFECTS ON PROTEIN CARBONYL CONTENT IN FRONTAL CORTEX AND CEREBELLUM OF BROWN NORWAY RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The influence of aging on susceptibility to environmental contaminants is poorly understood, largely due to a lack of data on exposures in older adults and adequate animal models. We examined the acute effects of the volatile organic compound, toluene, in a study investigating m...

  8. Microsurgical analysis of the clonal age and the cell-cycle stage required for the onset of autogamy in Paramecium tetraurelia.

    PubMed

    Mikami, K; Koizumi, S

    1983-11-01

    When autogamy was induced in competent cells of Paramecium tetraurelia by depriving them of food, the onset of autogamy was preceded by a critical fission which occurred in the starvation medium. When the cells were fed again immediately after the fission, they did not undergo autogamy. However, they did undergo autogamy when they were fed later than 1 hr after the critical fission. The irreversible differentiation for autogamy seems to be at about 1 hr after the critical fission. This procedure thus provides the opportunity to induce autogamy synchronously. The result of macronuclear transplantation demonstrated that autogamy was under the control of macronucleus. Moreover, the clonal age required for autogamy was found to be shortened by repetitive elimination of a part of the macronucleus. The result can be explained by the hypothesis that clonal age is measured in rounds of chromosome replication or DNA synthesis rather than cell divisions. PMID:6617988

  9. Is the degree of clonality of forest herbs dependent on gap age? Using fingerprinting approaches to assess optimum successional stages for montane forest herbs

    PubMed Central

    Patsias, Kathrin; Bruelheide, Helge

    2011-01-01

    Using molecular fingerprinting (amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP] method), we explored the potential of small-scale population analysis for understanding colonization patterns of herb layer species in forests after canopy disturbance. We investigated three common forest understorey species with different life forms (Trientalis europaea, Calamagrostis villosa, and Vaccinium myrtillus) in the Harz Mountains in Germany in three different gap age classes and undisturbed forest. For two of them (T. europaea and C. villosa), we analyzed clone sizes and clonal structure. We hypothesized that clone sizes depend on age since gap formation and are affected by light availability. Mean patch sizes of V. myrtillus, T. europaea, and C. villosa formed were 3.7 m2, 27.9 m2, and 40.6 m2, respectively. Trientalis europaea and C. villosa patches consisted mostly of more than one genet. Largest clone sizes of T. europaea were encountered in gaps of intermediate successional age (15–60 years, averaged minimum estimation of clone sizes: 6.56 m2) whereas clone size of C. villosa was found to be independent from gap age and had a mean minimum clone size of 0.49 m2. In both species, clone size was positively related to light availability. Additionally, there was a positive relationship between clone size and ramet density for T. europaea and C. villosa. Genetic variation was higher within populations of T. europaea and C. villosa than among populations. Trientalis europaea was the only species with a clear genetic isolation by distance, pointing at an equilibrium between gene flow and genetic drift. In conclusion, we showed that forest canopy gap dynamics clearly affect the small-scale structure of populations of understorey plants. Species with high lateral growth rates, such as T. europaea offer the possibility to serve as “ecological clock” for dating ecological processes. PMID:22393501

  10. An Extended Age-Hardening Model for Al-Mg-Si Alloys Incorporating the Room-Temperature Storage and Cold Deformation Process Stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myhr, Ole Runar; Grong, Øystein; Schäfer, Carmen

    2015-12-01

    In this article, a new age-hardening model for Al-Mg-Si alloys is presented (named NaMo-Version 2), which takes into account the combined effect of cold deformation and prolonged room-temperature storage on the subsequent response to artificial aging. As a starting point, the original physical framework of NaMo-Version 1 is revived and used as a basis for the extension. This is permissible, since a more in-depth analysis of the underlying particle-dislocation interactions confirms previous expectations that the simplifying assumption of spherical precipitates is not crucial for the final outcome of the calculations, provided that the yield strength model is calibrated against experimental data. At the same time, the implementation of the Kampmann-Wagner formalism means that the different microstructure models can be linked together in a manner that enforces solute partitioning and competition between the different hardening phases which form during aging ( e.g., clusters, β″ and β'). In a calibrated form, NaMo-Version 2 exhibits a high degree of predictive power, as documented by comparison with experiments, using both dedicated nanostructure and yield strength data as a basis for the validation. Hence, the model is deemed to be well-suited for simulation of thermomechanical processing of Al-Mg-Si alloys involving cold-working operations like sheet forming and stretch bending in combination with heat treatment and welding.

  11. The β2-adrenoceptor agonist formoterol improves structural and functional regenerative capacity of skeletal muscles from aged rat at the early stages of postinjury.

    PubMed

    Conte, Talita C; Silva, Lucila H; Silva, Meiricris T; Hirabara, Sandro M; Oliveira, Antonio C; Curi, Rui; Moriscot, Anselmo S; Aoki, Marcelo S; Miyabara, Elen H

    2012-05-01

    Skeletal muscles from old rats fail to completely regenerate following injury. This study investigated whether pharmacological stimulation of β2-adrenoceptors in aged muscles following injury could improve their regenerative capacity, focusing on myofiber size recovery. Young and aged rats were treated with a subcutaneous injection of β2-adrenergic agonist formoterol (2 μg/kg/d) up to 10 and 21 days after soleus muscle injury. Formoterol-treated muscles from old rats evaluated at 10 and 21 days postinjury showed reduced inflammation and connective tissue but a similar number of regenerating myofibers of greater caliber when compared with their injured controls. Formoterol minimized the decrease in tetanic force and increased protein synthesis and mammalian target of rapamycin phosphorylation in old muscles at 10 days postinjury. Our results suggest that formoterol improves structural and functional regenerative capacity of regenerating skeletal muscles from aged rats by increasing protein synthesis via mammalian target of rapamycin activation. Furthermore, formoterol may have therapeutic benefits in recovery following muscle damage in senescent individuals.

  12. Carboplatin and paclitaxel as an initial treatment in patients with stage IVb cervical cancer: a report of 7 cases and a review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Morishige, Kenichirou; Enomoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Tadashi

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of carboplatin-paclitaxel (TC) as an initial treatment in patients with the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage IVb cervical cancer. Methods We retrospectively reviewed seven patients with stage IVb cervical cancer who have been primarily treated with TC. The activity and the toxicity were evaluated. Response rate was the main endpoint. Results Overall, the treatment of TC was well tolerated. The overall response rate was 71.4% (2 complete response, 3 partial response). Although grade 3-4 hematologic toxicities were observed in 3 out of 7 patients (42.8%), no patients experienced grade 3-4 non-hematologic toxicities. When we combined our present results with the previous reports, the overall response rate of TC is 63.6%. Conclusion TC is active and well tolerated in patients FIGO stage IVb cervical cancer. This combination may be considered as an initial treatment regimen in this patient population. PMID:20613898

  13. Accuracy of predicting 18 years of age from mandibular third molar development in an Indian sample using Demirjian's ten-stage criteria.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Ashith B

    2011-03-01

    Predicting 18 years of age can be crucial in forensic contexts. The third molar is the only tooth developing during this chronological period and has been used to estimate minority/majority status (age range 15-21 years). The tendency to correctly determine majority/minority status was assessed using three different statistical approaches, viz. traditional regression analysis, logistic regression analysis and Bayesian prediction. The sample was divided in to a reference sample of 180 cases and a test group of 41 subjects. All three statistical methods correctly predicted an individual as being age group. This level of accuracy may be inadequate for courts of law to rule with sufficient levels of certainty about the juvenile/adult status of an individual using third molar development.

  14. Third Stage

    NASA Video Gallery

    Once the third stage finishes its work, Kepler will have sufficient energy to leave the gravitational pull of Earth and go into orbit around the Sun, trailing behind Earth and slowly drifting away ...

  15. Effects of caffeine treatment on aged porcine oocytes: parthenogenetic activation ability, chromosome condensation and development to the blastocyst stage after somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Masaki; Onishi, Akira; Fuchimoto, Dai-ichiro; Somfai, Tamas; Suzuki, Shun-ichi; Yazaki, Satoko; Hashimoto, Michiko; Takeda, Kumiko; Tagami, Takahiro; Hanada, Hirofumi; Noguchi, Junko; Kaneko, Hiroyuki; Nagai, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kazuhiro

    2005-11-01

    The possibility of using aged porcine oocytes treated with caffeine, which inhibits the decrease in M-phase promoting factor activity, for pig cloning was evaluated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were cultured initially for 36 h and subsequently with or without 5 mM caffeine for 24 h (in total for 60 h: 60CA+ or 60CA- group, respectively). As a control group, COCs were cultured for 48 h without caffeine (48CA-). The pronuclear formation rates at 10 h after electrical stimulation in the 60CA+ and 60CA- groups decreased significantly (p < 0.05) compared with the 48CA- group. However, the fragmentation rate was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the 60CA- group than in the 60CA+ and 48CA- groups. When the stimulated oocytes were cultured for 6 days, the 60CA+ group showed significantly lower blastocyst formation and higher fragmentation or degeneration rates (p < 0.05) than the 48CA- group. However, the number of total cells in blastocysts was not affected by maturation period or caffeine treatment. When somatic cell nuclei were injected into the non-enucleated oocytes and exposed to cytoplasm for a certain duration (1-11 h) before the completion of maturation (48 or 60 h), the rate of nuclear membrane breakdown after exposure to cytoplasm for 1-2 h in the 60CA- oocytes was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the other experimental groups. The rate of scattered chromosome formation in the same 60CA- group tended to be lower (p = 0.08) than in the other groups. After the enucleation and transfer of nuclei, blastocyst formation rates in the 60CA+ and 60CA- groups were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than in the 48CA- group. Blastocyst quality did not differ among all the groups. These results suggest that chromosome decondensation of the transplanted somatic nucleus is affected by both the duration of exposure to cytoplasm and the age of the recipient porcine oocytes, and that caffeine treatment promotes nuclear remodelling but does not prevent the decrease in the

  16. Effects of food nutrient content, insect age and stage in the feeding cycle on the FMRFamide immunoreactivity of diffuse endocrine cells in the locust gut.

    PubMed

    Zudaire, E; Simpson, S J; Montuenga, L M

    1998-11-01

    We have studied the influence of variations in dietary protein and digestible carbohydrate content, of insect age and of time during the feeding cycle on the endocrine cells of the ampullar region of the midgut in the African migratory locust Locusta migratoria L. Morphometric analysis of FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity was used as an indirect measure of the amount of FMRFamide-related peptides (FaRPs) stored in the gut endocrine cells. There was a highly significant correlation between FaRP content and the nutritional quality of the food, measured relative to the concentrations and ratio of protein to digestible carbohydrate in a nutritionally optimal diet. The direction of the relationship between FaRP content and diet quality varied with age during the fifth stadium. On day 1, FaRP levels increased with the nutritional quality of the food, while on day 4 the opposite relationship was observed. Release of peptide was triggered by the onset of a meal during ad libitum feeding, with cell FaRP levels returning to premeal values within 15 min of the meal ending. The results also suggested that cell contents were released during food deprivation beyond the normal intermeal interval. Locusts switched for a single meal during ad libitum feeding on day 4 from a low- to a high-carbohydrate food did not respond by reducing endocrine cell FaRP content. Our results show a relationship between the diffuse gut endocrine system and feeding and nutrition in locusts. The ampullar endocrine cells are in three-way contact with the midgut luminal contents, with the primary urine from the Malpighian tubules and with the haemolymph. They are thus ideally positioned to play an integrative receptor-secretory function in the regulation of a variety of post-ingestive processes, such as enzyme secretion, absorption, gut motility or nutrient metabolism. PMID:9866881

  17. Incidence of WHO Stage 3 and 4 Events, Tuberculosis, and Mortality in Untreated, HIV-Infected Children Enrolling in Care Before 1 Year of Age: An Iedea (International Epidemiologic Databases To Evaluate AIDS) East Africa Regional Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ciaranello, Andrea; Lu, Zhigang; Ayaya, Samuel; Losina, Elena; Musick, Beverly; Vreeman, Rachel; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Abrams, Elaine J.; Dillabaugh, Lisa; Doherty, Katie; Ssali, John; Yiannoutsos, Constantin T.; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have reported CD4%- and age-stratified rates of WHO Stage 3 (WHO3) events, WHO Stage 4 (WHO4) events, tuberculosis (TB), and mortality in HIV-infected infants before initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods HIV-infected children enrolled before 1 year of age in the International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) East Africa region (10/01/2002-11/30/2008) were included. We estimated incidence rates of earliest clinical event (WHO3, WHO4, and TB), prior to ART initiation per local guidelines, stratified by current age (< or ≥6 months) and current CD4% (<15%, 15–24%, ≥25%). CD4%-stratified mortality rates were estimated separately for children who did not experience a clinical event (“background” mortality) and for children who experienced an event, including “acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) and “later” mortality (>30 days post-event). Results Among 847 children (median enrollment age: 4.8 months; median pre-ART follow-up: 10.8 months; 603 (71%) with ≥1 CD4% recorded), event rates were comparable for those aged <6 and ≥6 months. Current CD4% was associated with risk of WHO4 events for children <6 months old, and with all evaluated events for children ≥6 months old (p<0.05). “Background” mortality was 3.7–8.4/100py. “Acute” mortality (≤30 days post-event) was 33.8/100py (after TB) and 41.1/100py (after WHO3 or WHO4). “Later” mortality (>30 days post-event) ranged by CD4% from 4.7–29.1/100py. Conclusions In treatment-naïve, HIV-infected infants, WHO3, WHO4, and TB events were common before and after 6 months of age and led to substantial increases in mortality. Early infant HIV diagnosis and treatment are critically important, regardless of CD4%. PMID:24378935

  18. Insights into the genetic architecture of early stage age-related macular degeneration: a genome-wide association study meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Holliday, Elizabeth G; Smith, Albert V; Cornes, Belinda K; Buitendijk, Gabriëlle H S; Jensen, Richard A; Sim, Xueling; Aspelund, Thor; Aung, Tin; Baird, Paul N; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cheng, Ching Yu; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara; Hewitt, Alex W; Inouye, Michael; Jonasson, Fridbert; Klein, Barbara E K; Launer, Lenore; Li, Xiaohui; Liew, Gerald; Lumley, Thomas; McElduff, Patrick; McKnight, Barbara; Mitchell, Paul; Psaty, Bruce M; Rochtchina, Elena; Rotter, Jerome I; Scott, Rodney J; Tay, Wanting; Taylor, Kent; Teo, Yik Ying; Uitterlinden, André G; Viswanathan, Ananth; Xie, Sophia; Vingerling, Johannes R; Klaver, Caroline C W; Tai, E Shyong; Siscovick, David; Klein, Ronald; Cotch, Mary Frances; Wong, Tien Y; Attia, John; Wang, Jie Jin

    2013-01-01

    Genetic factors explain a majority of risk variance for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). While genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for late AMD implicate genes in complement, inflammatory and lipid pathways, the genetic architecture of early AMD has been relatively under studied. We conducted a GWAS meta-analysis of early AMD, including 4,089 individuals with prevalent signs of early AMD (soft drusen and/or retinal pigment epithelial changes) and 20,453 individuals without these signs. For various published late AMD risk loci, we also compared effect sizes between early and late AMD using an additional 484 individuals with prevalent late AMD. GWAS meta-analysis confirmed previously reported association of variants at the complement factor H (CFH) (peak P = 1.5×10(-31)) and age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) (P = 4.3×10(-24)) loci, and suggested Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) polymorphisms (rs2075650; P = 1.1×10(-6)) associated with early AMD. Other possible loci that did not reach GWAS significance included variants in the zinc finger protein gene GLI3 (rs2049622; P = 8.9×10(-6)) and upstream of GLI2 (rs6721654; P = 6.5×10(-6)), encoding retinal Sonic hedgehog signalling regulators, and in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene (rs621313; P = 3.5×10(-6)), involved in melanin biosynthesis. For a range of published, late AMD risk loci, estimated effect sizes were significantly lower for early than late AMD. This study confirms the involvement of multiple established AMD risk variants in early AMD, but suggests weaker genetic effects on the risk of early AMD relative to late AMD. Several biological processes were suggested to be potentially specific for early AMD, including pathways regulating RPE cell melanin content and signalling pathways potentially involved in retinal regeneration, generating hypotheses for further investigation.

  19. Measurement of macular pigment optical density among healthy Chinese people and patients with early-stage age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xue-Tao; Gu, Hong; Han, Xu; Zhang, Jun-Yan; Li, Xue; Yang, Xiu-Fen; Xu, Jun; Snellingen, Torkel; Liu, Xi-Pu; Wang, Ning-Li; Liu, Ning-Pu

    2015-01-01

    AIM To measure the macular pigment optical density (MPOD) in healthy Chinese people and patients with early age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS Cross-sectional population based study. Demographic and lifestyle characteristics were ascertained by questionnaire. A food frequency questionnaire was completed for all participants. Participants underwent general physical and ophthalmic examinations and MPOD was measured by heterochromatic flicker photometry. Foveal architecture was measured by optical coherence tomography. RESULTS MPOD of 225 participants (122 healthy and 103 early AMD) was 0.48±0.18. Patients with early AMD (0.52±0.19) tended to have higher MPOD levels than healthy people (0.47±0.17), but the difference was not statistically significant (P=0.06). Participants with carrot or corn oil intake every week tended to have higher levels of MPOD (P=0.002 and 0.008 respectively) while those with corn intake had relatively lower level of MPOD (P=0.01). MPOD increased with the center foveal thickness (P=0.01). CONCLUSION Our findings show that there is no statistically significant association between MPOD and early AMD in the studied population. MPOD is related to center foveal thickness and diets would influence MPOD levels. PMID:26682171

  20. Geological and 40Ar/39Ar age constraints on late-stage Deccan rhyolitic volcanism, inter-volcanic sedimentation, and the Panvel flexure from the Dongri area, Mumbai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Pande, Kanchan

    2014-04-01

    Post-K-Pg Boundary Deccan magmatism is well known from the Mumbai area in the Panvel flexure zone. Represented by the Salsette Subgroup, it shows characters atypical of much of the Deccan Traps, including rhyolite lavas and tuffs, mafic tuffs and breccias, spilitic pillow basalts, and "intertrappean" sedimentary or volcanosedimentary deposits, with mafic intrusions as well as trachyte intrusions containing basaltic enclaves. The intertrappean deposits have been interpreted as formed in shallow marine or lagoonal environments in small fault-bounded basins due to syn-volcanic subsidence. We report a previously unknown sedimentary deposit underlying the Dongri rhyolite flow from the upper part of the Salsette Subgroup, with a westerly tectonic dip due to the Panvel flexure. We have obtained concordant 40Ar/39Ar ages of 62.6 ± 0.6 Ma (2σ) and 62.9 ± 0.2 Ma (2σ) for samples taken from two separate outcrops of this rhyolite. The results are significant in showing that (i) Danian inter-volcanic sedimentary deposits formed throughout Mumbai, (ii) the rock units are consistent with the stratigraphy postulated earlier for Mumbai, (iii) shale fragments known in some Dongri tuffs were likely derived from the sedimentary deposit under the Dongri rhyolite, (iv) the total duration of extrusive and intrusive Deccan magmatism was at least 8-9 million years, and (v) Panvel flexure formed, or continued to form, after 63 Ma, possibly even 62 Ma, and could not have formed by 65-64 Ma as concluded in a recent study.

  1. [ADHERING TO MEDICAL STANDARTS, EVIDENCE-BASED STAGING IN GYNECOLOGICAL CANCER].

    PubMed

    Chakalova, G

    2016-01-01

    Among the key factors that influence the survival of patients is adherence to medical treatment standards. Indicators are assessing the degree of adherence to medical standards and represent the relative shares (%) of patients who fulfilled the relevant aspect of any subject. Data from the BNCR of 9842 cases of patients with malignant diseases of the female reproductive diagnosed in 2011-2013 in Bulgaria has been analyzed. Patients with tumors of the vulva were incorrectly staged in 15% to 30% of the cases, and those with vaginal tumors were incorrectly staged in 20% to 23% of cases. In patients with malignant tumors of the cervix incorrect staging was established in 19% to 47% of the cases. Patients with tumors of the uterus were incorrectly staged in 6% to 26% of the cases. Among the patients with ovarian tumors were incorrectly staged in 18% to 43%. Our results show that one in three patients with gynecological cancer in Bulgaria was incorrectly staged. We recommend using the current TNM and FIGO systems. PMID:27514165

  2. Writing Stages: A Developmental Hierarchy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.

    The developmental stages of writing can be related to Jean Piaget's final three stages of development (preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational) and to the narrative, descriptive, explanative, analytical, and artistic rhetorical modes. As the child enters kindergarten or the first grade, narrative blooms. By this age most young…

  3. Development: Ages & Stages--Spatial Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2006-01-01

    Spatial concepts such as a sense of distance are learned through movement and exploration which is the most effective way for children to gain body awareness and an understanding of spatial relationships. It simultaneously develops muscle strength, coordination, self-confidence, and thinking skills. Spatial awareness can be defined as "an…

  4. Incident Comorbidities and All-Cause Mortality among Five-Year Survivors of Stage I and II Breast Cancer Diagnosed at Age 65 or Older: A Prospective Matched Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Jennifer H.; Thwin, Soe Soe; Lash, Timothy L.; Buist, Diana S.M.; Field, Terry S.; Haque, Reina; Pawloski, Pamala A.; Petersen, Hans V.; Prout, Marianne N.; Quinn, Virginia P.; Yood, Marianne Ulcickas; Silliman, Rebecca A.; Geiger, Ann M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Five-year breast cancer survivors, diagnosed after 65 years of age, may develop more incident comorbidities than similar populations free of cancer. We investigated if older breast cancer survivors have a similar comorbidity burden 6–15 years after cancer diagnosis to matched women free of breast cancer at start of follow-up and if incident comorbidities are associated with all-cause mortality. Methods In this prospective cohort study, 1,361 older five-year early stage breast cancer survivors diagnosed between 1990 and 1994 and 1,361 age- and health system-matched women were followed for ten years. Adjudicated medical record review captured prevalent and incident comorbidities during follow-up or until death as collected from the National Death Index. Results Older five-year breast cancer survivors did not acquire incident comorbidities more often than matched women free of breast cancer in the subsequent 10 years (HR=1.0, 95%CI: 0.93,1.1). Adjusted for cohort membership, women with incident comorbidities had a higher mortality rate than those without incident comorbidities (HR=4.8, 95%CI: 4.1,5.6). A breast cancer history continued to be a hazard for mortality 6–15 years after diagnosis (HR=1.3, 95%CI: 1.1,1.4). Conclusions We found that older breast cancer survivors who developed comorbidities had an increased all-cause mortality rate even after adjusting for age and prevalent comorbidity burden. Additionally, survivors acquire comorbidities at a rate similar to older women free of breast cancer. These results highlight the association between comorbidity burden and long-term mortality risk among older breast cancer survivors and their need for appropriate oncology and primary care follow-up. PMID:24939060

  5. [Preoperative endocavitary curietherapy of stage Ib-IIa-IIb cervical carcinoma. Personal observations].

    PubMed

    Gabriele, A M; Boidi Trotti, A; Fracchia, F; Rosmino, C; Rovea, P; Tardy, A

    1989-05-01

    From 1980 through 1984, 41 patients with squamous cell cervix carcinoma and 1 with adenosquamous carcinoma were treated with preoperative irradiation. Clinical stages were Ib in 6 patients, IIa in 24, and IIb in 12. At surgery, lymph node metastases were found in 5 cases, and residual tumors in 8. The latter risk patients were given further external radiotherapy after surgery. Overall three-year survival rates for FIGO stage Ib was 100%; 91.6% for stage IIa, and 83% for stage IIb (minimum follow-up: 3 years). Two patients died from locoregional recurrence of the disease 12-24 months after the treatment, and 2 from distant metastases; 5 patients have showed signs of local improvement. Our results seem to point to pelvic lymph node involvement as the major prognostic factor: in fact, 40% only of the patients with involved lymph nodes is alive. Actuarial survival rates show 90.4% of patients to be alive at 5 years. Tolerance to the combined use radiotherapy and surgery was fair: no severe side-effects were observed. Even though our results are encouraging, a randomized study is still recommended to verify the actual value of this treatment versus combined surgery and radiotherapy or radiotherapy alone.

  6. Stages of Identity Development and Problem Drinking in College Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnur, Randi E.; MacDonald, Marian L.

    1988-01-01

    Deviation from age-appropriate identity-development stage and problem drinking was investigated in 75 undergraduate women (18-25 years old). Results indicate that younger subjects deviating from their age-appropriate identity stage differentiation and older subjects deviating from their age-appropriate stage of identity integration were likely to…

  7. Multi-stage wax hydrocracking

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, J.J.; Nye, J.R.; Soudek, M.

    1991-02-19

    This patent describes improvement in a process for the shape selective catalytic dewaxing of a wax containing feed. It consists of at least one of atmospheric gas oil and vacuum gas oil by passing the feed with about 1000 to 5000 standard cubic feet per barrel of hydrogen over a dewaxing catalyst comprising a shape selective zeolite to produce a dewaxed product and wherein the hydrogen is added to retard catalyst aging. The improvement comprises conducting the dewaxing reaction in at least two states, with a first stage containing at least 20 wt. % of the dewaxing catalyst and in at least one second stage containing at least 20 wt. % of the dewaxing catalyst and adding at least a portion of the hydrogen downstream of the first stage reactor wherein the total hydrogen to the second stage is greater than the total hydrogen to the first stage.

  8. Second Stage Separation

    NASA Video Gallery

    When the second stage burn is complete, the spacecraft and third stage are spun up to 55 rpm to stabilize the third stage during its short firing. The second stage is then jettisoned and the third ...

  9. Lung Cancer Staging and Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Woodard, Gavitt A; Jones, Kirk D; Jablons, David M

    2016-01-01

    The seventh edition of the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) TNM staging system was developed by the International Association for the Staging of Lung Cancer (IASLC) Lung Cancer Staging Project by a coordinated international effort to develop data-derived TNM classifications with significant survival differences. Based on these TNM groupings, current 5-year survival estimates in NSLCC range from 73 % in stage IA disease to 13 % in stage IV disease. TNM stage remains the most important prognostic factor in predicting recurrence rates and survival times, followed by tumor histologic grade, and patient sex, age, and performance status. Molecular prognostication in lung cancer is an exploding area of research where interest has moved beyond TNM stage and into individualized genetic tumor analysis with immunohistochemistry, microarray, and mutation profiles. However, despite intense research efforts and countless publications, no molecular prognostic marker has been adopted into clinical use since most fail in subsequent cross-validation with few exceptions. The recent interest in immunotherapy for NSCLC has identified new biomarkers with early evidence that suggests that PD-L1 is a predictive marker of a good response to new immunotherapy drugs but a poor prognostic indicator of overall survival. Future prognostication of outcomes in NSCLC will likely be based on a combination of TNM stage and molecular tumor profiling and yield more precise, individualized survival estimates and treatment algorithms. PMID:27535389

  10. Three-dimensional transvaginal tomographic ultrasound imaging for cervical cancer staging.

    PubMed

    Han, Xue-Song; Ning, Chun-Ping; Sun, Li-Tao; Li, Xiao-Ying; Peng, Yan-Qing; Dang, Mei-Zheng

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using 3-D transvaginal tomographic ultrasound imaging (TUI) to stage patients with cervical carcinoma. Eighty women with cervical cancer who underwent transvaginal TUI examinations were enrolled. In all patients, cancer was confirmed pre-operatively by pathologic examination. Staging on the basis of clinical features, ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging was performed according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system. Clinical, TUI and magnetic resonance imaging staging was compared with that based on histology. Depth of invasion into the stroma was measured by TUI in 52 cases and compared with pathologic results. An interclass correlation coefficient was used to analyze reproducibility. In total, all 80 patients underwent surgical treatment. The accuracy of pre-operative staging, compared with histologic findings, was 92.50% for TUI, 82.50% for magnetic resonance imaging and 78.75% for clinical examination. The mean depth of lesions as measured with TUI was 12.5 ± 6.2 mm (range: 3.5-40.0 mm), and that measured on histology was 10.5 ± 8.0 mm (range: 3.0-40.0 mm). The interclass correlation coefficient of the two methods was 0.933 (95% confidence interval: 0.887-0.961). Pre-operative TUI is promising as a method for pre-operative staging of cervical carcinomas. TUI can also reliably assess lesion depth.

  11. Age and Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collard, Lucien

    1977-01-01

    An investigation of the differences between first and second language acquisition and the relationship between age and second language learning. The stages in native language acquisition and the advantages of an early start in second language learning are discussed. (AMH)

  12. Total abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy in the management of early stage ovarian carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Macbeth, F.R.; Macdonald, H.; Williams, C.J.

    1988-08-01

    In a prospective study, 57 women with early stage ovarian carcinoma received total abdominal and pelvic radiotherapy (TAPR) following radical surgery. The whole abdomen received 22.5 Gy m.p.d. by large opposed fields in 18 fractions over 4 1/2 weeks, with 8 MeV X rays, followed by a further 22.5 Gy in 10 fractions over 2 weeks to the pelvis alone, using a dosage and technique similar to that described from the Princess Margaret Hospital, Toronto. The actuarial 5-year relapse-free and overall survival figures were 49 and 57% respectively, which appear to be significantly worse than those reported from Toronto (73% and 75%). The incidence of severe bowel toxicity (7%) was higher. There was no correlation between survival and FIGO stage at laparotomy, but a significant correlation with histological grade. These data do not seem to support the idea of a curative role for post-operative irradiation at this dosage in these patients.

  13. Californium versus cobalt brachytherapy combined with external-beam radiotherapy for IIB stage cervical cancer: long-term experience of a single institute

    PubMed Central

    Janulionis, Ernestas; Valuckas, Konstantinas Povilas; Samerdokiene, Vitalija; Atkocius, Vydmantas

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this paper was to observe and compare long-term curative effects and complications of FIGO stage IIB cervical cancer patients (n = 232) treated with high-dose-rate (HDR) californium (252Cf) neutron or cobalt (60Co) photon intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) combined with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT). Material and methods The EBRT dose to the small pelvis was 50 Gy in both groups. The brachytherapy component of 252Cf or 60Co was added in the 3rd week of EBRT, 5 fractions were performed once per week resulting in a total ICBT dose of 40 Gy/Gyeq (point A). Results Overall survival (OS) at 5, 10 and 15 years was 63.6%, 50.4% and 38.8% in the 252Cf group and 62.2%, 50.5%, 39.9%, in the 60Co group, respectively (p = 0.74). The percentage of tumour recurrence was statistically significantly lower in the 252Cf group with 7.4% versus 17.1% in the 60Co group (p = 0.02). Second primary cancers have developed similarly 9.1% and 8.1% cases for 252Cf and 60Co groups, respectively. Conclusions Our long-term retrospective study comparing 252Cf and 60Co isotopes with brachytherapy in combined treatment of FIGO IIB stage cervix carcinoma patients shows, that overall survival in the both groups are similar. However, the recurrence of tumour was significantly lower in the 252Cf group. The incidence of second primary cancers was similar in both groups. PMID:26622239

  14. Impact of Adjuvant External-Beam Radiation Therapy in Early-Stage Uterine Papillary Serous and Clear Cell Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Anne; Schreiber, David; Rineer, Justin; Choi, Kwang; Rotman, Marvin

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) in early-stage high- to intermediate-risk endometrioid adenocarcinoma is well established and has been shown to improve locoregional control. Its role in the management of early-stage clear cell carcinoma and uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) remains controversial. Methods and Materials: Using the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database, we identified women with American Joint Committee on Cancer Stage Sixth Edition. Stage IA-IIB clear cell carcinoma or UPSC who underwent hysterectomy with or without adjuvant RT between 1988 and 2003. We used Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analysis to compare overall survival (OS) for all patients. Results: We identified 1,333 women of whom 451 had clear cell carcinoma and 882 had UPSC. Of those patients, 775 underwent surgery alone and 558 received adjuvant RT as well. For Stages I-IIB disease, the median OS with surgery alone was 106 months, vs. 151 months with adjuvant RT (p = 0.006). On subgroup analysis, we saw the benefit from adjuvant RT only in Stage IB-C patients. For Stage IB disease, patients undergoing surgery alone had a median OS of 117 months, vs. median survival not reached with the addition of RT (p = 0.006). For Stage IC disease, surgery alone had a median OS of 35 months vs. 120 months with RT (p = 0.001). Although the apparent benefit of RT diminished when measured via multivariate analysis, the impact of RT on survival did show a trend toward significance (hazard ration 0.808, confidence interval 95% 0.651-1.002, p = 0.052) Conclusion: In FIGO Stage IB-C papillary serous and clear cell uterine carcinoma, adjuvant RT seems to play an important role in improving survival.

  15. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3

    MedlinePlus

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pancreatic Cancer Stage 3 Description: Stage III pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer ...

  16. The evolution of massive stars and their spectra. I. A non-rotating 60 M⊙ star from the zero-age main sequence to the pre-supernova stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, Jose H.; Meynet, Georges; Ekström, Sylvia; Georgy, Cyril

    2014-04-01

    For the first time, the interior and spectroscopic evolution of a massive star is analyzed from the zero-age main sequence (ZAMS) to the pre-supernova (SN) stage. For this purpose, we combined stellar evolution models using the Geneva code and stellar atmospheric/wind models using CMFGEN. With our approach, we were able to produce observables, such as a synthetic high-resolution spectrum and photometry, thereby aiding the comparison between evolution models and observed data. Here we analyze the evolution of a non-rotating 60 M⊙ star and its spectrum throughout its lifetime. Interestingly, the star has a supergiant appearance (luminosity class I) even at the ZAMS. We find the following evolutionary sequence of spectral types: O3 I (at the ZAMS), O4 I (middle of the H-core burning phase), B supergiant (BSG), B hypergiant (BHG), hot luminous blue variable (LBV; end of H-core burning), cool LBV (H-shell burning through the beginning of the He-core burning phase), rapid evolution through late WN and early WN, early WC (middle of He-core burning), and WO (end of He-core burning until core collapse). We find the following spectroscopic phase lifetimes: 3.22 × 106 yr for the O-type, 0.34 × 105 yr (BSG), 0.79 × 105 yr (BHG), 2.35 × 105 yr (LBV), 1.05 × 105 yr (WN), 2.57 × 105 yr (WC), and 3.80 × 104 yr (WO). Compared to previous studies, we find a much longer (shorter) duration for the early WN (late WN) phase, as well as a long-lived LBV phase. We show that LBVs arise naturally in single-star evolution models at the end of the MS when the mass-loss rate increases as a consequence of crossing the bistability limit. We discuss the evolution of the spectra, magnitudes, colors, and ionizing flux across the star's lifetime, and the way they are related to the evolution of the interior. We find that the absolute magnitude of the star typically changes by ~6 mag in optical filters across the evolution, with the star becoming significantly fainter in optical filters at

  17. Evolution in Stage-Structured Populations

    PubMed Central

    Barfield, Michael; Holt, Robert D.; Gomulkiewicz, Richard

    2016-01-01

    For many organisms, stage is a better predictor of demographic rates than age. Yet no general theoretical framework exists for understanding or predicting evolution in stage-structured populations. Here, we provide a general modeling approach that can be used to predict evolution and demography of stage-structured populations. This advances our ability to understand evolution in stage-structured populations to a level previously available only for populations structured by age. We use this framework to provide the first rigorous proof that Lande’s theorem, which relates adaptive evolution to population growth, applies to stage-classified populations, assuming only normality and that evolution is slow relative to population dynamics. We extend this theorem to allow for different means or variances among stages. Our next major result is the formulation of Price’s theorem, a fundamental law of evolution, for stage-structured populations. In addition, we use data from Trillium grandiflorum to demonstrate how our models can be applied to a real-world population and thereby show their practical potential to generate accurate projections of evolutionary and population dynamics. Finally, we use our framework to compare rates of evolution in age- versus stage-structured populations, which shows how our methods can yield biological insights about evolution in stage-structured populations. PMID:21460563

  18. The value of loop electrosurgical conization in the treatment of stage IA1 microinvasive carcinoma of the uterine cervix.

    PubMed

    Bekkers, R L M; Keyser, K G G; Bulten, J; Hanselaar, A G J M; Schijf, C P T; Boonstra, H; Massuger, L F A G

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to assess the value of Loop Electrosurgical Conization (LEC) in the treatment of stage IA1 microinvasive squamous cell carcinoma (MIC) of the uterine cervix. Retrospectively, 82 patients with FIGO stage IA1 MIC, primarily treated with LEC on see and treat basis, were analyzed. After the initial LEC, 16 patients received cytologic and colposcopic follow-up only, 66 patients underwent a second procedure (repeat LEC, Cold Knife Conization (CKC), or hysterectomy), and four patients underwent a third procedure (hysterectomy). In 63 patients (77%) no residual CIN 3 or MIC was present after the initial LEC. Treatment of residual CIN 3 or MIC was equally effective with a repeat LEC as with CKC. One patient defaulted follow-up and developed a recurrence in the vaginal vault and was treated with a radical hysterectomy. LEC can be used as an alternative for CKC in treatment of patients with stage IA1 MIC. The advantage of LEC is that it can be performed as an outpatient procedure in addition to a diagnostic colposcopy and does not require a major anesthetic. Only a small number of patients will need a more extensive procedure. PMID:12366667

  19. Questions and Answers for Transplant Candidates about Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) and Pediatric End-Stage ....

    MedlinePlus

    ... needs a liver transplant most urgently. The MELD (Model for End Stage Liver Disease) is used for ... and the PELD (Pediatric End Stage Liver Disease Model) is used for patients age 11 and younger. ...

  20. Surgical staging and prognosis in serous borderline ovarian tumours (BOT): A subanalysis of the AGO ROBOT study

    PubMed Central

    Trillsch, F; Mahner, S; Vettorazzi, E; Woelber, L; Reuss, A; Baumann, K; Keyver-Paik, M-D; Canzler, U; Wollschlaeger, K; Forner, D; Pfisterer, J; Schroeder, W; Muenstedt, K; Richter, B; Fotopoulou, C; Schmalfeldt, B; Burges, A; Ewald-Riegler, N; de Gregorio, N; Hilpert, F; Fehm, T; Meier, W; Hillemanns, P; Hanker, L; Hasenburg, A; Strauss, H-G; Hellriegel, M; Wimberger, P; Kommoss, S; Kommoss, F; Hauptmann, S; du Bois, A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Incomplete surgical staging is a negative prognostic factor for patients with borderline ovarian tumours (BOT). However, little is known about the prognostic impact of each individual staging procedure. Methods: Clinical parameters of 950 patients with BOT (confirmed by central reference pathology) treated between 1998 and 2008 at 24 German AGO centres were analysed. In 559 patients with serous BOT and adequate ovarian surgery, further recommended staging procedures (omentectomy, peritoneal biopsies, cytology) were evaluated applying Cox regression models with respect to progression-free survival (PFS). Results: For patients with one missing staging procedure, the hazard ratio (HR) for recurrence was 1.25 (95%-CI 0.66–2.39; P=0.497). This risk increased with each additional procedure skipped reaching statistical significance in case of two (HR 1.95; 95%-CI 1.06–3.58; P=0.031) and three missing steps (HR 2.37; 95%-CI 1.22–4.64; P=0.011). The most crucial procedure was omentectomy which retained a statistically significant impact on PFS in multiple analysis (HR 1.91; 95%-CI 1.15–3.19; P=0.013) adjusting for previously established prognostic factors as FIGO stage, tumour residuals, and fertility preservation. Conclusion: Individual surgical staging procedures contribute to the prognosis for patients with serous BOT. In this analysis, recurrence risk increased with each skipped surgical step. This should be considered when re-staging procedures following incomplete primary surgery are discussed. PMID:25562434

  1. NR2F6 Expression Correlates with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chunhao; Sun, Xiaoying; Zhang, Weijing; Li, Han; Xu, Liqun; Li, Jun; Xu, Benke; Zhang, Yanna

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is an abnormal expression of nuclear receptor subfamily 2 group F member 6 (NR2F6) in human cancers such as breast cancer, colon cancer, and acute myelogenous leukemia. However, its clinical significance in cervical cancer has not been established. We explored NR2F6 expression and its clinicopathological significance in early-stage cervical cancer. Methods: NR2F6 expression in cervical cancer cell lines and cervical cancer tissues was determined by Western blotting, real-time PCR, and immunochemistry (IHC). NR2F6 expression in 189 human early-stage cervical cancer tissue samples was evaluated using IHC. The relevance between NR2F6 expression and early-stage cervical cancer prognosis and clinicopathological features was determined. Results: There was marked NR2F6 mRNA and protein overexpression in the cervical cancer cells and clinical tissues compared with an immortalized squamous cell line and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues, respectively. In the 189 cervical cancer samples, NR2F6 expression was positively related to International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage (p = 0.006), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (p = 0.006), vital status (p < 0.001), tumor recurrence (p = 0.001), chemotherapy (p = 0.039), and lymph node metastasis (p < 0.001). Overall and disease-free survival was shorter in patients with early-stage cervical cancer and higher NR2F6 levels than in patients with lower levels of NR2F6. Univariate and multivariate analysis determined that NR2F6 was an independent prognostic factor of survival in early-stage cervical cancer. Conclusions: Taken together, our findings suggest that high NR2F6 expression predicts pelvic lymph node metastasis, tumor recurrence and poor prognosis in early-stage cervical cancer. NR2F6 might be a novel prognostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target of cervical cancer. PMID:27775588

  2. [PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF ADJUVANT RADIOTHERAPY IN EARLY IB1 STAGE CERVICAL CANCER].

    PubMed

    Ismail, E; Kornovski, Y

    2015-01-01

    The cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies. Worldwide 500,000 women a year become ill from cervical cancer. The aim of the study was to establish the role of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with IB1 cervical cancer in terms of disease free survival. Between 2002-2012, 132 patients diagnosed as IB1 stage according to FIGO criteria were enrolled in the study. Depending on the administered therapy the patients were divided into two groups--Group 1-93 patients were treated surgically and with adjuvant radiotherapy and Group 2--39 patients were treated surgically without adjuvant radiotherapy Surgery was radical hysterectomy class III and pelvic or paraaortic lymph node dissection(in cases of bulky paraaortic nodes), and adjuvant RT-telegamma therapy(TGT) in dose 52 Gy. The frequency of recurrence in a Group I (surgery and TGT) is 9.7%. Tree and five years disease free survival (DFS) is 88%. The frequency of recurrence in a Group 2 (surgery without TGT) is 25.6%. Tree and five years DFS respectively are 70% and 65%. In an analysis of oncological results establish that adjuvant TGT after surgery significantly increases DFS. On the other hand the addition of adjuvant TGT increases the patients morbidity Therefore should determine which are the risk factors for the occurrence of relapses and select group of patients who would benefit from adjuvant TGT and the risk of complications in them would be justified.

  3. [PROGNOSTIC SIGNIFICANCE OF ADJUVANT RADIOTHERAPY IN EARLY IB1 STAGE CERVICAL CANCER].

    PubMed

    Ismail, E; Kornovski, Y

    2015-01-01

    The cervical cancer is one of the most common malignancies. Worldwide 500,000 women a year become ill from cervical cancer. The aim of the study was to establish the role of adjuvant radiotherapy in patients with IB1 cervical cancer in terms of disease free survival. Between 2002-2012, 132 patients diagnosed as IB1 stage according to FIGO criteria were enrolled in the study. Depending on the administered therapy the patients were divided into two groups--Group 1-93 patients were treated surgically and with adjuvant radiotherapy and Group 2--39 patients were treated surgically without adjuvant radiotherapy Surgery was radical hysterectomy class III and pelvic or paraaortic lymph node dissection(in cases of bulky paraaortic nodes), and adjuvant RT-telegamma therapy(TGT) in dose 52 Gy. The frequency of recurrence in a Group I (surgery and TGT) is 9.7%. Tree and five years disease free survival (DFS) is 88%. The frequency of recurrence in a Group 2 (surgery without TGT) is 25.6%. Tree and five years DFS respectively are 70% and 65%. In an analysis of oncological results establish that adjuvant TGT after surgery significantly increases DFS. On the other hand the addition of adjuvant TGT increases the patients morbidity Therefore should determine which are the risk factors for the occurrence of relapses and select group of patients who would benefit from adjuvant TGT and the risk of complications in them would be justified. PMID:26817258

  4. Maximum occusal bite force for children in different dentition stages.

    PubMed

    Owais, Arwa I; Shaweesh, Mona; Abu Alhaija, Elham S J

    2013-08-01

    This study was carried out to record maximum occlusal bite force (MOBF) among different dentition stages in children and to study the relation of occlusal bite force to weight, height, and gender. A total of 1011 children (500 females and 511 males) aged from 3 to 18 years were examined. The subjects were divided into 5 groups according to their dentition stage as the following:- early primary dentition stage (100 males and 100 females, average age was 3.37 ± 0.23 years), late primary dentition stage (104 males and 100 females, average age was 5.86 ± 1.15 years), early mixed dentition stage (100 males and 100 females, average age was 8.15 ± 0.67 years), late mixed dentition stage (100 males and 100 females, average age was 9.97 ± 0.86 years ), and permanent dentition stage (107 males and 100 females, average age was 14.03 ± 2.14 years). Occlusal bite force was measured using a hydraulic occlusal force gauge. The means of MOBF for the different dentition stages were:- 176 N in early primary stage, 240 N in late primary stage, 289 N in early mixed stage, 433 N in late mixed stage, and 527 N in the permanent dentition stage, respectively. Gender differences were detected in groups 2, 3 and 4. Height and age significantly correlated with the MOBF in all dentition stage groups except group 1. In conclusion, the MOBF increased with age. Age, gender, and height were significant predictors of the MOBF.

  5. Lunar Module Ascent Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Lunar Module 'Spider' ascent stage is photographed from the Command/Service Module on the fifth day of the Apollo 9 earth-orbital mission. The Lunar Module's descent stage had already been jettisoned.

  6. Breast cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    Doctors use 7 main stages to describe breast cancer. Stage 0, also called carcinoma in situ. This is cancer that is confined to the lobules or ducts in the breast. It has not spread to surrounding tissue. ...

  7. Gestational age

    MedlinePlus

    Fetal age - gestational age; Gestation; Neonatal gestational age; Newborn gestational age ... Gestational age can be determined before or after birth. Before birth, your health care provider will use ultrasound to ...

  8. Ovarian Cancer Stage IV

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1200x1335 View Download Large: 2400x2670 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IV Description: Drawing of stage IV shows ...

  9. Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1530x1350 View Download Large: 3060x2700 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage IIIC Description: Drawing of stage IIIC shows ...

  10. Ovarian Cancer Stage II

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage II Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage II Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  11. Ovarian Cancer Stage I

    MedlinePlus

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Ovarian Cancer Stage I Add to My Pictures View /Download : ... 1650x675 View Download Large: 3300x1350 View Download Title: Ovarian Cancer Stage I Description: Three-panel drawing of stage ...

  12. Beyond Erikson's Eight Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Ruth

    1979-01-01

    Erik Erikson has described eight stages of the healthy personality. This essay offers a revised version of the eight stages. Although most individuals develop through the eight stages, each is personally unique because patterns of fluctuation between safety and growth differ from one individual to another. (Author)

  13. Second stage of labor.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yvonne W; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-06-01

    Current American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' definition of prolonged second stage diagnoses 10% to 14% of nulliparous and 3% to 3.5% of multiparous women as having a prolonged second stage. The progression of labor in modern obstetrics may have deviated from the current labor norms established in the 1950s, likely due to differences in obstetric population characteristics and variation in clinical practice. Optimal management of the second stage in women with and without epidural remains debatable. Although prolonged second stage is associated with increased risk of maternal morbidity, conflicting data exist regarding the duration of second stage and associated neonatal morbidity and mortality.

  14. Cetuximab, Cisplatin, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IB, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Cervical Adenocarcinoma; Cervical Adenosquamous Carcinoma; Cervical Small Cell Carcinoma; Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IB Cervical Cancer; Stage IIA Cervical Cancer; Stage IIB Cervical Cancer; Stage III Cervical Cancer; Stage IVA Cervical Cancer

  15. [Male aspect towards good aging].

    PubMed

    Huttunen, Matti O

    2009-01-01

    Columnist "Kirsti" of Helsingin Sanomat newspaper divided middle age into three stages: early middle age (35-45 years), mid-middle age (45-55) and late middle age (55-65). Similarly, those at 65-75 are living juvenile old age, those at 75-85 midlife old age and those over 85, senescent old age. Classification of these ages according to the years of life does, however, not correspond with personal feelings. The intrinsic relation to life and death may provide a better definition of the stages of life. At the middle age we become aware of the limitation of life and begin to count the remaining years. PMID:19585910

  16. Staged electrostatic precipitator

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Stanley J.; Almlie, Jay C.; Zhuang, Ye

    2016-03-01

    A device includes a chamber having an air inlet and an air outlet. The device includes a plurality of stages including at least a first stage adjacent a second stage. The plurality of stages are disposed in the chamber and each stage has a plurality of discharge electrodes disposed in an interior region and is bounded by an upstream baffle on an end proximate the air inlet and bounded by a downstream baffle on an end proximate the air outlet. Each stage has at least one sidewall between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The sidewall is configured as a collection electrode and has a plurality of apertures disposed along a length between the upstream baffle and the downstream baffle. The upstream baffle of the first stage is positioned in staggered alignment relative to the upstream baffle of the second stage and the downstream baffle of the first stage are positioned in staggered alignment relative to the downstream baffle of the second stage.

  17. Two stage catalytic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvin, Mary Anne (Inventor); Bachovchin, Dennis (Inventor); Smeltzer, Eugene E. (Inventor); Lippert, Thomas E. (Inventor); Bruck, Gerald J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A catalytic combustor (14) includes a first catalytic stage (30), a second catalytic stage (40), and an oxidation completion stage (49). The first catalytic stage receives an oxidizer (e.g., 20) and a fuel (26) and discharges a partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture (36). The second catalytic stage receives the partially oxidized fuel/oxidizer mixture and further oxidizes the mixture. The second catalytic stage may include a passageway (47) for conducting a bypass portion (46) of the mixture past a catalyst (e.g., 41) disposed therein. The second catalytic stage may have an outlet temperature elevated sufficiently to complete oxidation of the mixture without using a separate ignition source. The oxidation completion stage is disposed downstream of the second catalytic stage and may recombine the bypass portion with a catalyst exposed portion (48) of the mixture and complete oxidation of the mixture. The second catalytic stage may also include a reticulated foam support (50), a honeycomb support, a tube support or a plate support.

  18. 'I don't know whether it is to do with age or to do with hormones and whether it is do with a stage in your life': making sense of menopause and the body.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Helena R; Foster, Juliet L H

    2013-02-01

    This article discusses a mixed-methods study that explored women's views about menopause and any relationship between these and several measures of body consciousness. A total of 270 women in the United Kingdom completed surveys of menopausal attitudes, self-objectification, body surveillance and body shame. There was a positive association between rating highly on body dissatisfaction scales and holding negative attitudes towards menopause. Interviews (n = 12) were conducted to investigate this further. Menopause was inextricably linked with aging for these women, and changing appearance was a particular concern for women who rated high on self-objectification. The implications of this are discussed.

  19. Assessment of Growth Using Mandibular Canine Calcification Stages and Its Correlation with Modified MP3 Stages

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, US Krishna; Hegde, Gautam

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives Orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning for growing children must involve growth prediction, especially in the treatment of skeletal problems. Studies have shown that a strong association exists between skeletal maturity and dental calcification stages. The present study was therefore taken up to provide a simple and practical method for assessing skeletal maturity using a dental periapical film and standard dental X-ray machine, to compare the developmental stages of the mandibular canine with that of developmental stages of modified MP3 and to find out if any correlation exists, to determine if the developmental stages of the mandibular canine alone can be used as a reliable indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity. Methods A total of 160 periapical radiographs (80 males and 80 females), of the mandibular right canine and the MP3 region was taken and assessed according to the Dermirjian’s stages of dental calcification and the modified MP3 stages. Results The correlation between the developmental stages of MP3 and the mandibular right canine in male and female groups, is of high statistical significance (p = 0.001). The correlation coefficient between MP3 stages and developmental stages of mandibular canine and chronological age in male and females was found to be not significant. Conclusions The correlation between the mandibular canine calcification stages and MP3 stages was found to be significant. The developmental stages of the mandibular canine could be used very reliably as a sole indicator for assessment of skeletal maturity.

  20. Computed Tomography Staging of Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

    PubMed Central

    Razek, Ahmed Abdel Khalek Abdel; Ghonim, Mohamed Rashad; Ashraf, Bassem

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background To establish computed tomography (CT) staging of middle ear cholesteatoma and assess its impact on the selection of the surgical procedure. Material/Methods Prospective study was conducted on 61 consecutive patients (mean age 26.8 years) with middle ear cholesteatoma. CT scan of the temporal bone and surgery were performed in all patients. CT staging classified cholesteatoma according to its location in the tympanic cavity (T); extension into the mastoid (M); and associated complications (C). Cholesteatoma was staged as stage I (T1, T2), stage II (T3, M1, M2, C1), and stage III (C2). Results The overall sensitivity of CT staging of cholesteatoma compared to surgery was 88% with excellent agreement and correlation between CT findings and intra-operative findings (K=0.863, r=0.86, P=0.001). There was excellent agreement and correlation of CT staging with surgical findings for T location (K=0.811, r=0.89, P=0.001), good for M extension (K=0.734, r=0.88, P=0.001), and excellent for associated C complications (K=1.00, r=1.0, P=0.001). Atticotympanotomy was carried out in stage I (n=14), intact canal wall surgery was performed in stage II (n=38), and canal wall down surgery was done in stage III (n=5) and stage II (n=4). Conclusions We established CT staging of middle ear cholesteatoma that helps surgeons to select an appropriate surgery. PMID:26171086

  1. Impact cratering at geologic stage boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, Richard B.

    1993-01-01

    The largest known Cenozoic impact craters with the most accurately measured ages are found to correlate very closely with geologic stage boundaries. The level of confidence in this result is 98-99 percent even under the most pessimistic assumptions concerning dating errors. One or more large impacts may have led, in at least some cases, to the extinctions and first appearances of biotic species that mark many of the geologic stage boundaries.

  2. Staging Early Esophageal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Old, O J; Isabelle, M; Barr, H

    2016-01-01

    Staging esophageal cancer provides a standardized measure of the extent of disease that can be used to inform decisions about therapy and guide prognosis. For esophageal cancer, the treatment pathways vary greatly depending on stage of disease, and accurate staging is therefore crucial in ensuring the optimal therapy for each patient. For early esophageal cancer (T1 lesions), endoscopic resection can be curative and simultaneously gives accurate staging of depth of invasion. For tumors invading the submucosa or more advanced disease, comprehensive investigation is required to accurately stage the tumor and assess suitability for curative resection. A combined imaging approach of computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) offers complementary diagnostic information and gives the greatest chance of accurate staging. Staging laparoscopy can identify peritoneal disease and small superficial liver lesions that could be missed on CT or PET, and alters management in up to 20 % of patients. Optical diagnostic techniques offer the prospect of further extending the possibilities of endoscopic staging in real time. Optical coherence tomography can image superficial lesions and could provide information on depth of invasion for these lesions. Real-time lymph node analysis using optical diagnostics such as Raman spectroscopy could be used to support immediate endoscopic therapy without waiting for results of cytology or further investigations. PMID:27573772

  3. Paradigm shift redefining molecular, metabolic and structural events in Alzheimer's disease involves a proposed contribution by transition metals. Defined lengthy preclinical stage provides new hope to circumvent advancement of disease- and age-related neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Cavaleri, Franco

    2015-05-01

    AD symptoms for as long as 20 years. A healthy neuron may tolerate free metal toxicity, such as iron in the case of injury-induced amyloid, for as long as twenty years due to this very BACE1 activity. In later stages, the uncontrolled metals and ROS are compounded by other factors which together overcome this BACE1/β-amyloid protein countermeasure. This results in a sudden increase in IL-1 leading to Tau's hyperphosphorylation as cited and eventually to Tau dissociation from the microtubule cytoskeleton interrupting cell trafficking. At this later stage of AD the β-amyloid protein which once served as a vehicle to escort toxic metals to the extracellular medium and a trap to form a relatively benign extraneuronal disposal site is no longer translocated due to interruption of trafficking and now accumulates intracellularly facilitating hyper-oxidative ROS levels and contributes to irreversible neuron apoptosis.

  4. Paradigm shift redefining molecular, metabolic and structural events in Alzheimer's disease involves a proposed contribution by transition metals. Defined lengthy preclinical stage provides new hope to circumvent advancement of disease- and age-related neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Cavaleri, Franco

    2015-05-01

    AD symptoms for as long as 20 years. A healthy neuron may tolerate free metal toxicity, such as iron in the case of injury-induced amyloid, for as long as twenty years due to this very BACE1 activity. In later stages, the uncontrolled metals and ROS are compounded by other factors which together overcome this BACE1/β-amyloid protein countermeasure. This results in a sudden increase in IL-1 leading to Tau's hyperphosphorylation as cited and eventually to Tau dissociation from the microtubule cytoskeleton interrupting cell trafficking. At this later stage of AD the β-amyloid protein which once served as a vehicle to escort toxic metals to the extracellular medium and a trap to form a relatively benign extraneuronal disposal site is no longer translocated due to interruption of trafficking and now accumulates intracellularly facilitating hyper-oxidative ROS levels and contributes to irreversible neuron apoptosis. PMID:25691377

  5. CT in ovarian cancer staging: how to review and report with emphasis on abdominal and pelvic disease for surgical planning.

    PubMed

    Sahdev, Anju

    2016-01-01

    CT of the abdomen and pelvis is the first line imaging modality for staging, selecting treatment options and assessing disease response in ovarian cancer. The staging CT provides disease distribution, disease burden and is the imaging surrogate for surgico-pathological FIGO staging. Optimal cyto-reductive surgery offers patients' the best chance for disease control or cure, but sub-optimal resection confers no advantage over chemotherapy and adversely increases the risk of post surgical complications. Although there is extensive literature comparing performance of CT against laparoscopy and surgery, for the staging abdominal and pelvic CT, there are currently no accepted guidelines for interpretation or routinely used minimum data set templates for reporting these complex CT scans often with extensive radiological findings. This review provides a systematic approach for identifying the important radiological findings and highlighting important sites of disease within the abdomen and pelvis, which may alter or preclude surgery at presentation or after adjuvant chemotherapy. The distribution of sites and volume of disease can be used to categorize patients as suitable, probably suitable or not suitable for optimal cyto-reductive surgery. This categorization can potentially assist oncological surgeons and oncologists as a semi objective assessment tool useful for selecting patient treatment, streamlining multi disciplinary discussion and improving the reproducibility and correlation of CT with surgical findings. The review also highlights sites of disease and complications of ovarian cancer which should be included as part of the radiological report as these may require additional surgical input from non gynaecological surgeons or influence treatment selection. PMID:27484100

  6. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  7. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  8. Prospective Multi-Institutional Study of Definitive Radiotherapy With High-Dose-Rate Intracavitary Brachytherapy in Patients With Nonbulky (<4-cm) Stage I and II Uterine Cervical Cancer (JAROG0401/JROSG04-2)

    SciTech Connect

    Toita, Takafumi; Kato, Shingo; Niibe, Yuzuru; Ohno, Tatsuya; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Kodaira, Takeshi; Kataoka, Masaaki; Shikama, Naoto; Kenjo, Masahiro; Tokumaru, Sunao; Yamauchi, Chikako; Suzuki, Osamu; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Numasaki, Hodaka; Teshima, Teruki; Oguchi, Masahiko; Kagami, Yoshikazu; Nakano, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Mitsuhashi, Norio

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the efficacy of a definitive radiotherapy protocol using high-dose-rate intracavitary brachytherapy (HDR-ICBT) with a low cumulative dose schedule in nonbulky early-stage cervical cancer patients, we conducted a prospective multi-institutional study. Methods and Materials: Eligible patients had squamous cell carcinoma of the intact uterine cervix, Federation of Gynecologic Oncology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stages Ib1, IIa, and IIb, tumor size <40 mm in diameter (assessed by T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging), and no pelvic/para-aortic lymphadenopathy. The treatment protocol consisted of whole-pelvis external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) of 20 Gy/10 fractions, pelvic EBRT with midline block of 30 Gy/15 fractions, and HDR-ICBT of 24 Gy/4 fractions (at point A). The cumulative biologically effective dose (BED) was 62 Gy{sub 10} ({alpha}/{beta} = 10) at point A. The primary endpoint was the 2-year pelvic disease progression-free (PDPF) rate. All patients received a radiotherapy quality assurance review. Results: Between September 2004 and July 2007, 60 eligible patients were enrolled. Thirty-six patients were assessed with FIGO stage Ib1; 12 patients with stage IIa; and 12 patients with stage IIb. Median tumor diameter was 28 mm (range, 6-39 mm). Median overall treatment time was 43 days. Median follow-up was 49 months (range, 7-72 months). Seven patients developed recurrences: 3 patients had pelvic recurrences (2 central, 1 nodal), and 4 patients had distant metastases. The 2-year PDPF was 96% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92%-100%). The 2-year disease-free and overall survival rates were 90% (95% CI, 82%-98%) and 95% (95% CI, 89%-100%), respectively. The 2-year late complication rates (according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer of Grade {>=}1) were 18% (95% CI, 8%-28%) for large intestine/rectum, 4% (95% CI, 0%-8%) for small intestine, and 0% for bladder. No Grade {>=}3 cases were

  9. Postshield stage transitional volcanism on Mahukona Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clague, D.A.; Calvert, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    Age spectra from 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating experiments yield ages of 298??25 ka and 310??31 ka for transitional composition lavas from two cones on submarine Mahukona Volcano, Hawaii. These ages are younger than the inferred end of the tholeiitic shield stage and indicate that the volcano had entered the postshield alkalic stage before going extinct. Previously reported elevated helium isotopic ratios of lavas from one of these cones were incorrectly interpreted to indicate eruption during a preshield alkalic stage. Consequently, high helium isotopic ratios are a poor indicator of eruptive stage, as they occur in preshield, shield, and postshield stage lavas. Loihi Seamount and Kilauea are the only known Hawaiian volcanoes where the volume of preshield alkalic stage lavas can be estimated. ?? Springer-Verlag 2008.

  10. Staging Airliner Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, Andrew S.

    2007-01-01

    There is a general consensus building that historically high fuel prices and greater public awareness of the emissions that result from burning fuel are going to be long-term concerns for those who design, build, and operate airliners. The possibility of saving both fuel and reducing emissions has rekindled interest in breaking very long-range airline flights into multiple stages or even adopting in-flight refueling. It is likely that staging will result in lower fuel burn, and recent published reports have suggested that the savings are substantial, particularly if the airliner is designed from the outset for this kind of operation. Given that staging runs against the design and operation historical trend, this result begs for further attention. This paper will examine the staging question, examining both analytic and numeric performance estimation methodologies to quantify the likely amount of fuel savings that can be expected and the resulting design impacts on the airliner.

  11. Understanding cancer staging

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body. The spread of cancer is called metastasis . Cancer staging is used to help describe the ... cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes (N) Metastasis (M) , or if and how much the cancer ...

  12. Stages of Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... your baby in these three stages. First trimester (week 1-week 12) First trimester See how your baby is ... is each pregnancy. Return to top Second trimester (week 13-week 28) Second trimester See how your ...

  13. Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, David

    2011-01-01

    The CPS is an in-space cryogenic propulsive stage based largely on state of the practice design for launch vehicle upper stages. However, unlike conventional propulsive stages, it also contains power generation and thermal control systems to limit the loss of liquid hydrogen and oxygen due to boil-off during extended in-space storage. The CPS provides the necessary (Delta)V for rapid transfer of in-space elements to their destinations or staging points (i.e., E-M L1). The CPS is designed around a block upgrade strategy to provide maximum mission/architecture flexibility. Block 1 CPS: Short duration flight times (hours), passive cryo fluid management. Block 2 CPS: Long duration flight times (days/weeks/months), active and passive cryo fluid management.

  14. Stages of Pancreatic Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer) cells form in the tissues of the pancreas. The pancreas is a gland about 6 inches ... spleen , and bile ducts . Tests that examine the pancreas are used to detect (find), diagnose, and stage ...

  15. Radar stage uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fulford, J.M.; Davies, W.J.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is investigating the performance of radars used for stage (or water-level) measurement. This paper presents a comparison of estimated uncertainties and data for radar water-level measurements with float, bubbler, and wire weight water-level measurements. The radar sensor was also temperature-tested in a laboratory. The uncertainty estimates indicate that radar measurements are more accurate than uncorrected pressure sensors at higher water stages, but are less accurate than pressure sensors at low stages. Field data at two sites indicate that radar sensors may have a small negative bias. Comparison of field radar measurements with wire weight measurements found that the radar tends to measure slightly lower values as stage increases. Copyright ASCE 2005.

  16. Precision adjustable stage

    DOEpatents

    Cutburth, Ronald W.; Silva, Leonard L.

    1988-01-01

    An improved mounting stage of the type used for the detection of laser beams is disclosed. A stage center block is mounted on each of two opposite sides by a pair of spaced ball bearing tracks which provide stability as well as simplicity. The use of the spaced ball bearing pairs in conjunction with an adjustment screw which also provides support eliminates extraneous stabilization components and permits maximization of the area of the center block laser transmission hole.

  17. Multiple stage railgun

    DOEpatents

    Hawke, Ronald S.; Scudder, Jonathan K.; Aaland, Kristian

    1982-01-01

    A multiple stage magnetic railgun accelerator (10) for accelerating a projectile (15) by movement of a plasma arc (13) along the rails (11,12). The railgun (10) is divided into a plurality of successive rail stages (10a-n) which are sequentially energized by separate energy sources (14a-n) as the projectile (15) moves through the bore (17) of the railgun (10). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end (29) of the railgun (10) can be prevented by connection of the energy sources (14a-n) to the rails (11,12) through isolation diodes (34a-n). Propagation of energy from an energized rail stage back towards the breech end of the railgun can also be prevented by dividing the rails (11,12) into electrically isolated rail sections (11a-n, 12a-n). In such case means (55a-n) are used to extinguish the arc at the end of each energized stage and a fuse (31) or laser device (61) is used to initiate a new plasma arc in the next energized rail stage.

  18. Bioimpedance Spectroscopy in Detecting Lower-Extremity Lymphedema in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Vulvar Cancer Undergoing Surgery and Lymphadenectomy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Lymphedema; Perioperative/Postoperative Complications; Stage IA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IB Vulvar Cancer; Stage II Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIB Vulvar Cancer; Stage IIIC Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVA Vulvar Cancer; Stage IVB Vulvar Cancer

  19. Chemotherapy Toxicity On Quality of Life in Older Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial, Primary Peritoneal Cavity, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer

  20. Consequences of Hatch Phenology on Stages of Fish Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Bogner, David M.; Wuellner, Melissa R.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about how hatch phenology (e.g., the start, peak, and duration of hatching) could influence subsequent recruitment of freshwater fishes into a population. We used two commonly sympatric fish species that exhibit different hatching phenologies to examine recruitment across multiple life stages. Nine yellow perch (Perca flavescens) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) annual cohorts were sampled from 2004 through 2013 across larval, age-0, age-1, and age-2 life stages in a Nebraska (U.S.A.) Sandhill lake. Yellow perch hatched earlier in the season and displayed a more truncated hatch duration compared to bluegill. The timing of hatch influenced recruitment dynamics for both species but important hatching metrics were not similar between species across life stages. A longer hatch duration resulted in greater larval yellow perch abundance but greater age-1 bluegill abundance. In contrast, bluegill larval and age-0 abundances were greater during years when hatching duration was shorter and commenced earlier, whereas age-0 yellow perch abundance was greater when hatching occurred earlier. As a result of hatch phenology, yellow perch recruitment variability was minimized sooner (age-0 life stage) than bluegill (age-1 life stage). Collectively, hatch phenology influenced recruitment dynamics across multiple life stages but was unique for each species. Understanding the complexities of when progeny enter an environment and how this influences eventual recruitment into a population will be critical in the face of ongoing climate change. PMID:27764216

  1. Using the life history model to set the stage(s) of growth and senescence in bioarchaeology and paleodemography.

    PubMed

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Armstrong, Stephanie D

    2011-07-01

    Paleodemography, the study of demographic parameters of past human populations, relies on assumptions including biological uniformitarianism, stationary populations, and the ability to determine point age estimates from skeletal material. These assumptions have been widely criticized in the literature and various solutions have been proposed. The majority of these solutions rely on statistical modeling, and have not seen widespread application. Most bioarchaeologists recognize that our ability to assess chronological age is inherently limited, and have instead resorted to large, qualitative, age categories. However, there has been little attempt in the literature to systematize and define the stages of development and ageing used in bioarchaeology. We propose that stages should be based in the human life history pattern, and their skeletal markers should have easily defined and clear endpoints. In addition to a standard five-stage developmental model based on the human life history pattern, current among human biologists, we suggest divisions within the adult stage that recognize the specific nature of skeletal samples. We therefore propose the following eight stages recognizable in human skeletal development and senescence: infancy, early childhood, late childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, full adulthood, mature adulthood, and senile adulthood. Striving toward a better prediction of chronological ages will remain important and could eventually help us understand to what extent past societies differed in the timing of these life stages. Furthermore, paleodemographers should try to develop methods that rely on the type of age information accessible from the skeletal material, which uses life stages, rather than point age estimates. PMID:21469078

  2. Using the life history model to set the stage(s) of growth and senescence in bioarchaeology and paleodemography.

    PubMed

    Roksandic, Mirjana; Armstrong, Stephanie D

    2011-07-01

    Paleodemography, the study of demographic parameters of past human populations, relies on assumptions including biological uniformitarianism, stationary populations, and the ability to determine point age estimates from skeletal material. These assumptions have been widely criticized in the literature and various solutions have been proposed. The majority of these solutions rely on statistical modeling, and have not seen widespread application. Most bioarchaeologists recognize that our ability to assess chronological age is inherently limited, and have instead resorted to large, qualitative, age categories. However, there has been little attempt in the literature to systematize and define the stages of development and ageing used in bioarchaeology. We propose that stages should be based in the human life history pattern, and their skeletal markers should have easily defined and clear endpoints. In addition to a standard five-stage developmental model based on the human life history pattern, current among human biologists, we suggest divisions within the adult stage that recognize the specific nature of skeletal samples. We therefore propose the following eight stages recognizable in human skeletal development and senescence: infancy, early childhood, late childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, full adulthood, mature adulthood, and senile adulthood. Striving toward a better prediction of chronological ages will remain important and could eventually help us understand to what extent past societies differed in the timing of these life stages. Furthermore, paleodemographers should try to develop methods that rely on the type of age information accessible from the skeletal material, which uses life stages, rather than point age estimates.

  3. Advanced Stage, Increased Lactate Dehydrogenase, and Primary Site, but Not Adolescent Age (≥ 15 Years), Are Associated With an Increased Risk of Treatment Failure in Children and Adolescents With Mature B-Cell Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma: Results of the FAB LMB 96 Study

    PubMed Central

    Cairo, Mitchell S.; Sposto, Richard; Gerrard, Mary; Auperin, Anne; Goldman, Stanton C.; Harrison, Lauren; Pinkerton, Ross; Raphael, Martine; McCarthy, Keith; Perkins, Sherrie L.; Patte, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Adolescents (age 15 to 21 years) compared with younger children with mature B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) have been historically considered to have an inferior prognosis. We therefore analyzed the impact of age and other diagnostic factors on the risk of treatment failure in children and adolescents treated on the French-American-British Mature B-Cell Lymphoma 96 (FAB LMB 96) trial. Patients and Methods Patients were divided by risk: group A (limited), group B (intermediate), and group C (advanced), as previously described. Prognostic factors analyzed for event-free survival (EFS) included age (< 15 v ≥ 15 years), stage (I/II v III/IV), primary site, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), bone marrow/CNS (BM/CNS) involvement, and histology (diffuse large B-cell lymphoma v mediastinal B-cell lymphoma v Burkitt lymphoma or Burkitt-like lymphoma). Results The 3-year EFS for the whole cohort was 88% ± 1%. Age was not associated as a risk factor for increased treatment failure in either univariate analysis (P = .15) or multivariate analysis (P = .58). Increased LDH (≥ 2 × upper limit of normal [ULN] v < 2 × ULN), primary site, and BM-positive/CNS-positive disease were all independent risk factors associated with a significant increase in treatment failure rate (relative risk, 2.0; P < .001, P < .012, and P < .001, respectively). Conclusion LDH level at diagnosis, mediastinal disease, and combined BM-positive/CNS-positive involvement are independent risk factors in children with mature B-cell NHL. Future studies should be developed to identify specific therapeutic strategies (immunotherapy) to overcome these risk factors and to identify the biologic basis associated with these prognostic factors in children with mature B-cell NHL. PMID:22215753

  4. Human chorionic gonadotropin and its relation to grade, stage and patient survival in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An influence of gonadotropins (hCG) on the development of ovarian cancer has been discussed. Therefore, we quantified serum hCG levels in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors and the hCG expression in ovarian cancer tissue in order to analyze its relation to grade, stage, gonadotropin receptor (LH-R, FSH-R) expression and survival in ovarian cancer patients. Methods Patients diagnosed and treated for ovarian tumors from 1990 to 2002 were included. Patient characteristics, histology including histological subtype, tumor stage, grading and follow-up data were available. Serum hCG concentration measurement was performed with ELISA technology, hCG tissue expression determined by immunohistochemistry. Results HCG-positive sera were found in 26.7% of patients with benign and 67% of patients with malignant ovarian tumors. In addition, significantly higher hCG serum concentrations were observed in patients with malignant compared to benign ovarian tumors (p = 0.000). Ovarian cancer tissue was positive for hCG expression in 68%. We identified significant differences in hCG tissue expression related to tumor grade (p = 0.022) but no differences with regard to the histological subtype. In addition, mucinous ovarian carcinomas showed a significantly increased hCG expression at FIGO stage III compared to stage I (p = 0.018). We also found a positive correlation of hCG expression to LH-R expression, but not to FSH-R expression. There was no significant correlation between tissue hCG expression and overall ovarian cancer patient survival, but subgroup analysis revealed an increased 5-year survival in LH-R positive/FSH-R negative and hCG positive tumors (hCG positive 75.0% vs. hCG negative 50.5%). Conclusions Serum human gonadotropin levels differ in patients with benign and malignant ovarian tumors. HCG is often expressed in ovarian cancer tissue with a certain variable relation to grade and stage. HCG expression correlates with LH-R expression in ovarian

  5. The Several Ages of Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Stephen

    1976-01-01

    Examines the various stages of human development (as outlined by Erik Erikson and others) with their psychological stresses of recurring crises of identity and expectation and explores some of the implications for education's best serving human needs. Focuses on early childhood, late adolescence, middle age, and old age. (JT)

  6. 2-Stage Classification Modeling

    1994-11-01

    CIRCUIT2.4 is used to design optimum two-stage classification configurations and operating conditions for energy conservation. It permits simulation of five basic grinding-classification circuits, including one single-stage and four two-stage classification arrangements. Hydrocyclones, spiral classifiers, and sieve band screens can be simulated, and the user may choose the combination of devices for the flowsheet simulation. In addition, the user may select from four classification modeling methods to achieve the goals of a simulation project using themore » most familiar concepts. Circuit performance is modeled based on classification parameters or equipment operating conditions. A modular approach was taken in designing the program, which allows future addition of other models with relatively minor changes.« less

  7. 2-Stage Classification Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Baltich, L. K.

    1994-11-01

    CIRCUIT2.4 is used to design optimum two-stage classification configurations and operating conditions for energy conservation. It permits simulation of five basic grinding-classification circuits, including one single-stage and four two-stage classification arrangements. Hydrocyclones, spiral classifiers, and sieve band screens can be simulated, and the user may choose the combination of devices for the flowsheet simulation. In addition, the user may select from four classification modeling methods to achieve the goals of a simulation project using the most familiar concepts. Circuit performance is modeled based on classification parameters or equipment operating conditions. A modular approach was taken in designing the program, which allows future addition of other models with relatively minor changes.

  8. Staging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Bostwick, David G; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Berney, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes.

  9. Staging of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo; Bostwick, David G; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Berney, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Prostatic carcinoma (PCa) is a significant cause of cancer morbidity and mortality worldwide. Accurate staging is critical for prognosis assessment and treatment planning for PCa. Despite the large volume of clinical activity and research, the challenge to define the most appropriate and clinically relevant staging system remains. The pathologically complex and uncertain clinical course of prostate cancer further complicates the design of staging classification and a substaging system suitable for individualized care. This review will focus on recent progress and controversial issues related to prostate cancer staging. The 2010 revision of the American Joint Committee on Cancer/Union Internationale Contre le Cancer (AJCC/UICC) tumour, node and metastasis (TNM) system is the most widely used staging system at this time. Despite general acceptance of the system as a whole, there is controversy and uncertainty about its application, particularly for T2 subclassification. The three-tiered T2 classification system for organ-confined prostate cancer is superfluous, considering the biology and anatomy of PCa. A tumour size-based substaging system may be considered in the future TNM subclassification of pT2 cancer. Lymph node status is one of the most important prognostic factors for prostate cancer. Nevertheless, clinical outcomes in patients with positive lymph nodes are variable. Identification of patients at the greatest risk of systemic progression helps in the selection of appropriate therapy. The data suggest that the inherent aggressiveness of metastatic prostate cancer is closely linked to the tumour volume of lymph node metastasis. We recommend that a future TNM staging system should consider subclassification of node-positive cancer on the basis of nodal cancer volume, using the diameter of the largest nodal metastasis and/or the number of positive nodes. PMID:22212080

  10. Stage cementing apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Blamford, D.M.; Easter, J.H.

    1988-06-21

    A stage cementing apparatus for selectively passing cement from the interior passage of a casing to the annulus between the exterior of the casing and borehole, the casing having an upper portion and a lower portion, is described comprising: a barrel secured to the upper portion of the casing; a mandrel secured to the lower portion of the casing, and a stage cementing tool having a generally cylindrical configuration adapted for attachment to the lower end of the barrel about a portion of the mandrel.

  11. Staged fluidized bed

    DOEpatents

    Mallon, R.G.

    1983-05-13

    The invention relates to oil shale retorting and more particularly to staged fluidized bed oil shale retorting. Method and apparatus are disclosed for narrowing the distribution of residence times of any size particle and equalizing the residence times of large and small particles in fluidized beds. Particles are moved up one fluidized column and down a second fluidized column with the relative heights selected to equalize residence times of large and small particles. Additional pairs of columns are staged to narrow the distribution of residence times and provide complete processing of the material.

  12. Three stage semelparous Leslie models.

    PubMed

    Cushing, J M

    2009-07-01

    Nonlinear Leslie matrix models have a long history of use for modeling the dynamics of semelparous species. Semelparous models, as do nonlinear matrix models in general, undergo a transcritical equilibrium bifurcation at inherent net reproductive number R(0) = 1 where the extinction equilibrium loses stability. Semelparous models however do not fall under the purview of the general theory because this bifurcation is of higher co-dimension. This mathematical fact has biological implications that relate to a dichotomy of dynamic possibilities, namely, an equilibration with over lapping age classes as opposed to an oscillation in which age classes are periodically missing. The latter possibility makes these models of particular interest, for example, in application to the well known outbreaks of periodical insects. While the nature of the bifurcation at R(0) = 1 is known for two-dimensional semelparous Leslie models, only limited results are available for higher dimensional models. In this paper I give a thorough accounting of the bifurcation at R(0) = 1 in the three-dimensional case, under some monotonicity assumptions on the nonlinearities. In addition to the bifurcation of positive equilibria, there occurs a bifurcation of invariant loops that lie on the boundary of the positive cone. I describe the geometry of these loops, classify them into three distinct types, and show that they consist of either one or two three-cycles and heteroclinic orbits connecting (the phases of) these cycles. Furthermore, I determine stability and instability properties of these loops, in terms of model parameters, as well as those of the positive equilibria. The analysis also provides the global dynamics on the boundary of the cone. The stability and instability conditions are expressed in terms of certain measures of the strength and the symmetry/asymmetry of the inter-age class competitive interactions. Roughly speaking, strong inter-age class competitive interactions promote

  13. Three stage semelparous Leslie models.

    PubMed

    Cushing, J M

    2009-07-01

    Nonlinear Leslie matrix models have a long history of use for modeling the dynamics of semelparous species. Semelparous models, as do nonlinear matrix models in general, undergo a transcritical equilibrium bifurcation at inherent net reproductive number R(0) = 1 where the extinction equilibrium loses stability. Semelparous models however do not fall under the purview of the general theory because this bifurcation is of higher co-dimension. This mathematical fact has biological implications that relate to a dichotomy of dynamic possibilities, namely, an equilibration with over lapping age classes as opposed to an oscillation in which age classes are periodically missing. The latter possibility makes these models of particular interest, for example, in application to the well known outbreaks of periodical insects. While the nature of the bifurcation at R(0) = 1 is known for two-dimensional semelparous Leslie models, only limited results are available for higher dimensional models. In this paper I give a thorough accounting of the bifurcation at R(0) = 1 in the three-dimensional case, under some monotonicity assumptions on the nonlinearities. In addition to the bifurcation of positive equilibria, there occurs a bifurcation of invariant loops that lie on the boundary of the positive cone. I describe the geometry of these loops, classify them into three distinct types, and show that they consist of either one or two three-cycles and heteroclinic orbits connecting (the phases of) these cycles. Furthermore, I determine stability and instability properties of these loops, in terms of model parameters, as well as those of the positive equilibria. The analysis also provides the global dynamics on the boundary of the cone. The stability and instability conditions are expressed in terms of certain measures of the strength and the symmetry/asymmetry of the inter-age class competitive interactions. Roughly speaking, strong inter-age class competitive interactions promote

  14. Crescentic ramp turbine stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ching-Pang (Inventor); Tam, Anna (Inventor); Kirtley, Kevin Richard (Inventor); Lamson, Scott Henry (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A turbine stage includes a row of airfoils joined to corresponding platforms to define flow passages therebetween. Each airfoil includes opposite pressure and suction sides and extends in chord between opposite leading and trailing edges. Each platform includes a crescentic ramp increasing in height from the leading and trailing edges toward the midchord of the airfoil along the pressure side thereof.

  15. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 4

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung, liver, and peritoneal cavity. An inset shows cancer cells spreading from the pancreas, through the blood and lymph system, to another ... abdomen that contains the intestines, stomach, and liver). Cancer may also have spread to ... pancreas or to lymph nodes. Stage IV pancreatic cancer. ...

  16. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  17. STS upper stage operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kitchens, M. D.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1977-01-01

    Several design/development and operational approaches for STS upper stages are being pursued to realize maximum operational and economic benefits upon the introduction of the STS in the 1980s. The paper focuses special attention on safety operations, launch site operations and on-orbit operations.

  18. End-Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moua, Mai Neng

    2001-01-01

    Through her reflections on dealing with dialysis for end-stage renal disease and awaiting a kidney transplant, the author presents insights into how her experience was shaped by the physical, emotional, and multicultural forces she faced. Among the issues discussed are her ambivalent feelings between pursuing a regular lifestyle and receiving…

  19. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  20. Mucin-1 and its relation to grade, stage and survival in ovarian carcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Mucin-1 is known to be over-expressed by various human carcinomas and is shed into the circulation where it can be detected in patient’s serum by specific anti-Mucin-1 antibodies, such as the tumour marker assays CA 15–3 and CA 27.29. The prognostic value of Mucin-1 expression in ovarian carcinoma remains uncertain. One aim of this study was to compare the concentrations of Mucin-1 in a cohort of patients with either benign or malignant ovarian tumours detected by CA 15–3 and CA 27.29. Another aim of this study was to evaluate Mucin-1 expression by immunohistochemistry in a different cohort of ovarian carcinoma patients with respect to grade, stage and survival. Methods Patients diagnosed with and treated for ovarian tumours were included in the study. Patient characteristics, histology including histological subtype, tumour stage, grading and follow-up data were available from patient records. Serum Mucin-1 concentrations were measured with ELISA technology detecting CA 15–3 and CA 27.29, Mucin-1 tissue expression was determined by immunohistochemistry using the VU4H5 and VU3C6 anti-Mucin-1 antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS 18.0. Results Serum samples of 118 patients with ovarian tumours were obtained to determine levels of Mucin-1. Median CA 15–3 and CA 27.29 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with malignant disease (p< 0.001) than in patients with benign disease. Paraffin-embedded tissue of 154 patients with ovarian carcinoma was available to determine Mucin-1 expression. The majority of patients presented with advanced stage disease at primary diagnosis. Median follow-up time was 11.39 years. Immunohistochemistry results for VU4H5 showed significant differences with respect to tumour grade, FIGO stage and overall survival. Patients with negative expression had a mean overall survival of 9.33 years compared to 6.27 years for patients with positive Mucin-1 expression. Conclusions This study found

  1. Development: Ages & Stages--Helping Children Manage Fears

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2004-01-01

    By watching, listening, and offering gentle reassurance, you can help young children work through their fears. Sudden noises, movement, or unfamiliar people often frighten babies. After 12 months of nurturing experiences with familiar teachers and routines, a baby is more prepared and less easily startled. Preschoolers have a variety of fears such…

  2. Energizers and Icebreakers for All Ages and Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Elizabeth Sabrinsky

    This book is intended to assist group leaders, teachers, counselors, and peer helpers in the development of relationships and active learning. The first chapter, "Icebreakers," begins with an overview that explains the nature, purpose, and importance of these activities. Icebreakers are used to help group members learn about each other in a…

  3. Development: Ages & Stages--The Importance of Humor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of humor and how it helps to understand children's thinking from birth to 6 years. The article presents three sections describing how a young child's sense of humor reveals much about the way he thinks. The first section is entitled "Giggles!" written by Carla Poole. Intended for babies from birth to 2, Poole…

  4. Development: Ages & Stages--How Abstract Thinking Develops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    Babies are active participants in their learning and need to explore a variety of objects. Nurturing relationships support these explorations. Objects are more clearly remembered and understood. Thus, one activity this article suggests doing with a 12-month-old to encourage abstract thinking, is talking about how squeezing the bottle of ketchup…

  5. Development: Ages & Stages--How Self-Concept Develops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poole, Carla; Miller, Susan A.; Church, Ellen Booth

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors explain how self-concept develops among young children. Several strategies on how to help children attain their full emotional development are also suggested. One such effective strategy is for parents and caregivers to be sensitive to the individual needs of children and to be responsive to them during daily…

  6. Development: Ages & Stages--What Young Children Wonder About

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan; Church, Ellen Booth

    2005-01-01

    During birth to 2 years, babies are motivated by an innate need to know about things. At 3 to 4 years, children tend to wonder about a lot of things. They wonder about scary things, how things work, nature, origins, and the world around them. At 5 to 6 years, they tend to increase their awareness, observe and notice a lot of differences. The…

  7. Stages of Retinoblastoma

    MedlinePlus

    ... 36 months of age. Regular screening using MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) every 6 months for 5 years may be ... be printed to be looked at later. MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) : A procedure that uses a magnet, radio waves , ...

  8. Complement Factor H Autoantibodies are Associated with Early Stage NSCLC

    PubMed Central

    Amornsiripanitch, Nita; Hong, Shaolin; Campa, Michael J.; Frank, Michael M.; Gottlin, Elizabeth B.; Patz, Edward F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose In order to discover diagnostic biomarkers associated with early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), we searched for autoantibodies preferentially present in stage I patients compared to patients with advanced stage disease. Here we describe an autoantibody against complement factor H (CFH) and its association with early stage NSCLC. Experimental Design Immunoblots were used to detect autoantibodies in the sera of stage I NSCLC patients. An autoantibody recognizing a 150 kDa protein was discovered and the protein was identified by mass spectrometry. The association of the autoantibody with early stage disease was suggested by the results of immunoblot analysis with sera from 28 stage I patients and 28 stage III/IV patients. This association was confirmed by protein microarray of sera from 125 NSCLC patients of all stages as well as 125 age, gender, and smoking history matched controls. Results The immunoreactive protein was identified as CFH. By immunoblot analysis, anti-CFH autoantibody was found in 50% of stage I NSCLC patients and 11% of late stage NSCLC patients (P=0.003). By protein microarray analysis, patients with stage I NSCLC had a significantly higher incidence of anti-CFH antibody than those with late stage NSCLC (P=0.0051). The percentage of sera with a positive level of CFH autoantibody was 30.4% in stage I, 21.1% in stage II, 12.5% in stage III, 7.4% in stage IV and 8.0% in the control group. Conclusions These findings suggest that in patients with NSCLC, CFH autoantibody is a molecular marker associated with early stage disease. PMID:20515868

  9. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  10. MICE Staging and Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanlet, Pierrick

    2010-03-01

    Ionization cooling will be a key technique for a high-intensity Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a high-precision, staged accelerator experiment being performed at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK. Its goal is the first demonstration, with 0.1% resolution, of the feasibility of reducing the transverse emittance of a beam of muons by ionization cooling in low-Z absorbers. MICE is being staged in the following steps: I. Creating and characterizing a beam of muons; II. Measuring their emittance; III. Systematic comparison of successive measurements; IV. Inserting absorber; V. Reaccelerating longitudinally; and VI. Complete "10%-cooling" test. Step I is currently in progress with Step II to commence next year; completion of Step VI is anticipated in ˜2012.

  11. Saturn IB Second Stage (S-IVB Stage)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1968-01-01

    This cutaway drawing shows the S-IVB stage in its Saturn IB configuration. As a part of the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) 'building block' approach to the Saturn development, the S-IVB stage was utilized in the Saturn IB launch vehicle as a second stage and, later, the Saturn V launch vehicle as a third stage. The stage was powered by a single J-2 engine, initially capable of 200,000 pounds of thrust.

  12. Staged Event Architecture

    SciTech Connect

    Hoschek, Wolfgang; Berket, Karlo

    2005-05-30

    Sea is a framework for a Staged Event Architecture, designed around non-blocking asynchronous communication facilities that are decoupled from the threading model chosen by any given application, Components for P networking and in-memory communication are provided. The Sea Java library encapsulates these concepts. Sea is used to easily build efficient and flexible low-level network clients and servers, and in particular as a basic communication substrate for Peer-to-Peer applications.

  13. Staged depressurization system

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, T.L.

    1993-11-02

    A nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel disposed in a containment shell is depressurized in stages using depressurizer valves coupled in fluid communication with the coolant circuit. At least one sparger submerged in the in-containment refueling water storage tank which can be drained into the containment sump communicates between one or more of the valves and an inside of the containment shell. The depressurizer valves are opened in stages, preferably at progressively lower coolant levels and for opening progressively larger flowpaths to effect depressurization through a number of the valves in parallel. The valves can be associated with a pressurizer tank in the containment shell, coupled to a coolant outlet of the reactor. At least one depressurization valve stage openable at a lowest pressure is coupled directly between the coolant circuit and the containment shell. The reactor is disposed in the open sump in the containment shell, and a further valve couples the open sump to a conduit coupling the refueling water storage tank to the coolant circuit for adding water to the coolant circuit, whereby water in the containment shell can be added to the reactor from the open sump. 4 figures.

  14. Staged depressurization system

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel disposed in a containment shell is depressurized in stages using depressurizer valves coupled in fluid communication with the coolant circuit. At least one sparger submerged in the in-containment refueling water storage tank which can be drained into the containment sump communicates between one or more of the valves and an inside of the containment shell. The depressurizer valves are opened in stages, preferably at progressively lower coolant levels and for opening progressively larger flowpaths to effect depressurization through a number of the valves in parallel. The valves can be associated with a pressurizer tank in the containment shell, coupled to a coolant outlet of the reactor. At least one depressurization valve stage openable at a lowest pressure is coupled directly between the coolant circuit and the containment shell. The reactor is disposed in the open sump in the containment shell, and a further valve couples the open sump to a conduit coupling the refueling water storage tank to the coolant circuit for adding water to the coolant circuit, whereby water in the containment shell can be added to the reactor from the open sump.

  15. Age Differences in Loneliness from Late Adolescence to Oldest Old Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhmann, Maike; Hawkley, Louise C.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to common stereotypes, loneliness is not restricted to old age but can occur at any life stage. In this study, we used data from a large, nationally representative German study (N = 16,132) to describe and explain age differences in loneliness from late adolescence to oldest old age. The age distribution of loneliness followed a complex…

  16. Aging: overview.

    PubMed

    Harman, D

    2001-04-01

    Aging is a universal process that began with the origination of life about 3.5 billion years ago. Accumulation of the diverse deleterious changes produced by aging throughout the cells and tissues progressively impairs function and can eventually cause death. Aging changes can be attributed to development, genetic defects, the environment, disease, and an inborn process--the aging process. The chance of death at a given age serves as a measure of the average number of aging changes accumulated by persons of that age, that is, of physiologic age, and the rate of change of this measure as the rate of aging. Chances for death are decreased by improvements in general living conditions. As a result, during the past two millennia average life expectancy at birth (ALE-B), determined by the chances for death, of humans has risen from 30 years, in ancient Rome, to almost 80 years today in the developed countries. Chances for death in the developed countries are now near limiting values and ALE-Bs are approaching plateau values that are 6-9 years less than the potential maximum of about 85 years. Chances for death are now largely determined by the inherent aging process after age 28. Only 1.1% of female cohorts in Sweden die before this age; the remainder die off at an exponentially increasing rate with advancing age. The inherent aging process limits ALE-B to around 85 years, and the maximum life span (MLS) to about 122 years. Past efforts to increase ALE-B did not require an understanding of aging. Such knowledge will be necessary in the future to significantly increase ALE-B and MLS, and to satisfactorily ameliorate the medical, economic, and social problems associated with advancing age. The many theories advanced to account for aging should be used, to the extent it is feasible, to help with these important practical problems, including applications of the free radical theory of aging. Past measures evolved by societies to ensure adequate care for older individuals are

  17. Staged cascade fluidized bed combustor

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Joseph N.; De Lucia, David E.; Jackson, William M.; Porter, James H.

    1984-01-01

    A fluid bed combustor comprising a plurality of fluidized bed stages interconnected by downcomers providing controlled solids transfer from stage to stage. Each stage is formed from a number of heat transfer tubes carried by a multiapertured web which passes fluidizing air to upper stages. The combustor cross section is tapered inwardly from the middle towards the top and bottom ends. Sorbent materials, as well as non-volatile solid fuels, are added to the top stages of the combustor, and volatile solid fuels are added at an intermediate stage.

  18. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  19. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  20. Dual stage check valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, D. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A dual stage seat valve head arrangement is described which consists of a primary sealing point located between a fixed orifice seat and a valve poppet, and a secondary sealing point between an orifice poppet and a valve poppet. Upstream of the valve orifice is a flexible, convoluted metal diaphragm attached to the orifice poppet. Downstream of the valve orifice, a finger spring exerts a force against the valve poppet, tending to keep the valve in a closed position. The series arrangement of a double seat and poppet is able to tolerate small particle contamination while minimizing chatter by controlling throttling or metering across the secondary seat, thus preserving the primary sealing surface.

  1. Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Borowski, S. K.; George, J. A.; Kim, T.; Emrich, W. J.; Hickman, R. R.; Broadway, J. W.; Gerrish, H. P.; Adams, R. B.

    2012-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced NEP.

  2. Chimpanzee sleep stages.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freemon, F. R.; Mcnew, J. J.; Adey, W. R.

    1971-01-01

    The electroencephalogram and electro-oculogram of two unrestrained juvenile chimpanzees was monitored for 7 consecutive nights using telemetry methods. Of the sleeping time, 23% was spent in the rapid eye movement of REM type of sleep, whereas 8, 4, 15, and 10% were spent in non-REM stages 1 through 4, respectively. Seven to nine periods of REM sleep occurred per night. The average time from the beginning of one REM period to the beginning of the next was approximately 85 min.

  3. Two stages splicing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudaber, Mohammad Hassan; Yusof, Yuhani

    2015-05-01

    The study of the biological process of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) splicing system in a translucent approach was investigated in 2012 by Yusof under the framework of formal language theory. In this work, the concepts of splicing system in two stages as well as splicing languages are mathematically and biologically discussed. Additionally, some theorems based on recognition site factor of initial strings at the existence of two initial strings and two rules are provided via Yusof-Goode (Y-G) approach. Besides, an example is also given in showing the biological meaning of the introduced concept.

  4. Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Billie H.

    This document contains a brief bibliography of peer-reviewed literature, with abstracts, on aging parents. It is one of 12 bibliographies on aging prepared by the National Agricultural Library for its "Pathfinders" series of publications. Topics covered by the other 11 bibliographies include adult children, dementia and Alzheimer's disease in the…

  5. Changes in Brain Function in Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian, Primary Peritoneal, or Fallopian Tube Cancer Who Are Receiving Chemotherapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-10-26

    Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Malignant Ovarian Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Choriocarcinoma; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Dysgerminoma; Ovarian Embryonal Carcinoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Polyembryoma; Ovarian Sarcoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Teratoma; Ovarian Yolk Sac Tumor; Stage I Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Germ Cell Tumor; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  6. Upper stage technology evaluation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Studies to evaluate advanced technology relative to chemical upper stages and orbit-to-orbit stages are reported. The work described includes: development of LH2/LOX stage data, development of data to indicate stage sensitivity to engine tolerance, modified thermal routines to accommodate storable propellants, added stage geometries to computer program for monopropellant configurations, determination of the relative gain obtainable through improvement of stage mass fraction, future propulsion concepts, effect of ultrahigh chamber-pressure increases, and relative gains obtainable through improved mass fraction.

  7. Prognostic risk model development and prospective validation among patients with cervical cancer stage IB2 to IIB submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kecheng; Sun, Haiying; Li, Xiong; Hu, Ting; Yang, Ru; Wang, ShaoShuai; Jia, Yao; Chen, Zhilan; Tang, Fangxu; Shen, Jian; Qin, Xiaomin; Zhou, Hang; Yang, Runfeng; Gui, Juan; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Xiaolin; Zhang, Jincheng; Liu, Jiong; Guo, Lili; Li, Shuang; Wang, Shixuan

    2016-06-09

    This study was designed to develop a risk model for disease recurrence among cervical cancer patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical surgery. Data for 853 patients were obtained from a retrospective study and used to train the model, and then data for 447 patients from a prospective cohort study were employed to validate the model. The Cox regression model was used for calculating the coefficients of the risk factors. According to risk scores, patients were classified into high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups. There were 49 (49/144, 34%) recurrences observed in the high-risk group (with a risk score ≥ 2.65), compared with 3 (3/142, 2%) recurrences in the low-risk group (with a risk score < 0.90). Disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly different (log-rank p < 0.001) among the three risk groups; the risk model also revealed a significant increase in the accuracy of predicting 5-year DFS with the area under the ROC curve (AUC = 0.754 for risk model vs 0.679 for FIGO stage system); the risk model was also validated with data from the prospective study (log-rank p < 0.001, AUC = 0.766). Both high-risk and intermediate-risk patients can be more effectively identified by this risk model.

  8. Prognostic risk model development and prospective validation among patients with cervical cancer stage IB2 to IIB submitted to neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Kecheng; Sun, Haiying; Li, Xiong; Hu, Ting; Yang, Ru; Wang, ShaoShuai; Jia, Yao; Chen, Zhilan; Tang, Fangxu; Shen, Jian; Qin, Xiaomin; Zhou, Hang; Yang, Runfeng; Gui, Juan; Wang, Lin; Zhao, Xiaolin; Zhang, Jincheng; Liu, Jiong; Guo, Lili; Li, Shuang; Wang, Shixuan

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a risk model for disease recurrence among cervical cancer patients who underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radical surgery. Data for 853 patients were obtained from a retrospective study and used to train the model, and then data for 447 patients from a prospective cohort study were employed to validate the model. The Cox regression model was used for calculating the coefficients of the risk factors. According to risk scores, patients were classified into high-, intermediate-, and low-risk groups. There were 49 (49/144, 34%) recurrences observed in the high-risk group (with a risk score ≥ 2.65), compared with 3 (3/142, 2%) recurrences in the low-risk group (with a risk score < 0.90). Disease-free survival (DFS) was significantly different (log-rank p < 0.001) among the three risk groups; the risk model also revealed a significant increase in the accuracy of predicting 5-year DFS with the area under the ROC curve (AUC = 0.754 for risk model vs 0.679 for FIGO stage system); the risk model was also validated with data from the prospective study (log-rank p < 0.001, AUC = 0.766). Both high-risk and intermediate-risk patients can be more effectively identified by this risk model. PMID:27279023

  9. Pubertal Stage and Brain Anatomy in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Rebecca E.; Cooney, Rebecca E.; Joormann, Jutta; Eugène, Fanny; Glover, Gary H.; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2015-01-01

    Studies of puberty have focused primarily on changes in hormones and on observable physical bodily characteristics. Little is known, however, about the nature of the relation between pubertal status and brain physiology. This is particularly important given findings that have linked the onset of puberty with both changes in cognitive functioning and increases in the incidence of depression and anxiety. The present study examined relations between pubertal stage, as assessed by Tanner Staging, and brain anatomy in a sample of 54 girls aged 9 - 15 years. Brain morphometric analysis was conducted using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The hippocampus and amygdala were manually traced on MRI scans in all participants. Stepwise regression analyses were conducted with total intracranial volume (ICV), age, and pubertal status as the predictor variables and hippocampus and amygdala volumes as outcome variables. Pubertal status was significantly associated with left amygdala volume, after controlling for both age and intracranial volume (ICV). In addition, puberty was related to right hippocampus and amygdala volumes, after controlling for ICV. In contrast, no significant associations were found between age and hippocampal and amygdala volumes after controlling for pubertal status and ICV. These findings highlight the importance of the relation between pubertal status and morphometry of the hippocampus and amygdala, and of limbic and subcortical structures that have been implicated in emotional and social behavior. PMID:22569152

  10. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2B

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2B Description: Stage IIB pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and in nearby lymph nodes. Also shown are the bile duct, pancreatic duct, and duodenum. Stage IIB pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes and ...

  11. Pancreatic Cancer Stage 2A

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2A Description: Stage IIA pancreatic cancer; drawing shows cancer in the pancreas and duodenum. The bile duct and pancreatic duct are also shown. Stage IIA pancreatic cancer. Cancer has spread to nearby tissue and organs ...

  12. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  13. The Effect of Extrafascial Hysterectomy After Completion of External Beam Radiotherapy for Treatment of Locally Advanced Stages (IIB-III) of Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarraf, Zahra; Hamedi, Bahareh; Hooshmand, Soodabeh; Mosalaie, Ahmad; Robati, Minoo; Momtahan, Mozhdeh; Farhadi, Pouya

    2013-01-01

    Background: Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the most challenging gynecologic cancers in treatment. Objectives: This study was designed with the aim of comparing patients treated with External Beam Radiotherapy (EBRT) and Interactivity Brachytherapy (ICBT) with EBRT and extrafascial hysterectomy in locally advanced stages of cervical cancer (IIB-III). Patients and Methods: The present study was designed as a case-control which was performed on the patients with cervical cancer in locally advanced stages (IIB-III) admitted to Namazi and Faghihi hospitals (university hospitals in Shiraz) between 2008-2011. 51 patients were included in two distinct groups: 25 patients were treated with EBRT and Interactivity Brachytherapy (group A). 26 patients were treated with EBRT and extrafascial hysterectomy group B. Results: In group A, the number of patients with FIGO stage IIb and III were 16 and 9, respectively, and 17 and 9 in group B. The median duration of follow-up was 24 months. There were no significant differences between two groups in metastasis and recurrence rate (P > 0.05). 5-years overall survival rate was 54.8% [95% CI: 39-70.9] in group A and in group B was 50.9% [95% CI: 41.5-60] and The LOG-rank test which controls the effect of treatment modalities on overall survival rate, did not show any significant difference between two groups (P = 0.407). Conclusion: The results of our study showed that the trend of treatment using EBRT along with intracavity brachytherapy may have the same outcome as the method of using EBRT and extrafascial hysterectomy. Overall, it seems that external beam radiation followed by extrafascial hysterectomy could be a proper substitute for brachytherapy. PMID:24693381

  14. Bevacizumab, Cisplatin, Radiation Therapy, and Fluorouracil in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage III, Stage IVA, or Stage IVB Nasopharyngeal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-04-21

    Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Lymphoepithelioma of the Nasopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Nasopharynx

  15. Oblimersen Sodium and Combination Chemotherapy in Treating Patients With Newly Diagnosed Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-10-11

    Contiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Noncontiguous Stage II Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage I Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage III Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Stage IV Adult Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma

  16. Age Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  17. Martian ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neukum, G.; Hiller, K.

    1981-01-01

    Four discussions are conducted: (1) the methodology of relative age determination by impact crater statistics, (2) a comparison of proposed Martian impact chronologies for the determination of absolute ages from crater frequencies, (3) a report on work dating Martian volcanoes and erosional features by impact crater statistics, and (4) an attempt to understand the main features of Martian history through a synthesis of crater frequency data. Two cratering chronology models are presented and used for inference of absolute ages from crater frequency data, and it is shown that the interpretation of all data available and tractable by the methodology presented leads to a global Martian geological history that is characterized by two epochs of activity. It is concluded that Mars is an ancient planet with respect to its surface features.

  18. Martian ages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, G.; Hiller, K.

    1981-04-01

    Four discussions are conducted: (1) the methodology of relative age determination by impact crater statistics, (2) a comparison of proposed Martian impact chronologies for the determination of absolute ages from crater frequencies, (3) a report on work dating Martian volcanoes and erosional features by impact crater statistics, and (4) an attempt to understand the main features of Martian history through a synthesis of crater frequency data. Two cratering chronology models are presented and used for inference of absolute ages from crater frequency data, and it is shown that the interpretation of all data available and tractable by the methodology presented leads to a global Martian geological history that is characterized by two epochs of activity. It is concluded that Mars is an ancient planet with respect to its surface features.

  19. Plutonium aging

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, J.D.

    1999-03-01

    The author describes the plutonium aging program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aging of plutonium components in the US nuclear weapons stockpile has become a concern due to several events: the end of the cold war, the cessation of full scale underground nuclear testing as a result of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the closure of the Rocky Flats Plant--the site where the plutonium components were manufactured. As a result, service lifetimes for nuclear weapons have been lengthened. Dr. Olivas will present a brief primer on the metallurgy of plutonium, and will then describe the technical approach to ascertaining the long-term changes that may be attributable to self-radiation damage. Facilities and experimental techniques which are in use to study aging will be described. Some preliminary results will also be presented.

  20. Using Dental Age to Estimate Chronological Age in Czech Children Aged 3-18 Years.

    PubMed

    Ginzelová, Kristina; Dostálová, Taťjana; Eliášová, Hana; Vinšů, Alex; Buček, Antonín; Bučková, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    The Demirjian methods to determine dental age are based on analysis of orthopantograms. The dental age estimation is based on establishing the tooth development stages. The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of estimation of dental age by Demirjian in the use of all of his four methods. 505 Czech healthy boys and girls aged 3 to 18 years were examined radiographically at the Department of Stomatology, Second Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. It was mentioned the factors of underlying diseases influence the accuracy of the dental age estimation. For statistical evaluation, descriptive statistics was used to compare deviations of the mean values of chronological and dental age in each age group. The resulting difference between dental age and chronological age is not significant in both genders only when using both Demirjian 7-teeth methods of 1973 and 1976. Therefore these may be most appropriately used for forensic age estimation. There are shown standard deviation differences in different countries. Demirjian's original 7-teeth method from 1973 and Demirjian's revised 4-teeth method from 1976 appear to be the best methods for calculating the dental age of healthy Czech children of both genders. PMID:26093668

  1. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later). PMID:22351262

  2. Melanoma staging: facts and controversies.

    PubMed

    Forschner, Andrea; Eigentler, Thomas Kurt; Pflugfelder, Annette; Leiter, Ulrike; Weide, Benjamin; Held, Laura; Meier, Friedegund; Garbe, Claus

    2010-01-01

    The value of staging examinations remains controversial for the initial staging in melanoma patients at the time of the primary diagnosis and for surveillance. Issues concerning tumor recurrences and progression must be discussed separately for different risk groups. For low-risk patients (stage IA; tumor thickness less than 1 mm), staging examinations like sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), blood tests, or imaging can generally be abandoned. Baseline staging with simple techniques is at the discretion of the physician. In intermediate-risk patients (stages IB and IIA), an initial staging examination involving SLNB and computed tomography (CT) scans is recommended. Further follow-up may be restricted to physical examinations, blood tests of tumor marker protein S100beta, and to lymph node ultrasonography. If findings are suspicious, further imaging procedures may be involved. In high-risk patients (stages IIB to III), an initial staging examination with CT is recommended, and regular follow-up every 6 months with whole body imaging by CT or magnetic resonance imaging seems useful. Physical examinations, blood tests of tumor marker protein S100beta, and lymph node ultrasound imaging should be routine. This intense follow-up may enable surgical treatments with complete removal of all recognizable metastases in about 15% to 25% of patients and improve their prognosis. The risk of recurrence or tumor progression is very high in stage IV patients, and their management is individualized. PMID:20541679

  3. [Market and ageing].

    PubMed

    Joël, M-E

    2005-06-01

    Ageing can be defined as growth of the proportion of elderly people in the population, but also as a group of transformations in life cycles: older age at time of first job, marriage, birth of first child, early retirement, longer life expectancy, active retirement, greater number of dependent persons. The economic impact of the ageing population has been extensively studied from the perspective of the social security fund. In France and in most developed countries, population ageing has considerably destabilized social accounting creating a gap between a system thought out after WWII and the present social environment. The current response of social security system to elderly person's needs is considered inadequate. There are however other consequences of ageing. It is important to measure the upheaval caused by longer life expectancy and changing life stages on all markets. Three kinds of markets are involved in different ways: job market, services market for the elderly and all goods market for seniors and golden aged. Many studies have focused on the links between economic production and physiological ageing. The traditional organisation of working conditions stresses working intensity over experience, young workers'capabilities over than those of older workers. The link between age and the job market can also be analyzed by considering supply and demand for employment for workers over 50. Another question is the workforce shortage forecasted in some sectors (health and social sectors in particular) and the role of immigration. Growth in the supply of long-term care will require restructuring of the sector's logistics and financing. Certain trends are appearing: government authorities are reducing their supply of services, private production is increasing, public financing is being maintained, and individual contributions are growing while the role of insurance has remained stagnant. A qualitative analysis of the markets also shows heterogeneous workers

  4. Aging Secret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The canny world of advertising has caught on to the free radical theory of aging, marketing a whole array of antioxidants for preventing anything from wrinkles to dry hair to reducing the risk of heart disease--promising to help slow the hands of time. Working with genetically engineered mice--to produce a natural antioxidant enzyme called…

  5. Gay Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events--the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional…

  6. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2013-04-16

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  7. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    SciTech Connect

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2014-05-20

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  8. Staged membrane oxidation reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael; Carolan, Michael Francis; Stein, VanEric Edward; Chen, Christopher Ming-Poh

    2012-09-11

    Ion transport membrane oxidation system comprising (a) two or more membrane oxidation stages, each stage comprising a reactant zone, an oxidant zone, one or more ion transport membranes separating the reactant zone from the oxidant zone, a reactant gas inlet region, a reactant gas outlet region, an oxidant gas inlet region, and an oxidant gas outlet region; (b) an interstage reactant gas flow path disposed between each pair of membrane oxidation stages and adapted to place the reactant gas outlet region of a first stage of the pair in flow communication with the reactant gas inlet region of a second stage of the pair; and (c) one or more reactant interstage feed gas lines, each line being in flow communication with any interstage reactant gas flow path or with the reactant zone of any membrane oxidation stage receiving interstage reactant gas.

  9. Staged Repository Development Programmes

    SciTech Connect

    Isaacs, T

    2003-10-01

    Programs to manage and ultimately dispose of high-level radioactive wastes are unique from scientific and technological as well as socio-political aspects. From a scientific and technological perspective, high-level radioactive wastes remain potentially hazardous for geological time periods-many millennia-and scientific and technological programs must be put in place that result in a system that provides high confidence that the wastes will be isolated from the accessible environment for these many thousands of years. Of course, ''proof'' in the classical sense is not possible at the outset, since the performance of the system can only be known with assurance, if ever, after the waste has been emplaced for those geological time periods. Adding to this challenge, many uncertainties exist in both the natural and engineered systems that are intended to isolate the wastes, and some of the uncertainties will remain regardless of the time and expense in attempting to characterize the system and assess its performance. What was perhaps underappreciated in the early days of waste management and repository program development were the unique and intense reactions that the institutional, political, and public bodies would have to repository program development, particularly in programs attempting to identify and then select sites for characterization, design, licensing, and ultimate development. Reactions in most nations were strong, focused, unrelenting, and often successful in hindering, derailing, and even stopping national repository programs. The reasons for such reactions and the measures to successfully respond to them are still evolving and continue to be the focus of many national program and political leaders. Adaptive Staging suggests an approach to repository program development that reflects the unique challenges associated with the disposal of high-level radioactive waste. The step-wise, incremental, learn-as-you-go approach is intended to maximize the

  10. Carboplatin and Paclitaxel With or Without Cisplatin and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage I, Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IVA Endometrial Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-02-09

    Endometrial Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage II Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer

  11. Factors influencing recruitment of walleye and white bass to three distinct early ontogenetic stages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeBoer, Jason A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    Determining the factors that influence recruitment to sequential ontogenetic stages is critical for understanding recruitment dynamics of fish and for effective management of sportfish, particularly in dynamic and unpredictable environments. We sampled walleye (Sander vitreus) and white bass (Morone chrysops) at 3 ontogenetic stages (age 0 during spring: ‘age-0 larval’; age 0 during autumn: ‘age-0 juvenile’; and age 1 during autumn: ‘age-1 juvenile’) from 3 reservoirs. We developed multiple linear regression models to describe factors influencing age-0 larval, age-0 juvenile and age-1 juvenile walleye and white bass abundance indices. Our models explained 40–80% (68 ± 9%; mean ± SE) and 71%–97% (81 ± 6%) of the variability in catch for walleye and white bass respectively. For walleye, gizzard shad were present in the candidate model sets for all three ontogenetic stages we assessed. For white bass, there was no unifying variable in all three stage-specific candidate model sets, although walleye abundance was present in two of the three white bass candidate model sets. We were able to determine several factors affecting walleye and white bass year-class strength at multiple ontogenetic stages; comprehensive analyses of factors influencing recruitment to multiple early ontogenetic stages are seemingly rare in the literature. Our models demonstrate the interdependency among early ontogenetic stages and the complexities involved with sportfish recruitment.

  12. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  13. Aging & Health.

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    By 2050 an estimated 83.7 million Americans will be ages sixty-five and older, up from 40.3 million in 2010. The shock wave of aging Americans will have profound implications for older people, their families, health care providers, and the economy. Researchers, policy makers, health care leaders, and others are designing responses to the challenges these actuarial shifts will create. For example, delivering health care at home could help keep more older Americans out of costly emergency departments and nursing homes. But such steps require more health care providers, a broader distribution of providers than currently exists, and better use of the resources we have. PMID:27605632

  14. Taking centre stage...

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-11-01

    HAMLET (Highly Automated Multimedia Light Enhanced Theatre) was the star performance at the recent finals of the `Young Engineer for Britain' competition, held at the Commonwealth Institute in London. This state-of-the-art computer-controlled theatre lighting system won the title `Young Engineers for Britain 1998' for David Kelnar, Jonathan Scott, Ramsay Waller and John Wyllie (all aged 16) from Merchiston Castle School, Edinburgh. HAMLET replaces conventional manually-operated controls with a special computer program, and should find use in the thousands of small theatres, schools and amateur drama productions that operate with limited resources and without specialist expertise. The four students received a £2500 prize between them, along with £2500 for their school, and in addition they were invited to spend a special day with the Royal Engineers. A project designed to improve car locking systems enabled Ian Robinson of Durham University to take the `Working in industry award' worth £1000. He was also given the opportunity of a day at sea with the Royal Navy. Other prizewinners with their projects included: Jun Baba of Bloxham School, Banbury (a cardboard armchair which converts into a desk and chair); Kobika Sritharan and Gemma Hancock, Bancroft's School, Essex (a rain warning system for a washing line); and Alistair Clarke, Sam James and Ruth Jenkins, Bishop of Llandaff High School, Cardiff (a mechanism to open and close the retractable roof of the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff). The two principal national sponsors of the competition, which is organized by the Engineering Council, are Lloyd's Register and GEC. Industrial companies, professional engineering institutions and educational bodies also provided national and regional prizes and support. During this year's finals, various additional activities took place, allowing the students to surf the Internet and navigate individual engineering websites on a network of computers. They also visited the

  15. Canine stage 1 periodontal disease: a latent pathology.

    PubMed

    Whyte, A; Bonastre, C; Monteagudo, L V; Les, F; Obon, J; Whyte, J; Tejedor, M T

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the potential health issues associated with periodontal disease (PD) in dogs, 1004 teeth from 25 dogs were examined. The dogs were randomly selected, aged 2-14 years, and had at least 95% of their teeth at the first PD stage. Significant positive correlations between plaque grade (PG) and gum inflammation, gingival regression, periodontal pocket, age and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity were identified. In contrast, PG was negatively correlated to total platelet count. Altogether, these findings suggest that prevention and therapy at the first PD stages can have an important impact on the general health condition of dogs. PMID:24878263

  16. AGING FACILITY WORKER DOSE ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    R.L. Thacker

    2005-03-24

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate radiation doses received by personnel working in the Aging Facility performing operations to transfer aging casks to the aging pads for thermal and logistical management, stage empty aging casks, and retrieve aging casks from the aging pads for further processing in other site facilities. Doses received by workers due to aging cask surveillance and maintenance operations are also included. The specific scope of work contained in this calculation covers both collective doses and individual worker group doses on an annual basis, and includes the contributions due to external and internal radiation from normal operation. There are no Category 1 event sequences associated with the Aging Facility (BSC 2004 [DIRS 167268], Section 7.2.1). The results of this calculation will be used to support the design of the Aging Facility and to provide occupational dose estimates for the License Application. The calculations contained in this document were developed by Environmental and Nuclear Engineering of the Design and Engineering Organization and are intended solely for the use of the Design and Engineering Organization in its work regarding facility operation. Yucca Mountain Project personnel from the Environmental and Nuclear Engineering should be consulted before use of the calculations for purposes other than those stated herein or use by individuals other than authorized personnel in Environmental and Nuclear Engineering.

  17. Multiple stage miniature stepping motor

    DOEpatents

    Niven, William A.; Shikany, S. David; Shira, Michael L.

    1981-01-01

    A stepping motor comprising a plurality of stages which may be selectively activated to effect stepping movement of the motor, and which are mounted along a common rotor shaft to achieve considerable reduction in motor size and minimum diameter, whereby sequential activation of the stages results in successive rotor steps with direction being determined by the particular activating sequence followed.

  18. A Model of Moral Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Don Collins

    2008-01-01

    The argument of this paper focuses on the relationship between cognitive structures and structures of interaction. It contends that there is still a place in moral development theory and research for a concept of moral stages. The thesis, in short, is that moral stages are not structures of thought. They are structures of action encoded in…

  19. The Theatre Student: Stage Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Albert M.

    Stage violence is a complex art which, when conceived inventively, approached with professional care and respect, and practiced with patience and energy, can be the highlight of a scene or of an entire play. This book is designed for amateurs who have not had the benefit of formal training in stage violence. Chapters discuss falling (the…

  20. Stage fluctuations of Wisconsin lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    House, Leo B.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes lake-stage fluctuations of 83 gaged lakes in Wisconsin and presents techniques for estimating stage fluctuation at ungaged lakes. Included are stage information at 83 lakes and stage-frequency data for 32 of these lakes that had sufficient record for analysis. Lakes are classified by a hydrologic-topographic lake classification scheme as ground-water flowthrough (GWF) lakes, surface-water drainage (SWD) lakes, and surface-water flow-through (SWF) lakes. Lakes within the same class were found to have similar water-level fluctuations. The lake-stage records indicate that most annual maximums occur during the months of May and June for all three classes. Annual minimum lake levels generally occur in September for surface-water drainage lakes, in March for surface-water flowthrough lakes, and in November for ground-water flow-through lakes. Data for each lake include location, period of water-level record, hydrologic classification, drainage area, surface area, lake volume, maximum depth, long-term mean stage and its standard deviation, maximum and minimum observed lake stage, and the average annual lake-stage fluctuation.

  1. Longevity's Gift: A Second Middle Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronte, Lydia

    1995-01-01

    A study in 1987-92 assessed the effects of changes in life course on work and careers. Interviews with 150 individuals who remained active or continued to work beyond age 65 showed lifetimes differing greatly from the traditional model. The combination of longer lifetimes and postponement of old age has created a new stage in adult life, a second…

  2. Assessment and Age 16+ Education Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Stephen; Chevalier, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises our research into the relationship between pupil assessment at age 14 (Key Stage 3) and participation in age 16+ education. We question whether a systematic gap between teacher-based assessment and externally marked tests indicates assessment bias or uncertainty, either in testing procedures or through teachers' perceptions…

  3. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-11-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  4. Subminiature infrared detector translation stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, Alan D.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes a precision subminiature three-axis translation stage used in the GOES Sounder to provide positional adjustment of 12 cooled infrared detectors. Four separate translation stages and detectors are packaged into a detector mechanism which has an overall size of 0.850 x 1.230 x 0.600 inches. Each translation stage is capable of + or - 0.015 inch motion in the X and Y axes and +0.050/-0.025 inch motion in the Z axis with a sensitivity of 0.0002 inches. The function of the detector translation stage allows real time detector signal peaking during Sounder alignment. The translation stage operates in a cryogenic environment under a 10 to the -6th torr vacuum.

  5. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ?0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  6. "Aging bull'.

    PubMed

    Geelhoed, G W

    1996-12-01

    An old bull, it is said by those who know, can have his troubles. Included among these are vertebral osteosclerosis and ankylosing spondylosis; this stiffening up limits, rather than accentuates, the value and reproductive potential of a stud bull past his prime. Associated with these abnormalities, however-and not seen in age-matched cows of comparable breeds-are fascinating endocrine neoplasms suggestive of a pattern that could be productive as a model of human hereditary endocrine abnormalities. Adjacent to the thyroid gland in other vertebrates are ultimobranchial bodies that are incorporated into the lateral thyroid lobes in primates as the parafollicular "C cells' of the thyroid. These are the cells in man that give rise to medullary thyroid cancer and are associated with calcitonin secretion, useful as a tumor marker. In aging bulls of whatever breed, nearly half exhibit abnormality of these ultimobranchial bodies: 20% show hyperplasia, and 30% have frank neoplasia. These ultimobranchial tumors appear in bulls passing 6 1/2 years in age, and are absent in young bulls and all cows of any age. Calcitonin can be demonstrated in the ultimobranchial tumors from bulls, and secretion is stimulated by calcium infusion, though serum calcium remains normal. The ultimobranchial tumors themselves can range from hyperplasia through adenoma to metastasizing carcinoma-in fact, representing one of the commoner cattle cancers. Parathyroid glands taken from bulls with these ultimobranchial tumors initially show evidence of inhibited secretory activity and morphologic atrophy, but later go on to develop hyperplasia and, eventually, autonomy. Cattle forage on calcium-rich diets. Bulls appear to respond to this calcium excess from the positive balance, but breeding cows have the unique calcium deficits of the high net loss of calcium through lactation and the large requirements of calcifying a fetal skeleton. Chronic stimulation of the APUD-derived ultimobranchial bodies by high

  7. Hypertension in end-stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Appleby, C; Foley, R N

    2002-03-01

    Chronic renal failure is common. Recent estimates from the United States suggest that one in 10 adults has an elevated serum creatinine. Hypertension and renal disease are intimately connected at many levels, and clearly accelerate each other s course. Hypertension is an almost universal feature of end-stage renal disease, a state of frightening cardiovascular risk. Surprisingly, most recent observational studies have shown an association between low blood pressure and increased mortality, a result that may engender therapeutic nihilism in the absence of large randomised trials. This observation may be due to reverse causality, as the age and cardiovascular comorbidity of patients reaching end-stage renal disease is considerable. When outcomes other than death are considered, especially progressive left ventricular hypertrophy, but also ischaemic heart disease and congestive heart failure, more predictable and expected associations are seen, with rising blood pressure appearing to be a deleterious parameter. Uraemia appears to be a state of premature senescence, and arterial rigidity, whose clinical corollary is wide pulse pressure, is a characteristic feature. Recent observational studies have focused on pulse pressure, rather than the traditional approach of analysing its components, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, in isolation. High pulse pressure appears to be a marker of short survival in dialysis patients, but disentangling this association from old age and pre-existing cardiovascular conditions is challenging. Remarkably, and regrettably, no large scale randomised controlled studies examining strategies that tackle the issue of hypertension in dialysis patients have yet to be initiated.

  8. Third molar development: measurements versus scores as age predictor.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Fieuws, S; Willems, G

    2011-10-01

    Human third molar development is widely used to predict chronological age of sub adult individuals with unknown or doubted age. For these predictions, classically, the radiologically observed third molar growth and maturation is registered using a staging and related scoring technique. Measures of lengths and widths of the developing wisdom tooth and its adjacent second molar can be considered as an alternative registration. The aim of this study was to verify relations between mandibular third molar developmental stages or measurements of mandibular second molar and third molars and age. Age related performance of stages and measurements were compared to assess if measurements added information to age predictions from third molar formation stage. The sample was 340 orthopantomograms (170 females, 170 males) of individuals homogenously distributed in age between 7 and 24 years. Mandibular lower right, third and second molars, were staged following Gleiser and Hunt, length and width measurements were registered, and various ratios of these measurements were calculated. Univariable regression models with age as response and third molar stage, measurements and ratios of second and third molars as predictors, were considered. Multivariable regression models assessed if measurements or ratios added information to age prediction from third molar stage. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) and root mean squared errors (RMSE) obtained from all regression models were compared. The univariable regression model using stages as predictor yielded most accurate age predictions (males: R(2) 0.85, RMSE between 0.85 and 1.22 year; females: R(2) 0.77, RMSE between 1.19 and 2.11 year) compared to all models including measurements and ratios. The multivariable regression models indicated that measurements and ratios added no clinical relevant information to the age prediction from third molar stage. Ratios and measurements of second and third molars are less accurate age predictors

  9. Mental health problems of aging and the aged*

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Martin

    1959-01-01

    The rapid increase in admission rates to mental hospitals in many countries in recent decades threatens to create serious problems. These may be to some extent remediable in that social factors are important in deciding the chances of admission to hospital, as well as the frequency of suicide, which reaches a peak among the aged in most countries. All communities possess valuable assets in the form of existing links between the aged and their families which may be lost by indiscriminate community planning. Although some psychological decline is inevitable during senescence, it is becoming clear that much that once passed for the ineluctable effects of mental and physical aging is due to disease that may be ameliorated or cured. The relationship between mental and physical health is particularly close in old age, and the effective treatment of the aged person with a psychiatric disorder demands the full resources of general medicine as well as psychiatry. For successful rehabilitation a full community service for the aged and proper integration of the work of the family doctor with that of preventive and hospital services are essential. The possibilities of prevention can be enhanced by fostering physical well-being and healthy adjustment during earlier stages of life, as well as by ascertaining, and remedying as far as possible, the mental and physical disorders of the aged in the early stages of their development. There is great scope for biological, medical and sociological research to define reasons for the wide variations in mental and physical well-being in old age. PMID:14439413

  10. The assessment of the prognostic value of tumor markers and cytokines as SCCAg, CYFRA 21.1, IL-6, VEGF and sTNF receptors in patients with squamous cell cervical cancer, particularly with early stage of the disease.

    PubMed

    Kotowicz, Beata; Fuksiewicz, Malgorzata; Jonska-Gmyrek, Joanna; Bidzinski, Mariusz; Kowalska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the prognostic value of tumor markers, as squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCAg) and cytokeratin-19 fragment (CYFRA 21.1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor I (sTNF RI), and sTNF RII in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. The subjects of analysis were 138 patients with stage I-IVA according to the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) classification. The collected research material comes from one oncology center. During the 10 years of follow-up, 56 relapses and 53 deaths were observed, and recurrent disease in early stage was confirmed in 45 % of patients. The pretreatment serum levels of SCCAg and CYFRA 21.1, and cytokines IL-6, VEGF, sTNF RI, and sTNF RII were determined in all patients. The probability of disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) was evaluated using the log-rank test and the Cox regression model. Based on the ROC curve analysis for patients with recurrence, the largest area under the curve was demonstrated for SCCAg and IL-6 and for patients who died, for SCCAg and VEGF. Cox analysis demonstrated that independent prognostic factor for DFS was only SCCAg and for OS cytokine IL-6 and SCCAg, but in patients with early stage the prognostic value for DFS was VEGF, whereas IL-6 and CYFRA 21.1 for OS. Serum level of VEGF, CYFRA 21.1 and IL-6 before treatment in patients with early stage cervical cancer appears to be an important prognostic factor. PMID:26289850

  11. Composite Aging Markers Can Be Used for Quantitative Profiling of Aging.

    PubMed

    Shamir, Lior

    2015-01-01

    In the absence of a single marker that reliably reflects biological aging, or even an exact definition of biological age, compound aging scores that combine multiple aging biomarkers into a single composite aging score can quantitatively reflect the age-related changes over time. If aging is viewed as the broad accumulation of alterations over time, a composite score that reflects numerous diverse aspects of these alterations can be used as a quantitative approximation of aging. Profiling the changes of the composite aging score over time shows variations in the pace of aging at different chronological ages, such that the changes over time show distinct stages separated by a short period of rapid aging. These observations are difficult to explain by molecular entropy or stochastic accumulation of irreparable environmental damage alone, as a process driven solely by entropy or stochasticity is not expected to have signs of distinct stages or leaps in aging. These results are in agreement with some previous observations in other organisms, indicating the possibility of the involvement of pathways in the process of aging. Given this evidence, the contention that aging can be driven also by biological pathways should be considered. PMID:26088420

  12. Serum copper levels in different stages of carcinoma cervix uteri.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Dwivedi, S; Singh, G; Bajpai, M

    1990-01-01

    Copper is a normal constituent of the diet and is present in all living matter. It is an important trace metal required for different metabolic processes. Detecting alterations in serum copper has an important role in the early detection and diagnosis of malignancy. Serum copper estimation was conducted on 95 women aged 32-60 using the P.P. Doxidase method. 62 women of varying age and parity had different stages of carcinoma cervix uteri and comprised the study group, while the control group was comprised of 33 non-pregnant women of different ages and parity. Approximately 40% of women in both groups were aged 41-45 years. In the control group, the mean serum copper level of reproductive age women was 118.3 ug% and 111.2 ug% among women of menopausal age. A linear progressive increase of serum copper levels was found in the study group with increasing stages of cervical malignancy. The mean values of stages I, II, III, and IV were 162.2 ug%, 190.64 ug%, 201.78 ug%, and 220.8 ug%, respectively.

  13. Progesterone and ovulation across stages of the transition to menopause

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Kathleen A.; Ferrell, Rebecca; Brindle, Eleanor; Trumble, Benjamin; Shofer, Jane; Holman, Darryl J.; Weinstein, Maxine

    2009-01-01

    Objective Detailed characterization of progesterone and ovulation across the menopausal transition provides insight into conception risk and mechanisms of reproductive aging. Design Participants (N=108, aged 25–58 years) collected daily urine specimens for six month intervals in each of five consecutive years. Specimens were assayed for pregnanediol-glucuronide (PDG), LH, FSH and estrone-glucuronide (E1G). Reproductive stage was determined using cycle length variance. A hierarchical algorithm was used to identify ovulation. Linear mixed-effects models estimated: 1) the frequency and day of ovulation by age and stage; 2) differences in FSH, LH, and E1G levels between ovulatory (O) and anovulatory (AO) cycles; and 3) total PDG levels and PDG levels in ovulatory cycles by age and stage. Results The probability of AO cycles increased across the perimenopause (p<.0001); reproductive stage was a stronger predictor than age of the probability of anovulation. Most cycles in late perimenopause were anovulatory (>60%), but one quarter of cycles longer than 60 days were ovulatory. Average day of ovulation was later in the late perimenopause (mean (SD) cycle day 27 (25)) compared to the premenopause. FSH and LH levels were higher, and E1G levels lower, in AO than O cycles (p<.0001 for each). Total PDG decreased in the late perimenopause, but 95th percentile PDG in ovulatory cycles declined steadily across the transition. Conclusions Exposure to the risk of conception in women experiencing cycles long enough to classify them as late perimenopausal is far from negligible. Reproductive stage is more informative than age about PDG levels and the likelihood of anovulation. PMID:19568209

  14. DNA-related pathways defective in human premature aging.

    PubMed

    Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2002-05-07

    One of the major issues in studies on aging is the choice of biological model system. The human premature aging disorders represent excellent model systems for the study of the normal aging process, which occurs at a much earlier stage in life in these individuals than in normals. The patients with premature aging also get the age associated diseases at an early stage in life, and thus age associated disease can be studied as well. It is thus of great interest to understand the molecular pathology of these disorders.

  15. Exercise ventilatory inefficiency in mild to end-stage COPD.

    PubMed

    Neder, J Alberto; Arbex, Flavio F; Alencar, Maria Clara N; O'Donnell, Conor D J; Cory, Julia; Webb, Kathy A; O'Donnell, Denis E

    2015-02-01

    Ventilatory inefficiency during exercise is a key pathophysiological feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Currently, it is unknown how this physiological marker relates to clinically relevant outcomes as resting ventilatory impairment progresses across disease stages. Slope and intercept of the linear region of the ventilation-carbon dioxide output relationship and the ratio between these variables, at the lowest point (nadir), were contrasted in 316 patients with Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stages 1-4 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, ranging from 148% pred to 12% pred) and 69 aged- and gender-matched controls, Compared to controls, slope and intercept were higher in GOLD stages 1 and 2, leading to higher nadirs (p<0.05). Despite even larger intercepts in GOLD stages 3 and 4, slopes diminished as disease evolved (from mean±sd 35±6 in GOLD stage 1 to 24±5 in GOLD stage 3, p<0.05). As a result, there were no significant differences in nadirs among patient groups. Higher intercepts, across all stages (p<0.01), and to a lesser extent lower slopes in GOLD stages 2-4 (p<0.05), were related to greater mechanical constraints, worsening pulmonary gas exchange, higher dyspnoea scores, and poorer exercise capacity. Increases in the ventilation intercept best indicate the progression of exercise ventilatory inefficiency across the whole spectrum of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease severity.

  16. Adolescent thinking ála Piaget: The formal stage.

    PubMed

    Dulit, E

    1972-12-01

    Two of the formal-stage experiments of Piaget and Inhelder, selected largely for their closeness to the concepts defining the stage, were replicated with groups of average and gifted adolescents. This report describes the relevant Piagetian concepts (formal stage, concrete stage) in context, gives the methods and findings of this study, and concludes with a section discussing implications and making some reformulations which generally support but significantly qualify some of the central themes of the Piaget-Inhelder work. Fully developed formal-stage thinking emerges as far from commonplace among normal or average adolescents (by marked contrast with the impression created by the Piaget-Inhelder text, which chooses to report no middle or older adolescents who function at less than fully formal levels). In this respect, the formal stage differs appreciably from the earlier Piagetian stages, and early adolescence emerges as the age for which a "single path" model of cognitive development becomes seriously inadequate and a more complex model becomes essential. Formal-stage thinking seems best conceptualized, like most other aspects of psychological maturity, as a potentiality only partially attained by most and fully attained only by some.

  17. The Seven Stages of Man: The Role of Developmental Stage on Medication Adherence in Respiratory Diseases.

    PubMed

    Costello, Richard W; Foster, Juliet M; Grigg, Jonathan; Eakin, Michelle N; Canonica, Walter; Yunus, Fasail; Ryan, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    The circumstances and drivers of the decision to initiate, implement, or persist with a medication differ for individuals at each developmental stage. For school-age children with asthma, the social environment of their family's cultural beliefs and the influence of peer networks and school policies are strong determinants of medication adherence. The stage of adolescence can be a particularly challenging time because there is a reduction in parental supervision of asthma management as the young person strives to become more autonomous. To illustrate the importance of such factors, adherence interventions in children and young adults with asthma have used peer-based supports and social supports, particularly social media platforms. In older patients, it is internal rather than external factors and age-related decline that pose challenges to medication adherence. Seniors face the challenges of polypharmacy, reduced social support, increased isolation, and loss of cognitive function. Strategies to promote adherence must be tailored to the developmental stage and respective behavioral determinants of the target group. This review considers the different attitudes toward medication and the different adherence behaviors in young and elderly patients with chronic respiratory conditions, specifically asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Opportunities to intervene to optimize adherence are suggested. PMID:27587315

  18. Neogene molluscan stages of the West Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.

    1984-01-01

    Neogene marine sediments of the West Coast of North America were deposited in a series of widely spaced basins that extended geographically from the western and northern Gulf of Alaska (60??N) to southern California (33??N). Rich molluscan faunas occur extensively throughout these deposits and form the basis for biostratigraphic schemes that are useful for correlating within and between individual basins. Early biostratigraphic work was concerned with faunas from particular horizons and with the stratigraphic range of diverse taxa, such as Pecten and Turritella, without reference to other fossil groups. Succeeding work increasingly dealt with the relationships of molluscan zones to benthic and, later, planktonic foraminiferal stages. In recent years the age limits of Neogene molluscan stages have become better documented by reference to planktonic microfossils from dated DSDP cores and onshore faunas. Neogene molluscan faunas from California, the Pacific Northwest states (Oregon and Washington), and southern Alaska have been treated separately due to differences in faunal composition and geographic isolation. As a result, a different biostratigraphic sequence has been described for each region. Pacific Northwest stages have been formally named and defined, and their names are also used informally for Alaskan faunas. California Neogene stages were proposed early in this century, are in need of redescription, and their usage is informal. Precise correlations between the three regional sequences have not yet been achieved, due to the low number of co-occurring species and the general lack of planktonic microfossils in these largely shallow-water faunas. The objectives of ongoing research include: fuller documentation of the faunas of California and Pacific Northwest stages; formal description of California stages; improved correlation between regional stage sequences; refinement of age estimates for stage boundaries; and, establishment of Neogene stages for Alaskan

  19. Subclinical cardiopulmonary dysfunction in stage 3 chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Alexander; Otto, James; Whittle, John; Stephens, Robert C M; Martin, Daniel S; Prowle, John R

    2016-01-01

    Objective Reduced exercise capacity is well documented in end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), preceded by changes in cardiac morphology in CKD stage 3. However, it is unknown whether subclinical cardiopulmonary dysfunction occurs in CKD stage 3 independently of heart failure. Methods Prospective observational cross-sectional study of exercise capacity assessed by cardiopulmonary exercise testing in 993 preoperative patients. Primary outcome was peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak). Anaerobic threshold (AT), oxygen pulse and exercise-evoked measures of autonomic function were analysed, controlling for CKD stage 3, age, gender, diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Results CKD stage 3 was present in 93/993 (9.97%) patients. Diabetes mellitus (RR 2.49 (95% CI 1.59 to 3.89); p<0.001), and hypertension (RR 3.20 (95% CI 2.04 to 5.03); p<0.001)) were more common in CKD stage 3. Cardiac failure (RR 0.83 (95% CI 0.30 to 2.24); p=0.70) and ischaemic heart disease (RR 1.40 (95% CI 0.97 to 2.02); p=0.09) were not more common in CKD stage 3. Patients with CKD stage 3 had lower predicted VO2peak (mean difference: 6% (95% CI 1% to 11%); p=0.02), lower peak heart rate (mean difference:9 bpm (95% CI 3 to 14); p=0.03)), lower AT (mean difference: 1.1 mL/min/kg (95% CI 0.4 to 1.7); p<0.001) and impaired heart rate recovery (mean difference: 4 bpm (95% CI 1 to 7); p<0.001)). Conclusions Subclinical cardiopulmonary dysfunction in CKD stage 3 is common. This study suggests that maladaptive cardiovascular/autonomic dysfunction may be established in CKD stage 3, preceding pathophysiology reported in end-stage CKD. PMID:27127638

  20. Age Relationship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    12 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a group of impact craters in Aonia Planum, Mars. Remarkably, two of the craters are approximately equal in size, however, they clearly differ in age. The left (west) crater has a well-defined rim and its ejecta blanket overlies part of the less pronounced crater to its immediate east. The one with the ejecta blanket is younger. Other circular depressions in this bouldery scene are also old, eroded impact craters.

    Location near: 59.5oS, 78.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  1. Cognitive Development and Group Stages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saidla, Debie D.

    1990-01-01

    Attempts to integrate Perry's (1970) scheme of the cognitive development of college students with a model of group development adapted by Waldo (1985) based on Tuckman's (1965) formulation of developmental group stages. (Author)

  2. Evaluating the Stage Learning Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Hoben

    1980-01-01

    A procedure for evaluating the Genevan stage learning hypothesis is illustrated by analyzing Inhelder, Sinclair, and Bovet's guided learning experiments (in "Learning and the Development of Cognition." Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1974). (Author/MP)

  3. Two stage to orbit design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary design of a two-stage to orbit vehicle was conducted with the requirements to carry a 10,000 pound payload into a 300 mile low-earth orbit using an airbreathing first stage, and to take off and land unassisted on a 15,000 foot runway. The goal of the design analysis was to produce the most efficient vehicle in size and weight which could accomplish the mission requirements. Initial parametric analysis indicated that the weight of the orbiter and the transonic performance of the system were the two parameters that had the largest impact on the design. The resulting system uses a turbofan ramjet powered first stage to propel a scramjet and rocket powered orbiter to the stage point of Mach 6 to 6.5 at an altitude of 90,000 ft.

  4. Two stage liquefaction of coal

    DOEpatents

    Neuworth, Martin B.

    1981-01-01

    A two stage coal liquefaction process and apparatus comprising hydrogen donor solvent extracting, solvent deashing, and catalytic hydrocracking. Preferrably, the catalytic hydrocracking is performed in an ebullating bed hydrocracker.

  5. Assessment of Kohlberg's Stages of Moral Development in Two Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouhmama, Djilali

    1984-01-01

    Forty male and female students, ages 14 and 15, from Algeria and the United Kingdom, were interviewed on two of Kohlberg's moral dilemmas. Results support the prediction that cultural and religious values have an impact on Kohlberg's moral stages. (Author/RM)

  6. Cognitive Developmental Stages Emerging from Levels of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halford, Graeme S.

    1978-01-01

    Proposes that cognitive developmental stages can be accounted for in terms of information processing factors which limit the highest level of cognitive system which children can attain at any given age. Delineates four progressively more complex levels of cognitive mediation of the environment. Two experiments which support the developmental model…

  7. Progression and Assessment in Foreign Languages at Key Stage 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    The teaching of primary languages has been increasing steadily, in response to the future entitlement for all Key Stage 2 (KS2) pupils aged 7-11 to learn a foreign language by 2010. However, there remain concerns about progression both within KS2 and through to secondary school and about how learners' progress is assessed. This paper presents…

  8. Multiple-Stage Screening of Youth Depression in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Melissa E.; Arora, Prerna; Stark, Kevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Schools present a unique environment in which to conduct universal screenings for youth depression. The present study examines the efficiency of a multiple-stage assessment procedure assessing youth depression in the schools by calculating hit rates and establishing diagnostic accuracy for the measures used. Girls (N = 3318) aged 8 to 13,…

  9. Teachers' and Pupils' Perceptions of Creativity across Different Key Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The new Secondary Curriculum (implemented in 2008) saw greater emphasis on creativity within the National Curriculum for England. Since this term has been boldly stated, how have teachers and pupils responded to it in the classroom? This study draws on responses from a range of pupils in different Key Stages (2 (pupils aged 7-11), 3 (pupils aged…

  10. Dental Age Estimation: A Test of the Reliability of Correctly Identifying a Subject Over 18 Years of Age Using the Gold Standard of Chronological Age as the Comparator.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Victoria S; Andiappan, Manoharan; McDonald, Fraser; Roberts, Graham

    2016-09-01

    This study was designed to test the reliability of using the third molars to demarcate between child and adult status. A total of 2000 dental panoramic tomographs were used for assessment of the calculated age using the 8-stage system of tooth development and applied to all four third molars. The LL8 was also assessed using this 8-stage system. For each tooth development stage, the Normal distribution and percentile summary data were estimated. The calculated dental age compared with the chronological age was statistically significantly different (p < 0.001) for both females and males giving underestimates of the true age. Comparison of single tooth dental age and chronological age was only slightly different. The most important finding is that the assignment to above or below the 18-year threshold, in the age range 17 years to 19 years, could be wrong on up to 50% of occasions.

  11. Staged regenerative sorption heat pump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Jack A. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A regenerative adsorbent heat pump process and system for cooling and heating a space. A sorbent is confined in a plurality of compressors of which at least four are first stage and at least four are second stage. The first stage operates over a first pressure region and the second stage over a second pressure region which is higher than the first. Sorbate from the first stage enters the second stage. The sorbate loop includes a condenser, expansion valve, evaporator and the compressors. A single sorbate loop can be employed for single-temperature-control such as air conditioning and heating. Two sorbate loops can be used for two-temperature-control as in a refrigerator and freezer. The evaporator temperatures control the freezer and refrigerator temperatures. Alternatively the refrigerator temperature can be cooled by the freezer with one sorbate loop. A heat transfer fluid is circulated in a closed loop which includes a radiator and the compressors. Low temperature heat is exhausted by the radiator. High temperature heat is added to the heat transfer fluid entering the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Heat is transferred from compressors which are sorbing vapor to the heat transfer fluid, and from the heat transfer fluid to the compressors which are desorbing vapor. Each compressor is subjected to the following phases, heating to its highest temperature, cooling down from its highest temperature, cooling to its lowest temperature, and warming up from its lowest temperature. The phases are repeated to complete a cycle and regenerate heat.

  12. Crew Launch Vehicle Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, D. J.; Cook, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The Agency s Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) will be the first human rated space transportation system developed in the United States since the Space Shuttle. The CLV will utilize existing Shuttle heritage hardware and systems combined with a "clean sheet design" for the Upper Stage. The Upper Stage element will be designed and developed by a team of NASA engineers managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama. The team will design the Upper Stage based on the Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS) Team s point of departure conceptual design as illustrated in the figure below. This concept is a self-supporting cylindrical structure, approximately 1 15 feet long and 216 inches in diameter. While this "clean-sheet" upper stage design inherently carries more risk than utilizing a modified design, the approach also has many advantages. This paper will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of pursuing a "clean-sheet" design for the new CLV Upper Stage as well as describe in detail the overall design of the Upper Stage and its integration into NASA s CLV.

  13. Protein glycation, diabetes, and aging.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, P; Cerami, A

    2001-01-01

    Biological amines react with reducing sugars to form a complex family of rearranged and dehydrated covalent adducts that are often yellow-brown and/or fluorescent and include many cross-linked structures. Food chemists have long studied this process as a source of flavor, color, and texture changes in cooked, processed, and stored foods. During the 1970s and 1980s, it was realized that this process, called the Maillard reaction or advanced glycation, also occurs slowly in vivo. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) that form are implicated, causing the complications of diabetes and aging, primarily via adventitious and crosslinking of proteins. Long-lived proteins such as structural collagen and lens crystallins particularly are implicated as pathogenic targets of AGE processes. AGE formation in vascular wall collagen appears to be an especially deleterious event, causing crosslinking of collagen molecules to each other and to circulating proteins. This leads to plaque formation, basement membrane thickening, and loss of vascular elasticity. The chemistry of these later-stage, glycation-derived crosslinks is still incompletely understood but, based on the hypothesis that AGE formation involves reactive carbonyl groups, the authors introduced the carbonyl reagent aminoguanidine hydrochloride as an inhibitor of AGE formation in vivo in the mid 1980s. Subsequent studies by many researchers have shown the effectiveness of aminoguanidine in slowing or preventing a wide range of complications of diabetes and aging in animals and, recently, in humans. Since, the authors have developed a new class of agents, exemplified by 4,5-dimethyl-3-phenacylthiazolium chloride (DPTC), which can chemically break already-formed AGE protein-protein crosslinks. These agents are based on a new theory of AGE crosslinking that postulates that alpha-dicarbonyl structures are present in AGE protein-protein crosslinks. In studies in aged animals, DPTC has been shown to be capable of reverting

  14. Prognostic significance of matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9 in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Puljiz, Mario; Puljiz, Zeljko; Vucemilo, Tiha; Ramić, Snjezana; Knezević, Fabijan; Culo, Branimir; Alvir, Ilija; Tomica, Darko; Danolić, Damir

    2012-12-01

    We investigated the prognostic significance of matrix metalloproteinases 2 (MMP 2) and 9 (MMP 9) in endometrial cancer (EC). The expression of MMP 2 and MMP 9 was analyzed immunohistochemically in 73 primary EC patients. In most cases, the gelatinases were predominantly localized to epithelial cell of tumor origin. In univariate analysis histological type, tumor grade, FIGO (1988) surgical stage and high stromal MMP 2 expression were identified as a significant determinant for EC recurrence, while epithelial MMP 2 expression and epithelial and stromal MMP 9 expression were not. Multivariate analysis revealed a subgroup of patient age > or = 63.6 years with endometrioid adenocarcinoma and papillary serous carcinoma, all FIGO (2009) stage I disease where strong staining of stromal MMP 2 increase risk of EC recurrence (p = 0.037).

  15. c-Myc protein expression is not an independent prognostic predictor in cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Brenna, S M F; Zeferino, L C; Pinto, G A; Souza, R A; Andrade, L A L; Vassalo, J; Martinez, E Z; Syrjanen, K J

    2002-04-01

    The c-myc protein is known to regulate the cell cycle, and its down-regulation can lead to cell death by apoptosis. The role of c-myc protein as an independent prognostic determinant in cervical cancer is controversial. In the present study, a cohort of 220 Brazilian women (mean age 53.4 years) with FIGO stage I, II and III (21, 28 and 51%, respectively) cervical squamous cell carcinomas was analyzed for c-myc protein expression using immunohistochemistry. The disease-free survival and relapse-rate were analyzed using univariate (Kaplan-Meier) survival analysis for 116 women who completed the standard FIGO treatment and were followed up for 5 years. Positive c-myc staining was detected in 40% of carcinomas, 29% being grade 1, 9% grade 2, and 2% grade 3. The distribution of positive c-myc according to FIGO stage was 19% (17 women) in stage I, 33% (29) in stage II, and 48% (43) in stage III of disease. During the 60-month follow-up, disease-free survival in univariate (Kaplan-Meier) survival analysis (116 women) was lower for women with c-myc-positive tumors, i.e., 60.5, 47.5 and 36.6% at 12, 36, and 60 months, respectively (not significant). The present data suggest that immunohistochemical demonstration of c-myc does not possess any prognostic value independent of FIGO stage, and as such is unlikely to be a useful prognostic marker in cervical squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. AGING FACILITY CRITICALITY SAFETY CALCULATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    C.E. Sanders

    2004-09-10

    The purpose of this design calculation is to revise and update the previous criticality calculation for the Aging Facility (documented in BSC 2004a). This design calculation will also demonstrate and ensure that the storage and aging operations to be performed in the Aging Facility meet the criticality safety design criteria in the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (Doraswamy 2004, Section 4.9.2.2), and the functional nuclear criticality safety requirement described in the ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC [Bechtel SAIC Company] 2004f, p. 3-12). The scope of this design calculation covers the systems and processes for aging commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and staging Department of Energy (DOE) SNF/High-Level Waste (HLW) prior to its placement in the final waste package (WP) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-1). Aging commercial SNF is a thermal management strategy, while staging DOE SNF/HLW will make loading of WPs more efficient (note that aging DOE SNF/HLW is not needed since these wastes are not expected to exceed the thermal limits form emplacement) (BSC 2004f, p. 1-2). The description of the changes in this revised document is as follows: (1) Include DOE SNF/HLW in addition to commercial SNF per the current ''SNF Aging System Description Document'' (BSC 2004f). (2) Update the evaluation of Category 1 and 2 event sequences for the Aging Facility as identified in the ''Categorization of Event Sequences for License Application'' (BSC 2004c, Section 7). (3) Further evaluate the design and criticality controls required for a storage/aging cask, referred to as MGR Site-specific Cask (MSC), to accommodate commercial fuel outside the content specification in the Certificate of Compliance for the existing NRC-certified storage casks. In addition, evaluate the design required for the MSC that will accommodate DOE SNF/HLW. This design calculation will achieve the objective of providing the criticality safety results to support the preliminary design of the Aging

  17. Successful Pregnancy Using the NxStage Home Hemodialysis System

    PubMed Central

    Brahmbhatt, Yasmin; Ikeme, Arinze; Bhogal, Navjyot; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy in the setting of the uremic milieu of renal disease has a lower success rate than in the normal population and is a rare event. While intensified renal replacement therapy (RRT) during pregnancy can lead to improved outcomes, most studies have focused on nocturnal hemodialysis as the main RRT in pregnancy. Although thousands of patients use the home NxStage System One short daily hemodialysis (SDHD) machine in the United States, pregnancy outcomes with this therapy are unknown. The NxStage System One uses low-volume dialysate and hence small and middle molecule clearance may differ compared to conventional therapies and affect pregnancy outcomes. We report a case of a successful conception and pregnancy using the home NxStage system. The NxStage system may provide an alternative to the more routinely used NHD or standard SDHD therapies for women of childbearing age. PMID:26949554

  18. Saturn IB First Stage (S-IB Stage) at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) workers lower S-IB-200D, a dynamic test version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first stage (S-IB stage), into the Center's Dynamic Test Stand on January 12, 1965. Test Laboratory persornel assembled a complete Saturn IB to test the structural soundness of the launch vehicle. Developed by the MSFC as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine large boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the manned lunar missions.

  19. Saturn IB First Stage (S-IB Stage) at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Workers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) begin hoisting S-IB-200D, a dynamic test version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first stage (S-IB stage), into the Center's Dynamic Test Stand on January 11, 1965. Test Laboratory persornel assembled a complete Saturn IB to test the structural soundness of the launch vehicle. Developed by the MSFC as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine large boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the manned lunar missions.

  20. B3GNT3 Expression Is a Novel Marker Correlated with Pelvic Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Clinical Outcome in Early-Stage Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Chunhao; Song, Libing; Zhang, Yanna

    2015-01-01

    Background The β1,3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-3 gene (B3GNT3) encodes a member of the B3GNT family that functions as the backbone structure of dimeric sialyl-Lewis A and is involved in L-selectin ligand biosynthesis, lymphocyte homing and lymphocyte trafficking. B3GNT3 has been implicated as an important element in the development of certain cancers. However, the characteristics of B3GNT3 in the development and progression of cancer remain largely unknown. Thus, our study aimed to investigate the expression pattern and the prognostic value of B3GNT3 in patients with early-stage cervical cancer. Methods The mRNA and protein levels of B3GNT3 expression were examined in eight cervical cancer cell lines and ten paired cervical cancer tumors, using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to analyze B3GNT3 protein expression in paraffin-embedded tissues from 196 early-stage cervical cancer patients. Statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the association between B3GNT3 expression scores and clinical parameters, as well as patient survival. Results B3GNT3 expression was significantly upregulated in cervical cancer cell lines and lesions compared with normal cells and adjacent noncancerous cervical tissues. In the 196 cases of tested early-stage cervical cancer samples, the B3GNT3 protein level was positively correlated with high risk TYPES of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection (P = 0.026), FIGO stage (P < 0.001), tumor size (P = 0.025), tumor recurrence (P = 0.004), vital status (P < 0.001), concurrent chemotherapy and radiotherapy (P = 0.016), lymphovascular space involvement (P = 0.003) and most importantly, lymph node metastasis (P = 0.003). Patients with high B3GNT3 expression had a shorter overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) compared with those with low expression of this protein. Multivariate analysis suggested that B3GNT3 expression is an independent prognostic indicator for cervical

  1. Staging neurodegenerative disorders: structural, regional, biomarker, and functional progressions.

    PubMed

    Archer, Trevor; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Beninger, Richard J; Palomo, Tomas

    2011-02-01

    The notion of staging in the neurodegenerative disorders is modulated by the constant and progressive loss of several aspects of brain structural integrity, circuitry, and neuronal processes. These destructive processes eventually remove individuals' abilities to perform at sufficient and necessary functional capacity at several levels of disease severity. The classification of (a) patients on the basis of diagnosis, risk prognosis, and intervention outcome, forms the basis of clinical staging, and (b) laboratory animals on the basis of animal model of brain disorder, extent of insult, and dysfunctional expression, provides the components for the clinical staging and preclinical staging, respectively, expressing associated epidemiological, biological, and genetic characteristics. The major focus of clinical staging in the present account stems from the fundamental notions of Braak staging as they describe the course and eventual prognosis for Alzheimer's disease, Lewy Body dementia, and Parkinson's disease. Mild cognitive impairment, which expresses the decline in episodic and semantic memory performance below the age-adjusted normal range without marked loss of global cognition or activities of daily living, and the applications of longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging, major instruments for the monitoring of either disease progression in dementia, present important challenges for staging concepts. Although Braak notions present the essential basis for further developments, current staging conceptualizations seem inadequate to comply with the massive influx of information dealing with neurodegenerative processes in brain, advanced both under clinical realities, and discoveries in the laboratory setting. The contributions of various biomarkers of disease progression, e.g., amyloid precursor protein, and neurotransmitter system imbalances, e.g., dopamine receptor supersensitivity and interactive propensities, await their incorporation into the existing staging

  2. Two-Stage Centrifugal Fan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Converse, David

    2011-01-01

    Fan designs are often constrained by envelope, rotational speed, weight, and power. Aerodynamic performance and motor electrical performance are heavily influenced by rotational speed. The fan used in this work is at a practical limit for rotational speed due to motor performance characteristics, and there is no more space available in the packaging for a larger fan. The pressure rise requirements keep growing. The way to ordinarily accommodate a higher DP is to spin faster or grow the fan rotor diameter. The invention is to put two radially oriented stages on a single disk. Flow enters the first stage from the center; energy is imparted to the flow in the first stage blades, the flow is redirected some amount opposite to the direction of rotation in the fixed stators, and more energy is imparted to the flow in the second- stage blades. Without increasing either rotational speed or disk diameter, it is believed that as much as 50 percent more DP can be achieved with this design than with an ordinary, single-stage centrifugal design. This invention is useful primarily for fans having relatively low flow rates with relatively high pressure rise requirements.

  3. Three stages of medical dialogue.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, H; Schwartz, E

    1996-06-01

    The negative consequences of physicians' failure to establish and maintain personal relationships with patients are at the heart of the "humanistic crisis" in medicine. To resolve this crisis, a new model of doctor-patient interaction is proposed, based on the ideas of Martin Buber's philosophy of dialogue. This model shows how the physician may successfully combine the personal (I-Thou) and impersonal (I-It) aspects of medicine in three stages. These "Three Stages of Medical Dialogue" include: 1. An Initial Personal Meeting stage, which initiates the doctor-patient relationship and involves mutual confirmation; 2. An Examination stage, which requires a shift from a personal to an impersonal style of interaction; 3. An Integration Through Dialogue or "Healing Through Meeting" Stage, which involves the integration of the impersonal medical data into the ongoing dialogue between doctor and patient, as a basis for shared decision-making. The use of the model, as well as common failures of doctor-patient dialogue are discussed.

  4. Stage Separation Performance Analysis Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yen-Sen; Zhang, Sijun; Liu, Jiwen; Wang, Ten-See

    2001-01-01

    Stage separation process is an important phenomenon in multi-stage launch vehicle operation. The transient flowfield coupled with the multi-body systems is a challenging problem in design analysis. The thermodynamics environment with burning propellants during the upper-stage engine start in the separation processes adds to the complexity of the-entire system. Understanding the underlying flow physics and vehicle dynamics during stage separation is required in designing a multi-stage launch vehicle with good flight performance. A computational fluid dynamics model with the capability to coupling transient multi-body dynamics systems will be a useful tool for simulating the effects of transient flowfield, plume/jet heating and vehicle dynamics. A computational model using generalize mesh system will be used as the basis of this development. The multi-body dynamics system will be solved, by integrating a system of six-degree-of-freedom equations of motion with high accuracy. Multi-body mesh system and their interactions will be modeled using parallel computing algorithms. Adaptive mesh refinement method will also be employed to enhance solution accuracy in the transient process.

  5. The Influence of Radiation Modality and Lymph Node Dissection on Survival in Early-Stage Endometrial Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Chino, Junzo P.; Jones, Ellen; Berchuck, Andrew; Secord, Angeles Alvarez; Havrilesky, Laura J.

    2012-04-01

    Background: The appropriate uses of lymph node dissection (LND) and adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) for Stage I endometrial cancer are controversial. We explored the impact of specific RT modalities (whole pelvic RT [WPRT], vaginal brachytherapy [VB]) and LND status on survival. Materials and Methods: The Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results dataset was queried for all surgically treated International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) Stage I endometrial cancers; subjects were stratified into low, intermediate and high risk cohorts using modifications of Gynecologic Oncology Group (GOG) protocol 99 and PORTEC (Postoperative Radiation Therapy in Endometrial Cancer) trial criteria. Five-year overall survival was estimated, and comparisons were performed via the log-rank test. Results: A total of 56,360 patients were identified: 70.4% low, 26.2% intermediate, and 3.4% high risk. A total of 41.6% underwent LND and 17.6% adjuvant RT. In low-risk disease, LND was associated with higher survival (93.7 LND vs. 92.7% no LND, p < 0.001), whereas RT was not (91.6% RT vs. 92.9% no RT, p = 0.23). In intermediate-risk disease, LND (82.1% LND vs. 76.5% no LND, p < 0.001) and RT (80.6% RT vs. 74.9% no RT, p < 0.001) were associated with higher survival without differences between RT modalities. In high-risk disease, LND (68.8% LND vs. 54.1% no LND, p < 0.001) and RT (66.9% RT vs. 57.2% no RT, p < 0.001) were associated with increased survival; if LND was not performed, VB alone was inferior to WPRT (p = 0.01). Conclusion: Both WPRT and VB alone are associated with increased survival in the intermediate-risk group. In the high-risk group, in the absence of LND, only WPRT is associated with increased survival. LND was also associated with increased survival.

  6. Two stage activated sludge plants--influence of different operational modes on sludge bulking and nitrification.

    PubMed

    Wandl, G; Müller-Rechberger, H; Matsché, N; Svardal, K; Winkler, S

    2002-01-01

    Conventional two stage activated sludge plants often lack sufficient nutrient removal performance due to substrate limitation for denitrification in the second stage. For the extension of the Vienna Main WWTP a two stage concept has been developed and tested by means of a pilot plant (scale 1:10.000). The new concept enables the operation of two different modes: In BYPASS-mode a portion of the primary clarifier effluent is fed directly to the second stage; the HYBRID-mode includes the exchange of mixed liquor between the two stages; over the course of the pilot plant investigations it turned out that nutrient removal is strongly increased in comparison to conventional two stage mode, but the two modes of operation lead to different results with regard to the sludge quality and the nitrification performance. BYPASS mode yields a higher SVI in both stages and a lower nitrification performance in comparison to HYBRID mode. This is caused by the negative influence of the primary effluent on the biocoenosis of the second stage. Additionally, the reduced sludge loading of the first stage in this mode results in a higher sludge age which favours the growth of filaments (Microthrix and Nocardia). In HYBRID-mode the higher load of the first stage results in a lower sludge age, fatty components are metabolized and incorporated in the sludge, thus, the growth of filaments is significantly reduced. Additionally, nitrification inhibiting substances are degraded in the first stage, which results in a higher nitrification performance in the second stage.

  7. Correlation of the Serum Level of Carcinoembryonic Antigen and Prolactin with Different Stages of Colorectal Carcinoma According to Dukes' Staging.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M R; Sheikh, S H; Lima, I J; Islam, M R; Faisal, M; Islam, M S; Faruk, M O; Jalal, M T

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is well established tumor marker for colorectal cancers worldwide. Recent studies show that serum prolactin level is also raised in colorectal cancers. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the correlation of serum CEA and Prolactin with Dukes' staging of colorectal carcinomas. Between January 2013 and June 2013, Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin were measured by radioimmunoassay from 103 patients who were histopathologically diagnosed as colorectal carcinomas. Evaluation of the stages of the colorectal cancers was done on the basis of preoperative investigations and postoperative histopathology and correlated with Preoperative Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin. Results were presented as median value, range and percentage. Male to female ratio was 1.4:1 with median age of 42.26 years (range 17-78 years). Most of the patients in this series presented with carcinoma rectum (42%). Most of the patients (52%) were found in Dukes' stage C and 27% and 15% cases were found as Dukes' stage B and Dukes' stage D respectively. Stage of the disease is directly proportionate to percentage of the patient with high serum prolactin except early stage (Dukes' A-50%, Dukes' B-28.6%, Dukes' C-33.3% & Dukes' D-46.7%). Similarly serum CEA level is directly proportionate to tumor stage (Dukes' A-0%, Dukes' B-32%, Dukes' C-40.7% & Dukes' D-74.7%). A preoperative high serum CEA value suggests advanced disease either locally or with distant metastasis. In contrast preoperative high serum prolactin (hyperprolactinaemia) did not suggest advanced disease as it can be elevated even in early stage of disease. Serum CEA and Serum Prolactin both are valuable tumor markers but serum CEA could not be replaced by serum Prolactin. Serum Prolactin may be a helpful marker in earlier stages of the colorectal cancer.

  8. Manometric investigation of anorectal function in early and late stage Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Bassotti, G.; Maggio, D.; Battaglia, E.; Giulietti, O.; Spinozzi, F.; Reboldi, G.; Serra, A. M.; Emanuelli, G.; Chiarioni, G.

    2000-01-01

    Abnormal gastrointestinal function is relatively frequent in Parkinson's disease, and constipation is a disturbing symptom in many patients. However, it remains to be established whether anorectal abnormalities are characteristic of the late stages of the disease. Clinical and anorectal manometric function were investigated in groups of early and late stage parkinsonian patients. Thirty one patients (19 men, 12 women, age range 22 to 89 years) entered the study. The disease severity was assessed by Hoehn and Yahr staging: there were four (12.9%) stage I, seven (22.6%) stage II, 10 (32.2%) stage III, and 10 (32.2%) stage IV patients. Anorectal variables were measured by standard manometric equipment and techniques. Values obtained in early stage patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage I and II) were compared with those obtained in late stage patients (Hoehn and Yahr stage III and IV). Overall, more than 70% of patients complained of chronic constipation, with chronic laxative use reported in more than 30%. Late stage patients were slightly older than their early stage counterparts. Pelvic floor dyssynergia was documented in more than 60% of patients. Manometric variables were not different in the two groups. In conclusion, defecatory dysfunction is frequent in Parkinson's disease, it is not confined to late stage patients, and it is found early in the course of the disease. This has potential implications for a targeted therapeutic approach.

 PMID:10811703

  9. The prognostic value of a histologic grading system, DNA profile, and MIB-1 expression in early stages of cervical squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Graflund, Marianne; Sorbe, B; Bryne, M; Karlsson, M

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the prognostic importance of a new grading system focusing on the invasive tumor front, DNA profile, and the proliferation marker MIB-1. A complete geographic series of 172 women treated with radical hysterectomy (Wertheim-Meigs) for FIGO stage I-II cervical carcinomas was the target population. The analyses were performed on 141 (82%) squamous cell carcinomas of the complete series. During the period of observation (mean 222 months), 17 recurrences (12.1%) were encountered. Prognostic factors for disease-free survival were lymph node status (P < 0.000001), radical surgical margins (P = 0.00004), and tumor size (P = 0.002). The complete score of the invasive front grading system (IFG), and the individual scores of two variables-pattern of invasion and host response-were all significantly (P = 0.002, P = 0.007, P = 0.0001) associated with pelvic lymph node metastases. Host response was the single most important factor in the IFG system, and it was superior to the complete score in predicting lymph node metastases. The total IFG score was also a significant (P = 0.003) prognostic factor for disease-free survival. DNA ploidy, S-phase fraction, and MIB-1 expression were nonsignificant factors in predicting pelvic lymph node metastases and disease-free survival of the patient. The IFG in the original or modified versions could predict low- and high-risk groups of tumors and therefore be of value in treatment planning for these patients. PMID:11975674

  10. Reading and Coherent Motion Perception in School Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassaliete, Evita; Lacis, Ivars; Fomins, Sergejs; Krumina, Gunta

    2015-01-01

    This study includes an evaluation, according to age, of the reading and global motion perception developmental trajectories of 2027 school age children in typical stages of development. Reading is assessed using the reading rate score test, for which all of the student participants, regardless of age, received the same passage of text of a medium…

  11. Drama for Classroom and Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Albert and Bertha

    This book with a three-part format contains information which the would-be thespian needs to know for maximum enjoyment and success in stage activities. The first part, "Heritage," traces the history and development of the theater from primitive ritual through the drama of classical Greece and Rome, the Renaissance, and modern Europe and America,…

  12. Stage 2--Information Seeking Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsenberg, Michael B.

    2005-01-01

    A brief overview of one Big6 stage by Mike Eisenberg, followed by articles by two exemplary Big6 teachers, Barbara Jansen and Rob Darrow, offering practical uses of the Big6 in elementary and secondary situations is presented. The two-part nature of information seeking strategies that includes brainstorming and choosing is emphasized.

  13. The Beginning Stages of Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkie, Fiona, Comp.

    Noting that in the beginning stages of reading it is helpful for children to be surrounded by the written word and to be read to by adults, this article offers brief encapsulations of and responses to five articles about beginning reading and reading readiness. The five articles are as follows: (1) "Three-Year-Olds in Their Reading Corner" by…

  14. Ares I Stage Separation Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, an Ares I x-test involves the upper stage separating from the first stage. This particular test was conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center in July 2007. (Highest resolution available)

  15. Multi-stage flash degaser

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, P.M.

    1980-06-26

    A multi-stage flash degaser is incorporated in an energy conversion system having a direct-contact, binary-fluid heat exchanger to remove essentially all of the noncondensable gases from geothermal brine ahead of the direct-contact binary-fluid heat exchanger in order that the heat exchanger and a turbine and condenser of the system can operate at optimal efficiency.

  16. All the World's a Stage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanistreet, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Open Stages is Britain's biggest amateur theatre project, a hugely ambitious scheme to bring the professional and amateur theatre worlds together. It is a learning project but, as the Royal Shakespeare Company's Ian Wainwright tells this author, it is not only the amateurs who are learning. Wainwright states that the amateur and professional…

  17. Stage I: Development of VOICE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echternacht, Gary J.; And Others

    The initial stages of test development of the Vocational and Occupational Interest Choice Examination (VOICE), developed for Air Force recruiters, are described. Reviewed are a number of relevant occupational interest inventories from which a pool of 400 items was drawn corresponding to eight career fields: general accounting, administration,…

  18. Joint aging and chondrocyte cell death

    PubMed Central

    Grogan, Shawn P; D’Lima, Darryl D

    2010-01-01

    Articular cartilage extracellular matrix and cell function change with age and are considered to be the most important factors in the development and progression of osteoarthritis. The multifaceted nature of joint disease indicates that the contribution of cell death can be an important factor at early and late stages of osteoarthritis. Therefore, the pharmacologic inhibition of cell death is likely to be clinically valuable at any stage of the disease. In this article, we will discuss the close association between diverse changes in cartilage aging, how altered conditions influence chondrocyte death, and the implications of preventing cell loss to retard osteoarthritis progression and preserve tissue homeostasis. PMID:20671988

  19. CRYOGENIC UPPER STAGE SYSTEM SAFETY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. Kenneth; French, James V.; LaRue, Peter F.; Taylor, James L.; Pollard, Kathy (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    NASA s Exploration Initiative will require development of many new systems or systems of systems. One specific example is that safe, affordable, and reliable upper stage systems to place cargo and crew in stable low earth orbit are urgently required. In this paper, we examine the failure history of previous upper stages with liquid oxygen (LOX)/liquid hydrogen (LH2) propulsion systems. Launch data from 1964 until midyear 2005 are analyzed and presented. This data analysis covers upper stage systems from the Ariane, Centaur, H-IIA, Saturn, and Atlas in addition to other vehicles. Upper stage propulsion system elements have the highest impact on reliability. This paper discusses failure occurrence in all aspects of the operational phases (Le., initial burn, coast, restarts, and trends in failure rates over time). In an effort to understand the likelihood of future failures in flight, we present timelines of engine system failures relevant to initial flight histories. Some evidence suggests that propulsion system failures as a result of design problems occur shortly after initial development of the propulsion system; whereas failures because of manufacturing or assembly processing errors may occur during any phase of the system builds process, This paper also explores the detectability of historical failures. Observations from this review are used to ascertain the potential for increased upper stage reliability given investments in integrated system health management. Based on a clear understanding of the failure and success history of previous efforts by multiple space hardware development groups, the paper will investigate potential improvements that can be realized through application of system safety principles.

  20. Aging and Aged in Organized Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amir, Menachem

    1989-01-01

    Examines problems of the aged in organized crime, basing discussion on organized crime bosses over age 60 operating in Italy, the United States, and Israel. Looks at problems stemming from normative system in organized crime, role of the aged, intergenerational problems, fears of the aged, excuses and justifications, standards of life, and…

  1. Operation of staged membrane oxidation reactor systems

    DOEpatents

    Repasky, John Michael

    2012-10-16

    A method of operating a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system. The method comprises providing a multi-stage ion transport membrane oxidation system with at least a first membrane oxidation stage and a second membrane oxidation stage, operating the ion transport membrane oxidation system at operating conditions including a characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and a characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage; and controlling the production capacity and/or the product quality by changing the characteristic temperature of the first membrane oxidation stage and/or changing the characteristic temperature of the second membrane oxidation stage.

  2. Conceptual design of a two stage to orbit spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armiger, Scott C.; Kwarta, Jennifer S.; Horsley, Kevin B.; Snow, Glenn A.; Koe, Eric C.; Single, Thomas G.

    1993-01-01

    This project, undertaken through the Advanced Space Design Program, developed a 'Conceptual Design of a Two Stage To Orbit Spacecraft (TSTO).' The design developed utilizes a combination of air breathing and rocket propulsion systems and is fully reusable, with horizontal takeoff and landing capability. The orbiter is carried in an aerodynamically designed bay in the aft section of the booster vehicle to the staging altitude. This TSTO Spacecraft design meets the requirements of replacing the aging Space Shuttle system with a more easily maintained vehicle with more flexible mission capability.

  3. Breast cancer stage at diagnosis: is travel time important?

    PubMed

    Henry, Kevin A; Boscoe, Francis P; Johnson, Christopher J; Goldberg, Daniel W; Sherman, Recinda; Cockburn, Myles

    2011-12-01

    Recent studies have produced inconsistent results in their examination of the potential association between proximity to healthcare or mammography facilities and breast cancer stage at diagnosis. Using a multistate dataset, we re-examine this issue by investigating whether travel time to a patient's diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility impacts breast cancer stage at diagnosis. We studied 161,619 women 40 years and older diagnosed with invasive breast cancer from ten state population based cancer registries in the United States. For each woman, we calculated travel time to their diagnosing facility and nearest mammography facility. Logistic multilevel models of late versus early stage were fitted, and odds ratios were calculated for travel times, controlling for age, race/ethnicity, census tract poverty, rural/urban residence, health insurance, and state random effects. Seventy-six percent of women in the study lived less than 20 min from their diagnosing facility, and 93 percent lived less than 20 min from the nearest mammography facility. Late stage at diagnosis was not associated with increasing travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility. Diagnosis age under 50, Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Black race/ethnicity, high census tract poverty, and no health insurance were all significantly associated with late stage at diagnosis. Travel time to diagnosing facility or nearest mammography facility was not a determinant of late stage of breast cancer at diagnosis, and better geographic proximity did not assure more favorable stage distributions. Other factors beyond geographic proximity that can affect access should be evaluated more closely, including facility capacity, insurance acceptance, public transportation, and travel costs.

  4. Altered Proteins in the Aging Brain

    PubMed Central

    Elobeid, Adila; Libard, Sylwia; Leino, Marina; Popova, Svetlana N.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the prevalence of common altered brain proteins in 296 cognitively unimpaired subjects ranging from age 50 to 102 years. The incidence and the stage of hyperphosphorylated-τ (HPτ), β-amyloid, α-synuclein (αS), and transactive response DNA (TDP) binding protein 43 (TDP43)-immunoreactivity (-IR) increased with age. HPτ-IR was observed in 98% of the subjects; the locus coeruleus was solely affected in 46%, and 79% of the subjects were in Braak stages a to II. β-Amyloid was seen in 47% of subjects and the Thal phase correlated with the HPτ Braak stage and age. Intermediate Alzheimer disease-related pathology (ADRP) was seen in 12%; 52% of the subjects with HPτ-IR fulfilled criteria for definite primary age-related tauopathy (PART). The incidence of concomitant pathology (αS, TDP43) did not differ between those with PART and those with ADRP but the former were younger. TDP43-IR was observed in 36%; the most frequently affected region was the medulla; αS-IR was observed in 19% of subjects. In 41% of the subjects from 80 to 89 years at death, 3 altered proteins were seen in the brain. Thus, altered proteins are common in the brains of cognitively unimpaired aged subjects; this should be considered while developing diagnostic biomarkers, particularly for identifying subjects at early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26979082

  5. Altered Proteins in the Aging Brain.

    PubMed

    Elobeid, Adila; Libard, Sylwia; Leino, Marina; Popova, Svetlana N; Alafuzoff, Irina

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the prevalence of common altered brain proteins in 296 cognitively unimpaired subjects ranging from age 50 to 102 years. The incidence and the stage of hyperphosphorylated-τ (HPτ), β-amyloid, α-synuclein (αS), and transactive response DNA (TDP) binding protein 43 (TDP43)-immunoreactivity (-IR) increased with age. HPτ-IR was observed in 98% of the subjects; the locus coeruleus was solely affected in 46%, and 79% of the subjects were in Braak stages a to II. β-Amyloid was seen in 47% of subjects and the Thal phase correlated with the HPτ Braak stage and age. Intermediate Alzheimer disease-related pathology (ADRP) was seen in 12%; 52% of the subjects with HPτ-IR fulfilled criteria for definite primary age-related tauopathy (PART). The incidence of concomitant pathology (αS, TDP43) did not differ between those with PART and those with ADRP but the former were younger. TDP43-IR was observed in 36%; the most frequently affected region was the medulla; αS-IR was observed in 19% of subjects. In 41% of the subjects from 80 to 89 years at death, 3 altered proteins were seen in the brain. Thus, altered proteins are common in the brains of cognitively unimpaired aged subjects; this should be considered while developing diagnostic biomarkers, particularly for identifying subjects at early stages of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26979082

  6. Stages in third molar development and eruption to estimate the 18-year threshold Malay juvenile.

    PubMed

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yusmiaidil Putera; Cauwels, Rita; Martens, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Age 18 years is considered as the age of majority by most countries. To ascertain the age of interest, both third molar development (TMD) and eruption (TME) staging scores are beneficial without needing multiple imaging modalities. This study aimed to assess the chronological course of TMD and TME in a Malay sub-adult population and evaluate predictions when specific stage(s) of TMD and TME have been attained that are pertinent to the age group of interest (<18 years or ≥18 years). A sample of 714 digital panoramic images for subjects stratified by age between 14.1 and 23.9 years was retrospectively collected. The techniques described by Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Kohler) and Olze were employed to stage TMD and TME, respectively. A binary logistic regression was performed to predict the 18-year threshold with staging score as predictors. Stages 4-6 (TMD) and A-B (TME) for males and stages 4 (TMD) and A (TME) for females were found to discriminate the <18-year group. For both genders, stages 9-10 (TMD) and D (TME) can be used as reference stages to estimate whether a subject is likely to be ≥18 years, with 94.74-100% and 85.88-96.38% correct predictions, respectively. Stages 4 (TMD) and A (TME) can also be used to identify juveniles (<18 years) with a high degree of correct predictions, 100%. The juvenility of an individual is easily anticipated by using the specific staging scores of both third molar variables (TMD and TME) without complex calculations. PMID:26276268

  7. Stages in third molar development and eruption to estimate the 18-year threshold Malay juvenile.

    PubMed

    Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yusmiaidil Putera; Cauwels, Rita; Martens, Luc

    2015-10-01

    Age 18 years is considered as the age of majority by most countries. To ascertain the age of interest, both third molar development (TMD) and eruption (TME) staging scores are beneficial without needing multiple imaging modalities. This study aimed to assess the chronological course of TMD and TME in a Malay sub-adult population and evaluate predictions when specific stage(s) of TMD and TME have been attained that are pertinent to the age group of interest (<18 years or ≥18 years). A sample of 714 digital panoramic images for subjects stratified by age between 14.1 and 23.9 years was retrospectively collected. The techniques described by Gleiser and Hunt (modified by Kohler) and Olze were employed to stage TMD and TME, respectively. A binary logistic regression was performed to predict the 18-year threshold with staging score as predictors. Stages 4-6 (TMD) and A-B (TME) for males and stages 4 (TMD) and A (TME) for females were found to discriminate the <18-year group. For both genders, stages 9-10 (TMD) and D (TME) can be used as reference stages to estimate whether a subject is likely to be ≥18 years, with 94.74-100% and 85.88-96.38% correct predictions, respectively. Stages 4 (TMD) and A (TME) can also be used to identify juveniles (<18 years) with a high degree of correct predictions, 100%. The juvenility of an individual is easily anticipated by using the specific staging scores of both third molar variables (TMD and TME) without complex calculations.

  8. Quantification of functional abilities in Rett syndrome: a comparison between stages III and IV

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Carlos BM; Savelsbergh, Geert JP; Smorenburg, Ana RP; Graciani, Zodja; Torriani-Pasin, Camila; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E; Kok, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the functional abilities of persons with Rett syndrome (RTT) in stages III and IV. The group consisted of 60 females who had been diagnosed with RTT: 38 in stage III, mean age (years) of 9.14, with a standard deviation of 5.84 (minimum 2.2/maximum 26.4); and 22 in stage IV, mean age of 12.45, with a standard deviation of 6.17 (minimum 5.3/maximum 26.9). The evaluation was made using the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, which has 197 items in the areas of self-care, mobility, and social function. The results showed that in the area of self-care, stage III and stage IV RTT persons had a level of 24.12 and 18.36 (P=0.002), respectively. In the area of mobility, stage III had 37.22 and stage IV had 14.64 (P<0.001), while in the area of social function, stage III had 17.72 and stage IV had 12.14 (P=0.016). In conclusion, although persons with stage III RTT have better functional abilities when compared with stage IV, the areas of mobility, self-care, and social function are quite affected, which shows a great functional dependency and need for help in basic activities of daily life. PMID:25061307

  9. The Biology of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprott, Richard L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen articles in this special issue discuss aging theories, biomarkers of aging, aging research, disease, cancer biology, Alzheimer's disease, stress, oxidation of proteins, gene therapy, service delivery, biogerontology, and ethics and aging research. (SK)

  10. Emotional and Motivational Engagement at School Transition: A Qualitative Stage-Environment Fit Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symonds, Jennifer; Hargreaves, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents typically like school less after making age-graded school transitions. Stage-environment fit theory (Eccles & Midgley, 1989) attributes this to a mismatch between developmental needs and new school environments. Our in vivo study provides a basis for future quantitative designs by uncovering the most prevalent stage-environment…

  11. The Relationship of Life Stage to Motives for Using Television and the Perceived Reality of TV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostman, Ronald E.; Jeffers, Dennis W.

    A model specifying relationships between life stage, motives for using television and the perceived reality of television was tested with data from 140 telephone interviews of adults living in Southern Illinois. The adults ranged in age from 18 to 87 years. Life stage was related to five of the 11 motives for using television: learning things,…

  12. Stages of Change for Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Deprived Neighborhoods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kloek, Gitte C.; van Lenthe, Frank J.; van Nierop, Peter W. M.; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the association of external and psychosocial factors on the stages of change for fruit and vegetable consumption, among 2,781 inhabitants, aged 18 to 65 years, in deprived neighborhoods (response rate 60%). To identify correlates of forward stage transition, an ordinal logistic regression model, the Threshold of Change Model…

  13. Pressures from Work, Self, and Home in the Life Stages of Married Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Douglas T.

    1975-01-01

    Following Lopata's (1966) model of the life cycle of the married woman's role, it was predicted and found that a woman's life stage would be related to her role pressures (work, home, self, and time), conflict, and satisfaction. Age and number of roles were not as strongly related to these variables as was life stage. (Author)

  14. Aging and older adults in three Roman Catholic magazines: Successful aging and the Third and Fourth Ages reframed.

    PubMed

    Sawchuk, Dana

    2015-12-01

    This article is a qualitative content analysis of how aging and older adults are represented in the articles of three Roman Catholic magazines in the United States: America, Commonweal, and U.S. Catholic. The findings suggest that, as in mainstream secular magazines, the concept of successful aging is common in portrayals of older adults in the Third Age. Distinctive in Catholic magazine portrayals of successful aging is an emphasis on meaningful activity and on the wisdom that is gained and transmitted in this stage of life. In contrast to the lack of attention to Fourth Age decline in mainstream magazines, in the Catholic publications the difficult features of such deterioration are acknowledged but are also reframed as potential sources of value. The theoretical implications of these more complex faith-based renderings of the Third and Fourth Ages are briefly explored.

  15. Upper-Stage Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, W. E.; Boxwell, R.; Crockett, D. V.; Ross, R.; Lewis, T.; McNeal, C.; Verdarame, K.

    1999-01-01

    For propulsion applications that require that the propellants are storable for long periods, have a high density impulse, and are environmentally clean and non-toxic, the best choice is a combination of high-concentration hydrogen peroxide (High Test Peroxide, or HTP) and a liquid hydrocarbon (LHC) fuel. The HTP/LHC combination is suitable for low-cost launch vehicles, space taxi and space maneuvering vehicles, and kick stages. Orbital Sciences Corporation is under contract with the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center in cooperation with the Air Force Research Lab to design, develop and demonstrate a new low-cost liquid upper stage based on HTP and JP-8. The Upper Stage Flight Experiment (USFE) focuses on key technologies necessary to demonstrate the operation of an inherently simple propulsion system with an innovative, state-of-the-art structure. Two key low-cost vehicle elements will be demonstrated - a 10,000 lbf thrust engine and an integrated composite tank structure. The suborbital flight test of the USFE is scheduled for 2001. Preceding the flight tests are two major series of ground tests at NASA Stennis Space Center and a subscale tank development program to identify compatible composite materials and to verify their compatibility over long periods of time. The ground tests include a thrust chamber development test series and an integrated stage test. This paper summarizes the results from the first phase of the thrust chamber development tests and the results to date from the tank material compatibility tests. Engine and tank configurations that meet the goals of the program are described.

  16. Multi-stage flash degaser

    DOEpatents

    Rapier, Pascal M.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-stage flash degaser (18) is incorporated in an energy conversion system (10) having a direct-contact, binary-fluid heat exchanger to remove essentially all of the noncondensable gases from geothermal brine ahead of the direct-contact binary-fluid heat exchanger (22) in order that the heat exchanger (22) and a turbine (48) and condenser (32) of the system (10) can operate at optimal efficiency.

  17. Early stage of nanocrystal growth

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Berkeley Lab researchers at the Molecular Foundry have elucidated important mechanisms behind oriented attachment, the phenomenon that drives biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. This electron microscopy movie shows the early stage of nanocrystal growth. Nanoparticles make transient contact at many points and orientations until their lattices are perfectly matched. The particles then make a sudden jump-to-contact to form attached aggregates. (Movie courtesy of Jim DeYoreo)

  18. Commercializing the transfer orbit stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. W.

    1984-01-01

    Key milestones necessary to establish the transfer orbit stage are examined. The selection of the project concept and synthesis of the company are described followed by an analysis venture capability support and the selection of a major aerospace company as prime contractor. A landmark agreement with NASA sanctioned the commercial TOS concept and provided the critical support necessary to raise the next round of venture capital. Project management and customer commitments are also discussed.

  19. Ares I Upper Stage Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    These presentation slides review the progress in the development of the Ares I upper stage. The development includes development of a manufacturing and processing assembly that will reduce the time required over 100 days, development of a weld tool that is a robotic tool that is the largest welder of its kind in the United States, development of avionics and software, and development of logisitics and operations systems.

  20. Nomogram Prediction of Overall Survival After Curative Irradiation for Uterine Cervical Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, YoungSeok; Yoo, Seong Yul; Kim, Mi-Sook; Yang, Kwang Mo; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Kim, Jin Ho; Shin, Young-Joo; Kang, Jin Kyu; Lee, Kyung Hee; Lee, Eui Don; Rhu, Sang Young; Choi, Suck Chul; Kim, Moon Hong; Kim, Beob Jong; Kim, Min-Suk; Cho, Chul-Koo

    2011-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a nomogram capable of predicting the probability of 5-year survival after radical radiotherapy (RT) without chemotherapy for uterine cervical cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 549 patients that underwent radical RT for uterine cervical cancer between March 1994 and April 2002 at our institution. Multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazards regression was performed and this Cox model was used as the basis for the devised nomogram. The model was internally validated for discrimination and calibration by bootstrap resampling. Results: By multivariate regression analysis, the model showed that age, hemoglobin level before RT, Federation Internationale de Gynecologie Obstetrique (FIGO) stage, maximal tumor diameter, lymph node status, and RT dose at Point A significantly predicted overall survival. The survival prediction model demonstrated good calibration and discrimination. The bootstrap-corrected concordance index was 0.67. The predictive ability of the nomogram proved to be superior to FIGO stage (p = 0.01). Conclusions: The devised nomogram offers a significantly better level of discrimination than the FIGO staging system. In particular, it improves predictions of survival probability and could be useful for counseling patients, choosing treatment modalities and schedules, and designing clinical trials. However, before this nomogram is used clinically, it should be externally validated.

  1. Clinical value of morphometric and DNA flow cytometric variables as independent predictors of survival in epithelial ovarian carcinoma: a 5-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Veerman, Margot M; van der Wurff, Anneke A M; van de Water, Marije; Kruitwagen, Roy F P M; Feijen, Harrie W H; Vos, Maria Caroline

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this follow-up study is to validate the clinical significance of quantitative morphometric and DNA flow cytometric variables as independent prognostic factors of overall survival and progression-free survival in epithelial ovarian carcinoma. Tumor samples were collected from 135 patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma at 3 hospitals in the Netherlands. Evaluated clinico-pathologic variables were age, histologic subtype, differentiation grade, clinical stage [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO)], presence of ascites, serum CA-125, and the completeness of debulking surgery. Morphometry and DNA flow cytometric techniques were assessed on each tumor sample to determine the mitotic activity index (MAI), volume percentage epithelium, mean nuclear area (MNA), standard deviation of MNA (SD MNA), nuclear perimeter (NP), and DNA ploidy. Univariate analysis showed that differentiation grade, FIGO stage, presence of ascites, preoperative CA-125 levels, DNA ploidy, and MAI, NP, and MNA were of significant prognostic value. After multivariate analysis (using forward Cox proportional hazard analysis), only differentiation grade and FIGO stage remained significant. From this study, we can conclude that morphometry and DNA flow cytometry are not independent prognosticators and therefore have no clinical value in predicting prognosis in ovarian carcinoma.

  2. Staged sacrectomy--an adaptive approach.

    PubMed

    Ramamurthy, Rajaraman; Bose, Jagadish Chandra; Muthusamy, Vimalakannan; Natarajan, Mayilvahanan; Kunjithapatham, Deiveegan

    2009-09-01

    Object Sacral tumors are commonly diagnosed late and therefore present at an advanced stage. The late presentation makes curative surgery technically demanding. Sacrectomy is fraught with a high local recurrence rate and potential complications: deep infection; substantial blood loss; large-bone and soft-tissue defects; bladder, bowel, and sexual dysfunction; spinopelvic nonunion; and gait disturbance. The aim of this study was to analyze the complications and morbidity of sacrectomy and the modifications meant to reduce the morbidity. Methods This is a retrospective study of the patients who underwent sacrectomy between February 1997 and September 2008 in the Department of Surgical Oncology, Government Royapettah Hospital, Kilpauk Medical College, in Chennai, Tamilnadu, India. Sacrectomy was performed using 1 of the following approaches: posterior approach, abdominolateral approach, or abdominosacral approach, either as sequential or staged operations. The morbidity rate after the sequential and staged abdominosacral approaches was analyzed. Functional assessment was made based on the Enneking functional scoring system. The results were analyzed and survival analysis was done using the Kaplan-Meier method (with SPSS software). Results Nineteen patients underwent sacrectomy, of which 12 operations were partial, 3 were subtotal, and 4 were total sacrectomy. Histological diagnosis included giant cell tumor, chordoma, chondroblastoma, adenocarcinoma of rectum, and retroperitoneal sarcoma. The giant cell tumor was the most common tumor in this series, followed by chordoma. The patients' mean age at diagnosis was 32 years. There were 10 male and 9 female patients. Fortyseven percent of patients had bowel and bladder disturbances postoperatively, and 57.89% of patients had wound complications. The median follow-up duration was 24 months (range 2-140 months). The 5-year overall survival rate was 70.4%, and the 5-year disease-free survival rate was 65% (based on the Kaplan

  3. Reflexive Learning: Stages towards Wisdom with Dreyfus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Ian

    2005-01-01

    The Dreyfus (2001) account of seven stages of learning is considered in the context of the Dreyfus (1980s) account of five stages of skill development. The two new stages, Mastery and Practical Wisdom, make more explicit certain themes implicit in the five-stage account. In this way Dreyfus (2001) encourages a more reflexive approach. The themes…

  4. Human dental age estimation combining third molar(s) development and tooth morphological age predictors.

    PubMed

    Thevissen, P W; Galiti, D; Willems, G

    2012-11-01

    In the subadult age group, third molar development, as well as age-related morphological tooth information can be observed on panoramic radiographs. The aim of present study was to combine, in subadults, panoramic radiographic data based on developmental stages of third molar(s) and morphological measurements from permanent teeth, in order to evaluate its added age-predicting performances. In the age range between 15 and 23 years, 25 gender-specific radiographs were collected within each age category of 1 year. Third molar development was classified and registered according the 10-point staging and scoring technique proposed by Gleiser and Hunt (1955), modified by Köhler (1994). The Kvaal (1995) measuring technique was applied on the indicated teeth from the individuals' left side. Linear regression models with age as response and third molar-scored stages as explanatory variables were developed, and morphological measurements from permanent teeth were added. From the models, determination coefficients (R (2)) and root-mean-square errors (RMSE) were calculated. Maximal-added age information was reported as a 6 % R² increase and a 0.10-year decrease of RMSE. Forensic dental age estimations on panoramic radiographic data in the subadult group (15-23 year) should only be based on third molar development.

  5. Saturn IB First Stage (S-IB Stage) at MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    S-IB-200D, a dynamic test version of the Saturn IB launch vehicle's first stage (S-IB), makes its way to the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) East Test Area on January 4, 1965. Test Laboratory persornel assembled a complete Saturn IB to test the structural soundness of the launch vehicle in the Dynamic Test Stand. Developed by the MSFC as an interim vehicle in MSFC's 'building block' approach to the Saturn rocket development, the Saturn IB utilized Saturn I technology to further develop and refine the larger boosters and the Apollo spacecraft capabilities required for the manned lunar missions.

  6. The developmental stages of Bipolar Disorder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Fatima Imam; Verdolini, Norma; Agius, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Bipolar disorder is a developing disorder; its early stages are sometimes misdiagnosed as anxiety or depressive disorders. At the same time, these disorders are often in comorbidity with bipolar disorder. This complex symptomatology can lead to misinterpretation and underdiagnosis of bipolar disorders, mainly at the earliest stages. Consequently, one of the most important challenges for clinicians is to recognize the non specific early symptoms with the aid of clinical information, for example a family history of bipolar disorder. Furthermore, it is well-known that comorbid anxiety disorders can lead to a worse prognosis in bipolar patients but it is not exactly clear to what extent. A deeper understanding of the relationship between these comorbidities and their stage of development will hopefully lead to better care of patients with bipolar disorder from a younger age. PMID:26417761

  7. Age Prejudice of 'Act Your Age.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponzo, Zander

    1978-01-01

    Many life-style decisions are often adversely influenced by prejudicial attitudes, norms, and laws about age. The relationship between ways of thinking about developmental tasks and age prejudice is discussed. (Author)

  8. [Theories of stages of life within the anthropology of romanticism].

    PubMed

    Schweizer, Pia-Johanna; Schweizer, Stefan

    2006-12-01

    The essay discusses the importance and prominence of theories about different stages of life in the anthropological and medical discourse of romanticism. This discourse has clearly a stabilising and restaurative function, favouring the age of moderate manhood. The political and social regulative implications of these theories demand a restaurative roll-back. The essay is based on a concept of sociology of knowledge formation. PMID:17575867

  9. Non-invasive, investigative methods in skin aging.

    PubMed

    Longo, C; Ciardo, S; Pellacani, G

    2015-12-01

    A precise and noninvasive quantification of aging is of outmost importance for in vivo assessment of the skin aging "stage", and thus acts to minimize it. Several bioengineering methods have been proposed to objectively, precisely, and non-invasively measure skin aging, and to detect early skin damage, that is sub-clinically observable. In this review we have described the most relevant methods that have emerged from recently introduced technologies, aiming at quantitatively assessing the effects of aging on the skin.

  10. Prognostic factors in stages II/III/IV and stages III/IV endometrioid and serous adenocarcinoma of the endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Mhawech-Fauceglia, P.; Herrmann, R.F.; Kesterson, J.; Izevbaye, I.; Lele, S.; Odunsi, K.

    2016-01-01

    Aims To explore and to compare the outcome of patients diagnosed with stage II/III/IV and stage III/IV endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EAC) with their serous carcinoma (USC) counterparts. Materials and methods A total of 107 patients (73 EAC and 34 USC) were evaluated. For statistical analysis, the following baseline variables were considered for their prognostic value: the patient’s age at presentation, the tumor size, the depth of myometrial invasion (MI), the lympho-vascular involvement (LVI) and the USC and the EAC subtypes (considered as binary variables). Disease free survival (DFS), death of disease (DOD) and overall survival (OS) were assessed using univariate and multiple Cox proportional hazards models. Results In univariate analysis, USC tends to recur more frequently than EAC (p = 0.004), a finding that disappeared in multivariate analysis. Furthermore, tumor histology had no significance in predicting the tumor outcomes. Among all of the prognostic factors and after adjusting for the aforementioned variables, MI ≥50% was the only independent factor in predicting DOD in stages II/III/IV (p = 0.009) and in stages III/IV (p = 0.004). MI was also an independent predictive factor for OS (p = 0.02) and early recurrences in stages III/IV. LVI was the only independent factor in predicting recurrences (p = 0.004) in stages II/III/IV but not in stages III/IV. Conclusion Based on our study, tumor histology was not a significant factor in predicting disease outcome in stages II/III/IV and II/IV. Despite our limited sample size, we believe that our findings provide meaningful insights into the clinical study of endometrial cancer patients which in turn warrants further investigation. PMID:20926229

  11. Psychological wellbeing, health and ageing

    PubMed Central

    Steptoe, Andrew; Deaton, Angus; Stone, Arthur A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Psychological wellbeing and health are closely linked at older ages. Three aspects of psychological wellbeing can be distinguished: evaluative wellbeing (or life satisfaction), hedonic wellbeing (feelings of happiness, sadness, etc), and eudemonic wellbeing (sense of purpose and meaning in life). We review recent advances in this field, and present new analyses concerning the pattern of wellbeing across ages and the association between wellbeing and survival at older ages. The Gallup World Poll, an ongoing survey in more than 160 countries, shows a U-shaped relationship between evaluative wellbeing and age in rich, English speaking countries, with the lowest levels of wellbeing around ages 45-54. But this pattern is not universal: for example, respondents from the former Soviet Union and Eastern Europe show a large progressive decline in wellbeing with age; Latin America also shows falling wellbeing with age, while wellbeing in sub-Saharan Africa shows little change with age. The relationship between physical health and subjective wellbeing is bidirectional. Older people suffering from illnesses such as coronary heart disease, arthritis and chronic lung disease show both raised levels of depressed mood and impaired hedonic and eudemonic wellbeing. Wellbeing may also have a protective role in health maintenance. In an illustrative analyses from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), we find that eudemonic wellbeing is associated with longer survival; 29.3% of people in the lowest wellbeing quartile died over the average follow-up period of 8.5 years compared with 9.3% of those in the highest quartile. Associations were independent of age, gender, demographic factors, and baseline mental and physical health. We conclude that the wellbeing of the elderly is an important objective for both economic and health policy. Current psychological and economic theories do not adequately account for the variations in pattern of wellbeing with age across

  12. Sea-level and the `Stage 11 Problem`

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, D. Q.

    2003-12-01

    Estimating an approximate relative sea level for oxygen isotope stage 11 may have a critical bearing on a solution to the `stage 11 problem` that identifies the mismatch between low eccentricity forcing and the disproportionate ice volume response - that also includes a relative sea level response. The perennial problem of separating ice volume from temperature effects has hampered attempts to estimate sea level from delta 18O data sets, even for younger odd numbered stages when comparisons with U-series ages on corals are available. Stage 11 sea levels on `stable` and uplifting coasts are recognised from geomorphic features such as terraces and shoreline angles, sediments and corals, and yield a range of estimates from over 20 m to just below present sea level. Given that the 413 ka Milankovitch pacing provides similar orbital configurations for stage 11 and the Holocene some interest attaches to the potential sea-level similarity between them, especially for the future Holocene. Attempts to derive a stage 11 sea level from coasts uplifting at different rates have used `uplift correction graphs` or uplift correction equations, but a major handicap is the dearth of appropriate geochronologic ages both for stage 11 and substage 5e (5.5) - the base line for estimating average uplift rates. Different estimates for the age of stage 11 and 5e (5.5), and the duration of 5e, have yielded a range of estimates. Earlier estimates relied on single locations or regional evidence, but it is probably misleading to rely on these. To combat this several world-wide locations are assembled and, using locality-specific data, provide a mean estimate for the stage 11 sea level of 11 m, plus-minus 10 m. But by applying a set of standardised parameters (including the peak sea level at 402 ka - event 11.3 of the Bassinott time scale) the mean sea level for stage 11 emerges as 2 m plus-minus 7 m. This closes the gap between inferences from delta 18O variability, the latest of which point

  13. Relationship of tadpole stage to location of echinostome cercaria encystment and the consequences for tadpole survival

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schotthoefer, A.M.; Cole, R.A.; Beasley, V.R.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of echinostome infections on the survival of Rana pipiens tadpoles was examined in relation to developmental stage of tadpoles. Individual tadpoles of Gosner stages 25, 27, 32a??33, and 37a??39 were exposed to 1 of 4 levels of cercariae (0, 20, 50, or 100). Only tadpoles at stage 25, the earliest stage infected, died within a 5-day experimental period. This stage-specific mortality rate could be explained, in part, by the stage-specific location of encystment of cercariae, which was documented in a separate experiment. In accordance with kidney development, cercariae predominately encysted in the pronephroi during early stages of tadpole development (stages 25 through 31a??32) and only in the mesonephroi and associated ducts at later stages (stages 37 through 46). As the mesonephros develops, renal capacity presumably increases. Thus, tadpoles died only when metacercariae concentrated in the functional portion of the kidney with the most limited renal capacity. As tadpoles aged, they also became less susceptible to infections. On average, 69.5% of cercariae that were exposed to stage 25a??26 tadpoles successfully encysted, compared with only 8.4% of cercariae exposed to stage 37a??38 tadpoles. Exposures of metamorphic frogs (poststage 46) to cercariae revealed that these individuals can become infected with echinostomes. Collectively, our data highlight the host stagea??dependent dynamics of tadpolea??echinostome interactions.

  14. AGE-RELATED SUSCEPTIBILITY: A GENOMICS APPROACH.

    EPA Science Inventory

    By the year 2030 more than 70 million Americans will be over the age of 65. These older adults are a subpopulation that may have special susceptibility to toxic insult due to critical characteristics of their life-stage. Current EPA testing guidelines do not identify the elderl...

  15. Self-Perceived Milestones in Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Ann Jane

    Theorists and researchers have developed abstract divisions in the life span to mark significant stages. To explore the conceptual labels individuals use to make divisions in their life spans, 92 adults, aged 20 to 55 years, marked significant milestones on a lifeline. Participants also completed a demographic questionnaire. Data on the labels…

  16. Downregulation of Six MicroRNAs Is Associated with Advanced Stage, Lymph Node Metastasis and Poor Prognosis in Small Cell Carcinoma of the Cervix

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Long; Lin, Jia-Xin; Yu, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Mei-Yin; Wang, Hui-Yun; Zheng, Min

    2012-01-01

    Background Small cell carcinoma of the cervix (SCCC) is very rare, and due to the long time period required to recruit sufficient numbers of patients, there is a paucity of information regarding the prognostic factors associated with survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been used as cancer-related biomarkers in a variety of tumor types, and the objective of this study was to determine whether microRNA expression profiles can predict clinical outcome in SCCC. Methodology/Principal Findings Forty-four patients with SCCC who underwent radical hysterectomy between January 2000 and October 2009 were enrolled. Using the GeneCopoeia All-in-One™ Customized Human qPCR Primer Array, the expression profiles of 30 miRNAs associated with tumor metastasis was obtained from the formalin-fixed paraffin embedded samples of all 44 patients. Seven miRNAs, has-let-7c, has-miR-10b, has-miR-100, has-miR-125b, has-miR-143, has-miR-145 and has-miR-199a-5p were significantly down-regulated in advanced stage SCCCpatients (FIGO IB2-IV) compared to early stage SCCC patients (FIGOIB1). Among, downregulation of six miRNAs, has-let-7c, has-miR-100, has-miR-125b, has-miR-143, has-miR-145 and has-miR-199a-5p were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and reduced survival in SCCC. Kaplan–Meier survival analyses revealed that SCCC patients with low expression of has-miR-100 (P = 0.019) and has-miR-125b (P = 0.020) projected a significant tendency towards poorer prognosis. Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that downregulation of 7 miRNA associated with advanced stage, 6 miRNAs with metastasis and 2 with poor prognosis in SCCC. Functional analysis of these miRNAs may enhance our understanding of SCCC, as altered expression of specific miRNAs may regulate the metastatic pathway and provide novel targets for therapy. PMID:22438992

  17. Old age psychiatry in the modern age.

    PubMed

    Warner, James P

    2015-11-01

    Old age psychiatry services globally are under threat. The discipline enjoyed its heyday in the two decades bridging the millennium. More recently there has been a move to integrate old age services with those of working age adults, to create 'ageless' services. Evidence is beginning to accumulate that this is a bad idea.

  18. Avoiding Aging? Social Psychology's Treatment of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; Redmond, Rebecca; von Rohr, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Population aging, in conjunction with social and cultural transformations of the life course, has profound implications for social systems--from large-scale structures to micro-level processes. However, much of sociology remains fairly quiet on issues of age and aging, including the subfield of social psychology that could illuminate the impact of…

  19. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  20. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image, depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  1. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California.

  2. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  3. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel that will be used to fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  4. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution Available)

  5. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts confidence testing of a manufactured aluminum panel that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel. In this test, bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  6. ARES I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. In this HD video image, processes for upper stage barrel fabrication are talking place. Aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Largest resolution available)

  7. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured panel that will be used for the Ares I upper stage barrel fabrication. The aluminum panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  8. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts a manufactured aluminum panel, that will fabricate the Ares I upper stage barrel, undergoing a confidence panel test. In this test, the bent aluminum is stressed to breaking point and thoroughly examined. The panels are manufactured by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  9. Autumn diet of lesser snow geese staging in northeastern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brackney, Alan W.; Hupp, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    The coastal plain of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR) is used by lesser snow geese (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) in autumn for premigratory staging. To better understand the potential impacts of human disturbance on snow geese, we investigated species composition of, and temporal and age-related variation in, their diet during staging. Depending on age and time of collection, between 35.2 and 94.1% of the diet (aggregate percent wet mass, n = 75) consisted of 2 species of plants; underground stems of tall cotton-grass (Eriophorum angustifolium), and aerial shoots of northern scouring rush (Equisetum variegatum). The diet varied between August and September (P = 0.0089), morning and afternoon (P < 0.0001), but not between age classes (P = 0.066). Throughout staging, snow geese consumed more tall cotton-grass during the afternoon than during the morning (P < 0.05). Tall cotton-grass was a larger component of the afternoon diet in September than in August (P < 0.05). In September, snow geese consumed more northern scouring rush in the mornings than in the afternoon (P < 0.05). Nighttime freezing, interspecific differences in nutritional quality, and plant senescence likely constrained the diet of snow geese to a small number of food items. Because alternative foods may not be available, human disturbance should be minimized in areas that provide these forage species.

  10. Stages of change or changes of stage? Predicting transitions in transtheoretical model stages in relation to healthy food choice.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Christopher J; Sheeran, Paschal; Conner, Mark; Arden, Madelynne A

    2004-06-01

    Relatively little research has examined factors that account for transitions between transtheoretical model (TTM) stages of change. The present study (N = 787) used sociodemographic, TTM, and theory of planned behavior (TPB) variables, as well as theory-driven interventions to predict changes in stage. Longitudinal analyses revealed that sociodemographic, TPB, and 1 of the interventions predicted transitions between most stages of change. In fact, only progression from the preparation stage was not predictable. However, given that this change of stage marks the transition between cognition and actual behavior, the identification of variables that bridge this gap is crucial for the development of interventions to promote stage transitions. PMID:15279532

  11. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  12. Single-stage Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    President Bush established a three phase Space Exploration Initiative for the future of space exploration. The first phase is the design and construction of Space Station Freedom. The second phase is permanent lunar base. The last phase of the Initiative is the construction of a Mars outpost. The design presented is the concept of a single-stage Mars mission developed by the University of Minnesota Aerospace Design Course. The mission will last approximately 500 days including a 30-60 day stay on Mars.

  13. [Initial stages of steel biocorrosion].

    PubMed

    Zhigletsova, S K; Rodin, V B; Kobelev, V S; Aleksandrova, N V; Rasulova, G E; Kholodenko, V P

    2000-01-01

    Initial stages of corrosion of mild steel induced by Klebsiela rhinoscleromatis BO2 were studied in various media. The effect of the microorganism was detected 8-10 h after inoculation. The number of viable cells were virtually unchanged within one month in all media, but the corrosive activity of the strain decreased. The corrosive activity of microorganisms can be determined by spectrophotometry even only after incubation for 24 h. At a low level of organic substrate, even strong colonization with microorganisms does not inevitably result in a significant damage to metals.

  14. Baseline characteristics of patients with chronic kidney disease stage 3 and stage 4 in spain: the MERENA observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To obtain information on cardiovascular morbidity, hypertension control, anemia and mineral metabolism based on the analysis of the baseline characteristics of a large cohort of Spanish patients enrolled in an ongoing prospective, observational, multicenter study of patients with stages 3 and 4 chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Methods Multicenter study from Spanish government hospital-based Nephrology outpatient clinics involving 1129 patients with CKD stages 3 (n = 434) and 4 (n = 695) defined by GFR calculated by the MDRD formula. Additional analysis was performed with GFR calculated using the CKD-EPI and Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results In the cohort as a whole, median age 70.9 years, morbidity from all cardiovascular disease (CVD) was very high (39.1%). In CKD stage 4, CVD prevalence was higher than in stage 3 (42.2 vs 35.6% p < 0.024). Subdividing stage 3 in 3a and 3b and after adjusting for age, CVD increased with declining GFR with the hierarchy (stage 3a < stage 3b < stage 4) when calculated by CKD-EPI (31.8, 35.4, 42.1%, p 0.039) and Cockcroft-Gault formula (30.9, 35.6, 43.4%, p 0.010) and MDRD formula (32.5, 36.2, 42.2%,) but with the latter, it did not reach statistical significance (p 0.882). Hypertension was almost universal among those with stages 3 and 4 CKD (91.2% and 94.1%, respectively) despite the use of more than 3 anti-hypertensive agents including widespread use of RAS blockers. Proteinuria (> 300 mg/day) was present in more than 60% of patients and there was no significant differences between stages 3 and 4 CKD (1.2 ± 1.8 and 1.3 ± 1.8 g/day, respectively). A majority of the patients had hemoglobin levels greater than 11 g/dL (91.1 and 85.5% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively p < 0.001) while the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) was limited to 16 and 34.1% in stages 3 and 4 CKD respectively. Intact parathyroid hormone (i-PTH) was elevated in stage 3 and stage 4 CKD patients (121 ± 99 and 166 ± 125 pg/mL p 0

  15. The ageing brain: normal and abnormal memory.

    PubMed Central

    Albert, M S

    1997-01-01

    With advancing age, the majority of individuals experience declines in their ability to learn and remember. An examination of brain structure and function in healthy older persons across the age range indicates that there are substantial changes in the brain that appear to be related to alterations in memory. The nature of the cognitive and neurobiological alterations associated with age-related change is substantially different from that seen in the early stages of a dementing illness, such as Alzheimer's disease. These differences have implications for potential intervention strategies. PMID:9415922

  16. Urinary Biomarkers at Early ADPKD Disease Stage

    PubMed Central

    Petzold, Katja; Poster, Diane; Krauer, Fabienne; Spanaus, Katharina; Andreisek, Gustav; Nguyen-Kim, Thi Dan Linh; Pavik, Ivana; Ho, Thien Anh; Serra, Andreas L.; Rotar, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is characterized by a decline in renal function at late disease stage when the majority of functional renal parenchyma is replaced by cystic tissue. Thus, kidney function, assessed by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) does not well represent disease burden in early disease. Here, we investigated various urinary markers for tubular injury and their association with disease burden in ADPKD patients at early disease course. Methods ADPKD patients between 18 and 40 years with an eGFR greater or equal to 70 ml per min per 1.73m2 were eligible for this cross-sectional study. Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL), Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1), and Uromodulin (UMOD) were investigated by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Clara Cell Protein 16 (CC16) was investigated by Latex Immuno Assay. Cryoscopy was performed to assess urine osmolality and Urinary Albumin-to-Creatinine Ratio (UACR) was calculated. The association and the predictive properties of the markers on eGFR and height adjusted total kidney volume (htTKV) was evaluated using multiple regression analysis, incorporating different control variables for adjustment. Internal bootstrapping validated the obtained results. Results In 139 ADPKD patients (age 31 ±7 years, mean eGFR of 93 ± 19 ml per min per 1.73 m2) the total kidney volume was negatively correlated with eGFR and UMOD and positive associated with age, UACR, KIM-1 and urine osmolality after adjustment for possible confounders. Urine osmolality and htTKV were also associated with eGFR, whereas no association of CC16, NGAL and UMOD with eGFR or htTKV was found. Conclusion UACR and urinary KIM-1 are independently associated with kidney size but not with renal function in our study population. Urine osmolality was associated with eGFR and kidney volume following adjustment for multiple confounders. Despite statistical significance, the clinical value of our

  17. Characteristic Age and True Age of Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Long; Zhang, Cheng-Min; Tanni, Ali; Zhao, Hai-Hui

    2013-01-01

    Age of a pulsar is a useful parameter, but it is difficult to get the age from observation. We can only derive the characteristic age from the observed parameters: spin period (P) and period derivative (Ṗ). In this paper, we discussed the relationship between characteristic age and magnetic field of a pulsar. Monte Carlo simulation is also used to support the idea: it is useless to study the magnetic field evolution using characteristic age. From some observation evidences we get that: the characteristic age cannot be used as true age, especially for millisecond pulsar (MSP). The difference between them is also discussed. From the studying of breaking index and MSP's initial spin period (P0), we get the conclusion that: the problem cannot be resolved using different radiation models.

  18. Epidemiology of Hypertension Stages in Two Countries in Sub-Sahara Africa: Factors Associated with Hypertension Stages

    PubMed Central

    Gebreselassie, Kirubel Zemedkun; Padyab, Mojgan

    2015-01-01

    Studies using the revised hypertension classification are needed to better understand epidemiology of hypertension across full distribution. The sociodemographic, biological, and health behavior characteristics associated with different stages of hypertension in Ghana and South Africa (SA) were studied using global ageing and adult health (SAGE), WAVE 1 dataset. Blood pressure was assessed for a total of 7545 respondents, 2980 from SA and 4565 from Ghana. Hypertension was defined using JNC7 blood pressure classification considering previous diagnosis and treatment. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis using Stata version 12 statistical software was done to identify independent predictors. The weighted prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in Ghana was 30.7% and 42.4%, respectively, and that of SA was 29.4% and 46%, respectively, showing high burden. After adjusting for the independent variables, only age (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.14–1.53), income (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04–3.47), and BMI (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.1–1.22) remained independent predictors for stage 1 hypertension in Ghana, while, for SA, age (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.53–3.36), sex (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.08–1), and BMI (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25) were found to be independent predictors of stage 1 hypertension. Healthy lifestyle changes and policy measures are needed to promptly address these predictors. PMID:26495142

  19. Simultaneous vs staged bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yim, A P

    1996-10-01

    It is generally thought that simultaneous bilateral chest surgery carries a high morbidity. We reviewed the results of simultaneous (under one anesthesia) vs staged bilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) from a single institution over a 35-month period. From September 1992 to July 1995, we performed simultaneous bilateral VATS on 37 patients (31 males, six females, age ranging from 15 to 55 years) with spontaneous pneumothorax (20) for bleb resections and pleurodesis; thoracodorsal sympathectomy (12) for palmar hyperhidrosis and vasospastic disease; and metastatic sarcomas (five) for wedge lung resections. During the same period, nine patients with metachronous bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax had staged procedures, as did two with digital ischemic ulcers for sympathectomy and three with metastatic pulmonary osteosarcomas for resection. Mean postoperative hospital stays in days for the simultaneous groups were 3.3 for spontaneous pneumothorax, 2.1 for sympathectomy, and 1.5 for wedge resection, compared to 2.9, 2.5, and 2.2 for the staged groups, respectively (p > 0.05 by Mann-Whitney U tests). Likewise, pain assessment by visual analogue scale as well as analgesic requirement showed no significant difference between the simultaneous and the staged groups. We conclude that simultaneous VATS is not associated with increased morbidity or prolonged hospital stay compared to the staged counterparts and provides an attractive alternative to the median sternotomy, bilateral posterolateral thoracotomy, or transternal (clam-shell) thoracotomy for selected cases of simultaneous bilateral lung surgery. PMID:8864102

  20. Two stage indirect evaporative cooling system

    DOEpatents

    Bourne, Richard C.; Lee, Brian E.; Callaway, Duncan

    2005-08-23

    A two stage indirect evaporative cooler that moves air from a blower mounted above the unit, vertically downward into dry air passages in an indirect stage and turns the air flow horizontally before leaving the indirect stage. After leaving the dry passages, a major air portion travels into the direct stage and the remainder of the air is induced by a pressure drop in the direct stage to turn 180.degree. and returns horizontally through wet passages in the indirect stage and out of the unit as exhaust air.

  1. Skin Care and Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... Age Spots and Skin Tags Click for more information Age spots, once called "liver spots," are flat, brown ... surface. They are a common occurrence as people age, especially for women. They are ... options, specific conditions, and related issues. ...

  2. Exercise and age

    MedlinePlus

    Age and exercise ... to start exercising. Exercise has benefits at any age. Don't worry if you have never exercised, ... things you enjoy and stay independent as you age. The right kind of regular exercise can also ...

  3. Nutrients, Microglia Aging, and Brain Aging.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhou; Yu, Janchun; Zhu, Aiqin; Nakanishi, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    As the life expectancy continues to increase, the cognitive decline associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) becomes a big major issue in the world. After cellular activation upon systemic inflammation, microglia, the resident immune cells in the brain, start to release proinflammatory mediators to trigger neuroinflammation. We have found that chronic systemic inflammatory challenges induce differential age-dependent microglial responses, which are in line with the impairment of learning and memory, even in middle-aged animals. We thus raise the concept of "microglia aging." This concept is based on the fact that microglia are the key contributor to the acceleration of cognitive decline, which is the major sign of brain aging. On the other hand, inflammation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage, which leads to the overproduction of reactive oxygen species by the numerous types of cells, including macrophages and microglia. Oxidative stress-damaged cells successively produce larger amounts of inflammatory mediators to promote microglia aging. Nutrients are necessary for maintaining general health, including the health of brain. The intake of antioxidant nutrients reduces both systemic inflammation and neuroinflammation and thus reduces cognitive decline during aging. We herein review our microglia aging concept and discuss systemic inflammation and microglia aging. We propose that a nutritional approach to controlling microglia aging will open a new window for healthy brain aging. PMID:26941889

  4. WHITE MATTER DEVELOPMENT IN THE EARLY STAGES OF PSYCHOSIS

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Bart D.; Karlsgodt, Katherine H.

    2014-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been conceptualized as a disorder of both neurodevelopment and a disorder of connectivity. One important aspect of the neurodevelopmental hypothesis is that schizophrenia is no longer thought to have discrete illness time points, but rather a long trajectory of brain changes, spanning many years, across a series of stages of the disease including the prodrome, first episode, and chronic period. As the disease progresses, there is a complex relationship between age related changes and disease related changes. Therefore, neural changes, and specifically white matter based connectivity changes, in schizophrenia may be best conceptualized based on a lifespan trajectory. In this selective review, we discuss healthy changes in white matter integrity that occur with age, as well as changes that occur across illness stages. We further propose a set of models that might explain lifespan changes in white matter integrity in schizophrenia, with the conclusion that the evidence most strongly supports a pattern of disrupted maturation during adolescence, with the potential for later changes that may be a result of disease neurotoxicity, abnormal or excessive aging effects, as well as medication, cohort or other effects. Thus, when considering white matter integrity in psychosis, it is critical to consider age in addition to other contributing factors including disease specific effects. Discovery of the factors driving healthy white matter development across the lifespan and deviations from the normal developmental trajectory may provide insights relevant to the discovery of early treatment interventions. PMID:24893908

  5. Second Stage Turbine Bucket Airfoil.

    DOEpatents

    Xu, Liming; Ahmadi, Majid; Humanchuk, David John; Moretto, Nicholas; Delehanty, Richard Edward

    2003-05-06

    The second-stage buckets have airfoil profiles substantially in accordance with Cartesian coordinate values of X, Y and Z set forth in inches in Table I wherein Z is a perpendicular distance from a plane normal to a radius of the turbine centerline and containing the X and Y values with the Z value commencing at zero in the X, Y plane at the radially innermost aerodynamic section of the airfoil and X and Y are coordinate values defining the airfoil profile at each distance Z. The X, Y and Z values may be scaled as a function of the same constant or number to provide a scaled-up or scaled-down airfoil section for the bucket.

  6. Early stages of Ostwald ripening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneidman, Vitaly A.

    2013-07-01

    The Becker-Döring (BD) nucleation equation is known to predict a narrow double-exponential front (DEF) in the distribution of growing particles over sizes, which is due to early transient effects. When mass conservation is included, nucleation is eventually exhausted while independent growth is replaced by ripening. Despite the enormous difference in the associated time scales, and the resulting demand on numerics, within the generalized BD model the early DEF is shown to be crucial for the selection of the unique self-similar Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner asymptotic regime. Being preserved till the latest stages of growth, the DEF provides a universal part of the initial conditions for the ripening problem, regardless of the mass exchange mechanism between the nucleus and the matrix.

  7. Stages in the research process.

    PubMed

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-01

    Research should be conducted in a systematic manner, allowing the researcher to progress from a general idea or clinical problem to scientifically rigorous research findings that enable new developments to improve clinical practice. Using a research process helps guide this process. This article is the first in a 26-part series on nursing research. It examines the process that is common to all research, and provides insights into ten different stages of this process: developing the research question, searching and evaluating the literature, selecting the research approach, selecting research methods, gaining access to the research site and data, pilot study, sampling and recruitment, data collection, data analysis, and dissemination of results and implementation of findings.

  8. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progress made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP). Nuclear propulsion can be affordable and viable compared to other propulsion systems and must overcome a biased public fear due to hyper-environmentalism and a false perception of radiation and explosion risk.

  9. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Doughty, Glen; Belvin, Anthony; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental capability of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is game changing for space exploration. A first generation Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS) based on NTP could provide high thrust at a specific impulse above 900 s, roughly double that of state of the art chemical engines. Characteristics of fission and NTP indicate that useful first generation systems will provide a foundation for future systems with extremely high performance. The role of the NCPS in the development of advanced nuclear propulsion systems could be analogous to the role of the DC-3 in the development of advanced aviation. Progres made under the NCPS project could help enable both advanced NTP and advanced Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP).

  10. The usefulness of dental and cervical maturation stages in New Zealand children for Disaster Victim Identification.

    PubMed

    Timmins, Kimberley; Liversidge, Helen; Farella, Mauro; Herbison, Peter; Kieser, Jules

    2012-06-01

    Age estimation of young victims of natural and un-natural disasters remains a crucial and challenging task during the process of Disaster Victim Identification (DVI). The purpose of this study was to compare dental maturity using the Demirjian and Cameriere methods and to explore the relationship between dental age and cervical vertebral maturity (CVM) using the Hassel and Farman method for a group of New Zealand children. The study used lateral cephalometric and panoramic radiographs of 200 orthodontic patients aged 7-17 years. Dental age was calculated from mandibular tooth formation stages using the Demirjian and Cameriere methods by calculating the ratio of tooth length to apex width for these teeth. CVM was assessed using stages from Hassel and Farman. Reliability of maturity from reassessment of 20 radiographs showed good agreement for the three methods. Chronological and dental ages were compared using a mixed model. Descriptive statistics of dental ages by CVM stage were calculated. The results show that both dental methods were similar in assessing maturity. A disadvantage of using the Cameriere method was that all seven teeth reached maturity at 13.69 and 14.06 years in females and males respectively, compared to age 16 using the Dermijian method. Females reached CVM stages at earlier chronological and dental ages than males. Mean chronological age for CVM stages 2-5 is about 1 year earlier in females than males. The Demirjian and Cameriere methods of dental maturity and CVM are reliable and useful in assessing dental and skeletal maturity. Ideally in a DVI situation, both the methods of Demirjian and Cameriere, together with CVM, should be employed in the ageing of individuals suspected of being between 7 and 16 years.

  11. Ares I Upper Stage Fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Under the goals of the Vision for Space Exploration, Ares I is a chief component of the cost-effective space transportation infrastructure being developed by NASA's Constellation Program. This transportation system will safely and reliably carry human explorers back to the moon, and then onward to Mars and other destinations in the solar system. The Ares I effort includes multiple project element teams at NASA centers and contract organizations around the nation, and is managed by the Exploration Launch Projects Office at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC). ATK Launch Systems near Brigham City, Utah, is the prime contractor for the first stage booster. ATK's subcontractor, United Space Alliance of Houston, is designing, developing and testing the parachutes at its facilities at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. NASA's Johnson Space Center in Houston hosts the Constellation Program and Orion Crew Capsule Project Office and provides test instrumentation and support personnel. Together, these teams are developing vehicle hardware, evolving proven technologies, and testing components and systems. Their work builds on powerful, reliable space shuttle propulsion elements and nearly a half-century of NASA space flight experience and technological advances. Ares I is an inline, two-stage rocket configuration topped by the Crew Exploration Vehicle, its service module, and a launch abort system. This HD video image depicts the manufacturing of aluminum panels that will be used to form the Ares I barrel. The panels are manufacturing process demonstration articles that will undergo testing until perfected. The panels are built by AMRO Manufacturing located in El Monte, California. (Highest resolution available)

  12. Tumor Stage Mycosis Fungoides in a Child.

    PubMed

    Dulmage, Brittany O'Neill; Villaseñor-Park, Jennifer; Ho, Jonhan; Geskin, Larisa J; Grandinetti, Lisa M

    2015-01-01

    Mycosis fungoides is uncommon in children and most often presents as stage IA/IB. We present a case of stage IIB mycosis fungoides in a 13-year-old boy and discuss diagnostic examination and treatment considerations.

  13. MARK-AGE biomarkers of ageing.

    PubMed

    Bürkle, Alexander; Moreno-Villanueva, María; Bernhard, Jürgen; Blasco, María; Zondag, Gerben; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Toussaint, Olivier; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Collino, Sebastiano; Gonos, Efstathios S; Sikora, Ewa; Gradinaru, Daniela; Dollé, Martijn; Salmon, Michel; Kristensen, Peter; Griffiths, Helen R; Libert, Claude; Grune, Tilman; Breusing, Nicolle; Simm, Andreas; Franceschi, Claudio; Capri, Miriam; Talbot, Duncan; Caiafa, Paola; Friguet, Bertrand; Slagboom, P Eline; Hervonen, Antti; Hurme, Mikko; Aspinall, Richard

    2015-11-01

    Many candidate biomarkers of human ageing have been proposed in the scientific literature but in all cases their variability in cross-sectional studies is considerable, and therefore no single measurement has proven to serve a useful marker to determine, on its own, biological age. A plausible reason for this is the intrinsic multi-causal and multi-system nature of the ageing process. The recently completed MARK-AGE study was a large-scale integrated project supported by the European Commission. The major aim of this project was to conduct a population study comprising about 3200 subjects in order to identify a set of biomarkers of ageing which, as a combination of parameters with appropriate weighting, would measure biological age better than any marker in isolation.

  14. Psychiatric and Familial Predictors of Transition Times Between Smoking Stages

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Carolyn E.; Xian, Hong; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Lynskey, Michael T.; Duncan, Alexis E.; Haber, J. Randolph; Grant, Julia D.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Jacob, Theodore

    2008-01-01

    The modifying effects of psychiatric and familial risk factors on age at smoking initiation, rate of progression from first cigarette to regular smoking, and transition time from regular smoking to nicotine dependence (ND) were examined in 1,269 offspring of male twins from the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Mean age of the sample was 20.1 years. Cox proportional hazard regression analyses adjusting for paternal alcohol dependence and ND status and maternal ND were conducted. Both early age at first cigarette and rapid transition from initiation to regular smoking were associated with externalizing disorders, alcohol consumption, and cannabis use. Rapid escalation from regular smoking to ND was also predicted by externalizing disorders, but in contrast to earlier transitions, revealed a strong association with internalizing disorders and no significant relationship with use of other substances. Findings characterize a rarely examined aspect of the course of ND development and highlight critical distinctions in risk profiles across stages of tobacco involvement. PMID:17900819

  15. Prognostic factors in early-stage ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tognon, Germana; Carnazza, Mario; Ragnoli, Monica; Calza, Stefano; Ferrari, Federico; Gambino, Angela; Zizioli, Valentina; Notaro, Sara; Sostegni, Benedetta; Sartori, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the main prognostic factors in patients with early-stage epithelial ovarian cancer. Data were extracted from 222 patients with initial stage (I–IIA) invasive epithelial ovarian cancer treated with primary surgery followed or not followed by adjuvant therapy, from 1 January 1980 to 31 December 2008, at the Division of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Spedali Civili, Brescia, Italy; the median follow-up was 79 months (SD ± 35,945, range 20–250 months). The negative prognostic factors that were statistically significant (p<0.050) in univariate analysis were grade 2, 3, and X (clear cell in our study); stage IB, IC, IIA; positive peritoneal cytology, age equal to/greater than 54; dense adhesions; capsule rupture (pre-operative or intra-operative) and endometrioid histotype (only for disease-free survival (DFS)). Positive cytology was strongly associated with peritoneal relapses, while adhesions were associated with pelvic relapses. A positive prognosis was associated with the mucinous histotype. Conservative treatment had been carried out in 52% of patients under 40 years of age, and we detected only two relapses and three completions of surgery after a few weeks among 31 women in total. Our study indicated a possible execution in patients with patients with cancer stage IA G1–G2 (p=0.030) or IC G1 (p=0.050), provided well staged. Adjuvant chemotherapy improved the survival of cancers that were not IA G1. The positive prognostic role of taxanes must be emphasised, when used in combination with platino. PMID:23781280

  16. CDX2 as a Prognostic Biomarker in Stage II and Stage III Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dalerba, Piero; Sahoo, Debashis; Paik, Soonmyung; Guo, Xiangqian; Yothers, Greg; Song, Nan; Wilcox-Fogel, Nate; Forgó, Erna; Rajendran, Pradeep S.; Miranda, Stephen P.; Hisamori, Shigeo; Hutchison, Jacqueline; Kalisky, Tomer; Qian, Dalong; Wolmark, Norman; Fisher, George A.; van de Rijn, Matt; Clarke, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Background The identification of high-risk stage II colon cancers is key to the selection of patients who require adjuvant treatment after surgery. Microarray-based multigene-expression signatures derived from stem cells and progenitor cells hold promise, but they are difficult to use in clinical practice. Methods We used a new bioinformatics approach to search for biomarkers of colon epithelial differentiation across gene-expression arrays and then ranked candidate genes according to the availability of clinical-grade diagnostic assays. With the use of subgroup analysis involving independent and retrospective cohorts of patients with stage II or stage III colon cancer, the top candidate gene was tested for its association with disease-free survival and a benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. Results The transcription factor CDX2 ranked first in our screening test. A group of 87 of 2115 tumor samples (4.1%) lacked CDX2 expression. In the discovery data set, which included 466 patients, the rate of 5-year disease-free survival was lower among the 32 patients (6.9%) with CDX2-negative colon cancers than among the 434 (93.1%) with CDX2-positive colon cancers (hazard ratio for disease recurrence, 3.44; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60 to 7.38; P = 0.002). In the validation data set, which included 314 patients, the rate of 5-year disease-free survival was lower among the 38 patients (12.1%) with CDX2 protein–negative colon cancers than among the 276 (87.9%) with CDX2 protein–positive colon cancers (hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.36 to 4.29; P = 0.003). In both these groups, these findings were independent of the patient's age, sex, and tumor stage and grade. Among patients with stage II cancer, the difference in 5-year disease-free survival was significant both in the discovery data set (49% among 15 patients with CDX2-negative tumors vs. 87% among 191 patients with CDX2-positive tumors, P = 0.003) and in the validation data set (51% among 15 patients with CDX2

  17. Cisplatin and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage IIB, Stage IIC, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Fallopian Tube Cancer, or Primary Peritoneal Cavity Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-12-29

    Chemotherapeutic Agent Toxicity; Endometrial Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Gastrointestinal Complication; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Neurotoxicity Syndrome; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Cystadenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Cystadenocarcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Stage II Ovarian Cancer; Stage III Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  18. Paclitaxel and Carboplatin With or Without Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Ovarian Epithelial Cancer, Primary Peritoneal Cancer, or Fallopian Tube Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-21

    Fallopian Tube Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Fallopian Tube Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Malignant Ovarian Mixed Epithelial Tumor; Ovarian Brenner Tumor; Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinofibroma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Transitional Cell Carcinoma; Primary Peritoneal Serous Adenocarcinoma; Stage IIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Undifferentiated Ovarian Carcinoma

  19. [The mirror stage ("Stade du Miroir" by J. Lacan) as a crucial stage of development for finding one's identity - normal, neurotic, psychotic development].

    PubMed

    Gruber, J

    1979-01-01

    The socalled "Mirror Stage" ("Stade du Miroir" by J. Lacan) seems to be a normal stage of development between the sixth and the eighteenth month of age. In the centre of this study you find terms of developmental psychology and especially of psychoanalysis like: 'mother-child relationship', 'first relationship to objects', 'passage from primary to secondary narcism', 'ego-ideal' and 'ideal of the ego' and others. The Mirror Stage seems to be especially important for the formation of the identity: wether the child becomes 'normal', 'neurotic' or 'psychotic'. Here we also find terms, invented by Lacan like the 'Real', the 'Imaginary' and the 'Symbolic'.

  20. Stages of Behavioral Change for Physical Activity in High School Students: Prevalence and Associated Sociodemographic Factors.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Heloyse E G; Silva, Diego A S

    2016-10-01

    The aim was to estimate the prevalence of stages of change for physical activity and associated sociodemographic factors in students. The sample consisted of 942 students (44.7% males, 55.3% females; mean age = 16.1 years, SD = 1.1) in southern Brazil. Self-administered questionnaire was applied to identify stages of behavioral change for physical activity and sociodemographic variables (gender, age, maternal schooling, economic status, and school shift). Multinomial logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio (95%). Results showed that 9.6% were in the pre-contemplation stage, 18.4% in the contemplation, 17.6% in the preparation, 14.3% in the action, and 39.6% in the maintenance stages. Girls and adolescents with lower economic status were more likely to be at stages of behavioral risk. Students whose mothers had high education were more likely to be in the action stage. PMID:27597781

  1. Enteric pathogens through life stages

    PubMed Central

    Kolling, Glynis; Wu, Martin; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    Enteric infections and diarrheal diseases constitute pervasive health burdens throughout the world, with rates being highest at the two ends of life. During the first 2–3 years of life, much of the disease burden may be attributed to infection with enteric pathogens including Salmonella, rotavirus, and many other bacterial, viral, and protozoan organisms; however, infections due to Clostridium difficile exhibit steady increases with age. Still others, like Campylobacter infections in industrialized settings are high in early life (<2 years old) and increase again in early adulthood (called the “second weaning” by some). The reasons for these differences undoubtedly reside in part in pathogen differences; however, host factors including the commensal intestinal microbial communities, immune responses (innate and acquired), and age-dependant shifts likely play important roles. Interplay of these factors is illustrated by studies examining changes in human gut microbiota with inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel syndrome. Recent gut microbial surveys have indicated dramatic shifts in gut microbial population structure from infants to young adults to the elders. An understanding of the evolution of these factors and their interactions (e.g., how does gut microbiota modulate the “inflamm-aging” process or vice versa) through the human life “cycle” will be important in better addressing and controlling these enteric infections and their consequences for both quality and quantity of life (often assessed as disability adjusted life-years or “DALYs”). PMID:22937528

  2. The Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.; Kim, Tony; Emrich, William J.; Hickman, Robert R.; Broadway, Jeramie W.; Gerrish, Harold P.; Belvin, Anthony D.; Borowski, Stanley K.; Scott, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) development efforts in the United States have demonstrated the technical viability and performance potential of NTP systems. For example, Project Rover (1955 - 1973) completed 22 high power rocket reactor tests. Peak performances included operating at an average hydrogen exhaust temperature of 2550 K and a peak fuel power density of 5200 MW/m3 (Pewee test), operating at a thrust of 930 kN (Phoebus-2A test), and operating for 62.7 minutes in a single burn (NRX-A6 test). Results from Project Rover indicated that an NTP system with a high thrust-to-weight ratio and a specific impulse greater than 900 s would be feasible. Excellent results were also obtained by the former Soviet Union. Although historical programs had promising results, many factors would affect the development of a 21st century nuclear thermal rocket (NTR). Test facilities built in the US during Project Rover no longer exist. However, advances in analytical techniques, the ability to utilize or adapt existing facilities and infrastructure, and the ability to develop a limited number of new test facilities may enable affordable development, qualification, and utilization of a Nuclear Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (NCPS). Bead-loaded graphite fuel was utilized throughout the Rover/NERVA program, and coated graphite composite fuel (tested in the Nuclear Furnace) and cermet fuel both show potential for even higher performance than that demonstrated in the Rover/NERVA engine tests.. NASA's NCPS project was initiated in October, 2011, with the goal of assessing the affordability and viability of an NCPS. FY 2014 activities are focused on fabrication and test (non-nuclear) of both coated graphite composite fuel elements and cermet fuel elements. Additional activities include developing a pre-conceptual design of the NCPS stage and evaluating affordable strategies for NCPS development, qualification, and utilization. NCPS stage designs are focused on supporting human Mars

  3. Aging and Cerebral Palsy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Networker, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This special edition of "The Networker" contains several articles focusing on aging and cerebral palsy (CP). "Aging and Cerebral Palsy: Pathways to Successful Aging" (Jenny C. Overeynder) reports on the National Invitational Colloquium on Aging and Cerebral Palsy held in April 1993. "Observations from an Observer" (Kathleen K. Barrett) describes…

  4. The third molar as an age marker in adolescents: new approach to age evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rozkovcova, Eva; Dostalova, Tatjana; Markova, Marie; Broukal, Zdenek

    2012-09-01

    Adolescence is a relatively short period between childhood and adulthood. It is very difficult to determine adulthood based on biological indicators. The third molar may be considered a potential age marker for the period between the ages of 16-21. Our study evaluated a set of 1700 panoramic radiographs of individuals aged between 5 and 21 years. Results confirmed the statistically significant difference in the course of third molars development. The mean deviation for individuals with one third molar agenesis is -0.98 years, for individuals with two third molars agenesis -1.89 years, and with three molars agenesis -3.28 years. Thus, the extent of the deviation is directly proportional to the number of unformed third molars. The calculation of age according to the mean of stages of all third molars could lead to the underestimation of age. No intergender differences were found. Age determination using third molars could be used for forensic purposes.

  5. Saturn V S-IVB (Third Stage)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    This cutaway drawing shows the S-IVB (third stage) of the Saturn V launch vehicle. As a part of the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) 'building block' approach to the Saturn development, the S-IVB stage was utilized in the Saturn IB launch vehicle as a second stage and, later, the Saturn V launch vehicle as a third stage. The 59 foot long and 22 feet diameter stage was powered by a single J-2 engine, initially capable of 200,000 pounds of thrust.

  6. Artifact from deposits of mid-Wisconsin age in Illinois

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, P.J.; Frye, J.C.

    1965-01-01

    Discovery of an artifact of human manufacture imbedded in Roxana loess, classed as Altonian substage of the Wisconsin stage of the Pleistocene, of an age of 35,000 to 40,000 years, contributes to the determination of the age of man in the New World.

  7. Art Education: Growing Old or Coming of Age?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidelnick, Mark

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that traditional age-stage theory of visual art education is simplistic and misleading. Suggests that neoteny, the retention of juvenile-like traits in adults, may provide another means of linking human development to the visual arts. Concludes that the inherent neotenous aspects of art can make a contribution to successful aging. (CFR)

  8. Age as an Affective Factor in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bista, Krishna K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship of age factor to second language acquisition. Age as an affective factor brings about different performance stages in second as well as first language learning. Traditionally, research in Critical Period Hypothesis and other variables has derived two major aspects of language learning--the younger = the better…

  9. Lenalidomide and Rituximab in Treating Patients With Previously Untreated Stage II, Stage III, or Stage IV Follicular Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-07-28

    Stage II Grade 1 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 1 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 2 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 3 Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage II Grade 3 Non-Contiguous Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage III Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 1 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 2 Follicular Lymphoma; Stage IV Grade 3 Follicular Lymphoma

  10. Midwives’ Verbal Support of Nulliparous Women in Second Stage Labor

    PubMed Central

    Borders, Noelle; Wendland, Claire; Haozous, Emily; Leeman, Lawrence; Rogers, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Objective To describe how nurse-midwives verbally support nulliparous women during second stage labor and document specific details of each second stage. Design Descriptive qualitative study. Setting A university hospital labor and delivery unit in the southwestern United States. Participants Nulliparous women (N=14) greater than 18 years of age and their attendant midwives (N=9). Methods A single research midwife observed the entire second stage of each woman and used a standardized data collection form to record spontaneous or directed pushing, position changes, open and closed glottis pushing. A digital audio recorder was employed to capture verbal communication between the midwife and laboring woman. The research midwife and two qualitative experts employed content analysis to analyze the audio transcripts and identify categories of verbal support. Results Analysis revealed four categories of verbal support: affirmation, information sharing, direction, and baby talk. The vast majority of verbal communication by nurse-midwives consisted of affirmation and information sharing. Nurse-midwives gave direction for specific reasons. Women pushed spontaneously the majority of the time, regardless of epidural use. Conclusion Nurse-midwives use a range of verbal support strategies to guide the second stage. Directive support was relatively uncommon. Most verbal support instead affirmed a woman’s ability to follow her own body’s lead in second stage labor, with or without epidural. Callouts Our study provides evidence on how nurse-midwives verbally support nulliparous women while they push. Nurse-midwives utilized mostly affirmation and information sharing in their support of women during second stage, regardless of epidural use. Spontaneous pushing and epidural anesthesia are compatible, especially if the woman labors down and feels the urge to push prior to initiating active pushing. PMID:23600405

  11. [Determination of dental age].

    PubMed

    Willems, Guy

    2005-01-01

    A review of the most commonly used dental age estimating techniques is generated. The most important issue for the forensic odontologist involved in dental age estimation is to employ as many of these methods as possible by performing repetitive measurements and calculations of different age-related parameters. That is the only way in order to try and establish reliable dental age estimations. In particular, a special chapter is attributed to the complex problem of determining the age of majority. PMID:16370435

  12. [Insomnia in old age].

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Reizo; Furuta, Hisakazu

    2009-08-01

    Alterations of sleep structure with aging are attributed to change of circadian sleep-wake system and decrease of daytime activity with aging. Prevalence of insomnia and use of sleeping pills increases with age. Physical and psychiatric conditions play important roles in poor sleep in old age, and restless legs syndrome and sleep disordered breathing increase with aging as well. Early and appropriate intervention to insomnia will contribute to improvement of health and quality of life in the elderly. PMID:19768939

  13. Aging, anti-aging, and hormesis.

    PubMed

    Rattan, Suresh I S

    2004-04-01

    As a result of almost 50 years of efforts in collecting descriptive data, biogerontologists are now able to construct general principles of aging and to explore possibilities of gerontomodulation. Most of the data indicate that aging is characterized by a stochastic accumulation of molecular damage and a progressive failure of maintenance and repair, and the genes involved in homeodynamic pathways are the most likely candidate virtual gerontogenes. Several approaches are being tried and tested to modulate aging in a wide variety of organisms, but with the ultimate aim of improving the quality of human life in old age. These approaches include gene therapy, hormonal supplementation, nutritional modulation, and intervention by antioxidants and other molecules. A recent approach is that of applying hormesis in aging research and therapy, which is based on the principle of stimulation of maintenance and repair pathways by repeated exposure to mild stress.

  14. The Final Stages of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winget, D.

    2014-04-01

    The overwhelming majority of all stars end their lives as white dwarf stars. These stars and their environs have a deep personal significance for humanity: this is the expected fate of our own sun. Once a star becomes a white dwarf, its remaining evolution is best described as an exponential cooling. In the final throws of post-main sequence mass-loss the former stellar core becomes a white dwarf, emerging phoenix-like from amongst the ashes. Some planets may survive and others may form as a sort of second generation from the cast-off material. Life may survive or may be reborn on any planets that remain; life may also arise on newly formed planets. The prospects will depend in a significant way on the timescales of the central white dwarf star's cooling evolution and how its radiation shapes the environment. We will discuss white dwarf evolutionary timescales with an eye towards the potential habitability of planets, both new and old. We will consider the uncertainties in these timescales from both an empirical and a theoretical perspective. We will critique the existing evidence for planets and summarize what we have learned so far through direct imaging and stellar pulsations. We will close with the very bright prospects for the future of planets and life in the final stages.

  15. Neutron interferometry with cold stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mineeva, Taisiya; Arif, M.; Huber, M. G.; Shahi, C. B.; Clark, C. W.; Cory, D. G.; Nsofini, J.; Sarenac, D.; Pushin, D. A.

    Neutron interferometry (NI) is amongst the most precise methods for characterizing neutron interactions by measuring the relative difference between two neutron paths, one of which contains a sample-of-interest. Because neutrons carry magnetic moment and are deeply penetrating, they are excellent probes to investigate properties of magnetic materials. The advantage of NI is its unique sensitivity which allows to directly measure magnetic and structural transitions in materials. Up to now NI has been sparingly used in material research due to its sensitivity to environmental noise. However, recent successes in implementing Quantum Error Correction principles lead to an improved NI design making it robust against mechanical vibrations. Following these advances, a new user facility at the National Institute for Standards and Technology was built to study condensed matter applications, biology and quantum physics. Incorporating cold sample stage inside NI is the first of its kind experiment which can be carried out on large range of temperatures down to 4K. Upon successful realization, it will open new frontiers to characterize magnetic domains, phase transitions and spin properties in a variety of materials such as, for example, iron-based superconductors and spintronic materials. Supported in part by CERC, CIFAR, NSERC and CREATE.

  16. Advanced two-stage incinerator

    SciTech Connect

    Rehmat, A.; Khinkis, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) is developing an advanced incinerator that combines the fluidized-bed agglomeration/incineration and cyclonic combustion/incineration technologies that have been developed separately at IGT over many years. This combination results in a unique and extremely flexible incinerator for solid, sludge, liquid, and gaseous wastes. This system can operate over a wide range of conditions in the first stage, from low temperature (desorption) to high temperature (agglomeration), including gasification of high-Btu wastes. In the combined system, solid, liquid, and gaseous organic wastes would be easily and efficiently destroyed (>99.99% destruction and removal efficiency (DRE)), whereas solid inorganic contaminants would be contained within a glassy matrix, rendering them benign and suitable for disposal in an ordinary landfill. This technology is different from other existing technologies because of its agglomeration and encapsulation capability and its flexibility with respect to the types wastes it can handle. Both the fluidized-bed as well as the cyclonic incineration technologies have been fully developed and tested separately at pilot scales. 12 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. Staged direct injection diesel engine

    DOEpatents

    Baker, Quentin A.

    1985-01-01

    A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

  18. Multifactor-surface-tests of organic insulating materials in the early stage of degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Kloes, H.J.; Koenig, D.

    1996-12-31

    Ageing due to multifactor stresses of the surface of organic materials has to be divided into two different stages named early and late stage of ageing. While standardized tests such as the inclined plane test or the rotating wheel dip test aim at verifying only the performance of insulating materials in the late stage of ageing, growing interest of scientists recently focuses on the early stage of ageing, characterized by a loss of hydrophobicity and an increase of leakage current as well as the appearance of surface partial discharges. To assess the phenomena in the early stage of ageing several new test facilities and diagnostic tools have been developed and applied, such as the inverse climatic chamber generating continuous condensation, the cold fog chamber and the modified rotating wheel dip test arrangement. This paper presents some new test results of polymer resin materials achieved in above mentioned test facilities and enables a comparison and assessment of the efficiency and the advantages of relevant test procedures.

  19. The relationship between local recurrence and death in early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Sopik, Victoria; Nofech-Mozes, Sharon; Sun, Ping; Narod, Steven A

    2016-01-01

    To examine the relationship between local recurrence and breast cancer mortality in women with early-stage breast cancer. We studied 1675 women with stage 0 (DCIS), stage I or stage II breast cancer who were treated with breast-conserving surgery at Women's College Hospital between 1987 and 2009. For each patient, we obtained information on age at diagnosis, tumour size, lymph node status, tumour grade, lymphovascular invasion, oestrogen receptor status, progesterone receptor status, HER2 status and treatments received (radiotherapy, chemotherapy and tamoxifen). Patients were followed from the date of diagnosis until local recurrence, death from breast cancer or the date of last follow-up. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to estimate 15-year local recurrence-free and breast cancer-specific survival rates for each stage at diagnosis. For each stage, the two rates were compared. After a mean follow-up of 13.1 years, 243 women (14.5 %) experienced a local recurrence and 281 women (16.8 %) died of breast cancer. The 15-year actuarial rate of local recurrence was 16 % for women with DCIS, 15 % for women with stage I cancer and 16 % for women with stage II cancer. The 15-year breast cancer-specific mortality rate was 3 % for women with DCIS, 10 % for women with stage I breast cancer and 30 % for women with stage II breast cancer. After experiencing a local recurrence, the 15-year breast cancer mortality rate was 16 % for women with DCIS, 32 % for women with stage I breast cancer and 59 % for women with stage II breast cancer. Across the spectrum of the early stages of breast cancer, the risk of local recurrence does not correlate with the risk of death from breast cancer. After local recurrence, the risk of death from breast cancer depends on the initial stage at diagnosis.

  20. Evaluation of 2-Stage Injection Technique in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sandeep, Valasingam; Kumar, Manikya; Jyostna, P.; Duggi, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Effective pain control during local anesthetic injection is the cornerstone of behavior guidance in pediatric dentistry. The aim of this study was to evaluate the practical efficacy of a 2-stage injection technique in reducing injection pain in children. This was a split-mouth, randomized controlled crossover trial. One hundred cooperative children aged 7 to 13 years in need of bilateral local anesthetic injections (inferior alveolar nerve block, posterior superior alveolar nerve block, or maxillary and mandibular buccal infiltrations) for restorative, endodontic, and extraction treatments were recruited for the study. Children were randomly allocated to receive either the 2-stage injection technique or conventional technique at the first appointment. The other technique was used at the successive visit after 1 week. Subjective and objective evaluation of pain was done using the Wong–Baker FACES Pain Rating Scale (FPS) and Sound Eye Motor (SEM) scale, respectively. The comparison of pain scores was done by Wilcoxon sign-rank test. Both FPS and SEM scores were significantly lower when the 2-stage injection technique of local anesthetic nerve block/infiltration was used compared with the conventional technique. The 2-stage injection technique is a simple and effective means of reducing injection pain in children. PMID:26866405