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Sample records for age findings suggest

  1. Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160079.html Menopause Hastens Aging, Studies Suggest Researchers found it boosted cellular aging by ... it, can speed aging in women, two new studies suggest. "For decades, scientists have disagreed over whether ...

  2. Findings suggest possible link between geomagnetic reversals and field intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    For the past 2000 years the Earth's magnetic field has been weakening. At the going rate of decay, the field's dipole—generated within the convecting metallic fluid of the outer core—would totally vanish, perhaps passing through zero and reversing polarity, in the coming millennia. This scenario of a coming attempt by Earth's dynamo to reverse its polarity is suggested by direct observation of the field since the 19th century and laboratory investigation of historic lavas and other fired materials that record the ambient field while cooling.The ongoing weakening of the field does not insure that a reversal will occur. After all, the north-south axial dipole changes to the opposite direction only on occasion; it currently reverses a few times each million years. How the dynamo actually approaches an attempted change of polarity and, moreover, the degree to which such a process can be predicted, are unclear. Nonetheless, a major step toward such an understanding may have been made through recently reported paleomagnetic findings obtained from the long, quasi-continuous records derived from Ocean Drilling Project (ODP) marine sediment cores.

  3. SpaceWire Tiger Team Findings and Suggestions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ishac, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    This technical report intends to highlight the key findings and recommendations of the SpaceWire Tiger Team for the CoNNeCT project. It covers findings which are technical in nature, covering design concepts and approaches.

  4. Neuropathologic findings in an aged albino gorilla.

    PubMed

    Márquez, M; Serafin, A; Fernández-Bellon, H; Serrat, S; Ferrer-Admetlla, A; Bertranpetit, J; Ferrer, I; Pumarola, M

    2008-07-01

    Pallido-nigral spheroids associated with iron deposition have been observed in some aged clinically normal nonhuman primates. In humans, similar findings are observed in neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation diseases, which, in some cases, show associated mutations in pantothenate kinase 2 gene (PANK2). Here we present an aged gorilla, 40 years old, suffering during the last 2 years of life from progressive tetraparesis, nystagmus, and dyskinesia of the arms, hands, and neck, with accompanying abnormal behavior. The postmortem neuropathologic examination revealed, in addition to aging-associated changes in the brain, numerous corpora amylacea in some brain areas, especially the substantia nigra, and large numbers of axonal spheroids associated with iron accumulation in the internal globus pallidus. Sequencing of the gorilla PANK2 gene failed to detect any mutation. The clinical, neuropathologic, and genetic findings in this gorilla point to an age-related pallido-nigral degeneration that presented PKAN-like neurologic deficits. PMID:18587101

  5. Examining the Aging Semantic Differential: Suggestions for Refinement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polizzi, Kenneth G.; Steitz, Jean A.

    1998-01-01

    Review of studies using the Aging Semantic Differential to measure attitudes toward the elderly identified problems: familiarity and variety of objects, men-only design, and age of the instrument. Ways to refine it include updating adjectives and their positions, identifying attitudinal objects, and accounting for gender differences. (SK)

  6. Swedish pupils' suggested coping strategies if cyberbullied: differences related to age and gender.

    PubMed

    Frisén, Ann; Berne, Sofia; Marin, Lina

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the coping strategies that Swedish 10 and 12 year-olds (N = 694) suggested they would use if they were cyberbullied, with a special focus on whether there are differences in these strategies related to age and gender. The most commonly suggested coping strategy was telling someone, especially parents and teachers (70.5%). Surprisingly few of the pupils reported that they would tell a friend (2.6%). Differences in suggested coping strategies were found related to age and gender. Findings are discussed in relation to the Swedish sociocultural context as well as in relation to the implications for prevention strategies against cyberbullying. PMID:25040330

  7. ASSOCIATION AMONG HISTOLOGICAL FINDINGS SUGGESTIVE OF PAPILLOMA VIRUS ON HEMORRHOIDECTOMY SPECIMENS

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Soraya Souto; NAKAJIMA, Gerson Suguiyama; GUIMARÃES, Ricardo Alexandre; MOURÃO, Flávia da Costa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Many researchers studied human Papillomavirus infection in the anal area supposing it represents a risk factor for precursor lesions of anal cancer. Aim: To study the association between histological findings suggestive of injury by the virus in hemorrhoidectomy specimens. Method: Prevalence study was carried out based on histopathological analysis of hemorrhoidectomy specimens to find viral cytopathic effects. These findings were compared with anal condyloma acuminata that had no relationship with hemorrhoidectomy for microscopic comparison. Results: Of the 91 hemorroidectomies analyzed, eight had findings suggestive of viral cytopathic effects, with the presence of irregular acanthosis in 63%, koilocytes in 50% and other indirect viral cytopathic effects, such as hyperkeratosis (38%), parakeratosis (25% ) and papillomatosis (13%). Conclusion: This study was unable to conclude that there is an association between these two pathologic entities. PMID:26734795

  8. Theory of mind, inhibitory control, and preschool-age children's suggestibility in different interviewing contexts.

    PubMed

    Scullin, Matthew H; Bonner, Karri

    2006-02-01

    The current study examined the relations among 3- to 5-year-olds' theory of mind, inhibitory control, and three measures of suggestibility: yielding to suggestive questions (yield), shifting answers in response to negative feedback (shift), and accuracy in response to misleading questions during a pressured interview about a live event. Theory of mind aided in the prediction of suggestibility about the live event, and inhibitory control was a moderator variable affecting the consistency of children's sensitivity to social pressure across situations. The findings indicate that theory of mind and inhibitory control predict children's suggestibility about a live event above and beyond yield, shift, and age and that the construct validity of shift may improve as children's inhibitory control develops. PMID:16236306

  9. Communicating Comparative Findings from Meta-Analysis in Educational Research: Some Examples and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Steve; Katsipataki, Maria

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews some of the strengths and limitations of the comparative use of meta-analysis findings, using examples from the Sutton Trust-Education Endowment Foundation Teaching and Learning "Toolkit" which summarizes a range of educational approaches to improve pupil attainment in schools. This comparative use of quantitative…

  10. Relative age effect revisited: findings from the dance domain.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Jacques H A

    2006-04-01

    The relative age effect is a worldwide phenomenon. While there is solid empirical evidence for the existence in sports like soccer and ice hockey, there are also some findings indicating the absence of the phenomenon. In an earlier study, no support was found with Dutch top-level athletes in table tennis and in volleyball. The explanation was that in athletic tasks which depend heavily on the technical ability (or motor skill) of the participant, a relative age effect will not be observed. In the present study this supposition was tested again with three samples of Dutch preprofessional dance students (overall number of subjects: 546). Again no support was obtained for the relative age effect. Therefore, a case is being built that the relative age effect is not an omnipresent phenomenon. PMID:16826648

  11. Detection of a novel, integrative aging process suggests complex physiological integration.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Alan A; Milot, Emmanuel; Li, Qing; Bergeron, Patrick; Poirier, Roxane; Dusseault-Bélanger, Francis; Fülöp, Tamàs; Leroux, Maxime; Legault, Véronique; Metter, E Jeffrey; Fried, Linda P; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    Many studies of aging examine biomarkers one at a time, but complex systems theory and network theory suggest that interpretations of individual markers may be context-dependent. Here, we attempted to detect underlying processes governing the levels of many biomarkers simultaneously by applying principal components analysis to 43 common clinical biomarkers measured longitudinally in 3694 humans from three longitudinal cohort studies on two continents (Women's Health and Aging I & II, InCHIANTI, and the Baltimore Longitudinal Study on Aging). The first axis was associated with anemia, inflammation, and low levels of calcium and albumin. The axis structure was precisely reproduced in all three populations and in all demographic sub-populations (by sex, race, etc.); we call the process represented by the axis "integrated albunemia." Integrated albunemia increases and accelerates with age in all populations, and predicts mortality and frailty--but not chronic disease--even after controlling for age. This suggests a role in the aging process, though causality is not yet clear. Integrated albunemia behaves more stably across populations than its component biomarkers, and thus appears to represent a higher-order physiological process emerging from the structure of underlying regulatory networks. If this is correct, detection of this process has substantial implications for physiological organization more generally. PMID:25761112

  12. Bioremediation via Methanotrophy: Overview of Recent Findings and Suggestions for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Semrau, Jeremy D.

    2011-01-01

    Microbially mediated bioremediation of polluted sites has been a subject of much research over the past 30 years, with many different compounds shown to be degraded under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Aerobic-mediated bioremediation commonly examines the use of methanotrophs, microorganisms that consume methane as their sole source of carbon and energy. Given the diverse environments in which methanotrophs have been found, the range of substrates they can degrade and the fact that they can be easily stimulated with the provision of methane and oxygen, these microorganisms in particular have been examined for aerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons. The physiological and phylogenetic diversity of methanotrophy, however, has increased substantially in just the past 5 years. Here in this review, the current state of knowledge of methanotrophy, particularly as it applies to pollutant degradation is summarized, and suggestions for future research provided. PMID:22016748

  13. Antenatal manifestations of inborn errors of metabolism: autopsy findings suggestive of a metabolic disorder.

    PubMed

    Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Rossi, Massimiliano; Guibaud, Laurent; Vianey-Saban, Christine

    2016-09-01

    This review highlights the importance of performing an autopsy when faced with fetal abortion or termination of pregnancy with suspicion of an inborn error of metabolism. Radiological, macroscopic and microscopic features found at autopsy as well as placental anomalies that can suggest such a diagnosis are detailed. The following metabolic disorders encountered in fetuses are discussed: lysosomal storage diseases, peroxisomal disorders, cholesterol synthesis disorders, congenital disorders of glycosylation, glycogenosis type IV, mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders, transaldolase deficiency, generalized arterial calcification of infancy, hypophosphatasia, arylsulfatase E deficiency, inborn errors of serine metabolism, asparagine synthetase deficiency, hyperphenylalaninemia, glutaric aciduria type I, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency, pyruvate carboxylase deficiency, glutamine synthase deficiency, sulfite oxidase and molybdenum cofactor deficiency. PMID:27106218

  14. Phylogenetic Findings Suggest Possible New Habitat and Routes of Infection of Human Eumyctoma

    PubMed Central

    de Hoog, G. Sybren; Ahmed, Sarah A.; Najafzadeh, Mohammad J.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Keisari, Maryam Saradeghi; Fahal, Ahmed H.; Eberhardt, Ursala; Verkleij, Gerard J.; Xin, Lian; Stielow, Benjamin; van de Sande, Wendy W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Eumycetoma is a traumatic fungal infection in tropical and subtropical areas that may lead to severe disability. Madurella mycetomatis is one of the prevalent etiologic agents in arid Northeastern Africa. The source of infection has not been clarified. Subcutaneous inoculation from plant thorns has been hypothesized, but attempts to detect the fungus in relevant material have remained unsuccessful. The present study aims to find clues to reveal the natural habitat of Madurella species using a phylogenetic approach, i.e. by comparison of neighboring taxa with known ecology. Four species of Madurella were included in a large data set of species of Chaetomium, Chaetomidium, Thielavia, and Papulaspora (n = 128) using sequences of the universal fungal barcode gene rDNA ITS and the partial LSU gene sequence. Our study demonstrates that Madurella species are nested within the Chaetomiaceae, a family of fungi that mainly inhabit animal dung, enriched soil, and indoor environments. We hypothesize that cattle dung, ubiquitously present in rural East Africa, plays a significant role in the ecology of Madurella. If cow dung is an essential factor in inoculation by Madurella, preventative measures may involve the use of appropriate footwear in addition to restructuring of villages to reduce the frequency of contact with etiologic agents of mycetoma. On the other hand, the Chaetomiaceae possess a hidden clinical potential which needs to be explored. PMID:23696914

  15. Novel findings associated with MTM1 suggest a higher number of female symptomatic carriers

    PubMed Central

    Savarese, Marco; Musumeci, Olimpia; Giugliano, Teresa; Rubegni, Anna; Fiorillo, Chiara; Fattori, Fabiana; Torella, Annalaura; Battini, Roberta; Rodolico, Carmelo; Pugliese, Aniello; Piluso, Giulio; Maggi, Lorenzo; D'Amico, Adele; Bruno, Claudio; Bertini, Enrico; Santorelli, Filippo Maria; Mora, Marina; Toscano, Antonio; Minetti, Carlo; Nigro, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the MTM1 gene cause X-linked myotubular myopathy (XLMTM), characterized by neonatal hypotonia and respiratory failure, and are responsible for a premature mortality in affected males. Female carriers are usually asymptomatic but they may present with muscular weakness because of a hypothesized skewed pattern of X-chromosome inactivation. By combining next generation sequencing (NGS) and CGH array approaches, we have investigated the role of MTM1 variants in a large cohort of undiagnosed patients with a wide spectrum of myopathies. Seven novel XLMTM patients have been identified, including two girls with an unremarkable family history for myotubular myopathy. Moreover, we have detected and finely mapped a large deletion causing a myotubular myopathy with abnormal genital development. Our data confirm that the severe neonatal onset of the disease in male infants is sufficient to address the direct molecular testing toward the MTM1 gene and, above all, suggest that the number of undiagnosed symptomatic female carriers is probably underestimated. PMID:27017278

  16. Do cherished children age successfully? Longitudinal findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lewina O; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Kubzansky, Laura D; Chen, Edith; Mroczek, Daniel K; Wang, Joyce M; Spiro, Avron

    2015-12-01

    Although early adversity has been linked to worse mental and physical health in adulthood, few studies have investigated the pathways through which positive and negative dimensions of early experiences can jointly influence psychological well-being in later life. This study examined: (a) profiles of early experiences across multiple domains, (b) the relations of these profiles to hedonic and eudaimonic well-being in later life, and (c) whether midlife social support mediated these relations. We first conducted latent class analysis of early experiences using data from 1,076 men in the VA Normative Aging Study who completed the Childhood Experiences Scale (age: M = 69, SD = 7). Analyses yielded 3 profiles of early experiences, labeled as cherished (strong support and some losses), harshly disciplined (harsh parental discipline, low positive reinforcement, and nonnormative stressors), and ordinary (few stressors and low parental attention). Next, we applied structural equation modeling to data on a subset of this sample assessed 7 years later on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being (n = 496; age: M = 76, SD = 7). In general, the cherished group reported stronger qualitative social support in midlife than the harshly disciplined and ordinary groups, which in turn was related to greater hedonic (life satisfaction, positive affect) and eudaimonic (competence, positive relations with others) well-being in later life. The cherished group also reported higher autonomy than the ordinary group, but this association was independent of midlife social support. Our findings suggest that experiencing adversity in the context of a nurturing early environment can promote successful aging through the maintenance of supportive relationships in midlife. PMID:26436456

  17. Age differences in suggestibility to contradictions of demonstrated knowledge: the influence of prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Umanath, Sharda

    2016-11-01

    People maintain intact general knowledge into very old age and use it to support remembering. Interestingly, when older and younger adults encounter errors that contradict general knowledge, older adults suffer fewer memorial consequences: Older adults use fewer recently-encountered errors as answers for later knowledge questions. Why do older adults show this reduced suggestibility, and what role does their intact knowledge play? In three experiments, I examined suggestibility following exposure to errors in fictional stories that contradict general knowledge. Older adults consistently demonstrated more prior knowledge than younger adults but also gained access to even more across time. Additionally, they did not show a reduction in new learning from the stories, indicating lesser involvement of episodic memory failures. Critically, when knowledge was stably accessible, older adults relied more heavily on that knowledge compared to younger adults, resulting in reduced suggestibility. Implications for the broader role of knowledge in aging are discussed. PMID:27045461

  18. Nuclei of aged myofibres undergo structural and functional changes suggesting impairment in RNA processing

    PubMed Central

    Malatesta, M.; Perdoni, F.; Muller, S.; Zancanaro, C.; Pellicciari, C.

    2009-01-01

    Advancing adult age is associated with a progressive decrease in skeletal muscle mass, strength and quality known as sarcopenia. The mechanisms underlying age-related skeletal muscle wasting and weakness are manifold and still remain to be fully elucidated. Despite the increasing evidence that the progress of muscle diseases leading to muscle atrophy/dystrophy may be related to defective RNA processing, no data on the morpho-functional features of skeletal muscle nuclei in sarcopenia are available at present. In this view, we have investigated, by combining morphometry and immunocytochemistry at light and electron microscopy, the fine structure of myonuclei as well as the distribution and amount of RNA processing factors in skeletal myofibres of biceps brachii and quadriceps femoris from adult and old rats. Results demonstrate that the myonuclei of aged type II fibres show an increased amount of condensed chromatin and lower amounts of phosphorylated polymerase II and DNA/RNA hybrid molecules, clearly indicating a decrease in pre-mRNA transcription rate compared to adult animals. In addition, myonuclei of aged fibres show decreased amounts of nucleoplasmic splicing factors and an accumulation of cleavage factors, polyadenilated RNA and perichromatin granules, suggesting a reduction in the processing and transport rate of pre-mRNA. During ageing, it seems therefore that in rat myonuclei the entire production chain of mRNA, from synthesis to cytoplasmic export, is less efficient. This failure likely contributes to the reduced responsiveness of muscle cells to anabolic stimuli in the elderly.

  19. Finding Major Patterns of Aging Process by Data Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyano, Takaya; Tsutsui, Takako

    We developed a method for extracting feature patterns from multivariate data using a network of coupled phase oscillators subject to an analogue of the Kuramoto model for collective synchronization. Our method may be called data synchronization. We applied data synchronization to the care-needs-certification data, provided by Otsu City as a historical old city near Kyoto City, in the Japanese public long-term care insurance program to find the trend of the major patterns of the aging process for elderly people needing nursing care.

  20. Greater Intermanual Transfer in the Elderly Suggests Age-Related Bilateral Motor Cortex Activation Is Compensatory

    PubMed Central

    Graziadio, Sara; Nazarpour, Kianoush; Gretenkord, Sabine; Jackson, Andrew; Eyre, Janet A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT. Hemispheric lateralization of movement control diminishes with age; whether this is compensatory or maladaptive is debated. The authors hypothesized that if compensatory, bilateral activation would lead to greater intermanual transfer in older subjects learning tasks that activate the cortex unilaterally in young adults. They studied 10 young and 14 older subjects, learning a unimanual visuomotor task comprising a feedforward phase, where there is unilateral cortical activation in young adults, and a feedback phase, which activates the cortex bilaterally in both age groups. Increased intermanual transfer was demonstrated in older subjects during feedforward learning, with no difference between groups during feedback learning. This finding is consistent with bilateral cortical activation being compensatory to maintain performance despite declining computational efficiency in neural networks. PMID:25575222

  1. Age of riverine carbon suggests rapid export of terrestrial primary production in tropics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Erin E.; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Richey, Jeffrey E.; Keil, Richard G.; Santos, Guaciara M.; Truxal, Laura T.; Alin, Simone R.; Druffel, Ellen R. M.

    2013-11-01

    balance between the storage of vascular plant carbon in soils, oxidation to carbon dioxide, and export via rivers affects calculations of the strength of terrestrial ecosystems as carbon sinks. The magnitude and timescale of the riverine export pathway are not well constrained. Here we use radiocarbon dating of lignin phenols to show that plant-derived carbon carried by suspended sediment of the Mekong River is very young, having been produced within the last 18 years. Further, this plant-derived carbon remains young during times of the year when bulk carbon varies from modern to over 3000 radiocarbon years old. Our results demonstrate that primary-production derivatives are exported rapidly and suggest that the age of riverine lignin is similar to estimates of the residence time of terrestrial organic carbon in tropical catchments. These results are relevant for modeling predictions of the influence of the terrestrial biosphere on atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  2. Age differences in IDA savings outcomes: findings from the American Dream Demonstration.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Michelle; Sherraden, Michael; Zhang, Lin; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This study aims to develop a greater understanding of age differences in savings outcomes within Individual Development Accounts (IDAs). Participant data from the American Dream Demonstration (ADD) are examined for age differences in accumulated net deposits, average monthly net deposits, and deposit frequency. ADDprogram data are examined for savings match rates, monthly savings targets, direct deposit, and hours of financial education offered. Results indicate that, on average, older IDA participants have better savings outcomes than younger participants. Findings from this study suggest that impoverished middleaged and older adults can save if provided an opportunity and incentives. However, success will depend on the characteristics of the programs. PMID:18198159

  3. Empirical Findings to a Cognitive Theory of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olbrich, Erhard; Thomae, Hans

    1978-01-01

    Reviews evidence for a cognitive theory of aging which attempts to integrate individual perceptions, social perceptions, and integrative processes with biological, social, and ecological influences and behavior patterns. (BD)

  4. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  5. The Age Specific Incidence Anomaly Suggests that Cancers Originate During Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, James P.

    2014-05-01

    The accumulation of genetic alterations causes cancers. Since this accumulation takes time, the incidence of most cancers is thought to increase exponentially with age. However, careful measurements of the age-specific incidence show that the specific incidence for many forms of cancer rises with age to a maximum, and then decreases. This decrease in the age-specific incidence with age is an anomaly. Understanding this anomaly should lead to a better understanding of how tumors develop and grow. Here we derive the shape of the age-specific incidence, showing that it should follow the shape of a Weibull distribution. Measurements indicate that the age-specific incidence for colon cancer does indeed follow a Weibull distribution. This analysis leads to the interpretation that for colon cancer two subpopulations exist in the general population: a susceptible population and an immune population. Colon tumors will only occur in the susceptible population. This analysis is consistent with the developmental origins of disease hypothesis and generalizable to many other common forms of cancer.

  6. Abnormal immune system development and function in schizophrenia helps reconcile diverse findings and suggests new treatment and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Anders, Sherry; Kinney, Dennis K

    2015-08-18

    Extensive research implicates disturbed immune function and development in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia. In addition to reviewing evidence for immunological factors in schizophrenia, this paper discusses how an emerging model of atypical immune function and development helps explain a wide variety of well-established - but puzzling - findings about schizophrenia. A number of theorists have presented hypotheses that early immune system programming, disrupted by pre- and perinatal adversity, often combines with abnormal brain development to produce schizophrenia. The present paper focuses on the hypothesis that disruption of early immune system development produces a latent immune vulnerability that manifests more fully after puberty, when changes in immune function and the thymus leave individuals more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia. Complementing neurodevelopmental models, this hypothesis integrates findings on many contributing factors to schizophrenia, including prenatal adversity, genes, climate, migration, infections, and stress, among others. It helps explain, for example, why (a) schizophrenia onset is typically delayed until years after prenatal adversity, (b) individual risk factors alone often do not lead to schizophrenia, and (c) schizophrenia prevalence rates actually tend to be higher in economically advantaged countries. Here we discuss how the hypothesis explains 10 key findings, and suggests new, potentially highly cost-effective, strategies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. Moreover, while most human research linking immune factors to schizophrenia has been correlational, these strategies provide ethical ways to experimentally test in humans theories about immune function and schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. PMID:25736181

  7. Theory of Mind, Inhibitory Control, and Preschool-Age Children's Suggestibility in Different Interviewing Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Matthew H.; Bonner, Karri

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the relations among 3- to 5-year-olds' theory of mind, inhibitory control, and three measures of suggestibility: yielding to suggestive questions (yield), shifting answers in response to negative feedback (shift), and accuracy in response to misleading questions during a pressured interview about a live event. Theory of…

  8. Aging Management of Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures - Overview and Suggested Research Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2008-10-01

    Nuclear power plant concrete structures are described and their operating experience noted. Primary considerations related to management of their aging are noted and an indication of their status provided: degradation mechanisms, damage models, and material performance; assessment and remediation (i.e., component selection, in-service inspection, nondestructive examinations, and remedial actions); and estimation of performance at present or some future point in time (i.e., application of structural reliability theory to the design and optimization of in-service inspection/maintenance strategies, and determination of the effects of degradation on plant risk). Several activities are identified that provide background information and data on areas of concern with respect to nondestructive examination of nuclear power plant concrete structures: inspection of thick-walled, heavily-reinforced sections, basemats, and inaccessible areas of the containment metallic pressure boundary. Topics are noted where additional research would be of benefit to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures.

  9. Aging and space flight: findings from the University of Pittsburgh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.

    1999-01-01

    For more than a decade, the Sleep and Chronobiology Center (SCC) at the University of Pittsburgh has received funding from the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in order to study the sleep and circadian rhythms of healthy older people, as well as the sleep and circadian rhythms of astronauts and cosmonauts. We have always been struck by the strong synergism between the two endeavors. What happens to the sleep and circadian rhythms of people removed from the terrestrial time cues of Earth is in many ways similar to what happens to people who are advancing in years. Most obviously, sleep is shorter and sleep depth is reduced, but there are also more subtle similarities between the two situations, both in circadian rhythms and in sleep, and in the adaptive strategies needed to enhance 24h zeitgebers.

  10. Eight Common Genetic Variants Associated with Serum DHEAS Levels Suggest a Key Role in Ageing Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Jordana T.; Bhasin, Shalender; Eriksson, Joel; Eriksson, Anna; Ernst, Florian; Ferrucci, Luigi; Frayling, Timothy M.; Glass, Daniel; Grundberg, Elin; Haring, Robin; Hedman, Åsa K.; Hofman, Albert; Kiel, Douglas P.; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Liu, Yongmei; Lunetta, Kathryn L.; Maggio, Marcello; Lorentzon, Mattias; Mangino, Massimo; Melzer, David; Miljkovic, Iva; Nica, Alexandra; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Small, Kerrin S.; Soranzo, Nicole; Uitterlinden, André G.; Völzke, Henry; Wilson, Scott G.; Xi, Li; Zhuang, Wei Vivian; Harris, Tamara B.; Murabito, Joanne M.; Ohlsson, Claes; Murray, Anna; de Jong, Frank H.; Spector, Tim D.; Wallaschofski, Henri

    2011-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) is the most abundant circulating steroid secreted by adrenal glands—yet its function is unknown. Its serum concentration declines significantly with increasing age, which has led to speculation that a relative DHEAS deficiency may contribute to the development of common age-related diseases or diminished longevity. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data with 14,846 individuals and identified eight independent common SNPs associated with serum DHEAS concentrations. Genes at or near the identified loci include ZKSCAN5 (rs11761528; p = 3.15×10−36), SULT2A1 (rs2637125; p = 2.61×10−19), ARPC1A (rs740160; p = 1.56×10−16), TRIM4 (rs17277546; p = 4.50×10−11), BMF (rs7181230; p = 5.44×10−11), HHEX (rs2497306; p = 4.64×10−9), BCL2L11 (rs6738028; p = 1.72×10−8), and CYP2C9 (rs2185570; p = 2.29×10−8). These genes are associated with type 2 diabetes, lymphoma, actin filament assembly, drug and xenobiotic metabolism, and zinc finger proteins. Several SNPs were associated with changes in gene expression levels, and the related genes are connected to biological pathways linking DHEAS with ageing. This study provides much needed insight into the function of DHEAS. PMID:21533175

  11. Carbohydrate supplementation and prolonged intermittent high-intensity exercise in adolescents: research findings, ethical issues and suggestions for the future.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shaun M

    2012-10-01

    In the last decade, research has begun to investigate the efficacy of carbohydrate supplementation for improving aspects of physical capacity and skill performance during sport-specific exercise in adolescent team games players. This research remains in its infancy, and further study would be beneficial considering the large youth population actively involved in team games. Literature on the influence of carbohydrate supplementation on skill performance is scarce, limited to shooting accuracy in adolescent basketball players and conflicting in its findings. Between-study differences in the exercise protocol, volume of fluid and carbohydrate consumed, use of prior fatiguing exercise and timing of skill tests may contribute to the different findings. Conversely, initial data supports carbohydrate supplementation in solution and gel form for improving intermittent endurance running capacity following soccer-specific shuttle running. These studies produced reliable data, but were subject to limitations including lack of quantification of the metabolic response of participants, limited generalization of data due to narrow participant age and maturation ranges, use of males and females within the same sample and non-standardized pre-exercise nutritional status between participants. There is a lack of consensus regarding the influence of frequently consuming carbohydrate-containing products on tooth enamel erosion and the development of obesity or being overweight in adolescent athletes and non-athletes. These discrepancies mean that the initiation or exacerbation of health issues due to frequent consumption of carbohydrate-containing products by adolescents cannot be conclusively refuted. Coupled with the knowledge that consuming a natural, high-carbohydrate diet -3-8 hours before exercise can significantly alter substrate use and improve exercise performance in adults, a moral and ethical concern is raised regarding the direction of future research in order to further

  12. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (-786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles -786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2-5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue. PMID:27004986

  13. New Findings in eNOS gene and Thalidomide Embryopathy Suggest pre-transcriptional effect variants as susceptibility factors

    PubMed Central

    Kowalski, Thayne Woycinck; Fraga, Lucas Rosa; Tovo-Rodrigues, Luciana; Sanseverino, Maria Teresa Vieira; Hutz, Mara Helena; Schuler-Faccini, Lavínia; Vianna, Fernanda Sales Luiz

    2016-01-01

    Antiangiogenic properties of thalidomide have created an interest in the use of the drug in treatment of cancer. However, thalidomide is responsible for thalidomide embryopathy (TE). A lack of knowledge regarding the mechanisms of thalidomide teratogenesis acts as a barrier in the aim to synthesize a safer analogue of thalidomide. Recently, our group detected a higher frequency of alleles that impair the pro-angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), coded by the NOS3 gene. In this study we evaluated variable number tandem repeats (VNTR) functional polymorphism in intron 4 of NOS3 in individuals with TE (38) and Brazilians without congenital anomalies (136). Haplotypes were estimated for this VNTR with previously analyzed polymorphisms, rs2070744 (−786C > T) and rs1799983 (894T > G), in promoter region and exon 7, respectively. Haplotypic distribution was different between the groups (p = 0.007). Alleles −786C (rs2070744) and 4b (VNTR), associated with decreased NOS3 expression, presented in higher frequency in TE individuals (p = 0.018; OR = 2.57; IC = 1.2–5.8). This association was not identified with polymorphism 894T > G (p = 0.079), which influences eNOS enzymatic activity. These results suggest variants in NOS3, with pre-transcriptional effects as susceptibility factors, influencing the risk TE development. This finding generates insight for a new approach to research that pursues a safer analogue. PMID:27004986

  14. Aerobic Fitness Linked to Cortical Brain Development in Adolescent Males: Preliminary Findings Suggest a Possible Role of BDNF Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Herting, Megan M.; Keenan, Madison F.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has been shown to impact brain structure and cognition in children and adults. Exercise-induced activation of a growth protein known as brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is thought to contribute to such relationships. To date, however, no study has examined how aerobic fitness relates to cortical brain structure during development and if BDNF genotype moderates these relationships. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and FreeSurfer, the current study examined how aerobic fitness relates to volume, thickness, and surface area in 34 male adolescents, 15 to 18 years old. Moreover, we examined if the val66met BDNF genotype moderated these relationships. We hypothesized that aerobic fitness would relate to greater thickness and volumes in frontal, parietal, and motor regions, and that these relationships would be less robust in individuals carrying a Met allele, since this genotype leads to lower BDNF expression. We found that aerobic fitness positively related to right rostral middle frontal cortical volume in all adolescents. However, results also showed BDNF genotype moderated the relationship between aerobic fitness and bilateral medial precuneus surface area, with a positive relationship seen in individuals with the Val/Val allele, but no relationship detected in those adolescents carrying a Met allele. Lastly, using self-reported levels of aerobic activity, we found that higher-fit adolescents showed larger right medial pericalcarine, right cuneus and left precuneus surface areas as compared to their low-fit peers. Our findings suggest that aerobic fitness is linked to cortical brain development in male adolescents, and that more research is warranted to determine how an individual’s genes may influence these relationships. PMID:27445764

  15. Preliminary data suggesting the efficacy of attention training for school-aged children with ADHD.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N; Peugh, James L; Nakonezny, Paul A; Hughes, Carroll W

    2013-04-01

    A pilot randomized clinical trial was conducted to examine the initial efficacy of Pay Attention!, an intervention training sustained, selective, alternating, and divided attention, in children diagnosed with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). After a diagnostic and baseline evaluation, school-aged children with ADHD were randomized to receive 16 bi-weekly sessions of Pay Attention! (n=54) or to a waitlist control group (n=51). Participants completed an outcome evaluation approximately 12 weeks after their baseline evaluation. Results showed significant treatment effects for parent and clinician ratings of ADHD symptoms, child self-report of ability to focus, and parent ratings of executive functioning. Child performance on neuropsychological tests showed significant treatment-related improvement on strategic planning efficiency, but no treatment effects were observed on other neuropsychological outcomes. Treatment effects were also not observed for teacher ratings of ADHD. These data add to a growing body of literature supporting effects of cognitive training on attention and behavior, however, additional research is warranted. PMID:23219490

  16. Repetition priming in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease: a review of findings and theories.

    PubMed

    Fleischman, D A; Gabrieli, J D

    1998-03-01

    On repetition priming tasks, memory is measured indirectly as a change in performance due to recent experience. It is often functionally and neurally dissociated from performance on explicit memory tasks, which directly measure conscious recall or recognition of recent events. Repetition priming has therefore been extensively studied in normal aging and Alzheimer's disease, which feature mild to severe changes in explicit memory. Initial studies indicated that repetition priming was immune to the effects of aging and greatly reduced in Alzheimer's disease (AD). As more studies have been performed, however, these initial conclusions appear less clear than before and, in the case of AD, actually misleading. The purpose of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of this rapidly expanding literature, articulate the issues that are critical to interpreting the empirical results, and discuss what new conclusions are suggested by the overall pattern of findings. PMID:9533193

  17. Tobacco Talk: Educating Young Children about Tobacco. Suggestions for Teachers, Parents, and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Onofrio, Carol

    This book provides adults with specific suggestions and advice for talking with children about the health and social hazards of tobacco use. The first two chapters provide background information and general principles for talking about tobacco with children up to the age of 10. Each of the following five chapters focuses on one topic about tobacco…

  18. Social Factors and Healthy Aging: Findings from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS)

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Katie E.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Kim, Sangkyu; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviors are associated with health outcomes in later life. The authors examined relationships among social and physical activities and health in a lifespan sample of adults (N = 771) drawn from the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS). Four age groups were compared: younger (21-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years), older (65-84 years), and oldest-old adults (85 to 101 years). Linear regression analyses indicated that physical activity, hours spent outside of the house, and social support were significantly associated with self-reported health, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. Number of clubs was significantly associated with objective health status, after controlling for sociodemographic factors. These data indicate that social and physical activities remain an important determinant of self-perceived health into very late adulthood. Implications of these data for current views on successful aging are discussed. PMID:27034910

  19. ["Plica disease" (synovial folds) of the knee-joint: arthroscopic and histological findings, with suggestions for treatment (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Klein, W; Schulitz, K P; Huth, F

    1979-09-01

    A mediopatellar plica (synovial fold) of the knee-joint may develop without recognisable cause in adolescents or young adults, predominantly females. It leads to pain on pressure over the medial knee compartment, sudden or "springing" intraarticular movements and pseudolocking of the joint. Similar plicae occur after traumatic joint contusion, with meniscus disease, or more rarely with arthrosis deformans. Histologically they are characterized by band-like fibrosed evaginations of the synovial membrane and of the synovial fat and connective tissue into the joint spaces. The following therapeutic suggestions, based on the personal experience of 15 cases, are made in the knowledge that significant inflammatory or proliferative arthritic changes can be excluded: the plica can be cut through under arthroscopy; chondromalacial defects, directly or indirectly caused by plical rubbing, of the medial femoral condyle and the medial patella can be removed, also under arthroscopic control, with an electric razor. Arthrotomy is no longer needed in most cases. PMID:477536

  20. Physical findings in 21q22 deletion suggest critical region for 21q - phenotype in q22

    SciTech Connect

    Thedoropoulos, D.S.; Cowan, J.M.; Elias, E.R.; Cole, C.

    1995-11-06

    Multiple abnormalities were observed in a newborn infant with a deletion in the long arm of chromosome 21, from band 22q22.1{yields}qter. The phenotype of this infant was similar to that previously described in infants with deletions spanning the long arm of chromosome 21, from the centromere to 21q22. However, as a phenotypically normal child with normal intelligence and with deletion of 21q11.1-21q21.3 has also been identified, this case suggests that the critical region of deletion for the 21q - phenotype lies distal to 21q21, within 21q22.1-22.2. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Clinical, instrumental, serological and histological findings suggest that hemophilia B may be less severe than hemophilia A

    PubMed Central

    Melchiorre, Daniela; Linari, Silvia; Manetti, Mirko; Romano, Eloisa; Sofi, Francesco; Matucci-Cerinic, Marco; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo; Ibba-Manneschi, Lidia; Castaman, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that patients with severe hemophilia B may have a less severe disease compared to severe hemophilia A. To investigate clinical, radiological, laboratory and histological differences in the arthropathy of severe hemophilia A and hemophilia B, 70 patients with hemophilia A and 35 with hemophilia B with at least one joint bleeding were consecutively enrolled. Joint bleedings (<10, 10–50, >50), regimen of treatment (prophylaxis/on demand), World Federation of Hemophilia, Pettersson and ultrasound scores, serum soluble RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin were assessed in all patients. RANK, RANK ligand and osteoprotegerin expression was evaluated in synovial tissue from 18 hemophilia A and 4 hemophilia B patients. The percentage of patients with either 10–50 or more than 50 hemarthrosis was greater in hemophilia A than in hemophilia B (P<0.001 and P=0.03, respectively), while that with less than 10 hemarthrosis was higher in hemophilia B (P<0.0001). World Federation of Hemophilia (36.6 vs. 20.2; P<0.0001) and ultrasound (10.9 vs. 4.3; P<0.0001) score mean values were significantly higher in hemophilia A patients. Serum osteoprotegerin and soluble RANK ligand were decreased in hemophilia A versus hemophilia B (P<0.0001 and P=0.006, respectively). Osteoprotegerin expression was markedly reduced in synovial tissue from hemophilia A patients. In conclusion, the reduced number of hemarthrosis, the lower World Federation of Hemophilia and ultrasound scores, and higher osteoprotegerin expression in serum and synovial tissue in hemophilia B suggest that hemophilia B is a less severe disease than hemophilia A. Osteoprotegerin reduction seems to play a pivotal role in the progression of arthropathy in hemophilia A. PMID:26494839

  2. Do Hassles and Uplifts Change with Age? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed three scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Growth based modelling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative non-linear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. PMID:24660796

  3. Do hassles and uplifts change with age? Longitudinal findings from the VA normative aging study.

    PubMed

    Aldwin, Carolyn M; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2014-03-01

    To examine emotion regulation in later life, we contrasted the modified hedonic treadmill theory with developmental theories, using hassles and uplifts to assess emotion regulation in context. The sample was 1,315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study aged 53 to 85 years, who completed 3,894 observations between 1989 and 2004. We computed 3 scores for both hassles and uplifts: intensity (ratings reflecting appraisal processes), exposure (count), and summary (total) scores. Growth curves over age showed marked differences in trajectory patterns for intensity and exposure scores. Although exposure to hassles and uplifts decreased in later life, intensity scores increased. Group-based modeling showed individual differences in patterns of hassles and uplifts intensity and exposure, with relative stability in uplifts intensity, normative nonlinear changes in hassles intensity, and complex patterns of individual differences in exposure for both hassles and uplifts. Analyses with the summary scores showed that emotion regulation in later life is a function of both developmental change and contextual exposure, with different patterns emerging for hassles and uplifts. Thus, support was found for both hedonic treadmill and developmental change theories, reflecting different aspects of emotion regulation in late life. PMID:24660796

  4. Age-Dependent Brain Gene Expression and Copy Number Anomalies in Autism Suggest Distinct Pathological Processes at Young Versus Mature Ages

    PubMed Central

    Winn, Mary E.; Barnes, Cynthia Carter; Li, Hai-Ri; Weiss, Lauren; Fan, Jian-Bing; Murray, Sarah; April, Craig; Belinson, Haim; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Wynshaw-Boris, Anthony; Schork, Nicholas J.; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Autism is a highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorder, yet the genetic underpinnings of the disorder are largely unknown. Aberrant brain overgrowth is a well-replicated observation in the autism literature; but association, linkage, and expression studies have not identified genetic factors that explain this trajectory. Few studies have had sufficient statistical power to investigate whole-genome gene expression and genotypic variation in the autistic brain, especially in regions that display the greatest growth abnormality. Previous functional genomic studies have identified possible alterations in transcript levels of genes related to neurodevelopment and immune function. Thus, there is a need for genetic studies involving key brain regions to replicate these findings and solidify the role of particular functional pathways in autism pathogenesis. We therefore sought to identify abnormal brain gene expression patterns via whole-genome analysis of mRNA levels and copy number variations (CNVs) in autistic and control postmortem brain samples. We focused on prefrontal cortex tissue where excess neuron numbers and cortical overgrowth are pronounced in the majority of autism cases. We found evidence for dysregulation in pathways governing cell number, cortical patterning, and differentiation in young autistic prefrontal cortex. In contrast, adult autistic prefrontal cortex showed dysregulation of signaling and repair pathways. Genes regulating cell cycle also exhibited autism-specific CNVs in DNA derived from prefrontal cortex, and these genes were significantly associated with autism in genome-wide association study datasets. Our results suggest that CNVs and age-dependent gene expression changes in autism may reflect distinct pathological processes in the developing versus the mature autistic prefrontal cortex. Our results raise the hypothesis that genetic dysregulation in the developing brain leads to abnormal regional patterning, excess prefrontal neurons

  5. Whole-genome sequencing suggests a chemokine gene cluster that modifies age at onset in familial Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Lalli, M A; Bettcher, B M; Arcila, M L; Garcia, G; Guzman, C; Madrigal, L; Ramirez, L; Acosta-Uribe, J; Baena, A; Wojta, K J; Coppola, G; Fitch, R; de Both, M D; Huentelman, M J; Reiman, E M; Brunkow, M E; Glusman, G; Roach, J C; Kao, A W; Lopera, F; Kosik, K S

    2015-11-01

    We have sequenced the complete genomes of 72 individuals affected with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease caused by an autosomal dominant, highly penetrant mutation in the presenilin-1 (PSEN1) gene, and performed genome-wide association testing to identify variants that modify age at onset (AAO) of Alzheimer's disease. Our analysis identified a haplotype of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 17 within a chemokine gene cluster associated with delayed onset of mild-cognitive impairment and dementia. Individuals carrying this haplotype had a mean AAO of mild-cognitive impairment at 51.0 ± 5.2 years compared with 41.1 ± 7.4 years for those without these SNPs. This haplotype thus appears to modify Alzheimer's AAO, conferring a large (~10 years) protective effect. The associated locus harbors several chemokines including eotaxin-1 encoded by CCL11, and the haplotype includes a missense polymorphism in this gene. Validating this association, we found plasma eotaxin-1 levels were correlated with disease AAO in an independent cohort from the University of California San Francisco Memory and Aging Center. In this second cohort, the associated haplotype disrupted the typical age-associated increase of eotaxin-1 levels, suggesting a complex regulatory role for this haplotype in the general population. Altogether, these results suggest eotaxin-1 as a novel modifier of Alzheimer's disease AAO and open potential avenues for therapy. PMID:26324103

  6. Whole-genome sequencing suggests a chemokine gene cluster that modifies age at onset in familial Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Lalli, M A; Bettcher, B M; Arcila, M L; Garcia, G; Guzman, C; Madrigal, L; Ramirez, L; Acosta-Uribe, J; Baena, A; Wojta, K J; Coppola, G; Fitch, R; de Both, M D; Huentelman, M J; Reiman, E M; Brunkow, M E; Glusman, G; Roach, J C; Kao, A W; Lopera, F; Kosik, K S

    2015-01-01

    We have sequenced the complete genomes of 72 individuals affected with early-onset familial Alzheimer's disease caused by an autosomal dominant, highly penetrant mutation in the presenilin-1 (PSEN1) gene, and performed genome-wide association testing to identify variants that modify age at onset (AAO) of Alzheimer's disease. Our analysis identified a haplotype of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on chromosome 17 within a chemokine gene cluster associated with delayed onset of mild-cognitive impairment and dementia. Individuals carrying this haplotype had a mean AAO of mild-cognitive impairment at 51.0±5.2 years compared with 41.1±7.4 years for those without these SNPs. This haplotype thus appears to modify Alzheimer's AAO, conferring a large (~10 years) protective effect. The associated locus harbors several chemokines including eotaxin-1 encoded by CCL11, and the haplotype includes a missense polymorphism in this gene. Validating this association, we found plasma eotaxin-1 levels were correlated with disease AAO in an independent cohort from the University of California San Francisco Memory and Aging Center. In this second cohort, the associated haplotype disrupted the typical age-associated increase of eotaxin-1 levels, suggesting a complex regulatory role for this haplotype in the general population. Altogether, these results suggest eotaxin-1 as a novel modifier of Alzheimer's disease AAO and open potential avenues for therapy. PMID:26324103

  7. Long-term ambient particle exposures and blood DNA methylation age: findings from the VA normative aging study

    PubMed Central

    Nwanaji-Enwerem, Jamaji C.; Colicino, Elena; Trevisi, Letizia; Kloog, Itai; Just, Allan C.; Shen, Jincheng; Brennan, Kasey; Dereix, Alexandra; Hou, Lifang; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Ambient particles have been shown to exacerbate measures of biological aging; yet, no studies have examined their relationships with DNA methylation age (DNAm-age), an epigenome-wide DNA methylation based predictor of chronological age. Objective We examined the relationship of DNAm-age with fine particulate matter (PM2.5), a measure of total inhalable particle mass, and black carbon (BC), a measure of particles from vehicular traffic. Methods We used validated spatiotemporal models to generate 1-year PM2.5 and BC exposure levels at the addresses of 589 older men participating in the VA Normative Aging Study with 1–3 visits between 2000 and 2011 (n = 1032 observations). Blood DNAm-age was calculated using 353 CpG sites from the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. We estimated associations of PM2.5 and BC with DNAm-age using linear mixed effects models adjusted for age, lifestyle/environmental factors, and aging-related diseases. Results After adjusting for covariates, a 1-µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 (95% CI: 0.30, 0.75, P<0.0001) was significantly associated with a 0.52-year increase in DNAm-age. Adjusted BC models showed similar patterns of association (β = 3.02, 95% CI: 0.48, 5.57, P = 0.02). Only PM2.5 (β = 0.54, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.84, P = 0.0004) remained significantly associated with DNAm-age in two-particle models. Methylation levels from 20 of the 353 CpGs contributing to DNAm-age were significantly associated with PM2.5 levels in our two-particle models. Several of these CpGs mapped to genes implicated in lung pathologies including LZTFL1, PDLIM5, and ATPAF1. Conclusion Our results support an association of long-termambient particle levels with DNAm-age and suggest that DNAm-age is a biomarker of particle-related physiological processes. PMID:27453791

  8. Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...

  9. Drug use among HIV+ adults aged 50 and older: findings from the GOLD II study.

    PubMed

    Ompad, Danielle C; Giobazolia, Tatiana T; Barton, Staci C; Halkitis, Sophia N; Boone, Cheriko A; Halkitis, Perry N; Kapadia, Farzana; Urbina, Antonio

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the nexus of aging, HIV, and substance use is key to providing appropriate services and support for their aging, HIV seropositive patients. The proportion of PLWHA aged 50 and older is growing due to a variety of factors like decreases in mortality due to highly active retroviral therapy and non-negligible HIV incidence. We describe prevalence of alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use and participation in substance use treatment and 12-step programs among 95 HIV-positive patients aged 50 and older engaged in care. Most (73.7%) smoked cigarettes in their lifetime and 46.3% were current smokers. Most were at medium (81.1%) or high risk (13.7%) for an alcohol use disorder. With respect to illicit drug use, 48.4% had used marijuana, cocaine, crack, methamphetamines, heroin, and/or prescription opiates without a prescription in the last 12 months; 23.2% met criteria for drug dependence. Marijuana was the most commonly reported illicit drug (32.6%) followed by cocaine and crack (10.5% each), heroin and prescription opiates (7.4% each), and methamphetamines (6.3%). Among those who had not used drugs in the past 12 months, 36.7% had been in a substance use treatment program and 26.5% had participated in a 12-step program in their lifetime; 8.2% were currently in treatment and 16.3% were currently participating in a 12-step program. Among those who had used an illicit drug in the past 12 months, 37.0% had never been in treatment, 34.8% had been in treatment in their lifetime, and 28.3% were currently in treatment. With respect to 12-step programs, 27.3% of those meeting dependence criteria had never participated, 45.5% had participated in their lifetimes, and 27.3% were currently participating. Our findings suggest that older adults in HIV care settings could benefit from Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment interventions and/or integrated services for substance abuse and medical treatment. PMID:27145363

  10. On the Tip-of-the-Tongue: Neural Correlates of Increased Word-finding Failures in Normal Aging

    PubMed Central

    Shafto, Meredith A.; Burke, Deborah M.; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.; Tam, Phyllis P.; Tyler, Lorraine K.

    2008-01-01

    Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) experiences are frustrating word-finding failures where people are temporarily unable to produce a word they are certain they know. TOT frequency increases with normal aging during adulthood, and behavioral evidence suggests that the underlying deficit is in retrieving the complete phonology of the target word during production. The present study investigated the neural correlates of this phonological retrieval deficit. We obtained 3-D T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images (MRI) for healthy participants between 19 and 88 years old and used voxel-based morphometry to measure gray matter density throughout the brain. In a separate session, participants named celebrities cued by pictures and descriptions, indicating when they had a TOT, and also completed Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM), a task that does not involve phonological production. The number of TOTs increased with age and also with gray matter atrophy in the left insula, an area implicated in phonological production. The relation between TOTs and left insula atrophy cannot be attributed to the correlation of each variable with age because TOTs were related to insula atrophy even with age effects removed. Moreover, errors on the RPM increased with age, but performance did not correlate with gray matter density in the insula. These results provide, for the first time, an association between a region in the neural language system and the rise in age-related word-finding failures and suggest that age-related atrophy in neural regions important for phonological production may contribute to age-related word production failures. PMID:17892392

  11. Finding Uncertainties that Cause the Age Dependence of Dose Limits to Be Immature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.

    2007-01-01

    Space radiation permissible exposure limits (PEL) are intended to set acceptable levels of cancer risks, and avoid any clinical significant non-cancer effects. The 1989 recommendation of the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) recommended a strong age dependence of dose limits that departed drastically from the then mature 1970 dose limits recommendations from the National Academy of Science, which were independent of age. In 2000, the NCRP recommended revised limits that showed a similar trend of risk with age to the 1989 report. In this model, the cancer risk per Sv varies by more than 2-fold for ages between 30- and 50-yr. Therefore for galactic cosmic rays exposure, astronaut age has a larger influence on risk then radiation shielding mass or material composition, vehicle propulsion method, or position in the solar cycle. For considering the control of mission costs and resources, the possibility of using astronaut age as a trade variable in mission design could be considered. However, the uncertainties in describing the age dependence on risk have not been fully explored. We discuss biological factors that influence the age dependence of radiation risks, including susceptibility, expression and latency, and radiation quality. These factors depend not only on the individual s age, but also their genetic sensitivity and interaction with other environmental factors. Epidemiological data is limited in describing the age dependence on risk. The 2005, BEIR VII report recommends an age dependence for cancer risk attributable solely to the life-table disagreeing strongly with the NCRP model. However, BEIR VII also noted the limited power of human data for concomitantly describing both age and age after exposure dependences of cancer risks. Many experimental studies have shown that high LET radiation (e.g., high charge and energy (HZE) nuclei and neutrons) display reduced latency compared to low LET radiation, suggesting distinct biological

  12. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study.

    PubMed

    Peng, Hao; Zhu, Yun; Yeh, Fawn; Cole, Shelley A; Best, Lyle G; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Devereux, Richard B; Roman, Mary J; Lee, Elisa T; Howard, Barbara V; Zhao, Jinying

    2016-08-01

    Telomere length, a marker of biological aging, has been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Increased arterial stiffness, an indicator of arterial aging, predicts adverse CVD outcomes. However, the relationship between telomere length and arterial stiffness is less well studied. Here we examined the cross-sectional association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and arterial stiffness in 2,165 American Indians in the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS). LTL was measured by qPCR. Arterial stiffness was assessed by stiffness index β. The association between LTL and arterial stiffness was assessed by generalized estimating equation model, adjusting for sociodemographics (age, sex, education level), study site, metabolic factors (fasting glucose, lipids, systolic blood pressure, and kidney function), lifestyle (BMI, smoking, drinking, and physical activity), and prevalent CVD. Results showed that longer LTL was significantly associated with a decreased arterial stiffness (β=-0.070, P=0.007). This association did not attenuate after further adjustment for hsCRP (β=-0.071, P=0.005) or excluding participants with overt CVD (β=-0.068, P=0.012), diabetes (β=-0.070, P=0.005), or chronic kidney disease (β=-0.090, P=0.001). In summary, shorter LTL was significantly associated with an increased arterial stiffness, independent of known risk factors. This finding may shed light on the potential role of biological aging in arterial aging in American Indians. PMID:27540694

  13. Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viadero, Debra; Coles, Adrienne D.

    1998-01-01

    Studies on race-based admissions, sports and sex, and religion and drugs suggest that: affirmative action policies were successful regarding college admissions; boys who play sports are more likely to be sexually active than their peers, with the opposite true for girls; and religion is a major factor in whether teens use cigarettes, alcohol, and…

  14. Age-Related Changes in the Cardiometabolic Profiles in Singapore Resident Adult Population: Findings from the National Health Survey 2010.

    PubMed

    Loh, Tze Ping; Ma, Stefan; Heng, Derrick; Khoo, Chin Meng

    2016-01-01

    We describe the centile trends of the blood pressure, glycemia and lipid profiles as well as renal function of a representative population who participated in the Singapore National Health Survey in 2010. Representative survey population was sampled in two phases, first using geographical/ residential dwelling type stratification, followed up ethnicity. 2,407 survey participants without any self-reported medical or medication history for diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia were included in this analysis. All biochemistry analyses were performed on Roche platforms. After excluding outliers using Tukey's criteria, the results of the remaining participants were subjected to lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) analysis. In men, systolic blood pressure increased linearly with age. By contrast, an upward inflection around late 40s was seen in women. The diastolic blood pressure was highest in men in the late 30s-50s age group, and in women in the late 50s-60s age group. All glycemia-related parameters, i.e. fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose and HbA1c concentrations increased with age, although the rate of increase differed between the tests. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased with age, which became attenuated between the early 30s and late 50s in men, and declined thereafter. In women, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations gradually increased with age until late 30s, when there is an upward inflection, plateauing after late 50s. Our findings indicate that diagnostic performance of laboratory tests for diabetes may be age-sensitive. Unfavourable age-related cardiovascular risk profiles suggest that the burden of cardiovascular disease in this population will increase with aging population. PMID:27570971

  15. Age-Related Changes in the Cardiometabolic Profiles in Singapore Resident Adult Population: Findings from the National Health Survey 2010

    PubMed Central

    Loh, Tze Ping; Ma, Stefan; Heng, Derrick; Khoo, Chin Meng

    2016-01-01

    We describe the centile trends of the blood pressure, glycemia and lipid profiles as well as renal function of a representative population who participated in the Singapore National Health Survey in 2010. Representative survey population was sampled in two phases, first using geographical/ residential dwelling type stratification, followed up ethnicity. 2,407 survey participants without any self-reported medical or medication history for diabetes mellitus, hypertension and dyslipidemia were included in this analysis. All biochemistry analyses were performed on Roche platforms. After excluding outliers using Tukey's criteria, the results of the remaining participants were subjected to lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) analysis. In men, systolic blood pressure increased linearly with age. By contrast, an upward inflection around late 40s was seen in women. The diastolic blood pressure was highest in men in the late 30s-50s age group, and in women in the late 50s-60s age group. All glycemia-related parameters, i.e. fasting and 2-hour plasma glucose and HbA1c concentrations increased with age, although the rate of increase differed between the tests. Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations increased with age, which became attenuated between the early 30s and late 50s in men, and declined thereafter. In women, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations gradually increased with age until late 30s, when there is an upward inflection, plateauing after late 50s. Our findings indicate that diagnostic performance of laboratory tests for diabetes may be age-sensitive. Unfavourable age-related cardiovascular risk profiles suggest that the burden of cardiovascular disease in this population will increase with aging population. PMID:27570971

  16. The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam: cohort update 2016 and major findings.

    PubMed

    Hoogendijk, Emiel O; Deeg, Dorly J H; Poppelaars, Jan; van der Horst, Marleen; Broese van Groenou, Marjolein I; Comijs, Hannie C; Pasman, H Roeline W; van Schoor, Natasja M; Suanet, Bianca; Thomése, Fleur; van Tilburg, Theo G; Visser, Marjolein; Huisman, Martijn

    2016-09-01

    The Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA) is an ongoing longitudinal study of older adults in the Netherlands, which started in 1992. LASA is focused on the determinants, trajectories and consequences of physical, cognitive, emotional and social functioning. The study is based on a nationally representative sample of older adults aged 55 years and over. The findings of the LASA study have been reported in over 450 publications so far (see www.lasa-vu.nl ). In this article we describe the background and the design of the LASA study, and provide an update of the methods. In addition, we provide a summary of the major findings from the period 2011-2015. PMID:27544533

  17. Social Determinants, Race, and Brain Health Outcomes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Neelum T; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Evans, Denis A

    2015-01-01

    The broad spectrum of economic and cultural diversity in the U.S. population correlates with and affects the study of behavioral aspects of health. The purpose of this article is to provide a selective overview of research findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP), which covers a socio-demographically diverse population in Chicago, with a focus on role-related psychosocial factors and observed racial/ethnic differences in aging outcomes. CHAP is a longitudinal, epidemiological study of common chronic conditions of aging with an emphasis on medical, psychosocial, and environmental risk factors for the decline in cognitive function across the older adult lifespan. We briefly summarize the study design and methods used in the CHAP study and characterize the study population and describe the psychosocial data, noting black-white associations as they relate to three common brain health outcomes: cognitive function and Alzheimer's Disease, stroke, and subclinical vascular disease as noted on neuroimaging. PMID:26239039

  18. Altered gene expression in dry age-related macular degeneration suggests early loss of choroidal endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Whitmore, S. Scott; Braun, Terry A.; Skeie, Jessica M.; Haas, Christine M.; Sohn, Elliott H.; Stone, Edwin M.; Scheetz, Todd E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in developed countries. The molecular pathogenesis of early events in AMD is poorly understood. We investigated differential gene expression in samples of human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and choroid from early AMD and control maculas with exon-based arrays. Methods Gene expression levels in nine human donor eyes with early AMD and nine control human donor eyes were assessed using Affymetrix Human Exon ST 1.0 arrays. Two controls did not pass quality control and were removed. Differentially expressed genes were annotated using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID), and gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed on RPE-specific and endothelium-associated gene sets. The complement factor H (CFH) genotype was also assessed, and differential expression was analyzed regarding high AMD risk (YH/HH) and low AMD risk (YY) genotypes. Results Seventy-five genes were identified as differentially expressed (raw p value <0.01; ≥50% fold change, mean log2 expression level in AMD or control ≥ median of all average gene expression values); however, no genes were significant (adj. p value <0.01) after correction for multiple hypothesis testing. Of 52 genes with decreased expression in AMD (fold change <0.5; raw p value <0.01), 18 genes were identified by DAVID analysis as associated with vision or neurologic processes. The GSEA of the RPE-associated and endothelium-associated genes revealed a significant decrease in genes typically expressed by endothelial cells in the early AMD group compared to controls, consistent with previous histologic and proteomic studies. Analysis of the CFH genotype indicated decreased expression of ADAMTS9 in eyes with high-risk genotypes (fold change = –2.61; raw p value=0.0008). Conclusions GSEA results suggest that RPE transcripts are preserved or elevated in early AMD, concomitant with loss of endothelial cell marker

  19. Preliminary findings suggest the number and volume of supragranular and infragranular pyramidal neurons are similar in the anterior superior temporal area of control subjects and subjects with autism

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Esther; Camacho, Jasmin; Combs, Zachary; Ariza, Jeanelle; Lechpammer, Mirna; Noctor, Stephen; Martínez-Cerdeño, Verónica

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the cytoarchitecture of the anterior superior temporal area (TA2) of the postmortem cerebral cortex in 9 subjects with autism and 9 age-matched typically developing subjects between the ages of 13 and 56 years. The superior temporal gyrus is involved in auditory processing and social cognition and its pathology has been correlated with autism. We quantified the number and soma volume of pyramidal neurons in the supragranular layers and pyramidal neurons in the infragranular layers in each subject. We did not find significant differences in the number or volume of supragranular or infragranular neurons in the cerebral cortex of subjects with autism compared to typically developing subjects. This report does not support an alteration of supragranular to infragranular neurons in autism. However, further stereological analysis of the number of cells and cell volumes in specific cortical areas is needed to better establish the cellular phenotype of the autistic cerebral cortex and to understand its clinical relevance in autism. PMID:25582788

  20. Postural laterality in Iberian ibex Capra pyrenaica: effects of age, sex and nursing suggest stress and social information.

    PubMed

    Sarasa, Mathieu; Soriguer, Ramón C; Serrano, Emmanuel; Granados, José-Enrique; Pérez, Jesús M

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of lateralized behaviour have to date focused on active behaviour such as sensorial perception and locomotion and little is known about lateralized postures, such as lying, that can potentially magnify the effectiveness of lateralized perception and reaction. Moreover, the relative importance of factors such as sex, age and the stress associated with social status in laterality is now a subject of increasing interest. In this study, we assess the importance of sex, age and reproductive investment in females in lying laterality in the Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica). Using generalized additive models under an information-theoretic approach based on the Akaike information criterion, we analyzed lying laterality of 78 individually marked ibexes. Sex, age and nursing appeared as key factors associated, in interaction and non-linearly, with lying laterality. Beyond the benefits of studying laterality with non-linear models, our results highlight the fact that a combination of static factors such as sex, and dynamic factors such as age and stress associated with parental care, are associated with postural laterality. PMID:24611891

  1. Age-Appropriate Cues Facilitate Source-Monitoring and Reduce Suggestibility in 3- To 7-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright-Paul, A.; Jarrold, C.; Wright, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    Providing cues to facilitate the recovery of source information can reduce postevent misinformation effects in adults, implying that errors in source-monitoring contribute to suggestibility (e.g., [Lindsay, D. S., & Johnson, M. K. (1989). The eyewitness suggestibility effect and memory for source. Memory & Cognition, 17, 349-358]). The present…

  2. Finding Ponce de Leon’s Pill: Challenges in Screening for Anti-Aging Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Surinder; Lombard, David B.

    2016-01-01

    Aging is characterized by the progressive accumulation of degenerative changes, culminating in impaired function and increased probability of death. It is the major risk factor for many human pathologies – including cancer, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases – and consequently exerts an enormous social and economic toll. The major goal of aging research is to develop interventions that can delay the onset of multiple age-related diseases and prolong healthy lifespan (healthspan). The observation that enhanced longevity and health can be achieved in model organisms by dietary restriction or simple genetic manipulations has prompted the hunt for chemical compounds that can increase lifespan. Most of the pathways that modulate the rate of aging in mammals have homologs in yeast, flies, and worms, suggesting that initial screening to identify such pharmacological interventions may be possible using invertebrate models. In recent years, several compounds have been identified that can extend lifespan in invertebrates, and even in rodents. Here, we summarize the strategies employed, and the progress made, in identifying compounds capable of extending lifespan in organisms ranging from invertebrates to mice and discuss the formidable challenges in translating this work to human therapies. PMID:27081480

  3. A Literature Review of Homelessness and Aging: Suggestions for a Policy and Practice-Relevant Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Amanda; Barken, Rachel; Sussman, Tamara; Rothwell, David; Bourgeois-Guérin, Valérie; Lavoie, Jean-Pierre

    2016-03-01

    Homelessness among older people is a growing concern across Canada and is expected to rise with demographic change (Crane & Warnes, 2010; Culhane, Metraux, Byrne, Stino, & Bainbridge, 2013). Yet current knowledge, policies, and practices on homelessness largely focus on younger populations. Likewise, research and policies on aging typically overlook homelessness. Responses to homelessness among older people must address complex needs related to health, income security, and housing. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this article outlines the existing and needed research with regards to homelessness among older people. We clarify the intersections of aging and homelessness; review the relevant statistics, including estimated prevalence; discuss pathways and variations in experience; and identify gaps in knowledge. We conclude with a call for an inclusive research agenda that will help build policies and practices to reduce and ultimately to eliminate homelessness among older people in Canada. PMID:26782092

  4. Do hassles and uplifts trajectories predict mortality? Longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Yu-Jin; Aldwin, Carolyn M; Igarashi, Heidi; Spiro, Avron

    2016-06-01

    We examined whether longitudinal patterns of hassles and uplifts trajectories predicted mortality, using a sample of 1315 men from the VA Normative Aging Study (mean age = 65.31, SD = 7.6). In prior work, we identified different trajectory classes of hassles and uplifts exposure and intensity scores over a period of 16 years. In this study, we used the probabilities of these exposure and intensity class memberships to examine their ability to predict mortality. Men with higher probabilities of high hassle intensity trajectory class and high uplift intensity class had higher mortality risks. In a model combining the probabilities of hassle and uplift intensities, the probability of high intensity hassle class membership significantly increased the risk of mortality. This suggests that appraisals of hassles intensity are better predictors of mortality than simple exposure measures, and that uplifts have no independent effects. PMID:26721518

  5. Population aging in local areas and subjective well-being of older adults: Findings from two studies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tami; Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Harada, Ken; Kai, Ichiro

    2016-05-23

    Subjective well-being (SWB) of older adults could be affected by both individual and community characteristics. However, the effect of community characteristics, such as population aging in local areas, remains unclear. This study examined the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the area-level population aging and SWB of older individuals from two distinct surveys. Those analyzed were 572 respondents aged 75 years and older for a cross-sectional survey in a metropolitan area in Tokyo, Japan (Study 1) and 1,257 and 859 respondents for a cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis, respectively, for a 2-year longitudinal survey project in urban and rural areas of Fukui Prefecture (Study 2). Area-level population aging was assessed by the number of people aged 65 years or older per 100 residents. SWB was assessed with the Life Satisfaction Index-A (LSIA). Multilevel analysis was performed to examine unconditional and conditional associations between the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents and the individual-level LSIA scores. The area-level number of older adults per 100 residents was significantly and positively associated with the LSIA scores in Study 1 (p = 0.042), even after controlling for the area- and individual-level covariates. In Study 2, we also found a significant effect of the area-level number of older adults per 100 residents on LSIA scores in the longitudinal multivariate analysis (p = 0.049). Findings from two survey projects suggested cross-validity in the positive effect of area-level population aging on older adults' SWB. Policymakers should consider older citizens' SWB in the recent urban-to-rural migration governmental policy as well as in urban renovation planning. PMID:26983399

  6. Impaired Sleep Predicts Cognitive Decline in Old People: Findings from the Prospective KORA Age Study

    PubMed Central

    Johar, Hamimatunnisa; Kawan, Rasmila; Emeny, Rebecca Thwing; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate the association between sleep-related characteristics and cognitive change over 3 years of follow up in an aged population. Methods: Sleep characteristics and covariates were assessed at baseline in a standardized interview and clinical examination of the population-based KORA Age Study (n = 740, mean age = 75 years). Cognitive score (determined by telephone interview for cognitive status, TICS-m) was recorded at baseline and 3 years later. Results: At baseline, 82.83% (n = 613) of participants had normal cognitive status, 13.51% (n = 100) were classified with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 3.64% (n = 27) with probable dementia. The effect of three distinct patterns of poor sleep (difficulties initiating [DIS] or maintaining sleep [DMS], daytime sleepiness [DS] or sleep duration) were considered on a change in cognitive score with adjustments for potential confounders in generalized linear regression models. Cognitive decline was more pronounced in individuals with DMS compared to those with no DMS (β = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.41–2.24, P < 0.001). However, the predictive power of DMS was only significant in individuals with normal cognition and not impaired subjects at baseline. Prolonged sleep duration increased the risk for cognitive decline in cognitively impaired elderly (β = 1.86, 95% CI = 0.15–3.57, P = 0.03). Other sleep characteristics (DIS and DS) were not significantly associated with cognitive decline. Conclusions: DMS and long sleep duration were associated with cognitive decline in normal and cognitively impaired elderly, respectively. The identification of impaired sleep quality may offer intervention strategies to deter cognitive decline in the elderly with normal cognitive function. Citation: Johar H, Kawan R, Emeny RT, Ladwig KH. Impaired sleep predicts cognitive decline in old people: findings from the prospective KORA age study. SLEEP 2016;39(1):217–226. PMID:26414903

  7. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  8. Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint: findings in the pediatric age group

    SciTech Connect

    Katzberg, R.W.; Tallents, R.H.; Hayakawa, K.; Miller, T.L.; Goske, M.J.; Wood, B.P.

    1985-01-01

    Findings in 31 pediatric patients with pain and dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) are reported. The average age was 14 years and the average duration of symptoms was 21.4 months. Internal derangements were found in 29 patients (94%) and degenerative arthritis in 13 (42%). In 12 patients (39%), the problem could be traced to an injury to the jaw. Secondary condylar hypoplasia was associated with the meniscal abnormality in 3 patients (10%). Further awareness of internal derangements of the TMJ in the pediatric population should permit greater recognition of their etiology. It is important that threatment be initiated as soon as possible, not only to minimize the development of osseous disease in young adults but also to prevent facial growth deformities.

  9. Suggested mechanism for the selective excretion of glucosylated albumin. The effects of diabetes mellitus and aging on this process and the origins of diabetic microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Kowluru, A; Kowluru, R; Bitensky, M W; Corwin, E J; Solomon, S S; Johnson, J D

    1987-11-01

    quantity of glucosylated albumin excreted. In contrast, we found that editing of glucosylated albumin by the normal kidney is found to gradually decline as a function of age without the appearance of microalbuminuria. This suggests that a different mechanism operates to produce the loss of editing seen with aging in man, and as clearly (but in a shorter absolute time intervals) in the Fischer-344 rat. PMID:3119757

  10. Age-related changes in urinary testosterone levels suggest differences in puberty onset and divergent life history strategies in bonobos and chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Behringer, V; Deschner, T; Deimel, C; Stevens, J M G; Hohmann, G

    2014-08-01

    Research on age-related changes in morphology, social behavior, and cognition suggests that the development of bonobos (Pan paniscus) is delayed in comparison to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). However, there is also evidence for earlier reproductive maturation in bonobos. Since developmental changes such as reproductive maturation are induced by a number of endocrine processes, changes in hormone levels are indicators of different developmental stages. Age-related changes in testosterone excretion are an indirect marker for the onset of puberty in human and non-human primates. In this study we investigated patterns of urinary testosterone levels in male and female bonobos and chimpanzees to determine the onset of puberty. In contrast to other studies, we found that both species experience age-related changes in urinary testosterone levels. Older individuals of both sexes had significantly higher urinary testosterone levels than younger individuals, indicating that bonobos and chimpanzees experience juvenile pause. The males of both species showed a similar pattern of age-related changes in urinary testosterone levels, with a sharp increase in levels around the age of eight years. This suggests that species-differences in aggression and male mate competition evolved independently of developmental changes in testosterone levels. Females showed a similar pattern of age-related urinary testosterone increase. However, in female bonobos the onset was about three years earlier than in female chimpanzees. The earlier rise of urinary testosterone levels in female bonobos is in line with reports of their younger age of dispersal, and suggests that female bonobos experience puberty at a younger age than female chimpanzees. PMID:25086337

  11. Inflammatory and immune markers associated with physical frailty syndrome: findings from Singapore longitudinal aging studies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanxia; Tan, Crystal Tze Ying; Nyunt, Ma Shwe Zin; Mok, Esther Wing Hei; Camous, Xavier; Kared, Hassen; Fulop, Tamas; Feng, Liang; Ng, Tze Pin; Larbi, Anis

    2016-05-17

    Chronic systematic inflammation and reduced immune system fitness are considered potential contributing factors to the development of age-related frailty, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly defined. This exploratory study aimed to identify frailty-related inflammatory markers and immunological phenotypes in a cohort of community-dwelling adults aged ≥ 55 years. Frailty was assessed using two models, a Frailty Index and a categorical phenotype, and correlated with levels of circulating immune biomarkers and markers of senescence in immune cell subsets. We identified eight serological biomarkers that were associated with frailty, including sgp130, IL-2Rα, I-309, MCP-1, BCA-1, RANTES, leptin, and IL-6R. Frailty Index was inversely predicted by the frequency of CD3+, CD45RA+, and central memory CD4 cells, and positively predicted by the loss of CD28 expression, especially in CD8+ T cells, while frailty status was predicted by the frequency of terminal effector CD8+ T cells. In γ/δ T cells, frailty was negatively associated with CD27, and positively associated with IFNγ+TNFα- secretion by γ/δ2+ cells and IFNγ-TNFα+ secretion by γ/δ2- cells. Increased numbers of exhausted and CD38+ B cells, as well as CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocytes, were also identified as frailty-associated phenotypes. This pilot study supports an association between inflammation, cellular immunity, and the process of frailty. These findings have significance for the early identification of frailty using circulating biomarkers prior to clinical manifestations of severe functional decline in the elderly. PMID:27119508

  12. "Does AIDS Hurt?": Educating Young Children about AIDS. Suggestions for Parents, Teachers, and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Marcia; Villarreal, Sylvia

    This document gives parents, teachers, and others basic information and suggested guidelines for teaching children aged 10 and younger about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). These topics concerning AIDS and young children are discussed: (1) talking with young children about AIDS; (2) things to keep in mind when talking with children,…

  13. Mortality estimates from ovarian age distributions of the tsetse fly Glossina pallidipes Austen sampled in Zimbabwe suggest the need for new analytical approaches.

    PubMed

    Hargrove, J W; Ackley, S F

    2015-06-01

    Mortality estimates are central to understanding tsetse fly population dynamics, but are difficult to acquire from wild populations. They can be obtained from age distribution data but, with limited data, it is unclear whether the assumptions required to make the estimates are satisfied and, if not, how violations affect the estimates. We evaluate the assumptions required for existing mortality estimation techniques using long-term longitudinal ovarian dissection data from 144,106 female tsetse, Glossina pallidipes Austen, captured in Zimbabwe between 1988 and 1999. At the end of the hot-dry season each year, mean ovarian ages peaked, and maximum-likelihood mortality estimates declined to low levels, contrary to mark-recapture estimates, suggesting violations of the assumptions underlying the estimation technique. We demonstrate that age distributions are seldom stable for G. pallidipes at our study site, and hypothesize that this is a consequence of a disproportionate increase in the mortality of pupae and young adults at the hottest times of the year. Assumptions of age-independent mortality and capture probability are also violated, the latter bias varying with capture method and with pregnancy and nutritional status. As a consequence, mortality estimates obtained from ovarian dissection data are unreliable. To overcome these problems we suggest simulating female tsetse populations, using dynamical modelling techniques that make no assumptions about the stability of the age distribution. PMID:25804211

  14. Age-related trends in Stroop and conflicting motor response task findings.

    PubMed

    Nichelli, Francesca; Scala, Gabriella; Vago, Chiara; Riva, Daria; Bulgheroni, Sara

    2005-10-01

    Inhibition problems are reportedly at the heart of several childhood pathologies and learning disorders, but few instruments are available for their in-depth investigation. The main aim of the present study was to investigate the development of a capacity to inhibit automatic responses in young and middle childhood. For this purpose, 100 children between 6 and 11 years old were administered two tests that measure executive inhibition: an animal Stroop task (in a paper-and-pencil version of the computerized original proposed by Wright and colleagues in 2003) and a conflicting motor response task. Our results indicate that performance clearly improves in both tests during the course of a child's development and the data obtained with the paper-and-pencil animal Stroop task overlap with those obtained with the computerized version. When the task calls for a stronger inhibitory control (the incongruent situation in the Stroop task and in the opposite condition in the conflicting motor response test) the trend of the response times is less homogeneous, peaking in the youngest and oldest age brackets considered. The positivity and significance of the correlation coefficients between the two tests also suggest that the two measures are tapping cognitive abilities that are developing in a parallel fashion. PMID:16306018

  15. Proteome changes during meat aging in tough and tender beef suggest the importance of apoptosis and protein solubility for beef aging and tenderization.

    PubMed

    Laville, Elisabeth; Sayd, Thierry; Morzel, Martine; Blinet, Sylvie; Chambon, Christophe; Lepetit, Jacques; Renand, Gilles; Hocquette, Jean François

    2009-11-25

    Within a population of Charolais young bulls, two extreme groups of longissimus thoracis muscle samples, classified according to Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of 55 degrees C grilled meat, were analyzed by 2D-electrophoresis. Muscle analyses were performed on 4 bulls of the "tender" group (WBSF=27.7+/-4.8 N) and 4 bulls of the "tough" group (WBSF=41.2+/-6.1 N), at 3 post-mortem times: D0, samples taken within 10 min post-mortem; D5 and D21, samples kept at 4 degrees C under vacuum during 5 and 21 days. Proteins of muscle samples were separated in two fractions based on protein solubility in Tris buffer: "soluble" and "insoluble". Proteins of both fractions were separated by 2D-electrophoresis. Evolution of spots during the 3 post-mortem times was analyzed by hierarchical classification (HCA). Three clusters of proteins presenting similar evolution profiles provided accurate classification of post-mortem times and showed the translocation of some chaperone proteins and glycolytic enzymes from the soluble fraction to the insoluble fraction between D0 and D5. Cellular structure dismantlement and proteolysis was observed at D21. Effect of group ("tender" vs "tough") on spot intensities was tested by ANOVA. At D0, higher quantity of proteins of the inner and outer membrane of mitochondria was found in the tender group suggesting a more extensive degradation of mitochondria that may be related to the apoptotic process. PMID:19860418

  16. Surgery for Subfoveal Choroidal Neovascularization in Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Ophthalmic Findings

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Purpose To present visual acuity (VA) and related findings from patients enrolled in one of the Submacular Surgery Trials (SST) evaluating surgical removal versus observation of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization secondary to age-related macular degeneration (SST Group N Trial). Design Randomized clinical trial. Participants Eligible patients had age-related macular degeneration with subfoveal choroidal neovascularization, some with a classic pattern on fluorescein angiography, and best-corrected VA (BCVA) of 20/100 to 20/800 in one eye (study eye) that had received no treatment in the macula. Any contiguous blood had to account for <50% of the total area occupied by the subfoveal lesion (maximum size, 9.0 disc areas [22.9 mm2]). Methods Randomization was stratified by VA and by clinical center. All patients were scheduled for study examinations at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after enrollment for assessment of study outcomes. Main Outcome Measure A successful outcome was defined a priori to be either improvement of BCVA or VA no more than 1 line (7 letters) worse than baseline at the 24-month examination. Results Of 454 patients enrolled, 228 study eyes were assigned to observation and 226 to surgery. The percentages of eyes that had successful outcomes were similar in the 2 arms: 44% assigned to observation and 41% assigned to surgery. Median VA losses from baseline to the 24-month examination were 2.1 lines (10.5 letters) in the observation arm and 2.0 lines (10 letters) in the surgery arm. Median VA declined from 20/100 at baseline to 20/400 at 24 months in both arms. No subgroup of patients was identified in which submacular surgery led to better VA outcomes. In the surgery arm, 55 (39%) of 142 initially phakic eyes had cataract surgery by the 24-month examination, compared with 6 (5%) of 133 eyes in the observation arm. Rhegmatogenous retinal detachment occurred in 12 surgery eyes (5%) and 1 observation eye. Conclusions Submacular surgery, as performed in this

  17. Bronze and Iron Age Finds from Romuald's Cave, Istria: 2014 Excavation Season.

    PubMed

    Janković, Ivor; Ahern, James C M; Mihelić, Sanjin; Premuzić, Zrinka

    2015-12-01

    Archaeological excavations in Romuald's Cave (Lim Channel, Istria, Croatia) have yielded evidence of human activity stretching back to the Middle Palaeolithic. This paper reports on recent Bronze Age/Early Iron Age discoveries uncovered during excavations as part of the Croatian National Science Foundation funded project: "Archaeological Investigations into the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene of the Lim Channel, Istria". Fragmentary skeletal remains from at least two individuals were excavated, and a direct radiocarbon date from one of the remains is commensurate with a Bronze Age attribution. The recovered ceramics confirm this age attribution, although they range from the Middle Bronze Age to incipient Iron Age in character. Furthermore, the ceramics indicate that the human activities in Romuald's Cave were associated with the nearby settlements of Gradina and St. Martin. PMID:26987164

  18. Gender Differences in Spatial Ability in Old Age: Longitudinal and Intervention Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

    1988-01-01

    Gender differences in spatial ability in old age were examined and the effectiveness of cognitive training in reducing these differences was assessed. Age-related decline in the speed of problem solving, especially for men, was noted. Following training on mental rotation ability, there was no significant gender difference in spatial ability…

  19. Dietary anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function: longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study123

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Amar J; Cassidy, Aedín; Litonjua, Augusto A; Sparrow, David; Vokonas, Pantel; Schwartz, Joel

    2016-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether habitual intake of dietary flavonoids, known for their antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties, affects longitudinal change in lung function. Objective: We investigated whether different flavonoid subclasses present in the habitual diet were associated with beneficial changes in lung function over time in the elderly. Design: This longitudinal analysis included 839 participants from the VA (Veterans Affairs) Normative Aging Study whose lung function [forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC)] was measured at 2 and up to 5 visits between 1992 and 2008 (n = 2623 measurements). Yearly average intake of major flavonoid subclasses (anthocyanins, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, flavonols, flavones, and polymers) was calculated from food-frequency questionnaires at each visit. We estimated adjusted differences in annual change in lung function associated with each flavonoid subclass, categorized into quartiles, in linear mixed-effects regression models after adjustment for lifestyle and dietary confounders. Results: Strong inverse associations were found between anthocyanin intake and age-related decline in lung function. Independent of dietary and nondietary risk factors, slower rates of FEV1 and FVC decline by 23.6 (95% CI: 16.6, 30.7) and 37.3 (95% CI: 27.8, 46.8) mL/y, respectively, were observed in participants in the fourth quartile of intake compared with participants in the first quartile (P-trend < 0.0001). The protective associations observed for anthocyanin intake were present in both current/former and never smokers. Compared with no or very low intakes, an intake of ≥2 servings of anthocyanin-rich blueberries/wk was associated with slower decline in FEV1 and FVC by 22.5 (95% CI: 10.8, 34.2) and 37.9 (95% CI: 22.1, 53.7) mL/y, respectively. To a lesser extent, higher flavan-3-ol intake was also associated with slower lung function decline. Conclusions: An attenuation of age-related lung function

  20. Chronic disease and sitting time in middle-aged Australian males: findings from the 45 and Up Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Compared to females, males experience a range of health inequities including higher rates of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although sitting time is emerging as a distinct risk factor for chronic disease, research on the association of sitting time and chronic disease in middle-aged Australian males is limited. Methods A sample of 63,048 males aged 45-64 years was drawn from the baseline dataset of the 45 and Up Study – a longitudinal cohort study on healthy ageing with 267,153 participants from across New South Wales, Australia’s most populous state. Baseline data on self-reported chronic disease (heart disease, cancer, diabetes, high blood pressure, combined chronic diseases), sitting time, physical activity (Active Australia Survey), and a range of covariates were used for cross-sectional analyses. Crude (OR), partially and fully adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using binary logistic regression. Results Compared to those sitting <4 hours/day, participants reporting 4 to <6, 6 to <8, and ≥8 hours were significantly more likely to report ever having any chronic disease (AOR 1.06, 95% CI 1.00 – 1.12, p = 0.050; AOR 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.16, p = 0.003; AOR 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.15, p = 0.002, respectively). Participants who reported 6 to <8 hours and ≥8 hours of sitting were also significantly more likely to report ever having diabetes than those reporting <4 hours/day (AOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.03 – 1.28, p = 0.016; AOR 1.21, 95% CI 1.09 – 1.33, p <0.001, respectively). Conclusions Our findings suggest that higher volumes of sitting time are significantly associated with diabetes and overall chronic disease, independent of physical activity and other potentially confounding factors. Prospective studies using valid and reliable measures into domain-specific sitting time in middle-aged males are required to understand and explain the direction of these relationships. PMID:23394382

  1. Factors Predicting the Use of Technology: Findings From the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE)

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Sara J.; Charness, Neil; Fisk, Arthur D.; Hertzog, Christopher; Nair, Sankaran N.; Rogers, Wendy A.; Sharit, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The successful adoption of technology is becoming increasingly important to functional independence. The present article reports findings from the Center for Research and Education on Aging and Technology Enhancement (CREATE) on the use of technology among community-dwelling adults. The sample included 1,204 individuals ranging in age from 18–91 years. All participants completed a battery that included measures of demographic characteristics, self-rated health, experience with technology, attitudes toward computers, and component cognitive abilities. Findings indicate that the older adults were less likely than younger adults to use technology in general, computers, and the World Wide Web. The results also indicate that computer anxiety, fluid intelligence, and crystallized intelligence were important predictors of the use of technology. The relationship between age and adoption of technology was mediated by cognitive abilities, computer self-efficacy, and computer anxiety. These findings are discussed in terms of training strategies to promote technology adoption. PMID:16768579

  2. Ageing, retirement and changes in vegetable consumption in France: findings from the prospective GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Plessz, Marie; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Czernichow, Sébastien; Zins, Marie

    2015-09-28

    The aim of this study was to describe the change in vegetable consumption with ageing and the transition to retirement. Study subjects were the participants of the GAZEL prospective cohort (Gaz and Électricité de France) aged 40-49 years at inclusion in 1989 who retired between 1991 and 2008 (12,942 men and 2739 women). Four FFQ were completed from 1990 to 2009. We used multiple imputation by chained equations in order to avoid dropping incomplete cases. The OR for eating vegetables everyday was estimated as a function of ageing, retirement status and the place of lunch before retirement through generalised estimating equations. Analyses were stratified by sex, and models were adjusted for confounders, including current spousal status. In 1990, 17.7% of men and 31% of women reported eating vegetables daily. The odds of consuming vegetables everyday increased with ageing for both men and women. The usual place of lunch was home for less than half the sample before retirement and for almost every respondent after retirement. For those who changed their place of lunch, the association between being retired and the odds of eating vegetables daily was positive and significant. We found that, in this cohort, vegetable consumption increased with ageing. Retirement had an indirect effect on vegetable consumption mediated by changes in the place of lunch. PMID:26283534

  3. Differential Expression of PGC-1α and Metabolic Sensors Suggest Age-Dependent Induction of Mitochondrial Biogenesis in Friedreich Ataxia Fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    García-Giménez, José Luis; Gimeno, Amparo; Gonzalez-Cabo, Pilar; Dasí, Francisco; Bolinches-Amorós, Arantxa; Mollá, Belén; Palau, Francesc; Pallardó, Federico V.

    2011-01-01

    Background Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA) is a mitochondrial rare disease, which molecular origin is associated with defect in the expression of frataxin. The pathological consequences are degeneration of nervous system structures and cardiomyopathy with necrosis and fibrosis, among others. Principal Findings Using FRDA fibroblasts we have characterized the oxidative stress status and mitochondrial biogenesis. We observed deficiency of MnSOD, increased ROS levels and low levels of ATP. Expression of PGC-1α and mtTFA was increased and the active form of the upstream signals p38 MAPK and AMPK in fibroblasts from two patients. Interestingly, the expression of energetic factors correlated with the natural history of disease of the patients, the age when skin biopsy was performed and the size of the GAA expanded alleles. Furthermore, idebenone inhibit mitochondriogenic responses in FRDA cells. Conclusions The induction of mitochondrial biogenesis in FRDA may be a consequence of the mitochondrial impairment associated with disease evolution. The increase of ROS and the involvement of the oxidative phosphorylation may be an early event in the cell pathophysiology of frataxin deficiency, whereas increase of mitochondriogenic response might be a later phenomenon associated to the individual age and natural history of the disease, being more evident as the patient age increases and disease evolves. This is a possible explanation of heart disease in FRDA. PMID:21687738

  4. Planning for End-of-Life Care: Findings from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrett, Douglas D.; Tuokko, Holly; Stajduhar, Kelli I.; Lindsay, Joan; Buehler, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Steps involved in formalizing end-of-life care preferences and factors related to these steps are unclear in the literature. Using data from the third wave of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA-3), we examined the relations between demographic and health predictors, on the one hand, and three outcomes, on the other (whether participants…

  5. Finding the Age of the Earth by Physics or by Faith?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen G.

    1982-01-01

    Refutes scientific creationists' arguments that the earth is less than 10,000 years old by presenting information related to the time scales for creation and evolution models, times from stellar distances, Kelvin's estimate of the earth's age, radioactive decay, radiometric dating, and the decay of the earth's magnetic field. (DC)

  6. Early Childhood Intervention and Educational Attainment: Age 22 Findings from the Chicago Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated whether participation in the Chicago Child-Parent Center (CPC) Preschool Program associated with higher educational attainment (high school completion, highest grade completed, and college attendance) at age 22. The study sample included 1,334 youth (869 in the preschool group and 465 in the comparison group) from the…

  7. Decreasing Sports Activity with Increasing Age? Findings from a 20-Year Longitudinal and Cohort Sequence Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breuer, Christoph; Wicker, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    According to cross-sectional studies in sport science literature, decreasing sports activity with increasing age is generally assumed. In this paper, the validity of this assumption is checked by applying more effective methods of analysis, such as longitudinal and cohort sequence analyses. With the help of 20 years' worth of data records from the…

  8. Characteristics of Talented Dancers and Age Group Differences: Findings from the UK Centres for Advanced Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Imogen J.; Nordin-Bates, Sanna M.; Redding, Emma

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated differences in the characteristics of talented dancers in relation to age. Physical (handgrip muscular strength, leg muscular power, hamstring flexibility and external hip rotation), psychological (passion, self-esteem and anxiety) and social (the motivational climate) characteristics were assessed in 334 students enrolled…

  9. Personality Traits and Successful Aging: Findings From the Georgia Centenarian Study.

    PubMed

    Baek, Yousun; Martin, Peter; Siegler, Ilene C; Davey, Adam; Poon, Leonard W

    2016-09-01

    The current study attempted to describe how personality traits of older adults are associated with components of successful aging (cognition, volunteering, activities of daily living, and subjective health). Three-hundred and six octogenarians and centenarians who participated in the third phase of the Georgia Centenarian Study provided data for this study. Factor analysis was conducted to test the existence of two higher-order factors of the Big Five personality traits, and a two-factor model (alpha and beta) fit the data well. Also, blocked multiple regression analysis was conducted to examine the association between personality traits and four components of successful aging. Results indicated that low scores on neuroticism and high scores on extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are significantly related to the components of successful aging. After controlling for demographic variables (age, gender, residential type, and race/ethnicity), alpha (i.e., emotional stability, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) was associated with higher levels of cognition, higher likelihood of engaging in volunteer work, higher levels of activities of daily living, and higher levels of subjective health. Beta (i.e., extraversion and openness to experience) was also positively associated with cognition and engaging in volunteer work. PMID:27298487

  10. Home and Health in the Third Age — Methodological Background and Descriptive Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kylén, Maya; Ekström, Henrik; Haak, Maria; Elmståhl, Sölve; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Background: The understanding of the complex relationship between the home environment, well-being and daily functioning in the third age is currently weak. The aim of this paper is to present the methodological background of the Home and Health in the Third Age Study, and describe a sample of men and women in relation to their home and health situation. Methods and Design: The study sample included 371 people aged 67–70, living in ordinary housing in the south of Sweden. Structured interviews and observations were conducted to collect data about objective and perceived aspects of home and health. Results: The majority of the participants were in good health and had few functional limitations. Women had more functional limitations and reported more symptoms than men. Environmental barriers were found in every home investigated; the most were found in the kitchen and hygiene area. Environmental barriers were more common in multi-family than in one-family dwellings. Discussion: This study will increase our knowledge on home and health dynamics among people in the third age. The results have potential to contribute to societal planning related to housing provision, home care and social services for senior citizens. PMID:25019267

  11. Psychiatric Disorders in Extremely Preterm Children: Longitudinal Finding at Age 11 Years in the EPICure Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Samantha; Hollis, Chris; Kochhar, Puja; Hennessy, Enid; Wolke, Dieter; Marlow, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevalence and risk factors for psychiatric disorders in extremely preterm children. Method: All babies born less than 26 weeks gestation in the United Kingdom and Ireland from March through December 1995 were recruited to the EPICure Study. Of 307 survivors at 11 years of age, 219 (71%) were assessed alongside 153…

  12. Public Education about Memory and Aging: Objective Findings and Subjective Insights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mol, Martine E. M.; de Groot, Renate H. M.; Willems, Dick; Jolles, Jelle

    2006-01-01

    Public education about memory was evaluated with a controlled intervention trial. Participants in group 1 (n = 273) attended a symposium covering memory-related topics and received a magazine with identical information. Group 2 (n = 141) only received the magazine. Participants were nonprofessionals and professionals aged between 29 and 88.…

  13. Why Do Older Men Report Low Stress Ratings? Findings from the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeninger, Daria K.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Spiro, Avron, III

    2009-01-01

    We examined the interplay between three explanatory hypotheses for why older adults appear to rate their problems as less stressful than do younger adults: age-related differences in personality, in types of problems, and in the appraisal process--specifically, the number of primary stress appraisals. A sample of 1,054 men from the Normative Aging…

  14. Challenges Experienced at Age 100: Findings From the Fordham Centenarian Study.

    PubMed

    Jopp, Daniela S; Boerner, Kathrin; Cimarolli, Verena; Hicks, Stephanie; Mirpuri, Sheena; Paggi, Michelle; Cavanagh, Andrew; Kennedy, Erin

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the challenges experienced by very old individuals and their consequences for well-being and mental health. In order to capture unique issues experienced in very old age, 75 participants of the population-based Fordham Centenarian Study answered open-ended questions on everyday challenges. Theme-based coding was then used to categorize and quantify responses. The challenges mentioned most often were challenges faced in the functional (e.g., physical health/activities of daily living restrictions, mobility, sensory impairment), psychological (e.g., loss of well-liked activity, dependency, negative emotions, death), and social (e.g., family loss) life domains. Functional challenges were negatively associated with aging satisfaction and positively associated with loneliness. Psychological challenges were positively linked to aging satisfaction. Social challenges were marginally related to loneliness. Notably, challenges were not related to depression. In conclusion, the challenges experienced in very old age are multidimensional and multifaceted, unique in nature, and have differential relations to mental health. Functional, psychological, and social challenges affect very old individuals' lives and therefore need to be better understood and addressed. Given their consequences, it is imperative for policy makers to develop an awareness for the different types of challenges faced by centenarians, as there may be unique policy implications related to each. PMID:27010530

  15. When Husbands Retire: Men View Their Wives' Satisfaction. Findings from the Normative Aging Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ekerdt, David J.; And Others

    The marital relationship is a basic context of retirement, where spouses' separate perceptions of retirement, and of each other's views, are an essential part of the retirement experience. To explore this issue, 297 married men who had been retired for 6 years or less, all participants in the Veterans Administration Normative Aging Study, reported…

  16. National Lung Screening Trial Findings by Age: Medicare-Eligible Versus Under-65 Population

    PubMed Central

    Pinsky, Paul F.; Gierada, David S.; Hocking, William; Patz, Edward F.; Kramer, Barnett S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The NLST (National Lung Screening Trial) showed reduced lung cancer mortality in high-risk participants (smoking history of ≥30 pack-years) aged 55 to 74 years who were randomly assigned to screening with low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) versus those assigned to chest radiography. An advisory panel recently expressed reservations about Medicare coverage of LDCT screening because of concerns about performance in the Medicare-aged population, which accounted for only 25% of the NLST participants. Objective To examine the results of the NLST LDCT group by age (Medicare-eligible vs. <65 years). Design Secondary analysis of a group from a randomized trial (NCT00047385). Setting 33 U.S. screening centers. Patients 19 612 participants aged 55 to 64 years (under-65 cohort) and 7110 participants aged 65 to 74 years (65+ cohort) at randomization. Intervention 3 annual rounds of LDCT screening. Measurements Demographics, smoking and medical history, screening examination adherence and results, diagnostic follow-up procedures and complications, lung cancer diagnoses, treatment, survival, and mortality. Results The aggregate false-positive rate was higher in the 65+ cohort than in the under-65 cohort (27.7% vs. 22.0%; P < 0.001). Invasive diagnostic procedures after false-positive screening results were modestly more frequent in the older cohort (3.3% vs. 2.7%; P = 0.039). Complications from invasive procedures were low in both groups (9.8% in the under-65 cohort vs. 8.5% in the 65+ cohort). Prevalence and positive predictive value (PPV) were higher in the 65+ cohort (PPV, 4.9% vs. 3.0%). Resection rates for screen-detected cancer were similar (75.6% in the under-65 cohort vs. 73.2% in the 65+ cohort). Five-year all-cause survival was lower in the 65+ cohort (55.1% vs. 64.1%; P = 0.018). Limitation The oldest screened patient was aged 76 years. Conclusion NLST participants aged 65 years or older had a higher rate of false-positive screening results than those

  17. Summary of the Findings from a Study About Cigarette Smoking Among Teen-Age Girls and Young Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yankelovich, Skelly and White, Inc., New York, NY.

    This paper presents the major results of a study for the American Cancer Society on cigarette smoking among teen-age girls and young women, and findings relevant to the prevention and quitting of smoking. The four major trends found in this study are: (1) a dramatic increase in cigarette smoking among females; (2) an intellectual awareness of the…

  18. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test

  19. The Danebury Iron Age meteorite—An H5 ordinary chondrite "find" from Hampshire, England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillinger, C. T.; Pillinger, J. M.; Johnson, D.; Greenwood, R. C.; Tindle, A. G.; Jull, A. J. T.; Allen, D. H.; Cunliffe, B.

    2014-06-01

    What remains of a 30 g sample, first recognized as a meteorite in 1989 during characterization of metalworking debris from Danebury, an Iron Age hillfort, in Hampshire, England, has been classified as an H5 ordinary chondrite. Its arrival on Earth has been dated as 2350 ± 120 yr BP, making it contemporary with the period of maximum human activity at the recovery site. Despite its considerable terrestrial residence age, the interior of the specimen is remarkably fresh with a weathering index of W1/2. There is, however, no evidence of human intervention in its preservation. Its near-pristine state is explained in terms of its serendipitous burial during the back-fill of a pit dug into chalk by prehistoric people for the storage of grain. This chance discovery has interesting ramifications for the survival of meteorites in areas having a high pH because of a natural lime content arising as a result of the local geology.

  20. Continuity and change in friendships in advanced old age: findings from the Berkeley older generation study.

    PubMed

    Field, D

    1999-01-01

    A longitudinal study of friendships between young-old and old-old adults found far more continuity than change in amount of contact with friends. Nevertheless, activities with casual friends more often occurred in groups, whereas activities with close friends were more often concerned with exchanging confidences, with sharing interesting experiences and thoughts, and with helping each other. Gender differences are more pronounced than life-course differences. Men declined in number of new friends, in their desire for close friendships, in the less intimate nature of their interactions with friends, and in involvement in beyond-family activities, while women did not change. Questions about closest friends revealed only a trivial difference between men and women in young-old age; but in old-old age, men (but not women) had declined in many measures of friendship. PMID:10498019

  1. Age-related macular degeneration: clinical findings, histopathology and imaging techniques.

    PubMed

    Zarbin, Marco A; Casaroli-Marano, Ricardo P; Rosenfeld, Philip J

    2014-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most common cause of blindness among people over age 55 years in industrialized countries. Known major risk factors for AMD include: age >55 years, history of smoking, white race, and mutations in various components of the complement system. Early AMD is characterized by the presence of drusen and pigmentary abnormalities. Late AMD is associated with central visual loss and is characterized by the presence of choroidal neovascularization and/or geographic atrophy. Early AMD is associated with a number of biochemical abnormalities including oxidative damage to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, complement deposition in the RPE-Bruch's membrane-choriocapillaris complex, lipidization of Bruch's membrane, and extracellular matrix abnormalities (e.g. collagen crosslinking, advanced glycation end product formation). Antiangiogenic drugs block the vascular leakage associated with choroidal new vessels, thus reducing retinal edema and stabilizing or restoring vision. At this time, there are no proven effective treatments for the nonexudative complications of AMD. Modern ocular imaging technologies (including spectral domain and phase variance optical coherence tomography, short- and long-wavelength fundus autofluorescence, adaptive optics-scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, and near-infrared reflectance) enable one to follow changes in the RPE, photoreceptors, and choriocapillaris quantitatively as the disease progresses. In addition, one can quantitatively assess the volume of drusen and areas of atrophy. These data, when correlated with the known histopathology of AMD, may provide useful measures of treatment efficacy that are likely to be more sensitive and reproducible than conventional end points such as visual acuity and rate of enlargement of geographic atrophy. As a result, these imaging technologies may be valuable in assessing the effects of cell-based therapy for patients with AMD. PMID:24732758

  2. Understanding inter-individual variability in purpose in life: Longitudinal findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Patrick L.; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Spiro, Avron; Mroczek, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Research has demonstrated the importance of having a purpose in older adulthood; however, little is known about whether and how individuals vary on sense of purpose over time. The current study examined patterns of mean- and individual-level change in purpose among men in the Veterans Affairs Normative Aging Study (n = 587; Mage = 74 years) across a three-year span. Findings demonstrate that while little mean-level change was present, there was inter-individual variability in change. Further research is needed to understand why these changes occur, as age, health status, and personality failed to predict individual fluctuations in purpose. PMID:26146887

  3. The 10 keys to healthy aging: findings from an innovative prevention program in the community

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Anne B.; Bayles, Constance M.; Milas, Carole N.; McTigue, Kathleen; Williams, Kathy; Robare, Joseph F.; Taylor, Christopher A.; Albert, Stephen M.; Kuller, Lewis H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and evaluate a novel, comprehensive prevention program for older adults designed to assess and improve adherence to preventive health care goals. Method In McKeesport, Pennsylvania, 389 men and women aged 65 and older were enrolled. We assessed adherence to 10 preventive health goals, provided education and counseling, and reevaluated after 12 months. Results At baseline, adherence varied. After 12 months, proportions of participants meeting goals were improved for several areas. Overall, improvements were seen for the proportion of participants meeting goals for low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (+43%), blood pressure control in hypertensives (+17%), blood glucose control in diabetics (+50%), and colon cancer screening (+13%). Among those without prior vaccination, influenza vaccine increased by 25% and pneumonia vaccine by 20%. Discussion This comprehensive prevention program had short-term benefits for improving adherence to established prevention guidelines in older adults. This low-cost effective program could be disseminated nationwide. PMID:20495156

  4. Association Between Elder Abuse and Metabolic Syndromes: Findings from the Chicago Health and Aging Project

    PubMed Central

    Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Background Elder abuse and metabolic syndromes are both important public health issues and are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to examine the associations between elder abuse and risk for metabolic syndromes. Methods Chicago Health and Aging Project (CHAP) cohort is a population-based study (N=4,586). We identified 676 participants with some form of elder abuse reported to a social services agency. The primary independent variable was elder abuse reported to a social services agency. Outcomes were metabolic syndrome as categorized by World Health Organization (WHO), American Heart Association (AHA) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Bivariate and logistic regression analyses were used to assess the association between elder abuse and different definitions of metabolic syndromes. Results In the bivariate analyses, elder abuse victims were more likely than those without elder abuse to have metabolic syndromes (22.4% vs. 10.7% [WHO], 50.7% vs. 40.0% [AHA], and 47.7% vs. 33.5% [IDF]). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, elder abuse was associated with increased risk for metabolic syndromes according to WHO (OR, 3.95 (2.86-5.47), AHA (OR, 2.03 (1.56-2.64) and IDF (OR, 2.55 (1.97-3.29) criteria. Interaction term analyses indicate that the association between elder abuse and metabolic syndromes may be moderated by sociodemographic characteristics, but not by health related or psychosocial factors. Conclusion Elder abuse is associated with increased risk for metabolic syndromes. Research is needed to examine the association between elder abuse and cardiovascular disease. PMID:25471532

  5. Macronutrients contribution from beverages according to sex and age: findings from the ANIBES Study in Spain.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Moreno, Emma; Rodríguez-Alonso, Paula; Ávila-Torres, José Manuel; Valero-Gaspar, Teresa; Del Pozo de la Calle, Susana; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    Methodologies and procedures used in dietary surveys have been widely developed with the aim of evaluating the nutritional status of a population. However, beverages are often either disregarded at national and international assessment of nutrients intake or poorly mentioned. Moreover, there is no standardized questionnaire developed as a research tool for the evaluation of beverages intake in the general population. Moreover, the contribution of different beverages to macronutrients intake is rarely provided. The latter in the context of a continuous expansion and innovation of the beverages market in Spain. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate non-alcoholic and alcoholic beverages macronutrients contribution in the ANIBES study in Spain (9-75 years old).As expected, those contributed to dietary macronutrient intake mainly as total carbohydrates and sugar. The contribution to other macronutrients (proteins and lipids) by the beverage groups was of much less importance. For non-alcoholic beverages, contribution to carbohydrates was much higher in younger populations (children: 10.91 ± 9.49%, mean ± SD for boys and 9.46 ± 8.83% for girls; adolescents: 11.97 ± 11.26% for men and 13.77 ± 10.55% in women) than in adults: 9.01 ± 9.84% for men and 7.77 ± 8.73% in women. Finally, a much lower contribution was observed in the elderly: 4.22 ± 6.10% for men and 4.46 ± 6.56% for women. No sex differences, however, across all age groups were found. Results for sugar contribution showed a similar trend: children (23.14 ± 19.00% for boys and 19.77 ± 17.35% for girls); adolescents (28.13 ± 24.17% for men and 29.83 ± 21.82% in women); adults 20.42 ± 20.35% for men and 16.95 ± 17.76% in women, p ≤ 0.01; and elderly: 14.63% ± 9.97 for men and 9.33 ± 12.86% in women. The main contribution corresponded to sugared soft drinks, juices and nectars, more relevant and significant in the younger populations. As for alcoholic beverages, the

  6. Finding Context: What Today's College Students Say about Conducting Research in the Digital Age. Project Information Literacy Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, Alison J.; Eisenberg, Michael B.

    2009-01-01

    A report of preliminary findings and analysis from student discussion groups held on 7 U.S. campuses in Fall 2008, as part of Project Information Literacy. Qualitative data from discussions with higher education students across the country suggest that conducting research is particularly challenging. Students' greatest challenges are related to…

  7. Literature-Informed Analysis of a Genome-Wide Association Study of Gestational Age in Norwegian Women and Children Suggests Involvement of Inflammatory Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bacelis, Jonas; Juodakis, Julius; Sengpiel, Verena; Zhang, Ge; Myhre, Ronny; Muglia, Louis J.; Nilsson, Staffan; Jacobsson, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Background Five-to-eighteen percent of pregnancies worldwide end in preterm birth, which is the major cause of neonatal death and morbidity. Approximately 30% of the variation in gestational age at birth can be attributed to genetic factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have not shown robust evidence of association with genomic loci yet. Methods We separately investigated 1921 Norwegian mothers and 1199 children from pregnancies with spontaneous onset of delivery. Individuals were further divided based on the onset of delivery: initiated by labor or prelabor rupture of membranes. Genetic association with ultrasound-dated gestational age was evaluated using three genetic models and adaptive permutations. The top-ranked loci were tested for enrichment in 12 candidate gene-sets generated by text-mining PubMed abstracts containing pregnancy-related keywords. Results The six GWAS did not reveal significant associations, with the most extreme empirical p = 5.1 × 10−7. The top loci from maternal GWAS with deliveries initiated by labor showed significant enrichment in 10 PubMed gene-sets, e.g., p = 0.001 and 0.005 for keywords "uterus" and "preterm" respectively. Enrichment signals were mainly caused by infection/inflammation-related genes TLR4, NFKB1, ABCA1, MMP9. Literature-informed analysis of top loci revealed further immunity genes: IL1A, IL1B, CAMP, TREM1, TFRC, NFKBIA, MEFV, IRF8, WNT5A. Conclusion Our analyses support the role of inflammatory pathways in determining pregnancy duration and provide a list of 32 candidate genes for a follow-up work. We observed that the top regions from GWAS in mothers with labor-initiated deliveries significantly more often overlap with pregnancy-related genes than would be expected by chance, suggesting that increased sample size would benefit similar studies. PMID:27490719

  8. MtDNA Haplogroup A10 Lineages in Bronze Age Samples Suggest That Ancient Autochthonous Human Groups Contributed to the Specificity of the Indigenous West Siberian Population

    PubMed Central

    Pilipenko, Aleksandr S.; Trapezov, Rostislav O.; Zhuravlev, Anton A.; Molodin, Vyacheslav I.; Romaschenko, Aida G.

    2015-01-01

    Background The craniometric specificity of the indigenous West Siberian human populations cannot be completely explained by the genetic interactions of the western and eastern Eurasian groups recorded in the archaeology of the area from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. Anthropologists have proposed another probable explanation: contribution to the genetic structure of West Siberian indigenous populations by ancient human groups, which separated from western and eastern Eurasian populations before the final formation of their phenotypic and genetic features and evolved independently in the region over a long period of time. This hypothesis remains untested. From the genetic point of view, it could be confirmed by the presence in the gene pool of indigenous populations of autochthonous components that evolved in the region over long time periods. The detection of such components, particularly in the mtDNA gene pool, is crucial for further clarification of early regional genetic history. Results and Conclusion We present the results of analysis of mtDNA samples (n = 10) belonging to the A10 haplogroup, from Bronze Age populations of West Siberian forest-steppe (V—I millennium BC), that were identified in a screening study of a large diachronic sample (n = 96). A10 lineages, which are very rare in modern Eurasian populations, were found in all the Bronze Age groups under study. Data on the A10 lineages’ phylogeny and phylogeography in ancient West Siberian and modern Eurasian populations suggest that A10 haplogroup underwent a long-term evolution in West Siberia or arose there autochthonously; thus, the presence of A10 lineages indicates the possible contribution of early autochthonous human groups to the genetic specificity of modern populations, in addition to contributions of later interactions of western and eastern Eurasian populations. PMID:25950581

  9. Age, Predisposing Diseases, and Ultrasonographic Findings in Determining Clinical Outcome of Acute Acalculous Inflammatory Gallbladder Diseases in Children.

    PubMed

    Yi, Dae Yong; Chang, Eun Jae; Kim, Ji Young; Lee, Eun Hye; Yang, Hye Ran

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated clinical factors such as age, gender, predisposing diseases and ultrasonographic findings that determine clinical outcome of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder diseases in children. The patients were divided into the four age groups. From March 2004 through February 2014, clinical data from 131 children diagnosed as acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease by ultrasonography were retrospectively reviewed. Systemic infectious diseases were the most common etiology of acute inflammatory gallbladder disease in children and were identified in 50 patients (38.2%). Kawasaki disease was the most common predisposing disease (28 patients, 21.4%). The incidence was highest in infancy and lowest in adolescence. The age groups were associated with different predisposing diseases; noninfectious systemic disease was the most common etiology in infancy and early childhood, whereas systemic infectious disease was the most common in middle childhood and adolescence (P = 0.001). Gallbladder wall thickening was more commonly found in malignancy (100%) and systemic infection (94.0%) (P = 0.002), whereas gallbladder distension was more frequent in noninfectious systemic diseases (60%) (P = 0.000). Ascites seen on ultrasonography was associated with a worse clinical course compared with no ascites (77.9% vs. 37.7%, P = 0.030), and the duration of hospitalization was longer in patients with ascites (11.6 ± 10.7 vs. 8.0 ± 6.6 days, P = 0.020). In conclusion, consideration of age and predisposing disease in addition to ultrasonographic gallbladder findings in children suspected of acute acalculous inflammatory gallbladder disease might result in better outcomes. PMID:27550491

  10. Germ-line transmission of trisomy 21: Data from 80 families suggest an implication of grandmaternal age and a high frequency of female-specific trisomy rescue

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Trisomy of chromosome 21 (T21; Down syndrome, DS) is the most common aneuploidy in live births. Though its etiology has been intensively studied for a half of century, there are surprisingly many problems awaiting their elucidation. Some of the open questions are related directly to germ line mosaicism for T21, other problems include the prevalence of males with non-mosaic trisomy over females (skewed sex ratio, SR), the genetic predisposition to non-disjunction, etc. Studies in families of gonadal mosaicism (GM) carriers might help resolving some of these problems. Results 80 families of carriers of GM, in which the sex of the offspring had been specified, were identified in the literature and in logbooks of two local genetic units. Mothers in these families were relatively young: only 8% of mothers were 35 years old and older at the time of delivery of their first affected offspring while the proportion of grandmothers on the GM carrier's side aged 35 years old and older was significantly higher (39%). Postzygotic rescue of T21 due to error in the meiosis I had been proposed as a mechanism of parental GM formation in 78% of the families with known origin of the T21. For the other 22%, rescue of errors in the meiosis II or postzygotic mitotic non-disjunction was assumed. Mosaicism for T21 in successive generations was reported in at least 12 families. The proportion of mosaics among affected female offspring (14%) is significantly higher compared to that among affected male offspring (0%). Male preponderance (SR = 1.5) is found in non mosaic liveborn offspring with either maternally- or paternally transmitted T21. Among unaffected offspring of male carriers of GM there is a notable excess of females (SR = 0.27). Conclusion Both direct (results of cytogenetic and molecular study of the origin of trisomic line) and indirect (advanced grandmaternal age on the side of GM carrier) evidences allow to assume that significant proportion of the mosaic parents

  11. The nuclear retention of transcription factor FOXO3a correlates with a DNA damage response and increased glutamine synthetase expression by astrocytes suggesting a neuroprotective role in the ageing brain

    PubMed Central

    Fluteau, Adeline; Ince, Paul G.; Minett, Thais; Matthews, Fiona E.; Brayne, Carol; Garwood, Claire J.; Ratcliffe, Laura E.; Morgan, Sarah; Heath, Paul R.; Shaw, Pamela J.; Wharton, Stephen B.; Simpson, Julie E.

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of reactive oxygen species leading to oxidative damage and cell death plays an important role in a number of neurodegenerative disorders. FOXO3a, the main isoform of FOXO transcription factors, mediates the cellular response to oxidative stress by regulating the expression of genes involved in DNA repair and glutamine metabolism, including glutamine synthetase (GS). Immunohistochemical investigation of the population-based neuropathology cohort of the Medical Research Council’s Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS) demonstrates that nuclear retention of FOXO3a significantly correlates with a DNA damage response and with GS expression by astrocytes. Furthermore, we show that GS expression correlates with increasing Alzheimer-type pathology in this ageing cohort. Our findings suggest that in response to oxidative stress, the nuclear retention of FOXO3a in astrocytes upregulates expression of GS as a neuroprotective mechanism. However, the activity of GS may be compromised by increasing levels of oxidative stress in the ageing brain resulting in dysfunctional enzyme activity, neuronal excitotoxic damage and cognitive impairment. PMID:26455863

  12. Prenatal and childhood growth and physical performance in old age--findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study 1934-1944.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Johan G; Osmond, Clive; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B

    2015-12-01

    Health in adulthood is in part a consequence of development and growth taking place during sensitive periods in early life. It has not been explored previously whether early growth is associated with physical performance in old age from a life course perspective taking into account health-related behavior, biological risk factors, and early life experiences. At a mean age of 71 years, physical performance was assessed using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT) in 1078 individuals belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. We used multiple linear regression analysis to assess the association between the SFT physical fitness scores and individual life course measurements. Several adult characteristics were associated with physical performance including socioeconomic status, lifestyle factors, and adult anthropometry. Higher birth weight and length were associated with better physical performance, even after adjusting for potential confounders (all p values <0.05). The strongest individual association between life course measurements and physical performance in old age was found for adult body fat percentage. However, prenatal growth was independently associated with physical performance seven decades later. These findings suggest that physical performance in old age is at least partly programmed in early life. PMID:26499818

  13. Gender Disparity in Late-life Cognitive Functioning in India: Findings From the Longitudinal Aging Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. Methods. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. Discussion. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. PMID:24622150

  14. Perceived reciprocity in social exchange and health functioning in early old age: prospective findings from the GAZEL study

    PubMed Central

    Wahrendorf, Morten; Ribet, Celine; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Siegrist, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess prospectively the effects of perceived non-reciprocity of exchange in three different types of social engagement on health functioning in early old age. Methods In the frame of the prospective French Gazel cohort study, data on reciprocity in three types of role-related social engagement (principal regular activity in everyday life, marital role relationship, trusting relationships in civic life) were collected in 8679 men and 2742 women (mean age: 60.4 years) in 2005. Two years later, health functioning was assessed, using the SF-36 mental and physical component scores, as well as self perceived health. Multivariate regressions were calculated, controlling for important confounders including baseline self-perceived health. Results Consistent effects of perceived non-reciprocity in all three types of social exchange on mental and physical health functioning were observed. After adjustment for relevant confounders including baseline self-perceived, health effect were attenuated, but largely remained significant. Conclusions Findings underline the importance of the quality of social exchange (reciprocity vs. non-reciprocity) for health functioning in early old age. PMID:20455118

  15. A Place Along the Way: Contextualising Findings from the Iron Age Post Enclosure at Lismullin, Co. Meath, Ireland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, Frank

    2015-05-01

    The discovery of an Early Iron Age timber-built post enclosure at Lismullin is arguably the most significant Irish archaeological discovery in recent times. When found, it was immediately evident that a site of major importance and cultural significance had been located. The enclosure complex was constructed from a large number of small wooden posts set out in the form of a three ring structure with an easterly facing avenue accentuated by a four-post entrance feature. This paper summarises the analysis of the geospatial data obtained at the site, and addresses three lines of enquiry relating to the construction method and structural orientation. The cultural significance of the discovery and the findings arising from the data analysis are considered.

  16. Identification of different types of imperial age marble finds using instrumental chemical analysis and pattern recognition analysis.

    PubMed

    Campanella, L; Gregori, E; Tomassetti, M; Visco, G

    2001-01-01

    A physical-chemical characterisation of several marbles frequently used in ancient times for artistic or decorative purposes was performed in support the work of historians and restorers. The data were obtained using several different types of instrumental chemical methods (Thermogravimetry, Differential Thermal Analysis, X-ray Diffractometry and ICP Plasma Emission Spectroscopy) and have been summarised in short tables. The data have already proved useful in the identification of a small number of finds (statues or architectonic elements) from Ancient Rome (Imperial Age, 2nd-3nd cent. A.D.) for the purpose of which also a well-known pattern recognition analysis software package was used for data processing. In practice, the research showed that an organised set of chemical data obtained using several modern instrumental methods can provide a valid basis for the reasonably rapid and reliable identification of the type of marble used to make artistic artifacts that have not yet been subjected to typological study. PMID:11836948

  17. Case Mining for Research Findings in a Case-based Reasoning System in the Biology of Aging.

    PubMed

    Bichindaritz, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Scientific literature has been quickly expanding as the availability of articles in electronic form has increased rapidly. For the scientific researcher and the practitioner alike, keeping track with the advancement of the research is an ongoing challenge, and for the most part, the mass of experience recorded in the scientific literature is largely untapped. In particular, novice scientists, non researchers, and students would benefit from a system proposing recommendations for the problems they are interested in resolving. This article presents the first stages of the Digital Knowledge Finder design, a case-based reasoning system to manage experience from the scientific literature. One of the main functionality of the system is to enable both to represent the experience in a declarative and searchable form, and to reason from it through reuse - the latter being a consequence of the former. This article focuses on research findings mining and results from an aging literature dataset. PMID:25488226

  18. The ecological approach to cognitive–motor dual-tasking: findings on the effects of expertise and age

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    The underlying assumption of studies on cognitive–motor dual-tasking is that resources are limited, and when they have to be shared between a cognitive and a motor task, performances will suffer. Resource competition should therefore be particularly pronounced in children, older adults, or people who are just acquiring a new motor skill. The current review summarizes expertise and age comparative studies that have combined a cognitive and a motor task. Expertise studies have often assessed sports performances (e.g., golf putting, soccer dribbling, rugby drills) and have shown that experts are more successful than novices to keep up their performances in dual-task situations. The review also presents age-comparative studies that have used walking (on narrow tracks or on a treadmill) as the motor task. Older adults often show higher costs than young adults, and they tend to prioritize the motor domain. These findings are discussed in relation to the ecological approach to dual-task research originally introduced by Li et al. (2005). The approach proposes to study ecologically valid dual-task situations, and always to investigate dual-task costs for both domains (cognitive and motor performance) in order to assess potential tradeoffs. In addition, task difficulties should be individually adjusted, and differential-emphasis instructions should be included in the study design. PMID:25352820

  19. I Don't Feel Good: A Guide to Childhood Complaints and Diseases. Suggestions for Teachers, Parents, and Other Care Providers of Children to Age 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lammers, Jane W.

    This handbook discusses the most common childhood conditions that teachers, parents, and caregivers see in children between the ages of 4 and 10; describes signs and symptoms of over 30 common childhood health problems; provides practical strategies for getting children back to the well state once they are ill; and offers guidance as to when…

  20. Anti-Inflammation Activities of Mycosporine-Like Amino Acids (MAAs) in Response to UV Radiation Suggest Potential Anti-Skin Aging Activity

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sung-Suk; Hwang, Jinik; Park, Mirye; Seo, Hyo Hyun; Kim, Hyoung-Shik; Lee, Jeong Hun; Moh, Sang Hyun; Lee, Taek-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    Certain photosynthetic marine organisms have evolved mechanisms to counteract UV-radiation by synthesizing UV-absorbing compounds, such as mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs). In this study, MAAs were separated from the extracts of marine green alga Chlamydomonas hedleyi using HPLC and were identified as porphyra-334, shinorine, and mycosporine-glycine (mycosporine-Gly), based on their retention times and maximum absorption wavelengths. Furthermore, their structures were confirmed by triple quadrupole MS/MS. Their roles as UV-absorbing compounds were investigated in the human fibroblast cell line HaCaT by analyzing the expression levels of genes associated with antioxidant activity, inflammation, and skin aging in response to UV irradiation. The mycosporine-Gly extract, but not the other MAAs, had strong antioxidant activity in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Furthermore, treatment with mycosporine-Gly resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 mRNA levels, which are typically increased in response to inflammation in the skin, in a concentration-dependent manner. Additionally, in the presence of MAAs, the UV-suppressed genes, procollagen C proteinase enhancer (PCOLCE) and elastin, which are related to skin aging, had increased expression levels equal to those in UV-mock treated cells. Interestingly, the increased expression of involucrin after UV exposure was suppressed by treatment with the MAAs mycosporine-Gly and shinorine, but not porphyra-334. This is the first report investigating the biological activities of microalgae-derived MAAs in human cells. PMID:25317535

  1. The Association Between Filial Piety and Suicidal Ideation: Findings From a Community-Dwelling Chinese Aging Population

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ruijia; Chang, E-Shien; Dong, XinQi

    2014-01-01

    Background. Suicidal ideation is a public health issue that has a significant impact at the individual, family, community, and societal levels. This study aimed to examine the association between filial piety and suicidal ideation among U.S. Chinese older adults. Methods. Guided by a community-based participatory research approach, 3,159 community-dwelling Chinese older adults in the Greater Chicago area were interviewed in person between 2011 and 2013. Independent variables were expectations and receipt of filial piety from the older adult’s perspective. Dependent variables were suicidal ideation in the last 2 weeks and last 12 months. Logistic regression analyses were performed. Results. Of the 3,159 participants interviewed, 58.9% were female and the mean age was 72.8 years. After adjusting for age, sex, education, income, medical comorbidities, and depressive symptoms, lower receipt of filial piety was associated with increased risk for 2-week suicidal ideation (odds ratio: 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.11) and 12-month suicidal ideation (odds ratio: 1.07, 95% confidence interval: 1.04–1.11). The lowest tertiles of filial piety receipt was associated with greater risk for 2-week suicidal ideation (odds ratio: 1.95, 95% confidence interval: 1.12–3.38) and 12-month suicidal ideation (odds ratio: 2.17, 95% confidence interval: 1.35–3.48). However, no statistically significant associations were found between overall filial piety expectations and suicidal ideation in the last 2 weeks or in the last 12 months. Discussion. This study suggests that filial piety receipt is an important risk factor for suicidal ideation among U.S. Chinese older adults. Future longitudinal studies are needed to quantify the temporal association between filial piety and suicidal ideation. PMID:25378454

  2. Towards finding the linkage between metabolic and age-related disorders using semantic gene data network analysis

    PubMed Central

    Uzzal Hossain, Mohammad; Zaffar Shibly, Abu; Md. Omar, Taimur; Tous Zohora, Fatama; Sara Santona, Umme; Hossain, Md. Jakir; Hosen Khoka, Md. Sadek; Ara Keya, Chaman; Salimullah, Md.

    2016-01-01

    A metabolic disorder (MD) occurs when the metabolic process is disturbed. This process is carried out by thousands of enzymes participating in numerous inter-dependent metabolic pathways. Critical biochemical reactions that involve the processing and transportation of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are affected in metabolic diseases. Therefore, it is of interest to identify the common pathways of metabolic disorders by building protein-protein interactions (PPI) for network analysis. The molecular network linkages between MD and age related diseases (ARD) are intriguing. Hence, we created networks of protein-protein interactions that are related with MD and ARD using relevant known data in the public domain. The network analysis identified known MD associated proteins and predicted genes and or its products of ARD in common pathways. The genes in the common pathways were isolated from the network and further analyzed for their co-localization and shared domains. Thus, a model hypothesis is proposed using interaction networks that are linked between MD and ARD. This data even if less conclusive finds application in understanding the molecular mechanism of known diseases in relation to observed molecular events PMID:27212841

  3. Towards finding the linkage between metabolic and age-related disorders using semantic gene data network analysis.

    PubMed

    Uzzal Hossain, Mohammad; Zaffar Shibly, Abu; Md Omar, Taimur; Tous Zohora, Fatama; Sara Santona, Umme; Hossain, Md Jakir; Hosen Khoka, Md Sadek; Ara Keya, Chaman; Salimullah, Md

    2016-01-01

    A metabolic disorder (MD) occurs when the metabolic process is disturbed. This process is carried out by thousands of enzymes participating in numerous inter-dependent metabolic pathways. Critical biochemical reactions that involve the processing and transportation of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids are affected in metabolic diseases. Therefore, it is of interest to identify the common pathways of metabolic disorders by building protein-protein interactions (PPI) for network analysis. The molecular network linkages between MD and age related diseases (ARD) are intriguing. Hence, we created networks of protein-protein interactions that are related with MD and ARD using relevant known data in the public domain. The network analysis identified known MD associated proteins and predicted genes and or its products of ARD in common pathways. The genes in the common pathways were isolated from the network and further analyzed for their co-localization and shared domains. Thus, a model hypothesis is proposed using interaction networks that are linked between MD and ARD. This data even if less conclusive finds application in understanding the molecular mechanism of known diseases in relation to observed molecular events. PMID:27212841

  4. Trajectories Leading to Autism Spectrum Disorders Are Affected by Paternal Age: Findings from Two Nationally Representative Twin Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundstrom, Sebastian; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Carlstrom, Eva; Gillberg, Christopher; Mill, Jonathan; Rastam, Maria; Hultman, Christina M.; Ronald, Angelica; Anckarsater, Henrik; Plomin, Robert; Lichtenstein, Paul; Reichenberg, Abraham

    2010-01-01

    Background: Despite extensive efforts, the causes of autism remain unknown. Advancing paternal age has been associated with various neurodevelopmental disorders. We aim to investigate three unresolved questions: (a) What is the association between paternal age and autism spectrum disorders (ASD)?; (b) Does paternal age moderate the genetic and…

  5. The Role of Aging and Disability Resource Centers in Serving Adults Aging with Intellectual Disabilities and Their Families: Findings from Seven States.

    PubMed

    Coyle, Caitlin E; Putman, Michelle; Kramer, John; Mutchler, Jan E

    2016-01-01

    For the first time, adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (I/DD) are living to experience old age. The purpose of this project was to assess the activities of aging and disability resource centers (ADRCs) as they seek to serve older adults with intellectual disabilities and their family caregivers. Data come from 21 in-depth qualitative interviews with ADRC staff in seven states. Results of this qualitative analysis indicate that ADRCs are not focusing explicitly on adults aging with I/DD and their family caregivers, but meeting the needs of this population is a future goal of ADRCs. Challenges related to accessing and providing information and referral services for adults aging with I/DD were described and highlight existing unmet needs of this population. Supporting adults who simultaneously require aging and disability services requires true coordination of aging and disability service systems. PMID:26548867

  6. Do Hassles Mediate between Life Events and Mortality in Older Men? Longitudinal Findings from the VA Normative Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldwin, Carolyn M.; Jeong, Yu-Jin; Igarashi, Heidi; Choun, Soyoung; Spiro, Avron

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether hassles mediated the effect of life events on mortality in a sample of 1,293 men (Mage = 65.58, SD = 7.01), participants in the VA Normative Aging Study. We utilized measures of stressful life event (SLE) and hassles from 1989 to 2004, and men were followed for mortality until 2010. For life events and hassles, previous research identified three and four patterns of change over time, respectively, generally indicating low, moderate, and high trajectories, with one moderate, non-linear pattern for hassles (shallow U curve). Controlling for demographics and health behaviors, we found that those with moderate SLE trajectories (38%) more likely to die than those with low SLE trajectories, HR = 1.42, 95% CI [1.16, 3.45]. Including the hassles classes showed that those with the moderate non-linear hassles trajectory were 63% more likely to die than those with low hassles trajectory, HR = 1.63, 95% CI [1.19, 2.23],, while those with consistently high hassles trajectory were over 3 times more likely to die, HR = 3.30, 95% CI [1.58, 6.89]. However, the HR for moderate SLE trajectory decreased only slightly to 1.38, 95% CI [1.13, 1.68], suggesting that the two types of stress have largely independent effects on mortality. Research is needed to determine the physiological and behavioral pathways through which SLE and hassles differentially affect mortality. PMID:24995936

  7. Methyl-Arginine Profile of Brain from Aged PINK1-KO+A53T-SNCA Mice Suggests Altered Mitochondrial Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Auburger, Georg; Gispert, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Hereditary Parkinson's disease can be triggered by an autosomal dominant overdose of alpha-Synuclein (SNCA) or the autosomal recessive deficiency of PINK1. We recently showed that the combination of PINK1-knockout with overexpression of A53T-SNCA in double mutant (DM) mice potentiates phenotypes and reduces survival. Now we studied brain hemispheres of DM mice at age of 18 months in a hypothesis-free approach, employing a quantitative label-free global proteomic mass spectrometry scan of posttranslational modifications focusing on methyl-arginine. The strongest effects were documented for the adhesion modulator CMAS, the mRNA decapping/deadenylation factor PATL1, and the synaptic plasticity mediator CRTC1/TORC1. In addition, an intriguing effect was observed for the splicing factor PSF/SFPQ, known to interact with the dopaminergic differentiation factor NURR1 as well as with DJ-1, the protein responsible for the autosomal recessive PARK7 variant of PD. CRTC1, PSF, and DJ-1 are modulators of PGC1alpha and of mitochondrial biogenesis. This pathway was further stressed by dysregulations of oxygen sensor EGLN3 and of nuclear TMPO. PSF and TMPO cooperate with dopaminergic differentiation factors LMX1B and NURR1. Further dysregulations concerned PRR18, TRIO, HNRNPA1, DMWD, WAVE1, ILDR2, DBNDD1, and NFM. Thus, we report selective novel endogenous stress responses in brain, which highlight early dysregulations of mitochondrial homeostasis and midbrain vulnerability. PMID:27034888

  8. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men

    PubMed Central

    Ramsay, S E; Whincup, P H; Watt, R G; Tsakos, G; Papacosta, A O; Lennon, L T; Wannamethee, S G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Evidence of the extent of poor oral health in the older UK adult population is limited. We describe the prevalence of oral health conditions, using objective clinical and subjective measures, in a population-based study of older men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting and participants A representative sample of men aged 71–92 years in 2010–2012 from the British Regional Heart Study, initially recruited in 1978–1980 from general practices across Britain. Physical examination among 1660 men included the number of teeth, and periodontal disease in index teeth in each sextant (loss of attachment, periodontal pocket, gingival bleeding). Postal questionnaires (completed by 2147 men including all participants who were clinically examined) included self-rated oral health, oral impacts on daily life and current perception of dry mouth experience. Results Among 1660 men clinically examined, 338 (20%) were edentulous and a further 728 (43%) had <21 teeth. For periodontal disease, 233 (19%) had loss of attachment (>5.5 mm) affecting 1–20% of sites while 303 (24%) had >20% sites affected. The prevalence of gingival bleeding was 16%. Among 2147 men who returned postal questionnaires, 35% reported fair/poor oral health; 11% reported difficulty eating due to oral health problems. 31% reported 1–2 symptoms of dry mouth and 20% reported 3–5 symptoms of dry mouth. The prevalence of edentulism, loss of attachment, or fair/poor self-rated oral health was greater in those from manual social class. Conclusions These findings highlight the high burden of poor oral health in older British men. This was reflected in both the objective clinical and subjective measures of oral health conditions. The determinants of these oral health problems in older populations merit further research to reduce the burden and consequences of poor oral health in older people. PMID:26715480

  9. Prevalence and Predictors of Depression in Korean American Elderly: Findings from the Memory and Aging Study of Koreans (MASK)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miyong T.; Kim, Kim B.; Han, Hae-Ra; Huh, Boyun; Nguyen, Tam; Lee, Hochang Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the prevalence and identify the predictors of depression among community-dwelling Korean American elderly (KAE). Design A cross-sectional descriptive epidemiological survey using a two-step sampling strategy to obtain a representative community sample. Setting We recruited study participants at religious, service, and business establishments in the KA community (26 churches, 6 senior centers, 2 medical daycare centers, 1 supermarket). Participants Community-dwelling first-generation KAE (n=1,118; mean age ±SD; 70.5 ±7.0 years; female: 67.2%). Measurements Trained bilingual nurses and community health workers interviewed participants face-to-face for demographic information, chronic conditions, and depression using the Korean versions of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9K). Results 30.3% of KAEs were classified as having either mild (PHQ-9K score = 5 to 9; n=218, 19.5%) or clinical depression (PHQ-9K score >=10; n = 120, 10.8%), respectively. One of seven KAE (n=164, 14.7%) endorsed thoughts of death or self-injury, but only 63 (5.7%) reported utilizing mental health services. We also identified several predictors of depression, including living arrangement (living alone vs. living with family/spouse); having chronic conditions such as diabetes, arthritis, digestive disorders, or chronic bronchitis; years of education; and cognitive impairment. Conclusions Our findings reveal a high prevalence of depression among KAE and a low level of mental health service utilization. Because there are urgent needs for culturally and contextually relevant interventions, we also discuss the feasibility of community-based interventions to reduce the burden of depression, which should be incorporated into a management system for multiple chronic conditions. PMID:25554484

  10. The three phases of Eve: exploring the common and unique findings in oral and systemic health of differently aging women.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Roseann

    2002-10-01

    Given that, collectively, women are the longer-lived of the human species, it is fitting that we examine the impact and correlations of aging on systemic and oral health with women as the paradigm. Aging, however, is not a homogeneous process. Its influences are as diverse as the subgroups of people affected. To exemplify the differing manifestations and progressiveness of aging, this article highlights the profiles of three differently aging women: an independent dweller in the community, a participant in an assisted living program, and a resident of a skilled nursing home. How aging has affected their lives commonly and uniquely is addressed, as are medical and oral health issues that transcend functional capability, and evolving research in preventive strategies focusing on successful aging. PMID:12790015

  11. Is Social Capital a Determinant of Oral Health among Older Adults? Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Rouxel, Patrick; Tsakos, Georgios; Demakakos, Panayotes; Zaninotto, Paola; Chandola, Tarani; Watt, Richard Geddie

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of studies linking social capital to oral health among older adults, although the evidence base mainly relies on cross-sectional study designs. The possibility of reverse causality is seldom discussed, even though oral health problems could potentially lead to lower social participation. Furthermore, few studies clearly distinguish between the effects of different dimensions of social capital on oral health. The objective of the study was to examine the longitudinal associations between individual social capital and oral health among older adults. We analyzed longitudinal data from the 3rd and 5th waves of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Structural social capital was operationalized using measures of social participation, and volunteering. Number of close ties and perceived emotional support comprised the functional dimension of social capital. Oral health measures were having no natural teeth (edentate vs. dentate), self-rated oral health and oral health-related quality of life. Time-lag and autoregressive models were used to explore the longitudinal associations between social capital and oral health. We imputed all missing data, using multivariate imputation by chained equations. We found evidence of bi-directional longitudinal associations between self-rated oral health, volunteering and functional social capital. Functional social capital was a strong predictor of change in oral health-related quality of life – the adjusted odds ratio of reporting poor oral health-related quality of life was 1.75 (1.33–2.30) for older adults with low vs. high social support. However in the reverse direction, poor oral health-related quality of life was not associated with changes in social capital. This suggests that oral health may not be a determinant of social capital. In conclusion, social capital may be a determinant of subjective oral health among older adults rather than edentulousness, despite many cross-sectional studies on the

  12. Six Forms of Variety in Students' Moral Reasoning: An Age-Old Distinction Enabling New Methods and Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backman, Ylva; Gardelli, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the age-old distinction between decision method and criterion of rightness, commonly employed in normative ethics, was used to attain a detailed understanding of inter- and intrapersonal variety in students' moral reasoning. A total of 24 Swedish students, 12-15 years of age, were interviewed. Inter- and intrapersonal varieties in…

  13. Age and Region-Specific Responses of Microglia, but not Astrocytes, Suggest a Role in Selective Vulnerability of Dopamine Neurons After 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine Exposure in Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    KANAAN, NICHOLAS M.; KORDOWER, JEFFREY H.; COLLIER, TIMOTHY J.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of aging, the strongest risk factor for Parkinson’s disease (PD), on glial responses to dopamine (DA) neuron degeneration in midbrain subregions that display selective vulnerability to degeneration. We evaluated the impact of aging on astrocytes and microglia in a regionally specific manner in a monkey model of PD. 1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) was delivered unilaterally via the internal carotid artery of young, middle-aged, and old-aged rhesus monkeys. Astrocytes and microglia were identified using glial fibrillary acidic protein and human leukocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) immunolabeling, respectively. Glial reactivity was assessed using (1) stereological cell counting, (2) fluorescence intensity, and (3) a morphology rating scale. In the midbrain contralateral and ipsilateral to the MPTP injection, astrocyte number and intensity did not change with age. In both sides of the midbrain, cellular morphology suggested astrocyte hypertrophy in middle-age dissipated in old-age, irrespective of DA subregion and regional differences in vulnerability to degeneration. In the contralateral midbrain, microglia became mildly activated (increased cell number and intensity, and morphological changes) with advancing age. Inflammation was evident at 3 months postlesion by severe microglial activation in the ipsilateral midbrain. HLA-DR fluorescence intensity and an abundance of activated microglia (based on morphological criteria) were consistently exacerbated in the vtSN of both sides of the midbrain. These results suggest the glial responses accompanying aging and DA neuron degeneration following a toxic insult represent persistent alterations in the microenvironment of surviving DA neurons that are important factors in understanding regional differences in susceptibility to degeneration. PMID:18484101

  14. Vehicle child restraint usage for Pacific children aged 6 weeks to 4 years: findings from the Pacific Islands Families study.

    PubMed

    Schluter, Philip J; Paterson, Janis

    2010-11-01

    Child restraint systems (CRSs) for vehicles are designed to provide protection and prevent or reduce child mortality and morbidity in road traffic accidents. Overall, 90% of children under 5 years of age in New Zealand currently use CRSs. There is considerable regional variability in CRS usage, but little information exists on its ethnic variations or determinants. "Increasing the level of restraint use" is explicitly stated as one of the 13 priorities within the New Zealand Ministry of Transport's new road safety strategy. As such, understanding CRS prevalence, patterns and associates within different communities is essential in realising this priority. Utilising a large birth cohort of Pacific children (n=1376 mothers), this study aimed to report the prevalence of maternal self-reported car seat usage at the 6 weeks, 1-year, and 2 years postpartum measurement waves; car/booster seat usage at the 4 years postpartum measurement wave; and to identify important associates using generalised estimating equation (GEE) models. Car seats were not used by 161 (11.8%) Pacific children at the 6 weeks measurement wave, 71 (5.8%) at 1-year, and 44 (3.8%) at 2 years, while car/booster seats were not used by 139 (13.3%) at the 4 years wave. Multivariable GEE model results revealed that mothers with no formal education, high parity, who smoked tobacco, lower household income, who lacked English language proficiency, and had multiple births were all at higher odds of failing to use car seat/booster seats. Despite differential attrition being noted in mothers over time, a sensitivity analysis using multiple imputation methods yielded similar findings. Targeted initiatives and education programs focusing on these higher risk groups, in particular, is needed to increase uptake and use of CRS thereby decreasing Pacific children's exposure to injury risk. As New Zealand has a large and increasing proportion of Pacific, Maori and Asian people, there is a continuing need to understand

  15. Socioeconomic factors from midlife predict mobility limitation and depressed mood three decades later; Findings from the AGES-Reykjavik Study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Taking into account our rapidly ageing population, older people are of particular interest in studying health inequalities. Most studies of older persons only include measures of current socioeconomic status (SES) and do not take into account data from earlier stages of life. In addition, only classic SES measures are used, while alternative measures, such as car ownership and house ownership, might equally well predict health. The present study aims to examine the effect of midlife socioeconomic factors on mobility limitation and depressed mood three decades later. Methods Data were from 4,809 men and women aged 33–65 years who participated in the Reykjavik Study (1967–1992) and who were re-examined in old age in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES) -Reykjavik Study (2002–2006). Results Education and occupation predicted mobility limitation and depressed mood. Independently, home and car ownership and the availability of housing features predicted mobility limitation. Shortages of food in childhood and lack of a car in midlife predicted depressed mood. Conclusion Socioeconomic factors from midlife and from childhood affect mobility limitation and depressed mood in old age. Prevention of health problems in old age should begin as early as midlife. PMID:23379351

  16. Mobility and Active Ageing in Suburban Environments: Findings from In-Depth Interviews and Person-Based GPS Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Zeitler, Elisabeth; Buys, Laurie; Aird, Rosemary; Miller, Evonne

    2012-01-01

    Background. Governments face a significant challenge to ensure that community environments meet the mobility needs of an ageing population. Therefore, it is critical to investigate the effect of suburban environments on the choice of transportation and its relation to participation and active ageing. Objective. This research explores if and how suburban environments impact older people's mobility and their use of different modes of transport. Methods. Data derived from GPS tracking, travel diaries, brief questionnaires, and semistructured interviews were gathered from thirteen people aged from 56 to 87 years, living in low-density suburban environments in Brisbane, Australia. Results. The suburban environment influenced the choice of transportation and out-of-home mobility. Both walkability and public transportation (access and usability) impact older people's transportation choices. Impracticality of active and public transportation within suburban environments creates car dependency in older age. Conclusion. Suburban environments often create barriers to mobility, which impedes older people's engagement in their wider community and ability to actively age in place. Further research is needed to develop approaches towards age-friendly suburban environments which will encourage older people to remain active and engaged in older age. PMID:23346108

  17. Age at introduction of solid foods and feeding difficulties in childhood: findings from the Southampton Women's Survey.

    PubMed

    Hollis, J L; Crozier, S R; Inskip, H M; Cooper, C; Godfrey, K M; Robinson, S M

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to determine whether age at introduction of solid foods was associated with feeding difficulties at 3 years of age. The present study was carried out using data from the Southampton Women's Survey (SWS). Women enrolled in the SWS who subsequently became pregnant were followed-up during pregnancy and postpartum, and the offspring have been studied through childhood. Maternal socio-demographic and anthropometric data and child anthropometric and feeding data were collected through interviews and self-administered questionnaires. When the children were 3 years of age, mothers/carers rated six potential child feeding difficulty questions on a four-point Likert scale, including one general question and five specific feeding difficulty questions. Age at introduction of solids as a predictor of feeding difficulties was examined in 2389 mother-child pairs, adjusting for child (age last breast fed, sex, gestation) and maternal characteristics (parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, age, education, employment, parenting difficulties, diet quality). The majority of mothers/carers (61 %) reported some feeding difficulties (general feeding difficulty question) at 3 years of age, specifically with their child eating enough food (61 %), eating the right food (66 %) and being choosy with food (74 %). Children who were introduced to solids ≥6 months had a lower risk of feeding difficulties (RR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·59, 0·91, P=0·004) than children who were introduced to solids between 4 and 6 months. No other significant associations were found. There were few associations between feeding difficulties in relation to age at introduction of solid foods. However, general feeding difficulties were less common among infants introduced to solid foods ≥6 months of age. PMID:27356464

  18. Flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy as a screening modality for colorectal adenomas in older age groups? Findings in a cohort of the normal population aged 63-72 years

    PubMed Central

    Thiis-Evensen, E; Hoff, G; Sauar, J; Majak, B; Vatn, M

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Most cases of colorectal cancer originate from adenomas. Removing adenomas has been shown to reduce the incidence of colorectal cancer. The design of cost effective endoscopic screening programmes requires a knowledge of the distribution of adenomas in different age groups.
AIM—To investigate the distribution of colorectal adenomas in older age groups in the normal population.
METHOD—A total of 356 men and women selected randomly from the population register were offered a colonoscopic screening examination to detect and remove polyps.
RESULTS—In all, 241(68%) subjects, mean age 67.4 years (range 62-73), attended. The caecum was intubated in 193 (80%), and in this group 32 (38%) women and 51 (47%) men had adenomas. One hundred and ten (54%) of the adenomas and 11 (39%) of the "high risk adenomas" (adenomas larger than 10 mm in diameter, adenomas containing villous components, and adenomas with severe dysplasia) were found proximal to the sigmoid colon. In 36 (43%) of the subjects with adenomas, the adenomas were only found proximal to the sigmoid colon. Twenty two (11%) subjects had more than two adenomas. Of 203 adenomas discovered, 189 (93%) were less than 10 mm in diameter.
CONCLUSION—More than half of the adenomas were localised proximal to the sigmoid colon, and, in nearly half of the adenoma bearing subjects examined, the adenoma was proximal to the descending colon. This indicates that a sigmoidoscopic screening examination in this age group would miss a substantial number of adenomas, but this may be acceptable as the vast majority of proximal adenomas do not progress to clinical cancer within the life expectancy of this age group.


Keywords: adenoma; colon; colorectal neoplasms; endoscopy; epidemiology; polyps PMID:10562581

  19. Aging.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Choon; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2013-09-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  20. Aging

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Choon

    2013-01-01

    Aging is initiated based on genetic and environmental factors that operate from the time of birth of organisms. Aging induces physiological phenomena such as reduction of cell counts, deterioration of tissue proteins, tissue atrophy, a decrease of the metabolic rate, reduction of body fluids, and calcium metabolism abnormalities, with final progression onto pathological aging. Despite the efforts from many researchers, the progression and the mechanisms of aging are not clearly understood yet. Therefore, the authors would like to introduce several theories which have gained attentions among the published theories up to date; genetic program theory, wear-and-tear theory, telomere theory, endocrine theory, DNA damage hypothesis, error catastrophe theory, the rate of living theory, mitochondrial theory, and free radical theory. Although there have been many studies that have tried to prevent aging and prolong life, here we introduce a couple of theories which have been proven more or less; food, exercise, and diet restriction. PMID:24653904

  1. Volunteering and Giving among American Teenagers 14 to 17 Years of Age. Findings from a National Survey. 1990 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgkinson, Virginia A.; Weitzman, Murray S.

    This survey was conducted by the Gallup organization on the volunteering and giving behavior of U.S. teenagers as a supplement to a national survey on giving and volunteering among U.S. adults. Information was obtained from in-home personal interviews with 301 teenagers from 14 to 17 years of age. Results indicated that 58 percent of teenagers…

  2. Do gender and age moderate the symptom structure of PTSD? Findings from a national clinical sample of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Contractor, Ateka A; Layne, Christopher M; Steinberg, Alan M; Ostrowski, Sarah A; Ford, Julian D; Elhai, Jon D

    2013-12-30

    A substantial body of evidence documents that the frequency and intensity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are linked to such demographic variables as female sex (e.g., Kaplow et al., 2005) and age (e.g., Meiser-Stedman et al., 2008). Considerably less is known about relations between biological sex and age with PTSD's latent factor structure. This study systematically examined the roles that sex and age may play as candidate moderators of the full range of factor structure parameters of an empirically supported five-factor PTSD model (Elhai et al., 2011). The sample included 6591 trauma-exposed children and adolescents selected from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's Core Data Set. Confirmatory factor analysis using invariance testing (Gregorich, 2006) and comparative fit index difference values (Cheung and Rensvold, 2002) reflected a mixed pattern of test item intercepts across age groups. The adolescent subsample produced lower residual error variances, reflecting less measurement error than the child subsample. Sex did not show a robust moderating effect. We conclude by discussing implications for clinical assessment, theory building, and future research. PMID:24103907

  3. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  4. Active Travel to School: Findings from the Survey of US Health Behavior in School-Aged Children, 2009-2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yong; Ivey, Stephanie S.; Levy, Marian C.; Royne, Marla B.; Klesges, Lisa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Whereas children's active travel to school (ATS) has confirmed benefits, only a few large national surveys of ATS exist. Methods: Using data from the Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2009-2010 US survey, we conducted a logistic regression model to estimate the odds ratios of ATS and a linear regression model to estimate…

  5. Age-related qualitative shift in emotional behaviour: paradoxical findings after re-exposure of rats in the elevated-plus maze.

    PubMed

    Bessa, J M; Oliveira, M; Cerqueira, J J; Almeida, O F X; Sousa, N

    2005-07-01

    Several variables, including age, are known to influence anxiety. Previous exposure to the elevated-plus maze (EPM) is known to modify emotional behaviour as retesting in the EPM at a standard age of 3 months increases open-arm avoidance and attenuates the effects of anxiolytic drugs. This study analysed whether similar results are obtained when older animals are subjected to these experimental paradigms. Overall, increasing age was associated with more signs of anxiety. Additionally, we observed a paradoxical behaviour pattern in aged-subjects that were re-exposed to the EPM, with mid-aged and old rats failing to display open arm avoidance (OAA) in the second trial; this qualitative shift in emotional behaviour was not associated with decreased locomotion. An examination of how age influences responsiveness to anxiolytic drugs, with or without previous maze experience, was also conducted. Midazolam (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) proved anxiolytic in maize-naive young animals; in marked contrast, in older animals midazolam at 1 mg/kg resulted in sedation but not anxiolyis. One trial tolerance to midazolam was evident in animals of both ages that were subjected to a second EPM trial; the latter phenomenon was apparently accentuated in older animals as they do not show open arm avoidance upon re-exposure to the EPM. These data suggest that the age-associated 'resistance' to anxiolytic drugs might be related to a qualitative shift in emotional behaviour. PMID:15922074

  6. A healthy Nordic diet and physical performance in old age: findings from the longitudinal Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Perälä, Mia-Maria; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela; Männistö, Satu; Salonen, Minna K; Simonen, Mika; Kanerva, Noora; Pohjolainen, Pertti; Kajantie, Eero; Rantanen, Taina; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-03-14

    Epidemiological studies have shown that a number of nutrients are associated with better physical performance. However, little is still known about the role of the whole diet, particularly a healthy Nordic diet, in relation to physical performance. Therefore, we examined whether a healthy Nordic diet was associated with measures of physical performance 10 years later. We studied 1072 participants from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study. Participants' diet was assessed using a validated 128-item FFQ at the mean age of 61 years, and a priori-defined Nordic diet score (NDS) was calculated. The score included Nordic fruits and berries, vegetables, cereals, PUFA:SFA and trans-fatty acids ratio, low-fat milk, fish, red and processed meat, total fat and alcohol. At the mean age of 71 years, participants' physical performance was measured using the Senior Fitness Test (SFT), and an overall SFT score was calculated. Women in the highest fourth of the NDS had on average 5 points higher SFT score compared with those in the lowest fourth (P for trend 0·005). No such association was observed in men. Women with the highest score had 17% better result in the 6-min walk test, 16% better arm curl and 20% better chair stand results compared with those with the lowest score (all P values<0·01). In conclusion, a healthy Nordic diet was associated with better overall physical performance among women and might help decrease the risk of disability in old age. PMID:26785760

  7. Physical Activity Patterns of the Spanish Population Are Mostly Determined by Sex and Age: Findings in the ANIBES Study

    PubMed Central

    Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel; Castillo, Adrián; Ruiz, Emma; Ávila, José Manuel; Aranceta-Batrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; Ortega, Rosa M.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; González-Gross, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Background Representative data for the Spanish population regarding physical activity (PA) behaviors are scarce and seldom comparable due to methodological inconsistencies. Aim Our objectives were to describe the PA behavior by means of the standardized self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and to know the proportion of the Spanish population meeting and not meeting international PA recommendations. Material and Methods PA was assessed using the IPAQ in a representative sample of 2285 individuals (males, 50.4%) aged 9–75 years and living in municipalities of at least 2,000 inhabitants. Data were analyzed according to: age groups 9–12, 13–17, 18–64, and 65–75 years; sex; geographical distribution; locality size and educational levels. Results Mean total PA was 868.8±660.9 min/wk, mean vigorous PA 146.4±254.1 min/wk, and mean moderate PA 398.1±408.0 min/wk, showing significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). Children performed higher moderate-vigorous PA than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05), and adults than adolescents and seniors (p<0.05). Compared to recommendations, 36.2% of adults performed <150 min/week of moderate PA, 65.4% <75 min/week of vigorous PA and 27.0% did not perform any PA at all, presenting significant differences between sexes (p<0.05). A total of 55.4% of children and adolescents performed less than 420 min/week of MVPA, being higher in the later (62.6%) than in the former (48.4%). Highest non-compliance was observed in adolescent females (86.5%). Conclusion Sex and age are the main influencing factors on PA in the Spanish population. Males engage in more vigorous and light PA overall, whereas females perform more moderate PA. PA behavior differs between age groups and no clear lineal increase with age could be observed. Twenty-seven percent of adults and 55.4% of children and adolescents do not meet international PA recommendations. Identified target groups should be addressed to increase PA in the

  8. Findings From the Pittsburgh Youth Study: Cognitive Impulsivity and Intelligence as Predictors of the Age-Crime Curve

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeber, Rolf; Menting, Barbara; Lynam, Donald R.; Moffitt, Terri E.; Stouthamer-Loeber, Magda; Stallings, Rebecca; Farrington, David P.; Pardini, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This article first summarizes key research findings from the Pittsburgh Youth Study from 1987 to the present, and focuses on delinquency in 1,517 young men who have been followed up from late childhood into their 20s. Second, the article addresses how indicators of self-control prospectively predict later offending, and whether the…

  9. Lack of Health Insurance Among Adults Aged 18 to 64 Years: Findings From the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guixiang; Dhingra, Satvinder S.; Xu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of lack of health insurance among adults aged 18 to 64 years for each state and the United States and to describe populations without insurance. Methods We used 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to categorize states into 3 groups on the basis of the prevalence of lack of health insurance in each state compared with the national average (21.5%; 95% confidence interval, 21.1%–21.8%): high-insured states (states with an estimated prevalence of lack of health insurance below the national average), average-insured states (states with an estimated prevalence of lack of health insurance equivalent to the national average), and low-insured states (states with an estimated prevalence of lack of health insurance higher than the national average). We used bivariate analyses to compare the sociodemographic characteristics of these 3 groups after age adjustment to the 2000 US standard population. We examined the distribution of Medicaid expansion among the 3 groups. Results Compared with the national age-adjusted prevalence of lack of health insurance, 24 states had lower rates of uninsured residents, 12 states had equivalent rates of uninsured, and 15 states had higher rates of uninsured. Compared with adults in the high-insured and average-insured state groups, adults in the low-insured state group were more likely to be non-Hispanic black or Hispanic, to have less than a high school education, to be previously married (divorced, widowed, or separated), and to have an annual household income at or below $35,000. Seventy-one percent of high-insured states were expanding Medicaid eligibility compared with 67% of average-insured states and 40% of low-insured states. Conclusion Large variations exist among states in the estimated prevalence of health insurance. Many uninsured Americans reside in states that have opted out of Medicaid expansion. PMID:26719901

  10. Association between sonographic diagnosis of fatty liver with histopathologic abnormalities and liver biopsy findings in middle age patient with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Kalantari, Hamid; Moradi, Farhad; Hassanzade, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Liver biopsy is required to diagnose non-alcoholic steatohepatitis in patients with suspected non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This study aimed to examine the relationship between sonographic diagnosis of fatty liver with histopathologic abnormalities and liver biopsy findings in patient with NAFLD. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 180 patients, with an age range of 18-60 year old, with NAFLD based on ultrasonograghic findings were evaluated. Age, sex, body mass index, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, family history of liver disease and laboratory parameters recorded for all patients. Hence, grade of steatosis and stage of fibrosis were evaluated by liver biopsy. Results: A total of 220 patients were enrolled. Liver biopsy was performed in 180 patients. Mean age was 43 ± 10.6 years old and 66% were male. Ultrasonograghic findings showed mild, moderate and severe NAFLD was define in 100 (55.5%), 72 (40%) and 8 (4.5%) of patients, respectively. Liver biopsies showed that steatosis scores of <5%, 5-33% and 33-66% was define in 56 (31%), 116 (64%) and 9 (5%) of patients, respectively. Furthermore, fibrosis was defined as follow; none 92 (51%), mild 68 (38%), moderate 11 (6%), bridging 5 (3%) and cirrhosis 3 (2%) patients. There was no statistically significant relationship between ultrasonograghic findings and steatosis scores (P = 0.44), but statistically significant relationship was found between ultrasonograghic findings and fibrosis stage (P = 0.017). Conclusion: Findings revealed that, in patients with NAFLD, ultrasonographic finding were not in associate to steatosis, but were in relation with fibrosis stage. PMID:27563632

  11. Increased Health Service Utilization Costs in the Year Prior to Institutionalization: Findings from the Canadian Study of Health and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, John A.; Sauter, Agnes H.; Gutman, Gloria; Beattie, B. Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to characterize patterns of formal health service utilization costs during older adults’ transition from community to institutional care. Methods Participants were 127 adults (age ≥ 65) from the British Columbia sample (N = 2,057) of the Canadian Study of Health and Aging who transitioned from community to institutional care between 1991 and 2001. Health service utilization costs were measured using Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk at five time points: > 12 months, 6–12 months, and ≤ 6 months preinstitutionalization, and ≤ 6 months and 6–12 months postinstitutionalization. Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk was measured for Continuing Care, Medical Services Plan, and PharmaCare costs by calculating total health service use over time, divided by the number of days the participant was alive. Results Significant differences in Cost-Per-Day-At-Risk were observed for Continuing Care, Medical Services Plan, and PharmaCare costs over time. All health service utilization costs increased significantly during the 6–12 months and ≤ 6 months prior to institutionalization. Postinstitutionalization Continuing Care costs continued to increase at ≤ 6 months before decreasing at 6–12 months, while decreases occurred for Medical Services Plan and PharmaCare costs relative to preinstitutionalization costs. Conclusions The increases in costs observed during the year prior to institutionalization, characterized by a flurry of health service utilization, provide evidence of distinct cost patterns over the transition period. PMID:24883162

  12. Cross-National User Priorities for Housing Provision and Accessibility — Findings from the European innovAge Project

    PubMed Central

    Haak, Maria; Slaug, Björn; Oswald, Frank; Schmidt, Steven M.; Rimland, Joseph M.; Tomsone, Signe; Ladö, Thomas; Svensson, Torbjörn; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    To develop an innovative information and communication technology (ICT) tool intended to help older people in their search for optimal housing solutions, a first step in the development process is to gain knowledge from the intended users. Thus the aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about needs and expectations about housing options as expressed and prioritized by older people, people ageing with disabilities and professionals. A participatory design focus was adopted; 26 people with a range of functional limitations representing the user perspective and 15 professionals with a variety of backgrounds, participated in research circles that were conducted in four European countries. An additional 20 experts were invited as guests to the different research circle meetings. Three themes illustrating cross-national user priorities for housing provision and accessibility were identified: “Information barrier: accessible housing”, “Information barrier: housing adaptation benefits”, and “Cost barrier: housing adaptations”. In conclusion, early user involvement and identification of cross-national differences in priorities and housing options will strengthen the development of a user-friendly ICT tool that can empower older people and people with disabilities to be more active consumers regarding housing provision. PMID:25739003

  13. Cross-national user priorities for housing provision and accessibility--findings from the European innovAge Project.

    PubMed

    Haak, Maria; Slaug, Björn; Oswald, Frank; Schmidt, Steven M; Rimland, Joseph M; Tomsone, Signe; Ladö, Thomas; Svensson, Torbjörn; Iwarsson, Susanne

    2015-03-01

    To develop an innovative information and communication technology (ICT) tool intended to help older people in their search for optimal housing solutions, a first step in the development process is to gain knowledge from the intended users. Thus the aim of this study was to deepen the knowledge about needs and expectations about housing options as expressed and prioritized by older people, people ageing with disabilities and professionals. A participatory design focus was adopted; 26 people with a range of functional limitations representing the user perspective and 15 professionals with a variety of backgrounds, participated in research circles that were conducted in four European countries. An additional 20 experts were invited as guests to the different research circle meetings. Three themes illustrating cross-national user priorities for housing provision and accessibility were identified: "Information barrier: accessible housing", "Information barrier: housing adaptation benefits", and "Cost barrier: housing adaptations". In conclusion, early user involvement and identification of cross-national differences in priorities and housing options will strengthen the development of a user-friendly ICT tool that can empower older people and people with disabilities to be more active consumers regarding housing provision. PMID:25739003

  14. ASSOCIATIONS OF BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGE IN PREGNANCY WITH FETAL GROWTH AND GESTATIONAL AGE AT DELIVERY: FINDINGS FROM A PROSPECTIVE COHORT

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Fraser, Abigail; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2014-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are associated with intrauterine growth restriction and preterm birth. However, the associations of patterns of blood pressure change during pregnancy with these outcomes have not been studied in detail. We studied repeat antenatal blood pressure measurements of 9,697 women in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (median (interquartile range) 10 (9, 11) measurements per woman). Bivariate linear spline models were used to relate blood pressure changes to perinatal outcomes. Higher systolic, but not diastolic, blood pressure at baseline (8 weeks gestation) and a greater increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure between 18 and 36 weeks gestation were associated with lower offspring birthweight and being smaller for gestational age in confounder-adjusted models. For example, the mean difference (95% CI) in birthweight per 1 mmHg/week greater increase in systolic blood pressure between 18-30 weeks was −71g (−134, −14) and between 30-36 weeks was −175g (−208, −145). A smaller decrease in systolic and diastolic blood pressure prior to 18 weeks and a greater increase between 18 and 36 weeks was associated with a shorter gestation (percentage difference in gestational duration per 1 mmHg/week greater increase in systolic blood pressure between 18-30 weeks: −0.60% (−1.01, −0.18) and 30-36 weeks: −1.01% (−1.36, −0.74)). Associations remained strong when restricting to normotensive women. We conclude that greater increases in blood pressure, from the 18-week nadir, are related to reduced fetal growth and shorter gestation even in women whose blood pressure does not cross the threshold for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. PMID:24821945

  15. Hypnosis, suggestion, and suggestibility: an integrative model.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Steven Jay; Laurence, Jean-Roch; Kirsch, Irving

    2015-01-01

    This article elucidates an integrative model of hypnosis that integrates social, cultural, cognitive, and neurophysiological variables at play both in and out of hypnosis and considers their dynamic interaction as determinants of the multifaceted experience of hypnosis. The roles of these variables are examined in the induction and suggestion stages of hypnosis, including how they are related to the experience of involuntariness, one of the hallmarks of hypnosis. It is suggested that studies of the modification of hypnotic suggestibility; cognitive flexibility; response sets and expectancies; the default-mode network; and the search for the neurophysiological correlates of hypnosis, more broadly, in conjunction with research on social psychological variables, hold much promise to further understanding of hypnosis. PMID:25928681

  16. Looking for the Silver Lining: Benefit Finding after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in Middle-Aged, Older, and Oldest-Old Adults

    PubMed Central

    Stanko, Katie E.; Cherry, Katie E.; Ryker, Kyle S.; Mughal, Farra; Marks, Loren D.; Brown, Jennifer Silva; Gendusa, Patricia F.; Sullivan, Marisa C.; Bruner, John; Welsh, David A.; Su, L. Joseph; Jazwinski, S. Michal

    2016-01-01

    Looking for potentially positive outcomes is one way that people cope with stressful events. In two studies, we examined perceived “silver linings” after the 2005 Hurricanes Katrina and Rita among indirectly affected adults. In Study 1, middle-aged (ages 47–64 years), older (ages 65–89 years), and oldest-old (ages 90–95 years) adults in the Louisiana Healthy Aging Study (LHAS) responded to an open-ended question on perceived silver linings in a longitudinal assessment carried out during the immediate impact (1 to 4 months after landfall) and post-disaster recovery phase (6 to 14 months post-storm). Qualitative grounded theory methods were employed to analyze these narrative data. Team-based coding yielded three core themes: (1) learning experience and better preparedness for future disasters, (2) having improved cities (Baton Rouge and New Orleans), and (3) an increase in “Good Samaritan” acts such as strangers helping one another. Responses were similar across age groups, although older adults were the least likely to report positive outcomes. Study 2 was a conceptual replication using a different sample of adults (ages 31 to 82 years) tested at least five years after the storms. A learning experience and preparedness core theme replicated Study 1’s findings while improved social cohesion amongst family and friends emerged as a new core theme in Study 2. These data indicate that identifying lessons learned and potentially positive outcomes are psychological reactions that may facilitate post-disaster coping and foster resilience for indirectly affected adults in the years after disaster. PMID:27440961

  17. Child Find

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This brochure describes "Child Find," a component of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that requires states to identify, locate, and evaluate all children with disabilities, aged birth through 21, who are in need of early intervention or special education services.

  18. Regional Disparities in Adult Height, Educational Attainment and Gender Difference in Late- Life Cognition: Findings from the Longitudinal Aging Study in India (LASI)

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinkook; Smith, James P.

    2014-01-01

    State policies over time in India may have led to significant differences by sex in population health and cognition. In this paper, we use data from the pilot wave of the Longitudinal Aging Study in India, conducted in Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, and Rajasthan, to examine state variations in health, educational attainment, and male preference, and how these variations contribute to gender differences in late-life cognition in India. We find men and women born in Punjab are taller than those elsewhere, but do not find any gender differences in height across states with differential male preference. We do find a significant gap in educational attainment that correlates with male preference. We find paternal education benefits both sons and daughters, while maternal education contributes to daughters’ educational attainment. Finally, we find that paternal education benefits daughters’ late-life cognition, while maternal education benefits sons’ late-life cognition, and that children’s education has positive association with older adults’ cognitive functioning as well. PMID:25530941

  19. 'By seeing with our own eyes, it can remain in our mind': qualitative evaluation findings suggest the ability of participatory video to reduce gender-based violence in conflict-affected settings.

    PubMed

    Gurman, Tilly A; Trappler, Regan M; Acosta, Angela; McCray, Pamella A; Cooper, Chelsea M; Goodsmith, Lauren

    2014-08-01

    Gender-based violence is pervasive and poses unique challenges in conflict-affected settings, with women and girls particularly vulnerable to its sequelae. Furthermore, widespread stigmatization of gender-based violence promotes silence among survivors and families, inhibiting access to services. Little evidence exists regarding effective gender-based violence prevention interventions in these settings. Through Our Eyes, a multi-year participatory video project, addressed gender-based violence by stimulating community dialogue and action in post-conflict settings in South Sudan, Uganda, Thailand, Liberia and Rwanda. The present qualitative analysis of project evaluation data included transcripts from 18 focus group discussions (n = 125) and key informant interviews (n = 76). Study participants included project team members, representatives from partner agencies, service providers and community members who either participated in video production or attended video screenings. Study findings revealed that the video project contributed to a growing awareness of women's rights and gender equality. The community dialogue helped to begin dismantling the culture of silence gender-based violence, encouraging survivors to access health and law enforcement services. Furthermore, both men and women reported attitude and behavioral changes related to topics such as wife beating, gender-based violence reporting and girls' education. Health education professionals should employ participatory video to address gender-based violence within conflict-affected settings. PMID:24973224

  20. Association between executive function and physical performance in older Korean adults: findings from the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging (KLoSHA).

    PubMed

    Huh, Yoonseok; Yang, Eun Joo; Lee, Seung Ah; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Ki Woong; Paik, Nam-Jong

    2011-01-01

    Reduced executive function and physical performance are common age-related conditions. This study evaluated the associations between executive function and physical performance in a representative sample of older adults. Cross-sectional data were analyzed from a population-based sample of 629 men and women aged 65 or older and living in one typical city in Korea. Specific aspects of executive function were assessed using the trail making test, digit span test, and lexical fluency test to measure set shifting, working memory and cognitive flexibility functions. Physical performance was measured using performance-oriented mobility assessment (POMA) scores and isokinetic muscle strength. Subjects' self-efficacy was also assessed using the activities-specific balance confidence (ABC) scale. Results of the lexical fluency test were associated with POMA scores and muscle strength, independent of age, gender, education, comorbidity, physical activity status, depression, and global cognition, suggesting that reduced cognitive flexibility is associated with reduced physical performance and muscle strength. Self-efficacy was also independently associated with physical performance and muscle strength. Clinicians need to consider the association between executive function and physical performance when working to improve physical functioning in an aged population. PMID:21075462

  1. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers (1) suggestions for improving college students' study skills; (2) a system for keeping track of parent, teacher, and community contacts; (3) suggestions for motivating students using tic tac toe; (4) suggestions for using etymology to improve word retention; (5) a word search grid; and (6) suggestions for using postcards in remedial reading…

  2. Finding the light at the end of the tunnel: age differences in the relation between internal states terms and coping with potential threats to self.

    PubMed

    Koenig Styers, Mary; Baker-Ward, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has examined how adults respond to negative self-evaluations, but has not explored developmental differences in this process. This cross-sectional study investigated linkages between the inclusion of internal states language in narrative accounts of problems in important self-categories and reports of coping responses and troubling thoughts. There were a total of 160 participants at three age levels: late childhood (9-12 years old), early adolescence (12-15 years old) and emerging adulthood (18-28 years old). Age-related changes were found in the density of internal states language and its relation to coping strategies. Among the children, greater usage of positive emotion terms predicted less adaptive use of coping strategies. In contrast, among the adolescents, greater density of positive emotion terms and anxiety terms was associated with more assistance seeking, and greater use of anger terms was related to lower levels of intrusive and avoidant thoughts. Finally, among the emerging adults, a greater density of insight terms was associated with higher levels of intrusive thoughts. The findings are interpreted as indicating unique responses to self-threat at different points in the development of the self-concept. Further, they have implications for understanding inconsistent past findings regarding the relation between internal states language usage and well-being. PMID:22882085

  3. The Life of Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie

    2010-01-01

    Using the notion of a suggestion, or rather charting the life of suggestions, this article considers the happenings of chance and embodiment as the "problems that got away." The life of suggestions helps us to ask how connectivities are made, how desire functions, and how "immanence" rather than "transcendence" can open up the politics and ethics…

  4. Suggestion and psychoanalytic technique.

    PubMed

    Levy, S T; Inderbitzin, L B

    2000-01-01

    The role of the analyst's suggestive influence on the course and outcome of psychoanalytic treatment is explored, and traditional and newer perspectives on analytic technique are contrasted. The intersubjective critique of the neutral, objective analyst in relation to suggestion is examined. The inevitable presence and need for suggestive factors in analysis, and the relationship of suggestion to transference susceptibility, are emphasized. The manner in which the analysis of suggestive factors is subsumed in transference analysis as part of traditional technique is highlighted. PMID:11059395

  5. Unexpected Finding Suggests Method for Controlling Pollen Dispersal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two studies on the genetic inheritance of a wheat genomic DNA fragment in transgenic corn conclude that this DNA fragment is inherited maternally because it functions as a pollen specific gametocide. The authors of these studies illustrate that this transgene can but used to control transfer of a s...

  6. Maternal iron levels early in pregnancy are not associated with offspring IQ score at age 8, findings from a Mendelian randomization study

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, S J; Bonilla, C; Brion, M-J; Lawlor, D A; Gunnell, D; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Ness, A; Smith, G D

    2014-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Iron is fundamental to many basic biological functions, and animal studies suggest that iron deficiency early in life can have a lasting impact on the developing brain. Subjects/Methods: We used a population-based cohort of mothers and their children to assess the effect of iron status among pregnant women on the cognitive ability of their offspring. But to avoid the inherent confounding that occurs within observational epidemiology studies we examined the association of maternal genotype at single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the genes HFE (rs1799945) and (rs1800562), TF (rs3811647) and TMPRSS6 (rs1800562), which are related to iron, haemoglobin or transferrin levels, on their child's cognitive test scores at age 8. Results: We found strong associations between HFE and TMPRSS6 genotypes and mother's haemoglobin levels early in pregnancy (P-values are all ⩽4.1 × 10−5) and a genetic score comprised of alleles at these loci was even more strongly associated with haemoglobin levels (P=3.0 × 10−18), suggesting that this was a good instrument to use to look at the effect of prenatal iron levels on offspring cognition. However, mother's genotype at the above loci was not associated with offspring IQ at age 8. Conclusions: We therefore concluded that there is no evidence of an effect of exposure to low levels of iron (within the normal range) in pregnancy on offspring cognition at age 8. However, pregnant women in the UK with low haemoglobin levels are prescribed iron supplements and so we were unable to look at the effect of iron deficiency in our study. PMID:24398642

  7. Paleoparasitological analysis of coprolites from K2, an Iron Age archaeological site in South Africa: the first finding of Dicrocoelium sp. eggs.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, K; Steyn, M

    2004-02-01

    Until now, Dicrocoelium sp. eggs have only been recorded from European and 1 North American archaeological sites. We present evidence for the first record of Dicrocoelium sp. from an African archaeological site. A paleoparasitological study was conducted on 7 coprolite samples from K2, a Late Iron Age site on the farm Greefswald, in the Northern Province of South Africa. Standard parasitological analysis revealed the presence of Dicrocoelium sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs. Today, the parasite does not occur in this region. Trichurid eggs are a relatively common find in paleoparasitological analysis. The presence of Dicrocoelium sp. provides new clues about the antiquity of this parasite, as well as aspects of ancient environment, climate, and interactions among humans, animals, and parasites. PMID:15040686

  8. [Therapy and suggestion].

    PubMed

    Barrucand, D; Paille, F

    1986-12-01

    Therapy and suggestion are closely related. That is clear for the ancient time: primitive medicine gives a good place to the Word. In plant, animal or mineral remedies, the suggestion is clearly preponderant. Towards the end of the 19th century, the "Ecole de Nancy" sets up a real theory of the suggestion, and Bernheim, its leader, bases hypnosis, then psychotherapy on this concept. Thereafter Coué will bring up the "conscious autosuggestion". Today, despite the progress of scientific medicine, the part of suggestion is still very important in medical therapy (with or without drugs), or in chirurgical therapy; this part is also very important in psychotherapies, whatever has been said in this field. This has to be known and used consciously in the doctor-patient relation, which is always essential in the therapeutic effectiveness. PMID:3555209

  9. Open to Suggestion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Reading, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Readers' contributions include ways to make inservice meetings interesting, a checklist for designing and evaluating learning centers, ways to help low ability readers use public libraries by taping materials, how to encourage college students to attend state council conferences, and comments on misleading findings from the Nelson-Denny Reading…

  10. A Frailty Instrument for primary care for those aged 75 years or more: findings from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a longitudinal population-based cohort study (SHARE-FI75+)

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Ortuno, Roman; Soraghan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Objective To create and validate a frailty assessment tool for community-dwelling adults aged ≥75 years. Design Longitudinal, population-based study. Setting The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE). Participants 4001 women and 3057 men aged ≥75 years from the second wave of SHARE. 3325 women and 2587 men had complete information for the frailty indicators: fatigue, low appetite, weakness, observed gait (walking without help, walking with help, chairbound/bedbound, unobserved) and low physical activity. Main outcome measures The internal validity of the frailty indicators was tested with latent class analysis, by modelling an underlying variable with three ordered categories. The predictive validity of the frailty classification was tested against 2-year mortality and 4-year disability. The mortality prediction of SHARE-FI75+ was compared with that of previously operationalised frailty scales in SHARE (SHARE-FI, 70-item index, phenotype, FRAIL). Results In both genders, all frailty indicators significantly aggregated into a three-category ordinal latent variable. After adjusting for baseline age, comorbidity and basic activities of daily living (BADL) disability, the frail had an OR for 2-year mortality of 2.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 3.8) in women and 4.2 (2.6 to 6.8) in men. The mortality prediction of SHARE-FI75+ was similar to that of the other SHARE frailty scales. By wave 4, 49% of frail women (78 of 159) had at least one more limitation with BADL (compared with 18% of non-frail, 125 of 684; p<0.001); in men, these proportions were 39% (26 of 66) and 18% (110 of 621), respectively (p<0.001). A calculator is supplied for point-of-care use, which automatically replicates the frailty classification for any given measurements. Conclusions SHARE-FI75+ could help frailty case finding in primary care and provide a focus for personalised community interventions. Further validation in trials and clinical programmes is needed. PMID:25537787

  11. Hunting for the LCT-13910*T allele between the Middle Neolithic and the Middle Ages suggests its absence in dairying LBK people entering the Kuyavia region in the 8th millennium BP.

    PubMed

    Witas, Henryk W; Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Witas, Piotr J; Masłowska, Alicja; Jerszyńska, Blandyna; Kozłowski, Tomasz; Osipowicz, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Populations from two medieval sites in Central Poland, Stary Brześć Kujawski-4 (SBK-4) and Gruczno, represented high level of lactase persistence (LP) as followed by the LCT-13910*T allele's presence (0.86 and 0.82, respectively). It was twice as high as in contemporaneous Cedynia (0.4) and Śródka (0.43), both located outside the region, higher than in modern inhabitants of Poland (0.51) and almost as high as in modern Swedish population (0.9). In an attempt to explain the observed differences its frequency changes in time were followed between the Middle Neolithic and the Late Middle Ages in successive dairying populations on a relatively small area (radius ∼60km) containing the two sites. The introduction of the T allele to Kuyavia 7.4 Ka BP by dairying LBK people is not likely, as suggested by the obtained data. It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP. The identified frequency profile indicates that both the introduction and the beginning of selection could have taken place approx. 4 millennia after first LBK people arrived in the region, shifting the value of LP frequency from 0 to more than 0.8 during less than 130 generations. We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals. Facing the lack of the T allele in people living on two great European Neolithization routes, the Danubian and Mediterranean ones, and based on its high frequency in northern Iberia, its presence in Scandinavia and estimated occurrence in Central Poland, we propose an alternative Northern Route of its spreading as very likely. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR. PMID:25853887

  12. Hunting for the LCT-13910*T Allele between the Middle Neolithic and the Middle Ages Suggests Its Absence in Dairying LBK People Entering the Kuyavia Region in the 8th Millennium BP

    PubMed Central

    Witas, Henryk W.; Płoszaj, Tomasz; Jędrychowska-Dańska, Krystyna; Witas, Piotr J.; Masłowska, Alicja; Jerszyńska, Blandyna; Kozłowski, Tomasz; Osipowicz, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Populations from two medieval sites in Central Poland, Stary Brześć Kujawski-4 (SBK-4) and Gruczno, represented high level of lactase persistence (LP) as followed by the LCT-13910*T allele’s presence (0.86 and 0.82, respectively). It was twice as high as in contemporaneous Cedynia (0.4) and Śródka (0.43), both located outside the region, higher than in modern inhabitants of Poland (0.51) and almost as high as in modern Swedish population (0.9). In an attempt to explain the observed differences its frequency changes in time were followed between the Middle Neolithic and the Late Middle Ages in successive dairying populations on a relatively small area (radius ∼60km) containing the two sites. The introduction of the T allele to Kuyavia 7.4 Ka BP by dairying LBK people is not likely, as suggested by the obtained data. It has not been found in any of Neolithic samples dated between 6.3 and 4.5 Ka BP. The identified frequency profile indicates that both the introduction and the beginning of selection could have taken place approx. 4 millennia after first LBK people arrived in the region, shifting the value of LP frequency from 0 to more than 0.8 during less than 130 generations. We hypothesize that the selection process of the T allele was rather rapid, starting just after its introduction into already milking populations and operated via high rates of fertility and mortality on children after weaning through life-threatening conditions, favoring lactose-tolerant individuals. Facing the lack of the T allele in people living on two great European Neolithization routes, the Danubian and Mediterranean ones, and based on its high frequency in northern Iberia, its presence in Scandinavia and estimated occurrence in Central Poland, we propose an alternative Northern Route of its spreading as very likely. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be deltaF508 CFTR. PMID:25853887

  13. Age Variability in the Association between Heavy Episodic Drinking and Adolescent Suicide Attempts: Findings from a Large-Scale, School-Based Screening Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aseltine, Robert H., Jr.; Schilling, Elizabeth A.; James, Amy; Glanovsky, Jaime L.; Jacobs, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Heavy episodic drinking is significantly linked to the suicidal behavior of adolescents according to the data on 32,217 students aged 11 to 19 years old. A substantial age variation is seen with youths aged 13 years and younger roughly 2.6 times more likely to report an attempt as compared to 1.2 times among youths aged 18 years and older.

  14. What Sort of Girl Wants to Study Physics After the Age of 16? Findings from a Large-scale UK Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of 15-year-old girls who express an intention to study physics post-16. This paper unpacks issues around within-girl group differences and similarities between boys and girls in survey responses about physics. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 UK schools as learners of physics during the academic year 2008-2009. A comparison between boys and girls indicates the pervasiveness of gender issues, with boys more likely to respond positively towards physics-specific constructs than girls. The analysis also indicates that girls and boys who expressed intentions to participate in physics post-16 gave similar responses towards their physics teachers and physics lessons and had comparable physics extrinsic motivation. Girls (regardless of their intention to participate in physics) were less likely than boys to be encouraged to study physics post-16 by teachers, family and friends. Despite this, there were a subset of girls still intending to study physics post-16. The crucial differences between the girls who intended to study physics post-16 and those who did not is that girls who intend to study physics post-16 had higher physics extrinsic motivation, more positive perceptions of physics teachers and lessons, greater competitiveness and a tendency to be less extrovert. This strongly suggests that higher extrinsic motivation in physics could be the crucial underlying key that encourages a subset of girls (as well as boys) in wanting to pursue physics post-16.

  15. Learning Semantic Query Suggestions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Edgar; Bron, Marc; Hollink, Laura; Huurnink, Bouke; de Rijke, Maarten

    An important application of semantic web technology is recognizing human-defined concepts in text. Query transformation is a strategy often used in search engines to derive queries that are able to return more useful search results than the original query and most popular search engines provide facilities that let users complete, specify, or reformulate their queries. We study the problem of semantic query suggestion, a special type of query transformation based on identifying semantic concepts contained in user queries. We use a feature-based approach in conjunction with supervised machine learning, augmenting term-based features with search history-based and concept-specific features. We apply our method to the task of linking queries from real-world query logs (the transaction logs of the Netherlands Institute for Sound and Vision) to the DBpedia knowledge base. We evaluate the utility of different machine learning algorithms, features, and feature types in identifying semantic concepts using a manually developed test bed and show significant improvements over an already high baseline. The resources developed for this paper, i.e., queries, human assessments, and extracted features, are available for download.

  16. Social and Emotional Aging

    PubMed Central

    Charles, Susan; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    The past several decades have witnessed unidimensional decline models of aging give way to life-span developmental models that consider how specific processes and strategies facilitate adaptive aging. In part, this shift was provoked by the stark contrast between findings that clearly demonstrate decreased biological, physiological, and cognitive capacity with those suggesting that people are generally satisfied in old age and experience relatively high levels of emotional well-being. In recent years, this supposed “paradox” of aging has been reconciled through careful theoretical analysis and empirical investigation. Viewing aging as adaptation sheds light on resilience, wellbeing, and emotional distress across adulthood. PMID:19575618

  17. Evaluation of Little Ice Age cooling in Western Central Andes, suggested by paleoELAs, in contrast with global warming since late 19th century deduced from instrumental records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ubeda, Jose; Palacios, David; Campos, Néstor; Giraldez, Claudia; García, Eduardo; Quiros, Tatiana

    2015-04-01

    This paper attempts to evaluate climate cooling (°C) during the glacial expansion phases using the product GTV•ΔELA, where GTV is the vertical air temperature gradient (°C/m) and ΔELA (m) the difference in level observed between the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA) reconstructions for current and past glaciers. With this aim the Area x Altitude Balance Ratio-(AABR) method was used to produce reconstructions of present ELAs (2002-2010) and paleoELAs corresponding to the last glacier advance phase. The reconstructions were produced in three study areas located along a N-S transect of the western cordillera in the Central Andes: the south-western sector of the Nevado Hualcán (9°S, 77°W; Giráldez 2011); the southern slope of the Cordillera Pariaqaqa (12°S, 76°W; Quirós, 2013) and the NW, NE, SE and SW quadrants of the Nevado Coropuna (16°S, 72°W; García 2013; Úbeda 2011; Campos, 2012). The three mountains exceed 6000 m altitude, their summit areas are covered by glaciers, and on their slopes there are existing well-conserved moraines deposited by the last advances near the present front of the ice masses. Although there are no absolute dates to confirm this hypothesis, it has been assumed that the last glacial advances occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA), which the oxygen isotopes of the Nevado Huascarán (9°S, 77°W) date to the period 1500-1890. For the Hualcán and Pariaqaqa the mean global value of the Earth's GTV (6.5°C/km) was used, considered valid for the Tropics. On the Coropuna a GTV=8.4°C/km was used, based on high resolution sensors installed in situ since 2007 (Úbeda 2011). This gradient is approaching the upper limit of the dry adiabatic gradient (9.8°C/km), as the Coropuna region is more arid than the other case study areas. The climate cooling estimates deduced from the product GTV•ΔELA were compared with the global warming shown by the 1880-2012 series, ΔT=0.85°C, and 1850/1900-2003/2012, ΔT=0.78°C. The differences are

  18. Use of senescence-accelerated mouse model in bleomycin-induced lung injury suggests that bone marrow-derived cells can alter the outcome of lung injury in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianguo; Gonzalez, Edilson T; Iyer, Smita S; Mac, Valerie; Mora, Ana L; Sutliff, Roy L; Reed, Alana; Brigham, Kenneth L; Kelly, Patricia; Rojas, Mauricio

    2009-07-01

    The incidence of pulmonary fibrosis increases with age. Studies from our group have implicated circulating progenitor cells, termed fibrocytes, in lung fibrosis. In this study, we investigate whether the preceding determinants of inflammation and fibrosis were augmented with aging. We compared responses to intratracheal bleomycin in senescence-accelerated prone mice (SAMP), with responses in age-matched control senescence-accelerated resistant mice (SAMR). SAMP mice demonstrated an exaggerated inflammatory response as evidenced by lung histology. Bleomycin-induced fibrosis was significantly higher in SAMP mice compared with SAMR controls. Consistent with fibrotic changes in the lung, SAMP mice expressed higher levels of transforming growth factor-beta1 in the lung. Furthermore, SAMP mice showed higher numbers of fibrocytes and higher levels of stromal cell-derived factor-1 in the peripheral blood. This study provides the novel observation that apart from increases in inflammatory and fibrotic factors in response to injury, the increased mobilization of fibrocytes may be involved in age-related susceptibility to lung fibrosis. PMID:19359440

  19. Self-Esteem in Girls Aged 11-12: Baseline Findings from a Planned Prospective Study of Vulnerability to Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, Eric

    1990-01-01

    Reports on first stage of a planned prospective study of self-esteem and risk for eating disorders in 594 schoolgirls aged 11-12. Results indicated low self-esteem was associated with increased fatness concern, but also with problems in general. Girls will be followed up in detail at age 15-16. (Author/ABL)

  20. Age and Educational Inequalities in Smoking Cessation Due to Three Population-Level Tobacco Control Interventions: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagelhout, Gera E.; Crone, Matty R.; van den Putte, Bas; Willemsen, Marc C.; Fong, Geoffrey T.; de Vries, Hein

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to examine age and educational inequalities in smoking cessation due to the implementation of a tobacco tax increase, smoke-free legislation and a cessation campaign. Longitudinal data from 962 smokers aged 15 years and older were used from three survey waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. The 2008…

  1. Sexual Health and Well-being Among Older Men and Women in England: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Lee, David M; Nazroo, James; O'Connor, Daryl B; Blake, Margaret; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-01-01

    We describe levels of sexual activity, problems with sexual functioning, and concerns about sexual health among older adults in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), and associations with age, health, and partnership factors. Specifically, a total of 6,201 core ELSA participants (56 % women) aged 50 to >90 completed a comprehensive Sexual Relationships and Activities questionnaire (SRA-Q) included in ELSA Wave 6 (2012/13). The prevalence of reporting any sexual activity in the last year declined with age, with women less likely than men at all ages to report being sexually active. Poorer health was associated with lower levels of sexual activity and a higher prevalence of problems with sexual functioning, particularly among men. Difficulties most frequently reported by sexually active women related to becoming sexually aroused (32 %) and achieving orgasm (27 %), while for men it was erectile function (39 %). Sexual health concerns most commonly reported by women related to their level of sexual desire (11 %) and frequency of sexual activities (8 %). Among men it was level of sexual desire (15 %) and erectile difficulties (14 %). While the likelihood of reporting sexual health concerns tended to decrease with age in women, the opposite was seen in men. Poor sexual functioning and disagreements with a partner about initiating and/or feeling obligated to have sex were associated with greater concerns about and dissatisfaction with overall sex life. Levels of sexual activity decline with increasing age, although a sizable minority of men and women remain sexually active until the eighth and ninth decades of life. Problems with sexual functioning were relatively common, but overall levels of sexual health concerns were much lower. Sexually active men reported higher levels of concern with their sexual health and sexual dissatisfaction than women at all ages. Older peoples' sexual health should be managed, not just in the context of their age, gender

  2. Change in Age-Specific, Psychosocial Correlates of Risky Sexual Behaviors Among Youth: Longitudinal Findings From a Deep South, High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Rebecca J.; Traylor, Amy C.; Church, Wesley T.; Bolland, John M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined psychosocial predictors of change in intercourse frequency and number of sexual partners among youth within a socio-ecological framework and assessed whether these determinants vary by stage of adolescent development. Longitudinal data were derived from a large, community study of adolescent risky behavior among predominantly high-risk, African American youth. Significant predictors of intercourse frequency for early adolescents included age, gender, self-worth, and familial factors; for older youth, age, gender, self-worth, curfews, and sense of community exerted significant effects. Among early adolescents, age, gender, self-worth, familial factors, and sense of community predicted change in the number of sexual partners in the previous year, while age, gender, self-worth, parental knowledge, curfews, and sense of community were predictive of change in the number of sexual partners in the previous year among older youth. Study implications and future directions are discussed. PMID:26388682

  3. Outcomes of Early- and Late-identified Children at 3 Years of Age: Findings from a Prospective Population-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y.C.; Dillon, Harvey; Marnane, Vivienne; Hou, Sanna; Day, Julia; Seeto, Mark; Crowe, Kathryn; Street, Laura; Thomson, Jessica; Van Buynder, Patricia; Zhang, Vicky; Wong, Angela; Burns, Lauren; Flynn, Christopher; Cupples, Linda; Cowan, Robert S.C.; Leigh, Greg; Sjahalam-King, Jessica; Yeh, Angel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To address the question of whether, on a population level, early detection and amplification improve outcomes of children with hearing impairment. Design All families of children who were born between 2002 and 2007, and who presented for hearing services below 3 years of age at Australian Hearing pediatric centers in New South Wales, Victoria and Southern Queensland were invited to participate in a prospective study on outcomes. Children’s speech, language, functional and social outcomes were assessed at 3 years of age, using a battery of age-appropriate tests. Demographic information relating to the child, family, and educational intervention was solicited through the use of custom-designed questionnaires. Audiological data were collected from the national database of Australian Hearing and records held at educational intervention agencies for children. Regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of each of 15 predictor variables, including age of amplification, on outcomes. Results Four hundred and fifty-one children enrolled in the study, 56% of whom received their first hearing-aid fitting before 6 months of age. Based on clinical records, 44 children (10%) were diagnosed with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder. There were 107 children (24%) reported to have additional disabilities. At 3 years of age, 317 children (70%) were hearing-aid users and 134 children (30%) used cochlear implants. Based on parent reports, about 71% used an aural/oral mode of communication, and about 79% used English as the spoken language at home. Children’s performance scores on standardized tests administered at 3 years of age were used in a factor analysis to derive a global development factor score. On average, the global score of hearing-impaired children was more than one standard deviation (SD) below the mean of normal-hearing children at the same age. Regression analysis revealed that five factors, including female gender, absence of additional

  4. Oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation find their sites of expression in the changes in time and space of the age-adjusted cancer incidence rate.

    PubMed

    Kodama, M; Kodama, T; Murakami, M

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation is to elucidate the relation between the distribution pattern of the age-adjusted incidence rate (AAIR) changes in time and space of 15 tumors of bothe sexes and the locations of centers of centripetal-(oncogene type) and centrifugal-(tumoe suppressor gene type) forces. The fitness of the observed log AAIR data sets to the oncogene type- and the tumor suppressor gene type-equilibrium models and the locations of 2 force centers were calculated by applying the least square method of Gauss to log AAIR pair data series with and without topological data manipulations, which are so designed as to let log AAIR pair data series fit to 2 variant (x, y) frameworks, the Rect-coordinates and the Para-coordinates. The 2 variant (x, y) coordinates are defined each as an (x, y) framework with its X axis crossed at a right angle to the regression line of the original log AAIR data (the Rect-coordinates) and as another framework with its X axis run in parallel with the regression line of the original log AAIR pair data series (the Para-coordinates). The fitness test of log AAIR data series to either the oncogene activation type equilibrium model (r = -1.000) or the tumor suppressor gene inactivation type (r = 1.000) was conducted for each of the male-female type pair data and the female-male type data, for each of log AAIR changes in space and log AAIR changes in time, and for each of the 3 (x, y) frameworks in a given neoplasia of both sexes. The results obtained are given as follows: 1) The positivity rates of the fitness test to the oncogene type equilibrium model and the tumor suppressor gene type model were each 63.3% and 56.7% with the log AAIR changes in space, and 73.3% and 73.3% with log AAIR changes in time, as tested in 15 human neoplasias of both sexes. 2) Evidence was presented to indicate that the clearance of oncogene activation and tumor suppressor gene inactivation is the sine qua non premise of carciniogenesis. 3) The r

  5. Age and life course location as interpretive resources for decisions regarding disclosure of HIV to parents and children: Findings from the HIV and later life study.

    PubMed

    Rosenfeld, Dana; Ridge, Damien; Catalan, Jose; Delpech, Valerie

    2016-08-01

    Studies of disclosure amongst older people living with HIV (PLWH) are uninformed by critical social-gerontological approaches that can help us to appreciate how older PLWH see and treat age as relevant to disclosure of their HIV status. These approaches include an ethnomethodologically-informed social constructionism that explores how 'the' life course (a cultural framework depicting individuals' movement through predictable developmental stages from birth to death) is used as an interpretive resource for determining self and others' characteristics, capacities, and social circumstances: a process Rosenfeld and Gallagher (2002) termed 'lifecoursing'. Applying this approach to our analysis of 74 life-history interviews and three focus groups with older (aged 50+) people living with HIV in the United Kingdom, we uncover the central role that lifecoursing plays in participants' decision-making surrounding disclosure of their HIV to their children and/or older parents. Analysis of participants' accounts uncovered four criteria for disclosure: the relevance of their HIV to the other, the other's knowledge about HIV, the likelihood of the disclosure causing the other emotional distress, and the other's ability to keep the disclosed confidential. To determine if these criteria were met in relation to specific children and/or elders, participants engaged in lifecoursing, evaluating the other's knowledge of HIV, and capacity to appropriately manage the disclosure, by reference to their age. The use of assumptions about age and life-course location in decision-making regarding disclosure of HIV reflects a more nuanced engagement with age in the disclosure decision-making process than has been captured by previous research into HIV disclosure, including on the part of people aging with HIV. PMID:27531455

  6. Stay Well and Healthy! Pilot Study Findings from an In-Home Preventive Healthcare Programme for Persons Ageing with Intellectual and/or Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aronow, Harriet Udin; Hahn, Joan Earle

    2005-01-01

    Background:While disparities in the health status for persons ageing with intellectual and developmental disabilities have been well documented, interventions that address individual risks in physical, emotional, social and environmental health among this population are lacking. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility of two in-home…

  7. What Sort of Girl Wants to Study Physics after the Age of 16? Findings from a Large-Scale UK Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mujtaba, Tamjid; Reiss, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the characteristics of 15-year-old girls who express an intention to study physics post-16. This paper unpacks issues around within-girl group differences and similarities between boys and girls in survey responses about physics. The analysis is based on the year 10 (age 15 years) responses of 5,034 students from 137 UK…

  8. Childhood Predictors of Use and Costs of Antidepressant Medication by Age 24 Years: Findings from the Finnish Nationwide 1981 Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gyllenberg, David; Sourander, Andre; Niemela, Solja; Helenius, Hans; Sillanmaki, Lauri; Ristkari, Terja; Piha, Jorma; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Tamminen, Tuula; Moilanen, Irma; Almqvist, Fredrik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Prior studies on antidepressant use in late adolescence and young adulthood have been cross-sectional, and prospective associations with childhood psychiatric problems have not been examined. The objective was to study the association between childhood problems and lifetime prevalence and costs of antidepressant medication by age 24…

  9. Developing a Comprehensive Model of Risk and Protective Factors That Can Predict Spelling at Age Seven: Findings from a Community Sample of Victorian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serry, Tanya Anne; Castles, Anne; Mensah, Fiona K.; Bavin, Edith L.; Eadie, Patricia; Pezic, Angela; Prior, Margot; Bretherton, Lesley; Reilly, Sheena

    2015-01-01

    The paper reports on a study designed to develop a risk model that can best predict single-word spelling in seven-year-old children when they were aged 4 and 5. Test measures, personal characteristics and environmental influences were all considered as variables from a community sample of 971 children. Strong concurrent correlations were found…

  10. The Association of Childhood Intelligence with Mortality Risk from Adolescence to Middle Age: Findings from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, D. A.; Lawlor, D. A.; Clark, H.; Batty, G. D.; Macintyre, S.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing evidence that childhood IQ is inversely associated with mortality in later life. However, the specificity of this association in terms of causes of death, whether it is continuous over the whole range of IQ scores and whether it is the same according to age and sex is not clear. In a large cohort (N = 11,603) of a complete…

  11. Toward a National Policy on Aging: Volume I. Background, Organization, Program. Volume II. Conference Findings and Recommendations from the Sections and Special Concerns Sessions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White House Conference on Aging, Washington, DC.

    These two volumes comprise the official proceedings of the second White House Conference on Aging, held November 28-December 2, 1971. Volume I includes an overview of the Conference plan--its background, concepts, organization, and programming. It presents the contributions made by speakers at the General Sessions and Conference Delegate…

  12. Risk Factors for Macro- and Microvascular Complications among Older Adults with Diagnosed Type 2 Diabetes: Findings from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, Sheena M.; Fitzgerald, Anthony P.; Buckley, Claire M.; Canavan, Ronan J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To explore risk factors for macro- and microvascular complications in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 50 years and over with type 2 diabetes in Ireland. Methods. Data from the first wave of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) (2009–2011) was used in cross-sectional analysis. The presence of doctor diagnosis of diabetes, risk factors, and macro- and microvascular complications were determined by self-report. Gender-specific differences in risk factor prevalence were assessed with the chi-squared test. Binomial regression analysis was conducted to explore independent associations between established risk factors and diabetes-related complications. Results. Among 8175 respondents, 655 were classified as having type 2 diabetes. Older age, being male, a history of smoking, a lower level of physical activity, and a diagnosis of high cholesterol were independent predictors of macrovascular complications. Diabetes diagnosis of 10 or more years, a history of smoking, and a diagnosis of hypertension were associated with an increased risk of microvascular complications. Older age, third-level education, and a high level of physical activity were protective factors (p < 0.05). Conclusions. Early intervention to target modifiable risk factors is urgently needed to reduce diabetes-related morbidity in the older population in Ireland. PMID:27294152

  13. Trajectories of Offending and Their Relation to Life Failure in Late Middle Age: Findings from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piquero, Alex R.; Farrington, David P.; Nagin, Daniel S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers have hypothesized that over the life course, criminal offending varies with problems in other domains, including life failure and physical and mental health. To examine this issue, the authors use data from the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development, a prospective longitudinal survey of 411 South London males first studied at age 8…

  14. Mouse ECG findings in aging, with conduction system affecting drugs and in cardiac pathologies: Development and validation of ECG analysis algorithm in mice.

    PubMed

    Merentie, Mari; Lipponen, Jukka A; Hedman, Marja; Hedman, Antti; Hartikainen, Juha; Huusko, Jenni; Lottonen-Raikaslehto, Line; Parviainen, Viktor; Laidinen, Svetlana; Karjalainen, Pasi A; Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo

    2015-12-01

    Mouse models are extremely important in studying cardiac pathologies and related electrophysiology, but very few mouse ECG analysis programs are readily available. Therefore, a mouse ECG analysis algorithm was developed and validated. Surface ECG (lead II) was acquired during transthoracic echocardiography from C57Bl/6J mice under isoflurane anesthesia. The effect of aging was studied in young (2-3 months), middle-aged (14 months) and old (20-24 months) mice. The ECG changes associated with pharmacological interventions and common cardiac pathologies, that is, acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and progressive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), were studied. The ECG raw data were analyzed with an in-house ECG analysis program, modified specially for mouse ECG. Aging led to increases in P-wave duration, atrioventricular conduction time (PQ interval), and intraventricular conduction time (QRS complex width), while the R-wave amplitude decreased. In addition, the prevalence of arrhythmias increased during aging. Anticholinergic atropine shortened PQ time, and beta blocker metoprolol and calcium-channel blocker verapamil increased PQ interval and decreased heart rate. The ECG changes after AMI included early JT elevation, development of Q waves, decreased R-wave amplitude, and later changes in JT/T segment. In progressive LVH model, QRS complex width was increased at 2 and especially 4 weeks timepoint, and also repolarization abnormalities were seen. Aging, drugs, AMI, and LVH led to similar ECG changes in mice as seen in humans, which could be reliably detected with this new algorithm. The developed method will be very useful for studies on cardiovascular diseases in mice. PMID:26660552

  15. Chronic disease, risk factors and disability in adults aged 50 and above living with and without HIV: findings from the Wellbeing of Older People Study in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Mugisha, Joseph O.; Schatz, Enid J.; Randell, Madeleine; Kuteesa, Monica; Kowal, Paul; Negin, Joel; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on the prevalence of chronic conditions, their risk factors, and their associations with disability in older people living with and without HIV are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa. Objectives In older people living with and without HIV in sub-Saharan Africa: 1) to describe the prevalence of chronic conditions and their risk factors and 2) to draw attention to associations between chronic conditions and disability. Methods Cross-sectional individual-level survey data from people aged 50 years and over living with and without HIV were analyzed from three study sites in Uganda. Diagnoses of chronic conditions were made through self-report, and disability was determined using the WHO Disability Assessment Schedule (WHODAS). We used ordered logistic regression and calculated predicted probabilities to show differences in the prevalence of multiple chronic conditions across HIV status, age groups, and locality. We used linear regression to determine associations between chronic conditions and the WHODAS. Results In total, 471 participants were surveyed; about half the respondents were living with HIV. The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and eye problems (except for those aged 60–69 years) was higher in the HIV-positive participants and increased with age. The prevalence of diabetes and angina was higher in HIV-negative participants. The odds of having one or more compared with no chronic conditions were higher in women (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1–2.3) and in those aged 70 years and above (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2–3.6). Sleep problems (coefficient 14.2, 95% CI 7.3–21.0) and depression (coefficient 9.4, 95% CI 1.2–17.0) were strongly associated with higher disability scores. Conclusion Chronic conditions are common in older adults and affect their functioning. Many of these conditions are not currently addressed by health services in Uganda. There is a need to revise health care policy and practice in Uganda to consider the health needs of

  16. Can laboratory findings on eyewitness testimony be generalized to the real world? An archival analysis of the influence of violence, weapon presence, and age on eyewitness accuracy.

    PubMed

    Wagstaff, Graham F; MacVeigh, Jo; Boston, Richard; Scott, Lisa; Brunas-Wagstaff, Jo; Cole, Jon

    2003-01-01

    The authors conducted 2 studies to assess the effects of levels of violence, the presence of a weapon, and the age of the witness on the accuracy of eyewitness testimony in real-life crime situations. Descriptions of offenders were taken from eyewitnesses' statements obtained by the police and were compared with the actual details of the same offenders obtained on arrest. The results showed that eyewitnesses tended to recall the offenders' hairstyle and hair color most accurately. None of the effects for the level of violence, the presence of a weapon, or age approached statistical significance, with the exception that, in the 1st study, accuracy in describing hair color was better when associated with high levels of violence and in cases of rape. It is argued that caution must be exercised in generalizing from laboratory studies of eyewitness testimony to actual crime situations. PMID:12661701

  17. Heterogeneity in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowsky, David J.; Olshansky, S. Jay; Bhattacharya, Jay

    2014-01-01

    For a surprisingly large segment of the older population, chronological age is not a relevant marker for understanding, measuring, or experiencing healthy aging. Using the 2003 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the 2004 Health and Retirement Study to examine the proportion of Americans exhibiting five markers of health and the variation in health-related quality of life across each of eight age groups, we find that a significant proportion of older Americans is healthy within every age group beginning at age 51, including among those aged 85+. For example, 48% of those aged 51–54 and 28% of those aged 85+ have excellent or very good self-reported health status; similarly, 89% of those aged 51–54 and 56% of those aged 85+ report no health-based limitations in work or housework. Also, health-related quality of life ranges widely within every age group, yet there is only a comparatively small variation in median quality of life across age groups, suggesting that older Americans today may be experiencing substantially different age-health trajectories than their predecessors. Patterns are similar for medical expenditures. Several policy implications are explored. PMID:24249734

  18. Prevalence, Awareness, Treatment and Control of Hypertension in Indonesian Adults Aged ≥40 Years: Findings from the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS)

    PubMed Central

    Mamun, Abdullah Al; Reid, Christopher; Huxley, Rachel R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Hypertension is the major driver of the cardiovascular epidemic facing Indonesia in the 21st century. Understanding the socioeconomic inequalities associated with hypertension is essential for designing effective intervention strategies. The aim of the current study was to use sub-nationally representative survey data to examine socio-demographic inequalities in the prevalence, diagnosis and management of hypertension in Indonesian adults. Methods We investigated factors associated with hypertension prevalence, diagnosis, treatment and control using data on self-reported diagnosis and treatment, and blood pressure measurements, collected from 9755 respondents aged 40 years and up in the 2007 Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS 4). Results Age-standardized prevalence of hypertension among the study participants was 47.8% (95% CI: 46.8, 48.9), of which almost 70% were undiagnosed. Hypertension was significantly higher in women than men (52.3% versus 43.1%, p-value<0.001). Prevalence of hypertension increased significantly with ageing (Pfor trend <0.001). Over 91% (men: 92.1%, women: 90.0%) of hypertension cases were uncontrolled. Gender, education and socioeconomic status had differential impact on the diagnosis of hypertension and in receiving treatment. Conclusions Overall, less than a third were aware of their hypertension and a quarter of those on medication had their blood pressure effectively controlled. Men and those of younger age were more vulnerable to have undiagnosed and untreated hypertension. Substantial effort should be given to improve awareness about the condition and making provision for early diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27556532

  19. Prevalence of autism spectrum disorders among children (1-10 years of age) – Findings of a mid-term report from Northwest India

    PubMed Central

    Raina, SK; Kashyap, V; Bhardwaj, AK; Kumar, D; Chander, V

    2015-01-01

    Background: India is the second most populous country of the world. A large portion of the population of this country is below 20 years of age but still there is a paucity of information about the prevalence and incidence of many developmental disorders. This study was planned to estimate the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in the selected areas (tribal, rural, and urban) of a northern state of India, Himachal Pradesh. Methods: A cross-sectional two-phase study was conducted covering all the children in the range of 1-10 years of age. Phase one included screening of all the children in the age group of 1-10 years, with the help of an indigenous assessment tool for autism. The sociodemographic profile of the participants was also recorded during phase one. Phase two involved the clinical evaluation of individuals who were suspected of autism on screening. Results: The results show a prevalence rate of 0.9/1000. The highest prevalence rate was observed in the rural area. Conclusions: Socioeconomic status (SES) may be one of the fundamental indicators for ASDs in India. PMID:26440394

  20. School-age effects of the newborn individualized developmental care and assessment program for preterm infants with intrauterine growth restriction: preliminary findings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The experience in the newborn intensive care nursery results in premature infants’ neurobehavioral and neurophysiological dysfunction and poorer brain structure. Preterms with severe intrauterine growth restriction are doubly jeopardized given their compromised brains. The Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program improved outcome at early school-age for preterms with appropriate intrauterine growth. It also showed effectiveness to nine months for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction. The current study tested effectiveness into school-age for preterms with intrauterine growth restriction regarding executive function (EF), electrophysiology (EEG) and neurostructure (MRI). Methods Twenty-three 9-year-old former growth-restricted preterms, randomized at birth to standard care (14 controls) or to the Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program (9 experimentals) were assessed with standardized measures of cognition, achievement, executive function, electroencephalography, and magnetic resonance imaging. The participating children were comparable to those lost to follow-up, and the controls to the experimentals, in terms of newborn background health and demographics. All outcome measures were corrected for mother’s intelligence. Analysis techniques included two-group analysis of variance and stepwise discriminate analysis for the outcome measures, Wilks’ lambda and jackknifed classification to ascertain two-group classification success per and across domains; canonical correlation analysis to explore relationships among neuropsychological, electrophysiological and neurostructural domains at school-age, and from the newborn period to school-age. Results Controls and experimentals were comparable in age at testing, anthropometric and health parameters, and in cognitive and achievement scores. Experimentals scored better in executive function, spectral coherence, and cerebellar volumes. Furthermore

  1. Prevalence and Impact of Pain among Older Adults in the United States: Findings from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Kushang V.; Guralnik, Jack M.; Dansie, Elizabeth J.; Turk, Dennis C.

    2013-01-01

    The study sought to determine the prevalence and impact of pain in a nationally representative sample of older adults in the United States (US). Data from the 2011 National Health and Aging Trends Study were analyzed. In-person interviews were conducted in 7,601 adults ages ≥65 years. The response rate was 71.0% and all analyses were weighted to account for the sampling design. The overall prevalence of bothersome pain in the last month was 52.9%, afflicting 18.7 million older adults in the US. Pain did not vary across age groups (P=0.21) and this pattern remained unchanged when accounting for cognitive performance, dementia, proxy-responses, and residential care living status. Pain prevalence was higher in women and in older adults with obesity, musculoskeletal conditions, and depressive symptoms (P<0.001). The majority (74.9%) of older adults with pain endorsed multiple sites of pain. Several measures of physical capacity, including grip strength and lower extremity physical performance, were associated with pain and multisite pain. For example, self-reported inability to walk 3 blocks was 72% higher in participants with than without pain [adjusted Prevalence Ratio=1.72 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.56–1.90)]. Participants with 1, 2, 3, and >4 sites of pain had gait speeds that were 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, and 0.08 meters per second slower, respectively, than older adults without pain, adjusting for disease burden and other confounders (P<0.001). In summary, bothersome pain in the last month was reported by half of the older adult population of the US in 2011 and was strongly associated with decreased physical function. PMID:24287107

  2. Changes and socioeconomic factors associated with attitudes towards domestic violence among Vietnamese women aged 15–49: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2006–2011

    PubMed Central

    Trinh, Oanh Thi Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Choi, Sugy; To, Kien Gia; Van Do, Dung

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women is important for designing effective policies to prevent this behavior. Previous studies have largely overlooked risk factors associated with domestic violence-supportive attitudes by women in Vietnam. Objective This paper explores and identifies socioeconomic factors that contribute to domestic violence–supportive attitudes among Vietnamese women using data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS). Design Secondary data from two cross-sectional studies (MICS 3, 2006, and MICS 4, 2011) with representative samples (9,471 and 11,663 women, respectively) in Vietnam were analyzed. The prevalence of supportive attitudes toward domestic violence and associations with age, residence region, area, education level, household wealth index, ethnicity, and marital status were estimated using descriptive statistics and multivariate Poisson models, giving estimates of relative risk. Results Overall, the prevalence of acceptance of domestic violence declined between 2006 and 2011 in Vietnam (65.1% vs. 36.1%). Socioeconomic factors associated with women's condoning of domestic violence were age, wealth, education level, and living area. In particular, younger age and low educational attainment were key factors associated with violence-supportive attitudes, and these associations have become stronger over time. Conclusion Higher educational attainment in women is an important predictor of women's attitudes toward domestic violence. To date, Doi Moi and the Vietnamese government's commitment to the Millennium Development Goals may have positively contributed to lowering the acceptance of domestic violence. Tailored interventions that focus on education will be important in further changing attitudes toward domestic violence. PMID:26950567

  3. Age-Related Increases in Basal Ganglia Glutamate are Associated with TNF-Alpha, Reduced Motivation and Decreased Psychomotor Speed During IFN-alpha Treatment: Preliminary Findings

    PubMed Central

    Haroon, Ebrahim; Felger, Jennifer C.; Woolwine, Bobbi J.; Chen, Xiangchuan; Parekh, Samir; Spivey, James; Hu, Xiaoping; Miller, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation-induced alterations in central nervous system (CNS) metabolism have focused on glutamate. At excessive concentrations, glutamate is toxic to glia and neurons, and inflammatory cytokines have been shown to influence glutamate metabolism by blocking glutamate reuptake and increasing glutamate release. Increased glutamate has also been found in depression, a disorder associated with increased inflammation. Data by our group have shown increased glutamate as measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in basal ganglia and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex of patients administered the inflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-alpha. Given data that increasing age is associated with an exaggerated CNS inflammatory response, we examined whether older age (>55 years) would be associated with a greater IFN-alpha-induced increase in CNS glutamate. Using a longitudinal design, 31 patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) underwent MRS, blood sampling for inflammatory markers, and behavioral assessments before (Visit1) and after four weeks (Visit 2) of either IFN-alpha (n=17) or no treatment (n=14). Older patients treated with IFN-alpha exhibited a significantly increased glutamate from Visit 1 to Visit 2 as reflected by the glutamate/creatine ratio (Glu/Cr) in left basal ganglia compared to older controls and younger IFN-alpha-treated and untreated subjects. In addition, increased Glu/Cr in older but not younger IFN-alpha-treated and untreated patients was associated with increased tumor necrosis factor, reduced motivation as measured by the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and increased choice movement time on the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery. Taken together, these preliminary data support the notion that older age may interact with inflammation to exaggerate the effects of inflammatory stimuli on CNS glutamate and behavior. PMID:25500218

  4. Mobility Device Use Among Older Adults and Incidence of Falls and Worry About Falling: Findings From the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study

    PubMed Central

    Gell, Nancy M.; Wallace, Robert B.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Mroz, Tracy M.; Patel, Kushang V.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To examine mobility device use prevalence among community-dwelling older adults in the U.S. and to investigate the incidence of falls and worry about falling by the type and number of mobility devices used. DESIGN Analysis of cross-sectional and longitudinal data from the 2011–2012 National Health and Aging Trends Study SETTING In-person interviews in the homes of study participants PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative sample of Medicare beneficiaries(N=7609). MEASUREMENTS Participants were asked about mobility device use (e.g., canes, walkers, wheelchairs and scooters) in the last month, one-year fall history and worry about falling. RESULTS Twenty-four percent of adults age ≥65 reported mobility device use in 2011 and 9.3% reported using multiple devices within the last month. Mobility device use increased with advancing age and was associated with non-White race/ethnicity, female sex, lower education level, greater multi-morbidity, and obesity (all P-values < 0.001). Adjusting for demographic, health characteristics, and physical function, the incidence of falls and recurrent falls were not associated with the use of multiple devices or any one particular type of mobility device. Activity-limiting worry about falling was significantly higher in cane-only users, compared with non-users. CONCLUSION The percentage of older adults reporting mobility device use is higher compared to results from previous national surveys and multiple device use is common among those who use any device. Mobility device use is not associated with increased incidence of falls compared to non-device users. Cane-only users may compensate for worry about falling by limiting activity. PMID:25953070

  5. Higher serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate protects against the onset of depression in the elderly: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA)

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Teodoro, Luis H; de Oliveira, Cesar; Walters, Kate; Carvalho, Livia A

    2016-01-01

    Depression is one of the major causes of disability worldwide, but the complete etiology of depression is not fully understood. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated form DHEA(S) have been associated with mood and healthy aging. Associations with mental illness over the middle to late years of life have not yet been extensively investigated in large, western community-dwelling samples. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low DHEA(S) levels are associated with the development of depressive symptoms in a large longitudinal cohort study of older men and women. We assessed data from English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) to evaluate the association of DHEA(S) levels and depressive symptoms measured by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Scale (CES-D) at baseline (n = 3083) and at 4-year follow-up (n = 3009). At baseline, there was an inverse association between DHEA(S) and depressive symptoms (B = −0.252, p = 0.014). Adjustments for physical illnesses, impairments in cognitive function and health behaviors abolished this association (p = 0.109) at baseline. Decreased DHEA(S) levels at baseline also predicted incident depression at 4-year follow-up (B = −0.332, p < 0.001). In conclusion, higher DHEA(S) levels were associated with reduced risk of developing depressive symptoms in both men and women. PMID:26600009

  6. Higher serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate protects against the onset of depression in the elderly: Findings from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA).

    PubMed

    Souza-Teodoro, Luis H; de Oliveira, Cesar; Walters, Kate; Carvalho, Livia A

    2016-02-01

    Depression is one of the major causes of disability worldwide, but the complete etiology of depression is not fully understood. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulphated form DHEA(S) have been associated with mood and healthy aging. Associations with mental illness over the middle to late years of life have not yet been extensively investigated in large, western community-dwelling samples. The aim of this study was to investigate whether low DHEA(S) levels are associated with the development of depressive symptoms in a large longitudinal cohort study of older men and women. We assessed data from English Longitudinal Study of Aging (ELSA) to evaluate the association of DHEA(S) levels and depressive symptoms measured by Center for Epidemiologic Studies Scale (CES-D) at baseline (n=3083) and at 4-year follow-up (n=3009). At baseline, there was an inverse association between DHEA(S) and depressive symptoms (B=-0.252, p=0.014). Adjustments for physical illnesses, impairments in cognitive function and health behaviors abolished this association (p=0.109) at baseline. Decreased DHEA(S) levels at baseline also predicted incident depression at 4-year follow-up (B=-0.332, p<0.001). In conclusion, higher DHEA(S) levels were associated with reduced risk of developing depressive symptoms in both men and women. PMID:26600009

  7. Trajectories of Pure and Co-Occurring Internalizing and Externalizing Problems from Age 2 to Age 12: Findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fanti, Kostas A.; Henrich, Christopher C.

    2010-01-01

    How and why do internalizing and externalizing problems, psychopathological problems from different diagnostic classes representing separate forms of psychopathology, co-occur in children? We investigated the development of pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems from ages 2 to 12 with the use of latent class growth…

  8. Menopause accelerates biological aging.

    PubMed

    Levine, Morgan E; Lu, Ake T; Chen, Brian H; Hernandez, Dena G; Singleton, Andrew B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D J; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L; Horvath, Steve

    2016-08-16

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the "epigenetic clock"), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926

  9. Associations of Cannabis and Cigarette Use with Depression and Anxiety at Age 18: Findings from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Gage, Suzanne H.; Hickman, Matthew; Heron, Jon; Munafò, Marcus R.; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Zammit, Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Substance use is associated with common mental health disorders, but the causal effect of specific substances is uncertain. We investigate whether adolescent cannabis and cigarette use is associated with incident depression and anxiety, while attempting to account for confounding and reverse causation. Methods We used data from ALSPAC, a UK birth cohort study, to investigate associations between cannabis or cigarettes (measured at age 16) and depression or anxiety (measured at age 18), before and after adjustment for pre-birth, childhood and adolescent confounders. Our imputed sample size was 4561 participants. Results Both cannabis (unadjusted OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.26, 1.80) and cigarette use (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.16, 1.61) increased the odds of developing depression. Adjustment for pre-birth and childhood confounders partly attenuated these relationships though strong evidence of association persisted for cannabis use. There was weak evidence of association for cannabis (fully adjusted OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.98, 1.72) and insufficient evidence for association for cigarette use (fully adjusted OR = 0.97, 95% CI 0.75, 1.24) after mutually adjusting for each other, or for alcohol or other substance use. Neither cannabis nor cigarette use were associated with anxiety after adjustment for pre-birth and childhood confounders. Conclusions Whilst evidence of association between cannabis use and depression persisted after adjusting for pre-term and childhood confounders, our results highlight the difficulties in trying to estimate and interpret independent effects of cannabis and tobacco on psychopathology. Complementary methods are required to robustly examine effects of cannabis and tobacco on psychopathology. PMID:25875443

  10. Current barriers to treatment for wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD): findings from the wAMD patient and caregiver survey

    PubMed Central

    Varano, Monica; Eter, Nicole; Winyard, Steve; Wittrup-Jensen, Kim U; Navarro, Rafael; Heraghty, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose A cross-sectional survey to evaluate the current management of wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD) and to identify barriers to treatment from a patient and caregiver perspective. Methods An ophthalmologist-devised questionnaire was given to a global cohort of patients who were receiving (or had previously received) antivascular endothelial growth factor injections and to caregivers (paid and unpaid) to evaluate the impact of wAMD on their lives. Results Responders included 910 patients and 890 caregivers; wAMD was diagnosed in both eyes in 45% of patients, and 64% had been receiving injections for > 1 year. Many caregivers were a child/grandchild (47%) or partner (23%) of the patient; only 7% were professional caregivers. Most (73%) patients visited a health care professional within 1 month of experiencing vision changes and 54% began treatment immediately. Most patients and caregivers reported a number of obstacles in managing wAMD, including the treatment itself (35% and 39%, respectively). Sixteen percent of patients also missed a clinic visit. Conclusion Most patients seek medical assistance promptly for a change in vision; however, about a quarter of them do not. This highlights a lack of awareness surrounding eye health and the impact of a delayed diagnosis. Most patients and caregivers identified a number of obstacles in managing wAMD. PMID:26664038

  11. Vitamin D deficiency in Malaysian adolescents aged 13 years: findings from the Malaysian Health and Adolescents Longitudinal Research Team study (MyHeARTs)

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sadat, Nabilla; Majid, Hazreen Abdul; Sim, Pei Ying; Su, Tin Tin; Dahlui, Maznah; Abu Bakar, Mohd Fadzrel; Dzaki, Najat; Norbaya, Saidatul; Murray, Liam; Cantwell, Marie M; Jalaludin, Muhammad Yazid

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (<37.5 nmol/L) among young adolescents in Malaysia and its association with demographic characteristics, anthropometric measures and physical activity. Design This is a cross-sectional study among Form 1 (year 7) students from 15 schools selected using a stratified random sampling design. Information regarding sociodemographic characteristics, clinical data and environmental factors was collected and blood samples were taken for total vitamin D. Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression was performed on the data. Setting National secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia. Participants 1361 students (mean age 12.9±0.3 years) (61.4% girls) completed the consent forms and participated in this study. Students with a chronic health condition and/or who could not understand the questionnaires due to lack of literacy were excluded. Main outcome measures Vitamin D status was determined through measurement of sera 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). Body mass index (BMI) was classified according to International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria. Self-reported physical activity levels were assessed using the validated Malay version of the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C). Results Deficiency in vitamin D was seen in 78.9% of the participants. The deficiency was significantly higher in girls (92.6%, p<0.001), Indian adolescents (88.6%, p<0.001) and urban-living adolescents (88.8%, p<0.001). Females (OR=8.98; 95% CI 6.48 to 12.45), adolescents with wider waist circumference (OR=2.64; 95% CI 1.65 to 4.25) and in urban areas had higher risks (OR=3.57; 95% CI 2.54 to 5.02) of being vitamin D deficient. Conclusions The study shows a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among young adolescents. Main risk factors are gender, ethnicity, place of residence and obesity. PMID:27540095

  12. Nutritional status and dietary intakes of children aged 6 months to 12 years: findings of the Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children (SEANUTS Malaysia).

    PubMed

    Poh, Bee Koon; Ng, Boon Koon; Siti Haslinda, Mohd Din; Nik Shanita, Safii; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Budin, Siti Balkis; Ruzita, Abd Talib; Ng, Lai Oon; Khouw, Ilse; Norimah, A Karim

    2013-09-01

    The dual burden of malnutrition reportedly coexists in Malaysia; however, existing data are scarce and do not adequately represent the nutritional status of Malaysian children. The Nutrition Survey of Malaysian Children was carried out with the aim of assessing the nutritional status in a sample of nationally representative population of children aged 6 months to 12 years. A total of 3542 children were recruited using a stratified random sampling method. Anthropometric measurements included weight, height, mid-upper arm circumference, and waist and hip circumferences. Blood biochemical assessment involved analyses of Hb, serum ferritin, and vitamins A and D. Dietary intake was assessed using semi-quantitative FFQ, and nutrient intakes were compared with the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes (RNI). The prevalence of overweight (9·8%) and obesity (11·8%) was higher than that of thinness (5·4%) and stunting (8·4%). Only a small proportion of children had low levels of Hb (6·6%), serum ferritin (4·4%) and vitamin A (4·4%), but almost half the children (47·5%) had vitamin D insufficiency. Dietary intake of the children was not compatible with the recommendations, where more than one-third did not achieve the Malaysian RNI for energy, Ca and vitamin D. The present study revealed that overnutrition was more prevalent than undernutrition. The presence of high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and the inadequate intake of Ca and vitamin D are of concern. Hence, strategies for improving the nutritional status of Malaysian children need to consider both sides of malnutrition and also put emphasis on approaches for the prevention of overweight and obesity as well as vitamin D insufficiency. PMID:24016764

  13. The emotional and physical impact of wet age-related macular degeneration: findings from the wAMD Patient and Caregiver Survey

    PubMed Central

    Varano, Monica; Eter, Nicole; Winyard, Steve; Wittrup-Jensen, Kim U; Navarro, Rafael; Heraghty, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This was a cross-sectional survey to evaluate the physical and emotional impact of wet age-related macular degeneration (wAMD) on a global cohort of patients who were receiving (or had previously received) antivascular endothelial growth factor injections, and caregivers (paid and unpaid). Methods The survey was performed in nine countries using an ophthalmologist-devised questionnaire. Results A total of 910 patients and 890 caregivers completed the questionnaire. Most patients had been diagnosed and receiving antivascular endothelial growth factor injections for more than 1 year (74.7% and 63.8%, respectively), and many patients (82.1%) received support from a caregiver (usually a child/grandchild [47.3%] or partner [23.3%]). wAMD had a negative impact on most patients (71.6%); many rated fear (44.9%), sadness (39.9%), frustration (37.3%), and depression (34.0%) as common. It was linked to physical consequences, such as difficulty in reading (61.1%). Many effects were significantly greater in patients with a longer duration of disease or with wAMD in both eyes. Some caregivers (unpaid) also reported that caregiving had a negative impact on them (31.1%); many reported emotions such as sadness (34.9%) and depression (24.4%), but many also felt useful (48.4%). Overall, 27.2% of caregivers (unpaid) rated caregiving as inconvenient; this was linked to days of employment/personal obligations missed. Conclusion wAMD has a significant negative impact on the lives of patients, including vision-related depression, poor mobility, and limitations in day-to-day activities. The impact on nonprofessional caregivers may be underestimated in terms of emotional impact (such as depression) and loss of productivity. PMID:26893539

  14. Water and Beverage Consumption among Children Aged 4-13 Years in Lebanon: Findings from a National Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Jomaa, Lamis; Hwalla, Nahla; Constant, Florence; Naja, Farah; Nasreddine, Lara

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates total water intake (TWI) from plain water, beverages and foods among Lebanese children and compares TWI to dietary reference intakes (DRIs). In a national cross-sectional survey, data on demographic, socioeconomic, anthropometric, and physical activity characteristics were obtained from 4 to 13-year-old children (n = 752). Food and beverage consumption patterns were assessed using a validated food-frequency questionnaire. TWI was estimated at 1651 mL/day, with beverages contributing 72% of the TWI compared to 28% from foods. Beverages with the highest contribution to TWI included plain water, fruit juice and soda. A significantly higher proportion of 9-13-year-old children failed to meet the DRIs compared to 4-8 years old (92%-98% vs. 74%). Gender differentials were observed with a significantly higher proportion of boys meeting the DRIs compared to girls. The water to energy ratio ranged between 0.84 and 0.87, which fell short of meeting the desirable recommendations. In addition, children from higher socioeconomic status had higher intakes of water from milk and bottled water, coupled with lower water intakes from sodas. The study findings show an alarming high proportion of Lebanese children failing to meet TWI recommendations, and call for culture-specific interventions to instill healthy fluid consumption patterns early in life. PMID:27618092

  15. Rock Finding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  16. Aging and Language Production

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Deborah M.; Shafto, Meredith A.

    2008-01-01

    Experimental research and older adults’ reports of their own experience suggest that the ability to produce the spoken forms of familiar words declines with aging. Older adults experience more word-finding failures, such as tip-of-the-tongue states, than young adults do, and this and other speech production failures appear to stem from difficulties in retrieving the sounds of words. Recent evidence has identified a parallel age-related decline in retrieving the spelling of familiar words. Models of cognitive aging must explain why these aspects of language production decline with aging whereas semantic processes are well maintained. We describe a model wherein aging weakens connections among linguistic representations, thereby reducing the transmission of excitation from one representation to another. The structure of the representational systems for word phonology and orthography makes them vulnerable to transmission deficits, impairing retrieval. PMID:18414600

  17. Suggested Acquaintance/Date Rape Education & Prevention Strategies for School Health Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiler, Robert M.; Walls, Nicole A.

    Data suggest that acquaintance and date rape may account for 50-70 percent of all reported rapes in the United States. Recent findings also indicate that one in four college women have been raped or a victim of attempted rape. As most rape victims are between 15 and 24 years of age, high school-based education programs must be provided if society…

  18. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees' shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (M age = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals' perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  19. Pulmonary talcosis: imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Edson; Lourenço, Sílvia; Gasparetto, Taisa Davaus; Zanetti, Gláucia; Mano, Cláudia Mauro; Nobre, Luiz Felipe

    2010-04-01

    Talc is a mineral widely used in the ceramic, paper, plastics, rubber, paint, and cosmetic industries. Four distinct forms of pulmonary disease caused by talc have been defined. Three of them (talcosilicosis, talcoasbestosis, and pure talcosis) are associated with aspiration and differ in the composition of the inhaled substance. The fourth form, a result of intravenous administration of talc, is seen in drug users who inject medications intended for oral use. The disease most commonly affects men, with a mean age in the fourth decade of life. Presentation of patients with talc granulomatosis can range from asymptomatic to fulminant disease. Symptomatic patients typically present with nonspecific complaints, including progressive exertional dyspnea, and cough. Late complications include chronic respiratory failure, emphysema, pulmonary arterial hypertension, and cor pulmonale. History of occupational exposure or of drug addiction is the major clue to the diagnosis. The high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) finding of small centrilobular nodules associated with heterogeneous conglomerate masses containing high-density amorphous areas, with or without panlobular emphysema in the lower lobes, is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. The characteristic histopathologic feature in talc pneumoconiosis is the striking appearance of birefringent, needle-shaped particles of talc seen within the giant cells and in the areas of pulmonary fibrosis with the use of polarized light. In conclusion, computed tomography can play an important role in the diagnosis of pulmonary talcosis, since suggestive patterns may be observed. The presence of these patterns in drug abusers or in patients with an occupational history of exposure to talc is highly suggestive of pulmonary talcosis. PMID:20155272

  20. Suggested Universals in the Ontogenesis of Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slobin, Dan I.

    This paper represents a preliminary attempt to determine universals of grammatical development in children. On the basis of language acquisition data, a limited number of findings are presented in the form of suggested developmental universals. These universals are grouped according to the psychological variables which may determine them, in the…

  1. Finding a Job in the Internet Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain, Christine

    2005-01-01

    Internet job searching offers an empirical setting in which to explore the trade-off between quality and quantity of information. As both firms and workers turn to the internet for unprecedented amounts of labor market information, it is unclear whether this makes the matching process more efficient. Using longitudinal data on two samples of…

  2. Measuring Children's Suggestibility in Forensic Interviews.

    PubMed

    Volpini, Laura; Melis, Manuela; Petralia, Stefania; Rosenberg, Melina D

    2016-01-01

    According to the scientific literature, childrens' cognitive development is not complete until adolescence. Therefore, the problems inherent in children serving as witnesses are crucial. In preschool-aged children, false memories may be identified because of misinformation and insight bias. Additionally, they are susceptible of suggestions. The aim of this study was to verify the levels of suggestibility in children between three and 5 years of age. Ninety-two children were examined (44 male, 48 female; M = 4.5 years, SD = 9.62). We used the correlation coefficient (Pearson's r) and the averages variance by SPSS statistical program. The results concluded that: younger children are almost always more susceptible to suggestibility. The dimension of immediate recall was negatively correlates with that of total suggestibility (r = -0.357 p < 0.001). Social compliance and source monitoring errors contribute to patterns of suggestibility, because older children shift their answers more often (r = 0.394 p < 0.001). Younger children change their answers more times (r = -0.395 p < 0.001). PMID:27404406

  3. Personality, Self-Rated Health and Subjective Age in a Life-Span Sample: The Moderating Role of Chronological Age

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Yannick; Demulier, Virginie; Terracciano, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The present study tested whether chronological age moderates the association between subjective age and self-rated health and personality in a community-dwelling lifespan sample (N=1,016; age-range: 18–91). Self-rated health, extraversion, and openness to experience were associated with a younger subjective age at older ages. Conscientious individuals felt more mature early in life. Conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness were not related to subjective age at older ages. These findings suggest that with aging self-rated health and personality traits are increasingly important for subjective age. PMID:22582885

  4. Organizational Climate for Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Zacher, Hannes; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Research on successful aging at work has neglected contextual resources such as organizational climate, which refers to employees’ shared perceptions of their work environment. We introduce the construct of organizational climate for successful aging (OCSA) and examine it as a buffer of the negative relationship between employee age and focus on opportunities (i.e., beliefs about future goals and possibilities at work). Moreover, we expected that focus on opportunities, in turn, positively predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and motivation to continue working after official retirement age. Data came from 649 employees working in 120 companies (Mage = 44 years, SD = 13). We controlled for organizational tenure, psychological climate for successful aging (i.e., individuals’ perceptions), and psychological and organizational age discrimination climate. Results of multilevel analyses supported our hypotheses. Overall, our findings suggest that OCSA is an important contextual resource for successful aging at work. PMID:27458405

  5. 10 Suggestions for Enhancing Lecturing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, Ray

    2010-01-01

    Criticism of the lecture method remains a staple of discussion and writing in academia--and most of the time it's deserved! Those interested in improving this aspect of their teaching might wish to consider some or all of the following suggestions for enhancing lectures. These include: (1) Lectures must start with a "grabber"; (2) Lectures must be…

  6. Tooth Tutoring: The Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cone, Richard; And Others

    Findings are reported on a three year cross-age tutoring program in which undergraduate dental hygiene students and college students from other disciplines trained upper elementary students to tutor younger students in the techniques of dental hygiene. Data includes pre-post scores on the Oral Hygiene Index of plaque for both experimental and…

  7. Finding food

    PubMed Central

    Forsyth, Ann; Lytle, Leslie; Riper, David Van

    2011-01-01

    A significant amount of travel is undertaken to find food. This paper examines challenges in measuring access to food using Geographic Information Systems (GIS), important in studies of both travel and eating behavior. It compares different sources of data available including fieldwork, land use and parcel data, licensing information, commercial listings, taxation data, and online street-level photographs. It proposes methods to classify different kinds of food sales places in a way that says something about their potential for delivering healthy food options. In assessing the relationship between food access and travel behavior, analysts must clearly conceptualize key variables, document measurement processes, and be clear about the strengths and weaknesses of data. PMID:21837264

  8. Myocontrol in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fimbel, Eric J.; Arguin, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Myoelectric (EMG) signals are used in assistive technology for prostheses, computer and domestic control. An experimental study previously conducted with young participants was replicated with elderly persons in order to assess the effect of age on the ability to control myoelectric amplitude (or myocontrol). Participants performed pointing tasks as the myoelectric amplitude was captured by a surface electrode in two modalities (sustained: stabilize the amplitude after reaching the desired level; impulsion: return immediately to resting amplitude). There was a significant decrease of performance with Age. However, the patterns of performance of young and aged were noticeably similar. The Impulsion modality was difficult (high rates of failure) and the speed-accuracy trade-offs predicted by Fitts' law were absent (bow-shaped patterns as function of target amplitude instead of logarithmic increase). Conversely, the reach phase of the Sustained modality followed the predictions of Fitts' law. However, the slope of the regression line with Fitts' index of difficulty was quite steeper in aged than in young participants. These findings suggest that 1) all participants, young and aged, adapt their reaching strategies to the anticipated state (sustained amplitude or not) and/or to the difficulty of the task, 2) myocontrol in aged persons is more fragile, i.e., performance is markedly degraded as the difficulty of the task increases. However, when individual performance was examined, some aged individuals were found to perform as well as the young participants, congruently with the literature on good aging. PMID:18030349

  9. Eyewitness Memory and Suggestibility in Children with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Lucy A.; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.

    1999-01-01

    A study compared how well 31 children (ages 11-12) with mental retardation, 19 age-matched (CA) children, and 21 mental-age (MA) matched children were able to recall a staged event one day later. Children with mental retardation were more suggestible in response to closed misleading questions than were CA children. (Contains references.)…

  10. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  11. Revision of Suggested State Regulations.

    PubMed

    Winston, John P

    2016-02-01

    It is the mission of the Conference of Radiation Control Program Directors (CRCPD) to promote radiological health in all aspects and phases of implementation and to create a seamless and coherent regulatory structure across the United States. CRCPD currently has 25 committees charged with the development of Suggested State Regulations (SSRs) for everything from transportation and waste disposal to tanning and medical therapy. The SR-F Committee is responsible for the suggested regulations of the equipment and processes used in medical diagnostic and interventional x-ray procedures. Several states are required by law to adopt the SSR verbatim, making it vital that they are kept current. The current revision of SR-F brought together representatives from the state radiation control programs, the Food and Drug Administration, the American Association of Physicists in Medicine, American College of Radiology, and industry. Through the course of two meetings and multiple conference calls, the Committee finalized an updated draft. The CRCPD process for the development of SSR is well established and includes internal and external peer review, review by the state Director Members, approval by the Board of Directors, and concurrence from relevant federal agencies. Once final, an SSR allows a state radiation control program to proceed through the state's own regulatory process with a vetted set of regulations, making this difficult process more efficient and effective. PMID:26717174

  12. Age and Alcohol, Marijuana and Hard Drug Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnermeyer, Joseph F.; Huang, Tung Chung

    1991-01-01

    Examined interactive nature of age in predicting alcohol, marijuana, and drug use among 435 seventh and eleventh graders. Found statistically significant interaction terms for age with peer and social control factors for each type of usage. Findings suggest that many factors commonly associated with adolescent usage may be conditioned by age.…

  13. Aging and functional brain networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi D.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-07-11

    Aging is associated with changes in human brain anatomy and function and cognitive decline. Recent studies suggest the aging decline of major functional connectivity hubs in the 'default-mode' network (DMN). Aging effects on other networks, however, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that aging would be associated with a decline of short- and long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) hubs in the DMN. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated resting-state data sets corresponding to 913 healthy subjects from a public magnetic resonance imaging database using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM), a voxelwise and data-driven approach, together with parallel computing. Aging was associated with pronounced long-range FCD decreases in DMN and dorsal attention network (DAN) and with increases in somatosensory and subcortical networks. Aging effects in these networks were stronger for long-range than for short-range FCD and were also detected at the level of the main functional hubs. Females had higher short- and long-range FCD in DMN and lower FCD in the somatosensory network than males, but the gender by age interaction effects were not significant for any of the networks or hubs. These findings suggest that long-range connections may be more vulnerable to aging effects than short-range connections and that, in addition to the DMN, the DAN is also sensitive to aging effects, which could underlie the deterioration of attention processes that occurs with aging.

  14. Building false memories without suggestions.

    PubMed

    Foster, Jeffrey L; Garry, Maryanne

    2012-01-01

    People can come to remember doing things they have never done. The question we asked in this study is whether people can systematically come to remember performing actions they never really did, in the absence of any suggestion from the experimenter. People built LEGO vehicles, performing some steps but not others. For half the people, all the pieces needed to assemble each vehicle were laid out in order in front of them while they did the building; for the other half, the pieces were hidden from view. The next day, everyone returned for a surprise recognition test. People falsely and confidently remembered having carried out steps they did not; those who saw all the pieces while they built each vehicle were more likely to correctly remember performing steps they did perform but equally likely to falsely remember performing steps they did not. We explain our results using the source monitoring framework: People used the relationships between actions to internally generate the missing, related actions, later mistaking that information for genuine experience. PMID:22774684

  15. Research Findings on Overactive Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Phani B.; Patra, Sayani

    2015-01-01

    Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957

  16. Angiographic Findings in Biliary Atresia

    SciTech Connect

    Uflacker, Renan Pariente, Daniele M.

    2004-09-15

    We present the angiographic findings of 46 patients with biliary atresia (BA). There were 25 males and 21 females, with a mean age of 22.5 months (range - 1.5 to 141 months). Hepatic and mesenteric angiography were obtained as part of a liver transplantation work-up or as part of the treatment of clinical events. All patients had a histological diagnosis of BA. The portal vein was patent in 43 patients, with a mean size of 4.1 mm, using the arterial catheter as comparison. Portal hepatopetal flow was observed in 20 patient and hepatofugal flow was observed in 21 patients. Presence of gastroesophageal varices was observed in 41 patients. The hepatic artery was enlarged in all patients. In all 46 patients studied, the intrahepatic peripheral hepatic artery branches presented with irregularities in contour, including encasement, strictures, dilatation and angulation, and images suggestive of peripheral occlusion. Angiographic vascular 'tuft-like' blush surrounding the irregular or occluded peripheral arterial segments was observed in 40 patients. The injection of Microfil (registered) in one case showed a marked vascular proliferation within the portal tract, apparently derived from arterial and portal connections, filling the entire portal space. We conclude that the presence of angiographically demonstrable perivascular arterial tufts in the periphery of the hepatic arterial circulation is a common finding in cases of BA, and may be a characteristic diagnostic angiographic finding.

  17. The etiology of prostate cancer: what does the epidemiology suggest

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, R.K.; Paganini-Hill, A.; Henderson, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    The two most important demographic characteristics of prostate cancer in Los Angeles are the high rates among blacks, which are two times those among whites and four times those among Asians, and the rapid increase in rates with age after age 40. Despite the high rates among blacks, a birth cohort analysis indicates that mortality rates among black men born after 1900 have decreased. In this report, epidemiologic and experimental evidence supporting each of three etiologic hypotheses--industrial exposure to cadmium, sexual transmission by an infectious agent, and endocrine factors--are reviewed. Evidence from descriptive data in Los Angeles suggests that only a small portion of cases might be attributable to industrial exposures. In a cohort study of Catholic priests, we found no deficit of prostate cancer mortality, strong evidence against sexual transmission of the disease. Experimental evidence and a limited amount of human data support an endocrine hypothesis. Preliminary results of a case-control study of prostate cancer are presented, but these results are unable to distinguish among these hypotheses further. This study finds a substantial protective effect of vasectomy, an event that is accompanied by reduced prostatic function and size, but this result is thus far statistically insignificant.

  18. Typical and Optimal Aging in Women and Men: Is There a Double Standard?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canetto, Silvia Sara; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined gender stereotypes of typical and optimal mentally healthy aging. Respondents--young adults (n=232) and their older adult relatives/acquaintances (n=233)--reported more gender stereotypes than age stereotypes. Perceptions of typical aging varied with certain factors. Findings suggest a double standard of aging for typical but not for…

  19. Predatory senescence in ageing wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacNulty, D.R.; Smith, D.W.; Vucetich, J.A.; Mech, L.D.; Stahler, D.R.; Packer, C.

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that ageing handicaps the ability of prey to escape predators, yet surprisingly little is known about how ageing affects the ability of predators to catch prey. Research into long-lived predators has assumed that adults have uniform impacts on prey regardless of age. Here we use longitudinal data from repeated observations of individually-known wolves (Canis lupus) hunting elk (Cervus elaphus) in Yellowstone National Park to demonstrate that adult predatory performance declines with age and that an increasing ratio of senescent individuals in the wolf population depresses the rate of prey offtake. Because this ratio fluctuates independently of population size, predatory senescence may cause wolf populations of equal size but different age structure to have different impacts on prey populations. These findings suggest that predatory senescence is an important, though overlooked, factor affecting predator-prey dynamics. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  20. The Effects of Repeated Experience on Children's Suggestibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Martine B.; Roberts, Kim P.; Ceci, Stephen J.; Hembrooke, Helene

    1999-01-01

    Examined effect of suggestive questions on 3- to 5-year-olds' and 6- to 8-year-olds' recall of the final occurrence of repeated event. Found that relative to reports of children experiencing single occurrence, reports about fixed items of repeated events were less contaminated by false suggestions. Children's age and delay of interview were…

  1. Parenting Practices and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: New Findings Suggest Partial Specificity of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Brandi; Nigg, Joel

    2009-01-01

    The relation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and parenting practices is examined by assessing 182 children for ADHD and non ADHD status through parent semistructured clinical interview. Results show that maternal inconsistent discipline and paternal low involvement is associated with the disorder.

  2. Examining Attitudes toward College Students with Minority Sexual Orientations: Findings and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurgens, Jill C.; Schwitzer, Alan M.; Middleton, Tracy

    2004-01-01

    This qualitative study combined descriptive written instruments and focus group data to investigate heterosexual college students' current attitudes toward gay and lesbian peers, a distinctly at-risk population. Overall, participants were generally supportive, but participants felt public pressure to hide or shield the support they felt for gay…

  3. Evolutionary theories of aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Gavrilov, Leonid A; Gavrilova, Natalia S

    2002-02-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide students and researchers entering the field of aging studies with an introduction to the evolutionary theories of aging, as well as to orient them in the abundant modern scientific literature on evolutionary gerontology. The following three major evolutionary theories of aging are discussed: 1) the theory of programmed death suggested by August Weismann, 2) the mutation accumulation theory of aging suggested by Peter Medawar, and 3) the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging suggested by George Williams. We also discuss a special case of the antagonistic pleiotropy theory, the disposable soma theory developed by Tom Kirkwood and Robin Holliday. The theories are compared with each other as well as with recent experimental findings. At present the most viable evolutionary theories are the mutation accumulation theory and the antagonistic pleiotropy theory; these theories are not mutually exclusive, and they both may become a part of a future unifying theory of aging. Evolutionary theories of aging are useful because they open new opportunities for further research by suggesting testable predictions, but they have also been harmful in the past when they were used to impose limitations on aging studies. At this time, the evolutionary theories of aging are not ultimate completed theories, but rather a set of ideas that themselves require further elaboration and validation. This theoretical review article is written for a wide readership. PMID:12806021

  4. Neural reorganization and compensation in aging.

    PubMed

    Morcom, Alexa M; Johnson, Wendy

    2015-07-01

    According to prominent theories of aging, the brain may reorganize to compensate for neural deterioration and prevent or offset cognitive decline. A frequent and striking finding in functional imaging studies is that older adults recruit additional regions relative to young adults performing the same task. This is often interpreted as evidence for functional reorganization, suggesting that, as people age, different regions or networks may support the same cognitive functions. Associations between additional recruitment and better performance in older adults have led to the suggestion that the additional recruitment may contribute to preserved cognitive function in old age and may explain some of the variation among individuals in preservation of function. However, many alternative explanations are possible, and recent findings and methodological developments have highlighted the need for more systematic approaches to determine whether reorganization occurs with age and whether it benefits performance. We reevaluate current evidence for compensatory functional reorganization in the light of recent moves to address these challenges. PMID:25603025

  5. Peroxisome Metabolism and Cellular Aging

    PubMed Central

    Titorenko, Vladimir I.; Terlecky, Stanley R.

    2010-01-01

    The essential role of peroxisomes in fatty acid oxidation, anaplerotic metabolism, and hydrogen peroxide turnover is well established. Recent findings suggest these and other related biochemical processes governed by the organelle may also play a critical role in regulating cellular aging. The goal of this review is to summarize and integrate into a model, the evidence that peroxisome metabolism actually helps define the replicative and chronological age of a eukaryotic cell. In this model, peroxisomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) are seen as altering organelle biogenesis and function, and eliciting changes in the dynamic communication networks that exist between peroxisomes and other cellular compartments. At low levels, peroxisomal ROS activate an anti-aging program in the cell; at concentrations beyond a specific threshold, a pro-aging course is triggered. PMID:21083858

  6. The Video Suggestibility Scale for Children: how generalizable is children's performance to other measures of suggestibility?

    PubMed

    McFarlane, Felicity; Powell, Martine B

    2002-01-01

    This study explored the generalizability of the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC), which was developed by Scullin and colleagues (Scullin & Ceci, 2001; Scullin & Hembrooke, 1998) as a tool for discriminating among children (aged three to five years) who have different levels of suggestibility. The VSSC consists of two subscales; Yield (a measure of children's willingness to acquiesce to misleading questions) and Shift (a measure of children's tendency to change their responses after feedback from the interviewer). Children's (N = 77) performance on each of the subscales was compared with their performance using several other measures of suggestibility. These measures included children's willingness to assent to a false event as well as the number of false interviewer suggestions and false new details that the children provided when responding to cued-recall questions about an independent true-biased and an independent false (non-experienced) event. An independent samples t-test revealed that those children who assented to the false event generated higher scores on the Yield measure. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that Yield was a significant predictor of the number of false details reported about the false activity, but not the true-biased activity. There was no significant relationship between the Shift subscale and any of the dependent variables. The potential contribution of the VSSC for forensic researchers and practitioners is discussed. PMID:12465135

  7. Pharmacists Can Manage Some Chronic Conditions Effectively, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine how well pharmacists might perform if they led the management of a person's chronic disease, Wilt ... people. The findings suggest that patients receiving pharmacist-led care were more likely to achieve target goals ...

  8. The Aging Neighborhood: Phonological Density in Naming

    PubMed Central

    Kurczek, Jake C.

    2013-01-01

    Aging affects the ability to retrieve words for production, despite maintainence of lexical knowledge. In this study, we investigate the influence of lexical variables on picture naming accuracy and latency in adults ranging in age from 22 to 86 years. In particular, we explored the influence of phonological neighborhood density, which has been shown to exert competitive effects on word recognition, but to facilitate word production, a finding with implications for models of the lexicon. Naming responses were slower and less accurate for older participants, as expected. Target frequency also played a strong role, with facilitative frequency effects becoming stronger with age. Neighborhood density interacted with age, such that naming was slower for high-density than low-density items, but only for older subjects. Explaining this finding within an interactive activation model suggests that, as we age, the ability of activated neighbors to facilitate target production diminishes, while their activation puts them in competition with the target. PMID:24563568

  9. Postnatal overestimation of gestational age in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Shukla, H; Atakent, Y S; Ferrara, A; Topsis, J; Antoine, C

    1987-10-01

    In a study involving 25 preterm infants, obstetric clinical age (standard gestational age) was determined by history, physical examination, and ultrasonographic evaluation. Postnatally, these infants were then evaluated using the Dubowitz Scoring System (DSS) for gestational age assessment. The DSS, as administered by us, significantly overestimated gestational age compared with the standard gestational age (mean +/- 1 SD: 34.2 +/- 2.9 vs 32.5 +/- 3.9 weeks, respectively) in preterm infants. To illustrate, the gestational ages of 13 newborns (52%) in the total study group were each overestimated by more than two weeks. This percentage increased to 75% among the 16 infants whose gestational ages were less than 34 weeks (by standard gestational age). When the standard gestational age was underestimated by the DSS, this difference never exceeded two weeks. These findings suggest that the present system of postnatal assessment of gestational age in preterm infants needs further investigation. PMID:3307384

  10. Structural Imaging Measures of Brain Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lockhart, Samuel N.

    2014-01-01

    During the course of normal aging, biological changes occur in the brain that are associated with changes in cognitive ability. This review presents data from neuroimaging studies of primarily “normal” or healthy brain aging. As such, we focus on research in unimpaired or nondemented older adults, but also include findings from lifespan studies that include younger and middle aged individuals as well as from populations with prodromal or clinically symptomatic disease such as cerebrovascular or Alzheimer’s disease. This review predominantly addresses structural MRI biomarkers, such as volumetric or thickness measures from anatomical images, and measures of white matter injury and integrity respectively from FLAIR or DTI, and includes complementary data from PET and cognitive or clinical testing as appropriate. The findings reveal highly consistent age-related differences in brain structure, particularly frontal lobe and medial temporal regions that are also accompanied by age-related differences in frontal and medial temporal lobe mediated cognitive abilities. Newer findings also suggest that degeneration of specific white matter tracts such as those passing through the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum may also be related to age-related differences in cognitive performance. Interpretation of these findings, however, must be tempered by the fact that comorbid diseases such as cerebrovascular and Alzheimer’s disease also increase in prevalence with advancing age. As such, this review discusses challenges related to interpretation of current theories of cognitive aging in light of the common occurrence of these later-life diseases. Understanding the differences between “Normal” and “Healthy” brain aging and identifying potential modifiable risk factors for brain aging is critical to inform potential treatments to stall or reverse the effects of brain aging and possibly extend cognitive health for our aging society. PMID:25146995

  11. Oral health of individuals aged 3-80 years in Jönköping, Sweden during 40 years (1973-2013). II. Review of clinical and radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Norderyd, Ola; Koch, Göran; Papias, Apostolos; Köhler, Alkisti Anastassaki; Helkimo, Anna Nydell; Brahm, Carl-Otto; Lindmark, Ulrika; Lindfors, Ninita; Mattsson, Anna; Rolander, Bo; Ullbro, Christer; Gerdin, Elisabeth Wärnberg; Frisk, Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this epidemiological study performed in 2013 was to analyze various clinical and radiographic data on oral health and compare the results to those of four cross-sectional studies carried out 1973-2003. In 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013 random samples of 1,000; 1,104; 1,078; 987; and 1,010 individuals, respectively, were studied. The individuals were evenly distributed in the age groups 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, and 80o years. Eighty-year-olds were not included in 1973. All subjects were inhabitants of the city of Jönköping, Sweden. The clinical and radiographic examination assessed edentulousness, removable dentures, implants, number of teeth, caries, restorations, oral hygiene, calculus, periodontal status, and endodontic treatment. The frequency of edentulous individuals aged 40-70 years was 16, 12, 8, 1, and 0.3% in 1973, 1983, 1993, 2003, and 2013, respectively. No complete denture weareryounger than 80-years old was found in 2013. During the 40-year period, the mean number of teeth in the age groups 30-80 years increased. In 2013, the 60-year-olds had nearly complete dentitions. Implants were found in all age groups from 30 years of age. The total number of individuals with implants was 36 in 2013. This was higher than earlier surveys, 4 in 1993, and 18 in 2003. The percentage of children and adults without caries and restorations increased during the 40-year period. It was found that the percentage of caries-free 3- and 5-year-olds were 79% and 69%, respectively, of the individuals in 2013. In the age groups 10-20 years, the percentage of caries-free individuals increased between 2003 and 2013. In 2013, 43% of the 15-year-olds were completely free from caries and restorations compared to 20% in 2003. In all age groups 5-60 years, DFS was lower in 2013 compared to the earlier examinations.There was no major change in DFS between 2003 and 2013 in the age groups 70 and 80 years. The most obvious change was the decrease in number of FS

  12. The new biology of ageing

    PubMed Central

    Partridge, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Human life expectancy in developed countries has increased steadily for over 150 years, through improvements in public health and lifestyle. More people are hence living long enough to suffer age-related loss of function and disease, and there is a need to improve the health of older people. Ageing is a complex process of damage accumulation, and has been viewed as experimentally and medically intractable. This view has been reinforced by the realization that ageing is a disadvantageous trait that evolves as a side effect of mutation accumulation or a benefit to the young, because of the decline in the force of natural selection at later ages. However, important recent discoveries are that mutations in single genes can extend lifespan of laboratory model organisms and that the mechanisms involved are conserved across large evolutionary distances, including to mammals. These mutations keep the animals functional and pathology-free to later ages, and they can protect against specific ageing-related diseases, including neurodegenerative disease and cancer. Preliminary indications suggest that these new findings from the laboratory may well also apply to humans. Translating these discoveries into medical treatments poses new challenges, including changing clinical thinking towards broad-spectrum, preventative medicine and finding novel routes to drug development. PMID:20008392

  13. Aging women with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Pentland, Wendy; Miscio, Gina; Eastabrook, Shirley; Krupa, Terry

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the aging experiences of women with schizophrenia. The research focused on how participants viewed their own aging with schizophrenia, their perceived worries and concerns and how they were coping with aging with the disorder. Using a qualitative approach, data were collected using multiple in-depth interviews with six participants selected purposefully from the client list of a community mental health center. Interview transcriptions were coded and analyzed according to the study questions using QSR Nudist 4 software. Several categories and sub-categories emerged. These included the improvement in the illness over time; physical and daily living activity limitations; specific positive and negative changes that the women report have accompanied aging; the profound losses experienced by the participants when they were younger as a result of having schizophrenia; and how these losses have affected their present lives in terms of limiting available informal support, creating dependency on formal programs and services, and participants' fears of the future. Based on the study findings, implications for mental health practice and services are considered and suggestions are made to guide future research. PMID:12653450

  14. Visual direction finding by fishes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waterman, T. H.

    1972-01-01

    The use of visual orientation, in the absence of landmarks, for underwater direction finding exercises by fishes is reviewed. Celestial directional clues observed directly near the water surface or indirectly at an asymptatic depth are suggested as possible orientation aids.

  15. Age Discrimination, Social Closure and Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscigno, Vincent J.; Mong, Sherry; Byron, Reginald; Tester, Griff

    2007-01-01

    Age discrimination in employment has received mounting attention over the past two decades, and from various cross-cutting social science disciplines. Findings from survey and experimental analyses have revealed the pervasiveness of ageist stereotypes, while aggregate and life course analyses suggest trends toward downward occupational mobility…

  16. Somatosensory findings in postherpetic neuralgia.

    PubMed Central

    Nurmikko, T; Bowsher, D

    1990-01-01

    Somatic sensory perception thresholds (warm, cold, hot pain, touch, pinprick, vibration, two-point discrimination), allodynia and skin temperature were assessed in the affected area of 42 patients with unilateral postherpetic neuralgia (PHN) and 20 patients who had had unilateral shingles not followed by PHN (NoPHN), and in the mirror-image area on the other side. There was no difference between the two groups for age or length of time after the acute herpes zoster infection. The PHN group showed significant changes in all sensory threshold measurements when the affected area was compared with the mirror-image area on the unaffected side, while the NoPHN group exhibited no threshold changes. Mechanical allodynia was present in 87% of the PHN group; half of the 12 patients with ophthalmic PHN showed extension of allodynia to the maxillary distribution. No differences in skin temperature were recorded between affected and unaffected regions in either group. Our findings show a deficit of sensory functions mediated by both large and small primary afferent fibres and also suggest major central involvement in the pathophysiology of the condition. If PHN does not occur following acute herpes zoster, recovery of neural functions appears to be good. PMID:2313300

  17. Age matters in the prevalence and clinical significance of ultra-high-risk for psychosis symptoms and criteria in the general population: Findings from the BEAR and BEARS-kid studies

    PubMed Central

    Schimmelmann, Benno G; Michel, Chantal; Martz-Irngartinger, Alexandra; Linder, Caroline; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of psychosis is an important topic in psychiatry. Yet, there is limited information on the prevalence and clinical significance of high-risk symptoms in children and adolescents as compared to adults. We examined ultra-high-risk (UHR) symptoms and criteria in a sample of individuals aged 8-40 years from the general population of Canton Bern, Switzerland, enrolled from June 2011 to May 2014. The current presence of attenuated psychotic symptoms (APS) and brief intermittent psychotic symptoms (BLIPS) and the fulfillment of onset/worsening and frequency requirements for these symptoms in UHR criteria were assessed using the Structured Interview for Psychosis Risk Syndromes. Additionally, perceptive and non-perceptive APS were differentiated. Psychosocial functioning and current non-psychotic DSM-IV axis I disorders were also surveyed. Well-trained psychologists performed assessments. Altogether, 9.9% of subjects reported APS and none BLIPS, and 1.3% met all the UHR requirements for APS. APS were related to more current axis I disorders and impaired psychosocial functioning, indicating some clinical significance. A strong age effect was detected around age 16: compared to older individuals, 8-15-year olds reported more perceptive APS, that is, unusual perceptual experiences and attenuated hallucinations. Perceptive APS were generally less related to functional impairment, regardless of age. Conversely, non-perceptive APS were related to low functioning, although this relationship was weaker in those below age 16. Future studies should address the differential effects of perceptive and non-perceptive APS, and their interaction with age, also in terms of conversion to psychosis. PMID:26043337

  18. Age Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2015-10-01

    The ages of rocks from the lunar highlands vary widely, even for a single rock sample. This makes it difficult to quantitatively test ideas for early lunar differentiation and formation of the crust. Lars Borg and Amy Gaffney (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory), and Charles Shearer (University of New Mexico) have devised a set of guidelines to apply to geochronological data that leads to a relative ranking of the reliability of the age determined for a sample. Applying their guidelines to existing data for lunar highland rocks shows an upper limit on rock ages between 4340 and 4370 million years. This is essentially the same as the so-called model ages of the formation of KREEP (a chemical component enriched in potassium, rare earth elements, and phosphorous) and of the formation of the deep source regions that melted to produce mare basalts. The numerous ages close to 4370 million years suggests a complicated and protracted cooling of the primordial lunar magma ocean or a widespread vigorous period of magmatic activity in the Moon.

  19. LATE-AGE ONSET SCLERODERMA

    PubMed Central

    Manno, Rebecca L.; Wigley, Fredrick M.; Gelber, Allan C.; Hummers, Laura K.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Although patients who develop scleroderma (SSc) later in life (≥ 65 years) may express the entire clinical spectrum of disease, we hypothesize that patients with late-age onset incur a different risk for specific organ manifestations of disease compared to those with younger-age onset SSc. METHODS In total, 2300 SSc patients were evaluated between 1990–2009 and reviewed from a university-based Scleroderma Center cohort. Demographic profile, SSc subtype, autoantibody status, Medsger severity scores, pulmonary function tests, echocardiography, and right heart catheterization parameters were compared between late-age versus younger-age onset patients. RESULTS Overall, 2084 (91%) patients developed SSc prior to age 65; whereas 216 (9%) were ≥65 years. Late-age onset patients had a significantly higher proportion of anti-centromere antibodies (42% vs 27%; p=0.001) compared to younger-age onset. Risk of pulmonary hypertension (OR 1.77; 95%CI 1.00, 3.12), muscle weakness (OR 1.85; 95%CI 1.30, 2.64), renal impairment (OR 2.83; 95%CI 1.98, 4.04) and cardiac disease (OR 2.69; 95%CI 1.92, 3.78) was greater among those with late-age onset SSc; although risk of digital ischemia (OR 0.64; 95%CI 0.47, 0.86) was reduced. The cumulative incidence of pulmonary hypertension at 5 years was greater among those with late-age (9%) compared to younger-age (2.5%) onset SSc (log-rank, p<0.001). CONCLUSION These findings suggest that older SSc patients are at greater risk for pulmonary hypertension, renal impairment, cardiac disease, and muscle weakness. Awareness of the distinct risk for specific organ manifestations in SSc, in particular pulmonary hypertension, should guide the care of older SSc patients whose disease begins after age 65 years. PMID:21685299

  20. Measurement of individual differences in children's suggestibility across situations.

    PubMed

    Scullin, Matthew H; Kanaya, Tomoe; Ceci, Stephen J

    2002-12-01

    The authors attempted to use scores on the Video Suggestibility Scale for Children (VSSC, M. H. Scullin & S. J. Ceci, 2001) to predict 50 preschool children's performance during a field study in which they were interviewed suggestively 4 times about both a true event and a suggested event. Among the 25 children over age 4 years 6 months, tendencies on the VSSC to respond affirmatively to suggestive questions ("yield"), change answers in response to negative feedback ("shift"), and the sum of these ("total suggestibility") were all related to lack of accuracy about the true event in the field study and to both accuracy and lack of accuracy about the suggested event. Results support a 2-factor model of suggestibility. PMID:12570098

  1. 29 CFR 785.45 - Suggestion systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suggestion systems. 785.45 Section 785.45 Labor Regulations..., Medical Attention, Civic and Charitable Work, and Suggestion Systems § 785.45 Suggestion systems... general suggestion system is not working time, but if employees are permitted to work on...

  2. Age, Intelligence, and Event-Related Brain Potentials during Late Childhood: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stauder, Johannes E. A.; van der Molen, Maurits W.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the relationship between event-related brain activity, age, and intelligence using a visual oddball task presented to girls at 9, 10, and 11 years of age. Findings for 26 girls suggest a qualitative shift in the relation between event-related brain activity and intelligence between 9 and 10 years of age. (SLD)

  3. Input and Long-Term Effects of Starting Age in Foreign Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munoz, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the long-term effects of starting age and the effects of input in an instructed language learning setting. First, with respect to the effects of starting age, the findings suggest that in the long term and after similar amounts of input, starting age is not a predictor of language outcomes. Second, the study examines the…

  4. Stone Morphology Suggestive of Randall's Plaque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daudon, Michel; Traxer, Olivier; Jungers, Paul; Bazin, Dominique

    2007-04-01

    Randall's plaques are found in a number of calcium oxalate stone formers. Stones developed on a Randall's plaque typically present a small depressed zone ("umbilication") corresponding to the tip of the papilla and containing material detached from the plaque. By examining the morphology and infrared composition of 45,774 calculi referred to our laboratory over the past three decades, we identified 8,916 umbilicated calculi (19.5%). We have selected three periods of time corresponding to the first years of each decade. Over these periods, we analyzed 26,182 consecutive calculi. Among them, we identified 5,401 umbilicated calculi, of which 91.5% had an identifiable plaque. We analyzed the relative prevalence of umbilicated stones over time and the respective composition of Randall's plaque and stones. The proportion of umbilicated stones rose significantly from 10% in period 1 (1978-1984) to 21% in period 2 (1990-1993) and 22.2% in period 3 (2000-2006), with a parallel rise in the prevalence of stones with identifiable Randall's plaque. The main component of plaques was carbapatite in 90.8% of cases, whereas other components such as amorphous carbonated calcium phosphate, sodium hydrogen urate or uric acid were found in other cases. The morphology of plaques made of carbapatite was diverse, as was their carbonate content, thus suggesting variable pathophysiological mechanisms. Stones were made of whewellite as the main component in 51.4% of cases, or admixed with weddellite in 26.8%, predominant weddellite in 12.5% and other components (mainly uric acid) in 7.5% of cases. Our findings confirm that Randall's plaques are made of carbapatite in the great majority of cases, but with the stones more frequently composed of calcium oxalate monohydrate (which is associated with hyperoxaluria) than of calcium oxalate dihydrate (associated with hypercalciuria). In conclusion, in our country, stones developed on a carbapatite Randall's plaque are as frequently made of

  5. Comparative Endocrinology of Aging and Longevity Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Allard, John B.; Duan, Cunming

    2011-01-01

    Hormones regulate growth, development, metabolism, and other complex processes in multicellular animals. For many years it has been suggested that hormones may also influence the rate of the aging process. Aging is a multifactorial process that causes biological systems to break down and cease to function in adult organisms as time passes, eventually leading to death. The exact underlying causes of the aging process remain a topic for debate, and clues that may shed light on these causes are eagerly sought after. In the last two decades, gene mutations that result in delayed aging and extended longevity have been discovered, and many of the affected genes have been components of endocrine signaling pathways. In this review we summarize the current knowledge on the roles of endocrine signaling in the regulation of aging and longevity in various animals. We begin by discussing the notion that conserved systems, including endocrine signaling pathways, “regulate” the aging process. Findings from the major model organisms: worms, flies, and rodents, are then outlined. Unique lessons from studies of non-traditional models: bees, salmon, and naked mole rats, are also discussed. Finally, we summarize the endocrinology of aging in humans, including changes in hormone levels with age, and the involvement of hormones in aging-related diseases. The most well studied and widely conserved endocrine pathway that affects aging is the insulin/insulin-like growth factor system. Mutations in genes of this pathway increase the lifespan of worms, flies, and mice. Population genetic evidence also suggests this pathway’s involvement in human aging. Other hormones including steroids have been linked to aging only in a subset of the models studied. Because of the value of comparative studies, it is suggested that the aging field could benefit from adoption of additional model organisms. PMID:22654825

  6. Gay aging.

    PubMed

    Haber, David

    2009-01-01

    The oldest of the baby boomers (boomers) were age 63 in 2009 and on the verge of retirement. This cohort has had a history of making societal changes throughout its life cycle, and it is unlikely that retirement, as we know it, will remain unscathed. This article highlights two events-the Stonewall Inn riots and two prominent professional associations removing homosexuality from their list of personality disorders-and how they occurred early enough in the gay boomers life cycle to change their attitudes, behaviors, and lifestyles. This article introduces the reader to a broad array of facts, research findings, and issues that inform the topic of gay aging. A summary of the discrimination and legal concerns affecting the gay community are also highlighted. Two influential community programs are identified: Services and Advocacy for Gay Elders (SAGE) and the American Society on Aging's LGBT Aging Issues Network (LAIN). Gerontological educators need to be sensitive to the needs, desires, and resources of the coming cohort of gay boomers, who are more likely to advocate for responsive services, organizations, and policies than the current cohort of gay older adults. PMID:19697188

  7. Improvement in nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian school children: findings from the 'Medical education for children/Adolescents for Realistic prevention of obesity and diabetes and for healthy aGeing' ( MARG) intervention study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Priyali; Misra, Anoop; Gupta, Nidhi; Hazra, Daya Kishore; Gupta, Rajeev; Seth, Payal; Agarwal, Anand; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Jain, Arvind; Kulshreshta, Atul; Hazra, Nandita; Khanna, Padmamalika; Gangwar, Prasann Kumar; Bansal, Sunil; Tallikoti, Pooja; Mohan, Indu; Bhargava, Rooma; Sharma, Rekha; Gulati, Seema; Bharadwaj, Swati; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Goel, Kashish

    2010-08-01

    Increasing prevalence of childhood obesity calls for comprehensive and cost-effective educative measures in developing countries such as India. School-based educative programmes greatly influence children's behaviour towards healthy living. We aimed to evaluate the impact of a school-based health and nutritional education programme on knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian school children. Benchmark assessment of parents and teachers was also done. We educated 40 196 children (aged 8-18 years), 25 000 parents and 1500 teachers about health, nutrition, physical activity, non-communicable diseases and healthy cooking practices in three cities of North India. A pre-tested questionnaire was used to assess randomly selected 3128 children, 2241 parents and 841 teachers before intervention and 2329 children after intervention. Low baseline knowledge and behaviour scores were reported in 75-94 % government and 48-78 % private school children, across all age groups. A small proportion of government school children gave correct answers about protein (14-17 %), carbohydrates (25-27 %) and saturated fats (18-32 %). Private school children, parents and teachers performed significantly better than government school subjects (P < 0.05). Following the intervention, scores improved in all children irrespective of the type of school (P < 0.001). A significantly higher improvement was observed in younger children (aged 8-11 years) as compared with those aged 12-18 years, in females compared with males and in government schools compared with private schools (P < 0.05 for all). Major gaps exist in health and nutrition-related knowledge and behaviour of urban Asian Indian children, parents and teachers. This successful and comprehensive educative intervention could be incorporated in future school-based health and nutritional education programmes. PMID:20370939

  8. Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus/news/fullstory_159032.html Smoking Harms Black Americans' Kidneys, Study Suggests Researchers say inflammation or cigarette ... a significant risk to kidney health for black Americans, new research suggests. The study included more than ...

  9. Helping Youth Navigate the Media Age: A New Approach to Drug Prevention. Findings of the National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign Media Literacy Summit White House Conference Center, June 01, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This report highlights the findings of the 2001 National Youth Anti-Drug Media Campaign Summit. Because the campaigns entire strategy acknowledges the power and influence of the media on Americas youth, it is important and appropriate for the initiative to help young people develop their critical thinking skills by further investigating media…

  10. Predictors of intentions to quit smoking in Aboriginal tobacco smokers of reproductive age in regional New South Wales (NSW), Australia: quantitative and qualitative findings of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Gould, Gillian Sandra; Watt, Kerrianne; McEwen, Andy; Cadet-James, Yvonne; Clough, Alan R

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the predictors of intentions to quit smoking in a community sample of Aboriginal smokers of reproductive age, in whom smoking prevalence is slow to decline. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional survey involved 121 Aboriginal smokers, aged 18–45 years from January to May 2014, interviewed at community events on the Mid-North Coast NSW. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected on smoking and quitting attitudes, behaviours and home smoking rules. Perceived efficacy for quitting, and perceived threat from smoking, were uniquely assessed with a validated Risk Behaviour Diagnosis (RBD) Scale. Main outcome measures Logistic regression explored the impact of perceived efficacy, perceived threat and consulting previously with a doctor or health professional (HP) on self-reported intentions to quit smoking, controlling for potential confounders, that is, protection responses and fear control responses, home smoking rules, gender and age. Participants’ comments regarding smoking and quitting were investigated via inductive analysis, with the assistance of Aboriginal researchers. Results Two-thirds of smokers intended to quit within 3 months. Perceived efficacy (OR=4.8; 95% CI 1.78 to 12.93) and consulting previously with a doctor/HP about quitting (OR=3.82; 95% CI 1.43 to 10.2) were significant predictors of intentions to quit. ‘Smoking is not doing harm right now’ was inversely associated with quit intentions (OR=0.25; 95% CI 0.08 to 0.8). Among those who reported making a quit attempt, after consulting with a doctor/HP, 40% (22/60) rated the professional support received as low (0–2/10). Qualitative themes were: the negatives of smoking (ie, disgust, regret, dependence and stigma), health effects and awareness, quitting, denial, ‘smoking helps me cope’ and social aspects of smoking. Conclusions Perceived efficacy and consulting with a doctor/HP about quitting may be important predictors of intentions to quit

  11. Effectiveness of a website and mobile phone based physical activity and nutrition intervention for middle-aged males: Trial protocol and baseline findings of the ManUp Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Compared to females, males experience higher rates of chronic disease and mortality, yet few health promotion initiatives are specifically aimed at men. Therefore, the aim of the ManUp Study is to examine the effectiveness of an IT-based intervention to increase the physical activity and nutrition behaviour and literacy in middle-aged males (aged 35–54 years). Method/Design The study design was a two-arm randomised controlled trial, having an IT-based (applying website and mobile phones) and a print-based intervention arm, to deliver intervention materials and to promote self-monitoring of physical activity and nutrition behaviours. Participants (n = 317) were randomised on a 2:1 ratio in favour of the IT-based intervention arm. Both intervention arms completed assessments at baseline, 3, and 9 months. All participants completed self-report assessments of physical activity, sitting time, nutrition behaviours, physical activity and nutrition literacy, perceived health status and socio-demographic characteristics. A randomly selected sub-sample in the IT-based (n = 61) and print-based (n = 30) intervention arms completed objective measures of height, weight, waist circumference, and physical activity as measured by accelerometer (Actigraph GT3X). The average age of participants in the IT-based and print-based intervention arm was 44.2 and 43.8 years respectively. The majority of participants were employed in professional occupations (IT-based 57.6%, Print-based 54.2%) and were overweight or obese (IT-based 90.8%, Print-based 87.3%). At baseline a lower proportion of participants in the IT-based (70.2%) group agreed that 30 minutes of physical activity each day is enough to improve health compared to the print-based (82.3%) group (p = .026). The IT-based group consumed a significantly lower number of serves of red meat in the previous week, compared to the print-based group (p = .017). No other significant between

  12. English Education and Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, Candida

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that English teachers are in an excellent position to help students learn about the aged and aging because they know literature that treats the joys and pains of later life and they understand how language shapes and reflects cultural attitudes. Proposes objectives and presents samples of activities to be used in an aging unit. (MM)

  13. Effects of stereotypes and suggestion on memory.

    PubMed

    Shechory, Mally; Nachson, Israel; Glicksohn, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    In this study, the interactive effect of stereotype and suggestion on accuracy of memory was examined by presenting 645 participants (native Israelis and immigrants from the former Soviet Union and Ethiopia) with three versions of a story about a worker who is waiting in a manager's office for a meeting. All versions were identical except for the worker's name, which implied a Russian or an Ethiopian immigrant or a person of no ethnic origin. Each participant was presented with one version of the story. After an hour delay, the participants' memories were tested via two questionnaires that differed in terms of level of suggestion. Data analyses show that (a) when a suggestion matched the participant's stereotypical perception, the suggestion was incorporated into memory but (b) when the suggestion contradicted the stereotype, it did not influence memory. The conclusion was that recall is influenced by stereotypes but can be enhanced by compatible suggestions. PMID:18662974

  14. Hypnotizability, not suggestion, influences false memory development.

    PubMed

    Dasse, Michelle N; Elkins, Gary R; Weaver, Charles A

    2015-01-01

    Hypnotizability influences the development of false memories. In Experiment 1, participants heard a positive or negative suggestion regarding hypnosis and then listened to 8 Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory paradigm lists in a hypnotic state. Neither hypnosis nor prehypnotic suggestion affected memory. Highly hypnotizable participants were more accurate in recall and recognition. In Experiment 2, suggestions were delivered in the form of feedback. Participants heard a positive or negative suggestion about their performance prior to either the encoding or retrieval of 8 DRM lists. Neither accurate nor false memories were affected by the suggestion. Highly hypnotizable individuals recognized fewer critical lures if they received a negative suggestion about their performance. These results highlight the unusual role of hypnotizability in the creation of false memories. PMID:25365130

  15. Individual personality characteristics related to suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Van Hook, Cheryl W; Steele, Connie

    2002-12-01

    The current study investigated the relationship between suggestibility of memory, personality characteristics identified by the Millon Index of Personality Traits, and tolerance for ambiguity measured by MacDonald's Ambiguity Tolerance-20. 85 female and 16 male college students were assigned to either an experimental group receiving the suggestive information or a control group. Suggestibility was assessed using Lindberg's suggestibility measure consisting of a short video, followed by a questionnaire used to assess memory, and a second administration one week later. Logistical regression analyses were used to construct a model of the personality characteristics predictive of suggestibility and indicated that susceptibility to suggestive information may differ across personalities for variables such as sensing, innovating, agreeing, and low tolerance of ambiguity. PMID:12530759

  16. The consequences of suggesting false childhood food events.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Daniel M; Scoboria, Alan; Arnold, Robert

    2015-03-01

    We combined data across eight published experiments (N=1369) to examine the formation and consequences of false autobiographical beliefs and memories. Our path models revealed that the formation of false autobiographical belief fully mediated the pathway between suggesting to people that they had experienced a positive or negative food-related event in the past and current preference for that food. Suggestion indirectly affected intention to eat the food via change in autobiographical belief. The development of belief with and without memory produced similar changes in food preferences and behavior intention, indicating that belief in the event drives changes in suggestion-related attitudes. Finally, positive suggestions (e.g., "you loved asparagus the first time you tried it") yielded stronger effects than negative suggestions (e.g., "you got sick eating egg salad"). These findings show that false autobiographical suggestions lead to the development of autobiographical beliefs, which in turn, have consequences for one's attitudes and behaviors. PMID:25613303

  17. Skin Findings in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Beth A.; Bayliss, Susan J.; Berk, David R.; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H.; Danback, Joshua R.; Pober, Barbara R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the Skin and Vascular Elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%) and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity) and E (Young’s modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  18. Skin findings in Williams syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kozel, Beth A; Bayliss, Susan J; Berk, David R; Waxler, Jessica L; Knutsen, Russell H; Danback, Joshua R; Pober, Barbara R

    2014-09-01

    Previous examination in a small number of individuals with Williams syndrome (also referred to as Williams-Beuren syndrome) has shown subtly softer skin and reduced deposition of elastin, an elastic matrix protein important in tissue recoil. No quantitative information about skin elasticity in individuals with Williams syndrome is available; nor has there been a complete report of dermatologic findings in this population. To fill this knowledge gap, 94 patients with Williams syndrome aged 7-50 years were recruited as part of the skin and vascular elasticity (WS-SAVE) study. They underwent either a clinical dermatologic assessment by trained dermatologists (2010 WSA family meeting) or measurement of biomechanical properties of the skin with the DermaLab™ suction cup (2012 WSA family meeting). Clinical assessment confirmed that soft skin is common in this population (83%), as is premature graying of the hair (80% of those 20 years or older), while wrinkles (92%), and abnormal scarring (33%) were detected in larger than expected proportions. Biomechanical studies detected statistically significant differences in dP (the pressure required to lift the skin), dT (the time required to raise the skin through a prescribed gradient), VE (viscoelasticity), and E (Young's modulus) relative to matched controls. The RT (retraction time) also trended longer but was not significant. The biomechanical differences noted in these patients did not correlate with the presence of vascular defects also attributable to elastin insufficiency (vascular stiffness, hypertension, and arterial stenosis) suggesting the presence of tissue specific modifiers that modulate the impact of elastin insufficiency in each tissue. PMID:24920525

  19. Postmortem perianal findings in children.

    PubMed

    McCann, J; Reay, D; Siebert, J; Stephens, B G; Wirtz, S

    1996-12-01

    The postmortem finding of anal dilation or an exposed pectinate line in children who have died under suspicious circumstances continues to raise the concern of possible sexual abuse. The following multicenter, collaborative study was designed to help address that question. Sixty-five subjects, ranging in age from birth to 17 years, were autopsied at three different sites. A standard protocol along with 35-mm cameras were used to record the results. Thirty-eight (58%) subjects were boys, and 27 (42%) were girls. Forty-two (65%) were white, 10 (15%) African-American, five (8%) Asian, three (5%) white Hispanic and five (8%) other. Fifty-seven (88%) were in Tanner stage I of secondary sexual development. Thirty-four (52%) died of natural causes, 26 (40%) from accidental injuries, three (5%) from other causes, and four (6%) as a result of a homicide. Forty-eight subjects (74%) had some dilation of the anal sphincters. In 21 children (32%), the entire anal canal, including the rectal ampulla, could be visualized. In another 21 (32%) subjects, the pectinate line was exposed. Only the outer portion of the anal canal opened in six children (10%), whereas 17 (26%) had no dilatation of the anus. Anal laxity led to flattened skin folds in 50 (77%), a shallow anal canal in 40 (62%), the exposure of both the pectinate line in 38 (59%), and the anal mucosa in 24 (37%). Venous congestion was present in 14 (22%), venous pooling in three (5%), erythema in six (9%), and increased pigmentation in eight (12%). Funneling was found in two (3%). Blood was present in three (5%), and an abrasion was discovered in one (2%). No fissures, lacerations, hemorrhoids, or scars were found in any of the children. Anal orifice size varied with the age of the child, the amount of traction applied to the buttocks, and a history of a CNS injury at the time of death. It is suggested, finally, that anal dilatation alone cannot be used a marker for prior sexual abuse and the exposure of the pectinate line

  20. Aging Brain, Aging Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selkoe, Dennis J.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the aging process related to physical changes of the human neural structure involved in learning, memory, and reasoning. Presents evidence that indicates such alterations do not necessarily signal the decline in cognitive function. Vignettes provide images of brain structures involved in learning, memory, and reasoning; hippocampal…

  1. Maltreated Children's Memory: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisen, Mitchell L.; Goodman, Gail S.; Qin, Jianjian; Davis, Suzanne; Crayton, John

    2007-01-01

    Memory, suggestibility, stress arousal, and trauma-related psychopathology were examined in 328 3- to 16-year-olds involved in forensic investigations of abuse and neglect. Children's memory and suggestibility were assessed for a medical examination and venipuncture. Being older and scoring higher in cognitive functioning were related to fewer…

  2. Suggested Learnings: Consumer and Homemaking Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmondson, Dorothy Jean; Swanson, Bettye B.

    The guide presents suggested learning concepts, experiences, and references for home economics educators in the planning and organization of secondary level consumer and homemaking programs. The suggestions are based on questionnaires and interviews with teachers and administrators involved in this program. The guide's main focus is on the process…

  3. Old-Age Wealth in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Rebeca; DeGraff, Deborah S.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined relationships between the wealth of older adults and their early-life decisions regarding investment in human capital, family formation, and work activities in Mexico, using the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study. The authors examined correlates of accumulated financial wealth by gender and across three age cohorts: 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and 70 years or older. The authors outline the changing context these cohorts experienced during their lifetimes; describe patterns of net financial worth by main covariates across groups defined by age, sex, and marital status; and present the results of multivariate models of net worth. Simulations were conducted to illustrate patterns of net worth associated with alternative scenarios depicting differing representative combinations of life-course characteristics by age cohort. The findings suggest that old-age financial wealth in Mexico is more closely associated with family formation and human capital decisions than with employment decisions over the lifetime. PMID:20694054

  4. Aging and masculinity: portrayals in men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Hurd Clarke, Laura; Bennett, Erica V; Liu, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Textual and visual representations of age are instructive as they suggest ideals towards which individuals should strive and influence how we perceive age. The purpose of our study was to investigate textual and visual representations of later life in the advertisements and interest stories of six widely read North American male-oriented magazines (namely, Esquire, GQ, Maxim, Men's Health, Men's Journal, and Zoomer). Through a content analysis and a visual textual analysis, we examined how older men were depicted in the magazine images and accompanying texts. Our findings revealed that older men were largely absent, and when portrayed, were positively depicted as experienced and powerful celebrities or as healthy and happy unknown individuals. The magazine advertisements and interest stories collectively required individuals to engage in consumer culture in order to achieve age and masculinity ideals and stave off the transition from the Third Age to the Fourth Age. We consider our findings in relation to theorizing about ageism, age relations, the Third and Fourth Ages, and idealized aging masculinity. PMID:25456619

  5. Age and sex graded helminth infections in a Nigerian village.

    PubMed

    Arinola, O; Fawole, O

    1995-02-01

    Prevalence of helminth parasites was carried out in both male and female villagers graded into three age groups (5-14 years, 15-25 years, 26-55 years). Children between 5 and 14 years of age had the highest prevalence of Ascaris, Schistosoma haematobium and Trichuris while the villagers between 26-55 years of age had lowest prevalence of these parasites. However, hookworms were highly common among the villagers aged between 26 and 55 years and least common among the school children aged between 5 and 14 years. Female children between the ages of 5 and 14 years and males of the same age group were highly infested with Ascaris and Trichuris. This finding in a Nigerian village suggested that helminth infestation is age and sex dependent which is therefore a factor of the frequency in host-parasite contact determined by mode of life of the parasites and the hosts. PMID:7796748

  6. Radiographic findings in liveborn triploidy.

    PubMed

    Silverthorn, K G; Houston, C S; Newman, D E; Wood, B J

    1989-01-01

    The detailed radiographic features of triploidy, a fatal congenital disorder with 69 chromosomes, have not previously been reported. Radiographs of ten liveborn infants with chromosomally confirmed triploidy showed six findings highly suggestive of this diagnosis: harlequin orbits, small anterior fontanelle, gracile ribs, diaphyseal overtubulation of long bones, upswept clavicles and antimongoloid pelvis. Sixteen other less specific findings showed many similarities to those found in trisomy 18. PMID:2748230

  7. Induction Technique: Beyond Simple Response to Suggestion.

    PubMed

    Barabasz, Arreed; Barabasz, Marianne

    2016-10-01

    The hypnotic induction is intended to induce hypnosis. This implies that what is sought is intended to go beyond what might be wrought by mere suggestion, expectancy, and social influence. The experimentally controlled research showing that the induction makes a difference and how small changes in wording of suggestions can produce orthogonal responses is briefly reviewed. This article explains the principles of induction and three critical phases of hypnotic induction in detail. An arm levitation scripted protocol demonstrating how to respond to the patient using the three phases to maximize responses to hypnotic suggestions is presented. PMID:27586048

  8. Suggested Minimum Cataloging Standards for Arizona.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Sharon

    1979-01-01

    Notes problems with cataloging library materials in the small and medium sized public library and suggests interpretations of the Anglo-American cataloging rules, with recommendations for their adaptation to smaller libraries. (CWM)

  9. Social suggestibility to central and peripheral misinformation.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Andrea L; Daneman, Meredyth

    2006-05-01

    This study used a laboratory-based paradigm to investigate social influences on participants' susceptibility to misleading suggestions. Participants viewed a video clip of an action sequence with one or more peers, and then were required to discuss the event with the co-witness or with the group of co-witnesses. During the discussion a confederate, posing as a peer, presented misinformation about central and peripheral features of the co-witnessed event. Results indicated that participants were more susceptible to misleading suggestions during one-on-one discussions than during group discussions. In addition, participants were susceptible to misleading suggestions about central features of the witnessed event, although to a lesser extent than they were susceptible to misleading suggestions about peripheral features. PMID:16766450

  10. No Statins Before Heart Surgery, Study Suggests

    MedlinePlus

    ... harm, a new study suggests. In that setting, Crestor (rosuvastatin) did not prevent either the abnormal heart rhythm ... who were having elective heart surgery to take Crestor or a placebo before surgery. The researchers found ...

  11. Electronic Reference Services: Some Suggested Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Bernie

    1998-01-01

    Suggests guidelines to help libraries formalize their electronic reference services. Covers the following issues: administration/management (library division/department, library administration, campus administration, academic departments); services; primary clientele; personnel; infrastructure/facilities; finances; and evaluation. (AEF)

  12. Radiological Findings of Michel Aplasia

    PubMed Central

    Umul, Ayse; Demirtas, Hakan; Celik, Ahmet Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Congenital abnormalities of the inner ear is the most common cause of neurosensory hearing loss. Michel inner ear deformity is a rare developmental anomaly refers to the total aplasia of the inner ear. It is caused by developmental arrest of otic placode early during the third week of gestational age. Case report: We have discussed here that three year old girl diagnosed Michel aplasia with temporal bone computed tomography (CT) and temporal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. PMID:27482139

  13. Studies and Suggestions on English Vocabulary Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao

    2012-01-01

    To improve vocabulary learning and teaching in ELT settings, two questionnaires are designed and directed to more than 100 students and teachers in one of China's key universities. The findings suggest that an enhanced awareness of cultural difference, metaphorical competence, and learners' autonomy in vocabulary acquisition will effectively…

  14. Animal Rights: Selected Resources and Suggestions for Further Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Donald J.

    1989-01-01

    Presents an annotated list of selected resources intended to serve as a guide to the growing amount of material on animal rights. Suggestions to aid in additional research include subject headings used to find books, indexes used to locate periodical articles, sources for locating organizations, and a selected list of animal rights organizations.…

  15. A community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among middle-aged African American women in rural Alabama: Findings from a group randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Scarinci, Isabel C.; Moore, Artisha; Wynn, Theresa; Cherrington, Andrea; Fouad, Mona; Li, Yufeng

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined the efficacy of a community-based, culturally relevant intervention to promote healthy eating and physical activity among African American (AA) women between the ages of 45–65 years, residing in rural Alabama. Methods We conducted a group randomized controlled trial with counties as the unit of randomization that evaluated two interventions based on health priorities identified by the community: (1) promotion of healthy eating and physical activity; and (2) promotion of breast and cervical cancer screening. A total of 6 counties with 565 participants were enrolled in the study between November 2009 and October 2011. Results The overall retention rate at 24-month follow-up was 54.7%. Higher retention rate was observed in the “healthy lifestyle” arm (63.1%) as compared to the “screening” arm (45.3%). Participants in the “healthy lifestyle” arm showed significant positive changes compared to the “screening” arm at 12-month follow-up with regard to decrease in fried food consumption and an increase in both fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity. At 24-month follow-up, these positive changes were maintained with healthy eating behaviors, but not engagement in physical activity. Conclusions A culturally relevant intervention, developed in collaboration with the target audience, can improve (and maintain) healthy eating among AA women living in rural areas. PMID:25152504

  16. Credible suggestions affect false autobiographical beliefs.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Wysman, Lauren; Otgaar, Henry

    2012-07-01

    False memory implantation studies are characterised by suggestions indicating that specific unremembered events occurred, attributing suggested events to a knowledgeable source (e.g., parents), and including true events that provide evidence that this source was consulted. These characteristics create a particular retrieval context that influences how individuals come to believe that false events occurred. Two studies used a variant of implantation methods to vary the proportion of events attributed to parents and the presence of true events within the suggestion. In Study 1 participants received six false events, and were told that all or some events came from parents. Participants told that all of the events came from parents formed more and stronger false beliefs. In Study 2 participants also received two true events, and a third group was told that half of the events came from their parents. Participants given the specific ratio ("half") endorsed more false beliefs, and beliefs between the other groups no longer differed. Across both studies participants told that some events came from parents reported stronger memory phenomenology. The effect of suggestions on false beliefs in implantation studies depends partly on the credibility of suggestions derived from providing information about the source of suggested events. PMID:22537029

  17. Cognitive interviewing procedures and suggestibility in children's recall.

    PubMed

    Hayes, B K; Delamothe, K

    1997-08-01

    In this study the authors examine the effects of procedures adapted from the cognitive interview of R. E. Geiselman, R.P. Fisher, D.P. MacKinnon, and H.L. Holland (1985) on children's recall following exposure to misleading suggestions. Children aged 5-7 years and 9-11 years saw a videotaped story and were presented with misleading or neutral information concerning story details. All were later given free- and cued-recall tests preceded by standard interview instructions or instructions that reinstated the encoding context and encouraged exhaustive reporting. Increased recall accuracy was found following cognitive interview instructions. Both age groups were susceptible to misleading suggestions, but susceptibility was unaffected by interview type. The authors discuss the implications for interviewing child witnesses. PMID:9378684

  18. Cost Finding: Why It Is Important.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mielke, Linda

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the importance of cost finding for public libraries and the relationship of cost finding to output measures. A cost finding study conducted on the cost of gift books is described; several worksheets from the study are included. Suggestions are offered for beginning a cost-finding project. (three references) (MES)

  19. Computer Systems Operator, A Suggested Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute of Computer Technology, Washington, DC.

    School administrators, teachers, and businessmen will find this work-study guide useful in developing courses to teach the disadvantaged to be operators of automatic data processing equipment. Fourteen course units cover fundamental principles of programing, specific programs such as FORTRAN and COBOL, and the skills required for the position.…

  20. Learning Styles across Cultures: Suggestions for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlesworth, Zarina M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to present research findings on the relationship between culture and learning styles, as defined by Honey and Mumford in a Higher Education setting. Design/methodology/approach: The research was conducted with first semester students studying in an International Institute of Higher Education. A questionnaire administered…

  1. Replacing Technically Skilled Workers: Challenges and Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evanciew, Cheryl E. P.; Wither, Steven V.

    2004-01-01

    Throughout the early 1900s, the United States could either find technically skilled workers based upon their backgrounds or was able to train workers quickly. Farmers, military personnel, and other sources of skilled workers were available to fill the needs of the workforce. These sources of readily available skilled workers are no longer as…

  2. The Potential of Food Fortification to Add Micronutrients in Young Children and Women of Reproductive AgeFindings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    Rohner, Fabian; Leyvraz, Magali; Konan, Amoin G.; Esso, Lasme J. C. E.; Wirth, James P.; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F.; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J.

    2016-01-01

    Poor micronutrient intakes are a major contributing factor to the high burden of micronutrient deficiencies in Côte d’Ivoire. Large-scale food fortification is considered a cost-effective approach to deliver micronutrients, and fortification of salt (iodine), wheat flour (iron and folic acid), and vegetable oil (vitamin A) is mandatory in Côte d’Ivoire. A cross-sectional survey on households with at least one child 6–23 months was conducted to update coverage figures with adequately fortified food vehicles in Abidjan, the capital of and largest urban community in Côte d’Ivoire, and to evaluate whether additional iron and vitamin A intake is sufficient to bear the potential to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Information on demographics and food consumption was collected, along with samples of salt and oil. Wheat flour was sampled from bakeries and retailers residing in the selected clusters. In Abidjan, 86% and 97% of salt and vegetable oil samples, respectively, were adequately fortified, while only 32% of wheat flour samples were adequately fortified, but all samples contained some added iron. There were no major differences in additional vitamin A and iron intake between poor and non-poor households. For vitamin A in oil, the additional percentage of the recommended nutrient intake was 27% and 40% for children 6–23 months and women of reproductive age, respectively, while for iron from wheat flour, only 13% and 19% could be covered. Compared to previous estimates, coverage has remained stable for salt and wheat flour, but improved for vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil clearly provides a meaningful additional amount of vitamin A. This is not currently the case for iron, due to the low fortification levels. Iron levels in wheat flour should be increased and monitored, and additional vehicles should be explored to add iron to the Ivorian diet. PMID:27384762

  3. The Potential of Food Fortification to Add Micronutrients in Young Children and Women of Reproductive Age - Findings from a Cross-Sectional Survey in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Rohner, Fabian; Leyvraz, Magali; Konan, Amoin G; Esso, Lasme J C E; Wirth, James P; Norte, Augusto; Adiko, Adiko F; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Aaron, Grant J

    2016-01-01

    Poor micronutrient intakes are a major contributing factor to the high burden of micronutrient deficiencies in Côte d'Ivoire. Large-scale food fortification is considered a cost-effective approach to deliver micronutrients, and fortification of salt (iodine), wheat flour (iron and folic acid), and vegetable oil (vitamin A) is mandatory in Côte d'Ivoire. A cross-sectional survey on households with at least one child 6-23 months was conducted to update coverage figures with adequately fortified food vehicles in Abidjan, the capital of and largest urban community in Côte d'Ivoire, and to evaluate whether additional iron and vitamin A intake is sufficient to bear the potential to reduce micronutrient malnutrition. Information on demographics and food consumption was collected, along with samples of salt and oil. Wheat flour was sampled from bakeries and retailers residing in the selected clusters. In Abidjan, 86% and 97% of salt and vegetable oil samples, respectively, were adequately fortified, while only 32% of wheat flour samples were adequately fortified, but all samples contained some added iron. There were no major differences in additional vitamin A and iron intake between poor and non-poor households. For vitamin A in oil, the additional percentage of the recommended nutrient intake was 27% and 40% for children 6-23 months and women of reproductive age, respectively, while for iron from wheat flour, only 13% and 19% could be covered. Compared to previous estimates, coverage has remained stable for salt and wheat flour, but improved for vegetable oil. Fortification of vegetable oil clearly provides a meaningful additional amount of vitamin A. This is not currently the case for iron, due to the low fortification levels. Iron levels in wheat flour should be increased and monitored, and additional vehicles should be explored to add iron to the Ivorian diet. PMID:27384762

  4. Gallbladder Tuberculosis: CT Findings with Histopathologic Correlation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiu-Fang; Qiu, Ling-Ling; Shen, Jian; Dong, Fei; Chen, Ying

    2011-01-01

    Objective We wanted to describe the computed tomography (CT) findings of gallbladder tuberculosis (TB) and to correlate them with pathologic findings. Materials and Methods There were seven patients (M:F = 3:4; mean age, 46.3 years; age range, 32 to 78 years) in whom gallbladder TB was eventually diagnosed. All of them underwent cross-sectional imaging with CT, a pathologic examination and a retrospective review. CT imaging evaluation was done in each case, including the findings of a mass versus nodule, wall thickening (uniform or irregular) and the enhancement patterns (homogeneous or heterogeneous). Results All the cases of gallbladder TB revealed the following three different CT findings: micronodular lesion of the gallbladder wall (n = 1), a thickened wall (n = 4) and a gallbladder mass (n = 2). There were three cases of homogeneous enhancement of the lesions, including homogeneous enhancement with nodular lesion, homogeneous uniform thickness enhancement and homogeneous thickness enhancement in one case each, and these cases pathology showed tuberculous granuloma with a little caseating necrosis in one case and tuberculous granuloma with rich fibrous tissue, but little or no evident caseating necrosis in two cases. Four cases of heterogeneous enhancement of the lesions, including heterogeneous uniform-thickness enhancement in two cases, heterogeneous enhancement with a local mass lesion in one case and heterogeneous enhancement with a mass that replaced the gallbladder in one case; in these cases, pathology showed tuberculous granuloma with marked caseation or liquefaction necrosis in three cases and tuberculous granuloma by fibrous and calcifications accompanied by caseating necrosis in one case. Among the seven cases of gallbladder TB, six cases were accompanied by abdominal extra-gallbladder TB, including abdominal lymph node TB in five cases and hepatic TB in four cases. Conclusion Gallbladder TB has various CT manifestations, and the enhanced CT findings

  5. Can aging be 'drugged'?

    PubMed

    Riera, Celine E; Dillin, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    The engines that drive the complex process of aging are being identified by model-organism research, thereby providing potential targets and rationale for drug studies. Several studies of small molecules have already been completed in animal models with the hope of finding an elixir for aging, with a few compounds showing early promise. What lessons can we learn from drugs currently being tested, and which pitfalls can we avoid in our search for a therapeutic for aging? Finally, we must also ask whether an elixir for aging would be applicable to everyone, or whether we age differently, thus potentially shortening lifespan in some individuals. PMID:26646496

  6. Age and race effects on pain sensitivity and modulation among middle-aged and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Cruz-Almeida, Yenisel; Glover, Toni L.; King, Christopher D.; Goodin, Burel R.; Sibille, Kimberly T.; Bartley, Emily J.; Herbert, Matthew S.; Sotolongo, Adriana; Fessler, Barri J.; Redden, David T.; Staud, Roland; Bradley, Laurence A.; Fillingim, Roger B

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the effects of aging and race on responses to noxious stimuli using a wide range of stimulus modalities. The participants were 53 non-Hispanic Blacks and 138 non-Hispanic White adults, ages 45 to 76. The participants completed a single 3-hour sensory testing session where responses to thermal, mechanical, and cold stimuli were assessed. The results suggest that there are selected age differences, with the older group less sensitive to warm and painful heat stimuli than middle-aged participants, particularly at the knee. This site effect supports the hypothesis that the greatest decrement in pain sensitivity associated with aging occurs in the lower extremities. In addition, there were several instances where age and race effects were compounded, resulting in greater race differences in pain sensitivity among the older participants. Overall, the data suggest that previously reported race differences in pain sensitivity emerged in our older samples, and this study contributes new findings in that these differences may increase with age in non-Hispanic Blacks for temporal summation and both heat and cold immersion tolerance. We have added to the aging and pain literature by reporting several small to moderate differences in responses to heat stimuli between middle and older age adults. PMID:24239561

  7. Organizing pneumonia: chest HRCT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Igor Murad; Zanetti, Gláucia; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Araujo-Neto, Cesar Augusto; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of HRCT findings and their distribution in the lung parenchyma of patients with organizing pneumonia. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of the HRCT scans of 36 adult patients (26 females and 10 males) with biopsy-proven organizing pneumonia. The patients were between 19 and 82 years of age (mean age, 56.2 years). The HRCT images were evaluated by two independent observers, discordant interpretations being resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The most common HRCT finding was that of ground-glass opacities, which were seen in 88.9% of the cases. The second most common finding was consolidation (in 83.3% of cases), followed by peribronchovascular opacities (in 52.8%), reticulation (in 38.9%), bronchiectasis (in 33.3%), interstitial nodules (in 27.8%), interlobular septal thickening (in 27.8%), perilobular pattern (in 22.2%), the reversed halo sign (in 16.7%), airspace nodules (in 11.1%), and the halo sign (in 8.3%). The lesions were predominantly bilateral, the middle and lower lung fields being the areas most commonly affected. CONCLUSIONS: Ground-glass opacities and consolidation were the most common findings, with a predominantly random distribution, although they were more common in the middle and lower thirds of the lungs. PMID:26176521

  8. Scintigraphic findings in schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Orduña, E; Silva, F

    1995-12-01

    Schistosomiasis mansoni is a tropical parasitic disease caused by a blood fluke which inhabits the portal system of humans. Fifteen pediatric patients with the acute disease were evaluated with liver and spleen scintigraphy (LSS). Clinical history, physical examination, and serum chemistries failed to reveal any other underlying systemic disease. Liver and spleen scintigraphies were performed before therapy, 7 months and 9 years after therapy with oxamniquine. LSS initially showed hepatomegaly in 93% of the patients. In the first follow up study a reactive spleen was evident in 78% of the cases, with an unchanged hepatic image. Long term follow up revealed that from the initially enlarged livers, 93% became normal. However, 47% of the spleens were abnormal. The scintigraphic changes observed in the liver over the years were those expected for an acute infection. The findings in the spleen might indicate the persistence of an immunologic reaction with a continuous trigger, probably an antibody. These observations suggest that the LSS can be used in the evaluation and follow-up of these patients. PMID:8637963

  9. Age determination of 15 old to intermediate-age small Magellanic cloud star clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Parisi, M. C.; Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Geisler, D.; Leiton, R.; Carraro, G.; Costa, E.; Grocholski, A. J.; Sarajedini, A. E-mail: claria@oac.uncor.edu E-mail: dgeisler@astro-udec.cl E-mail: gcarraro@eso.org E-mail: grocholski@phys.lsu.edu

    2014-04-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible 'SMC cluster age gap'. Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ∼4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel and Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  10. Age Determination of 15 Old to Intermediate-age Small Magellanic Cloud Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parisi, M. C.; Geisler, D.; Carraro, G.; Clariá, J. J.; Costa, E.; Grocholski, A. J.; Sarajedini, A.; Leiton, R.; Piatti, A. E.

    2014-04-01

    We present color-magnitude diagrams in the V and I bands for 15 star clusters in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) based on data taken with the Very Large Telescope (VLT, Chile). We selected these clusters from our previous work, wherein we derived cluster radial velocities and metallicities from calcium II infrared triplet (CaT) spectra also taken with the VLT. We discovered that the ages of six of our clusters have been appreciably underestimated by previous studies, which used comparatively small telescopes, graphically illustrating the need for large apertures to obtain reliable ages of old and intermediate-age SMC star clusters. In particular, three of these clusters, L4, L6, and L110, turn out to be among the oldest SMC clusters known, with ages of 7.9 ± 1.1, 8.7 ± 1.2, and 7.6 ± 1.0 Gyr, respectively, helping to fill a possible "SMC cluster age gap." Using the current ages and metallicities from Parisi et al., we analyze the age distribution, age gradient, and age-metallicity relation (AMR) of a sample of SMC clusters measured homogeneously. There is a suggestion of bimodality in the age distribution but it does not show a constant slope for the first 4 Gyr, and we find no evidence for an age gradient. Due to the improved ages of our cluster sample, we find that our AMR is now better represented in the intermediate/old period than we had derived in Parisi et al., where we simply took ages available in the literature. Additionally, clusters younger than ~4 Gyr now show better agreement with the bursting model of Pagel & Tautvaišienė, but we confirm that this model is not a good representation of the AMR during the intermediate/old period. A more complicated model is needed to explain the SMC chemical evolution in that period.

  11. Personalized and not general suggestion produces false autobiographical memories and suggestion-consistent behavior.

    PubMed

    Scoboria, Alan; Mazzoni, Giuliana; Jarry, Josée L; Bernstein, Daniel M

    2012-01-01

    Suggesting false childhood events produces false autobiographical beliefs, memories and suggestion-consistent behavior. The mechanisms by which suggestion affects behavior are not understood, and whether false beliefs and memories are necessary for suggestions to impact behavior remains unexplored. We examined the relative effects of providing a personalized suggestion (suggesting that an event occurred to the person in the past), and/or a general suggestion (suggesting that an event happened to others in the past). Participants (N=122) received a personalized suggestion, a general suggestion, both or neither, about childhood illness due to spoiled peach yogurt. The personalized suggestion resulted in false beliefs, false memories, and suggestion-consistent behavioral intentions immediately after the suggestion. One week or one month later participants completed a taste test that involved eating varieties of crackers and yogurts. The personalized suggestion led to reduced consumption of only peach yogurt, and those who reported a false memory showed the most eating suppression. This effect on behavior was equally strong after one week and one month, showing a long lived influence of the personalized suggestion. The general suggestion showed no effects. Suggestions that convey personal information about a past event produce false autobiographical memories, which in turn impact behavior. PMID:22112639

  12. Glutamatergic treatment strategies for age-related memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Müller, W E; Scheuer, K; Stoll, S

    1994-01-01

    Age-related changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been found in cortical areas and in the hippocampus of many species. On the basis of a variety of experimental observations it has been suggested that the decrease of NMDA receptor density might be one of the causative factors of the cognitive decline with aging. Based on these findings several strategies have been developed to improve cognition by compensating the NMDA receptor deficits in aging. The most promising approaches are the indirect activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission by agonists of the glycine site or the restoration of the age-related deficit of receptor density by several nootropics. PMID:7997073

  13. Leadership Theories--Managing Practices, Challenges, Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Cheryl

    2009-01-01

    A shortage of community college executives due to the number of retirements occurring among current leaders is predicted. An examination of three leadership theories--servant-leadership, business leadership and transformational leadership--suggests techniques for potential community college leaders. Servant-leaders focus on the needs of their…

  14. Suggestions for Career Exploration and Job Seeking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Dept. of Labor, Albany.

    This booklet, which is intended for individuals seeking jobs in New York State, consists of suggestions for career exploration and job seeking. The booklet begins with a brief discussion of places to begin a job search: New York State Job Service and community service centers; schools and community organizations providing free advice; libraries;…

  15. Physics Courses--Some Suggested Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swetman, T. P.

    1972-01-01

    To communicate the relevance and excitement of science activity to students, the use of more imaginative, and even openly speculative, case studies in physics courses is suggested. Some useful examples are Magnetic Monopoles, Constants, Black Holes, Antimatter, Zero Mass Particles, Tachyons, and the Bootstrap Hypothesis. (DF)

  16. Qualitative Research Articles: Guidelines, Suggestions and Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crescentini, Alberto; Mainardi, Giuditta

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give ideas and suggestions to avoid some typical problems of qualitative articles. The aim is not to debate quality in qualitative research but to indicate some practical solutions. Design/methodology/approach: The paper discusses the design of qualitative research and the structure of a qualitative article…

  17. Accounting: Suggested Content for Postsecondary Tax Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Patricia H.; Morgan, Samuel D.

    1978-01-01

    Surveys of community college graduates and of certified public accountants were made to determine employment relevance of the accounting curriculum. The article suggests topics from the study data which should be included in taxation courses, e.g., income tax accounting, corporate taxation accounting, and tax law. (MF)

  18. Family Living: Suggestions for Effective Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; And Others

    Suggestions for effective parenting of preschool children are provided in 33 brief articles on children's feelings concerning self-esteem; fear; adopted children; the birth of a sibling; death; depression; and coping with stress, trauma, and divorce. Children's behavior is discussed in articles on toddlers' eating habits, punishment and…

  19. Minimum Competency Program, Citizenship: Suggestions for Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    This monograph explains the need for graduating high school seniors to demonstrate minimum competence in citizenship and suggests performance-related assessment tasks to help school authorities determine whether these competency requirements have been met. Minimum citizenship competencies are interpreted to include essential skills and concepts…

  20. Current Research: 2013 Summer Reading Suggestions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2013

    2013-01-01

    To supplement the summer reading of National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) members, the NSTA Committee on Research in Science Education suggested a list of science education research articles that were published in the journals of NSTA's affiliates in 2012. These articles covered a variety of topics that include learning about…

  1. Technology Is Power: Suggestions for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanklin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Shanklin knows it can be hard for new teachers to incorporate all they know about technology with the realities of a classroom. She suggests setting incremental, monthly technology goals; investing in equipment; assessing students' grasp of the technology at their disposal and their use of it in classroom projects; searching purposefully for…

  2. Suggestions for Structuring a Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, James D.; Reiser, Robert A.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers often experience difficulty as they attempt to prepare journal articles that describe their work. The purpose of this article is to provide researchers in the field of education with a series of suggestions as to how to clearly structure each section of a research manuscript that they intend to submit for publication in a scholarly…

  3. Studies and Suggestions on Prewriting Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Shigao; Dai, Weiping

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies and suggests the need for writing instruction by which students can experience writing as a creative process in exploring and communicating meaning. The prewriting activities generate ideas which can encourage a free flow of thoughts and help students discover both what they want to say and how to say it on paper. Through the…

  4. Youth Physical Fitness. Suggestions for School Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports, Washington, DC.

    This book, divided into three main parts--basic, advanced, and comprehensive programs--suggests (a) basic physical education programs designed to assist classroom teachers inexperienced in physical education to develop activities that will make a contribution to the physical fitness of the children in their charge and (b) advanced activities…

  5. Heroin Use among Southern Arrestees: Regional Findings from the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ronald J., Jr.; Yacoubian, George S., Jr.; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Ross, Michael W.; Johnson, Regina J.

    2002-01-01

    To be effective with rehabilitation counseling, counselors need to be aware of cultural patterns of drug use. This study analyzed trends in heroin use between 1990 and 1997 among the arrestee population in some parts of the South. Findings suggest geographic, ethnic, and age-related variables for heroin use. (JDM)

  6. Age-associated changes in the ecological niche: implications for mesenchymal stem cell aging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Adult stem cells are critical for organ-specific regeneration and self-renewal with advancing age. The prospect of being able to reverse tissue-specific post-injury sequelae by harvesting, culturing and transplanting a patient’s own stem and progenitor cells is exciting. Mesenchymal stem cells have emerged as a reliable stem cell source for this treatment modality and are currently being tested in numerous ongoing clinical trials. Unfortunately, the fervor over mesenchymal stem cells is mitigated by several lines of evidence suggesting that their efficacy is limited by natural aging. This article discusses the mechanisms and manifestations of age-associated deficiencies in mesenchymal stem cell efficacy. A consideration of recent experimental findings suggests that the ecological niche might be responsible for mesenchymal stem cell aging. PMID:23673056

  7. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Healthy Aging This information in Spanish ( en español ) A healthy ... Aging email updates. Enter email address Submit Healthy Aging news Accessibility | Privacy policy | Disclaimers | FOIA | Link to ...

  8. Healthy Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Change Contrast print sign up Share Healthy Aging This category offers tips on how to stay ... with Smell Problems with Taste Skin Care and Aging Sleep and Aging Taking Medicines Talking with Your ...

  9. Evidence suggesting possible SCA1 gene involvement in schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Diehl, S.R.; Wange, S.; Sun, C.

    1994-09-01

    Several findings suggest a possible role for the SCA1 gene on chromosome 6p in some cases of schizophrenia. First, linkage analyses in Irish pedigrees provided LOD scores up to 3.0 for one model tested using microsatellites closely linked to SCA1. Reanalysis of these data using affected sibpair methods yielded a significant result (p = 0.01) for one marker. An attempt to replicate this linkage finding was made using 44 NIMH families (206 individuals, 80 affected) and 12 Utah families (120 individuals, 49 affected). LOD scores were negative in these new families, even allowing for heterogeneity, as were results using affected sibpair methods. However, one Utah family provided a LOD score of 1.3. We also screened the SCA1 trinucleotide repeat to search for expansions characteristic of this disorder in these families and in 38 additional unrelated schizophrenics. We found 1 schizophrenic with 41 repeats, which is substantially larger than the maximum size of 36 repeats observed in previous studies of several hundred controls. We are now assessing whether the distribution of SCA1 repeats differs significantly in schizophrenia versus controls. Recent reports suggest possible anticipation in schizophrenia (also characteristic of SCA1) and a few cases of psychiatric symptoms suggesting schizophrenia have been observed in the highly related disorder DRPLA (SCA2), which is also based on trinucleotide repeat expansion. These findings suggest that further investigations of this gene and chromosome region may be a priority.

  10. Find a Surgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... find out more. Wisdom Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can damage neighboring teeth ... find out more. Wisdom Teeth Management Wisdom Teeth Management An impacted wisdom tooth can damage neighboring teeth ...

  11. Posthypnotic suggestion and the modulation of Stroop interference under cycloplegia.

    PubMed

    Raz, Amir; Landzberg, Kim S; Schweizer, Heather R; Zephrani, Zohar R; Shapiro, Theodore; Fan, Jin; Posner, Michael I

    2003-09-01

    Recent data indicate that under a specific posthypnotic suggestion to circumvent reading, highly suggestible subjects successfully eliminated the Stroop interference effect. The present study examined whether an optical explanation (e.g., visual blurring or looking away) could account for this finding. Using cyclopentolate hydrochloride eye drops to pharmacologically prevent visual accommodation in all subjects, behavioral Stroop data were collected from six highly hypnotizables and six less suggestibles using an optical setup that guaranteed either sharply focused or blurred vision. The highly suggestibles performed the Stroop task when naturally vigilant, under posthypnotic suggestion not to read, and while visually blurred; the less suggestibles ran naturally vigilant, while looking away, and while visually blurred. Although visual accommodation was precluded for all subjects, posthypnotic suggestion effectively eliminated Stroop interference and was comparable to looking away in controls. These data strengthen the view that Stroop interference is neither robust nor inevitable and support the hypothesis that posthypnotic suggestion may exert a top-down influence on neural processing. PMID:12941281

  12. Aging and Vision.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Marcel V

    2016-01-01

    Aging involves defined genetic, biochemical and cellular pathways that regulate lifespan. These pathways are called longevity pathways and they have relevance for many age-related diseases. In the eye, longevity pathways are involved in the major blinding diseases, cataract, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy. Pharmaceutical targeting of longevity pathways can extend healthy lifespan in laboratory model systems. This offers the possibility of therapeutic interventions to also delay onset or slow the progression of age-related eye diseases. I suggest that retinal degeneration may be viewed as accelerated aging of photoreceptors and that interventions extending healthy lifespan may also slow the pace of photoreceptor loss. PMID:26427437

  13. Cajal's brief experimentation with hypnotic suggestion.

    PubMed

    Stefanidou, Maria; Solà, Carme; Kouvelas, Elias; del Cerro, Manuel; Triarhou, Lazaros C

    2007-01-01

    Spanish histologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal, one of the most notable figures in Neuroscience, and winner, along with Camillo Golgi, of the 1906 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for his discoveries on the structure of the nervous system, did not escape experimenting with some of the psychiatric techniques available at the time, mainly hypnotic suggestion, albeit briefly. While a physician in his thirties, Cajal published a short article under the title, "Pains of labour considerably attenuated by hypnotic suggestion" in Gaceta Médica Catalana. That study may be Cajal's only documented case in the field of experimental psychology. We here provide an English translation of the original Spanish text, placing it historically within Cajal's involvement with some of the key scientific and philosophical issues at the time. PMID:17966053

  14. Simple nonlinear models suggest variable star universality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindner, John F.; Kohar, Vivek; Kia, Behnam; Hippke, Michael; Learned, John G.; Ditto, William L.

    2016-02-01

    Dramatically improved data from observatories like the CoRoT and Kepler spacecraft have recently facilitated nonlinear time series analysis and phenomenological modeling of variable stars, including the search for strange (aka fractal) or chaotic dynamics. We recently argued [Lindner et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 114 (2015) 054101] that the Kepler data includes "golden" stars, whose luminosities vary quasiperiodically with two frequencies nearly in the golden ratio, and whose secondary frequencies exhibit power-law scaling with exponent near -1.5, suggesting strange nonchaotic dynamics and singular spectra. Here we use a series of phenomenological models to make plausible the connection between golden stars and fractal spectra. We thereby suggest that at least some features of variable star dynamics reflect universal nonlinear phenomena common to even simple systems.

  15. [Suggestions to improve dentist-endodontist collaboration].

    PubMed

    Zabalegui, B; Zabalegui, I; Flores, L

    1989-01-01

    Referrals from the general dentist to the endodontist are in some occasions complicated with lack of proper communication among dentist-patient-specialist, resulting in the loss of confidence or even the patient. Suggestions to improve this communication are discussed, which will provide the patient a higher confidence in the indicated endodontic treatment and a better dental service. It will also enhance the prestige of the general dentists' and specialists' practice. PMID:2640034

  16. Impact of miRNAs on cardiovascular aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seahyoung; Choi, Eunhyun; Cha, Min-Ji; Park, Ae-Jun; Yoon, Cheesoon; Hwang, Ki-Chul

    2015-09-01

    Aging is a multidimensional process that leads to an increased risk of developing severe diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and immunological diseases. Recently, small non-coding RNAs known as microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to regulate gene expression, which contributes to many physiological and pathophysiological processes in humans. Increasing evidence suggests that changes in miRNA expression profiles contribute to cellular senescence, aging and aging-related diseases. However, only a few miRNAs whose functions have been elucidated have been associated with aging and/or aging-related diseases. This article reviews the currently available findings regarding the roles of aging-related miRNAs, with a focus on cardiac and cardiovascular aging. PMID:26512249

  17. Healthy Aging in Community for Older Lesbians

    PubMed Central

    Putney, Jennifer M.; Shepard, Bonnie L.; Sass, Samantha E.; Rudicel, Sally; Ladd, Holly

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: In Boston and Outer Cape, Massachusetts, we explored the expectations of lesbians 60 years and older regarding healthy aging and community importance. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with participants after completing an anonymous demographic questionnaire. Thematic analysis was used to generate themes and identify how they varied by urban versus rural settings. Results: Group discussions focused on community, finances, housing, and healthcare. Primary concerns included continued access to supportive and lesbian communities as a source of resilience during aging. Conclusion: Concerns about discrimination and isolation mirror themes found in national research. The study findings suggest a need for more research into the housing and transportation needs of lesbians approaching later life, with a focus on how those needs relate to affordability, accessibility, and proximity to social support and healthcare. These findings also suggest the need for substantial investments in strengthening the LGBT-related cultural competence of providers of services for the elderly. PMID:27046541

  18. Chondrocyte Senescence and Telomere Regulation: Implications in Cartilage Aging and Cancer (A Brief Review)

    PubMed Central

    Mollano, Anthony V; Martin, James A; Buckwalter, Joseph A

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies on osteoarthritis and the cartilage aging in our laboratory demonstrate that chronologic age correlates with molecular changes in human chondrocytes that affect cell cycle control and replicative life span. These findings indicate that age-related changes in chondrocytes may explain the heightened risk for development of primary osteoarthritis (OA) with increasing age. Concomitant studies of human chondrosarcoma suggest that these aging mechanisms may also play a role in preventing the malignant transformation of chondrocytes. The convergence at the molecular level of these seemingly dissimilar biologic processes provides an excellent opportunity to deepen our understanding of the fundamental processes underlying cartilage neoplasia, cartilage aging, and osteoarthritis. PMID:12180600

  19. Rhetoric to action: a study of stakeholder perceptions of aging well in two local communities.

    PubMed

    Everingham, Jo-Anne; Lui, Chi-Wai; Bartlett, Helen; Warburton, Jeni; Cuthill, Michael

    2010-11-01

    This qualitative study of local perceptions of policy goals and action in relation to aging reports 31 stakeholder interviews within 2 Australian communities exploring (a) the meaning of aging well; and (b) preferred policy actions to achieve positive aging outcomes. Findings suggest that community perceptions of aging well are broadly consistent with the goals of national and international policy frameworks in focusing on 3 dimensions--health, social engagement, and security. Further, participants believe that achievement of positive aging outcomes requires a mix of self-help, community action, and government intervention--particularly government support and encouragement for aging well initiatives. PMID:20972930

  20. Leg Strength Comparison between Younger and Middle-age Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sukwon; Lockhart, Thurmon; Nam, Chang S.

    2009-01-01

    Although a risk of occupational musculoskeletal diseases has been identified with age-related strength degradation, strength measures from working group are somewhat sparse. This is especially true for the lower extremity strength measures in dynamic conditions (i.e., isokinetic). The objective of this study was to quantify the lower extremity muscle strength characteristics of three age groups (young, middle, and the elderly). Total of 42 subjects participated in the study: 14 subjects for each age group. A commercial dynamometer was used to evaluate isokinetic and isometric strength at ankle and knee joints. 2 × 2 (Age group (younger, middle-age, and older adult groups) × Gender (male and female)) between-subject design and Post-hoc analysis were performed to evaluate strength differences among three age groups. Post-hoc analysis indicated that, overall, middle-age workers’ leg strengths (i.e. ankle and knee muscles) were significantly different from younger adults while middle-age workers’ leg strengths were virtually identical to older adults’ leg strengths. These results suggested that, overall, 14 middle-age workers in the present study could be at a higher risk of musculoskeletal injuries. Future studies looking at the likelihood of musculoskeletal injuries at different work places and from different working postures at various age levels should be required to validate the current findings. The future study would be a valuable asset in finding intervention strategies such that middle-age workers could stay healthier longer. PMID:20436934

  1. Simple aging in molecular glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niss, Kristine

    2015-03-01

    The glass transition takes place when the structural (alpha) relaxation freezes in and the liquid enters a non-equilibrium solid state. This usually happens when the relaxation time, τ, reaches a timescale of 1000 seconds, and τ = 1000 s is pragmatically used as a definition of the glass transition temperature Tg. However, if the glass is studied on a long enough time scale then relaxation is still seen as physical aging. Aging is a non-linear signature of the alpha relaxation in which the relaxation dynamics changes as a function of how far the system has relaxed. If the system is studied well below Tg then equilibrium will not be achieved, but just below or around Tg it is possible to systematically monitor the non-linear relaxation all the way to equilibrium. We have developed a micro crystat which is optimized for making fast changes in temperature and keeping temperature stable over days and even weeks. Combining this micro cryostat with a small dielectric cell it is possible to monitor non-linear relaxation in a dynamical range of more than 4 decades from 10 seconds to a 105 seconds. The aging is monitored after a fast temperature jump. This means that the aging itself is isotherm, and the data therefore directly shows, how the relaxation-rate changes as volume and structure change on the isotherm. We have studied several molecular liquids and find that the data to a very large extend can be understood in terms of a TNM formalism. This implies time-aging-time superposition and suggests a simple picture where the out of equlibrium ``states'' correspond to equilibrium states - at an other temperature. If the alpha relaxation is dynamically heterogeneous as it is commonly believed, then the aging results show that fast and slow ``modes'' of the relaxation are governed in the same way by structure and volume. We hypothesize that aging according to TNM formalism is an intrinsic property of Roskilde Simple liquids.

  2. [Sarcopenia and bone mineral property with age].

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Sumito

    2016-08-01

    In order to maintain functional activities in the elderly, promotion of musculoskeletal care is important toward successful aging and healthy longevity. In practice, reduction of falls and fall-related injuries together with treatment of osteoporosis is important to keep activities of daily living. Recent findings suggest the possibility that there is a relationship between skeletal muscle and bone mineral property, represented by pathophysiological linkage between sarcopenia and osteoporosis. PMID:27461501

  3. Limits of quantitation - Yet another suggestion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Jill; Wysoczanski, Artur; Voigtman, Edward

    2014-06-01

    The work presented herein suggests that the limit of quantitation concept may be rendered substantially less ambiguous and ultimately more useful as a figure of merit by basing it upon the significant figure and relative measurement error ideas due to Coleman, Auses and Gram, coupled with the correct instantiation of Currie's detection limit methodology. Simple theoretical results are presented for a linear, univariate chemical measurement system with homoscedastic Gaussian noise, and these are tested against both Monte Carlo computer simulations and laser-excited molecular fluorescence experimental results. Good agreement among experiment, theory and simulation is obtained and an easy extension to linearly heteroscedastic Gaussian noise is also outlined.

  4. Suggesting strategies improves creative visual synthesis.

    PubMed

    Antonietti, A; Martini, E

    2000-04-01

    An experiment assessed whether a figural or an interpretative strategy can enhance creative visual synthesis. 45 undergraduates were presented a set of simple figures and asked to imagine combining them to obtain a whole pattern corresponding to a creative product. In the figurative condition participants were instructed to combine figures in unusual ways; in the interpretative condition they were induced to look for unusual meanings embedded in the combinations; in the control condition no strategy was suggested. Results showed that certain strategies induced a more flexible visual synthesis. PMID:10833724

  5. Guidelines and Suggestions for Balloon Gondola Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franco, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The Columbia Scientific Balloon Facility is responsible for ensuring that science payloads meet the appropriate design requirements. The ultimate goal is to ensure that payloads stay within the allowable launch limits as well as survive the termination event. The purpose of this presentation is to provide some general guidelines for Gondola Design. These include rules and reasons on why CSBF has a certain preference and location for certain components within the gondola as well as other suggestions. Additionally, some recommendations are given on how to avoid common pitfalls.

  6. Relative age effect in Japanese male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect, a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese male athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 4,318 male athletes was evaluated from 12 sports: baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, golf, horse racing, rugby, American football, sumo, Ekiden (track and field in long distance), and badminton. They played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. The distribution of the birth dates was examined in each sport and showed significant relative age effect in baseball, soccer, volleyball, Ekiden, basketball, sumo, and horse racing, but not in all sports. The findings suggest that although the school year in Japan starts on April 1, significant relative age effects are observed in some sporting events. PMID:22185072

  7. Chromatin Remodeling, DNA Damage Repair and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Baohua; Yip, Raymond KH; Zhou, Zhongjun

    2012-01-01

    Cells are constantly exposed to a variety of environmental and endogenous conditions causing DNA damage, which is detected and repaired by conserved DNA repair pathways to maintain genomic integrity. Chromatin remodeling is critical in this process, as the organization of eukaryotic DNA into compact chromatin presents a natural barrier to all DNA-related events. Studies on human premature aging syndromes together with normal aging have suggested that accumulated damages might lead to exhaustion of resources that are required for physiological functions and thus accelerate aging. In this manuscript, combining the present understandings and latest findings, we focus mainly on discussing the role of chromatin remodeling in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and regulation of aging. PMID:23633913

  8. The Minimum Legal Drinking Age and Crime

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We use variation from the minimum legal drinking age to estimate the causal effect of access to alcohol on crime. Using a census of arrests in California and a regression discontinuity design, we find that individuals just over age 21 are 5.9% more likely to be arrested than individuals just under 21. This increase is mostly due to assaults, alcohol-related offenses, and nuisance crimes. These results suggest that policies that restrict access to alcohol have the potential to substantially reduce crime. PMID:26120205

  9. The relationship between dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Venkataraghavan, Karthik; Krishnan, Ramesh; Patil, Kavitha; Munoli, Karishma; Karthik, Sandhya

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: The knowledge of bone age and dental age is of great importance for pediatrician and pediatric dentist. It is essential for a pediatric dentist to formulate treatment plan and it is a source of complementary information for pediatrician. There are few studies, which showed the relationship between dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children. Therefore, objective of this study was to determine and compare dental age, bone age and chronological age in underweight children. Materials and Methods: 100 underweight children between the age group of 18-14 years were selected. Chronological age was assessed by recording date of birth. Dental age assessment was done using orthopantamogram following the method described by Demirjian. Bone age assessment was carried out using hand wrist radiograph following Bjork, Grave and Brown′s method. Results: Dental age and Bone age was delayed compared to chronological age in both sexes. The correlation between chronological age, dental age and bone age were all positive in males. Interpretation and Conclusion: The data supports the concept that dental age and bone age delay is a significant feature in underweight children. It is important to consider dental age and bone age as variables for diagnosing underweight children. To support our findings further a well-designed, controlled as well as longitudinal studies with a larger sample size is required. PMID:23946582

  10. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    PubMed Central

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P. R. O.

    2011-01-01

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a ‘preservation motif’, and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival. PMID:21687667

  11. Dinosaur Peptides Suggest Mechanisms of Protein Survival

    SciTech Connect

    San Antonio, James D.; Schweitzer, Mary H.; Jensen, Shane T.; Kalluri, Raghu; Buckley, Michael; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.

    2011-09-16

    Eleven collagen peptide sequences recovered from chemical extracts of dinosaur bones were mapped onto molecular models of the vertebrate collagen fibril derived from extant taxa. The dinosaur peptides localized to fibril regions protected by the close packing of collagen molecules, and contained few acidic amino acids. Four peptides mapped to collagen regions crucial for cell-collagen interactions and tissue development. Dinosaur peptides were not represented in more exposed parts of the collagen fibril or regions mediating intermolecular cross-linking. Thus functionally significant regions of collagen fibrils that are physically shielded within the fibril may be preferentially preserved in fossils. These results show empirically that structure-function relationships at the molecular level could contribute to selective preservation in fossilized vertebrate remains across geological time, suggest a 'preservation motif', and bolster current concepts linking collagen structure to biological function. This non-random distribution supports the hypothesis that the peptides are produced by the extinct organisms and suggests a chemical mechanism for survival.

  12. Eye Examination Findings Among Children. United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Health Services and Mental Health Administration (DHEW), Bethesda, MD.

    Reported were extensive statistical data on the prevalence of abnormal eye conditions found on examination, heterophoria test results, and history of eye problems as well as extent of interrelationship of the eye examination and vision test findings among children aged 6 to 11 years in the United States, based on findings from the Health…

  13. Olfactory phenotypic expression unveils human aging

    PubMed Central

    Mazzatenta, Andrea; Cellerino, Alessandro; Origlia, Nicola; Barloscio, Davide; Sartucci, Ferdinando; Giulio, Camillo Di; Domenici, Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The mechanism of the natural aging of olfaction and its declinein the absence of any overt disease conditions remains unclear. Here, we investigated this mechanism through measurement of one of the parameters of olfactory function, the absolute threshold, in a healthy population from childhood to old age. The absolute olfactory threshold data were collected from an Italian observational study with 622 participants aged 5-105 years. A subjective testing procedure of constant stimuli was used, which was also compared to the ‘staircase’ method, with the calculation of the reliability. The n-butanol stimulus was used as an ascending series of nine molar concentrations that were monitored using an electronic nose. The data were analyzed using nonparametric statistics because of the multimodal distribution. We show that the age-related variations in the absolute olfactory threshold are not continuous; instead, there are multiple olfactory phenotypes. Three distinct age-related phenotypes were defined, termed as ‘juvenile’, ‘mature’ and ‘elder’. The frequency of these three phenotypes depends on age. Our data suggest that the sense of smell does not decrease linearly with aging. Our findings provide the basis for further understanding of olfactory loss as an anticipatory sign of aging and neurodegenerative processes. PMID:27027240

  14. [Explosive "Roman find"].

    PubMed

    Stiel, Michael; Dettmeyer, Reinhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2006-01-01

    A case of a 40-year-old hobby archeologist is presented who searched for remains from Roman times. After finding an oblong, cylindrical object, he opened it with a saw to examine it, which triggered an explosion killing the man. The technical investigation of the remains showed that the find was actually a grenade from the 2nd World War. The autopsy findings and the results of the criminological investigation are presented. PMID:16529179

  15. Aging and Work Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrank, Harris T.; Waring, Joan M.

    Business firms are an integral part of the age stratification structure of society. Although the age structures of people and roles within the organization are dynamic, these structures yield a fairly stable strata in which norms exist to suggest the various roles expected of certain persons. Those in roles with greater financial rewards, power,…

  16. Age and Scientific Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Stephen

    1979-01-01

    The long-standing belief that age is negatively associated with scientific productivity and creativity is shown to be based upon incorrect analysis of data. Studies reported in this article suggest that the relationship between age and scientific performance is influenced by the operation of the reward system. (Author)

  17. A Respectable Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swensen, Clifford H.

    1983-01-01

    Contrasts the relatively abundant information on the young with the paucity of research knowledge on the aged, and asserts that psychologists have too few solutions to coping with the problems of aging. Suggests the integration of older adults into all aspects of society through structural change. (Author/AOS)

  18. Chest magnetic resonance imaging: a protocol suggestion*

    PubMed Central

    Hochhegger, Bruno; de Souza, Vinícius Valério Silveira; Marchiori, Edson; Irion, Klaus Loureiro; Souza Jr., Arthur Soares; Elias Junior, Jorge; Rodrigues, Rosana Souza; Barreto, Miriam Menna; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Mançano, Alexandre Dias; Araujo Neto, César Augusto; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Nin, Carlos Schuler; Santos, Marcel Koenigkam; Silva, Jorge Luiz Pereira e

    2015-01-01

    In the recent years, with the development of ultrafast sequences, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been established as a valuable diagnostic modality in body imaging. Because of improvements in speed and image quality, MRI is now ready for routine clinical use also in the study of pulmonary diseases. The main advantage of MRI of the lungs is its unique combination of morphological and functional assessment in a single imaging session. In this article, the authors review most technical aspects and suggest a protocol for performing chest MRI. The authors also describe the three major clinical indications for MRI of the lungs: staging of lung tumors; evaluation of pulmonary vascular diseases; and investigation of pulmonary abnormalities in patients who should not be exposed to radiation. PMID:26811555

  19. Extant mammal body masses suggest punctuated equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Mattila, Tiina M; Bokma, Folmer

    2008-10-01

    Is gradual microevolutionary change within species simultaneously the source of macroevolutionary differentiation between species? Since its first publication, Darwin's original idea that phenotypic differences between species develop gradually over time, as the accumulation of small selection-induced changes in successive generations has been challenged by palaeontologists claiming that, instead, new species quickly acquire their phenotypes to remain virtually unchanged until going extinct again. This controversy, widely known as the 'punctuated equilibrium' debate, remained unresolved, largely owing to the difficulty of distinguishing biological species from fossil remains. We analysed body masses of 2143 existing mammal species on a phylogeny comprising 4510 (i.e. nearly all) extant species to estimate rates of gradual (anagenetic) and speciational (cladogenetic) evolution. Our Bayesian estimates from mammals as well as separate sub-clades such as primates and carnivores suggest that gradual evolution is responsible for only a small part of body size variation between mammal species. PMID:18595835

  20. Proactive and retroactive effects of negative suggestion.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alan S; Brown, Christine M; Mosbacher, Joy L; Dryden, W Erich

    2006-11-01

    The negative effects of false information presented either prior to (proactive interference; PI) or following (retroactive interference; RI) true information was examined with word definitions (Experiment 1) and trivia facts (Experiment 2). Participants were explicitly aware of which information was true and false when shown, and true-false discrimination was evaluated via multiple-choice tests. Negative suggestion, defined as poorer performance on interference items than noninterference (control) items, consistently occurred when the wrong information followed the correct information (RI) but not when it preceded the correct information (PI). These effects did not change as a function of retention interval (immediate, 1 week, or 3 weeks) or number of incorrect alternatives (1 or 3). Implications of this outcome for experiencing incorrect information in both academic and nonacademic situations are considered. PMID:17087580

  1. Changes in Infants' Visual Scanning across the 2- to 14-Week Age Period.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronson, Gordon W.

    1990-01-01

    Longitudinal findings concerning five male and five female infants suggest a number of age-related changes in the dominant mode of visual scanning. Changes involve attention to locations of stimulus contours and prominent features of the stimulus, accuracy of saccades, and reversion to scanning behaviors typical of younger ages under certain…

  2. Maladaptive Behaviors Related to Adaptive Decline in Aging Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urv, Tiina K.; Zigman, Warren B.; Silverman, Wayne

    2003-01-01

    Changes in patterns of maladaptive behavior related to age-associated adaptive declines were investigated in 529 adults with mental retardation (ages 30 to 84), 202 with Down syndrome. Certain maladaptive behaviors were related to the onset of adaptive declines, (e.g., lack of boundaries). Findings suggest similarities in the course of…

  3. The Effects of a "Don't Know" Response on Palmore's Facts on Aging Quizzes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtenay, Bradley C.; Weidman, Craig

    1985-01-01

    Undergraduates (N=141) completed different versions of Palmore's Facts on Aging (FAQ) quizzes to test effects of "don't know" (DK) answers. Findings suggest the DK option yields more accurate knowledge scores, eliminates guessing, enhances the use of FAQ as a research instrument and for pre/post evaluation of training in aging. (Author/NRB)

  4. [Psychiatrist-Psychotherapist: thoughts and suggestions].

    PubMed

    Charalabaki, K; Michopoulos, I; Filippopoulou, A; Karamanolaki, H

    2014-01-01

    A basic training in psychotherapy is a necessary requirement for the speciality of psychiatry. Nevertheless, any thorough training in psychotherapy in Greece lacks planning and a credible certification system. Τraining is carried out by different psychotherapeutic societies of varying prestige, through a number of programs. There have been very few attempts until now to map this field. The Section of Psychotherapy of the Hellenic Psychiatric Association (HPA) has tried to document the characteristics of the psychiatrists practicing psychotherapy. The study aimed at all of the trainee and trained psychiatrists, members of HPA. 210 questionnaires were filled in by members of HPA in 2000 and 2009-2011. Most of them were returned by post to the Section of Psychotherapy, while some were filled in during the 21rst HPA congress. With regard to psychotherapeutic training 151 (72%) reported some kind of psychoanalytic training, 90 (42.8%) cognitive, 85 (40.5%) systemic and 38 (18%) other (interpersonal, drama therapy, existentialist, cognitive-analytic, hypnosis, group therapy of another kind, orgonotherapy, vegetotherapy, Eye Movement Desensitization Reprocessing). The average duration of the training in years was 5.26 (±3.7) for the psychoanalytic one, 2.73 (±1.6) for the cognitive, 3.83 (±2.1) for the systemic and 3.08 (±2.5) for the psychiatrists with a different type of training. Interestingly, many of the participants reported more than one types of psychotherapeutic training. Another important finding is the fact that the range of training varies from a single seminar to many years, something which underlines the considerable divergence with regard to what is considered psychotherapeutic training. Several questions arise from the above findings: A first one is if a psychiatrist should, during his/her training, also be trained in psychotherapy and what kind of training this should be. A second question is if being a trained psychiatrist entails the capacity to

  5. Aging and Cancer Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Gravekamp, Claudia; Chandra, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Cancer vaccination is less effective at old than at young age, due to T cell unresponsiveness. This is caused by age-related changes of the immune system. Major immune defects at older age are lack of naïve T cells, impaired activation pathways of T cells and antigen-presenting cells (APC), and age-related changes in the tumor microenvironment (TME). Also innate immune responses are affected by aging, but this seems less abundant than adaptive immune responses. In this review we compared various cancer vaccine studies at young and old age, demonstrating the importance of both innate and adaptive immune responses for cancer immunotherapy. Moreover, we found suggestive evidence that innate immune responses could help improve adaptive immune responses through cancer vaccination in old age. PMID:24579737

  6. The effects of prior knowledge on children's memory and suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Elischberger, Holger B

    2005-11-01

    In this study, 5- and 6-year-olds were read a story and asked to recall its details. Two independent factors-prestory knowledge and poststory suggestions-were crossed to examine the effects on children's story recall. The results indicated that prestory social knowledge about the story protagonist as well as academic knowledge relating to the content of the story influenced the accuracy of children's recall immediately after the story presentation. Following the suggestive interview, children reported interviewer-provided social and academic misinformation to a greater extent when the misinformation was consistent with their prior knowledge. In contrast, children were more likely to refute misinformation that contradicted their academic knowledge. These findings are discussed in terms of the mechanisms underlying the knowledge-memory and knowledge-suggestibility linkages. PMID:16040045

  7. Find a Midwife

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Find a Midwife practice locator is a web-based service that allows you to find midwifery practices in ... practice name, address, phone number, e-mail address, web site and a map of the ... reproductive health services, or gynecologic health, you may leave the birth ...

  8. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose &gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:27225987

  9. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-01-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:27225987

  10. [Evidence that suggest the reality of reincarnation].

    PubMed

    Bonilla, Ernesto

    2015-06-01

    Worldwide, children can be found who reported that they have memories of a previous life. More than 2,500 cases have been studied and their specifications have been published and preserved in the archives of the Division of Perceptual Studies at the University of Virginia (United States). Many of those children come from countries where the majority of the inhabitants believe in reincarnation, but others come from countries with different cultures and religions that reject it. In many cases, the revelations of the children have been verified and have corresponded to a particular individual, already dead. A good number of these children have marks and birth defects corresponding to wounds on the body of his previous personality. Many have behaviors related to their claims to their former life: phobias, philias, and attachments. Others seem to recognize people and places of his supposed previous life, and some of their assertions have been made under controlled conditions. The hypothesis of reincarnation is controversial. We can never say that it does not occur, or will obtain conclusive evidence that it happens. The cases that have been described so far, isolated or combined, do not provide irrefutable proof of reincarnation, but they supply evidence that suggest its reality. PMID:26299061

  11. Pattern Genes Suggest Functional Connectivity of Organs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yangmei; Pan, Jianbo; Cai, Meichun; Yao, Lixia; Ji, Zhiliang

    2016-05-01

    Human organ, as the basic structural and functional unit in human body, is made of a large community of different cell types that organically bound together. Each organ usually exerts highly specified physiological function; while several related organs work smartly together to perform complicated body functions. In this study, we present a computational effort to understand the roles of genes in building functional connection between organs. More specifically, we mined multiple transcriptome datasets sampled from 36 human organs and tissues, and quantitatively identified 3,149 genes whose expressions showed consensus modularly patterns: specific to one organ/tissue, selectively expressed in several functionally related tissues and ubiquitously expressed. These pattern genes imply intrinsic connections between organs. According to the expression abundance of the 766 selective genes, we consistently cluster the 36 human organs/tissues into seven functional groups: adipose & gland, brain, muscle, immune, metabolism, mucoid and nerve conduction. The organs and tissues in each group either work together to form organ systems or coordinate to perform particular body functions. The particular roles of specific genes and selective genes suggest that they could not only be used to mechanistically explore organ functions, but also be designed for selective biomarkers and therapeutic targets.

  12. Consumer hypnotic-like suggestibility: possible mechanism in compulsive purchasing.

    PubMed

    Prete, M Irene; Guido, Gianluigi; Pichierri, Marco

    2013-08-01

    The authors hypothesize a concept, Consumer Hypnotic-Like Suggestibility (CHLS), defined as an altered state of consciousness, as a state causing a tendency to respond positively to messages aimed at inducing consumers to make unplanned purchases. This study aims to investigate the associations of CHLS with interpersonal variables and compulsive purchasing--a frequent and uncontrollable preoccupation with buying or impulses to buy. A study was conducted on a sample of 232 subjects (n = 111 men; M age = 41 yr.), through the administration of a questionnaire, which measured: CHLS, compulsive purchasing, consumer susceptibility to interpersonal influence (the necessity to enhance one's image in the opinion of others through the consumption of products), and consumer atmospherics, i.e., environmental stimuli known to influence purchasing decisions. Modeling and mediation analyses suggested that internal and external drivers--Consumer Susceptibility to Interpersonal Influence and atmospherics--are positively related to CHLS which affects compulsive purchasing. PMID:24340808

  13. [Setting up supportive care in oncology: reflexions and suggestions.].

    PubMed

    Colombat, P; Antoun, S; Aubry, R; Banterla-Dadon, I; Barruel, F; Bonel, J-M; Bonnin, J-C; Chassignol, L; Chollet, A; Chvetzoff, G; D'Hérouville, D; Drouart, M; Gaillet, H; Ganem, G; Krakowski, I; Morigault, M-O; Nallet, G; Rolland, J; Suc, A

    2009-09-01

    A group of 19 health professionals implicated in supportive care wanted to suggest some reflexions for organization, setting and evaluation of the supportive care in institutions and health territories. The suggested organization must be applicable to any cancer patient and the place of the care whatever the age, the stage of the disease; in the future, must be applicable to any patient with serious chronic illness. This organization must allow to optimize the accompaniment and the care of the patients and their close relations by 1) precise and regular analysis of their needs; 2) the respect of the continuity of the health care; 3) the setting of collaborative practice and transversality in the care. It is not a new medical speciality but a coordination of competences for patients and their families. PMID:19903599

  14. Neurofibroma and epidermoid cyst: unexpected findings after first foreskin retraction.

    PubMed

    Ballouhey, Quentin; Longis, Bernard; Couvrat-Carcauzon, Véronique; Gardic, Solène; Piguet, Christophe; Berenguer, Daniel; Fourcade, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    We report here 2 unusual cases of tumor of the glans penis in children. Abnormal findings were found on a 12-year-old and a 13-year-old boy soon after their first foreskin retraction. Initial medical examination suggested inclusions of smegma and they were referred to our Department of Pediatric Urology. Complete resection was performed under general anesthesia. Histologic examination revealed an epidermoid cyst in the first patient and a solitary neurofibroma in the second. These patients represent respectively the third and the second cases of such entities described in the pediatric age group. Cautious examination is required for persistent inclusions of smegma. PMID:23958511

  15. Foraging across the life span: is there a reduction in exploration with aging?

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Rui; Wilke, Andreas; Czienskowski, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Does foraging change across the life span, and in particular, with aging? We report data from two foraging tasks used to investigate age differences in search in external environments as well as internal search in memory. Overall, the evidence suggests that foraging behavior may undergo significant changes across the life span across internal and external search. In particular, we find evidence of a trend toward reduced exploration with increased age. We discuss these findings in light of theories that postulate a link between aging and reductions in novelty seeking and exploratory behavior. PMID:23616741

  16. The Association Between P3 Amplitude at Age 11 and Criminal Offending at Age 23

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Venables, Peter H.; Mednick, Sarnoff A.

    2014-01-01

    Reduced P3 amplitude to targets is an information-processing deficit associated with adult antisocial behavior and may reflect dysfunction of the temporal-parietal junction. This study aims to examine whether this deficit precedes criminal offending. From a birth cohort of 1,795 children, 73 individuals who become criminal offenders at age 23 and 123 noncriminal individuals were assessed on P3 amplitude. The two groups did not differ on gender, ethnicity, and social adversity. P3 amplitude was measured over the temporal-parietal junction during a visual continuous performance task at age 11, together with antisocial behavior. Criminal convictions were assessed at age 23. Reduced P3 amplitude at age 11 was associated with increased antisocial behavior at age 11. Criminal offenders showed significantly reduced P3 amplitudes to target stimuli compared to controls. Findings remained significant after controlling for antisocial behavior and hyperactivity at age 11 and alcoholism at age 23. P3 deficits at age 11 are associated with adult crime at age 23, suggesting that reduced P3 may be an early neurobiological marker for cognitive and affective processes subserved by the temporal-parietal junction that place a child at risk for adult crime. PMID:22963083

  17. Employee suggestion programs: the rewards of involvement.

    PubMed

    Mishra, J M; McKendall, M

    1993-09-01

    Successful ESPs are the products of a great deal of effort by managers, administrators, teams, individuals, and reviewers, who are all striving to achieve the goals of increased profitability and enhanced employee involvement. A review of the literature indicates that there are several prescriptions that will increase the likelihood of a successful ESP (see the box). Today's American business prophets sound ceaseless calls to arms in the name of "world class performance," "global competitiveness," "total quality management," and a variety of other buzz terms. A burgeoning industry has evolved that promises, through speeches, teleconferences, seminars, and consulting contracts, to teach American organizations how to achieve excellence. In the face of a sputtering economy and unrelenting competitive pressure, today's managers must translate these laudatory ideals into hands-on reality without sacrificing the firm's profit margin to experimentation. If any idea can help an organization achieve improvement through a workable program, then that idea and that program deserve real consideration. An ESP represents an opportunity to tap the intelligence and resourcefulness of an organization's employees, and by doing so, reap significant cost savings. Those companies and managers that have an ESP program uniformly list economic advantages first when describing the benefits of their employee suggestion programs. But there is another deeper and longer term benefit inherent in an ESP. These programs allow employees to become involved in their organization; they drive deaccession to lower levels, they give employees more responsibility, they foster creative approaches to work, and they encourage creativity in pursuit of company goals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10127910

  18. Age to survive: DNA damage and aging.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Björn; Garinis, George A; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J

    2008-02-01

    Aging represents the progressive functional decline and increased mortality risk common to nearly all metazoans. Recent findings experimentally link DNA damage and organismal aging: longevity-regulating genetic pathways respond to the accumulation of DNA damage and other stress conditions and conversely influence the rate of damage accumulation and its impact for cancer and aging. This novel insight has emerged from studies on human progeroid diseases and mouse models that have deficient DNA repair pathways. Here we discuss a unified concept of an evolutionarily conserved 'survival' response that shifts the organism's resources from growth to maintenance as an adaptation to stresses, such as starvation and DNA damage. This shift protects the organism from cancer and promotes healthy aging. PMID:18192065

  19. Ar-Ar Ages of Nakhlites Y000593, NWA998, and Nakhla and CRE Ages of NWA998

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrison, D. H.; Bogard, D. D.

    2005-01-01

    The seven known Martian nakhlites are Nakhla, Lafayette, Governador Valadares, and four recent finds from hot and cold deserts: MIL03346 from the Transantarctic Mountains, a paired group from the Yamato Mountains (Y000593, Y000749, and Y000802, and two from Morocco (NWA998 and NWA817. Radiometric ages (Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr, U-Pb, and Ar-Ar) for the first three nakhlites, along with Chassigny, fall in the range of 1.19-1.37 Gyr and may suggest a common formation age. These meteorites also show very similar cosmic-ray (space) exposure ages, suggesting a single ejection event from Mars. The ages for nakhlites are different from those of Martian shergottites, whose radiometric ages vary by nearly a factor of three (approx. 165-475 Myr) and whose space exposure ages vary over a factor of approx. 20. Shergottite ages suggest that multiple locations on the Martian surface have been sampled, whereas nakhlite data imply sampling of only one Mars surface location. Because older Martian surfaces are expected to be more abundant, it seems surprising that all nakhlites would represent only one Martian impact event. To address this issue, we are measuring the (39)Ar-(40)Ar ages of Y-000593, NWA-998, Nakhla, and MIL-03346, and the space (CRE) exposure age of NWA998. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  20. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    ... too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out of ... person has smoked. Many products claim to revitalize aging skin or reduce wrinkles, but the Food and ...

  1. Menopausal Estrogen Therapy Benefits and Risks Vary by Age, WHI Analysis Suggests

    Cancer.gov

    Long-term follow-up data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) provide new information about the potential risks and benefits of hormone therapy to treat symptoms related to menopause, including its effect on breast cancer risk,

  2. Menopausal Estrogen Therapy Benefits and Risks Vary by Age, WHI Analysis Suggests | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Long-term follow-up data from the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) provide important new information about the potential risks and benefits of hormone therapy to treat symptoms or conditions related to menopause, including its effect on breast cancer risk. The results were published April 5 in the Journal of the American Medical Association. |

  3. Health Services for the School-Age Child: Suggested Guidelines for School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    Organized around eight topics, this document provides guidelines for Oregon school district health services programs for students in preschool/kindergarten through grade twelve. A list of principles related to health program development, a summary of related health legislation, and a checklist for assessing compliance with Oregon administration…

  4. Palaeomagnetic field strength variations suggest a Mesoproterozoic age of inner core nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, G. A.; Biggin, A. J.; Piispa, E. J.; Pesonen, L. J.; Holme, R. T.; Veikkolainen, T.; Tauxe, L.

    2015-12-01

    The Earth's inner core grows by the freezing of liquid iron at its surface. The point in history at which this process initiated marks a step-change in the thermal evolution of the planet. Recent computational and experimental studies have presented radically differing estimates of the thermal conductivity of the Earth's core with resulting widely ranged dates of inner core nucleation (from less than 0.5 to nearly 2 billion years). Some of these raise serious challenges to explaining how the dynamo responsible for generating the geomagnetic field has been sustained over the whole of observed Earth history. The nucleation of the core leads to a different convective regime, and might be expected to produce different magnetic field structures, producing an observable signal in the palaeomagnetic record and allowing the date of inner-core nucleation to be estimated directly. Previous studies searching for this signature have been hampered by the paucity of palaeomagnetic intensity measurements, by the lack of an effective means of assessing their reliability, and by shorter timescale geomagnetic variations. Here we examine results from an expanded Precambrian database of palaeomagnetic intensity measurements selected using a new set of reliability criteria. Our analysis provides the first intensity-based support for the dominant dipolarity of the time-averaged Precambrian field, a crucial requirement for palaeomagnetic reconstructions of continents. We also present the first firm evidence for the existence of very long-term variations in geomagnetic strength. The most prominent and robust transition in the record is an increase in both average field strength and variability observed to occur between 1 and 1.5 billion years ago. This observation is most readily explained by the nucleation of the inner core occurring during this interval; the timing would tend to favour a modest value of core thermal conductivity and a more conventional thermal evolution of the Earth.

  5. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents' Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement.

    PubMed

    Ångström-Brännström, Charlotte; Engvall, Gunn; Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80-90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child's and the parent's view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents' experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents' suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2-16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people's lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child's suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process. PMID:26509449

  6. Children Undergoing Radiotherapy: Swedish Parents’ Experiences and Suggestions for Improvement

    PubMed Central

    Mullaney, Tara; Nilsson, Kristina; Wickart-Johansson, Gun; Svärd, Anna-Maja; Nyholm, Tufve; Lindh, Jack; Lindh, Viveca

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 300 children, from 0 to 18 years old, are diagnosed with cancer in Sweden every year. Of these children, 80–90 of them undergo radiotherapy treatment for their cancer. Although radiotherapy is an encounter with advanced technology, few studies have investigated the child’s and the parent’s view of the procedure. As part of an ongoing multicenter study aimed to improve patient preparation and the care environment in pediatric radiotherapy, this article reports the findings from interviews with parents at baseline. The aim of the present study was twofold: to describe parents’ experience when their child undergoes radiotherapy treatment, and to report parents’ suggestions for improvements during radiotherapy for their children. Sixteen mothers and sixteen fathers of children between 2–16 years old with various cancer diagnoses were interviewed. Data were analyzed using content analysis. The findings showed that cancer and treatment turns people’s lives upside down, affecting the entire family. Further, the parents experience the child’s suffering and must cope with intense feelings. Radiotherapy treatment includes preparation by skilled and empathetic staff. The parents gradually find that they can deal with the process; and lastly, parents have suggestions for improvements during the radiotherapy treatment. An overarching theme emerged: that despair gradually turns to a sense of security, with a sustained focus on and close interaction with the child. In conclusion, an extreme burden was experienced around the start of radiotherapy, though parents gradually coped with the process. PMID:26509449

  7. Age-associated circadian period changes in Arabidopsis leaves

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunmin; Kim, Yumi; Yeom, Miji; Lim, Junhyun; Nam, Hong Gil

    2016-01-01

    As most organisms age, their appearance, physiology, and behaviour alters as part of a life history strategy that maximizes their fitness over their lifetime. The passage of time is measured by organisms and is used to modulate these age-related changes. Organisms have an endogenous time measurement system called the circadian clock. This endogenous clock regulates many physiological responses throughout the life history of organisms to enhance their fitness. However, little is known about the relation between ageing and the circadian clock in plants. Here, we investigate the association of leaf ageing with circadian rhythm changes to better understand the regulation of life-history strategy in Arabidopsis. The circadian periods of clock output genes were approximately 1h shorter in older leaves than younger leaves. The periods of the core clock genes were also consistently shorter in older leaves, indicating an effect of ageing on regulation of the circadian period. Shortening of the circadian period with leaf age occurred faster in plants grown under a long photoperiod compared with a short photoperiod. We screened for a regulatory gene that links ageing and the circadian clock among multiple clock gene mutants. Only mutants for the clock oscillator TOC1 did not show a shortened circadian period during leaf ageing, suggesting that TOC1 may link age to changes in the circadian clock period. Our findings suggest that age-related information is incorporated into the regulation of the circadian period and that TOC1 is necessary for this integrative process. PMID:27012281

  8. Testing increases suggestibility for narrative-based misinformation but reduces suggestibility for question-based misinformation.

    PubMed

    LaPaglia, Jessica A; Chan, Jason C K

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent studies have found that recalling details of an event following its occurrence can increase people's suggestibility to later presented misinformation. However, several other studies have reported the opposite result, whereby earlier retrieval can reduce subsequent eyewitness suggestibility. In the present study, we investigated whether differences in the way misinformation is presented can modulate the effects of testing on suggestibility. Participants watched a video of a robbery and some were questioned about the event immediately afterwards. Later, participants were exposed to misinformation in a narrative (Experiment 1) or in questions (Experiment 2). Consistent with previous studies, we found that testing increased suggestibility when misinformation was presented via a narrative. Remarkably, when misinformation was presented in questions, testing decreased suggestibility. PMID:24105926

  9. Evidence suggests vocal production learning in a cross-fostered Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus).

    PubMed

    Favaro, Livio; Neves, Silvana; Furlati, Stefano; Pessani, Daniela; Martin, Vidal; Janik, Vincent M

    2016-07-01

    Vocal learning is a rare skill in mammals, and we have limited information about the contexts in which they use it. Previous studies suggested that cetaceans in general are skilled at imitating sounds, but only few species have been studied to date. To expand this investigation to another species and to investigate the possible influence of the social environment on vocal learning, we studied the whistle repertoire of a female Risso's dolphin (Grampus griseus) that was stranded at an early age and was subsequently raised in a group of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). We show that this cross-fostered animal produced vocal signals more akin to those of its Tursiops poolmates than those of Risso's dolphins in the wild. This is one of very few systematic cross-fostering studies in cetaceans and the first to suggest vocal production learning in the Risso's dolphin. Our findings also suggest that social experience is a major factor in the development of the vocal repertoire in this species. PMID:26874843

  10. Find an ACFAS Physician

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search Text Size Print Bookmark Find an ACFAS Physician Acceptance Policy By clicking on the "I Accept" ... Israel Italy Jamaica Japan Jordan Kazakhstan Kenya Kiribati Korea, Dem People's Rep Korea, Rebublic Of Kuwait Kyrgyzstan ...

  11. Find a Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facts Find Help News and Research Tips for Soldiers and Veterans Tips for Families and Friends Take ... questions to ask for yourself and for your child . If we can be of further assistance Contact ...

  12. Finding New Variable Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joner, M. D.

    2016-06-01

    (Abstract only) Initial findings are presented for several new variable stars that have been identified using CCD photometry done with the 0.9-meter telescope located at the BYU West Mountain Observatory.

  13. ASGE: Find a Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join ASGE Event Calendar Cart LOG IN MEMBERS HEALTHCARE PROFESSIONALS PATIENTS ADVOCACY Advocacy Agenda Legislation Regulation Take Action ... New Members GI-Related Links MEMBERS Find A Doctor About ASGE Members ASGE physicians and surgeons have ...

  14. Find a Physical Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, and students of physical therapy. Other Popular Resources: - Member Directory - Annual Reports Careers & Education Find Jobs Courses & Conferences About PT/PTA Careers Career Management ...

  15. Find a Cancer Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Status message Locating you... The Find an Oncologist Database is made available by ASCO as an informational resource for patients and caregivers. The database includes the names of physicians and other health ...

  16. Find a Physical Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... There are numerous benefits to treatment by a physical therapist. Go There » For Patients Choosing Your PT Preparing ... need to know before your appointment with your physical therapist. Go There » Find a PT For Health Professionals ...

  17. Finding a Neurosurgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... The first step in getting proper treatment for Chiari is to find the right doctor. While many ... neurologist, given that the only real treatment for Chiari is surgical, Conquer Chiari recommends that patients see ...

  18. Communication & Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, William E.

    This extensive bibliography contains more than 1,800 entries about communication and aging. The citations include journal articles, unpublished papers, speeches, dissertations, research studies, and books that relate aging and the aged to a variety of topics, including the following: physiological deterioration, socialization, political…

  19. Skin Aging

    MedlinePlus

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  20. Creative Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ager, Charlene Lee; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Explores some divergent attitudes toward aging, negative as well as positive. Presents a neurophysiological framework to support the belief that aging is an active and creative process. Explores physical, psychological, and sociological aspects, and identifies three factors in the creative aging process. (Author/JAC)

  1. 'It's still bending': verbal suggestion and alleged psychokinetic ability.

    PubMed

    Wiseman, Richard; Greening, Emma

    2005-02-01

    Some alleged psychics appear to be able to deform metallic objects, such as keys and cutlery, by thought alone. This paper describes two studies that examined whether one aspect of these demonstrations could be created by verbal suggestion. In the first study, participants were shown a videotape in which a fake psychic placed a bent key on a table. Participants in one condition heard the fake psychic suggest that the key was continuing to bend, whilst those in the other condition did not. Participants in the suggestion condition were significantly more likely to report that the key continued to bend. These findings were replicated in the second study. In addition, participants who reported that the key continued to bend displayed a significantly higher level of confidence in their testimony than others, and were significantly less likely to recall that the fake psychic had suggested the continued bending of the key. Neither experiment revealed any differences between participants who expressed a prior belief in the paranormal compared with those who did not. The paper discusses the implications of these results for the psychology of suggestion and the assessment of eyewitness testimony for anomalous events. PMID:15826327

  2. Finding Your Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Bonnie

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author offers ways on how to find a voice when telling or sharing stories in print or in person. To find a voice, someone must: (1) Trust themselves; (2) Trust their audience whether they know they can trust them or not; (3) Be respectful in their inventions; (4) Listen to and read the stories of others; (5) Make mistakes; (6)…

  3. Mosaic aging

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Lary C.; Herndon, James G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Although all multicellular organisms undergo structural and functional deterioration with age, senescence is not a uniform process. Rather, each organism experiences a constellation of changes that reflect the heterogeneous effects of age on molecules, cells, organs and systems, an idiosyncratic pattern that we refer to as mosaic aging. Varying genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors (local and extrinsic) contribute to the aging phenotype in a given individual, and these agents influence the type and rate of functional decline, as well as the likelihood of developing age-associated afflictions such as cardiovascular disease, arthritis, cancer, and neurodegenerative disorders. Identifying key factors that drive aging, clarifying their activities in different systems, and in particular understanding how they interact will enhance our comprehension of the aging process, and could yield insights into the permissive role that senescence plays in the emergence of acute and chronic diseases of the elderly. PMID:20110150

  4. Age matters: The effect of onset age of video game play on task-switching abilities.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Andree; Toh, Wei Xing; Yang, Hwajin

    2016-05-01

    Although prior research suggests that playing video games can improve cognitive abilities, recent empirical studies cast doubt on such findings (Unsworth et al., 2015). To reconcile these inconsistent findings, we focused on the link between video games and task switching. Furthermore, we conceptualized video-game expertise as the onset age of active video-game play rather than the frequency of recent gameplay, as it captures both how long a person has played video games and whether the individual began playing during periods of high cognitive plasticity. We found that the age of active onset better predicted switch and mixing costs than did frequency of recent gameplay; specifically, players who commenced playing video games at an earlier age reaped greater benefits in terms of task switching than did those who started at a later age. Moreover, improving switch costs required a more extensive period of video-game experience than did mixing costs; this finding suggests that certain cognitive abilities benefit from different amounts of video game experience. PMID:26860712

  5. Relationship Between Age, Tenure, and Disability Duration in Persons With Compensated Work-Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Besen, Elyssa; Young, Amanda E.; Gaines, Brittany; Pransky, Glenn

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the relationships among age, tenure, and the length of disability following a work-related injury/illness. Methods: This study utilized 361,754 administrative workers’ compensation claims. The relationships between age, tenure, and disability duration was estimated with random-effects models. Results: The age-disability duration relationship was stronger than the tenure-disability duration relationship. An interaction was observed between age and tenure. At younger ages, disability duration varied little based on tenure. In midlife, disability duration was greater for workers with lower tenure than for workers with higher tenure. At the oldest ages, disability duration increased as tenure increased. Conclusions: Findings indicate that age is a more important factor in disability duration than tenure; however, the relationship between age and disability duration varies based on tenure, suggesting that both age and tenure are important influences in the work-disability process. PMID:26645384

  6. Parental support during young adulthood: Why does assistance decline with age?

    PubMed Central

    Hartnett, Caroline Sten; Furstenberg, Frank; Birditt, Kira; Fingerman, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has found that financial transfers from parents to young adult children decline as children age and that age is one of the strongest predictors of support. Using data collected from young adults (ages 18 to 34) and their parents (ages 40 to 60; N=536 parent-child dyads), we explore the possibility that the relationship between age and financial support is mediated by offspring needs, acquisition of adult roles, or geographical and emotional closeness. We find that age-related declines in offspring’s needs help to explain why financial support falls with age. However, offspring age remains a robust predictor of financial support after controlling for a wide range of factors, suggesting that age norms condition support from parents to offspring. PMID:23976811

  7. Topographic Change of the Dichotomy Boundary Suggested by Crustal Inversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neumann, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    Linear negative gravity anomalies in Acidalia Planitia along the eastern edge of Tempe Terra and along the northern edge of Arabia Terra have been noted in Mars Global Surveyor gravity fields. Once proposed to represent buried fluvial channels, it is now believed that these gravity troughs mainly arise from partial compensation of the hemispheric dichotomy topographic scarp. A recent inversion for crustal structure finds that mantle compensation of the scarp is offset from the present-day topographic expression of the dichotomy boundary. The offset suggests that erosion or other forms of mass wasting occurred after lithosphere thickened and no longer accomodated topographic change through viscous relaxation.

  8. Ten suggestions to strengthen the science of ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belovsky, G.E.; Botkin, Daniel B.; Crowl, T.A.; Cummins, K.W.; Franklin, J.F.; Hunter, M.L., Jr.; Joern, A.; Lindenmayer, D.B.; MacMahon, J.A.; Margules, C.R.; Scott, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    There are few well-documented, general ecological principles that can be applied to pressing environmental issues. When they discuss them at all, ecologists often disagree about the relative importance of different aspects of the science's original and still important issues. It may be that the sum of ecological science is not open to universal statements because of the wide range of organizational, spatial, and temporal phenomena, as well as the sheer number of possible interactions. We believe, however, that the search for general principles has been inadequate to establish the extent to which generalities are possible. We suggest that ecologists may need to reconsider how we view our science. This article lists 10 suggestions for ecology, recognizing the many impediments to finding generalizations in this field, imposed in part by the complexity of the subject and in part by limits to funding for the study of ecology.

  9. Ergodicity convergence test suggests telomere motion obeys fractional dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kepten, E; Bronshtein, I; Garini, Y

    2011-04-01

    Anomalous diffusion, observed in many biological processes, is a generalized description of a wide variety of processes, all obeying the same law of mean-square displacement. Identifying the basic mechanisms of these observations is important for deducing the nature of the biophysical systems measured. We implement a previously suggested method for distinguishing between fractional Langevin dynamics, fractional Brownian motion, and continuous time random walk based on the ergodic nature of the data. We apply the method together with the recently suggested P-variation test and the displacement correlation to the lately measured dynamics of telomeres in the nucleus of mammalian cells and find strong evidence that the telomeres motion obeys fractional dynamics. The ergodic dynamics are observed experimentally to fit fractional Brownian or Langevin dynamics. PMID:21599212

  10. Ergodicity convergence test suggests telomere motion obeys fractional dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepten, E.; Bronshtein, I.; Garini, Y.

    2011-04-01

    Anomalous diffusion, observed in many biological processes, is a generalized description of a wide variety of processes, all obeying the same law of mean-square displacement. Identifying the basic mechanisms of these observations is important for deducing the nature of the biophysical systems measured. We implement a previously suggested method for distinguishing between fractional Langevin dynamics, fractional Brownian motion, and continuous time random walk based on the ergodic nature of the data. We apply the method together with the recently suggested P-variation test and the displacement correlation to the lately measured dynamics of telomeres in the nucleus of mammalian cells and find strong evidence that the telomeres motion obeys fractional dynamics. The ergodic dynamics are observed experimentally to fit fractional Brownian or Langevin dynamics.

  11. Mitochondrial proteostasis in the control of aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Martin Borch; Jasper, Heinrich

    2014-08-01

    Mitochondria play a central role in the aging process. Studies in model organisms have started to integrate mitochondrial effects on aging with the maintenance of protein homeostasis. These findings center on the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPR(mt)), which has been implicated in lifespan extension in worms, flies, and mice, suggesting a conserved role in the long-term maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Here, we review current knowledge of the UPR(mt) and discuss its integration with cellular pathways known to regulate lifespan. We highlight how insight into the UPR(mt) is revolutionizing our understanding of mitochondrial lifespan extension and of the aging process. PMID:24930971

  12. Interplay between Shear Loading and Structural Aging in a Physical Gelatin Gel

    SciTech Connect

    Ronsin, O.; Caroli, C.; Baumberger, T.

    2009-09-25

    We show that the aging of the mechanical relaxation of a gelatin gel exhibits the same scaling phenomenology as polymer and colloidal glasses. In addition, gelatin is known to exhibit logarithmic structural aging (stiffening). We find that stress accelerates this process. However, this effect is definitely irreducible to a mere age shift with respect to natural aging. We suggest that it is interpretable in terms of elastically aided elementary (coil->helix) local events whose dynamics gradually slows down as aging increases geometric frustration.

  13. Finding the engram.

    PubMed

    Josselyn, Sheena A; Köhler, Stefan; Frankland, Paul W

    2015-09-01

    Many attempts have been made to localize the physical trace of a memory, or engram, in the brain. However, until recently, engrams have remained largely elusive. In this Review, we develop four defining criteria that enable us to critically assess the recent progress that has been made towards finding the engram. Recent 'capture' studies use novel approaches to tag populations of neurons that are active during memory encoding, thereby allowing these engram-associated neurons to be manipulated at later times. We propose that findings from these capture studies represent considerable progress in allowing us to observe, erase and express the engram. PMID:26289572

  14. Imaging Findings of Congestive Hepatopathy.

    PubMed

    Wells, Michael L; Fenstad, Eric R; Poterucha, Joseph T; Hough, David M; Young, Phillip M; Araoz, Philip A; Ehman, Richard L; Venkatesh, Sudhakar K

    2016-01-01

    Congestive hepatopathy (CH) refers to hepatic abnormalities that result from passive hepatic venous congestion. Prolonged exposure to elevated hepatic venous pressure may lead to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Liver dysfunction and corresponding clinical signs and symptoms typically manifest late in the disease process. Recognition of CH at imaging is critical because advanced liver fibrosis may develop before the condition is suspected clinically. Characteristic findings of CH on conventional images include dilatation of the inferior vena cava and hepatic veins; retrograde hepatic venous opacification during the early bolus phase of intravenous contrast material injection; and a predominantly peripheral heterogeneous pattern of hepatic enhancement due to stagnant blood flow. Extensive fibrosis can be seen in chronic or severe cases. Hyperenhancing regenerative nodules that may retain hepatobiliary contrast agents are often present. Magnetic resonance (MR) elastography can show elevated liver stiffness and may be useful in evaluation of fibrosis in CH because it can be incorporated easily into routine cardiac MR imaging. Preliminary experience with MR elastography suggests its future use in initial evaluation of patients suspected of having CH, for monitoring of disease, and for assessment after therapy. To facilitate appropriate workup and treatment, radiologists should be familiar with findings suggestive of CH at radiography, ultrasonography, computed tomography, MR imaging, and MR elastography. In addition, knowledge of underlying pathophysiology, comparative histologic abnormalities, and extrahepatic manifestations is useful to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and suggest appropriate additional diagnostic testing. (©)RSNA, 2016. PMID:27284758

  15. Pervasive Effects of Aging on Gene Expression in Wild Wolves.

    PubMed

    Charruau, Pauline; Johnston, Rachel A; Stahler, Daniel R; Lea, Amanda; Snyder-Mackler, Noah; Smith, Douglas W; vonHoldt, Bridgett M; Cole, Steven W; Tung, Jenny; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-08-01

    Gene expression levels change as an individual ages and responds to environmental conditions. With the exception of humans, such patterns have principally been studied under controlled conditions, overlooking the array of developmental and environmental influences that organisms encounter under conditions in which natural selection operates. We used high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of whole blood to assess the relative impacts of social status, age, disease, and sex on gene expression levels in a natural population of gray wolves (Canis lupus). Our findings suggest that age is broadly associated with gene expression levels, whereas other examined factors have minimal effects on gene expression patterns. Further, our results reveal evolutionarily conserved signatures of senescence, such as immunosenescence and metabolic aging, between wolves and humans despite major differences in life history and environment. The effects of aging on gene expression levels in wolves exhibit conservation with humans, but the more rapid expression differences observed in aging wolves is evolutionarily appropriate given the species' high level of extrinsic mortality due to intraspecific aggression. Some expression changes that occur with age can facilitate physical age-related changes that may enhance fitness in older wolves. However, the expression of these ancestral patterns of aging in descendant modern dogs living in highly modified domestic environments may be maladaptive and cause disease. This work provides evolutionary insight into aging patterns observed in domestic dogs and demonstrates the applicability of studying natural populations to investigate the mechanisms of aging. PMID:27189566

  16. Neuroimaging explanations of age-related differences in task performance

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Barulli, Daniel; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2014-01-01

    Advancing age affects both cognitive performance and functional brain activity and interpretation of these effects has led to a variety of conceptual research models without always explicitly linking the two effects. However, to best understand the multifaceted effects of advancing age, age differences in functional brain activity need to be explicitly tied to the cognitive task performance. This work hypothesized that age-related differences in task performance are partially explained by age-related differences in functional brain activity and formally tested these causal relationships. Functional MRI data was from groups of young and old adults engaged in an executive task-switching experiment. Analyses were voxel-wise testing of moderated-mediation and simple mediation statistical path models to determine whether age group, brain activity and their interaction explained task performance in regions demonstrating an effect of age group. Results identified brain regions whose age-related differences in functional brain activity significantly explained age-related differences in task performance. In all identified locations, significant moderated-mediation relationships resulted from increasing brain activity predicting worse (slower) task performance in older but not younger adults. Findings suggest that advancing age links task performance to the level of brain activity. The overall message of this work is that in order to understand the role of functional brain activity on cognitive performance, analysis methods should respect theoretical relationships. Namely, that age affects brain activity and brain activity is related to task performance. PMID:24672481

  17. Phospholipase A2 – nexus of aging, oxidative stress, neuronal excitability, and functional decline of the aging nervous system? Insights from a snail model system of neuronal aging and age-associated memory impairment

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, Petra M.; Watson, Shawn N.; Wildering, Willem C.

    2014-01-01

    The aging brain undergoes a range of changes varying from subtle structural and physiological changes causing only minor functional decline under healthy normal aging conditions, to severe cognitive or neurological impairment associated with extensive loss of neurons and circuits due to age-associated neurodegenerative disease conditions. Understanding how biological aging processes affect the brain and how they contribute to the onset and progress of age-associated neurodegenerative diseases is a core research goal in contemporary neuroscience. This review focuses on the idea that changes in intrinsic neuronal electrical excitability associated with (per)oxidation of membrane lipids and activation of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes are an important mechanism of learning and memory failure under normal aging conditions. Specifically, in the context of this special issue on the biology of cognitive aging we portray the opportunities offered by the identifiable neurons and behaviorally characterized neural circuits of the freshwater snail Lymnaea stagnalis in neuronal aging research and recapitulate recent insights indicating a key role of lipid peroxidation-induced PLA2 as instruments of aging, oxidative stress and inflammation in age-associated neuronal and memory impairment in this model system. The findings are discussed in view of accumulating evidence suggesting involvement of analogous mechanisms in the etiology of age-associated dysfunction and disease of the human and mammalian brain. PMID:25538730

  18. Looking age-appropriate while growing old gracefully: A qualitative study of ageing and body image among older adults.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Glen S; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Williamson, Heidi; Christopher, Gary; Harcourt, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Body dissatisfaction can be significantly detrimental to wellbeing. Little is known about older adults' body image, despite the fact that ageing causes unique bodily changes and that sociocultural pressures to resist these changes abound. We conducted six focus groups with a UK community sample of White British and South Asian older adults aged 65-92 years. Thematic analysis highlighted four themes: appearance indicates capability and identity; physical ability trumps appearance; felt pressures to age 'gracefully' while resisting appearance changes; and gender and cultural differences. These findings suggest that older adults' body image can have important implications for their wellbeing and merits researchers' attention. PMID:24776689

  19. Find a Periodontist

    MedlinePlus

    Search form Search Search form Search Select a Page Home About Us Vision and Mission AAP Membership Benefits of Membership AAP Benefits Details ... a Periodontist - Advanced Search Find a Periodontist - Advanced Search U.S. Zip Code Search The best way to ...

  20. Find a Massage Therapist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Workplace Options Business Finances Career Path Quiz Job Bank Job Bank AMTA's Customized Job Bank Works for You Search massage therapy jobs in ... open positions and resumes for free. AMTA Job Bank » Get Started Find Jobs Sign up for Job ...

  1. Find a Podiatrist

    MedlinePlus

    ... Carolina South Dakota Tennessee Texas Utah Vermont Virgin Islands Virginia Washington West Virginia Wisconsin Wyoming Yukon Territory Zip / Postal Code: The closest podiatrist may not be in your zip code. Please use the mile radius search OR enter just the first 3 digits of your zip code to find the ...

  2. Finding Those Missing Links

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Holly

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author stresses not to give up on a site when a URL returns an error message. Many web sites can be found by using strategies such as URL trimming, searching cached sites, site searching and searching the WayBack Machine. Methods and tips for finding web sites are contained within this article.

  3. Find a Dentist

    MedlinePlus

    ... AGD. It shall not be used for any commercial purpose without the express, written permission, and consent of the AGD. Misuse of this service will result in prosecution to the fullest extent of all applicable law. Home | InfoBites | Find an AGD Dentist | Your Family's ...

  4. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-04-04

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  5. Aging gauge

    DOEpatents

    Betts, Robert E.; Crawford, John F.

    1989-01-01

    An aging gauge comprising a container having a fixed or a variable sized t opening with a cap which can be opened to control the sublimation rate of a thermally sublimational material contained within the container. In use, the aging gauge is stored with an item to determine total heat the item is subjected to and also the maximum temperature to which the item has been exposed. The aging gauge container contains a thermally sublimational material such as naphthalene or similar material which has a low sublimation rate over the temperature range from about 70.degree. F. to about 160.degree. F. The aging products determined by analyses of a like item aged along with the aging gauge for which the sublimation amount is determined is employed to establish a calibration curve for future aging evaluation. The aging gauge is provided with a means for determining the maximum temperature exposure (i.e., a thermally indicating material which gives an irreversible color change, Thermocolor pigment). Because of the relationship of doubling reaction rates for increases of 10.degree. C., equivalency of item used in accelerated aging evaluation can be obtained by referring to a calibration curve depicting storage temperature on the abscissa scale and multiplier on the ordinate scale.

  6. Synesthesia in twins: incomplete concordance in monozygotes suggests extragenic factors.

    PubMed

    Bosley, Hannah G; Eagleman, David M

    2015-06-01

    Colored-sequence synesthesia (CSS) is a neurological condition in which sequential stimuli such as letters, numbers, or days of the week trigger simultaneous, involuntary color perception. Although the condition appears to run in families and several studies have sought a genetic link, the genetic contribution to synesthesia remains unclear. We conducted the first comparative twin study of CSS and found that CSS has a pairwise concordance of 73.9% in monozygotic twins, and a pairwise concordance of 36.4% in dizygotic twins. In line with previous studies, our results suggest a heritable element of synesthesia. However, consonant with the findings of previous single-pair case studies, our large sample size verifies that synesthesia is not completely conferred by genetics; if it were, monozygotic twins should have 100% concordance. These findings implicate a genetic mechanism of CSS that may work differently than previously thought: collectively, our data suggest that synesthesia is a heritable condition with incomplete penetrance that is substantially influenced by epigenetic and environmental factors. PMID:25704836

  7. Adult Hirschprung disease: radiographic findings.

    PubMed

    Mindelzun, R E; Hicks, S M

    1986-09-01

    Hirschprung disease is usually diagnosed in infancy. Occasionally patients reach adulthood without diagnosis or treatment. Four cases of adult Hirschprung disease are described. The principal radiographic findings are a markedly dilated, feces-filled colon above the zone of transition; a narrowed rectum; a cone- or funnel-shaped zone of transition; and a mosaic colonic pattern caused by collapsed redundant mucosa after colonic cleansing. In an adult, identification on a barium enema examination of an abrupt, smooth transition zone in the rectum with proximal colonic dilatation, in conjunction with an appropriate clinical history, should suggest the diagnosis of adult Hirschprung disease. PMID:3737900

  8. The interpretation of urogenital findings in children with straddle injuries.

    PubMed

    Dowd, M D; Fitzmaurice, L; Knapp, J F; Mooney, D

    1994-01-01

    Because urogenital trauma frequently raises the question of sexual abuse, it is important to be able to relate the mechanism of injury to expected examination findings. This study was undertaken to characterize the trauma that results from straddling and correlate such injuries with the history, examination, and patient characteristics. The charts of 100 patients examined in an urban pediatric emergency department were reviewed; their conditions met the criteria of straddle injury--a blow to the perineum as a result of falling or striking a surface or an object with the force of one's own body weight. Ages ranged from 9 to 187 months (mean, 77.9; median, 67.2); 72% were female. Most injuries were minor lacerations and abrasions of the genitalia. Eleven percent had injury to the posterior fourchette. Hymenal and vaginal injuries were primarily caused by penetrating mechanisms. Five patients who presented with a history of straddling subsequently received the diagnosis of sexual assault based on disclosure by the patient or a witness and inconsistency of physical findings. There were no urethral or perianal injuries resulting from nonpenetrating straddle mechanisms. Straddle injuries include a variety of mostly minor urogenital injuries. Perianal, hymenal, or vaginal trauma suggests a penetrating mechanism, either unintentional or from sexual assault. An investigation for sexual assault should be initiated in the following cases: infants younger than 9 months of age; perianal, hymenal, or vaginal injury; extensive or severe injury; concurrent nonurogenital injuries; and whenever there is lack of correlation between history and physical findings. PMID:8120766

  9. ORAL FINDINGS IN PATIENTS WITH APERT SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Dalben, Gisele da Silva; Neves, Lucimara Teixeira das; Gomide, Marcia Ribeiro

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: The Apert syndrome is a rare disorder of autosomal dominant inheritance caused by mutations in the FGFR2 gene at locus 10q26; patients with this syndrome present severe syndactyly, exophthalmia, ocular hypertelorism and hypoplastic midface with Class III malocclusion, besides systemic alterations. Most investigations available on the Apert syndrome address the genetic aspect or surgical management, with little emphasis on the oral aspects. Objective: to investigate the oral findings, including dental anomalies, ectopic eruption of the maxillary permanent first molars and soft tissue alterations, in subjects with Apert syndrome. Material and methods: clinical and radiographic examination of nine patients with Apert syndrome, aged 6 to 15 years, not previously submitted to orthodontic or orthognathic treatment. Results: dental anomalies were present in all patients, with one to eight anomalies per individual. The most frequent anomalies were tooth agenesis, mainly affecting maxillary canines, and enamel opacities (44.4% for both). Ectopic eruption of maxillary first molars was found in 33.3% of patients; lateral palatal swellings were observed in 88.8% of patients. Conclusions: The occurrence of typical lateral palatal swellings agrees with the literature. The high prevalence of dental anomalies and ectopic eruption may suggest a possible etiologic relationship with the syndrome. PMID:19089249

  10. Both young and older adults discount suggestions from older adults on a social memory test.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sara D; Meade, Michelle L

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we examined the impacts of participant age and confederate age on social memory processes. During a collaborative recall phase, young and older adult participants were exposed to the erroneous memory reports of a young or an older adult confederate. On a subsequent individual recall test, young and older adult participants were equally likely to incorporate the confederates' erroneous suggestions into their memory reports, suggesting that participant age had a minimal effect on social memory processes. However, confederate age did have a marked effect: Young adult participants were less likely to incorporate misleading suggestions from older adult confederates and less likely to report "remembering" items suggested by older adult confederates. Critically, older adult participants were also less likely to incorporate misleading information from fellow older adult confederates. Both young and older adult participants discounted older adult confederates' contributions to a memory test. PMID:23397236

  11. Distinction between forensic evidence and dermatological findings.

    PubMed

    Hammer, U; Boy, D; Rothaupt, D; Büttner, A

    2015-07-01

    The external examination after death requires knowledge in forensics/pathology, dermatology, as well as associated diseases and age-related alterations of the skin. This article highlights some findings with forensic evidence versus dermatological findings. The lectures in forensic medicine should be structured interdisciplinarily, especially to dermatology, internal medicine, surgery, pathology, and toxicology in order to train the overlapping skills required for external and internal postmortem examinations. PMID:26048487

  12. Benefit-finding among people with rheumatoid arthritis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miho; Yamazaki, Yoshihiko; Sakita, Mayumi; Bryce, Thomas J

    2008-03-01

    The realization of positive life influences resulting from the experience of chronic illness has been conceptualized as "benefit-finding". This study of individuals with rheumatoid arthritis in Japan aimed to describe the nature of benefit finding; examine its predictive social factors and evaluate its impact on mental health. A web-based questionnaire was conducted, with valid responses obtained from 364 persons aged 20-59 years. The results indicated that a majority of the participants reported engaging in some type of benefit-finding. "Developing compassion towards others" and "an appreciation of things not previously important" were the most commonly reported. The patients reporting larger emotional support networks and those performing more self-care activities reported achieving higher levels of benefit-finding. Of all the factors examined, benefit-finding was the most significant predictor of mental health. These results expand the base of knowledge regarding living with rheumatoid arthritis and offer practical suggestions for the promotion of well-being. PMID:18257832

  13. Adult Children and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.

    This book was developed to assist counselors and other caregivers in working with adult children and their aging parents. The first chapter addresses normative developmental issues in later life. This includes the demography of aging, theories of aging, and attitudes toward older persons, along with suggestions for identifying at-risk populations,…

  14. Implications for an Aging Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahan, Shari; Sturz, Dominick

    2006-01-01

    America's workforce is aging, with over 20% of the workforce expected to be aged 55 and over by the year 2015, an increase of nearly 50% through 2014. As people age, their resistance to harmful exposures is reduced. Injury data suggest that although elderly workers are less likely to be hurt seriously enough to lose worktime, they often take twice…

  15. Baby Talk [Suggestions for Parents about the Unborn Child through the 1-Year-Old].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemson Univ., SC. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document consists of a compilation of 13 separate parenting information bulletins providing suggestions for parents of yet-to-be-born children, newborn children, and infants 1 through 12 months of age. Contents indicate characteristic abilities and behaviors of children at each age and guide parents in parenting activities, such as providing…

  16. The Neighborhood Factor in Problem Coping, Help Seeking and Social Support: Research Findings and Suggested Policy Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Donald I.

    The strength of communities is defined by the ways in which people help each other, and provide information, emotional support or other resources to those who have problems or who want to change or improve their lives in some way. The Helping Network Study focuses on the the quality of community, on the parts of helping systems that people use…

  17. Community Collaboration for Improving Career Guidance Programs: Preliminary Findings Suggest It Can Work. A Monograph and an Evaluation Auditor's Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, G. Brian; And Others

    Community collaboration for improving career guidance is an attempt to obtain cooperation from local agencies, organizations, and volunteering individuals to provide assistance to citizens whose career needs are not being addressed. This monograph is designed to motivate and provide initial orientation for community leaders who want to develop…

  18. CT findings in leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Heiberg, E.; Wolverson, M.K.; Sundaram, M.; Shields, J.B.

    1984-12-01

    Review of 84 computed tomographic (CT) scans in leukemic patients demonstrate a wide spectrum of abnormalities. Findings caused by leukemia were lymphadenopathy, visceral enlargement, focal defects, and tissue infiltration. Hemorrhage was by far the most common complication and could usually be characterized on the noncontrast CT scan. The distinction between old hematomas, foci of infection, and leukemia infiltration could not be made with certainty without CT-guided aspiration. Unusual instances of sepsis, such as microabscesses of the liver and typhlitis, were seen.

  19. Delaying aging and the aging-associated decline in protein homeostasis by inhibition of tryptophan degradation.

    PubMed

    van der Goot, Annemieke T; Zhu, Wentao; Vázquez-Manrique, Rafael P; Seinstra, Renée I; Dettmer, Katja; Michels, Helen; Farina, Francesca; Krijnen, Jasper; Melki, Ronald; Buijsman, Rogier C; Ruiz Silva, Mariana; Thijssen, Karen L; Kema, Ido P; Neri, Christian; Oefner, Peter J; Nollen, Ellen A A

    2012-09-11

    Toxicity of aggregation-prone proteins is thought to play an important role in aging and age-related neurological diseases like Parkinson and Alzheimer's diseases. Here, we identify tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (tdo-2), the first enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, as a metabolic regulator of age-related α-synuclein toxicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans model. Depletion of tdo-2 also suppresses toxicity of other heterologous aggregation-prone proteins, including amyloid-β and polyglutamine proteins, and endogenous metastable proteins that are sensors of normal protein homeostasis. This finding suggests that tdo-2 functions as a general regulator of protein homeostasis. Analysis of metabolite levels in C. elegans strains with mutations in enzymes that act downstream of tdo-2 indicates that this suppression of toxicity is independent of downstream metabolites in the kynurenine pathway. Depletion of tdo-2 increases tryptophan levels, and feeding worms with extra L-tryptophan also suppresses toxicity, suggesting that tdo-2 regulates proteotoxicity through tryptophan. Depletion of tdo-2 extends lifespan in these worms. Together, these results implicate tdo-2 as a metabolic switch of age-related protein homeostasis and lifespan. With TDO and Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase as evolutionarily conserved human orthologs of TDO-2, intervening with tryptophan metabolism may offer avenues to reducing proteotoxicity in aging and age-related diseases. PMID:22927396

  20. Delaying aging and the aging-associated decline in protein homeostasis by inhibition of tryptophan degradation

    PubMed Central

    van der Goot, Annemieke T.; Zhu, Wentao; Vázquez-Manrique, Rafael P.; Seinstra, Renée I.; Dettmer, Katja; Michels, Helen; Farina, Francesca; Krijnen, Jasper; Melki, Ronald; Buijsman, Rogier C.; Ruiz Silva, Mariana; Thijssen, Karen L.; Kema, Ido P.; Neri, Christian; Oefner, Peter J.; Nollen, Ellen A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Toxicity of aggregation-prone proteins is thought to play an important role in aging and age-related neurological diseases like Parkinson and Alzheimer’s diseases. Here, we identify tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (tdo-2), the first enzyme in the kynurenine pathway of tryptophan degradation, as a metabolic regulator of age-related α-synuclein toxicity in a Caenorhabditis elegans model. Depletion of tdo-2 also suppresses toxicity of other heterologous aggregation-prone proteins, including amyloid-β and polyglutamine proteins, and endogenous metastable proteins that are sensors of normal protein homeostasis. This finding suggests that tdo-2 functions as a general regulator of protein homeostasis. Analysis of metabolite levels in C. elegans strains with mutations in enzymes that act downstream of tdo-2 indicates that this suppression of toxicity is independent of downstream metabolites in the kynurenine pathway. Depletion of tdo-2 increases tryptophan levels, and feeding worms with extra l-tryptophan also suppresses toxicity, suggesting that tdo-2 regulates proteotoxicity through tryptophan. Depletion of tdo-2 extends lifespan in these worms. Together, these results implicate tdo-2 as a metabolic switch of age-related protein homeostasis and lifespan. With TDO and Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase as evolutionarily conserved human orthologs of TDO-2, intervening with tryptophan metabolism may offer avenues to reducing proteotoxicity in aging and age-related diseases. PMID:22927396

  1. Carcinogenesis and aging

    SciTech Connect

    Anisimov, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    A suggested mechanism of carcinogenesis is presented. This scheme takes into account the effect of carcinogens at different integration levels: subcellular, tissue, and organism. Any of these levels may be age dependent. Age-associated changes in the activity of enzymes responsible for activation and inactivation of carcinogens, and variations in concentrations of lipids and proteins contributing to the transport of carcinogenic agents into cells, may play an important role in the modifying effect of age on carcinogenesis. The effects of age-associated changes in DNA repair need clarification. However, they are thought to exert a permissive influence on the age-associated rise in tumor incidence. It seems that proliferative activity of target tissues is the important modifying factor of carcinogenesis. Age-related changes of regulation at tissue and organism levels are also powerful factors in carcinogenesis modification. Age-dependent changes in the neuroendocrine system provide conditions for metabolic immunodepression and promotion of carcinogenesis. On the other hand, carcinogens per se (especially chemical and radiological) may intensify aging processes in the organism. Normalization, by drugs, of age-associated shifts requiring synthetic and energetic changes of a transformed tumor cells, and of immunological shifts, may exert both antitumor and geroprotective effects.

  2. Finding Comet Halley.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenn, William H.

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and references on Comet Halley (which will be observable by telescope in October 1985 and reach its most brilliant appearance in March and April of 1986). Suggestions for equipment and maps of its path through the sky are included. (DH)

  3. Find the Right Fit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arboleda, John

    2013-01-01

    International alumni relations is about recognizing an important population that wants to be connected but often feels disengaged. This article shows how to engage international alumni by customizing programs to meet their needs. It suggests four areas of programming: brand awareness; career and life networking; resource development (fundraising…

  4. CLOCK is suggested to associate with comorbid alcohol use and depressive disorders

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Depression and alcohol abuse or dependence (AUD) co-occur in the general population more frequently than expected by chance. Alcohol use influences the circadian rhythms generated by the central pacemaker in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, and circadian rhythm alterations in turn are common in depressive disorders as well as among persons addicted to alcohol. Methods 32 SNPs in 19 circadian clockwork related genes were analyzed using DNA from 76 individuals with comorbid depression and AUD, 446 individuals with AUD and 517 healthy controls with no psychiatric diagnosis. The individuals participated in a nationwide health examination study, representative of the general population aged 30 and over in Finland. Results The CLOCK haplotype TTGC formed by SNPs rs3805151, rs2412648, rs11240 and rs2412646, was associated with increased risk for comorbidity (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.14-2.28, P = 0.0077). The SNPs of importance for this suggestive association were rs2412646 and rs11240 indicating location of the functional variation in the block downstream rs2412648. There was no indication for association between CLOCK and AUD. Conclusion Our findings suggest an association between the CLOCK gene and the comorbid condition of alcohol use and depressive disorders. Together with previous reports it indicates that the CLOCK variations we found here may be a vulnerability factor to depression given the exposure to alcohol in individuals having AUD. PMID:20180986

  5. Parylene C Aging Studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Achyuthan, Komandoor; Sawyer, Patricia Sue.; Mata, Guillermo Adrian; White II, Gregory Von; Bernstein, Robert

    2014-09-01

    Parylene C is used in a device because of its conformable deposition and other advantages. Techniques to study Parylene C aging were developed, and "lessons learned" that could be utilized for future studies are the result of this initial study. Differential Scanning Calorimetry yielded temperature ranges for Parylene C aging as well as post-deposition treatment. Post-deposition techniques are suggested to improve Parylene C performance. Sample preparation was critical to aging regimen. Short-term (%7E40 days) aging experiments with free standing and ceramic-supported Parylene C films highlighted "lessons learned" which stressed further investigations in order to refine sample preparation (film thickness, single sided uniform coating, machine versus laser cutting, annealing time, temperature) and testing issues ("necking") for robust accelerated aging of Parylene C.

  6. Children's Memory for Their Mother's Murder: Accuracy, Suggestibility, and Resistance to Suggestion.

    PubMed

    McWilliams, Kelly; Narr, Rachel; Goodman, Gail S; Ruiz, Sandra; Mendoza, Macaria

    2013-01-31

    From its inception, child eyewitness memory research has been guided by dramatic legal cases that turn on the testimony of children. Decades of scientific research reveal that, under many conditions, children can provide veracious accounts of traumatic experiences. Scientific studies also document factors that lead children to make false statements. In this paper we describe a legal case in which children testified about their mother's murder. We discuss factors that may have influenced the accuracy of the children's eyewitness memory. Children's suggestibility and resistance to suggestion are illustrated. Expert testimony, based on scientific research, can aid the trier of fact when children provide crucial evidence in criminal investigations and courtroom trials about tragic events. PMID:23362807

  7. Change in Coping and Defense Mechanisms across Adulthood: Longitudinal Findings in a European-American Sample

    PubMed Central

    Diehl, Manfred; Chui, Helena; Hay, Elizabeth L.; Lumley, Mark A.; Grühn, Daniel; Labouvie-Vief, Gisela

    2014-01-01

    This study examined longitudinal changes in coping and defense mechanisms in an age- and gender-stratified sample of 392 European-American adults. Nonlinear age-related changes were found for the coping mechanisms of sublimation and suppression and the defense mechanisms of intellectualization, doubt, displacement, and regression. The change trajectories for sublimation and suppression showed that their use increased from adolescence to late middle age and early old age, and remained mostly stable into late old age. The change trajectory for intellectualization showed that the use of this defense mechanism increased from adolescence to middle age, remained stable until late midlife, and started to decline thereafter. The defense mechanisms of doubt, displacement, and regression showed decreases from adolescence until early old age, with increases occurring again after the age of 65. Linear age-related decreases were found for the coping mechanism of ego regression and the defense mechanisms of isolation and rationalization. Gender and socioeconomic status were associated with the mean levels of several coping and defense mechanisms, but did not moderate age-related changes. Increases in ego level were associated with increased use of the defense mechanism intellectualization and decreased use of the defense mechanisms of doubt and displacement. Overall, these findings in a European-American sample suggest that most individuals showed development in the direction of more adaptive and less maladaptive coping and defense strategies from adolescence until late middle age or early old age. However, in late old age this development was reversed, presenting potential challenges to the adaptive capacity of older adults. PMID:23834293

  8. CETA and the Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schram, Sanford F.; Osten, David F.

    1978-01-01

    To assess the impact of the 1973 Comprehensive Employment and Training Act (CETA) on older worker's problems, article examines CETA's history, options, and authority. Finds major systemic factors that encourage local prime sponsors to understate aging populations' needs. Concludes there is a need for substantial CETA changes to effectively serve…

  9. The strategic regulation of children's memory performance and suggestibility.

    PubMed

    Roebers, Claudia M; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2005-05-01

    We report two empirical studies that investigated previously reported benefits of a high accuracy motivation, and thus a high threshold, for children's and adults' event recall and for their ability to resist false suggestions. In the studies, 6-, 7-, and 8-year-olds, as well as adults, were shown a brief video about an event and were later asked unbiased and misleading questions about it. In Study 1, participants were either (a) given the typical accuracy instructions (including the option to answer with "I don't know"), (b) reminded of the accuracy instructions during the interview, or (c) immediately given feedback and a token for every correct answer. The results showed that the reminders were ineffective in stimulating strategic control behavior in children, independent of age. In Study 2, the confounding effects of feedback and incentives were disentangled by contrasting (a) free report, (b) feedback only, (c) incentives only, and (d) feedback plus incentives. Analyses on recall performance and suggestibility revealed that both feedback and incentives are necessary to increase children's accurate memory reports. PMID:15814094

  10. Predictive value of induction of psychogenic seizures by suggestion.

    PubMed

    Lancman, M E; Asconapé, J J; Craven, W J; Howard, G; Penry, J K

    1994-03-01

    Induction by suggestion has previously been reported to be effective in the diagnosis of psychogenic seizures (PS). However, the sensitivity and specificity of this procedure has not previously been studied. Results of induction of PS by suggestion were analyzed in 93 patients with purely PS. The diagnosis of PS was based on the recording of a clinical event on video-electroencephalography, the absence of clinical or electroencephalography the absence of clinical or electroencephalographic evidence of epilepsy, and the subsequent followup and withdrawal of anticonvulsants supporting the diagnosis of PS. A control-group was composed of 20 patients with epilepsy in which induction was tried. Both groups were comparable for age, sex, and educational level. Induction was performed following a standardized protocol. The test was carried out placing a colored patch on the neck. The test was considered positive when the induced clinical events were typical, according to a witness familiar with the patient's seizures. Induction was positive in 72 of 93 cases with PS and in none with epilepsy. Sensitivity of this test for the diagnosis of PS was 77.4%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 48.7%. PMID:8122889

  11. Telomerase at the intersection of cancer and aging

    PubMed Central

    de Jesus, Bruno Bernardes; Blasco, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Although cancer and aging have been studied as independent diseases, mounting evidence suggest that cancer is an aging-associated disease and that cancer and aging share many molecular pathways. In particular, recent studies validated telomerase activation as a potential therapeutic target for age-related diseases, and at the same time, abnormal telomerase expression and telomerase mutations have been associated with many different types of human tumors. Here, we revisit the connection of telomerase to cancer and aging in light of recent findings supporting a role for telomerase not only in telomere elongation, but also in metabolic fitness and Wnt activation. Understanding the physiological impact of telomerase regulation is fundamental considering the therapeutic strategies that are being developed involving telomerase modulation. PMID:23876621

  12. Sonographic Findings of Hydropneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Nations, Joel Anthony; Smith, Patrick; Parrish, Scott; Browning, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound is increasingly being used in examination of the thorax. The sonographic features of normal aerated lung, abnormal lung, pneumothorax, and intrapleural fluid have been published. The sonographic features of uncommon intrathoracic syndromes are less known. Hydropneumothorax is an uncommon process in which the thoracic cavity contains both intrapleural air and water. Few published examples of the sonographic findings in hydropneumothorax exist. We present 3 illustrative cases of the sonographic features of hydropneumothorax with comparative imaging and a literature review of the topic. PMID:27556194

  13. Aging is a weak but relentless determinant of dementia severity

    PubMed Central

    Royall, Donald R.; Palmer, Raymond F.

    2016-01-01

    Structural Equation Models (SEM) can explicitly distinguish “dementia-relevant” variance in cognitive task performance (i.e., “δ” for dementia). In prior work, δ appears to uniquely account for dementia severity regardless of the cognitive measures used to construct it. In this study, we test δ as a mediator of age's prospective association with future cognitive performance and dementia severity in a large, ethnically diverse longitudinal cohort, the Texas Alzheimer's Research and Care Consortium (TARCC). Age had adverse effects on future cognition, and these were largely mediated through δ, independently of education, ethnicity, gender, depression ratings, serum homo-cysteine levels, hemoglobin A1c, and apolipoprotein e4 status. Age explained 4% of variance in δ, and through it, 11-18% of variance in future cognitive performance. Our findings suggest that normative aging is a dementing condition (i.e., a “senility”). While the majority of variance in dementia severity must be independent of age, age's specific effect is likely to accumulate over the lifespan. Our findings also constrain age's dementing effects on cognition to the age-related fraction of “general intelligence” (Spearman's “g”). That has broad biological and pathophysiological implications. PMID:26930722

  14. Unusual pulmonary findings in mucolipidosis II.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Marleine; Zambrano, Eduardo V; Bazzy-Asaad, Alia; Esquibies, Americo E

    2012-07-01

    We report undescribed pulmonary findings in a child with mucolipidosis II (ML-II). Children with ML-II bear significant pulmonary morbidity that may include extensive pulmonary fibrosis, persistent hemosiderosis as well as pulmonary airway excrescences as they reach preschool age. PMID:22162509

  15. Diminished Schwann cell repair responses underlie age-associated impaired axonal regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Michio W.; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Cheng, Yung-Chih; Latremoliere, Alban; Duong, Kelly; Miller, Christine M.; Posada, Sean; Cobos, Enrique J.; Zhang, Alice X.; Wagers, Amy J.; Havton, Leif A.; Barres, Ben; Omura, Takao

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro nor in their ability to activate growth-associated transcriptional programs after injury. Instead, using age-mismatched nerve transplants in vivo, we show that the extent of functional recovery depends on the age of the nerve graft, and not the age of the host. Molecular interrogation of the sciatic nerve reveals that aged Schwann cells (SCs) fail to rapidly activate a transcriptional repair program after injury. Functionally, aged SCs exhibit impaired de-differentiation, myelin clearance and macrophage recruitment. These results suggest that the age-associated decline in axonal regeneration results from diminished Schwann cell plasticity, leading to slower myelin clearance. PMID:25033179

  16. Diminished Schwann cell repair responses underlie age-associated impaired axonal regeneration.

    PubMed

    Painter, Michio W; Brosius Lutz, Amanda; Cheng, Yung-Chih; Latremoliere, Alban; Duong, Kelly; Miller, Christine M; Posada, Sean; Cobos, Enrique J; Zhang, Alice X; Wagers, Amy J; Havton, Leif A; Barres, Ben; Omura, Takao; Woolf, Clifford J

    2014-07-16

    The regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system declines with age. Why this occurs, however, is unknown. We demonstrate that 24-month-old mice exhibit an impairment of functional recovery after nerve injury compared to 2-month-old animals. We find no difference in the intrinsic growth capacity between aged and young sensory neurons in vitro or in their ability to activate growth-associated transcriptional programs after injury. Instead, using age-mismatched nerve transplants in vivo, we show that the extent of functional recovery depends on the age of the nerve graft, and not the age of the host. Molecular interrogation of the sciatic nerve reveals that aged Schwann cells (SCs) fail to rapidly activate a transcriptional repair program after injury. Functionally, aged SCs exhibit impaired dedifferentiation, myelin clearance, and macrophage recruitment. These results suggest that the age-associated decline in axonal regeneration results from diminished Schwann cell plasticity, leading to slower myelin clearance. PMID:25033179

  17. MRI Findings in Neuroferritinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Emiko; Takiyama, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    Neuroferritinopathy is a neurodegenerative disease which demonstrates brain iron accumulation caused by the mutations in the ferritin light chain gene. On brain MRI in neuroferritinopathy, iron deposits are observed as low-intensity areas on T2WI and as signal loss on T2∗WI. On T2WI, hyperintense abnormalities reflecting tissue edema and gliosis are also seen. Another characteristic finding is the presence of symmetrical cystic changes in the basal ganglia, which are seen in the advanced stages of this disorder. Atrophy is sometimes noted in the cerebellar and cerebral cortices. The variety in the MRI findings is specific to neuroferritinopathy. Based on observations of an excessive iron content in patients with chronic neurologic disorders, such as Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease, the presence of excess iron is therefore recognized as a major risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases. The future development of multimodal and advanced MRI techniques is thus expected to play an important role in accurately measuring the brain iron content and thereby further elucidating the neurodegenerative process. PMID:21808735

  18. Towards Consensus Gene Ages

    PubMed Central

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J.; McWhite, Claire D.; Marcotte, Edward M.

    2016-01-01

    Correctly estimating the age of a gene or gene family is important for a variety of fields, including molecular evolution, comparative genomics, and phylogenetics, and increasingly for systems biology and disease genetics. However, most studies use only a point estimate of a gene’s age, neglecting the substantial uncertainty involved in this estimation. Here, we characterize this uncertainty by investigating the effect of algorithm choice on gene-age inference and calculate consensus gene ages with attendant error distributions for a variety of model eukaryotes. We use 13 orthology inference algorithms to create gene-age datasets and then characterize the error around each age-call on a per-gene and per-algorithm basis. Systematic error was found to be a large factor in estimating gene age, suggesting that simple consensus algorithms are not enough to give a reliable point estimate. We also found that different sources of error can affect downstream analyses, such as gene ontology enrichment. Our consensus gene-age datasets, with associated error terms, are made fully available at so that researchers can propagate this uncertainty through their analyses (geneages.org). PMID:27259914

  19. Towards Consensus Gene Ages.

    PubMed

    Liebeskind, Benjamin J; McWhite, Claire D; Marcotte, Edward M

    2016-01-01

    Correctly estimating the age of a gene or gene family is important for a variety of fields, including molecular evolution, comparative genomics, and phylogenetics, and increasingly for systems biology and disease genetics. However, most studies use only a point estimate of a gene's age, neglecting the substantial uncertainty involved in this estimation. Here, we characterize this uncertainty by investigating the effect of algorithm choice on gene-age inference and calculate consensus gene ages with attendant error distributions for a variety of model eukaryotes. We use 13 orthology inference algorithms to create gene-age datasets and then characterize the error around each age-call on a per-gene and per-algorithm basis. Systematic error was found to be a large factor in estimating gene age, suggesting that simple consensus algorithms are not enough to give a reliable point estimate. We also found that different sources of error can affect downstream analyses, such as gene ontology enrichment. Our consensus gene-age datasets, with associated error terms, are made fully available at so that researchers can propagate this uncertainty through their analyses (geneages.org). PMID:27259914

  20. Immunological Aging

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immunosenescence is associated with an increased incidence and severity of infections with common pathogens, neoplastic disease and autoimmunity. In general, aging is associated with a decline in function at the cellular level, rather than cell loss, although thymic atrophy and ...

  1. Glycoconjugate changes in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Ando, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    The significance of glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins is discussed in their relation to normal aging and pathological aging, aging with diseases. Healthy myelin that looks stable is found to be gradually degraded and reconstructed throughout life for remodeling. An exciting finding is that myelin P0 protein is located in neurons and glycosylated in aging brains. In pathological aging, the roles of glycosphingolipids and glycoproteins as risk factors or protective agents for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are discussed. Intensive studies have been performed aiming to remove the risks from and to restore the functional deficits of the brain. Some of them are expected to be translated to therapeutic means. PMID:25151390

  2. HEU age determination

    SciTech Connect

    Moorthy, A.R.; Kato, W.Y.

    1995-08-01

    A technique has been developed to determine the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) Age which is defined as the time since the HEU was produced in an enrichment process. The HEU age is determined from the ratios of relevant uranium parents and their daughters viz {sup 230}Th/{sup 234}U and {sup 231}Pa/{sup 235}U. Uranium isotopes are quantitatively measured by their characteristic gammas and their daughters by alpha spectroscopy. In some of the samples where HEU is enriched more than 99%, the only mode of HEU age determination is by the measurement of {sup 231}Pa since there is negligible quantity of {sup 230}Th due to very low atom concentrations of {sup 234}U in the sample. In this paper we have presented data and methodology of finding the age of two HEU samples.

  3. [Silicosis: computed tomography findings].

    PubMed

    González Vázquez, M; Trinidad López, C; Castellón Plaza, D; Calatayud Moscoso Del Prado, J; Tardáguila Montero, F

    2013-01-01

    Silicosis is an occupational lung disease, which is caused by the inhalation of silica and affects a wide range of jobs. There are many clinical forms of silicosis: acute silicosis, results from exposure to very large amounts of silica dust over a period of less than 2 years. Simple chronic silicosis, the most common type that we see today, results from exposure to low amounts of silica between 2 and 10 years. Chronic silicosis complicated, with silicotic conglomerates. In many cases the diagnosis of silicosis is made according to epidemiological and radiological data, without a histological confirmation. It is important to know the various radiological manifestations of silicosis to differentiate it from other lung diseases and to recognize their complications. The objective of this work is to describe typical and atypical radiological findings of silicosis and their complications in helical and high resolution (HRCT) thorax CT. PMID:22884889

  4. From mind wandering to involuntary retrieval: Age-related differences in spontaneous cognitive processes.

    PubMed

    Maillet, David; Schacter, Daniel L

    2016-01-01

    The majority of studies that have investigated the effects of healthy aging on cognition have focused on age-related differences in voluntary and deliberately engaged cognitive processes. Yet many forms of cognition occur spontaneously, without any deliberate attempt at engaging them. In this article we review studies that have assessed age-related differences in four such types of spontaneous thought processes: mind-wandering, involuntary autobiographical memory, intrusive thoughts, and spontaneous prospective memory retrieval. These studies suggest that older adults exhibit a reduction in frequency of both mind-wandering and involuntary autobiographical memory, whereas findings regarding intrusive thoughts have been more mixed. Additionally, there is some preliminary evidence that spontaneous prospective memory retrieval may be relatively preserved in aging. We consider the roles of age-related differences in cognitive resources, motivation, current concerns and emotional regulation in accounting for these findings. We also consider age-related differences in the neural correlates of spontaneous cognitive processes. PMID:26617263

  5. Finding oil in Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Campos, C.W.M.; Delaney, P.J.V. )

    1989-09-01

    Although oil in fractures of bituminous shales of Early Cretaceous age had been known since 1858 in Bahia, oil production in Brazil was delayed for eight decades. There were two fundamental reasons for this belated development. First, the paucity of good oil and gas seeps like those found in other countries and second, Brazilian entrepreneurs did not have the financing or the tradition of risk taking and technology to plunge into oil exploration. Thus, the development of the oil industry in Brazil evolved along different lines than in other countries. Petrobras was the beginning of the modern period of oil exploration in Brazil. Utilizing seismic interpretation methods, oil was discovered onshore in the Sergipe-Alagoas basin in 1957, in the Espirito Santo basin in 1969, and in the Potiquar basin in 1979. After many years of frustration looking for commercial oil in the huge Amazon basin, Petrobras discovered gas in the Jurua River Valley in 1978. Although offshore drilling began with discovery of the Guaricema field in 1968, it was not until the advent of modern offshore drilling and seismic technology that the prolific Garoupa field was discovered in 1974 which opened up the Campos basin. Furthermore, identification of huge structures in deep water by 3D seismic mapping methods indicate a bright future for Petrobras in offshore Brazil.

  6. Sigmoid diverticulitis: US findings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Acute diverticulitis (AD) results from inflammation of a colonic diverticulum. It is the most common cause of acute left lower-quadrant pain in adults and represents a common reason for acute hospitalization, as it affects over half of the population over 65 years with a prevalence that increases with age. Although 85% of colonic diverticulitis will recover with a nonoperative treatment, some patients may have complications such as abscesses, fistulas, obstruction, and /or perforation at presentation. For these reasons, different classifications were introduced through times to help clinicians to develop a correct diagnosis and guide the treatment and for the same reasons imaging is used in most cases both to realise a differential diagnosis and to guide the therapeutic management. US and CT are both usefull in diagnosis of diverticolitis, and their sensibility and specificity are similar. However CT scanning is essential for investigating complicated diverticular disease especially where there are diffuse signs and clinical suspicion of secondary peritonitis; instead in most uncomplicated cases the experienced sonographer may quickly confirm a diagnosis guided by the clinical signs. US is to be recommended in premenopausal women, and in young people to reduce dose exposure. PMID:23902791

  7. Sigmoid diverticulitis: US findings.

    PubMed

    Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Cioffi Squitieri, Nevada; Guerrini, Susanna; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Cagini, Lucio; Macarini, Luca; Giganti, Melchiore; Volterrani, Luca

    2013-07-15

    Acute diverticulitis (AD) results from inflammation of a colonic diverticulum. It is the most common cause of acute left lower-quadrant pain in adults and represents a common reason for acute hospitalization, as it affects over half of the population over 65 years with a prevalence that increases with age. Although 85% of colonic diverticulitis will recover with a nonoperative treatment, some patients may have complications such as abscesses, fistulas, obstruction, and /or perforation at presentation. For these reasons, different classifications were introduced through times to help clinicians to develop a correct diagnosis and guide the treatment and for the same reasons imaging is used in most cases both to realise a differential diagnosis and to guide the therapeutic management. US and CT are both usefull in diagnosis of diverticolitis, and their sensibility and specificity are similar. However CT scanning is essential for investigating complicated diverticular disease especially where there are diffuse signs and clinical suspicion of secondary peritonitis; instead in most uncomplicated cases the experienced sonographer may quickly confirm a diagnosis guided by the clinical signs. US is to be recommended in premenopausal women, and in young people to reduce dose exposure. PMID:23902791

  8. Epigenetics and aging.

    PubMed

    Pal, Sangita; Tyler, Jessica K

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade, a growing number of studies have revealed that progressive changes to epigenetic information accompany aging in both dividing and nondividing cells. Functional studies in model organisms and humans indicate that epigenetic changes have a huge influence on the aging process. These epigenetic changes occur at various levels, including reduced bulk levels of the core histones, altered patterns of histone posttranslational modifications and DNA methylation, replacement of canonical histones with histone variants, and altered noncoding RNA expression, during both organismal aging and replicative senescence. The end result of epigenetic changes during aging is altered local accessibility to the genetic material, leading to aberrant gene expression, reactivation of transposable elements, and genomic instability. Strikingly, certain types of epigenetic information can function in a transgenerational manner to influence the life span of the offspring. Several important conclusions emerge from these studies: rather than being genetically predetermined, our life span is largely epigenetically determined; diet and other environmental influences can influence our life span by changing the epigenetic information; and inhibitors of epigenetic enzymes can influence life span of model organisms. These new findings provide better understanding of the mechanisms involved in aging. Given the reversible nature of epigenetic information, these studies highlight exciting avenues for therapeutic intervention in aging and age-associated diseases, including cancer. PMID:27482540

  9. Epigenetics and aging

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Sangita; Tyler, Jessica K.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, a growing number of studies have revealed that progressive changes to epigenetic information accompany aging in both dividing and nondividing cells. Functional studies in model organisms and humans indicate that epigenetic changes have a huge influence on the aging process. These epigenetic changes occur at various levels, including reduced bulk levels of the core histones, altered patterns of histone posttranslational modifications and DNA methylation, replacement of canonical histones with histone variants, and altered noncoding RNA expression, during both organismal aging and replicative senescence. The end result of epigenetic changes during aging is altered local accessibility to the genetic material, leading to aberrant gene expression, reactivation of transposable elements, and genomic instability. Strikingly, certain types of epigenetic information can function in a transgenerational manner to influence the life span of the offspring. Several important conclusions emerge from these studies: rather than being genetically predetermined, our life span is largely epigenetically determined; diet and other environmental influences can influence our life span by changing the epigenetic information; and inhibitors of epigenetic enzymes can influence life span of model organisms. These new findings provide better understanding of the mechanisms involved in aging. Given the reversible nature of epigenetic information, these studies highlight exciting avenues for therapeutic intervention in aging and age-associated diseases, including cancer. PMID:27482540

  10. Infants' brain responses to speech suggest analysis by synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kuhl, Patricia K; Ramírez, Rey R; Bosseler, Alexis; Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki

    2014-08-01

    Historic theories of speech perception (Motor Theory and Analysis by Synthesis) invoked listeners' knowledge of speech production to explain speech perception. Neuroimaging data show that adult listeners activate motor brain areas during speech perception. In two experiments using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we investigated motor brain activation, as well as auditory brain activation, during discrimination of native and nonnative syllables in infants at two ages that straddle the developmental transition from language-universal to language-specific speech perception. Adults are also tested in Exp. 1. MEG data revealed that 7-mo-old infants activate auditory (superior temporal) as well as motor brain areas (Broca's area, cerebellum) in response to speech, and equivalently for native and nonnative syllables. However, in 11- and 12-mo-old infants, native speech activates auditory brain areas to a greater degree than nonnative, whereas nonnative speech activates motor brain areas to a greater degree than native speech. This double dissociation in 11- to 12-mo-old infants matches the pattern of results obtained in adult listeners. Our infant data are consistent with Analysis by Synthesis: auditory analysis of speech is coupled with synthesis of the motor plans necessary to produce the speech signal. The findings have implications for: (i) perception-action theories of speech perception, (ii) the impact of "motherese" on early language learning, and (iii) the "social-gating" hypothesis and humans' development of social understanding. PMID:25024207

  11. Finding the First Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan P.

    2009-01-01

    Astronomers study distant galaxies by taking long exposures in deep survey fields. They choose fields that are empty of known sources, so that they are statistically representative of the Universe as a whole. Astronomers can compare the distribution of the detected galaxies in brightness, color, morphology and redshift to theoretical models, in order to puzzle out the processes of galaxy evolution. In 2004, the Hubble Space Telescope was pointed at a small, deep-survey field in the southern constellation Fornax for more than 500 hours of exposure time. The resulting Hubble Ultra-Deep Field could see the faintest and most distant galaxies that the telescope is capable of viewing. These galaxies emitted their light less than 1 billion years after the Big Bang. From the Ultra Deep Field and other galaxy surveys, astronomers have built up a history of star formation in the universe. the peak occurred about7 billion years ago, about half of the age of the current universe, then the number of stars that were forming was about 15 time the rate today. Going backward in time to when the very first starts and galaxies formed, the average star-formation rate should drop to zero. but when looking at the most distant galaxies in the Ultra Deep field, the star formation rate is still higher than it is today. The faintest galaxies seen by Hubble are not the first galaxies that formed in the early universe. To detect these galaxies NASA is planning the James Webb Space Telescope for launch in 2013. Webb will have a 6.5-meter diameter primary mirror, much bigger than Hubble's 2.4-meter primary, and will be optimized for infrared observations to see the highly redshifted galaxies.

  12. Dissociation of motor and sensory inhibition processes in normal aging

    PubMed Central

    Anguera, Joaquin A.; Gazzaley, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Objective Age-related cognitive impairments have been attributed to deficits in inhibitory processes that mediate both motor restraint and sensory filtering. However, behavioral studies have failed to show an association between tasks that measure these distinct types of inhibition. In the present study, we hypothesized neural markers reflecting each type of inhibition may reveal a relationship across inhibitory domains in older adults. Methods Electroencephalography (EEG) and behavioral measures were used to explore whether there was an across-participant correlation between sensory suppression and motor inhibition. Sixteen healthy older adult participants (65-80 years) engaged in two separate experimental paradigms: a selective attention, delayed-recognition task and a stop-signal task. Results Findings revealed no significant relationship existed between neural markers of sensory suppression (P1 amplitude; N170 latency) and markers of motor inhibition (N2 and P3 amplitude and latency) in older adults. Conclusions These distinct inhibitory domains are differentially impacted in normal aging, as evidenced by previous behavioral work and the current neural findings. Thus a generalized inhibitory deficit may not be a common impairment in cognitive aging. Significance Given that some theories of cognitive aging suggest age-related failure of inhibitory mechanisms may span different modalities, the present findings contribute to an alternative view where age-related declines within each inhibitory modality are unrelated. PMID:21963321

  13. Brief Report: Phenotypic Differences and their Relationship to Paternal Age and Gender in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vierck, Esther; Silverman, Jeremy M

    2015-06-01

    Two modes of inheritance have been proposed in autism spectrum disorder, transmission though pre-existing variants and de novo mutations. Different modes may lead to different symptom expressions in affected individuals. De novo mutations become more likely with advancing paternal age suggesting that paternal age may predict phenotypic differences. To test this possibility we measured IQ, adaptive behavior, and autistic symptoms in 830 probands from simplex families. We conducted multiple linear regression analysis to estimate the predictive value of paternal age, maternal age, and gender on behavioral measures and IQ. We found a differential effect of parental age and sex on repetitive and restricted behaviors. Findings suggest effects of paternal age on phenotypic differences in simplex families with ASD. PMID:25526953

  14. Do glutathione levels decline in aging human brain?

    PubMed

    Tong, Junchao; Fitzmaurice, Paul S; Moszczynska, Anna; Mattina, Katie; Ang, Lee-Cyn; Boileau, Isabelle; Furukawa, Yoshiaki; Sailasuta, Napapon; Kish, Stephen J

    2016-04-01

    For the past 60 years a major theory of "aging" is that age-related damage is largely caused by excessive uncompensated oxidative stress. The ubiquitous tripeptide glutathione is a major antioxidant defense mechanism against reactive free radicals and has also served as a marker of changes in oxidative stress. Some (albeit conflicting) animal data suggest a loss of glutathione in brain senescence, which might compromise the ability of the aging brain to meet the demands of oxidative stress. Our objective was to establish whether advancing age is associated with glutathione deficiency in human brain. We measured reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in multiple regions of autopsied brain of normal subjects (n=74) aged one day to 99 years. Brain GSH levels during the infancy/teenage years were generally similar to those in the oldest examined adult group (76-99 years). During adulthood (23-99 years) GSH levels remained either stable (occipital cortex) or increased (caudate nucleus, frontal and cerebellar cortices). To the extent that GSH levels represent glutathione antioxidant capacity, our postmortem data suggest that human brain aging is not associated with declining glutathione status. We suggest that aged healthy human brains can maintain antioxidant capacity related to glutathione and that an age-related increase in GSH levels in some brain regions might possibly be a compensatory response to increased oxidative stress. Since our findings, although suggestive, suffer from the generic limitations of all postmortem brain studies, we also suggest the need for "replication" investigations employing the new (1)H MRS imaging procedures in living human brain. PMID:26845616

  15. Finding the Next Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batalha, Natalie M.; Kepler Team

    2013-01-01

    Twenty years ago, we knew of no planets orbiting other Sun-like stars, yet today, the roll call is nearly 1,000 strong. Statistical studies of exoplanet populations are possible, and words like "habitable zone" are heard around the dinner table. Theorists are scrambling to explain not only the observed physical characteristics but also the orbital and dynamical properties of planetary systems. The taxonomy is diverse but still reflects the observational biases that dominate the detection surveys. We've yet to find another planet that looks anything like home. The scene changed dramatically with the launch of the Kepler spacecraft in 2009 to determine, via transit photometry, the fraction of stars harboring earth-size planets in or near the Habitable Zone of their parent star. Early catalog releases hint that nature makes small planets efficiently: over half of the sample of 2,300 planet candidates discovered in the first two years are smaller than 2.5 times the Earth's radius. I will describe Kepler's milestone discoveries and progress toward an exo-Earth census. Humankind's speculation about the existence of other worlds like our own has become a veritable quest.

  16. Aptitude and Ageing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allman, Paula

    1983-01-01

    New understanding of the aging process and adult developmental psychology, particularly of feeling among older people of loss of control over their lives, suggests that higher education for older adults must go beyond simply providing mental activity to providing opportunities for renewed social relationships and accomplishment of substantial…

  17. Age-specific patterns of genetic variance in Drosophila melanogaster. II. Fecundity and its genetic covariance with age-specific mortality

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, M.; Promislow, D.E.L.; Khazaeli, A.A.; Curtsinger, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Under the mutation accumulation model of senescence, it was predicted that the additive genetic variance (V{sub A}) for fitness traits will increase with age. We measured age-specific mortality and fecundity from 65,134 Drosophila melanogaster and estimated genetic variance components, based on reciprocal crosses of extracted second chromosome lines. Elsewhere we report the results for mortality. Here, for fecundity, we report a biomodal pattern for V{sub A} with peaks at 3 days and at 17-31 days. Under the antagonistic pleiotropy model of senescence, it was predicted that negative correlations will exist between early and late life history traits. For fecundity itself we find positive genetic correlations among age classes >3 days but negative nonsignificant correlations between fecundity at 3 days and at older age classes. For fecundity vs. age-specific mortality, we find positive fitness correlations (negative genetic correlations) among the traits at all ages >3 days but a negative fitness correlation between fecundity at 3 days and mortality at the oldest ages (positive genetic correlations). For age-specific mortality itself we find overwhelmingly positive genetic correlations among all age classes. The data suggest that mutation accumulation may be a major source of standing genetic variance for senescence. 75 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Age-Specific Patterns of Genetic Variance in Drosophila Melanogaster. II. Fecundity and Its Genetic Covariance with Age-Specific Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, M.; Promislow, DEL.; Khazaeli, A. A.; Curtsinger, J. W.

    1996-01-01

    Under the mutation accumulation model of senescence, it was predicted that the additive genetic variance (V(A)) for fitness traits will increase with age. We measured age-specific mortality and fecundity from 65,134 Drosophila melanogaster and estimated genetic variance components, based on reciprocal crosses of extracted second chromosome lines. Elsewhere we report the results for mortality. Here, for fecundity, we report a bimodal pattern for V(A) with peaks at 3 days and at 17-31 days. Under the antagonistic pleiotropy model of senescence, it was predicted that negative correlations will exist between early and late life history traits. For fecundity itself we find positive genetic correlations among age classes >3 days but negative nonsignificant correlations between fecundity at 3 days and at older age classes. For fecundity vs. age-specific mortality, we find positive fitness correlations (negative genetic correlations) among the traits at all ages >3 days but a negative fitness correlation between fecundity at 3 days and mortality at the oldest ages (positive genetic correlations). For age-specific mortality itself we find overwhelmingly positive genetic correlations among all age classes. The data suggest that mutation accumulation may be a major source of standing genetic variance for senescence. PMID:8725233

  19. Unusual Histopathological Findings in Childhood Appendectomy Specimens.

    PubMed

    Buyukbese Sarsu, Sevgi; Ucak, Ramazan; Buyukbese, Mehmet Akif; Karakus, Suleyman Cuneyt; Deniz, Hale

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the unusual findings in the childhood appendectomy specimens and their incidence. The clinicopathological data of 1,306 patients whose ages ranged from 3 to 16 were retrospectively collected. Histopathological findings in appendectomy specimens taken from patients who had a prediagnosis of appendicitis were obtained. Incidental appendectomies were not included in the research. Unusual findings were reevaluated in the histopathological assessment of appendectomy specimens. The number of patients whose pathological findings are considered unusual is 25 (1.91 %). Nine of the patients were girls and 16 of them were boys. Their ages ranged from 6 to 15. Pathological results revealed that there were 16 (1.22 %) cases of parasitosis, 3 (0.23 %) cases of granulomatosis, 3 (0.23 %) cases of eosinophilic appendicitis, 2 (0.15 %) cases of carcinoid tumors, and 1 (0.08 %) case of appendiceal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. All patients underwent a standard appendectomy. Uncommon histopathological findings in childhood appendectomy specimens are more common than those in adulthood. This kind of certain unexpected lesions of the appendix may require advanced diagnostics, careful clinical care, follow-up for years, and a multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, histopathological examinations of appendectomy specimens must be performed routinely. PMID:26730070

  20. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: neuroradiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Kelly, W M; Brant-Zawadzki, M

    1983-11-01

    Central nervous system complications depicted by CT in ten patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are described. Three patients had multifocal intra-axial enhancing lesions representing atypical brain abscesses (two with toxoplasmosis, one with candidiasis). A fourth patient with multifocal "ring" lesions whose biopsy was interpreted as suggestive of toxoplasmosis responded poorly to treatment. Following his death three months later of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, autopsy revealed primary intracerebral immunoblastic lymphoma. One patient had Kaposi sarcoma involving the right frontal lobe (seen as an enhancing mass on the CT scan). CT findings in the remaining five patients revealed mild to moderate enlargement of cerebrospinal fluid spaces (including ventricles and basal cisternae) as a result of cryptococcal meningitis in three patients and "aseptic" meningitis in two. The two patients in whom early biopsy confirmed toxoplasmosis responded well to anti-infective therapy, resulting in dramatic clinical recoveries. PMID:6622693

  1. Plutonium aging

    SciTech Connect

    Olivas, J.D.

    1999-03-01

    The author describes the plutonium aging program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The aging of plutonium components in the US nuclear weapons stockpile has become a concern due to several events: the end of the cold war, the cessation of full scale underground nuclear testing as a result of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) and the closure of the Rocky Flats Plant--the site where the plutonium components were manufactured. As a result, service lifetimes for nuclear weapons have been lengthened. Dr. Olivas will present a brief primer on the metallurgy of plutonium, and will then describe the technical approach to ascertaining the long-term changes that may be attributable to self-radiation damage. Facilities and experimental techniques which are in use to study aging will be described. Some preliminary results will also be presented.

  2. The effects of aging on haptic 2D shape recognition.

    PubMed

    Overvliet, Krista E; Wagemans, J; Krampe, Ralf T

    2013-12-01

    We use the image-mediation model (Klatzky & Lederman, 1987) as a framework to investigate potential sources of adult age differences in the haptic recognition of two-dimensional (2D) shapes. This model states that the low-resolution, temporally sequential, haptic input is translated into a visual image, which is then reperceived through the visual processors, before it is matched against a long-term memory representation and named. In three experiments we tested groups of 12 older (mean age 73.11) and three groups of 12 young adults (mean age 22.80) each. In Experiment 1 we confirm age-related differences in haptic 2D shape recognition, and we show the typical age × complexity interaction. In Experiment 2 we show that if we facilitate the visual translation process, age differences become smaller, but only with simple shapes and not with the more complex everyday objects. In Experiment 3 we target the last step in the model (matching and naming) for complex stimuli. We found that age differences in exploration time were considerably reduced when this component process was facilitated by providing a category name. We conclude that the image-mediation model can explain adult-age differences in haptic recognition, particularly if the role of working memory in forming the transient visual image is considered. Our findings suggest that sensorimotor skills thought to rely on peripheral processes for the most part are critically constrained by age-related changes in central processing capacity in later adulthood. PMID:23978010

  3. The cerebellum ages slowly according to the epigenetic clock

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Steve; Mah, Vei; Lu, Ake T.; Woo, Jennifer S.; Choi, Oi-Wa; Jasinska, Anna J.; Riancho, José A.; Tung, Spencer; Coles, Natalie S.; Braun, Jonathan; Vinters, Harry V.; Coles, L. Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Studies that elucidate why some human tissues age faster than others may shed light on how we age, and ultimately suggest what interventions may be possible. Here we utilize a recent biomarker of aging (referred to as epigenetic clock) to assess the epigenetic ages of up to 30 anatomic sites from supercentenarians (subjects who reached an age of 110 or older) and younger subjects. Using three novel and three published human DNA methylation data sets, we demonstrate that the cerebellum ages more slowly than other parts of the human body. We used both transcriptional data and genetic data to elucidate molecular mechanisms which may explain this finding. The two largest superfamilies of helicases (SF1 and SF2) are significantly over-represented (p=9.2×10−9) among gene transcripts that are over-expressed in the cerebellum compared to other brain regions from the same subject. Furthermore, SNPs that are associated with epigenetic age acceleration in the cerebellum tend to be located near genes from helicase superfamilies SF1 and SF2 (enrichment p=5.8×10−3). Our genetic and transcriptional studies of epigenetic age acceleration support the hypothesis that the slow aging rate of the cerebellum is due to processes that involve RNA helicases. PMID:26000617

  4. eNOS-uncoupling in age-related erectile dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, JM; Bivalacqua, TJ; Lagoda, GA; Burnett, AL; Musicki, B

    2011-01-01

    Aging is associated with ED. Although age-related ED is attributed largely to increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in the penis, the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect are not fully defined. We evaluated whether endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling in the aged rat penis is a contributing mechanism. Correlatively, we evaluated the effect of replacement with eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) on erectile function in the aged rats. Male Fischer 344 ‘young’ (4-month-old) and ‘aged’ (19-month-old) rats were treated with a BH4 precursor sepiapterin (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally) or vehicle for 4 days. After 1-day washout, erectile function was assessed in response to electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. Endothelial dysfunction (eNOS uncoupling) and oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS) were measured by conducting western blot in penes samples. Erectile response was significantly reduced in aged rats, whereas eNOS uncoupling and TBARS production were significantly increased in the aged rat penis compared with young rats. Sepiapterin significantly improved erectile response in aged rats and prevented increase in TBARS production, but did not affect eNOS uncoupling in the penis of aged rats. These findings suggest that aging induces eNOS uncoupling in the penis, resulting in increased oxidative stress and ED. PMID:21289638

  5. Thoracic textilomas: CT findings*

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Dianne Melo; Zanetti, Gláucia; Araujo, Cesar Augusto; Nobre, Luiz Felipe; Meirelles, Gustavo de Souza Portes; Pereira e Silva, Jorge Luiz; Guimarães, Marcos Duarte; Escuissato, Dante Luiz; Souza, Arthur Soares; Hochhegger, Bruno; Marchiori, Edson

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze chest CT scans of patients with thoracic textiloma. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 16 patients (11 men and 5 women) with surgically confirmed thoracic textiloma. The chest CT scans of those patients were evaluated by two independent observers, and discordant results were resolved by consensus. RESULTS: The majority (62.5%) of the textilomas were caused by previous heart surgery. The most common symptoms were chest pain (in 68.75%) and cough (in 56.25%). In all cases, the main tomographic finding was a mass with regular contours and borders that were well-defined or partially defined. Half of the textilomas occurred in the right hemithorax and half occurred in the left. The majority (56.25%) were located in the lower third of the lung. The diameter of the mass was ≤ 10 cm in 10 cases (62.5%) and > 10 cm in the remaining 6 cases (37.5%). Most (81.25%) of the textilomas were heterogeneous in density, with signs of calcification, gas, radiopaque marker, or sponge-like material. Peripheral expansion of the mass was observed in 12 (92.3%) of the 13 patients in whom a contrast agent was used. Intraoperatively, pleural involvement was observed in 14 cases (87.5%) and pericardial involvement was observed in 2 (12.5%). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to recognize the main tomographic aspects of thoracic textilomas in order to include this possibility in the differential diagnosis of chest pain and cough in patients with a history of heart or thoracic surgery, thus promoting the early identification and treatment of this postoperative complication. PMID:25410842

  6. Understanding aging.

    PubMed

    Strehler, B L

    2000-01-01

    Enormous advances in our understanding of human aging have occurred during the last 50 yr. From the late 19th to the mid-20th centuries only four comprehensive and important sources of information were available: 1. August Weismann's book entitled Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems (the first of these essays dealt with The Duration of Life; 1). Weissmann states (p. 10) "In the first place in regulating the length of life, the advantage to the species, and not to the individual, is alone of any importance. This must be obvious to any one who has once thoroughly thought out the process of natural selection_". 2. A highly systematized second early source of information on aging was the collection of essays edited by Cowdry and published in 1938. This 900+ page volume contains 34 chapters and was appropriately called Problems of Aging. 3. At about the same time Raymond Pearl published his book on aging (2). Pearl believed that aging was the indirect result of cell specialization and that only the germ line was resistant to aging. Unfortunately Pearl died in the late 1930s and is largely remembered now for having been the founding editor of Quarterly Review of Biology while he was at the Johns Hopkins University, this author's alma mater. 4. Alexis Carrel wrote a monumental scientific and philosophical book, Man, the Unknown (3). Carrel believed that he had demonstrated that vertebrate cells could be kept in culture and live indefinitely, a conclusion challenged by others (more on this later). PMID:22351262

  7. Effects of aging on nitrergic neurons in human striatum and subthalamic nucleus.

    PubMed

    Santos-Lobato, Bruno Lopes dos; Del-Bel, Elaine Aparecida; Pittella, José Eymard Homem; Tumas, Vitor

    2015-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a major neurotransmitter associated with motor control in basal ganglia. Movement disorders, as essential tremor and Parkinson's disease, are more prevalent on aged individuals. We investigated the effects of aging on neuronal density and diameter/area of nitrergic neurons in samples of striatum (caudate and putamen) and subthalamic nucleus of 20 human brains from normal subjects, stained by histochemistry for NADPH-diaphorase and immunohistochemistry for neuronal NO synthase. Our data showed aging does not modify the neuronal density and size of nitrergic neurons in striatum and subthalamic nucleus. These findings suggest a lack of association between aging and morphologic changes on nitrergic neurons. PMID:26352497

  8. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  9. Health benefits of dancing activity among Korean middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min Jeong; Lee, Chul Won

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the health benefits of line dancing activity in Korean middle-aged women. This study explored how Korean middle-aged women perceive health benefits through lived experiences of line dancing in their leisure time. Three themes emerged related to health benefits: (1) psychological benefit, (2) physical benefit, and (3) social benefit. This finding suggested that serious leisure experience aids health enhancements in the lives of Korean middle-aged women. This study also discusses the research implication that continuous participation in leisure activity is necessary for health improvement in Korean middle-aged women. PMID:27389818

  10. Aging, Rejuvenation, and Epigenetic Reprogramming: Resetting the Aging Clock

    PubMed Central

    Rando, Thomas A.; Chang, Howard Y.

    2012-01-01

    The underlying cause of aging remains one of the central mysteries of biology. Recent studies in several different systems suggest that not only may the rate of aging be modified by environmental and genetic factors, but also that the aging clock can be reversed, restoring characteristics of youthfulness to aged cells and tissues. This Review focuses on the emerging biology of rejuvenation through the lens of epigenetic reprogramming. By defining youthfulness and senescence as epigenetic states, a framework for asking new questions about the aging process emerges. PMID:22265401

  11. [Normal aging and cognition].

    PubMed

    Ska, Bernadette; Joanette, Yves

    2006-03-01

    It is now well documented that normal aging modifies the cognitive functioning and most observations suggest that cognition evolves in the direction of deterioration. The more frequently impaired functions are memory, attention and visual-spatial abilities. On the other hand, some abilities seem to increase, such as vocabulary. Considering the aging effect on cognition, questions remain regarding directionality, universality and reversibility. A great variability in aged related impacts is observed among subjects and among cognitive domains. Some individuals evolved more rapidly than others. Some cognitive functions are more affected by aging than others. General and specific factors are hypothesized to explain the aged related cognitive decline. Among them, educational level, health, cognitive style, life style, personality, are likely to modulate the aged related cognitive evolution by influencing attentional resources and cerebral plasticity. Cognitive resources are essential to develop adaptative strategies. During the life span, resources are activated and increased by learning and training. Considering the role of cognitive resources, successful aging is dependent on several conditions : absence of disease leading to a loss of autonomy, maintenance of cognitive and physical activities, and active and social engaged lifestyle. PMID:16527210

  12. Finding Ernst Mayr's Plato.

    PubMed

    Powers, Jack

    2013-12-01

    Many biologists have accepted Ernst Mayr's claim that evolutionary biology undermined an essentialist or typological view of species that had its roots in Platonic philosophy. However, Mayr has been accused of failing to support with textual evidence his attributions to Plato of these sorts of views about biology. Contemporary work in history and philosophy of biology often seems to take onboard Mayr's account of Plato's view of species. This paper seeks to provide a critical account of putative inconsistencies between an evolutionary view of species and Platonic philosophy with renewed attention to the Platonic texts in light of recent Plato scholarship; I argue that claims that Plato held an essentialist view of species inconsistent with evolutionary biology are inadequately supported by textual evidence. If Mayr's essentialist thesis fails, one might think that the intuition that Platonic philosophy is in tension with Darwinian evolution could nonetheless be accounted for by Plato's apparent privileging of a certain sort of teleological explanation, a thesis that Mayr suggests in his 1959 paper on Louis Agassiz. However, this thesis also faces difficulties. Ernst Mayr's Plato is more likely to be found in the writings of anti-evolutionary 19th century biologists like Mayr's frequent target, Agassiz, than in a cautious reading of the Platonic dialogues themselves. Interlocutors in discussions of the history of biological thought and classificatory methods in biology should be cautious in ascribing views about biology to Plato and using terms like "Platonic essentialism." PMID:24135002

  13. Pathology of Mouse Models of Accelerated Aging.

    PubMed

    Harkema, L; Youssef, S A; de Bruin, A

    2016-03-01

    Progeroid mouse models display phenotypes in multiple organ systems that suggest premature aging and resemble features of natural aging of both mice and humans. The prospect of a significant increase in the global elderly population within the next decades has led to the emergence of "geroscience," which aims at elucidating the molecular mechanisms involved in aging. Progeroid mouse models are frequently used in geroscience as they provide insight into the molecular mechanisms that are involved in the highly complex process of natural aging. This review provides an overview of the most commonly reported nonneoplastic macroscopic and microscopic pathologic findings in progeroid mouse models (eg, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, degenerative joint disease, intervertebral disc degeneration, kyphosis, sarcopenia, cutaneous atrophy, wound healing, hair loss, alopecia, lymphoid atrophy, cataract, corneal endothelial dystrophy, retinal degenerative diseases, and vascular remodeling). Furthermore, several shortcomings in pathologic analysis and descriptions of these models are discussed. Progeroid mouse models are valuable models for aging, but thorough knowledge of both the mouse strain background and the progeria-related phenotype is required to guide interpretation and translation of the pathology data. PMID:26864891

  14. Aging and Cardiac Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Biernacka, Anna; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2011-01-01

    The aging heart is characterized by morphological and structural changes that lead to its functional decline and are associated with diminished ability to meet increased demand. Extensive evidence, derived from both clinical and experimental studies suggests that the aging heart undergoes fibrotic remodeling. Age-dependent accumulation of collagen in the heart leads to progressive increase in ventricular stiffness and impaired diastolic function. Increased mechanical load, due to reduced arterial compliance, and direct senescence-associated fibrogenic actions appear to be implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis in the elderly. Evolving evidence suggests that activation of several distinct molecular pathways may contribute to age-related fibrotic cardiac remodeling. Reactive oxygen species, chemokine-mediated recruitment of mononuclear cells and fibroblast progenitors, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β activation, endothelin-1 and angiotensin II signaling mediate interstitial and perivascular fibrosis in the senescent heart. Reduced collagen degradation may be more important than increased de novo synthesis in the pathogenesis of aging-associated fibrosis. In contrast to the baseline activation of fibrogenic pathways in the senescent heart, aging is associated with an impaired reparative response to cardiac injury and defective activation of reparative fibroblasts in response to growth factors. Because these reparative defects result in defective scar formation, senescent hearts are prone to adverse dilative remodeling following myocardial infarction. Understanding the pathogenesis of interstitial fibrosis in the aging heart and dissecting the mechanisms responsible for age-associated healing defects following cardiac injury are critical in order to design new strategies for prevention of adverse remodeling and heart failure in elderly patients. PMID:21837283

  15. Epidemiological aspects of ageing.

    PubMed

    Khaw, K T

    1997-12-29

    A major societal challenge is to improve quality of life and prevent or reduce disability and dependency in an ageing population. Increasing age is associated with increasing risk of disability and loss of independence, due to functional impairments such as loss of mobility, hearing and vision; a major issue must be how far disability can be prevented. Ageing is associated with loss of bone tissue, reduction in muscle mass, reduced respiratory function, decline in cognitive function, rise in blood pressure and macular degeneration which predispose to disabling conditions such as osteoporosis, heart disease, dementia and blindness. However, there are considerable variations in different communities in terms of the rate of age-related decline. Large geographic and secular variations in the age-adjusted incidence of major chronic diseases such as stroke, hip fracture, coronary heart disease, cancer, visual loss from cataract, glaucoma and macular degeneration suggest strong environmental determinants in diet, physical activity and smoking habit. The evidence suggests that a substantial proportion of chronic disabling conditions associated with ageing are preventable, or at least postponable and not an inevitable accompaniment of growing old. Postponement or prevention of these conditions may not only increase longevity, but, more importantly, reduce the period of illnesses such that the majority of older persons may live high-quality lives, free of disability, until very shortly before death. We need to understand better the factors influencing the onset of age-related disability in the population, so that we have appropriate strategies to maintain optimal health in an ageing population. PMID:9460067

  16. How Old Do You Feel? The Role of Age Discrimination and Biological Aging in Subjective Age

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Yannick; Sutin, Angelina R.; Terracciano, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Subjective age, or how young or old individuals experience themselves to be relative to their chronological age, is a crucial construct in gerontology. Subjective age is a significant predictor of important health outcomes, but little is known about the criteria by which individuals' subjectively evaluate their age. To identify psychosocial and biomedical factors linked to the subjective evaluation of age, this study examined whether perceived age discrimination and markers of biological aging are associated with subjective age. Participants were 4776 adults (Mage = 68) from the 2008 and 2010 waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) who completed measures of subjective age, age discrimination, demographic variables, self-rated health and depression, and had physical health measures, including peak expiratory flow, grip strength, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Telomere length was available for a subset of participants in the 2008 wave (n = 2214). Regression analysis indicated that perceived age discrimination, lower peak expiratory flow, lower grip strength, and higher waist circumference were associated with an older subjective age, controlling for sociodemographic factors, self-rated health, and depression. In contrast, blood pressure and telomere length were not related to subjective age. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that how old a person feels depends in part on psychosocial and biomedical factors, including the experiences of ageism and perceptible indices of fitness and biological age. PMID:25738579

  17. Longitudinal outcomes of very low birth weight: neuropsychological findings.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H Gerry; Minich, Nori M; Klein, Nancy; Hack, Maureen

    2004-03-01

    To investigate the effects of very low birth weight (VLBW, &1500 g) on the development of neuropsychological skills, we assessed 67 children with birth weight <750 g, 64 with birth weight 750-1499 g, and 67 term-born controls. Growth modeling of raw scores from mean ages 7-14 years revealed persistent VLBW sequelae. Even when adjusting for IQ, the <750 g group scored more poorly than the term-born group on measures of language processing, verbal list learning, and perceptual-motor and organizational abilities. This group also made slower age-related progress than the control group on tests of perceptual-motor and executive functions. Environmental factors moderated group differences in change on other cognitive measures. These results revealed further evidence for slower skill development in both VLBW groups relative to controls, as well as"catch-up" growth in the 750-1499 g group on some measures. The findings suggest age-related changes in the cognitive sequelae of VLBW that depend on the skill assessed, the degree of VLBW, and environmental factors. PMID:15012835

  18. Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: vectorcardiographic findings in echocardiographically unaffected relative.

    PubMed Central

    Loperfido, F; Fiorilli, R; Digaetano, A; Di Gennaro, M; Santarelli, P; Bellocci, F; Coppola, E; Zecchi, P

    1982-01-01

    The electrocardiographic and vectorcardiographic (Frank system) features of the first degree relatives of subjects with documented familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy were analysed. A total of nine affected members and 29 relatives were examined in four families. THe subjects were considered to be affected when the septal to free posterior wall thickness ratio exceeded 1.3 at M-mode echocardiography. Four relatives had asymmetric septal hypertrophy. Among 25 relatives without evidence of asymmetric septal hypertrophy, two over 20 years and 10 under 20 years of age showed increased voltage of QRS anterior forces (Qz amplitude greater than 0.80 mV) on the orthogonal electrocardiogram. The vectorcardiographic data of the relatives under 20 years of age without evidence of asymmetric septal hypertrophy (18 subjects) were compared with those of 38 normal control subjects of comparable age range. The young relatives without disproportionate septal hypertrophy had significantly greater Qz amplitude and Q/Rz ratio than the normal control subjects. In contrast, the echocardiographic data were not significantly different. We suggest that the electrocardiographic finding of abnormal anterior forces in one or more first degree relatives of subjects with documented hypertrophic cardiomyopathy may constitute a valuable aid in ascertaining the genetic transmission of the disease and in recognising affected members without echocardiographic evidence of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Images PMID:7200794

  19. What Causes Our Skin to Age?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Find a dermatologist What causes our skin to age? Many things cause our skin to age. Some ... Us Media contacts Advertising contacts AAD logo Advertising, marketing and sponsorships Legal notice Copyright © 2016 American Academy ...

  20. Aging Secret

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The canny world of advertising has caught on to the free radical theory of aging, marketing a whole array of antioxidants for preventing anything from wrinkles to dry hair to reducing the risk of heart disease--promising to help slow the hands of time. Working with genetically engineered mice--to produce a natural antioxidant enzyme called…