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Sample records for age functional status

  1. Nutrient intake, nutritional status, and cognitive function with aging.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Katherine L

    2016-03-01

    With the demographic aging of populations worldwide, diseases associated with aging are becoming more prevalent and costly to individuals, families, and healthcare systems. Among aging-related impairments, a decline in cognitive function is of particular concern, as it erodes memory and processing abilities and eventually leads to the need for institutionalized care. Accumulating evidence suggests that nutritional status is a key factor in the loss of cognitive abilities with aging. This is of tremendous importance, as dietary intake is a modifiable risk factor that can be improved to help reduce the burden of cognitive impairment. With respect to nutrients, there is evidence to support the critical role of several B vitamins in particular, but also of vitamin D, antioxidant vitamins (including vitamin E), and omega-3 fatty acids, which are preferentially taken up by brain tissue. On the other hand, high intakes of nutrients that contribute to hypertension, atherosclerosis, and poor glycemic control may have negative effects on cognition through these conditions. Collectively, the evidence suggests that considerable slowing and reduction of cognitive decline may be achieved by following a healthy dietary pattern, which limits intake of added sugars, while maximizing intakes of fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and seeds. PMID:27116240

  2. IMPACT OF MORNING STIFFNESS, EDUCATION, AND AGE ON THE FUNCTIONAL STATUS OF PATIENTS WITH RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS.

    PubMed

    Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Manxhuka-Kerliu, Suzana; Pallaska, Kelmend; Murtezani, Ardiana; Osmani-Vllasolli, Teuta; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Rexhepi, Blerta

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between disability status and duration of morning stiffness in hands with regard to age, level of education, and gender in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Also, the authors wanted to investigate this relationship with regard to the presence of rheumatoid factor, i.e., the serological status. A retrospective study was conducted in 250 patients with the classic form of RA (186 females, s64 males, mean age Xb = 49.96 y ears, range 25-60 years, disease duration 1-27 years, Xb = 6.41) previously diagnosed with RA according to the ACR (American College of Rheumatology 1987 criteria). All patients were in Steinbrocker functional classes II and III. The probability level was expressed by p < 0.01 and p < 0.05. The relationship between the variables was measured by point-biserial correlation. The correlation between duration of morning stiffness and functional class was positive but low [(r = 0.10, y = 0.00x + 2.37, p > 0.05) seronegative, (r = 0.12, y = 0.00x + 2.30, p > 0.05) seropositive]. High positive values were obtained for the linear correlation coefficient between duration of the disease and functional class (p < 0.01). Also, high values were obtained regarding the coefficient of correlation between age and functional class [(r = 0.29, p < 0.01) seronegative, (r = 0.47, p < 0.01) seropositive]. Uneducated patients were significantly more represented in functional class III [ 23 (50%) seronegative, 19 (42.2%) seropositive] than in functional class II [16 (20.3%) seronegative, 22 (27.5%) seropositive]. In conclusion, in this study of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, increased duration of morning stiffness was associated with functional disability. Functional disability increased with the duration of the disease, depended on age and educational level, and was more pronounced in older age, regardless of RA serological status. With regard to serological status and sex, the differences were non

  3. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07–1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  4. Age-related differences in white matter integrity and cognitive function are related to APOE status

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lee; Walther, Katrin; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Lue, Lih-Fen; Walker, Douglas G.; Glisky, Elizabeth L.

    2010-01-01

    While an extensive literature is now available on age-related differences in white matter integrity measured by diffusion MRI, relatively little is known about the relationships between diffusion and cognitive functions in older adults. Even less is known about whether these relationships are influenced by the apolipoprotein (APOE) ε4 allele, despite growing evidence that ε4 increases cognitive impairment in older adults. The purpose of the present study was to examine these relationships in a group of community-dwelling cognitively normal older adults. Data were obtained from a sample of 126 individuals (ages 52–92) that included 32 ε4 heterozygotes, 6 ε4 homozygotes, and 88 non-carriers. Two measures of diffusion, the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), were obtained from six brain regions – frontal white matter, lateral parietal white matter, the centrum semiovale, the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the temporal stem white matter – and were used to predict composite scores of cognitive function in two domains, executive function and memory function. Results indicated that ADC and FA differed with increasing age in all six brain regions, and these differences were significantly greater for ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Importantly, after controlling for age, diffusion measures predicted cognitive function in a region-specific way that was also influenced by ε4 status. Regardless of APOE status, frontal ADC and FA independently predicted executive function scores for all participants, while temporal lobe ADC additionally predicted executive function for ε4 carriers, but not noncarriers. Memory scores were predicted by temporal lobe ADC but not frontal diffusion for all participants, and this relationship was significantly stronger in ε4 carriers compared to noncarriers. Taken together, age and temporal lobe ADC accounted for a striking 53% of the variance in memory scores within the ε4 carrier

  5. Iodine status and thyroid function among Spanish schoolchildren aged 6-7 years: the Tirokid study.

    PubMed

    Vila, L; Donnay, S; Arena, J; Arrizabalaga, J J; Pineda, J; Garcia-Fuentes, E; García-Rey, C; Marín, J L; Serra-Prat, M; Velasco, I; López-Guzmán, A; Luengo, L M; Villar, A; Muñoz, Z; Bandrés, O; Guerrero, E; Muñoz, J A; Moll, G; Vich, F; Menéndez, E; Riestra, M; Torres, Y; Beato-Víbora, P; Aguirre, M; Santiago, P; Aranda, J; Gutiérrez-Repiso, C

    2016-05-01

    I deficiency is still a worldwide public health problem, with children being especially vulnerable. No nationwide study had been conducted to assess the I status of Spanish children, and thus an observational, multicentre and cross-sectional study was conducted in Spain to assess the I status and thyroid function in schoolchildren aged 6-7 years. The median urinary I (UI) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels in whole blood were used to assess the I status and thyroid function, respectively. A FFQ was used to determine the consumption of I-rich foods. A total of 1981 schoolchildren (52 % male) were included. The median UI was 173 μg/l, and 17·9 % of children showed UI<100 μg/l. The median UI was higher in males (180·8 v. 153·6 μg/l; P<0·001). Iodised salt (IS) intake at home was 69·8 %. IS consumption and intakes of ≥2 glasses of milk or 1 cup of yogurt/d were associated with significantly higher median UI. Median TSH was 0·90 mU/l and was higher in females (0·98 v. 0·83; P<0·001). In total, 0·5 % of children had known hypothyroidism (derived from the questionnaire) and 7·6 % had TSH levels above reference values. Median TSH was higher in schoolchildren with family history of hypothyroidism. I intake was adequate in Spanish schoolchildren. However, no correlation was found between TSH and median UI in any geographical area. The prevalence of TSH above reference values was high and its association with thyroid autoimmunity should be determined. Further assessment of thyroid autoimmunity in Spanish schoolchildren is desirable. PMID:26961225

  6. Adult Development and Life Satisfaction Functions of Sex, Marital Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Claire; McCall, Fran

    Quality of life in adulthood (ages 27-47) was investigated; age, marital status and sex were considered the primary variables. Attention was given to the consideration of the current crises-oriented theory of adult development. The interrelationship of the variables was of principle interest in assessing life satisfaction and personality…

  7. Perinatal HIV Status and Executive Function During School-Age and Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Ezeamama, Amara E.; Kizza, Florence N.; Zalwango, Sarah K.; Nkwata, Allan K.; Zhang, Ming; Rivera, Mariana L.; Sekandi, Juliet N.; Kakaire, Robert; Kiwanuka, Noah; Whalen, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine whether perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) versus HIV-unexposed (PHU) status predicted long-term executive function (EF) deficit in school-aged Ugandan children. Perinatal HIV status was determined by 18 months via DNA polymerase chain reaction test and confirmed at cognitive assessment between 6 and 18 years using HIV rapid-diagnostic test. Primary outcome is child EF measured using behavior-rating inventory of executive function questionnaire across 8 subscales summed to derive the global executive composite (GEC). EF was proxy-reported by caregivers and self-reported by children 11 years or older. Descriptive analyses by perinatal HIV status included derivation of mean, standard deviations (SD), number, and percent (%) of children with EF deficits warranting clinical vigilance. Raw scores were internally standardized by age and sex adjustment. EF scores warranting clinical vigilance were defined as ≥ mean + 1.5∗SD. t Tests for mean score differences by perinatal HIV status and linear-regression models were implemented in SAS version 9.4 to derive HIV status-related EF deficits (β) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Proxy-reported and self-reported EF were assessed in 166 and 82 children, respectively. GEC deficit was highest for PHIV (mean = 121.9, SD = 29.9), intermediate for PHEU (mean = 107.5, SD = 26.8), and lowest for PHU (mean = 103.4, SD = 20.7; P-trend < 0.01). GEC deficit levels warranting clinical vigilance occurred in 9 (15.8%), 5 (9.3%) and 0 (0%) PHIV, PHEU, and PHU children, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Nineteen percent (n = 32) children had deficits requiring clinical vigilance in ≥2 proxy-reported EF subscales. Of these, multisubscale deficits occurred in 35.1%, 13.0%, and 9.3% of PHIV, PHEU, and PHU respectively (P-trend = 0.001). Multivariable analyses find significantly higher GEC deficits for PHIV compared with PHU

  8. Self-reported functional and general health status among older respondents in China: the impact of age, gender, and place of residence.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bei; Yue, Yuwen; Mao, Zongfu

    2015-03-01

    This study made comparisons of self-reported functional and general health status between Chinese women and men in different age-groups in rural and urban settings and examined multiple factors relating to these health statuses in older adults. This study included a sample of 4017 respondents, aged 55 years and older, from the Hubei subsample of the Chinese National Health Service Survey III in 2003. The results illustrate that the differences in self-rated functional and general health status between genders and between urban and rural areas diminished with age. Access to health care was strongly associated with health status. The quality of the local environment, measured by access to tap water, was a significant factor for rural residents. Our study suggests that improving access to health care services and reducing environmental health risks are critical for improving physical functioning, psychological functioning, and self-rated general health for older adults in China. PMID:22199153

  9. Functional Impairments in Children with ADHD: Unique Effects of Age and Comorbid Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booster, Genery D.; DuPaul, George J.; Eiraldi, Ricardo; Power, Thomas J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with ADHD and comorbid disorders display poorer overall functioning compared with children with ADHD alone, though little research has examined the differential impact of externalizing versus internalizing comorbidities. Method: This study examined the impact of internalizing and externalizing comorbidities on the academic and…

  10. A Structural Analysis of Executive Functions and Socioeconomic Status in School-Age Children: Cognitive Factors as Effect Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aran-Filippetti, Vanessa; Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) is a well-known predictor of cognitive achievement and executive functioning, although the underlying cognitive mediating processes remain unclear. The authors analyze the association between different socioeconomic indicators and the executive functions (EF) of schoolchildren and the possible cognitive mediating factors…

  11. LOW FOLATE STATUS IS ASSOCIATED WITH IMPAIRED COGNITIVE FUNCTION AND DEMENTIA IN THE SACRAMENTO AREA LATINO STUDY ON AGING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Low folate status is associated with poor cognitive function and dementia in the elderly. Since 1998, grain products in the United States have been fortified with folic acid, which has reduced the prevalence of folate deficiency and hyperhomocysteinemia. OBJECTIVE: We investigated wheth...

  12. Polysomnographic evaluation of sleep quality and quantitative variables in women as a function of mood, reproductive status, and age

    PubMed Central

    Orff, Henry J.; Meliska, Charles J.; Lopez, Ana; Martinez, Fernando; Sorenson, Diane; Parry, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    This archival cross-sectional investigation examined the impact of mood, reproductive status (RS), and age on polysomnographic (PSG) measures in women. PSG was performed on 73 normal controls (NC) and 64 depressed patients (DP), in the course of studies in menstruating, pregnant, postpartum, and peri- and postmenopausal women. A two-factor, between-subjects multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to test the main effects of reproductive status (RS: menstrual vs pregnant vs postpartum vs menopausal) and diagnosis (NC vs DP), and their interaction, on PSG measures. To further refine the analyses, a two-factor, between subjects MANOVA was used to test the main effects of age (19 to 27 vs 28 to 36 vs 37 to 45 vs 46+ years) and diagnosis on the PSG data. Analyses revealed that in DP women, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep percentage was significantly elevated relative to NC across both RS and age. Significant differences in sleep efficiency, Stage 1%, and REM density were associated with RS; differences in total sleep time, Stage 2 percentage, and Stage 4 percentage were associated with differences in age. Both RS and age were related to differences in sleep latency, Stage 3 percentage, and Delta percentage. Finally, wake after sleep onset time, REM percentage, and REM latency did not vary with respect to RS or age. Overall, this investigation examined three major variables (mood, RS, and age) that are known to impact sleep in women. Of the variables, age appeared to have the greatest impact on PSG sleep measures, reflecting changes occurring across the lifespan. PMID:23393417

  13. Aging, Nutritional Status and Health

    PubMed Central

    Leslie, Wilma; Hankey, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The older population is increasing worldwide and in many countries older people will outnumber younger people in the near future. This projected growth in the older population has the potential to place significant burdens on healthcare and support services. Meeting the diet and nutrition needs of older people is therefore crucial for the maintenance of health, functional independence and quality of life. While many older adults remain healthy and eat well those in poorer health may experience difficulties in meeting their nutritional needs. Malnutrition, encompassing both under and over nutrition increases health risks in the older population. More recently the increase in obesity, and in turn the incidence of chronic disease in older adults, now justifies weight management interventions in obese older adults. This growing population group is becoming increasingly diverse in their nutritional requirements. Micro-nutrient status may fluctuate and shortfalls in vitamin D, iron and a number of other nutrients are relatively common and can impact on well-being and quality of life. Aging presents a number of challenges for the maintenance of good nutritional health in older adults. PMID:27417787

  14. Attention, psychomotor functions and age.

    PubMed

    Kallus, Konrad Wolfgang; Schmitt, Jeroen A J; Benton, David

    2005-12-01

    Nutrition might play an important role to ameliorate or to buffer age-related declines in attention and psychomotor functions. The assessment of nutritional effects in aged subjects has to take into account that attention and psychomotor functions can be subdivided in different functions that are differentially affected by age. This paper gives an overview of changes in different facets of attention and psychomotor functions beyond fifty as well as assessment methods for attention and psychomotor performance. It also provides a review of models to explain the pattern of changes with increasing age, and discusses the problems of high performance variance and of age related confounding variables like health status. Two different approaches are discussed that analyse a performance profile and an experimentally oriented functional microanalysis of changes in performance with respect to the effects of nutrition on attention and psychomotor functions. Addressed are examples of missing age-related deficits or even age-related superiority. Caffeine and Ginseng are considered as examples to enhance performance in older persons. Results are in accordance with data on the positive role of physical fitness for mental performance in older persons. Performance of older persons can well be enhanced by functional food components or nutritional supplementation. The effects are comparable to the effects obtained in younger groups, while there is only weak evidence for specific compensatory effects in aged persons. Finally the role of nutrition for the processes of healthy aging is discussed. PMID:16331357

  15. Platelet function and ageing.

    PubMed

    Jones, Chris I

    2016-08-01

    There are clear age-related changes in platelet count and function, driven by changes in hematopoietic tissue, the composition of the blood and vascular health. Platelet count remains relatively stable during middle age (25-60 years old) but falls in older people. The effect of age on platelet function is slightly less clear. The longstanding view is that platelet reactivity increases with age in an almost linear fashion. There are, however, serious limitations to the data supporting this dogma. We can conclude that platelet function increases during middle age, but little evidence exists on the changes in platelet responsiveness in old age (>75 years old). This change in platelet function is driven by differential mRNA and microRNA expression, an increase in oxidative stress and changes in platelet receptors. These age-related changes in platelets are particularly pertinent given that thrombotic disease and use of anti-platelet drugs is much more prevalent in the elderly population, yet the majority of platelet research is carried out in young to middle-aged (20-50 years old) human volunteers and young mice (2-6 months old). We know relatively little about exactly how platelets from people over 75 years old differ from those of middle-aged subjects, and we know even less about the mechanisms that drive these changes. Addressing these gaps in our knowledge will provide substantial understanding in how cell signalling changes during ageing and will enable the development of more precise anti-platelet therapies. PMID:27068925

  16. Sexual Function Across Aging.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Anita H; Harsh, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    Women experience multiple changes in social and reproductive statuses across the life span which can affect sexual functioning. Various phases of the sexual response cycle may be impacted and can lead to sexual dysfunction. Screening for sexual problems and consideration of contributing factors such as neurobiology, reproductive life events, medical problems, medication use, and depression can help guide appropriate treatment and thereby improve the sexual functioning and quality of life of affected women. Treatment options include psychotropic medications, hormone therapy, and psychotherapy. PMID:26830886

  17. Structural aging program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.; Graves, H.L. III

    1994-12-31

    Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure.

  18. Structural aging program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1995-04-01

    Research is being conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of safety-related concrete structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Program accomplishments have included development of the Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information of the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors of aging factors, performance assessments of reinforced concrete structures in several United Kingdom nuclear power facilities, evaluation of European and North American repair practices for concrete, an evaluation of factors affecting the corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and application of the time-dependent reliability methodology to reinforced concrete flexure and shear structural elements to investigate the role of in-service inspection and repair on their probability of failure.

  19. Dietary intake and main food sources of vitamin D as a function of age, sex, vitamin D status, body composition, and income in an elderly German cohort

    PubMed Central

    Jungert, Alexandra; Spinneker, Andre; Nagel, Anja; Neuhäuser-Berthold, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Background Elderly subjects are at risk of insufficient vitamin D status mainly because of diminished capacity for cutaneous vitamin D synthesis. In cases of insufficient endogenous production, vitamin D status depends on vitamin D intake. Objective The purpose of this study is to identify the main food sources of vitamin D in elderly subjects and to analyse whether contributing food sources differ by sex, age, vitamin D status, body mass index (BMI), or household income. In addition, we analysed the factors that influence dietary vitamin D intake in the elderly. Design and subjects This is a cross-sectional study in 235 independently living German elderly aged 66–96 years (BMI=27±4 kg/m2). Vitamin D intake was assessed by a 3-day estimated dietary record. Results The main sources of dietary vitamin D were fish/fish products followed by eggs, fats/oils, bread/bakery products, and milk/dairy products. Differences in contributing food groups by sex, age, vitamin D status, and BMI were not found. Fish contributed more to vitamin D intake in subjects with a household income of <1,500 €/month compared to subjects with higher income. In multiple regression analysis, fat intake and frequency of fish consumption were positive determinants of dietary vitamin D intake, whereas household income and percentage total body fat negatively affected vitamin D intake. Other parameters, including age, sex, physical activity, smoking, intake of energy, milk, eggs and alcohol, showed no significant association with vitamin D intake. Conclusion Low habitual dietary vitamin D intake does not affect vitamin D status in summer, and fish is the major contributor to vitamin D intake independent of sex, age, vitamin D status, BMI, and the income of subjects. PMID:25317118

  20. Structural aging program status report

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.

    1994-10-01

    Reinforced concrete structures play a vital role in the safe operation of all light-water reactor plants. In general, the performance of these structures has been satisfactory. However, there have been several instances where the capability of these structures to meet future functional and performance requirements has been challenged due to problems arising from either improper material selection, construction and design deficiencies, or environmental effects. Examples of some of the potentially more serious incidents include post-tensioning anchor head failures, leaching of concrete in tendon galleries, voids under vertical tendon bearing plates, containment dome delaminations, corrosion of steel tendons and rebars, water intrusion through basement cracks, and leakage of corrosion inhibitor from tendon sheaths. Such incidents indicate that there is a need for improved surveillance, inspection and testing, and maintenance to enhance the technical bases for assurance of continued safe operation of nuclear power plants both during the initial licensing period as well as throughout any continued service period.

  1. Status Maintenance and Change during Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pampel, Fred C.; Hardy, Melissa

    1994-01-01

    Uses national longitudinal survey data to compare the impact of status characteristics important during work careers (race, residence, education, occupation) on men's economic outcomes before and after the normal age of eligibility for retirement benefits. Results generally (but not completely) support the argument that determinants of income…

  2. Aging and functional brain networks

    SciTech Connect

    Tomasi D.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.

    2011-07-11

    Aging is associated with changes in human brain anatomy and function and cognitive decline. Recent studies suggest the aging decline of major functional connectivity hubs in the 'default-mode' network (DMN). Aging effects on other networks, however, are largely unknown. We hypothesized that aging would be associated with a decline of short- and long-range functional connectivity density (FCD) hubs in the DMN. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated resting-state data sets corresponding to 913 healthy subjects from a public magnetic resonance imaging database using functional connectivity density mapping (FCDM), a voxelwise and data-driven approach, together with parallel computing. Aging was associated with pronounced long-range FCD decreases in DMN and dorsal attention network (DAN) and with increases in somatosensory and subcortical networks. Aging effects in these networks were stronger for long-range than for short-range FCD and were also detected at the level of the main functional hubs. Females had higher short- and long-range FCD in DMN and lower FCD in the somatosensory network than males, but the gender by age interaction effects were not significant for any of the networks or hubs. These findings suggest that long-range connections may be more vulnerable to aging effects than short-range connections and that, in addition to the DMN, the DAN is also sensitive to aging effects, which could underlie the deterioration of attention processes that occurs with aging.

  3. Ageing, status politics and sociological theory.

    PubMed

    Turner, B S

    1989-12-01

    As a feature of social change and as an aspect of social stratification, ageing and age groups have been seriously neglected by sociological theory. This article attempts to conceptualize age groups in a multi-dimensional model of stratification which considers ageing in relation to economic class, political entitlement, or citizenship, and cultural life-styles. This multi-dimensional model provides an analytical basis for rejecting functionalist theories of ageing, which emphasize the positive functions of social disengagement, activity theories, which show that self-esteem in ageing is an effect of continuing social involvement, and Marxist social gerontology, which argues that retirement is determined by labour-market requirements in capitalism. The article concludes by developing a reciprocity-maturation curve of ageing which explains age stigmatization through exchange theory as an effect of declining social reciprocity. Both young and elderly social groups in a period of economic recession are perceived to be socially dependent, and become the targets of 'the politics of resentment'. The processes of social ageing can be located in the core of sociological theory, because they are connected fundamentally to the conditions of social solidarity. PMID:2688794

  4. Exercise, Cognitive Function, and Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jill N.

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding…

  5. AMPK Function in Aging Process.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Rocío; Pérez-Villegas, Eva María; Manuel Carrión, Ángel

    2016-01-01

    Aging involves the progressive deterioration of physiological functions, diminishing the individual's capacity for survival. Indeed, aging is the main risk factor for cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. The discovery that the rate of aging is controlled by conserved genetic and biochemical pathways represented an unprecedented advance in aging research. The AMPK protein is a metabolic sensor that acts as a qualified cellular housekeeper, as well as controlling energy homeostasis and resistance to stress. Thus, the correct regulation of this factor enhances health and survival. In this manuscript we will review the molecular pathways regulated by AMPK that are related to the aging process, paying special attention to mitochondrial dysfunction, metabolic deregulation, cell senescence and autophagy. PMID:26521771

  6. Exercise, cognitive function, and aging

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the lifespan of a population is often a marker of a country's success. With the percentage of the population over 65 yr of age expanding, managing the health and independence of this population is an ongoing concern. Advancing age is associated with a decrease in cognitive function that ultimately affects quality of life. Understanding potential adverse effects of aging on brain blood flow and cognition may help to determine effective strategies to mitigate these effects on the population. Exercise may be one strategy to prevent or delay cognitive decline. This review describes how aging is associated with cardiovascular disease risks, vascular dysfunction, and increasing Alzheimer's disease pathology. It will also discuss the possible effects of aging on cerebral vascular physiology, cerebral perfusion, and brain atrophy rates. Clinically, these changes will present as reduced cognitive function, neurodegeneration, and the onset of dementia. Regular exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function, and we hypothesize that this occurs through beneficial adaptations in vascular physiology and improved neurovascular coupling. This review highlights the potential interactions and ideas of how the age-associated variables may affect cognition and may be moderated by regular exercise. PMID:26031719

  7. Perspectives on Aging Vestibular Function

    PubMed Central

    Anson, Eric; Jeka, John

    2016-01-01

    Much is known about age-related anatomical changes in the vestibular system. Knowledge regarding how vestibular anatomical changes impact behavior for older adults continues to grow, in line with advancements in diagnostic testing. However, despite advancements in clinical diagnostics, much remains unknown about the functional impact that an aging vestibular system has on daily life activities such as standing and walking. Modern diagnostic tests are very good at characterizing neural activity of the isolated vestibular system, but the tests themselves are artificial and do not reflect the multisensory aspects of natural human behavior. Also, the majority of clinical diagnostic tests are passively applied because active behavior can enhance performance. In this perspective paper, we review anatomical and behavioral changes associated with an aging vestibular system and highlight several areas where a more functionally relevant perspective can be taken. For postural control, a multisensory perturbation approach could be used to bring balance rehabilitation into the arena of precision medicine. For walking and complex gaze stability, this may result in less physiologically specific impairments, but the trade-off would be a greater understanding of how the aging vestibular system truly impacts the daily life of older adults. PMID:26779116

  8. Perspectives on Aging Vestibular Function.

    PubMed

    Anson, Eric; Jeka, John

    2015-01-01

    Much is known about age-related anatomical changes in the vestibular system. Knowledge regarding how vestibular anatomical changes impact behavior for older adults continues to grow, in line with advancements in diagnostic testing. However, despite advancements in clinical diagnostics, much remains unknown about the functional impact that an aging vestibular system has on daily life activities such as standing and walking. Modern diagnostic tests are very good at characterizing neural activity of the isolated vestibular system, but the tests themselves are artificial and do not reflect the multisensory aspects of natural human behavior. Also, the majority of clinical diagnostic tests are passively applied because active behavior can enhance performance. In this perspective paper, we review anatomical and behavioral changes associated with an aging vestibular system and highlight several areas where a more functionally relevant perspective can be taken. For postural control, a multisensory perturbation approach could be used to bring balance rehabilitation into the arena of precision medicine. For walking and complex gaze stability, this may result in less physiologically specific impairments, but the trade-off would be a greater understanding of how the aging vestibular system truly impacts the daily life of older adults. PMID:26779116

  9. Aging and vascular endothelial function in humans

    PubMed Central

    SEALS, Douglas R.; JABLONSKI, Kristen L.; DONATO, Anthony J.

    2012-01-01

    Advancing age is the major risk factor for the development of CVD (cardiovascular diseases). This is attributable, in part, to the development of vascular endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by reduced peripheral artery EDD (endothelium-dependent dilation) in response to chemical [typically ACh (acetylcholine)] or mechanical (intravascular shear) stimuli. Reduced bioavailability of the endothelium-synthesized dilating molecule NO (nitric oxide) as a result of oxidative stress is the key mechanism mediating reduced EDD with aging. Vascular oxidative stress increases with age as a consequence of greater production of reactive oxygen species (e.g. superoxide) without a compensatory increase in antioxidant defences. Sources of increased superoxide production include up-regulation of the oxidant enzyme NADPH oxidase, uncoupling of the normally NO-producing enzyme, eNOS (endothelial NO synthase) (due to reduced availability of the cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin) and increased mitochondrial synthesis during oxidative phosphorylation. Increased bioactivity of the potent endothelial-derived constricting factor ET-1 (endothelin-1), reduced endothelial production of/responsiveness to dilatory prostaglandins, the development of vascular inflammation, formation of AGEs (advanced glycation end-products), an increased rate of endothelial apoptosis and reduced expression of oestrogen receptor α (in postmenopausal females) also probably contribute to impaired EDD with aging. Several lifestyle and biological factors modulate vascular endothelial function with aging, including regular aerobic exercise, dietary factors (e.g. processed compared with non-processed foods), body weight/fatness, vitamin D status, menopause/oestrogen deficiency and a number of conventional and non-conventional risk factors for CVD. Given the number of older adults now and in the future, more information is needed on effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of vascular endothelial aging. PMID

  10. Ageing/Menopausal Status in Healthy Women and Ageing in Healthy Men Differently Affect Cardiometabolic Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Campesi, Ilaria; Occhioni, Stefano; Tonolo, Giancarlo; Cherchi, Sara; Basili, Stefania; Carru, Ciriaco; Zinellu, Angelo; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    Background: Gender medicine requires a global analysis of an individual's life. Menopause and ageing induce variations of some cardiometabolic parameters, but, it is unknown if this occurs in a sex-specific manner. Here, some markers of oxidative stress, systemic inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction are analysed in men younger and older than 45 years and in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods: Serum and plasma sample were assayed for TNF-α and IL-6, malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls and for methylated arginines using ELISA kits, colorimetric methods and capillary electrophoresis. Results: Before body weight correction, men overall had higher creatinine, red blood cells and haemoglobin and lower triglycerides than women. Men younger than 45 years had lower levels of TNF-α and malondialdehyde and higher levels of arginine than age-matched women, while postmenopausal women had higher IL-6 concentrations than men, and higher total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatinine and IL-6 levels than younger women. Men younger than 45 years had lower total cholesterol and malondialdehyde than older men. After correction, some differences remained, others were amplified, others disappeared and some new differences emerged. Moreover, some parameters showed a correlation with age, and some of them correlated with each other as functions of ageing and ageing/menopausal status. Conclusions: Ageing/menopausal status increased many more cardiovascular risk factors in women than ageing in men, confirming that postmenopausal women had increased vascular vulnerability and indicating the need of early cardiovascular prevention in women. Sex-gender differences are also influenced by body weight, indicating as a matter of debate whether body weight should be seen as a true confounder or as part of the causal pathway. PMID:26941571

  11. Functional Status in Older Women Diagnosed with Pelvic Organ Prolapse

    PubMed Central

    SANSES, Tatiana V.D.; SCHILTZ, Nicholas K.; COURI, Bruna M.; MAHAJAN, Sangeeta T.; RICHTER, Holly E.; WARNER, David F.; GURALNIK, Jack; KOROUKIAN, Siran M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Functional status plays an important role in the comprehensive characterization of older adults. Functional limitations are associated with an increased risk of adverse treatment outcomes, but there is limited data on the prevalence of functional limitations in older women with pelvic floor disorders. Objective The aim of the study was to describe the prevalence of functional limitations based on health status in older women with pelvic organ prolapse. Study Design This pooled, cross-sectional study utilized data from the linked Health and Retirement Study and Medicare files between 1992 and 2008. The analysis included 890 women ≥65 years with pelvic organ prolapse. We assessed self-reported functional status, categorized in strength, upper and lower body mobility, activities of daily living, and instrumental activities of daily living domains. Functional limitations were evaluated and stratified by respondents self-reported general health status. Descriptive statistics were used to compare categorical and continuous variables, and logistic regression was used to measure differences in the odds of functional limitation by increasing age. Results The prevalence of functional limitations was 76.2% in strength, 44.9% in upper and 65.8% in lower body mobility, 4.5% in activities of daily living and 13.6% in instrumental activities of daily living. Limitations were more prevalent in women with poor or fair health status than in women with good health status, including 91.5% vs 69.9% in strength, 72.9% vs 33.5% in upper and 88.0% vs 56.8% in lower body mobility, 11.6% vs 0.9% in activities of daily living, and 30.6% vs 6.7% in instrumental activities of daily living, all p<0.01. The odds of all functional limitations also increased significantly with advancing age. Conclusion Functional limitations, especially in strength and body mobility domains, are highly prevalent in older women with pelvic organ prolapse, particularly in those with poor or fair self

  12. Perinatal HIV Status and Executive Function During School-Age and Adolescence: A Comparative Study of Long-Term Cognitive Capacity Among Children From a High HIV Prevalence Setting.

    PubMed

    Ezeamama, Amara E; Kizza, Florence N; Zalwango, Sarah K; Nkwata, Allan K; Zhang, Ming; Rivera, Mariana L; Sekandi, Juliet N; Kakaire, Robert; Kiwanuka, Noah; Whalen, Christopher C

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether perinatal HIV infection (PHIV), HIV-exposed uninfected (PHEU) versus HIV-unexposed (PHU) status predicted long-term executive function (EF) deficit in school-aged Ugandan children.Perinatal HIV status was determined by 18 months via DNA polymerase chain reaction test and confirmed at cognitive assessment between 6 and 18 years using HIV rapid-diagnostic test. Primary outcome is child EF measured using behavior-rating inventory of executive function questionnaire across 8 subscales summed to derive the global executive composite (GEC). EF was proxy-reported by caregivers and self-reported by children 11 years or older. Descriptive analyses by perinatal HIV status included derivation of mean, standard deviations (SD), number, and percent (%) of children with EF deficits warranting clinical vigilance. Raw scores were internally standardized by age and sex adjustment. EF scores warranting clinical vigilance were defined as ≥ mean + 1.5SD. t Tests for mean score differences by perinatal HIV status and linear-regression models were implemented in SAS version 9.4 to derive HIV status-related EF deficits (β) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs).Proxy-reported and self-reported EF were assessed in 166 and 82 children, respectively. GEC deficit was highest for PHIV (mean = 121.9, SD = 29.9), intermediate for PHEU (mean = 107.5, SD = 26.8), and lowest for PHU (mean = 103.4, SD = 20.7; P-trend < 0.01). GEC deficit levels warranting clinical vigilance occurred in 9 (15.8%), 5 (9.3%) and 0 (0%) PHIV, PHEU, and PHU children, respectively (P-trend = 0.01). Nineteen percent (n = 32) children had deficits requiring clinical vigilance in ≥2 proxy-reported EF subscales. Of these, multisubscale deficits occurred in 35.1%, 13.0%, and 9.3% of PHIV, PHEU, and PHU respectively (P-trend = 0.001). Multivariable analyses find significantly higher GEC deficits for PHIV compared with PHU and PHEU

  13. Status of motor operated valves aging assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Eissenberg, D.M.

    1989-01-01

    Motor operated valves (MOVs) have a long history of operational problems in nuclear power plants. Resolution of MOV problems in the past has tended to focus on symptoms rather than root cause. Although there has been more attention focused recently on identifying root causes, problems with valve operational readiness resulting from aging and service wear still persist. In addition, weaknesses in the currently used design equations for sizing of MOVs, identified in tests carried out by industry and confirmed in the recent NRC gate valve blowdown testing, have re-enforced the need for improved in-situ methods for determining the operational readiness of MOVs, whether from aging and service wear or from improper installation and maintenance. The objective of the MOV aging assessment is to evaluate and recommend practical methods for insuring operational readiness of safety-related MOVs under all anticipated operating conditions.

  14. The effects of host age on follicular dendritic cell status dramatically impair scrapie agent neuroinvasion in aged mice.

    PubMed

    Brown, Karen L; Wathne, Gwennaelle J; Sales, Jill; Bruce, Moira E; Mabbott, Neil A

    2009-10-15

    Following peripheral exposure, many transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents accumulate first in lymphoid tissues before spreading to the CNS (termed neuroinvasion) where they cause neurodegeneration. Early TSE agent accumulation upon follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) in lymphoid follicles appears critical for efficient neuroinvasion. Most clinical cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have occurred in young adults, although the reasons behind this apparent age-related susceptibility are uncertain. Host age has a significant influence on immune function. As FDC status and immune complex trapping is reduced in aged mice (600 days old), we hypothesized that this aging-related decline in FDC function might impair TSE pathogenesis. We show that coincident with the effects of host age on FDC status, the early TSE agent accumulation in the spleens of aged mice was significantly impaired. Furthermore, following peripheral exposure, none of the aged mice developed clinical TSE disease during their lifespans, although most mice displayed histopathological signs of TSE disease in their brains. Our data imply that the reduced status of FDCs in aged mice significantly impairs the early TSE agent accumulation in lymphoid tissues and subsequent neuroinvasion. Furthermore, the inefficient neuroinvasion in aged individuals may lead to significant levels of subclinical TSE disease in the population. PMID:19786551

  15. The Value Adults Place on Child Health and Functional Status

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Benjamin M.; Brown, Derek S.; Reeve, Bryce B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives By summarizing the value adults place on child health and functional status, this study provides a new quantitative tool that enhances our understanding of the benefits of new health technologies and illustrates the potential contributions of existing datasets for comparative effectiveness research in pediatrics. Methods Respondents, ages 18 and older, were recruited from a nationally representative panel between August 2012 and February 2013 to complete an online survey. The survey included a series of paired comparisons that asked respondents to choose between child health and functional status outcomes, which were described using the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a 14-item descriptive system of child health outcomes. Using respondent choices regarding an unnamed 7- or 10-year-old child, generalized linear model analyses estimated the value of child health and functional status on a quality-adjusted life year scale. Results Across the domains of health and functional status, repeated or chronic physical pain, feeling anxious or depressed, and behavioral problems (such as acting out, fighting, bullying, or arguing) were most valuable, as indicated by adult respondents’ preference of other health problems to avoid outcomes along these domains. Discussion These findings may inform comparative effectiveness research, health technology assessments, clinical practice guidelines, and public resource allocation decisions by enhancing understanding of the value adults place on health and functional status of children. Improved measurement of public priorities can promote national child health by drawing attention to what adults value most and complementing conventional measures of public health surveillance. PMID:26091599

  16. Changes in functional status and functional capacity following coronary artery bypass surgery.

    PubMed

    Douki, Z Esmaeili; Vaezzadeh, N; Zakizad, M; Shahmohammadi, S; Sadeghi, R; Mohammadpour, R A

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare changes in health related-quality of life (H-RQOL) on physical functioning and mental health domains, changes in functional capacity before and 18 months after CABG surgery. Comprehensive data on 187 patients who underwent CABG surgery were prospectively collected, including preoperative factors and postoperative morbidity. Assessing functional status, the change in physical functioning score and change in mental health score were obtained using the physical functioning and mental health subscales out of the eight total subscales of the (SF-36) questionnaire. Also, functional capacity was estimated according to New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. The results showed 18 months after CABG surgery survival rates were (95.7%). Significant improvements in functional status were seen in physical functioning (p < 0.001), mental health (p < 0.000). However, there were no significant changes in the mean of functional status scores among patients in three age groups. Other significant improvement was found in functional capacity and NYHA class before and the 18 months after CABG. Functional status markedly and significantly improved after CABG surgery, particularly in physical functioning. However, the functional status among survivors of CABG surgery is worse than that of the general population. It seems further research is needed to identify factors explaining the change in H-RQOL to develop interventions to support patients. PMID:20836288

  17. Determinants of fat-soluble vitamin status in patients aged 65 years and over.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, F; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Millán, I; Donoso-Navarro, E; Silvestre-Mardomingo, R A

    2013-12-01

    In the elderly, malnutrition is highly prevalent and a major contributor to increased morbidity and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the fat-soluble vitamin status and potential determinants in patients >65 years of age. Serum vitamins A, D and E were determined by liquid chromatography in 166 patients. Gender, age, season, hospitalization, nutritional markers (albumin and cholesterol), acute-phase reactants (ferritin and C-reactive protein) and renal function (creatinine and glomerular filtrate) were assessed as potential determinants. Prevalence of vitamin deficiency was highly variable, ranging from 0 (vitamin E/cholesterol ratio) to 94% (for vitamin D in hospitalized patients). Vitamin status did not differ according to gender, but age, season, hospitalization, a poor nutritional status and impaired renal function, and the presence of acute-phase response significantly affected serum levels of vitamin A, E and D. In conclusion, in subjects >65 years both demographic and clinical factors determined the fat-soluble vitamin status. PMID:24129364

  18. XTX8003 Aging Study Status Report

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, M.; Coleman, K.; Foster, P.; Klassen, S.; Loyola, V.

    1999-03-08

    XTX8003 is an extrudable explosive composed of 80% PETN and 20% Sylgard 182 (polydimethylsiloxane). Knowledge of the aging characteristics of XTX8003 is desired to understand the relationship between chemical and physical changes and performance. This understanding will allow improved assessment of the current state and also projected lifetime of components that contain this material. A literature search revealed few published studies of the aging behavior of XTX8003 or a chemically similar material, LX-13. Two studies showed that detonation velocity had decreased after storage at 70 C for two years. Another study showed a 30% decrease in target penetration by conical shaped charge after 12 weeks of storage at 82 C. Only one study was found which evaluated chemical and physical changes, but no information was available to correlate performance degradation to chemical and physical changes in the material. In summary, the major changes seen in aged XTX8003 are in detonation velocity and particle morphology, but particle morphology does not appear to be the determining factor in the loss of detonation velocity. The study will continue at least 24 months, at which time the data will be evaluated to determine how best to continue with the remaining test samples.

  19. Structure functions: Their status and implications

    SciTech Connect

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1988-09-29

    I discuss the current status of structure functions. Attention is given to the uncertainties in them and the implications of these uncertainties for experimental predictions. I indicate which experiments are capable of removing these uncertainties. 17 refs., 17 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Adjusting Population Risk for Functional Health Status.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Richard L; Hughes, John S; Goldfield, Norbert I

    2016-04-01

    Risk adjustment accounts for differences in population mix by reducing the likelihood of enrollee selection by managed care plans and providing a correction to otherwise biased reporting of provider or plan performance. Functional health status is not routinely included within risk-adjustment methods, but is believed by many to be a significant enhancement to risk adjustment for complex enrollees and patients. In this analysis a standardized measure of functional health was created using 3 different source functional assessment instruments submitted to the Medicare program on condition of payment. The authors use a 5% development sample of Medicare claims from 2006 and 2007, including functional health assessments, and develop a model of functional health classification comprising 9 groups defined by the interaction of self-care, mobility, incontinence, and cognitive impairment. The 9 functional groups were used to augment Clinical Risk Groups, a diagnosis-based patient classification system, and when using a validation set of 100% of Medicare data for 2010 and 2011, this study found the use of the functional health module to improve the fit of observed enrollee cost, measured by the R(2) statistic, by 5% across all Medicare enrollees. The authors observed complex nonlinear interactions across functional health domains when constructing the model and caution that functional health status needs careful handling when used for risk adjustment. The addition of functional health status within existing risk-adjustment models has the potential to improve equitable resource allocation in the financing of care costs for more complex enrollees if handled appropriately. (Population Health Management 2016;19:136-144). PMID:26348621

  1. Gender differences as factors in successful ageing: a focus on socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Mi; Jang, Soong-Nang; Kim, Dong-Hyun

    2010-01-01

    Over the past century, the population of Korea has aged rapidly as a result of decreasing fertility and mortality. Furthermore, the percentage of the population aged 65 and older is expected to double from 7% to 14% within 18 years, a much shorter doubling period than in most other developed countries. As Korean society ages, interest in healthy and successful ageing has increased. However, although previous studies have examined various determinants of successful ageing, such as socioeconomic status, gender differences have been neglected. This study investigated gender differences as factors in successful ageing among elderly men and women. Successful ageing has been defined as having high levels of physical and social functioning. Physical functioning includes having no difficulties with activities of daily living (ADL) or instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Social functioning is defined as participation in at least one of the following social activities: paid work, religious gatherings or volunteer service. Data for this study were obtained from a representative sample of 761 community-living individuals aged 65-84 years (340 males, 421 females); the respondents were interviewed face-to-face as part of the third wave of the Hallym Ageing Study (2007). Socioeconomic status appears to have a greater gender-specific effect on physical functioning than on social functioning. Especially for elderly men, a higher monthly individual income was significantly related to a higher level of physical functioning. Among elderly women, a higher level of education was associated with a higher level of physical functioning. In a major metropolis, elderly men had low social functioning and elderly women had low physical functioning. As Korea's population ages, successful ageing has received much attention. This study shows that policies promoting successful ageing must consider gender differences and associated socioeconomic factors. PMID:19703332

  2. APOE genotype influences functional status among elderly without dementia

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, S.M.; Jacobs, D.M.; Stern, Y.

    1995-12-18

    The presence of apolipoprotein-{epsilon}4 (APOE-{epsilon}4) significantly increases the risk of Alzheimer`s disease (AD). The association between APOE-{epsilon}4 status and functional abilities was explored further in a multicultural sample of community-dwelling, nondemented elders. The sample was limited to cognitively-intact, community-dwelling elders, who were free of stroke or other neurologic disability. In 218 elders who met research criteria, the presence of APOE-{epsilon}4 was associated with poorer functional status, apart from the effects of neuropsychological performance, gender, age, and education (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.3, 4.9). In 158 subjects without an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele, 50% reported no functional limitation; in the 60 subjects with an {epsilon}4 allele, only 28% reported no functional limitation (P < .01). The relationship was not explained by the distribution of co-morbidities. The association between poorer function and the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was evident in each ethnic group. In path analyses, the presence of an APOE-{epsilon}4 allele was associated with decreased functional ability in non-demented elders not simply through an association with poorer cognitive status, but also independently. These results suggest that the APOE-{epsilon}4 genotype is associated with functional deficit in people with normal neuropsychological profiles. 29 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  3. Biomarkers of Aging: From Function to Molecular Biology.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Cameron-Smith, David; Wessner, Barbara; Franzke, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional impairments. Within a homogeneous age sample there is a considerable variation in the extent of disease and functional impairment risk, revealing a need for valid biomarkers to aid in characterizing the complex aging processes. The identification of biomarkers is further complicated by the diversity of biological living situations, lifestyle activities and medical treatments. Thus, there has been no identification of a single biomarker or gold standard tool that can monitor successful or healthy aging. Within this short review the current knowledge of putative biomarkers is presented, focusing on their application to the major physiological mechanisms affected by the aging process including physical capability, nutritional status, body composition, endocrine and immune function. This review emphasizes molecular and DNA-based biomarkers, as well as recent advances in other biomarkers such as microRNAs, bilirubin or advanced glycation end products. PMID:27271660

  4. Biomarkers of Aging: From Function to Molecular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Karl-Heinz; Cameron-Smith, David; Wessner, Barbara; Franzke, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for most chronic diseases and functional impairments. Within a homogeneous age sample there is a considerable variation in the extent of disease and functional impairment risk, revealing a need for valid biomarkers to aid in characterizing the complex aging processes. The identification of biomarkers is further complicated by the diversity of biological living situations, lifestyle activities and medical treatments. Thus, there has been no identification of a single biomarker or gold standard tool that can monitor successful or healthy aging. Within this short review the current knowledge of putative biomarkers is presented, focusing on their application to the major physiological mechanisms affected by the aging process including physical capability, nutritional status, body composition, endocrine and immune function. This review emphasizes molecular and DNA-based biomarkers, as well as recent advances in other biomarkers such as microRNAs, bilirubin or advanced glycation end products. PMID:27271660

  5. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  6. Functional Status Assessment of Patients With COPD

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Li, Honghe; Ding, Ning; Wang, Ningning; Wen, Deliang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Presently, there is no recommendation on how to assess functional status of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. This study aimed to summarize and systematically evaluate these measures. Studies on measures of COPD patients’ functional status published before the end of January 2015 were included using a search filters in PubMed and Web of Science, screening reference lists of all included studies, and cross-checking against some relevant reviews. After title, abstract, and main text screening, the remaining was appraised using the Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of Health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) 4-point checklist. All measures from these studies were rated according to best-evidence synthesis and the best-rated measures were selected. A total of 6447 records were found and 102 studies were reviewed, suggesting 44 performance-based measures and 14 patient-reported measures. The majority of the studies focused on internal consistency, reliability, and hypothesis testing, but only 21% of them employed good or excellent methodology. Their common weaknesses include lack of checks for unidimensionality, inadequate sample sizes, no prior hypotheses, and improper methods. On average, patient-reported measures perform better than performance-based measures. The best-rated patient-reported measures are functional performance inventory (FPI), functional performance inventory short form (FPI-SF), living with COPD questionnaire (LCOPD), COPD activity rating scale (CARS), University of Cincinnati dyspnea questionnaire (UCDQ), shortness of breath with daily activities (SOBDA), and short-form pulmonary functional status scale (PFSS-11), and the best-rated performance-based measures are exercise testing: 6-minute walk test (6MWT), endurance treadmill test, and usual 4-meter gait speed (usual 4MGS). Further research is needed to evaluate the reliability and validity of performance-based measures since present studies failed to

  7. Food Decision-Making: Effects of Weight Status and Age.

    PubMed

    van Meer, Floor; Charbonnier, Lisette; Smeets, Paul A M

    2016-09-01

    Food decisions determine energy intake. Since overconsumption is the main driver of obesity, the effects of weight status on food decision-making are of increasing interest. An additional factor of interest is age, given the rise in childhood obesity, weight gain with aging, and the increased chance of type 2 diabetes in the elderly. The effects of weight status and age on food preference, food cue sensitivity, and self-control are discussed, as these are important components of food decision-making. Furthermore, the neural correlates of food anticipation and choice and how these are affected by weight status and age are discussed. Behavioral studies show that in particular, poor self-control may have an adverse effect on food choice in children and adults with overweight and obesity. Neuroimaging studies show that overweight and obese individuals have altered neural responses to food in brain areas related to reward, self-control, and interoception. Longitudinal studies across the lifespan will be invaluable to unravel the causal factors driving (changes in) food choice, overconsumption, and weight gain. PMID:27473844

  8. Selenium Status Is Positively Associated with Bone Mineral Density in Healthy Aging European Men

    PubMed Central

    Beukhof, Carolien M.; Medici, Marco; van den Beld, Annewieke W.; Hollenbach, Birgit; Hoeg, Antonia; Visser, W. Edward; de Herder, Wouter W.; Visser, Theo J.; Schomburg, Lutz; Peeters, Robin P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is still a matter of debate if subtle changes in selenium (Se) status affect thyroid function tests (TFTs) and bone mineral density (BMD). This is particularly relevant for the elderly, whose nutritional status is more vulnerable. Design and Methods We investigated Se status in a cohort of 387 healthy elderly men (median age 77 yrs; inter quartile range 75–80 yrs) in relation to TFTs and BMD. Se status was determined by measuring both plasma selenoprotein P (SePP) and Se. Results The overall Se status in our population was low normal with only 0.5% (2/387) of subjects meeting the criteria for Se deficiency. SePP and Se levels were not associated with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) or reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. The T3/T4 and T3/rT3 ratios, reflecting peripheral metabolism of thyroid hormone, were not associated with Se status either. SePP and Se were positively associated with total BMD and femoral trochanter BMD. Se, but not SePP, was positively associated with femoral neck and ward's BMD. Multivariate linear analyses showed that these associations remain statistically significant in a model including TSH, FT4, body mass index, physical performance score, age, smoking, diabetes mellitus and number of medication use. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that Se status, within the normal European marginally supplied range, is positively associated with BMD in healthy aging men, independent of thyroid function. Thyroid function tests appear unaffected by Se status in this population. PMID:27055238

  9. Heterogeneous ageing of skeletal muscle microvascular function.

    PubMed

    Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2016-04-15

    The distribution of blood flow to skeletal muscle during exercise is altered with advancing age. Changes in arteriolar function that are muscle specific underlie age-induced changes in blood flow distribution. With advancing age, functional adaptations that occur in resistance arterioles from oxidative muscles differ from those that occur in glycolytic muscles. Age-related adaptations of morphology, as well as changes in both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle signalling, differ in muscle of diverse fibre type. Age-induced endothelial dysfunction has been reported in most skeletal muscle arterioles; however, unique alterations in signalling contribute to the dysfunction in arterioles from oxidative muscles as compared with those from glycolytic muscles. In resistance arterioles from oxidative muscle, loss of nitric oxide signalling contributes significantly to endothelial dysfunction, whereas in resistance arterioles from glycolytic muscle, alterations in both nitric oxide and prostanoid signalling underlie endothelial dysfunction. Similarly, adaptations of the vascular smooth muscle that occur with advancing age are heterogeneous between arterioles from oxidative and glycolytic muscles. In both oxidative and glycolytic muscle, late-life exercise training reverses age-related microvascular dysfunction, and exercise training appears to be particularly effective in reversing endothelial dysfunction. Patterns of microvascular ageing that develop among muscles of diverse fibre type and function may be attributable to changing patterns of physical activity with ageing. Importantly, aerobic exercise training, initiated even at an advanced age, restores muscle blood flow distribution patterns and vascular function in old animals to those seen in their young counterparts. PMID:26575597

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Kang, Yaowen; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; Wang, Linghong; Nie, Zhonghua; Guo, Daoxia; Yao, Yingshui

    2014-01-01

    Previous study revealed that 8%-12% adolescents suffered from various types of anxiety disorders, and which had interfered with adolescent daily life function and affected adolescent social function. The aim of this study was to evaluate anxiety status and its related factors among students aged 13-26 years from Wuhu, China. This was a cross-sectional observational study. A sample of school students who come from a university, four high schools and four middle schools in Wuhu city were recruited, Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS) was used to measure the anxiety status among students aged 13-26 years, and some demographic characteristics of students also was determined. A total of 5249 students were included in our study. The overall rate of anxiety status among students was 14.1%. A significant difference was observed between anxiety status and sex, mothers education level, dietary and siesta habit (P < 0.05), only-child family, gentle temper, regular breakfast habit, friend support was associated with lower scores on anxiety status. The findings indicated that anxiety status is common among school students. Preventive and treatment strategies are highly recommended. PMID:25550963

  11. Vitamin K status and cognitive function in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Presse, Nancy; Belleville, Sylvie; Gaudreau, Pierrette; Greenwood, Carol E; Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne; Morais, Jose A; Payette, Hélène; Shatenstein, Bryna; Ferland, Guylaine

    2013-12-01

    Evidence is accumulating that vitamin K could have a role in cognition, especially in aging. Using data from the Québec Longitudinal Study on Nutrition and Successful Aging (NuAge), a cross-sectional analysis was conducted to examine the associations between vitamin K status, measured as serum phylloquinone concentrations, and performance in verbal and non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. The sample included 320 men and women aged 70 to 85 years who were free of cognitive impairment. After adjustment for covariates, higher serum phylloquinone concentration (log-transformed) was associated with better verbal episodic memory performances (F = 2.43, p = 0.048); specifically with the scores (Z-transformed) on the second (β = 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.82), third (β = 0.41; 95% CI = 0.06-0.75), and 20-minute delayed (β = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.12-0.82) free recall trials of the RL/RI-16 Free and Cued Recall Task. No associations were found with non-verbal episodic memory, executive functions, and speed of processing. Our study adds evidence to the possible role of vitamin K in cognition during aging, specifically in the consolidation of the memory trace. PMID:23850343

  12. Age, sex and reproductive status affect boldness in dogs.

    PubMed

    Starling, Melissa J; Branson, Nicholas; Thomson, Peter C; McGreevy, Paul D

    2013-09-01

    Boldness in dogs is believed to be one end of the shy-bold axis, representing a super-trait. Several personality traits fall under the influence of this super-trait. Previous studies have found that boldness is affected by breed and breed groups, influences performance in sporting dogs, and is affected in some cases by the sex of the dogs. This study investigated the effects of dog age, sex and reproductive status on boldness in dogs by way of a dog personality survey circulated amongst Australian dog owners. Age had a significant effect on boldness (F=4.476; DF=16,758; P<0.001), with boldness decreasing with age in years. Males were bolder than females (F=19.219; DF=1,758; P<0.001) and entire dogs were bolder than neutered dogs (F=4.330; DF=1,758; P<0.038). The study indicates how behaviour may change in adult dogs as they age and adds to the literature on how sex and reproductive status may affect personality in dogs. PMID:23778256

  13. Chlamydia infection status, genotype, and age-related macular degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Khandhadia, Sam; Foster, Sebastian; Cree, Angela; Griffiths, Helen; Osmond, Clive; Goverdhan, Srinivas

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate whether Chlamydia (C.) infections are associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and to assess if this association is influenced by the complement factor H (CFH) Y402H or the high temperature requirement A serine peptidase 1 (HTRA1) rs11200638 risk genotypes. Methods One hundred ninety-nine AMD patients with early and late forms of the disease and 100 unaffected controls, at least 50 years old were included in the study. Patients in the AMD and control groups were selected based on known CFH Y402H variant genotype status (one third homozygous CC, one third heterozygous CT, and one third wild-type TT). Plasma from all patients and controls was tested for C. pneumoniae, C. trachomatis, and C. psittaci IgG seropositivity using a micro-immunofluorescent assay to establish previous infection status. Assays were conducted blind to risk genotypes and the results analyzed using univariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis. Results IgG seropositivity to C. pneumoniae was most prevalent (69.2%, n=207), followed by C. trachomatis (7.4%, n=22) and C. psittaci (3.3%, n=10). No association was found between each of the three Chlamydia species IgG seropositivity and AMD status or severity (early/late). There was also no significant association between Chlamydia species IgG seropositivity and AMD status or severity, in patients carrying at least one CFH Y402H risk allele (C) or HTRA1 rs11200638 risk allele (A), with univariate or logistic regression analysis. Conclusions Chlamydia infection status does not appear to be associated with AMD status or severity. The presence of CFH Y402H and HTRA1 rs11200638 risk genotypes does not alter this negative association. PMID:22259222

  14. Effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle on pulmonary response to ozone

    SciTech Connect

    Seal, E. Jr.; McDonnell, W.F.; House, D.E.

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase on the pulmonary response to ozone exposure. Three hundred seventy-two healthy white and black young adults, between the ages of 18 and 35 y, were exposed only once to 0.0, 0.12, 0.18, 0.24, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm ozone for 2.3 h. Prior to and after exposure, pulmonary function tests were obtained. Prior to exposure, each subject completed a personal and family-history questionnaire. The response to this questionnaire were used to investigate age, socioeconomic status, and menstrual cycle phase effects on pulmonary responsiveness to ozone. We concluded that the ages of subjects, within the age range studied, had an effect on responsiveness (i.e., decrements in forced expiratory volume in 1 s decreased as the subjects` ages decreased). Socioeconomic status, as reflected by education of fathers, also appeared to affect forced expiratory volume in 1-s responsiveness to ozone, with the middle socioeconomic group being the most responsive. The phase of menstrual cycle did not have an impact on individual responsiveness to ozone. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Thyroid Function and Cognition during Aging.

    PubMed

    Bégin, M E; Langlois, M F; Lorrain, D; Cunnane, S C

    2008-01-01

    We summarize here the studies examining the association between thyroid function and cognitive performance from an aging perspective. The available data suggest that there may be a continuum in which cognitive dysfunction can result from increased or decreased concentrations of thyroid hormones. Clinical and subclinical hypothyroidism as well as hyperthyroidism in middle-aged and elderly adults are both associated with decreased cognitive functioning, especially memory, visuospatial organization, attention, and reaction time. Mild variations of thyroid function, even within normal limits, can have significant consequences for cognitive function in the elderly. Different cognitive deficits possibly related to thyroid failure do not necessarily follow a consistent pattern, and L-thyroxine treatment may not always completely restore normal functioning in patients with hypothyroidism. There is little or no consensus in the literature regarding how thyroid function is associated with cognitive performance in the elderly. PMID:19415145

  16. Tempol intake improves inflammatory status in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamato, Mayumi; Ishimatsu, Ayumi; Yamanaka, Yuuki; Mine, Takara; Yamada, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with both healthy aging and age-related disease states. In connection with oxidative stress, immunity is also a major component as a result of the chronic, low-grade inflammation associated with the development of tissue aging. Here we show that long-term treatment with the antioxidant tempol extends life-span in mice. Tempol-treated mice exhibited a reduction in mortality at 20 months. Tempol drinking did not have any effect on body weight, amount of visceral adipose tissue, or plasma biochemical parameters in aged mice. Body temperature of aged control mice (which drank only water) was significantly lower than young mice, but this reduction of body temperature was partially restored in aged mice which drank tempol. Plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and C-reactive protein were significantly increased in the control aged mice compared with young mice, but levels of both were normalized by tempol drinking. One of the endogenous antioxidants, ascorbic acid, was significantly increased in the plasma of mice which consumed tempol. The proportion of CD4 lymphocytes in the blood of aged tempol-treated mice was partially increased in comparison to aged control mice. These results suggest that the reduction of mortality by tempol is due to amelioration of chronic inflammation and improved function of the immune system through antioxidant effects. PMID:25120275

  17. [Normal aging of frontal lobe functions].

    PubMed

    Calso, Cristina; Besnard, Jérémy; Allain, Philippe

    2016-03-01

    Normal aging in individuals is often associated with morphological, metabolic and cognitive changes, which particularly concern the cerebral frontal regions. Starting from the "frontal lobe hypothesis of cognitive aging" (West, 1996), the present review is based on the neuroanatomical model developed by Stuss (2008), introducing four categories of frontal lobe functions: executive control, behavioural and emotional self-regulation and decision-making, energization and meta-cognitive functions. The selected studies only address the changes of one at least of these functions. The results suggest a deterioration of several cognitive frontal abilities in normal aging: flexibility, inhibition, planning, verbal fluency, implicit decision-making, second-order and affective theory of mind. Normal aging seems also to be characterised by a general reduction in processing speed observed during neuropsychological assessment (Salthouse, 1996). Nevertheless many cognitive functions remain preserved such as automatic or non-conscious inhibition, specific capacities of flexibility and first-order theory of mind. Therefore normal aging doesn't seem to be associated with a global cognitive decline but rather with a selective change in some frontal systems, conclusion which should be taken into account for designing caring programs in normal aging. PMID:27005339

  18. Age Related Changes in Autonomic Functions

    PubMed Central

    Amir, Mohammed; Pakhare, Abhijit; Rathi, Preeti; Chaudhary, Lalita

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) imbalance may trigger or enhance pathology in different organ systems that varies in different age groups hence objective of present study was to evaluate association of different Age-groups with autonomic functions. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 62 healthy volunteers in Department of Physiology LLRM Medical College Meerut, India. Volunteers were divided into three groups as younger (15-45 years), middle (45-60) and elder age (above 60), Autonomic functions were tested in three domains viz. Cardio-vagal, adrenergic and sudomotor functions. Numerical data was summarized as mean and standard deviation and categorical data as count and percentage. ANOVA and Chi-square test were used to find difference among groups, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Mean ± standard deviation OHT(Orthostatic Hypotension Test) among of younger, middle and elder age groups were 8.80±2.28, 13.40±4.64 and 21.82±6.04 respectively which represent decrease in sympathetic functions with age (p<0.001). Cardio-vagal or parasympathetic responses indicated by DBT (Deep Breathing Test) Valsalva and 30:15 ratio of HR response to standing tests has shown statistically significant (p<0.001) decrease in mean response with increasing age. Sudomotor response appeared normal in younger and middle group but was interrupted in more than half of elderly people (p<0.001). Conclusion Sympathetic responses & para-sympathetic responses have shown the significant decline with increasing age group. Sudomotor responses were partially interrupted in elderly age group. PMID:27134865

  19. Socioeconomic Status and Longitudinal Lung Function of Healthy Mexican Children

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Briseño, David; Fernández-Plata, Rosario; Gochicoa-Rangel, Laura; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Mendoza-Alvarado, Laura; García-Sancho, Cecilia; Pérez-Padilla, Rogelio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our aim was to estimate the longitudinal effect of Socioeconomic status (SES) on lung function growth of Mexican children and adolescents. Materials and Methods A cohort of Mexican children in third grade of primary school was followed with spirometry twice a year for 6 years through secondary school. Multilevel mixed-effects lineal models were fitted for the spirometric variables of 2,641 respiratory-healthy Mexican children. Monthly family income (in 2002 U.S. dollars [USD]) and parents’ years completed at school were used as proxies of SES. Results Individuals with higher SES tended to have greater height for age, and smaller sitting height/standing height and crude lung function. For each 1-year increase of parents’ schooling, Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and Forced vital capacity (FVC) increased 8.5 (0.4%) and 10.6 mL (0.4%), respectively (p <0.05) when models were adjusted for gender. Impact of education on lung function was reduced drastically or abolished on adjusting by anthropometric variables and ozone. Conclusions Higher parental schooling and higher monthly family income were associated with higher lung function in healthy Mexican children, with the majority of the effect likely due to the increase in height-for-age. PMID:26379144

  20. Factors associated with the nutritional status of children less than 5 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Miglioli, Teresa Cristina; Fonseca, Vania Matos; Gomes, Saint Clair; da Silva, Katia Silveira; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; Batista, Malaquias

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze if the nutritional status of children aged less than five years is related to the biological conditions of their mothers, environmental and socioeconomic factors, and access to health services and social programs. METHODS This cross-sectional population-based study analyzed 664 mothers and 790 children using canonical correlation analysis. Dependent variables were characteristics of the children (weight/age, height/age, BMI/age, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels). Independent variables were those related to the mothers’ nutritional status (BMI, hemoglobin, and retinol serum levels), age, environmental and socioeconomic factors and access to health service and social programs. A < 0.05 significance level was adopted to select the interpreted canonical functions (CF) and ± 0.40 as canonical load value of the analyzed variables. RESULTS Three canonical functions were selected, concentrating 89.9% of the variability of the relationship among the groups. In the first canonical function, weight/age (-0.73) and height/age (-0.99) of the children were directly related to the mother’s height (-0.82), prenatal appointments (-0.43), geographical area of the residence (-0.41), and household income per capita (-0.42). Inverse relationship between the variables related to the children and people/room (0.44) showed that the larger the number of people/room, the poorer their nutritional status. Rural residents were found to have the worse nutritional conditions. In the second canonical function, the BMI of the mother (-0.48) was related to BMI/age and retinol of the children, indicating that as women gained weight so did their children. Underweight women tended to have children with vitamin A deficiency. In the third canonical function, hemoglobin (-0.72) and retinol serum levels (-0.40) of the children were directly related to the mother’s hemoglobin levels (-0.43). CONCLUSIONS Mothers and children were associated concerning anemia, vitamin A

  1. Testosterone and Vascular Function in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Rhéure A. M.; Neves, Karla B.; Carneiro, Fernando S.; Tostes, Rita C.

    2012-01-01

    Androgen receptors are widely distributed in several tissues, including vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Through classic cytosolic androgen receptors or membrane receptors, testosterone induces genomic and non-genomic effects, respectively. Testosterone interferes with the vascular function by increasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and arterial thickness. Experimental evidence indicates that sex steroid hormones, such as testosterone modulate the synthesis and bioavailability of NO and, consequently, endothelial function, which is key for a healthy vasculature. Of interest, aging itself is accompanied by endothelial and vascular smooth muscle dysfunction. Aging-associated decline of testosterone levels is accompanied by age-related diseases, such as metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, indicating that very low levels of androgens may contribute to cardiovascular dysfunction observed in these age-related disorders or, in other words, that testosterone may have beneficial effects in the cardiovascular system. However, testosterone seems to play a negative role in the severity of renal disease. In this mini-review, we briefly comment on the interplay between aging and testosterone levels, the vascular actions of testosterone and its implications for vascular aging. Renal effects of testosterone and the use of testosterone to prevent vascular dysfunction in elderly are also addressed. PMID:22514541

  2. Nutritional Status and Age at Menarche on Female Students of Junior High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juliyatmi, Rihul Husnul; Handayani, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Menarche is the first menstrual period as one of the sign of puberty. There are many factors may affect the age at menarche such as nutritional status, genetic, environmental conditions, socioeconomic status, and education. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between nutritional status and age of menarche on female…

  3. Demographic and health status differences among people aged 45 or older with and without functional difficulties related to increased confusion or memory loss, 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Lynda A; Deokar, Angela; Edwards, Valerie J; Bouldin, Erin D; Greenlund, Kurt J

    2015-01-01

    We examined the demographic and health characteristics of people aged 45 years or older in 21 states with self-reported increased confusion or memory loss (ICML) (n = 10,583) by whether or not they also reported functional difficulties related to ICML. We used data from the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System optional module on impact of cognitive impairment. After adjusting for demographic differences, we found that respondents with ICML and functional difficulties were significantly more likely than those with ICML and no functional difficulties to report frequent poor physical health, frequent poor mental health, limited activity due to poor physical or mental health, and a need for more help. Further understanding of the implications for long-term services and supports is needed. PMID:25742067

  4. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed Central

    Lovat, L B

    1996-01-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  5. Age related changes in gut physiology and nutritional status.

    PubMed

    Lovat, L B

    1996-03-01

    Few gastrointestinal functions decline to an important extent as a result of old age alone and there is little clinical evidence that significant malnutrition occurs in any normal elderly person as a result of the aging process itself. Nevertheless, decreased gastrointestinal reserve makes older people highly sensitive to minor insults and decompensation can rapidly occur. Drugs appreciably affect taste sensation, which is already blunted and psychological as well as physical disability can have a major impact on appetite. Malabsorption can be caused by gastric hypochlorhydria with small bowel bacterial overgrowth and while gastrointestinal dysmotility can be caused by subclinical hypothyroidism, it can improve in response to physical exercise. Evidence is now mounting that thorough investigation of gastrointestinal disturbances in elderly patients coupled with intensive nutritional support can make a very real impact on their outcome. Gastroenterologists should therefore seek out and actively treat gastrointestinal disorders in the elderly and not just ascribe them to old age. PMID:8675079

  6. Aging, Functional Capacity and Eccentric Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Gault, Mandy L.; Willems, Mark E.T.

    2013-01-01

    Aging is a multi-factorial process that ultimately induces a decline in our physiological functioning, causing a decreased health-span, quality of life and independence for older adults. Exercise participation is seen as a way to reduce the impact of aging through maintenance of physiological parameters. Eccentric exercise is a model that can be employed with older adults, due to the muscle’s ability to combine high muscle force production with a low energy cost. There may however be a risk of muscle damage before the muscle is able to adapt. The first part of this review describes the process of aging and how it reduces aerobic capacity, muscle strength and therefore functional mobility. The second part highlights eccentric exercise and the associated muscle damage, in addition to the repeated bout effect. The final section reviews eccentric exercise interventions that have been completed by older adults with a focus on the changes in functional mobility. In conclusion, eccentric endurance exercise is a potential training modality that can be applied to older adults for improving muscle strength, aerobic capacity and functional ability. However, further research is needed to assess the effects on aerobic capacity and the ideal prescription for eccentric endurance exercise. PMID:24307968

  7. The role of partnership status on late-life physical function.

    PubMed

    Clouston, Sean A P; Lawlor, Andrea; Verdery, Ashton M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic pathways linking partnership status to physical functioning, assessed using objective measures of late life physical functioning, including peak flow and grip strength. Using Wave 4 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we ran multilevel models to examine the relationship between partnership status and physical function in late life, adjusting for social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours. We found a robust relationship between partnership status and physical function. Incorporating social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours showed independent robust relationships with physical function. Co-variates attenuated the impact of cohabitation, separation, and widowhood on physical function; robust effects were found for singlehood and divorce. Sex-segregated analyses suggest that associations between cohabitation, singlehood, divorce, and widowhood were larger for men than for women. Results suggest that social ties are important to improved physical function. PMID:25222477

  8. The Role of Partnership Status on Late-Life Physical Function*

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, Sean; Lawlor, Andrea; Verdery, Ashton

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the socioeconomic pathways linking partnership status to physical functioning, assessed using objective measures of late life physical functioning including peak flow and grip strength. Using Wave 4 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), we ran multilevel models to examine the relationship between partnership status and physical function in late life, adjusting for social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours. We found a robust relationship between partnership status and physical function. Incorporating social-network characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviours showed independent robust relationships with physical function. Co-variates attenuated the impact of cohabitation, separation, and widowhood on physical function; robust effects were found for singlehood and divorce. Sex-segregated analyses suggest that associations between cohabitation, singlehood, divorce, and widowhood were larger for men than for women. Results suggest that social ties are important to improved physical function. PMID:25222477

  9. Functional Status of Thyroid and Cognitive Functions after Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Bojar, Iwona; Owoc, Alfred; Gujski, Mariusz; Witczak, Mariusz; Gnatowski, Maciej; Walecka, Irena

    2015-01-01

    Background Thyroid activity plays a role in cognition. However, the relation between the functional state of thyroid and neuropsychiatric changes proceeding with age among people without clinical symptoms of thyroid dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was analysis of cognitive function levels in reference to thyroid examination: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), total thyroxin (TT4), triiodothyronine (TT3), free thyroxin (FT4), free triiodothyronine (FT3), thyroperoxidase antibodies (TPO-AB), and thyroglobulin antibodies (Tg-AB), TSH receptor antibodies (AB-TSHR) in women after menopause. Material/Methods A group of 383 women was recruited for the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation and no dementia signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Computerized battery of Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnostic cognitive functions. The blood plasma values were determined: TSH, FT3, FT4, TT3, TT4, TPO-AB, Tg-AB, and AB-TSHR. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and analysis of variance in STATISTICA software. Results In women after menopause, TSH was negatively correlated with NCI results, executive functions, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. FT4 was positively correlated with results of psychomotor speed. TT3 and TT4 were negatively correlated with results of memory and verbal memory. Furthermore, TT4 was negatively correlated with NCI, executive functions, and cognitive flexibility. TPO-AB was negatively correlated with results of memory, verbal memory, and psychomotor speed. Tg-AB was positively correlated with results of reaction time. AB-TSHR was negatively correlated with NCI results, memory, executive functions, psychomotor speed, complex attention, and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions Our study supports the importance of thyroid functionality in cognitive functioning in a group of women after menopause. The values

  10. Functional interrelationship of brain aging and delirium.

    PubMed

    Rapazzini, Piero

    2016-02-01

    Theories on the development of delirium are complementary rather than competing and they may relate to each other. Here, we highlight that similar alterations in functional brain connectivity underlie both the observed age-related deficits and episodes of delirium. The default mode network (DMN) is a group of brain regions showing a greater level of activity at rest than during attention-based tasks. These regions include the posteromedial-anteromedial cortices and temporoparietal junctions. Evidence suggests that awareness is subserved through higher order neurons associated with the DMN. By using functional MRI disruption of DMN, connectivity and weaker task-induced deactivations of these regions are observed both in age-related cognitive impairment and during episodes of delirium. We can assume that an acute up-regulation of inhibitory tone within the brain acts to further disrupt network connectivity in vulnerable patients, who are predisposed by a reduced baseline connectivity, and triggers the delirium. PMID:25998952

  11. Functional and structural syntax networks in aging.

    PubMed

    Antonenko, Daria; Brauer, Jens; Meinzer, Marcus; Fengler, Anja; Kerti, Lucia; Friederici, Angela D; Flöel, Agnes

    2013-12-01

    Language abilities are known to deteriorate in aging, possibly related to decreased functional and structural connectivity within specialized brain networks. Here, we investigated syntactic ability in healthy young and older adults using a comprehensive assessment of behavioral performance, task-independent functional (FC) and structural brain connectivity (SC). Seed-based FC originating from left pars opercularis (part of Broca's area) known to support syntactic processes was assessed using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging, and SC using fractional anisotropy from diffusion weighted imaging, in the dorsally located superior longitudinal and the ventrally located uncinate fasciculi (SLF, UF) and forceps minor. Young compared to older adults exhibited superior syntactic performance and stronger FC within the mainly left-lateralized syntax network, which was beneficial for performance. In contrast, in older adults, FC within the mainly left-lateralized syntax network was reduced and did not correlate with performance; inter-hemispheric FC to right inferior frontal and angular gyri was detrimental for performance. In both groups, performance was positively correlated with inter-hemispheric SC. For intra-hemispheric SC, performance correlated with structural integrity of SLF in young adults and with integrity of UF in older adults. Our data show that reduced syntactic ability in older adults is associated with decreased FC within dedicated syntax networks. Moreover, young adults showed an association of syntactic ability with structural integrity of the dorsal tract, while older adults rely more on ventral fibers. In sum, our study provided novel insight into the relationship between connectivity and syntactic performance in young and older adults. In addition to elucidating age-related changes in syntax networks and their behavioral relevance, our results contribute to a better understanding of age-related changes in functional and structural brain

  12. Significance of functional status data for payment and quality.

    PubMed

    Clauser, Steven B; Bierman, Arlene S

    2003-01-01

    To date, the Medicare Program has used functional status information (FSI) in patient assessment tools, performance assessment, payment mechanisms, and--most recently--in quality measures to inform consumer choice. This article explores the rationale for the collection of functional status data to promote innovative models of care and examines issues related to data collection for quality improvement, performance measurement, and payment. In this issue of the Health Care Financing Review, articles focus on collection and classification of functional status for payment and quality purposes. PMID:12894631

  13. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Late Life.

    PubMed

    Rosso, Andrea L; Flatt, Jason D; Carlson, Michelle C; Lovasi, Gina S; Rosano, Caterina; Brown, Arleen F; Matthews, Karen A; Gianaros, Peter J

    2016-06-15

    Neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive function, independently of individual demographic, health, and socioeconomic characteristics. However, research has been largely cross-sectional, and mechanisms of the association are unknown. In 1992-1993, Cardiovascular Health Study participants (n = 3,595; mean age = 74.8 years; 15.7% black) underwent cognitive testing and magnetic resonance imaging of white matter hyperintensities (WMH), and their addresses were geocoded. NSES was calculated using 1990 US Census data (block groups; 6 measures of wealth, education, and occupation). The Modified Mini-Mental State Examination (3MS) was used to assess general cognition, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Test (DSST) was used to assess speed of processing annually for 6 years. Associations of race-specific NSES tertiles with 3MS, DSST, and WMH were estimated using linear mixed-effects models accounting for geographic clustering, stratified by race, and adjusted for demographic, health, and individual socioeconomic status (education, income, lifetime occupational status) variables. In fully adjusted models, higher NSES was associated with higher 3MS scores in blacks (mean difference between highest and lowest NSES = 2.4 points; P = 0.004) and whites (mean difference = 0.7 points; P = 0.02) at baseline but not with changes in 3MS over time. NSES was marginally associated with DSST and was not associated with WMH. Adjustment for WMH did not attenuate NSES-3MS associations. Associations of NSES with cognition in late adulthood differ by race, are not explained by WMH, and are evident only at baseline. PMID:27257114

  14. Changes in cardiovascular function with aging.

    PubMed

    Lakatta, E G

    1990-05-01

    Overall cardiovascular function at rest in most healthy elderly individuals is adequate to meet the body's need for pressure and flow. The resting heart rate is unchanged. Heart size is essentially not different in younger vs older adults, but heart wall thickness increases modestly, due largely to an increase in myocyte size. While the early diastolic filling rate is reduced, an enhanced atrial contribution to ventricular filling in elderly individuals maintains filling volume at a normal level. Although systolic pressure at rest increases with age, the resting end-systolic volume and election fraction are not altered, due partly to the increase in left ventricular thickness. Physical work capacity declines with advancing age, but the extent to which this can be attributed to a decrement in cardiac reserve is not certain. Part of the age-related decline in maximum oxygen consumption appears to be due to peripheral rather than central circulatory factors, e.g. to a decrease in muscle mass with age during exercise, the ability to direct blood flow to muscles, and the ability of muscle to utilize oxygen. Some elderly individuals exhibit cardiac dilatation which produces an increased stroke volume sufficient to counter the well-known age-related decrease in exercise heart rate, such that high levels of cardiac output can be maintained during exercise. Still, in these individuals, the exercise-induced reduction in end-systolic volume and increase in ejection fraction is less than in younger individuals. A similar haemodynamic profile occurs in individuals of any age who exercise in the presence of beta-adrenergic blockade.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2188839

  15. Autophagy and the immune function in aging.

    PubMed

    Cuervo, Ana Maria; Macian, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Just when you thought that you had heard it all about autophagy-the conserved cellular process that mediates turnover of cellular constituents in the lysosomes - studies keep coming out highlighting new types of autophagy, new functions for autophagy or even new autophagy-independent roles for the proteins associated with this process. The field of immunology has been riding the autophagic wave since the beginning of its revival; first due to its role in the host defense against pathogens, and more recently through the better understanding of the unique characteristics and functions of different autophagic pathways in immune cells. Here, we describe some of these new functions that are tightening the connection between autophagy and acquired or innate immunity and their malfunctioning with age. PMID:24929664

  16. Health Status and ADL Functioning of Older Persons with Intellectual Disability: Community Residence versus Residential Care Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifshitz, Hefziba; Merrick, Joav; Morad, Mohammed

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the study was to study differences in aging phenomena among adults with intellectual disability (ID), who live in community residence versus their peers in residential care centers and to determine the contribution of health status, age, gender, etiology and level of ID to the decline in ADL function with age. Our study was based…

  17. Regression-Based Estimates of Observed Functional Status in Centenarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Meghan B.; Miller, L. Stephen; Woodard, John L.; Davey, Adam; Martin, Peter; Burgess, Molly; Poon, Leonard W.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: There is lack of consensus on the best method of functional assessment, and there is a paucity of studies on daily functioning in centenarians. We sought to compare associations between performance-based, self-report, and proxy report of functional status in centenarians. We expected the strongest relationships between proxy…

  18. Attraction to psychotherapy: influences of therapist status and therapist-patient age similarity.

    PubMed

    Lasky, R G; Salomone, P R

    1977-04-01

    Therapist-patient age similarity and therapist status were examined in relation to interpersonal attraction in the psychotherapy dyad. Psychiatric inpatients who comprised three age groupings were assigned randomly to one of four audiovisual treatments that depicted a dyadic psychotherapy situation (N = 60). For each treatment, therapist age and status were differentially presented on color slides with the same accompanying audiotape. Results indicated that age similarity was significantly (p less than .05) more relevant for the younger patients, whereas therapist status had greater significance for older patients. There were several significant interactions that concerned therapist-patient age similarity and therapist status effects on psychotherapeutic attraction. These results suggest that therapist-patient matching on age and/or therapist status should be considered carefully as a potential influence on therapeutic outcome. PMID:858795

  19. COMPLEX EVALUATION OF THE HEALTH STATUS OF PRIMARY-SCHOOL AGED CHILDREN (ADJARA REGION).

    PubMed

    Jorjoliani, Ts; Jorjoliani, L; Adamia, N

    2016-06-01

    Goal of the research was complex evaluation of the health status of the primary-school aged children residing in various regions (urban, rural) of Adjaria. Cross-section, one-stage research was conducted in the City of Batumi and village Tsikhisdziri. In the process of survey health status of children of 4 public schools, from 6 to 9 years old was studied. Observations covered up to 800 school children in total. Screening included consultations of the multidisciplinary group of specialists, additional laboratory and instrumental studies intended for the purpose of accurate diagnostics. Performed studied showed that 28.3% of the studied population was actually healthy, 55% had functional disorders and 16.7% - chronic diseases. In both, urban and rural areas the share of the digestion system, blood and blood-generating organs, nervous system, ophthalmological pathologies and locomotion system diseases prevailed. PMID:27441536

  20. Processes Linking Weight Status and Self-Concept Among Girls From Ages 5 to 7 Years

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever; Birch, Leann Lipps

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between girls’ weight status and self-concept and examined peer teasing and parent criticism as potential mediators of this relationship. Data were collected for 182 girls and their parents when the girls were 5 and 7 years old. At each age, girls’ body mass index, self-concept, peer weight-related teasing (child report), and parents’ criticism of girls’ weight status (spouse report) were assessed. At ages 5 and 7, girls who were more overweight reported lower self-concept. Peer teasing and parent criticism mediated the relationship between weight status and self-concept at age 7, but not at age 5. In addition, the duration and timing of parent criticism across ages 5 and 7 mediated the association between girls’ weight status at age 5 and perceived peer acceptance at age 7. PMID:12220051

  1. The Aftermath of Hip Fracture: Discharge Placement, Functional Status Change, and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Bentler, Suzanne E.; Liu, Li; Obrizan, Maksym; Cook, Elizabeth A.; Wright, Kara B.; Geweke, John F.; Chrischilles, Elizabeth A.; Pavlik, Claire E.; Wallace, Robert B.; Ohsfeldt, Robert L.; Jones, Michael P.; Rosenthal, Gary E.; Wolinsky, Fredric D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors prospectively explored the consequences of hip fracture with regard to discharge placement, functional status, and mortality using the Survey on Assets and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD). Data from baseline (1993) AHEAD interviews and biennial follow-up interviews were linked to Medicare claims data from 1993–2005. There were 495 postbaseline hip fractures among 5,511 respondents aged ≥69 years. Mean age at hip fracture was 85 years; 73% of fracture patients were white women, 45% had pertrochanteric fractures, and 55% underwent surgical pinning. Most patients (58%) were discharged to a nursing facility, with 14% being discharged to their homes. In-hospital, 6-month, and 1-year mortality were 2.7%, 19%, and 26%, respectively. Declines in functional-status-scale scores ranged from 29% on the fine motor skills scale to 56% on the mobility index. Mean scale score declines were 1.9 for activities of daily living, 1.7 for instrumental activities of daily living, and 2.2 for depressive symptoms; scores on mobility, large muscle, gross motor, and cognitive status scales worsened by 2.3, 1.6, 2.2, and 2.5 points, respectively. Hip fracture characteristics, socioeconomic status, and year of fracture were significantly associated with discharge placement. Sex, age, dementia, and frailty were significantly associated with mortality. This is one of the few studies to prospectively capture these declines in functional status after hip fracture. PMID:19808632

  2. [EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS AND PSYCHOPATHOLOGY: CURRENT STATUS].

    PubMed

    Balbi, Paula; Roussos, Andrés

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to bring clinicians closer to the current discussion about the complex concept of Executive Functions in mental disorders that the DSM includes in axis 1, such as Bipolar Disorder, Depression, Social Phobia, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder and Generalized Anxiety Disorder. The present controversies about the definitions of Executive Functions are exposed as well as the importance of its study. The article also presents the idea that patients with these disorders suffer alterations in their Executive Functions and as the knowledge in this area is fragmented and contradictory, it is important to continue its study. Fi- nally, the review concludes that not only it is necessary to define the neuropsychological profile in different disorders but also to work together with the clinicians to build a common place of study and discussion. PMID:26323107

  3. Association between vitamin D status and age-related macular degeneration by genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Meyers, Kristin J; Liu, Zhe; Engelman, Corinne D; Wallace, Robert B; LeBlanc, Erin S; Tinker, Lesley F.; Iyengar, Sudha K; Robinson, Jennifer; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A

    2016-01-01

    Importance Deficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with increased odds of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Objective We examined 1) whether this association is modified by genetic risk for AMD and 2) if there is an association between AMD and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes involved in vitamin D transport, metabolism and genomic function. Design, Setting and Participants Women were postmenopausal and participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study (CAREDS) (54 to <75 years) with available serum 25(OH)D concentrations (assessed from 1994–1998), genetic data, and measures of AMD (n=142) assessed at CAREDS baseline from 2001–2004 (n=913). Main Outcomes and Measures Prevalent early or late AMD was determined from graded, stereoscopic fundus photographs. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for AMD by the joint effects of 25(OH)D (<30, ≥30 to <50, ≥50 to <75, and ≥75 nmol/L) and risk genotype (noncarrier, one, or two risk alleles). The referent group was noncarriers with adequate vitamin D status (≥75 nmol/L). Joint effect ORs were adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, self-reported cardiovascular disease, self-reported diabetes status, and hormone use. Additive and multiplicative interactions were assessed using the Synergy Index (SI) and an interaction term, respectively. Results We observed a 6.7-fold increased odds of AMD (95% CI=1.6, 28.2) among women with deficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D<30 nmol/L) and two risk alleles for complement factor H (CFH) Y402H (SI for additive interaction=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.7; p for multiplicative interaction=0.25,. A significant additive (SI=1.4, 95% CI=1.1, 1.7) and multiplicative interaction (p=0.02) was observed for deficient women with two high risk complement factor I (CFI) (rs10033900) alleles (OR=6.3, 95% CI=1.6, 24.2). The odds of AMD did not differ by genotype of candidate

  4. Lifestyle engagement affects cognitive status differences and trajectories on executive functions in older adults.

    PubMed

    de Frias, Cindy M; Dixon, Roger A

    2014-02-01

    The authors first examined the concurrent moderating role of lifestyle engagement on the relation between cognitive status (cognitively elite, cognitively normal [CN], and cognitively impaired [CI]) and executive functioning (EF) in older adults. Second, the authors examined whether baseline participation in lifestyle activities predicted differential 4.5-year stabilities and transitions in cognitive status. Participants (initial N = 501; 53-90 years) were from the Victoria Longitudinal Study. EF was represented by a 1-factor structure. Lifestyle activities were measured in multiple domains of engagement (e.g., cognitive, physical, and social). Two-wave status stability groups included sustained normal aging, transitional early impairment, and chronic impairment. Hierarchical regressions showed that baseline participation in social activities moderated cognitive status differences in EF. CI adults with high (but not low) social engagement performed equivalently to CN adults on EF. Longitudinally, logistic regressions showed that engagement in physical activities was a significant predictor of stability of cognitive status. CI adults who were more engaged in physical activities were more likely to improve in their cognitive status over time than their more sedentary peers. Participation in cognitive activities was a significant predictor of maintenance in a higher cognitive status group. Given that lifestyle engagement plays a detectable role in healthy, normal, and impaired neuropsychological aging, further research in activity-related associations and interventions is recommended. PMID:24323561

  5. Age-related difference in relationships between cognitive processing speed and general cognitive status.

    PubMed

    Tam, Helena M K; Lam, Charlene L M; Huang, Haixia; Wang, Baolan; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-01-01

    General cognitive status (GCS) is a composite of cognitive abilities reflecting full function. The literature suggests a relationship between cognitive processing speed and GCS, as well as age-related changes of processing speed on cognitive performance. Therefore, this study recruited 34 younger and 39 older adults to verify age-related differences in relationships between cognitive processing speed and GCS. We measured cognitive processing speed with the Processing Speed Index of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Findings indicated that cognitive processing speed predicted GCS in older but not younger adults. Future research may be needed to verify the training effect of processing speed on GCS. This study also further examined cognitive factors related to processing speed in aging and the relationships between cognitive processing speed and verbal fluency, cognitive inhibition, and divided attention. A stepwise regression analysis indicated that only verbal fluency contributed significantly to cognitive processing speed in older adults, accounting for 21% of the variance. These observations suggest that age-related changes of prefrontal regions may not fully explain age-related decline in cognitive processing speed. PMID:24927241

  6. Research on aging in Latin America: Present status and future directions.

    PubMed

    Sennott-Miller, L

    1994-01-01

    This essay examines the status of aging research in Latin America. It presents a profile of the aging population in the Region in relation to societal institutions, illustrating how the aged are only marginally served by them. Most of the available information is derived from secondary sources and comes from international and national agencies, and private organizations. Data-based research includes small-sample studies of specific issues and country-specific investigations by both U.S. and Latin American researchers. Paradigms used emphasize successful/productive aging, functional ability, and, to a lesser extent, work focused on health conditions or specific situations such as poverty. The best sources of contextual information are often unpublished or not published in the mainstream literature. Future directions recommended include organizing existing data to inform policy, identifying, with Latin American researchers, the most critical research questions, formalizing collaborative relationships, and holding a working conference of those involved in Latin American aging research to develop a future agenda. PMID:24390003

  7. Large-Scale and Comprehensive Immune Profiling and Functional Analysis of Normal Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Chan C.; Siebert, Janet; Newman, Aaron M.; Du, Hong-wu; Alizadeh, Ash A.; Goronzy, Jorg; Weyand, Cornelia M.; Krishnan, Eswar; Fathman, C. Garrison; Maecker, Holden T.

    2015-01-01

    While many age-associated immune changes have been reported, a comprehensive set of metrics of immune aging is lacking. Here we report data from 243 healthy adults aged 40–97, for whom we measured clinical and functional parameters, serum cytokines, cytokines and gene expression in stimulated and unstimulated PBMC, PBMC phenotypes, and cytokine-stimulated pSTAT signaling in whole blood. Although highly heterogeneous across individuals, many of these assays revealed trends by age, sex, and CMV status, to greater or lesser degrees. Age, then sex and CMV status, showed the greatest impact on the immune system, as measured by the percentage of assay readouts with significant differences. An elastic net regression model could optimally predict age with 14 analytes from different assays. This reinforces the importance of multivariate analysis for defining a healthy immune system. These data provide a reference for others measuring immune parameters in older people. PMID:26197454

  8. Measures of Overweight Status in School-Age Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skybo, Theresa; Ryan-Wenger, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Identifying and intervening with overweight children may decrease their likelihood of developing heart disease later in life. This secondary analysis of 58 children in the 3rd grade examined the prevalence of overweight children, methods for measuring overweight status, and the relationship among these measures and other risk factors for heart…

  9. Through Ageing, and Beyond: Gut Microbiota and Inflammatory Status in Seniors and Centenarians

    PubMed Central

    Biagi, Elena; Nylund, Lotta; Candela, Marco; Ostan, Rita; Bucci, Laura; Pini, Elisa; Nikkïla, Janne; Monti, Daniela; Satokari, Reetta; Franceschi, Claudio; Brigidi, Patrizia; De Vos, Willem

    2010-01-01

    Background Age-related physiological changes in the gastrointestinal tract, as well as modifications in lifestyle, nutritional behaviour, and functionality of the host immune system, inevitably affect the gut microbiota, resulting in a greater susceptibility to infections. Methodology/Principal Findings By using the Human Intestinal Tract Chip (HITChip) and quantitative PCR of 16S rRNA genes of Bacteria and Archaea, we explored the age-related differences in the gut microbiota composition among young adults, elderly, and centenarians, i.e subjects who reached the extreme limits of the human lifespan, living for over 100 years. We observed that the microbial composition and diversity of the gut ecosystem of young adults and seventy-years old people is highly similar but differs significantly from that of the centenarians. After 100 years of symbiotic association with the human host, the microbiota is characterized by a rearrangement in the Firmicutes population and an enrichment in facultative anaerobes, notably pathobionts. The presence of such a compromised microbiota in the centenarians is associated with an increased inflammatory status, also known as inflammageing, as determined by a range of peripheral blood inflammatory markers. This may be explained by a remodelling of the centenarians' microbiota, with a marked decrease in Faecalibacterium prauznitzii and relatives, symbiotic species with reported anti-inflammatory properties. As signature bacteria of the long life we identified specifically Eubacterium limosum and relatives that were more than ten-fold increased in the centenarians. Conclusions/Significance We provide evidence for the fact that the ageing process deeply affects the structure of the human gut microbiota, as well as its homeostasis with the host's immune system. Because of its crucial role in the host physiology and health status, age-related differences in the gut microbiota composition may be related to the progression of diseases and

  10. Trace element status and fatty acids metabolism during healthy ageing: an example of a population from the Tunisian eastern coast.

    PubMed

    Sfar, Sonia; El Heni, Jihen; Laporte, François; Braham, Hamadi; Jawed, Abdelhafidh; Amor, Salah; Sfar, Mohamed Tahar; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid

    2012-03-01

    Micronutrients as well as essential fatty acids are indispensable for the correct functioning of the organism. The risk of disturbance in the associated nutrition and metabolism is expected to increase during ageing. In addition, it seems that trace elements are involved in the fatty acids metabolism. The aim of the present study was then to assess age-related changes in trace elements status and in plasma essential fatty acids composition with an emphasis on the desaturase activity estimation. Two hundred healthy Tunisian subjects (30-85 years old) were recruited and separated into two subgroups: elderly (65-85 years old) and middle-aged (30-60 years old). The findings revealed that plasma zinc and calcium concentrations significantly decreased according to age. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was therefore shown to increase in old age (over 60% of elderly subjects were deficient or at risk of deficiency). No age-related changes were obtained for copper or magnesium status. The Δ6 desaturase, involved in the EFAs conversion, was shown to decrease according to age and to be associated with the plasma zinc level. Since elderly subjects were at risk of nutritional imbalance, it would be interesting to set optimal dietary proportion. This will help to prevent age-associated alterations and diseases for a better and healthy ageing. PMID:22222317

  11. Socioeconomic Status and Executive Function: Developmental Trajectories and Mediation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackman, Daniel A.; Gallop, Robert; Evans, Gary W.; Farah, Martha J.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function (EF), but fundamental aspects of this relation remain unknown: the developmental course of the SES disparity, its continued sensitivity to SES changes during that course, and the features of childhood experience responsible for the SES-EF relation. Regarding course, early disparities…

  12. Trajectory of Life Satisfaction and Its Relationship with Subjective Economic Status and Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Hui-Chuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between subjective economic status and indicators of successful aging to life satisfaction trajectories among the elderly in Taiwan. Data were from the four waves of "Survey of Health and Living Status of the Elderly in Taiwan". Hierarchical linear modeling was conducted. Subjective economic…

  13. Body mass index and functional status in community dwelling older Turkish males.

    PubMed

    Bahat, Gulistan; Muratlı, Sevilay; İlhan, Birkan; Tufan, Asli; Tufan, Fatih; Aydin, Yucel; Erten, Nilgun; Karan, Mehmet Akif

    2015-01-01

    Disability is utmost important on an aging population's health. Obesity is associated with increased risk for disability. On-the-other-hand, higher-BMI is reported as associated with better functionality in older people in some reports defined as "obesity paradox". There is some evidence on differential relationship between body weight status and functionality by living setting gender, and different populations. We studied the relation between body mass index and functionality in Turkish community dwelling older males accounting for the most confounding factors: age, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and nutritional status. This is a cross-sectional study in a geriatric outpatient clinic of a university hospital. Functionality was assessed with evaluation of activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) scales. Nutrition was assessed by mini-nutritional assessment test. Two hundred seventy-four subjects comprised our study cohort. Mean age was 74.4 ± 7.1 years, BMI was 25.8 ± 4.4 kg/m(2). Linear regression analysis revealed significant and independent association of lower BMI with higher ADL and IADL scores (B = 0.047 and B = 0.128, respectively) (p < 0.05) and better nutritional status (B = 1.94 and B = 3.05, respectively) (p < 0.001) but not with the total number of medications. Higher IADL score was associated with younger age and lower total number of diseases (B = 0.121, B = 0.595, respectively) (p < 0.05) while ADL was not. We suggest that lower BMI is associated with better functional status in Turkish community-dwelling male older people. Our study recommends longitudinal studies with higher participants from different populations, genders and living settings are needed to comment more. PMID:26134728

  14. Effects of inpatient physical therapy on the functional status of elderly individuals

    PubMed Central

    Zasadzka, Ewa; Kropińska, Sylwia; Pawlaczyk, Mariola; Krzymińska-Siemaszko, Roma; Lisiński, Przemysław; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose] The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of inpatient rehabilitation on the functional status of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 100 patients (>65 years of age) in a rehabilitation ward were enrolled in this study. Age, absence of depression and signs of dementia in screening tests constituted the inclusion criteria. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed of all of the subjects twice, at the beginning and end of hospitalization (Assessments I and II, respectively), and included fall risk assessment (Timed Up and Go Test, TUG), evaluation of physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery Test, SPPB), the handgrip strength test, as well as patients’ self-reports of pain intensity, well-being and functional status. [Results] At the end of inpatient rehabilitation, significant improvement was observed in reduction the TUG time, physical function, and handgrip strength, as well as in subjective parameters such as self-reported pain intensity, well-being, and functional status. [Conclusion] Our results show the high efficacy of inpatient rehabilitation as a means of improving functional independence. Hospital rehabilitation should be recommended for elderly people, not only in cases of absolute indications for hospital admission, but also periodically for patients at risk of physical disability. PMID:27065526

  15. Effects of inpatient physical therapy on the functional status of elderly individuals.

    PubMed

    Zasadzka, Ewa; Kropińska, Sylwia; Pawlaczyk, Mariola; Krzymińska-Siemaszko, Roma; Lisiński, Przemysław; Wieczorowska-Tobis, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Purpose] The aim of the study was to analyze the impact of inpatient rehabilitation on the functional status of the elderly. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 100 patients (>65 years of age) in a rehabilitation ward were enrolled in this study. Age, absence of depression and signs of dementia in screening tests constituted the inclusion criteria. A comprehensive geriatric assessment was performed of all of the subjects twice, at the beginning and end of hospitalization (Assessments I and II, respectively), and included fall risk assessment (Timed Up and Go Test, TUG), evaluation of physical function (Short Physical Performance Battery Test, SPPB), the handgrip strength test, as well as patients' self-reports of pain intensity, well-being and functional status. [Results] At the end of inpatient rehabilitation, significant improvement was observed in reduction the TUG time, physical function, and handgrip strength, as well as in subjective parameters such as self-reported pain intensity, well-being, and functional status. [Conclusion] Our results show the high efficacy of inpatient rehabilitation as a means of improving functional independence. Hospital rehabilitation should be recommended for elderly people, not only in cases of absolute indications for hospital admission, but also periodically for patients at risk of physical disability. PMID:27065526

  16. Phylogenetic relatedness and leaf functional traits, not introduced status, influence community assembly.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, Nathan P; Shue, Jessica; Verrico, Brittany; Erickson, David; Kress, W John; Parker, John D

    2015-10-01

    Considerable debate focuses on whether invasive species establish and become abundant by being functionally and phylogenetically distinct from native species, leading to a host of invasion-specific hypotheses of community assembly. Few studies, however, have quantitatively assessed whether similar patterns of phylogenetic and functional similarity explain local abundance of both native and introduced species, which would suggest similar assembly mechanisms regardless of origin. Using a chronosequence of invaded temperate forest stands, we tested whether the occurrence and abundance of both introduced and native species were predicted by phylogenetic relatedness, functional overlap, and key environmental characteristics including forest age. Environmental filtering against functionally and phylogenetically distinct species strongly dictated the occurrence and abundance of both introduced and native species, with slight modifications of these patterns according to forest age. Thus, once functional and evolutionary novelty were quantified, introduced status provided little information about species' presence or abundance, indicating largely similar sorting mechanisms for both native and introduced species. PMID:26649382

  17. Girls' Stable Peer Status and Their Adulthood Adjustment: A Longitudinal Study from Age 10 to Age 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zettergren, Peter; Bergman, Lars R.; Wangby, Margit

    2006-01-01

    Stable peer status clusters of rejected, popular, and average girls from ages 10 to 13 were identified and associated to young and middle adulthood adjustment. The study included a representative sample of 445 females from the longitudinal research program Individual Development and Adaptation. Results showed that, by young adulthood, rejected…

  18. Functional Status Predicts Acute Care Readmissions from Inpatient Rehabilitation in the Stroke Population

    PubMed Central

    Slocum, Chloe; Gerrard, Paul; Black-Schaffer, Randie; Goldstein, Richard; Singhal, Aneesh; DiVita, Margaret A.; Ryan, Colleen M.; Mix, Jacqueline; Purohit, Maulik; Niewczyk, Paulette; Kazis, Lewis; Zafonte, Ross; Schneider, Jeffrey C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Acute care readmission risk is an increasingly recognized problem that has garnered significant attention, yet the reasons for acute care readmission in the inpatient rehabilitation population are complex and likely multifactorial. Information on both medical comorbidities and functional status is routinely collected for stroke patients participating in inpatient rehabilitation. We sought to determine whether functional status is a more robust predictor of acute care readmissions in the inpatient rehabilitation stroke population compared with medical comorbidities using a large, administrative data set. Methods A retrospective analysis of data from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation from the years 2002 to 2011 was performed examining stroke patients admitted to inpatient rehabilitation facilities. A Basic Model for predicting acute care readmission risk based on age and functional status was compared with models incorporating functional status and medical comorbidities (Basic-Plus) or models including age and medical comorbidities alone (Age-Comorbidity). C-statistics were compared to evaluate model performance. Findings There were a total of 803,124 patients: 88,187 (11%) patients were transferred back to an acute hospital: 22,247 (2.8%) within 3 days, 43,481 (5.4%) within 7 days, and 85,431 (10.6%) within 30 days. The C-statistics for the Basic Model were 0.701, 0.672, and 0.682 at days 3, 7, and 30 respectively. As compared to the Basic Model, the best-performing Basic-Plus model was the Basic+Elixhauser model with C-statistics differences of +0.011, +0.011, and + 0.012, and the best-performing Age-Comorbidity model was the Age+Elixhauser model with C-statistic differences of -0.124, -0.098, and -0.098 at days 3, 7, and 30 respectively. Conclusions Readmission models for the inpatient rehabilitation stroke population based on functional status and age showed better predictive ability than models based on medical comorbidities. PMID

  19. [Decline in renal function in old age : Part of physiological aging versus age-related disease].

    PubMed

    Braun, F; Brinkkötter, P T

    2016-08-01

    The incidence and prevalence of chronic renal disease (CKD) in elderly patients are continuously increasing worldwide. Loss of renal function is not only considered to be part of the aging process itself but also reflects the multimorbidity of many geriatric patients. Calculating the glomerular filtration rate using specific algorithms validated for the elderly population and measuring the amount of proteinuria allow an estimation of renal function in elderly patients with high accuracy. Chronic renal failure has many clinical consequences and not only results in a delayed excretion of toxins cleared by the kidneys but also affects hematogenesis, water and electrolyte balance as well as mineral bone metabolism. Furthermore, CKD directly leads to and aggravates geriatric syndromes and in particular the onset of frailty. Therapeutic strategies to halt progression of CKD not only comprise treatment of the underlying disease but also efficient blood pressure and diabetic control and the avoidance of nephrotoxic medications. PMID:27457360

  20. Aging degradation of cast stainless steel: status and program

    SciTech Connect

    Chopra, O.K.; Ayrault, G.

    1983-10-01

    A program has been initiated to investigate the significance of in-service embrittlement of cast duplex stainless steels under light-water reactor operating conditions. The existing data are reviewed to determine the critical parameters that control the aging behavior and to define the objectives and scope of the investigation. The test matrices for microstructural studies and mechanical property measurements are presented. The initial experimental effort is focussed on characterizing the microstructure of long-term, low-temperature aged material. Specimens from three heats of cast CF-8 and CF-8M stainless steel aged for up to 70,000 h at 300, 350, and 400/sup 0/C were obtained from George Fisher Ltd., of Switzerland. Initial analyses reveal the formation of three different types of precipitates which are not ..cap alpha..'. An FCC phase, similar to the M/sub 23/C/sub 6/ precipitates, was present in all the long-term aged material. 15 references, 10 figures, 2 tables.

  1. Associations between preoperative functional status and functional outcomes of total joint replacement in the Dominican Republic

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Jamie E.; Ghazinouri, Roya; Alcantara, Luis; Thornhill, Thomas S.; Katz, Jeffrey N.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. In developed countries, the functional status scores of patients with poor preoperative scores undergoing total joint replacement (TJR) improve more following TJR than those for patients with better preoperative scores. However, those with better preoperative scores achieve the best postoperative functional outcomes. We determined whether similar associations exist in a developing country. Methods. Dominican patients undergoing total hip or knee replacement completed WOMAC and SF-36 surveys preoperatively and at 12-month follow-up. Patients were stratified into low-, medium- and high-scoring preoperative groups based on their preoperative WOMAC function scores. We examined the associations between the baseline functional status of these groups and two outcomes—improvement in functional status over 12 months and functional status at 12 months—using analysis of variance with multivariable linear regression. Results. Patients who scored the lowest preoperatively made the greatest gains in function and pain relief following their TJRs. However, there were no significant differences in pain or function at 12-month follow-up between patients who scored low and those who scored high on preoperative WOMAC and SF-36 surveys. Conclusion. Patients with poor preoperative functional status had greater improvement but similar 12-month functional outcomes compared with patients who had a higher level of function before surgery. These results suggest that a policy of focusing scarce resources on patients with worse functional status in developing countries may optimize improvement following TJR without threatening functional outcome. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings in other developing countries and to understand why these associations vary between patients in the Dominican Republic and patients from developed countries. PMID:23748412

  2. Oral Health Status: Impact on Dental Student Attitudes toward the Aged.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, James D.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Researchers have repeatedly found negative attitudes toward the aged among health professionals. Evaluates the impact of oral health status upon dental student attitudes toward the aged. Suggests that attitudes of students may become initially more negative due to exposure to generally poor oral conditions of elderly patients. (Author)

  3. Relationship of Age, Marital Status, and Work Experience of Community College Nursing Students to Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frerichs, Marian L.

    To investigate differences in academic success due to age (younger or older than age 23), marital status, and nursing experience, a three-way analysis of variance was performed on the grade point averages of 1,435 female nursing students enrolled in 22 Associate Degree Nursing (ADN) programs in Illinois. The sample, representing over 90 percent of…

  4. Correlation between Food Schemes and Children Nutrient Status at the Toddler's Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnaningsih, Tri; Lestari, Indah

    2016-01-01

    The nutrient in the meal is very important, especially for the children at the toddler's age. The aim of this research was to know the correlation between the food schemes with the children nutrient status at the toddler's age (1-3 years). The research design was cross sectional. The population for this research was all of the mothers and the…

  5. Effect of Service Barriers on Health Status of Aging South Asian Immigrants in Calgary, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Daniel W. L.; Surood, Shireen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between service barriers and health status of aging South Asian immigrants. Data were obtained through a structured telephone survey with a random sample of 220 South Asians 55 years of age and older. The effect of the different types of service barriers on the physical and mental health of participants was…

  6. Mitochondrial DNA Alterations and Reduced Mitochondrial Function in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Hebert, Sadie L.; Lanza, Ian R.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative damage to mitochondrial DNA increases with aging. This damage has the potential to affect mitochondrial DNA replication and transcription which could alter the abundance or functionality of mitochondrial proteins. This review describes mitochondrial DNA alterations and changes in mitochondrial function that occur with aging. Age-related alterations in mitochondrial DNA as a possible contributor to the reduction in mitochondrial function are discussed. PMID:20307565

  7. Deterioration of muscle function in the human esophagus with age.

    PubMed

    Gregersen, Hans; Pedersen, Jan; Drewes, Asbjørn Mohr

    2008-12-01

    Most studies on the effect of aging on esophageal motor function have shown that peristaltic function deteriorates with age. Esophageal motor function is traditionally studied by means of manometry and radiography. Distension of the esophagus with evaluation of active and passive mechanical parameters have become available during recent years. In this study, we did a manometric swallow analysis and used the distension method to study esophageal properties and function during aging. An impedance planimetric probe with a bag for distension was placed in the distal esophagus of 25 healthy volunteers with a median age of 35 (range 23-86) years. Distensions were done at an infusion rate of 25 ml min(-1) with and without relaxation of neuromuscular activity with butylscopolamine. The infusion was reversed when moderate pain was experienced by the subjects. Swallow-induced contraction amplitudes decreased as function of age for persons older than 40 years (P < 0.05). The total and passive tension showed an exponential increase as function of the change in radius, whereas the active tension increased until it reached a local maximum point. The maximum active tension deteriorated as a function of age after the age of 40 years (P < 0.05). Furthermore, esophagus became stiffer with age. In conclusion, age-related changes of increased stiffness and reduced primary and secondary peristalsis were found in the human esophagus with a deterioration of esophageal function after the age of 40 years. Such changes may contribute to the high prevalence of reflux disease in elderly. PMID:18461452

  8. Functional age as an indicator of reservoir senescence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, Leandro E.; Krogman, R. M.

    2015-01-01

    It has been conjectured that reservoirs differ in the rate at which they manifest senescence, but no attempt has been made to find an indicator of senescence that performs better than chronological age. We assembled an indicator of functional age by creating a multimetric scale consisting of 10 metrics descriptive of reservoir environments that were expected to change directionally with reservoir senescence. In a sample of 1,022 U.S. reservoirs, chronological age was not correlated with functional age. Functional age was directly related to percentage of cultivated land in the catchment and inversely related to reservoir depth. Moreover, aspects of reservoir fishing quality and fish population characteristics were related to functional age. A multimetric scale to indicate reservoir functional age presents the possibility for management intervention from multiple angles. If a reservoir is functionally aging at an accelerated rate, action may be taken to remedy the conditions contributing most to functional age. Intervention to reduce scores of selected metrics in the scale can potentially reduce the rate of senescence and increase the life expectancy of the reservoir. This leads to the intriguing implication that steps can be taken to reduce functional age and actually make the reservoir grow younger.

  9. Beneficial effects of cornel iridoid glycoside on behavioral impairment and senescence status in SAMP8 mice at different ages.

    PubMed

    Ma, Denglei; Zhu, Yanqiu; Li, Yanzheng; Yang, Cuicui; Zhang, Li; Li, Yali; Li, Lin; Zhang, Lan

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of cornel iridoid glycoside (CIG) on behavioral changes and senescent status in senescence-accelerated mouse-prone 8 (SAMP8) mice at different ages (6, 10, and 14 months old). The learning and memory ability, the motor function and the aging conditions of SAMP8 mice were evaluated after CIG treatment in this study. Results showed that intragastrical administration of CIG (100 and 200mg/kg) for two months obviously improved the impaired cognitive ability of SAMP8 mice at the age of 6 months and 10 months, respectively. The treatment with CIG significantly increased the motor function of SAMP8 mice at 10 months and 14 months of age, respectively. CIG also evidently decreased the high grading score of senescence and increased the low surviving rate of SAMP8 mice at the age of 14 months. In addition, CIG treatment inhibited tau hyperphosphorylation in the hippocampus and striatum of SAMP8 mice at different ages. Together, these results indicate that CIG represent a potentially useful treatment for ameliorating the impaired cognitive ability, the motor dysfunction, aging conditions and hyperphosphorylation of tau in aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27283974

  10. Functional Status and Health Information in Canada: Proposals and Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Bickenbach, Jerome E.

    2003-01-01

    The primary obstacle to evidence-based health care quality assessment in Canada is reliable data on health encounters and episodes of care. The recent Federal/Provincial Health Accord will enhance health data collection, including standardized functional status information (FSI) for administrative records. Canadian health policy developers also agree that FSI is needed to bridge data gaps since alterations in functional status create the continuity that links all episodes of care and health service utilization. Given Canada's universal, single-payer, health financing structure, the prospects for coherent and systemwide data collection are good. This article describes the Canadian health care from the perspective of health information, and surveys proposals in electronic health technology development, the obstacles that need to be faced, and the prospects of doing so. PMID:12894637

  11. The Role of Functional Foods in Cutaneous Anti-aging

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Soyun

    2014-01-01

    Oral supplementation of micronutrients, or functional foods, to prevent aging has gained much attention and popularity as society ages and becomes more affluent, and as science reveals the pathological mechanisms of aging. Aging of the skin combines biologic aging and extrinsic aging caused predominantly by sunlight and other environmental toxins. Anti-aging functional foods exert their influence mostly through their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, thereby abrogating collagen degradation and/or increasing procollagen synthesis. Clinical evidence supporting a role in preventing cutaneous aging is available for oral supplements such as carotenoids, polyphenols, chlorophyll, aloe vera, vitamins C and E, red ginseng, squalene, and omega-3 fatty acids. Collagen peptides and proteoglycans are claimed to provide building blocks of the dermal matrix. This review summarizes the current study findings of these functional foods. PMID:26064850

  12. The Role of Functional Foods in Cutaneous Anti-aging.

    PubMed

    Cho, Soyun

    2014-03-01

    Oral supplementation of micronutrients, or functional foods, to prevent aging has gained much attention and popularity as society ages and becomes more affluent, and as science reveals the pathological mechanisms of aging. Aging of the skin combines biologic aging and extrinsic aging caused predominantly by sunlight and other environmental toxins. Anti-aging functional foods exert their influence mostly through their anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, thereby abrogating collagen degradation and/or increasing procollagen synthesis. Clinical evidence supporting a role in preventing cutaneous aging is available for oral supplements such as carotenoids, polyphenols, chlorophyll, aloe vera, vitamins C and E, red ginseng, squalene, and omega-3 fatty acids. Collagen peptides and proteoglycans are claimed to provide building blocks of the dermal matrix. This review summarizes the current study findings of these functional foods. PMID:26064850

  13. Zinc and copper status in childbearing age Tunisian women: Relation to age, residential area, socioeconomic situation and physiologic characteristics.

    PubMed

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Doggui, Radhouene; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-04-01

    Plasma zinc and copper status of 1689 non pregnant Tunisian women, aged 20-49 years old, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A multiple regression was run to predict plasma trace element concentrations from age, BMI, marital status, menopause, education level, professional activity, economic level and area of living. The mean zinc and copper values were similar to those measured among comparable populations in earlier studies. However, a high prevalence of low plasma zinc and copper concentrations was observed assuming that women at childbearing age are at high risk of zinc and copper deficiencies and specific intervention may be considered. In univariate analysis, the mean values of plasma zinc and copper were associated with sitting areas and professional activity. For only plasma copper levels, there was an increase with BMI and parity, and a decrease with increasing schooling level and economic score. After adjustment for all variables, profession and parity showed a significant relationship between plasma levels copper. PMID:26859607

  14. Thyroid function and neuropsychological status in older adults.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Srishti; Bloom, Michael S; Yucel, Recai; Seegal, Richard F; Rej, Robert; McCaffrey, Robert J; Fitzgerald, Edward F

    2016-10-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction is recognized as a risk factor for neuropsychological deficits in aging populations, yet evidence for how changes in levels of circulatory thyroid hormones impact specific neuropsychological domains is limited. Here we report cross-sectional associations between serum thyroid hormone concentrations and several neuropsychological function domains among men and women aged 55-74years. We administered neuropsychological tests to assess memory, learning, executive function, measures of attention, visuospatial function, affective state, and motor function. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed adjusting for age, sex, education, and cigarette smoking. Effects were reported as differences in test scores per one interquartile range (IQR) increase in hormone concentration. Higher total thyroxine (T4) and free thyroxine (fT4) were associated with improved visuospatial function, as measured by Block Design Subtest total scores; associated increments per IQR differences in T4 and fT4 were 15% and 19%, respectively (false discovery rate q-values <0.05). We also detected statistical interactions between age and fT4 for effects in tasks of memory and learning. Concurrent increases in age and fT4 were associated with deficits in memory and learning as measured by California Verbal Learning Test subtests (10% and 16% deficits in t-score and short delay free recall score, respectively). Our findings suggest that changes in thyroid hormones may have important implications for neuropsychological function in aging populations. Further large-scale studies with comprehensive thyroid function and neuropsychological outcome assessments are warranted to confirm these results. PMID:27221367

  15. Objective Measures of Physical Activity, White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Status in Adults Over Age 80

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age=87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (minutes), and intensity (Metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean±SD/day: 1766±1345 steps, 202±311 kcal, 211±39 minutes, 1.8±1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  16. The Black-White Difference in Age Trajectories of Functional Health over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JinYoung; Miech, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether the racial disparity in functional health grows unabated over the adult life course – the cumulative disadvantage hypothesis – or shrinks among the oldest old – the age-as-leveler hypothesis. Special emphasis is placed on the role of socioeconomic status (SES), which is highly associated with race. The analysis uses latent growth-curve modeling to examine differences in age trajectories of functional health between Black and White Americans and is based on nationally-representative panel data of 3,617 adults. Results cautiously support the age-as-leveler hypothesis. Net of functional health at baseline, Black adults experience a growing disadvantage in functional health over time until the oldest ages, when the gap in functional health begins to shrink. Results indicate that the potential leveling mechanisms of age may be specific to women. SES including financial assets explains the divergence in functional health across young and middle-aged Black and White adults, but not the later-life convergence. This study reveals the life course pattern of racial disparity in functional health and suggests that more theoretical development is needed in this field to explain how and why the age-as-leveler and cumulative disadvantage processes are outcome-specific. PMID:19167804

  17. A Study on Perception and Usage Status on Health Functional Foods in Women according to Menopause Status

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Heesook; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to provide a reference base for suggesting proper guidelines for the health of the people by analyzing perception and intake pattern on health functional foods and by identifying needs in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a self-administered survey in women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a university hospital between July and August, 2014. The survey questionnaire consisted of 8 items on general characteristics, 4 items on awareness on health functional foods, and 16 items on usage status. Results Of all 133 women with ages ranging between 19 to 67 years, postmenopausal women were 57 accounting for 42.9% of all subjects. Mean age was 55.4 ± 6.2 and menopausal age was 49.6 ± 4.3 in the postmenopause group. Mean age was 38.7 ± 9.0 in the postmenopause group. With respect to components of health functional foods, 76.3% of women answered "important" in the postmenopause group, significantly higher than 49.1% in the postmenopause group (P < 0.01). In regard to price, those who answered "important" accounted for the largest percentage in the premenopausal group at 56.6%, and those who answered "moderately important" accounted for 57.9% in the postmenopausal women. A significant difference was found between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion Development of products reflecting consumer needs can be considered. It is important to foster an environment allowing individuals to choose right health functional foods and further studies are warranted. PMID:27152310

  18. Age, Marital Status, and Risk of Sexual Victimization: Similarities and Differences Across Victim-Offender Relationships.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Julie A

    2016-09-01

    By now, age and marital status are well-established correlates of criminal victimization, including adult women's sexual victimization. National crime statistics, as well as a large body of scholarly literature, have specified that younger women and unmarried women are at comparatively higher risk of sexual victimization than older women and married women. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of victimization across diverse situational contexts of sexual victimization. The current study used data from the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) to examine whether the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of sexual victimization varied across victimization experiences involving three victim-offender relationships: stranger, acquaintance, and intimate partner. Results indicate both similarities and differences in the relationship between age, marital status, and risk of victimization across these three situational contexts of victimization. As expected, age was a significant predictor of victimization in all models; however, younger women's increased risk of victimization was far more pronounced for acquaintance and intimate partner victimization experiences as compared with stranger experiences. Also, consistent with prior research, unmarried women were at higher risk of victimization in all models; however, within unmarried status categories, separated women were at highest risk of both intimate partner and acquaintance victimization experiences as compared with never married or divorced women. PMID:25846759

  19. Hydrocarbon status of soils under different ages of oil contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gennadiev, A. N.; Pikovskii, Yu. I.; Kovach, R. G.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Khlynina, N. I.

    2016-05-01

    Modifications of the hydrocarbon status (HCS) of soils at the stages of the injection input of oil pollutants and the subsequent self-purification of the soil layer from technogenesis products have been revealed in studies conducted on an oil field. Comparison with the HCS of background soils has been performed. Changes in the composition and concentration of bitumoids, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and hydrocarbon gases have been established. The HCS of a freshly contaminated soil is characterized by the predominance of butane (the highest component) in the gaseous phase, an abrupt increase in the concentration of second-kind bitumoids, and a 100-fold increase in the content of PAHs compared to the background soil. In the old contaminated soil, free and fixed methane becomes the predominant gas; the content of bitumoids in the upper soil horizons is lower than in the freshly contaminated soils by two orders of magnitude but higher than in the background soil by an order of magnitude; the PAH composition in the soil with old residual contamination remains slightly more diverse than in the background soil.

  20. Iron Status is Associated with Asthma and Lung Function in US Women

    PubMed Central

    Brigham, Emily P.; McCormack, Meredith C.; Takemoto, Clifford M.; Matsui, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Asthma and iron deficiency are common conditions. Whether iron status affects the risk of asthma is unclear. Objective To determine the relationship between iron status and asthma, lung function, and pulmonary inflammation. Methods Relationships between measures of iron status (serum ferritin, serum soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), and sTfR/log10ferritin (sTfR-F Index)) and asthma, lung function, and pulmonary inflammation were examined in women 20-49 years in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Logistic, linear, and quadratic regression models accounting for the survey design of NHANES were used to evaluate associations between iron status and asthma-related outcomes and were adjusted for race/ethnicity, age, smoking status, income, and BMI. Results Approximately 16% reported a lifetime history of asthma, 9% reported current asthma, and 5% reported a recent asthma episode/attack (n = 2906). Increased ferritin (iron stores) was associated with decreased odds of lifetime asthma, current asthma, and asthma attacks/episodes in the range of ferritin linearly correlated with iron stores (20-300ng/ml). The highest quintile of ferritin (>76 ng/ml) was also associated with a decreased odds of asthma. Ferritin levels were not associated with FEV1. Increased values of the sTfR-F Index and sTfR, indicating lower body iron and higher tissue iron need, respectively, were associated with decreased FEV1, but neither was associated with asthma. None of the iron indices were associated with FeNO. Conclusion In US women, higher iron stores were inversely associated with asthma and lower body iron and higher tissue iron need were associated with lower lung function. Together, these findings suggest that iron status may play a role in asthma and lung function in US women. PMID:25689633

  1. Influence of Age, Reproductive Cycling Status, and Menstruation on the Vaginal Microbiome in Baboons (Papio anubis)

    PubMed Central

    UCHIHASHI, M.; BERGIN, I. L.; BASSIS, C. M.; HASHWAY, S. A.; CHAI, D.; BELL, J. D.

    2015-01-01

    The vaginal microbiome is believed to influence host health by providing protection from pathogens and influencing reproductive outcomes such as fertility and gestational length. In humans, age-associated declines in diversity of the vaginal microbiome occur in puberty and persist into adulthood. Additionally, menstruation has been associated with decreased microbial community stability. Adult female baboons, like other non-human primates (NHPs), have a different and highly diverse vaginal microbiome compared to that of humans, which is most commonly dominated by Lactobacillus spp. We evaluated the influence of age, reproductive cycling status (cycling vs. non-cycling) and menstruation on the vaginal microbiome of 38 wild-caught, captive female olive baboons (Papio anubis) by culture-independent sequencing of the V3–V5 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. All baboons had highly diverse vaginal microbial communities. Adult baboons had significantly lower microbial diversity in comparison to subadult baboons, which was attributable to decreased relative abundance of minor taxa. No significant differences were detected based on cycling state or menstruation. Predictive metagenomic analysis showed uniformity in relative abundance of metabolic pathways regardless of age, cycle stage, or menstruation, indicating conservation of microbial community functions. This study suggests that selection of an optimal vaginal microbial community occurs at puberty. Since decreased diversity occurs in both baboons and humans at puberty, this may reflect a general strategy for selection of adult vaginal microbial communities. Comparative evaluation of vaginal microbial community development and composition may elucidate mechanisms of community formation and function that are conserved across host species or across microbial community types. These findings have implications for host health, evolutionary biology, and microbe-host ecosystems. PMID:25676781

  2. Infant Temperament: Stability by Age, Gender, Birth Order, Term Status, and SES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  3. The age-crime curve in adolescence and early adulthood is not due to age differences in economic status.

    PubMed

    Shulman, Elizabeth P; Steinberg, Laurence D; Piquero, Alex R

    2013-06-01

    One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"-the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that the widely-observed adolescent peak in rates of offending is not a consequence of developmental factors, but rather an artifact of age differences in economic status. Youngsters, they argue, offend more than adults because they are poorer than adults. The present study challenges Brown and Males' proposition by analyzing data from the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY97; N = 8,984; 51% female; 26% Black, 21% Hispanic, 52% non-Black, non-Hispanic; ages 12-18 at Wave 1), which collected measures of criminal behavior and economic status at multiple time points. Consistent with scores of other studies, we find that criminal offending peaks in adolescence, even after controlling for variation in economic status. Our findings both counter Brown and Males' claim that the age-crime curve is illusory and underscore the danger of drawing inferences about individual behavior from analysis of aggregated data. PMID:23595417

  4. WHO's ICF and Functional Status Information in Health Records

    PubMed Central

    Üstün, T. Bedirhan; Chatterji, Somnath; Kostansjek, Nenad; Bickenbach, Jerome

    2003-01-01

    A common framework for describing functional status information (FSI) in health records is needed in order to make this information comparable and of value. The World Health Organization's (WHO's) International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF), which has been approved by all its member States, provides this common language and framework. The biopsychosocial model of functioning and disability embodied in the ICF goes beyond disease and conceptualizes functioning from the individual's body, person, and lived experience vantage points, thereby allowing for planning interventions targeted at the individual's body, the individual as a whole or toward the environment. This framework then permits the evaluation of both the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of these different interventions in devising programs at the personal or societal level. PMID:12894636

  5. [Exercise and aging: regulation of mitochondrial function and redox system].

    PubMed

    Sun, Li-Juan; Zhang, Yong; Liu, Jian-Kang

    2014-10-01

    Evidence shows that aging is closely related to mitochondrial decay and redox imbalance. With aging, both mitochondrial content and protein synthesis declined and free radicals, the by-products of mitochondrial metabolism and their oxidation to lipids, proteins and nuclear acids increased. The age-related declines in mitochondrial function and redox imbalance affect physical function, induce insulin resistance and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, thus, play a major role in regulation of life span. Therefore, mitochondrion may be the most important determinant of life span. Increasing evidence demonstrates that long-term aerobic exercise could prevent age-related diseases and improve life quality of aged people. Exercise may possibly stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis and phase II antioxidant defense system to regulate mitochondrial function and balance of redox system. Therefore, regular aerobic exercise may prevent age-related diseases, increase life quality and prolong life span through regulation of mitochondrial function and redox balance. PMID:25764789

  6. Computer Use and the Relation between Age and Cognitive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soubelet, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether computer use for leisure could mediate or moderate the relations between age and cognitive functioning. Findings supported smaller age differences in measures of cognitive functioning for people who reported spending more hours using a computer. Because of the cross-sectional design of the study, two alternative…

  7. Citation Age Data and the Obsolescence Function: Fits and Explanations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egghe, L.; Ravichandra Rao, I. K.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the shape of the obsolescence function based on the age data for cited journals. An analysis of the aging function is discussed; and statistical fits and mathematical explanations are illustrated, including the model of Avramescu, the Negative Binomial Distribution, the Weibull distribution, the lognormal distribution, and the utility…

  8. Do Early-Life Conditions Predict Functional Health Status in Adulthood? The Case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cheng; Soldo, Beth J; Elo, Irma T

    2010-01-01

    Relatively few researchers have investigated early antecedents of adult functional limitations in developing countries. In this study, we assessed associations between childhood conditions and adult lower-body functional limitations (LBFL) as well as the potential mediating role of adult socioeconomic status, smoking, body mass index, and chronic diseases or symptoms. Based on data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS) of individuals born prior to 1951 and contacted in 2001 and 2003, we found that childhood nutritional deprivation, serious health problems, and family background predict adult LBFL in Mexico. Adjustment for the potential mediators in adulthood attenuates these associations only to a modest degree. PMID:21074924

  9. Accelerated ageing and renal dysfunction links lower socioeconomic status and dietary phosphate intake

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Ruth; Christensen, Kelly; Mohammed, Suhaib; McGuinness, Dagmara; Cooney, Josephine; Bakshi, Andisheh; Demou, Evangelia; MacDonald, Ewan; Caslake, Muriel; Stenvinkel, Peter; Shiels, Paul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background We have sought to explore the impact of dietary Pi intake on human age related health in the pSoBid cohort (n=666) to explain the disparity between health and deprivation status in this cohort. As hyperphosphataemia is a driver of accelerated ageing in rodent models of progeria we tested whether variation in Pi levels in man associate with measures of biological ageing and health. Results We observed significant relationships between serum Pi levels and markers of biological age (telomere length (p=0.040) and DNA methylation content (p=0.028), gender and chronological age (p=0.032). When analyses were adjusted for socio-economic status and nutritional factors, associations were observed between accelerated biological ageing (telomere length, genomic methylation content) and dietary derived Pi levels among the most deprived males, directly related to the frequency of red meat consumption. Conclusions Accelerated ageing is associated with high serum Pi levels and frequency of red meat consumption. Our data provide evidence for a mechanistic link between high intake of Pi and age-related morbidities tied to socio-economic status. PMID:27132985

  10. Aging of the Planning Process: The Role of Executive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorel, Olivier; Pennequin, Valerie

    2008-01-01

    This study tested whether the aging of executive functioning is linked to the decline in planning performance. Participants were divided into three groups: group 1 composed of 15 adults with a mean age of 22.7 years, group 2 composed of 15 adults with a mean age of 68.1 years and group 3 composed of 16 adults with a mean age of 78.75 years. Each…

  11. Relationships between nutritional status, depression and pleasure of eating in aging men and women.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Nathalie; Maître, Isabelle; Van Wymelbeke, Virginie

    2015-01-01

    Nutritional health is an essential component of quality of life among older adults. The aim of this study was to identify the predictors of nutritional status in order to identify both common and sex specific predictive pathways in an aging population. A questionnaire was administered to 464 people living at home aged 65 years and above. Part of the questionnaire contained questions about nutritional status (MNA), depression (GDS), pleasure of eating and demographic characteristics. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships between the variables. For both sexes, results indicate that depression and pleasure of eating are related to nutritional status. In addition, different pathways were found between men and women. In particular, while pleasure of eating is affected by depression among aging women this is not the case for men. The implications of the findings for nutrition communication are discussed. PMID:26337662

  12. Role of Educational Status in Explaining the Association between Body Mass Index and Cognitive Function

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Yi-Te; Kao, Tung-Wei; Peng, Tao-Chun; Liaw, Fang-Yih; Yang, Hui-Fang; Sun, Yu-Shan; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Chen, Wei-Liang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preserving physical and cognitive function becomes an important issue as people age. A growing number of studies have found that the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and cognitive function changes in different age groups. It is obvious that higher educational status is linked to higher cognitive function in terms of numerous risk factors that influence cognitive function. This study aimed to investigate the interplay between obesity and cognitive function categorized by different educational status. This study included 5021 participants aged 20 to 59 years who completed 3 neurocognitive function tests, including a simple reaction time test (SRTT), a symbol digit substitution test (SDST), and a serial digit learning test (SDLT) as reported in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) III database. The associations between neurocognitive function and BMI were analyzed using multivariate linear regression while controlling for confounders. After adjusting for pertinent covariates in mode 3, the β coefficients in the female participants with more than 12 years of education (interpreted as change of 3 neurocognitive function tests for each increment in BMI) comparing obesity groups to those with normal BMI were 16.2 (P < 0.001 for SRTT), 0.14 (P < 0.05 for SDST), and 0.9 (P < 0.05 for SDLT). Male participants with more than 12 years of education and female participants with fewer than 12 years of education demonstrated increased impairment as their BMI increased. However, this association was not significant after adjustments. Obese individuals had worse neurocognitive function than those of normal weight or overweight, especially in women with a high educational level. PMID:26844489

  13. Chemical signals in the stingless bee, Frieseomelitta varia, indicate caste, gender, age, and reproductive status.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Túlio M; Turatti, Izabel C C; Lopes, Norberto P; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    2009-10-01

    Chemical compounds on the cuticle are a rich source of information used during interactions among social insects. Despite the multitude of studies on these substances and their function in ants, wasps, and honeybees, little is known about this subject in stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini). We studied the chemical composition of the cuticle of the stingless bee, Frieseomelitta varia, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to investigate potential chemical variation among castes, gender, age, and reproductive status. We found differences in the cuticular hydrocarbon composition among workers, males, and queens, recording both qualitative and quantitative differences among individuals of different ages and gender. The cuticle of physogastric queens presented a chemical profile that was distinct from all other groups in the analysis, with high relative abundances of alkenes and alkadienes with 27, 29, and 31 carbon atoms. We discuss the possibility that these compounds signal a queen's presence to the colony, thereby initiating all vital worker-queen interactions. PMID:19813058

  14. Direct and Functional Biomarkers of Vitamin B6 Status.

    PubMed

    Ueland, Per Magne; Ulvik, Arve; Rios-Avila, Luisa; Midttun, Øivind; Gregory, Jesse F

    2015-01-01

    Measures of B6 status are categorized as direct biomarkers and as functional biomarkers. Direct biomarkers measure B6 vitamers in plasma/serum, urine and erythrocytes, and among these plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is most commonly used. Functional biomarkers include erythrocyte transaminase activities and, more recently, plasma levels of metabolites involved in PLP-dependent reactions, such as the kynurenine pathway, one-carbon metabolism, transsulfuration (cystathionine), and glycine decarboxylation (serine and glycine). Vitamin B6 status is best assessed by using a combination of biomarkers because of the influence of potential confounders, such as inflammation, alkaline phosphatase activity, low serum albumin, renal function, and inorganic phosphate. Ratios between substrate-products pairs have recently been investigated as a strategy to attenuate such influence. These efforts have provided promising new markers such as the PAr index, the 3-hydroxykynurenine:xanthurenic acid ratio, and the oxoglutarate:glutamate ratio. Targeted metabolic profiling or untargeted metabolomics based on mass spectrometry allow the simultaneous quantification of a large number of metabolites, which are currently evaluated as functional biomarkers, using data reduction statistics. PMID:25974692

  15. The global status of freshwater fish age validation studies and a prioritization framework for future research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, Kevin L.; Hamel, Martin J.; Pegg, Mark A.; Spurgeon, Jonathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Age information derived from calcified structures is commonly used to estimate recruitment, growth, and mortality for fish populations. Validation of daily or annual marks on age structures is often assumed, presumably due to a lack of general knowledge concerning the status of age validation studies. Therefore, the current status of freshwater fish age validation studies was summarized to show where additional effort is needed, and increase the accessibility of validation studies to researchers. In total, 1351 original peer-reviewed articles were reviewed from freshwater systems that studied age in fish. Periodicity and age validation studies were found for 88 freshwater species comprising 21 fish families. The number of age validation studies has increased over the last 30 years following previous calls for more research; however, few species have validated structures spanning all life stages. In addition, few fishes of conservation concern have validated ageing structures. A prioritization framework, using a combination of eight characteristics, is offered to direct future age validation studies and close the validation information gap. Additional study, using the offered prioritization framework, and increased availability of published studies that incorporate uncertainty when presenting research results dealing with age information are needed.

  16. Monitoring of Functioning Status in Subjects With Chronic Stroke in South Korea Using WHODAS II

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Su-Yeon; Hong, Sang-Eun; Kim, Ee-Jin; Kim, Chang-Hwan; Joa, Kyung-Lim

    2016-01-01

    Objective To follow up the long-term functioning in a community through assessing personal background and status based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) after a stroke, by using a Korean version of World Health Organization Disability Assessment Scale II (K-WHODAS II). Methods We surveyed 146 patients diagnosed at the first-onset of acute stroke and discharged after Inha University Hospital, and 101 patients answered the K-WHODAS II survey. We analyzed the relationship of six functioning domains of K-WHODAS II with K-MMSE (Korean version of Mini-Mental State Examination) and K-MBI (Korean version of Modified Barthel Index) at admission and discharge, and personal background. All subjects were divided into five groups, according to the disease durations, to assess the functional changes and the differences of K-MMSE and K-MBI at the admission and discharge. Results K-MBI and K-MMSE at admission and discharge showed no significant differences in all five groups, respectively (p>0.05), reflecting no baseline disparity for long-term follow-up. All subjects showed positive gains of K-MBI and K-MMSE at discharge (p<0.05). The six functioning domains and total scores of K-WHODAS II had decreasing trends until 3 years after the stroke onset, but rose thereafter. Higher scores of K-MBI and K-MMSE, younger age, women, working status, higher educational level, and living with a partner were correlated with lower scores of K-WHODAS II (p<0.05). Conclusion The long-term functioning after stroke was affected not only by cognitive and motor status in hospital, but also by certain kinds of personal background. K-WHODAS II may be used to monitor functioning status in a community and to assess personal backgrounds in subjects with chronic stroke. PMID:26949677

  17. The Impact of Aging and Medical Status on Dysgeusia.

    PubMed

    Syed, Quratulain; Hendler, Kevin T; Koncilja, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Disorders of taste and smell can cause an aversion to food in a sick patient and therefore affect his/her ability to maintain optimal nutrition. This can lead to a reduced level of strength, muscle mass, function, and quality of life. Additionally, reduced ability to differentiate between various intensities or concentrations of a tastant can result in increased intake of salt and sugar and exacerbation of chronic diseases such as heart failure and diabetes. These implications can be heightened in the elderly, who are particularly frail and are challenged by polypharmacy and multiple comorbid conditions. In this article, we will review the prevalence, etiology, and management of taste disorders. Additionally, we will review the association between taste and smell disorders and how disorders of smell can affect perception of taste. PMID:26899755

  18. The evaluation of changes in functional health status in patients with abdominal complaints.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, H M; Touw-Otten, F W; de Melker, R A

    1996-02-01

    Measuring functional status changes in various patient subgroups is important in stratifying risk, assessing disease severity, and predicting and defining clinically relevant outcomes. Data from a multi-centered study of 980 primary care patients presenting with nonspecific abdominal complaints were studied to demonstrate the importance of such an assessment procedure. Patients were prospectively followed for 6 months. Five diagnostic categories based on illness duration and seriousness were derived from the clinical course of these patients. The functional status of each patient was determined at baseline, 1 month, and 6 months using the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP). Intraclass correlation coefficients accounted for two aspects of the reliability of the SIP regarding the measurement of change over time: differences between patients which are stable over time (reproducibility) and different effects of treatment between subsets (responsiveness). A priori formulated expectations about the degree of health status change in patient subgroups were evaluated with the help of effect-size calculations. Patient impairment only partially depended on the final diagnosis and was also influenced by the presence of co-morbidity, psycho-social determinants, and other complaints. The health status change in the patient subgroups agreed with a priori formulated expectations. Standardized effect-size calculations revealed that the degree of change over time in SIP scores was in accordance with these expectations. We conclude: (a) the SIP appeared to be a reliable clinimetric instrument in detecting change over time resulting from different clinical courses, (b) clinical studies that use clinimetric instruments to assess the effects of clinical interventions must adequately control for the influence of baseline "functional status" as well as traditional demographic features such as gender and age, and (c) evaluating a priori formulated clinical expectations concerning functional

  19. Influence of age on neutrophil function in foals.

    PubMed

    Wichtel, M G; Anderson, K L; Johnson, T V; Nathan, U; Smith, L

    1991-11-01

    Functional activities (phagocytosis and killing) of neutrophil leucocytes (NL) and immunoglobulin G concentrations were evaluated in six healthy foals from birth to 6 months of age. Peripheral blood NL were reacted with Streptococcus equisimilis in 20 per cent pooled equine serum for 30, 60 and 90 mins and functional activities of NL were determined using a fluorochrome microassay. Values for foal NL function were compared with those of healthy adult horses (n = 28). Foal neutrophil function was influenced by age. Killing capacity of NL decreased, whereas phagocytic capacity increased, until 113 days of age, after which a reversal in trends became apparent. Immunoglobulin G concentrations changed significantly over time and were lowest at 29 to 56 days of age. All foal values for NL function fell within the range of normal values established for healthy adult horses. PMID:1778167

  20. The Impact of Maternal Vitamin D Status on Offspring Brain Development and Function: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Pet, Milou A; Brouwer-Brolsma, Elske M

    2016-07-01

    Various studies have examined associations between maternal vitamin D (VD) deficiency and offspring health, including offspring brain health. The purpose of this review was to summarize current evidence concerning the impact of maternal VD deficiency on brain development and function in offspring. A systematic search was conducted within Medline (on Ovid) for studies published through 7 May 2015. Animal and human studies that examined associations between maternal VD status or developmental VD deficiency and offspring brain development and function were included. A total of 26 animal studies and 10 human studies met the inclusion criteria. Several animal studies confirmed the hypothesis that low prenatal VD status may affect brain morphology and physiology as well as behavioral outcomes. In humans, subtle cognitive and psychological impairments in offspring of VD-deficient mothers were observed. However, data obtained from animal and human studies provide inconclusive evidence, and results seem to depend on strain or race and age of offspring. To conclude, prenatal VD status is thought to play an important role in brain development, cognitive function, and psychological function. However, results are inconclusive; validation of these findings and investigation of underlying mechanisms are required. Thus, more investigation is needed before recommending supplementation of VD during pregnancy to promote brain health of offspring. PMID:27422502

  1. Women's preferences for vaginal antimicrobial contraceptives. II. Preferred characteristics according to women's age and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Hardy, E; de Pádua, K S; Jiménez, A L; Zaneveld, L J

    1998-10-01

    A study was carried out to identify characteristics that women would want for an idealized vaginal contraceptive, and the possible association of these characteristics with age and socioeconomic status. The study was done in Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil. A total of 635 women were selected by age and socioeconomic status, using the "social network" technique. Almost half were adolescents (15-19 years old) and the rest were adults (20-45 years old). Half were of low socioeconomic status and the rest of medium-high status. The data were analyzed with SPSS-PC and EPI-INFO 6.0. Logistic regression and chi 2 were used for the analysis. Despite some differences found between age and socioeconomic status in regard to the characteristics desired for the idealized method, most of the participants expressed the same preferences. The results indicate that women would like the idealized method to be a cream, rather than a suppository, with no odor or flavor, to be colorless, to be placed in the vagina with an applicator well before coitus, and to offer protection against sexually transmitted diseases including AIDS. PMID:9866006

  2. Impact of Reproductive Status and Age on Response of Depressed Women to Cognitive Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Minhajuddin, Abu; Thase, Michael E.; Jarrett, Robin B.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Objective Previous research suggests that reproductive hormones are potential affective modulators in mood disorders and may influence response to antidepressant medications. To our knowledge, there are no data on relationships between hormonal status and response to psychotherapy for recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods At two sites, female outpatients (n=353), aged 18–70, with recurrent MDD received 12–14 weeks of cognitive therapy (CT). Menopausal status and age were based on self-report. In the parent study, nonresponse to therapy was defined as persistence of a major depressive episode (MDE) as defined by the DSM-IV or a final Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17-Item (HRSD17) score of ≥ 12 or both. More traditional definitions of response (at least a 50% reduction in pretreatment HRSD17) and remission (a final HRSD17 ≤ 6) were also examined. Results Controlling for pretreatment HRSD17 scores, there were no significant differences found in the rates of response to CT or symptom status among premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women. Conclusions We found no support for the hypotheses that response to CT or the rates of change in depressive symptoms are moderated by reproductive status. The findings, however, are limited by the absence of early follicular phase serum sampling/analysis to estimate hormone levels and the reliance on self-report to establish menopausal status. These data motivate a full investigation of the effects of reproductive status on response to psychosocial interventions. PMID:23305218

  3. [Active aging from the perspective of aged individuals who are functionally independent].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Olivia Galvão Lucena; Maciel, Silvana Carneiro; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; dos Santos, Walberto Silva; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva P

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the social representations of the elderly regarding active aging. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 100 functionally independent aged individuals from João Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. The data was organized and analyzed using Alceste software. Results showed that the aged individuals' statements about active aging are permeated with positive contents. However, when aging is not associated with the word active, it is still represented as losses and disabilities. Despite the existence of losses during the process, active aging should be encouraged among the elderly, as it means living a quality, plentiful life. Maintaining the elderly functionally independent is the first step to achieving active aging and thus improving their quality of life. PMID:21337791

  4. Aging. Aging-induced type I interferon signaling at the choroid plexus negatively affects brain function

    PubMed Central

    Baruch, Kuti; Deczkowska, Aleksandra; David, Eyal; Castellano, Joseph M.; Miller, Omer; Kertser, Alexander; Berkutzki, Tamara; Barnett-Itzhaki, Zohar; Bezalel, Dana; Wyss-Coray, Tony; Amit, Ido; Schwartz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Age-associated cognitive decline is affected by factors produced inside and outside the brain. We found in aged mice and humans, that the choroid plexus (CP), an epithelial interface between the brain and the circulation, shows a type I interferon (IFN-I)-dependent expression profile, often associated with anti-viral responses. This signature was induced by brain-derived signals present in the cerebrospinal fluid of aged mice. Blocking IFN-I signaling within the brain of cognitively-impaired aged mice, using IFN-I receptor neutralizing antibody, led to partial restoration of cognitive function and hippocampal neurogenesis, and reestablished IFN-II-dependent CP activity, lost in aging. Our data identify an aging-induced IFN-I signature at the CP, and demonstrate its negative influence on brain function, thereby suggesting a potential target for therapeutic intervention for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25147279

  5. Successful Aging as a Continuum of Functional Independence: Lessons from Physical Disability Models of Aging

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Kristin A.; Vallejo, Abbe N.; Studenski, Stephanie A.

    2011-01-01

    Successful aging is a multidimensional construct that could be viewed as a continuum of achievement. Based on the disability model proposed by the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, successful aging includes not only the presence or absence of disease, but also aspects of mobility and social participation. Here we review definitions of successful aging and discuss relevance of the disability model in the evaluation of successful aging and frailty. In particular, we summarize evidences that highlight the importance of measures of mobility (ability to walk and perform activities of daily living), and social participation in identifying and locating older adults across the range of the successful aging continuum. Lastly, we discuss the role of inflammation in age-related decline and in frailty. Future research directions are proposed, including identifying causal pathways among inflammatory markers, disability, and frailty. A better understanding of immunological functioning in late life may help unlock novel ways to promote successful aging. PMID:22500268

  6. Aging skin is functionally anaerobic: importance of coenzyme Q10 for anti aging skin care.

    PubMed

    Prahl, S; Kueper, T; Biernoth, T; Wöhrmann, Y; Münster, A; Fürstenau, M; Schmidt, M; Schulze, C; Wittern, K-P; Wenck, H; Muhr, G-M; Blatt, T

    2008-01-01

    The functional loss of mitochondria represents an inherent part in modern theories trying to explain the cutaneous aging process. The present study shows significant age-dependent differences in mitochondrial function of keratinocytes isolated from skin biopsies of young and old donors. Our data let us postulate that energy metabolism shifts to a predominantly non-mitochondrial pathway and is therefore functionally anaerobic with advancing age. CoQ10 positively influences the age-affected cellular metabolism and enables to combat signs of aging starting at the cellular level. As a consequence topical application of CoQ10 is beneficial for human skin as it rapidly improves mitochondrial function in skin in vivo. PMID:19096122

  7. The Employment and Postsecondary Educational Status of Transition-Age Youths with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnall, Michele Capella

    2010-01-01

    A limited amount of information is available about the employment and postsecondary educational status of transition-age youths with visual impairments. Reports on the employment and postsecondary education tend to focus on overall results and usually do not provide detailed analyses by disability groups. In this article, the author presents the…

  8. Physical Fitness, Academic Achievement, and Socioeconomic Status in School-Aged Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Dawn P.; Peterson, Thomas; Blair, Cheryl; Schutten, Mary C.; Peddie, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study examined the association between physical fitness and academic achievement and determined the influence of socioeconomic status (SES) on the association between fitness and academic achievement in school-aged youth. Methods: Overall, 1,701 third-, sixth-, and ninth-grade students from 5 school districts participated in the…

  9. Effects of Age, Gender, College Status, and Computer Experience on Attitudes toward Library Computer Systems (LCS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koohang, Alex A.

    1986-01-01

    This investigation of the effects of age, gender, college status, and computer experience on students' attitudes toward an online catalog measured student attitudes on three subscales--computer anxiety, computer confidence, and computer liking. Results of analysis of variance showed that computer experience was significantly related to computer…

  10. Age and reproductive status of adult Varroa mites affect grooming success of honey bees.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study evaluated for the first time the grooming response of honey bees to different ages and reproductive statuses of varroa mites in the laboratory. Plastic cages containing a section of dark comb and about 200 bees were inoculated with groups of four different classes of mites: gravid, phoret...

  11. The Relationship of Age and Marital Status to Women's Needs for Interdependence-Independence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Ruth Bernstein; Woog, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    Examined the prominence of intimacy concerns, i.e., connectedness and independent needs in a sample of women in the health professions, analyzing for age and marital status. Used the Life Priorities Q-Sort. Older and single women were found to be significantly more independent than younger and married women. (Author/KS)

  12. Assessment of Functional Status and Quality of Life in Claudication

    PubMed Central

    Mays, Ryan J.; Casserly, Ivan P.; Kohrt, Wendy M.; Ho, P. Michael; Hiatt, William R.; Nehler, Mark R.; Regensteiner, Judith G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Treadmill walking is commonly used to evaluate walking impairment and efficacy of treatment for intermittent claudication (IC) in clinical and research settings. Although this is an important measure, it does not provide information about how patients perceive the effects of their treatments on more global measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods PubMed/Medline was searched to find publications about the most commonly used questionnaires to assess functional status and/or general and disease-specific HRQOL in patients with PAD who experience IC. Inclusion criteria for questionnaires were based on existence of a body of literature in symptomatic PAD. Results Six general questionnaires and 7 disease-specific questionnaires are included with details about the number of domains covered and how each tool is scored. The Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 item questionnaire and Walking Impairment Questionnaire are currently the most used general and disease-specific questionnaires at baseline and following treatment for IC, respectively. Conclusions The use of tools which assess functional status and HRQOL has importance in both the clinical and research areas to assess treatment efficacy from the patient perspective. Therefore, assessing HRQOL in addition to treadmill-measured walking ability provides insight as to effects of treatments on patient outcomes and may help guide therapy. PMID:21334172

  13. Functional Status and Search for Meaning After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Skaggs, Brenda G; Yates, Bernice C

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the differences in the search for meaning and functional status (psychological and physical) between persons who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention and have recurrent angina symptoms and those who do not have recurrent symptoms. Participants (224; 147 male, 77 female) who underwent PCI completed the following study materials: Meaning in Heart Disease instrument, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and SF36v2™. Persons with recurrent angina symptoms (40% of the sample) were more likely to have higher disrupted meaning, greater anxiety, greater depression, lower physical functioning, and greater use of meaning-based coping (searching for answers and refocusing global meaning) compared with individuals without recurrent symptoms. Interventions are needed to identify the risk of recurrent symptoms after percutaneous coronary intervention and provide coping and cognitive behavioral interventions focused on managing the psychological and physical disruptions. PMID:25512267

  14. Predictors of functional status in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, L; van Schaardenburg, D; van der Horst-Bru..., I E; Bezemer, P; Dijkmans, B

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To find disease parameters that can predict the functional capacity of patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at the first visit to the rheumatologist and one year after entry.
METHODS—Patients referred to the outpatients clinic between 1995 and 1996, with a symptom duration of less than three years and fulfilling the American Rheumatism Association 1987 revised criteria for RA within one year after entry were included. Assessments of the duration of morning stiffness, the Disease Activity Score (DAS: a composite score based on erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), number of painful and swollen joints and patient global assessment), pain (Visual Analogue Scale), the Arthritis Impact Measurement Scale (AIMS) and the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) were performed every three months. Possible predictors of the HAQ at entry and after one year were analysed by logistic regression.
RESULTS—133 patients were included in the study. The median duration of complaints was three months (range 0-35) and the median HAQ score at entry was 1.12 (range 0-3). There was no correlation between duration of complaints and the HAQ at entry (r = 0.01). An HAQ score under the 50th percentile at entry could be predicted correctly for 74% of the patients by entry DAS and C reactive protein concentration, and at one year could be predicted correctly for 73% of the patients by entry HAQ and pain score.
CONCLUSION—Disease activity is strongly correlated with a lower functional capacity at entry, whereas disease duration is not. The functional status at entry is a good predictor for functional status at one year. Severity rather than duration of arthritis prompts referral in this cohort.

 PMID:10700432

  15. Age-Related Changes in Hepatic Function: An Update on Implications for Drug Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Joseph L; Eastment, Jacques G; Poudel, Arjun; Hubbard, Ruth E

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation of deficits with increasing age results in a decline in the functional capacity of multiple organs and systems. These changes can have a significant influence on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of prescribed drugs. Although alterations in body composition and worsening renal clearance are important considerations, for most drugs the liver has the greatest effect on metabolism. Age-related change in hepatic function thereby causes much of the variability in older people's responses to medication. In this review, we propose that a decline in the ability of the liver to inactivate toxins may contribute to a proinflammatory state in which frailty can develop. Since inflammation also downregulates drug metabolism, medication prescribed to frail older people in accordance with disease-specific guidelines may undergo reduced systemic clearance, leading to adverse drug reactions, further functional decline and increasing polypharmacy, exacerbating rather than ameliorating frailty status. We also describe how increasing chronological age and frailty status impact liver size, blood flow and protein binding and enzymes of drug metabolism. This is used to contextualise our discussion of appropriate prescribing practices. For example, while the general axiom of 'start low, go slow' should underpin the initiation of medication (titrating to a defined therapeutic goal), it is important to consider whether drug clearance is flow or capacity-limited. By summarising the effect of age-related changes in hepatic function on medications commonly used in older people, we aim to provide a guide that will have high clinical utility for practising geriatricians. PMID:26547855

  16. Red raspberries can improve motor function in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Many foods rich in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory compounds have been shown to increase health and reduce markers of aging. A number of berry fruits high in polyphenols are known to ameliorate age-related declines in cellular, cognitive and behavioral function in rats. OBJECTIVES: Thi...

  17. Towards an Analytical Age-Dependent Model of Contrast Sensitivity Functions for an Ageing Society

    PubMed Central

    Joulan, Karine; Brémond, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF) describes how the visibility of a grating depends on the stimulus spatial frequency. Many published CSF data have demonstrated that contrast sensitivity declines with age. However, an age-dependent analytical model of the CSF is not available to date. In this paper, we propose such an analytical CSF model based on visual mechanisms, taking into account the age factor. To this end, we have extended an existing model from Barten (1999), taking into account the dependencies of this model's optical and physiological parameters on age. Age-dependent models of the cones and ganglion cells densities, the optical and neural MTF, and optical and neural noise are proposed, based on published data. The proposed age-dependent CSF is finally tested against available experimental data, with fair results. Such an age-dependent model may be beneficial when designing real-time age-dependent image coding and display applications. PMID:26078994

  18. Rhetorical Status: A Study of Its Origins, Functions, and Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logue, Cal M.; Miller, Eugene F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the characteristics of rhetorical status, compares it to ethos and source credibility, and discusses social status and rhetorical status. Shows how rhetorical status enters into everyday communication by examining a protracted set of interactions between two sisters and a small-town mayor over disputed water bills. (SR)

  19. Decreased Functional Status as a Risk Factor for Severe Clostridium difficile Infection among Hospitalized Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Krishna; Micic, Dejan; Chenoweth, Elizabeth; Deng, Lili; Galecki, Andrzej T.; Ring, Cathrin; Young, Vincent B.; Aronoff, David M.; Malani, Preeti N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized older adults, who are among the patients at highest risk of severe infection. The role of impaired functional status as a risk factor for severe CDI remains poorly understood. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The University of Michigan Health System, a 930-bed tertiary care hospital. Participants Hospitalized patients with CDI, age ≥50 years. Measurements Included demographics; clinical characteristics; and a composite outcome, the CDI severity score: fever [T >38°C]; acute organ dysfunction; white blood cell count >15 000/mm3; lack of response to therapy; intensive care unit admission, need for colectomy, or death due to CDI. Pre-admission functional status was assessed by ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs); patients were assigned to an ADL Class (independent, some assistance, or full assistance). Secondary outcomes included length of stay; 90-day mortality and readmission; and CDI recurrence. Results We identified 90 hospitalized patients with CDI (mean age 66.6 [± SD 10.2]). Fifty-eight patients (64.4%) had severe CDI as measured by a positive severity score. At baseline, 25 (27.8%) required assistance with ADLs. On univariate analysis, an ADL Class of “full assistance” was associated with severity score (OR 7, CI 95 1.83–26.79, P = .004). In a multivariable model which included age, ADL Class, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, depression, weighted Charlson-Deyo comorbidity score, immunosuppression, prior CDI, and PPI use, an ADL Class of “full assistance” retained its association with severity score (OR 8.1, CI 95 1.24–52.95, P = .029). ADL Class was not associated with secondary outcomes. Conclusion Among this cohort of hospitalized older adults, impaired functional status was an independent risk factor for severe CDI. PMID:24083842

  20. Association of exceptional parental longevity and physical function in aging.

    PubMed

    Ayers, Emmeline; Barzilai, Nir; Crandall, Jill P; Milman, Sofiya; Verghese, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Offspring of parents with exceptional longevity (OPEL), who are more likely to carry longevity-associated genotypes, may age more successfully than offspring of parents with usual survival (OPUS). Maintenance of physical function is a key attribute of successful aging. While many genetic and non-genetic factors interact to determine physical phenotype in aging, examination of the contribution of exceptional parental longevity to physical function in aging is limited. The LonGenity study recruited a relatively genetically homogenous cohort of Ashkenazi Jewish (AJ) adults age 65 and older, who were defined as either OPEL (having at least one parent who lived to age 95 or older) or OPUS (neither parent survived to age 95). Subjective and objective measures of physical function were compared between the two groups, accounting for potential confounders. Of the 893 LonGenity subjects, 365 were OPEL and 528 were OPUS. OPEL had better objective and subjective measures of physical function than OPUS, especially on unipedal stance (p = 0.009) and gait speed (p = 0.002). Results support the protective role of exceptional parental longevity in preventing decline in physical function, possibly via genetic mechanisms that should be further explored. PMID:24997018

  1. Usefulness of commercial memory aids as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Petro, S J; Herrmann, D; Burrows, D; Moore, C M

    1991-01-01

    Recent research has produced disagreement about the usage and usefulness of external memory aids across age groups. The present study examined the use and perceived usefulness of commercial memory aids as a function of the ages of users and potential users. Three age groups (ages 20, 45 and 65 years) were asked to indicate whether they owned each of thirty different commercial aids and regardless of ownership, to rate the degree of usefulness of each of the aids. Each age group used certain aids or perceived certain aids as more useful, than did other age groups. The pattern of results suggest that memory aid usage differs with age partly because the memory tasks required of a person change with life stage. PMID:1761318

  2. Age and hormonal status as determinants of cataractogenesis induced by ionizing radiation. II. Sparsely ionizing (low-LET) radiation.

    PubMed

    Dynlacht, Joseph R; Valluri, Shailaja; Garrett, Joy; Nees, Jessica; Caperell-Grant, Andrea; DesRosiers, Colleen; Bigsby, Robert M

    2012-10-01

    Age at the time of exposure to sparsely ionizing radiation has been established as a key determinant of radiation cataractogenesis. However, while some reports suggest that the lenses of the young are hypersensitive, data from older studies are often conflicting and somewhat difficult to interpret when the radioresponse of young lenses is compared to that of adult lenses. Moreover, the mechanism of the age-response function for radiation cataractogenesis has yet to be identified. Since steroid sex hormones, notably estradiol, appear to play a role in age-related cataractogenesis, we hypothesized that the age response for radiation cataractogenesis could be dictated by estradiol status. We recently showed that exposure to high-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation resulted in a reduced latent period for, and enhanced progression of cataracts in rats that were 1 year old at the time of exposure compared to those that were 56 days old. However, the enhanced sensitivity of older lenses compared to younger lenses was independent of estradiol status. In the current study, we found that for 1-year-old rats exposed to 10 Gy of low-LET (60)Co γ rays, the rate of increase in the development of posterior and anterior subcapsular cataracts was higher in older ovary-intact rats compared to young rats. However, cataracts were detected much earlier in ovary-intact 56-day-old rats compared to 1-year-old rats, regardless of their treatment groups (ovary-intact, ovariectomized, or ovariectomized and implanted with capsules containing estradiol). Thus, despite a consistent estradiol response (potentiating effect of estrogen) within a given age group, the differences between the radiation response of old and young lenses cannot be accounted for solely by estradiol status. PMID:22880623

  3. Synergistic Effects of HIV Infection and Older Age on Daily Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Erin E.; Iudicello, Jennifer E.; Weber, Erica; Duarte, Nichole A.; Riggs, P. Katie; Delano-Wood, Lisa; Ellis, Ronald; Grant, Igor; Woods, Steven Paul

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether HIV infection and aging act synergistically to disrupt everyday functioning. Design Cross-sectional, factorial study of everyday functioning in the context of HIV serostatus and age (≤ 40 years vs ≥ 50 years). Methods 103 HIV+ and 87 HIV− participants were administered several measures of everyday functioning, including self-report indices of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and instrumental and basic activities of daily living (IADLs and BADLs), and objective measures of functioning including employment and Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) ratings. Results Significant interaction effects of HIV and aging were observed for IADL and BADL declines, as well as KPS ratings (ps<.05), independent of potentially confounding factors. Follow-up contrasts revealed significantly worse functioning in the older HIV+ group for all functional outcome measures relative to the other study groups (ps<.05). A significant interaction effect was also observed on the emotional functioning HRQoL subscale, and additive effects of both age and HIV were observed for the physical functioning and general health perceptions HRQoL subscales (ps<.05). Significant predictors of poorer functioning in the older HIV+ group included current major depressive disorder for all outcomes, and comorbid medical conditions, lower estimated premorbid functioning, neurocognitive impairment, and nadir CD4 count for selected outcomes. Conclusion Findings suggest that older age may exacerbate the adverse effects of HIV on daily functioning, which highlights the importance of evaluating and monitoring the functional status of older HIV-infected adults. Early detection of functional difficulties could facilitate delivery of compensatory strategies (e.g., cognitive remediation) or assistive services. PMID:22878422

  4. Correlates of functional status, self-management, and developmental competence outcomes in adolescents with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Sawin, Kathleen J; Buran, Constance F; Brei, Timothy J; Fastenau, Philip S

    2003-01-01

    Adolescents with spina bifida (SB), a congenital spinal cord impairment, are at high risk for negative outcomes. Even those with favorable cognitive status often fail to achieve independence, exhibiting poor functional and psychosocial outcomes. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adaptation outcomes (functional status, self-management, and developmental competence) and SB condition-specific, adolescent protective factors, and family protective factors in a sample of adolescents with SB. Individual, interpersonal, and social developmental competence were explored. Sixty-six adolescent/parent pairs were interviewed. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Cronbach alpha coefficients, and partial correlations controlling for age. All instruments had acceptable reliabilities. Factors associated with outcomes generally fell into two patterns. SB condition-specific variables and adolescent activities (e.g., decision-making, household responsibilities) were related to functional status, self-management, and social competence. In contrast, adolescent beliefs (hope, attitude, and communication efficacy) were predominantly related to individual, interpersonal, and overall developmental competence. PMID:14626030

  5. Lipreading in School-Age Children: The Roles of Age, Hearing Status, and Cognitive Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tye-Murray, Nancy; Hale, Sandra; Spehar, Brent; Myerson, Joel; Sommers, Mitchell S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The study addressed three research questions: Does lipreading improve between the ages of 7 and 14 years? Does hearing loss affect the development of lipreading? How do individual differences in lipreading relate to other abilities? Method: Forty children with normal hearing (NH) and 24 with hearing loss (HL) were tested using 4…

  6. Effect of reproductive status changes on family functioning and well-being of mothers and daughters.

    PubMed

    Paikoff, R L; Brooks-gunn, J; Carlton-ford, S

    1991-05-01

    The effects of mother and daughter reproductive changes on maternal perceptions regarding the family are assessed. Mother and daughter reproductive status changes were examined in terms of their effects on family relations and mother and daughter well-being. Controls were made for mother and daughter age and heaviness. 144 mothers (37-59 years) and daughters (14-18 years) were selected from a study of white, middle to upper middle income families in large Eastern metropolitan areas. Mothers were typically well educated and employed and from 2-parent homes; 50% were 1st born. Moos' Family Environment Scale was used to measure family functioning; other measures included daughter's age at menarche, mother's menstrual status, the Ponderal index of mother and daughter heaviness, the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, an abbreviated version of the Eating Attitudes Test, and Satisfaction with Body Parts scale of Padin, Lerner and Spiro. Self-administered questionnaires were mailed after agreement to participate was confirmed by phone. Analysis of covariance was used to analyze the effect of menstrual status controlling for age on family cohesion or conflict, and the effect of perception of family cohesion or conflict on well-being. Factor-covariate interactions were tested for, and none were found based on the Bonferroni procedure. The cross-sectional results show that early adolescent maturation is not related to increases in family conflict compared with on-time or late maturers, in contrast to Hill's study results. There was no link between perceptions of family conflict on the well-being of mother or daughter. Family cohesion was important to mother and daughter well-being, but was not associated with mother's reproductive status or daughter's reproductive timing. For mothers, the effect was on depression and body image. For daughters, the most important variable was maternal perceptions of family cohesion for all measures of well-being. Daughters

  7. Age-related changes in the brain antioxidant status: modulation by dietary supplementation of Decalepis hamiltonii and physical exercise.

    PubMed

    Ravikiran, Tekupalli; Sowbhagya, Ramachandregowda; Anupama, Sindhghatta Kariyappa; Anand, Santosh; Bhagyalakshmi, Dundaiah

    2016-08-01

    The synergistic effects of physical exercise and diet have profound benefits on brain function. The present study was aimed to determine the effects of exercise and Decalepis hamiltonii (Dh) on age-related responses on the antioxidant status in discrete regions of rat brain. Male Wistar albino rats of 4 and 18 months old were orally supplemented with Dh extract and swim trained at 3 % intensity for 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for a period of 30 days. Supplementation of 100 mg Dh aqueous extract/kg body weight and its combination with exercise significantly elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities irrespective of age. Age-related and region-specific changes were observed in superoxide levels, and protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents, and were found to be decreased in both trained and supplemented groups. Levels of total thiols, protein, and nonprotein thiols decreased with age and significantly increased in the SW-T(+100 mg) groups. Our results demonstrated that the interactive effects of two treatments enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the risk of protein and lipid oxidation in the rat brain. PMID:27379504

  8. Antioxidative effect of aspirin on vascular function of aged ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Buket; Demir, Omer; Dost, Turhan; Birincioglu, Mustafa

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the vascular effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the very late stage of postmenopausal vascular aging and looked for a better choice of anti-inflammatory drug for women in reducing the cardiovascular risk by decreasing the oxidant status in this term. The rat aorta isolated from young and old rats that were treated with either aspirin (10 mg/kg/day) or indomethacin (INDO, 1 mg/kg/day) within last 10 weeks after 16-month overiectomy (OVX) follow-up. Endothelium-dependant acetylcholine (Ach, 0.001-30 μM) and independent sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 0.0001-3 μM) relaxant; α-receptor phenylephrine (PE, 0.001-30 μM) and voltage-dependant high potassium (KCl; 40 mM) contractile responses were assessed. Total oxidant and antioxidant status were measured from the serum samples. Aged OVX rat's both aortic endothelium and smooth muscle relaxation were significantly less than of younger ones, whereas their contractile functions tended to decrease. INDO did not treat the Ach, SNP responses, whereas it increased the PE and KCl contractility. Aspirin improved the relaxation function and antioxidant capacity and decreased the oxidant status. These data demonstrate that even if they are in the very late stage of life and menopause, the analgesic choices could restore the well established endothelial dysfunction, vascular stiffness, and oxidant status. PMID:23872923

  9. Influence of Dietary Capsaicin on Redox Status in Red Blood Cells During Human Aging

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prabhanshu; Chand, Subhash; Chandra, Pranjal; Maurya, Pawan Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Capsaicin (8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is a major pungent compound found in hot peppers of the plant genus Capsicum. In vitro effects of dietary capsaicin on redox status in red blood cells during human aging have been explored. Methods: Total antioxidant potential of capsaicin was evaluated using Ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) assay. GSH was measured as per standard protocol. The in vitro effect of capsaicin was evaluated by incubation of the cells in the assay medium with 10-5M capsaicin (final concentration) for 60 min at 37°C. Results: Treatment with capsaicin (10-5M) caused a significant (p < 0.01) increase in GSH level in all age groups. Reduced glutathione (GSH) / Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratio measures the redox status of the red blood cell. Significant increase in GSH level due to capsaicin, shift the GSH/GSSG ratio, thus alters the redox status of the cell. Conclusion: The results conclusively prove the efficacy of the antioxidant property of capsaicin and its role in modulating the redox status of red blood cells. This evidence suggests that dietary factors that act as antioxidants to increase GSH level may contribute to a protective effect against age related diseases. This antioxidant effect may, in part, explain the high consumption of capsicum in certain regions of the world. PMID:26819932

  10. Effects of Age and Ability on Self-Reported Memory Functioning and Knowledge of Memory Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Celinda M.; Cherry, Katie E.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the effects of age and ability (as measured by education and verbal ability) on self-reported memory functioning in adulthood. In Study 1, the age and ability groups responded similarly to the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (D. E. Broadbent, P. F. Cooper, P. Fitzgerald, & K. R. Parkes, 1982), but differences emerged when the…

  11. Dysregulation of Human Toll-like Receptor Function in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Albert C.; Panda, Alexander; Joshi, Samit R.; Qian, Feng; Allore, Heather G.; Montgomery, Ruth R.

    2010-01-01

    Studies addressing immunosenescence in the immune system have expanded to focus on the innate as well as the adaptive responses. In particular, aging results in alterations in the function of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), the first described pattern recognition receptor family of the innate immune system. Recent studies have begun to elucidate the consequences of aging on TLR function in human cohorts and add to existing findings performed in animal models. In general, these studies show that human TLR function is impaired in the context of aging, and in addition there is evidence for inappropriate persistence of TLR activation in specific systems. These findings are consistent with an overarching theme of age-associated dysregulation of TLR signaling that likely contributes to the increased morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases found in geriatric patients. PMID:21074638

  12. Myocyte repolarization modulates myocardial function in aging dogs.

    PubMed

    Sorrentino, Andrea; Signore, Sergio; Qanud, Khaled; Borghetti, Giulia; Meo, Marianna; Cannata, Antonio; Zhou, Yu; Wybieralska, Ewa; Luciani, Marco; Kannappan, Ramaswamy; Zhang, Eric; Matsuda, Alex; Webster, Andrew; Cimini, Maria; Kertowidjojo, Elizabeth; D'Alessandro, David A; Wunimenghe, Oriyanhan; Michler, Robert E; Royer, Christopher; Goichberg, Polina; Leri, Annarosa; Barrett, Edward G; Anversa, Piero; Hintze, Thomas H; Rota, Marcello

    2016-04-01

    Studies of myocardial aging are complex and the mechanisms involved in the deterioration of ventricular performance and decreased functional reserve of the old heart remain to be properly defined. We have studied a colony of beagle dogs from 3 to 14 yr of age kept under a highly regulated environment to define the effects of aging on the myocardium. Ventricular, myocardial, and myocyte function, together with anatomical and structural properties of the organ and cardiomyocytes, were evaluated. Ventricular hypertrophy was not observed with aging and the structural composition of the myocardium was modestly affected. Alterations in the myocyte compartment were identified in aged dogs, and these factors negatively interfere with the contractile reserve typical of the young heart. The duration of the action potential is prolonged in old cardiomyocytes contributing to the slower electrical recovery of the myocardium. Also, the remodeled repolarization of cardiomyocytes with aging provides inotropic support to the senescent muscle but compromises its contractile reserve, rendering the old heart ineffective under conditions of high hemodynamic demand. The defects in the electrical and mechanical properties of cardiomyocytes with aging suggest that this cell population is an important determinant of the cardiac senescent phenotype. Collectively, the delayed electrical repolarization of aging cardiomyocytes may be viewed as a critical variable of the aging myopathy and its propensity to evolve into ventricular decompensation under stressful conditions. PMID:26801307

  13. Non-coding RNA in neural function, disease, and aging

    PubMed Central

    Szafranski, Kirk; Abraham, Karan J.; Mekhail, Karim

    2015-01-01

    Declining brain and neurobiological function is arguably one of the most common features of human aging. The study of conserved aging processes as well as the characterization of various neurodegenerative diseases using different genetic models such as yeast, fly, mouse, and human systems is uncovering links to non-coding RNAs. These links implicate a variety of RNA-regulatory processes, including microRNA function, paraspeckle formation, RNA–DNA hybrid regulation, nucleolar RNAs and toxic RNA clearance, amongst others. Here we highlight these connections and reveal over-arching themes or questions related to recently appreciated roles of non-coding RNA in neural function and dysfunction across lifespan. PMID:25806046

  14. The Effects of Age, Refractive Status, and Luminance on Pupil Size

    PubMed Central

    Guillon, Michel; Dumbleton, Kathryn; Theodoratos, Panagiotis; Gobbe, Marine; Wooley, C. Benjamin; Moody, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose Pupil size is critical for optimal performance of presbyopic contact lenses. Although the effect of luminance is well known, little information is available regarding other contributing factors such as aging and refractive status. Methods The cohort population comprised 304 patients (127 male, 177 female) aged 18 to 78 years. Pupils were photographed at three controlled luminance levels 250, 50, and 2.5 cd/m2 using an infra-red macro video camera. Measurements of pupil diameter were conducted after transforming pixel values to linear values in millimeters. Results Luminance was the most influential factor with pupil diameter increasing with decreased luminance (p < 0.001, all comparisons). Age was also found to be a significant factor with a smaller diameter in the older groups, but overall the difference was only significant between the pre-presbyopes and the established presbyopes (p = 0.017). Pupil diameter decreased significantly with increasing age, the effect being most marked at low luminance (<0.001). The smallest pupil diameters were measured for hyperopes and the largest for myopes and although refractive error was not a significant factor alone, there was a significant interaction between luminance and refractive error with the greatest differences in pupil diameter between myopes and emmetropes at low luminance (p < 0.001). Pupil diameter changes modeled by multilinear regression (p < 0.001) identified age, luminance, best sphere refraction, and refractive error as significant factors accounting for just over 70% of the average variation in pupil diameter. Conclusions Both age and refractive status were found to affect pupil size with larger pupils measured for younger patients and myopes. Designs for multifocal contact lens corrections should take both age and refractive status into consideration; a faster progression from distance to near corrections across the optical zone of the lens is expected to be required for established

  15. Is there an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Miles, Lisa M; Mills, Kerry; Clarke, Robert; Dangour, Alan D

    2015-08-28

    Low vitamin B12 status is common in older people; however, its public health significance in terms of neurological manifestations remains unclear. The present systematic review evaluated the association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function and clinically relevant neurological outcomes in adults aged 50+ years. A systematic search of nine bibliographic databases (up to March 2013) identified twelve published articles describing two longitudinal and ten cross-sectional analyses. The included study populations ranged in size (n 28-2287) and mean/median age (range 65-81 years). Studies reported various neurological outcomes: nerve function; clinically measured signs and symptoms of nerve function; self-reported neurological symptoms. Studies were assessed for risk of bias, and results were synthesised qualitatively. Among the general population groups of older people, one longitudinal study reported no association, and four of seven cross-sectional studies reported limited evidence of an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes. Among groups with clinical and/or biochemical evidence of low vitamin B12 status, one longitudinal study reported an association of vitamin B12 status with some, but not all, neurological outcomes and three cross-sectional analyses reported no association. Overall, there is limited evidence from observational studies to suggest an association of vitamin B12 status with neurological function in older people. The heterogeneity and quality of the evidence base preclude more definitive conclusions, and further high-quality research is needed to better inform understanding of public health significance in terms of neurological function of vitamin B12 status in older people. PMID:26202329

  16. Nutritional status of school-age children - A scenario of urban slums in India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background One of the greatest problems for India is undernutrition among children. The country is still struggling with this problem. Malnutrition, the condition resulting from faulty nutrition, weakens the immune system and causes significant growth and cognitive delay. Growth assessment is the measurement that best defines the health and nutritional status of children, while also providing an indirect measurement of well-being for the entire population. Methods A cross-sectional study, in which we explored nutritional status in school-age slum children and analyze factors associated with malnutrition with the help of a pre-designed and pre-tested questionnaire, anthropometric measurements and clinical examination from December 2010 to April 2011 in urban slums of Bareilly, Uttar-Pradesh (UP), India. Result The mean height and weight of boys and girls in the study group was lower than the CDC 2000 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) standards in all age groups. Regarding nutritional status, prevalence of stunting and underweight was highest in age group 11 yrs to 13 yrs whereas prevalence of wasting was highest in age group 5 yrs to 7 yrs. Except refractive errors all illnesses are more common among girls, but this gender difference is statistically significant only for anemia and rickets. The risk of malnutrition was significantly higher among children living in joint families, children whose mother's education was [less than or equal to] 6th standard and children with working mothers. Conclusions Most of the school-age slum children in our study had a poor nutritional status. Interventions such as skills-based nutrition education, fortification of food items, effective infection control, training of public healthcare workers and delivery of integrated programs are recommended. PMID:22958757

  17. Biological Maturity Status Strongly Intensifies the Relative Age Effect in Alpine Ski Racing

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Lisa; Müller, Erich; Hildebrandt, Carolin; Raschner, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) is a well-documented phenomenon in youth sports. This effect exists when the relative age quarter distribution of selected athletes shows a biased distribution with an over-representation of relatively older athletes. In alpine ski racing, it exists in all age categories (national youth levels up to World Cup). Studies so far could demonstrate that selected ski racers are relatively older, taller and heavier. It could be hypothesized that relatively younger athletes nearly only have a chance for selection if they are early maturing. However, surprisingly this influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE could not be proven, yet. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of the biological maturity status on the RAE in dependence of the level of competition. The study investigated 372 elite youth ski racers: 234 provincial ski racers (P-SR; high level of competition) and 137 national ski racers (N-SR; very high level of competition). Anthropometric characteristics were measured to calculate the age at peak height velocity (APHV) as an indicator of the biological maturity status. A significant RAE was present among both P-SR and N-SR, with a larger effect size among the latter group. The N-SR significantly differed in APHV from the P-SR. The distribution of normal, early and late maturing athletes significantly differed from the expected normal distribution among the N-SR, not among the P-SR. Hardly any late maturing N-SR were present; 41.7% of the male and 34% of the female N-SR of the last relative age quarter were early maturing. These findings clearly demonstrate the significant influence of the biological maturity status on the selection process of youth alpine ski racing in dependence of the level of competition. Relatively younger athletes seem to have a chance of selection only if they are early maturing. PMID:27504832

  18. Effect of age and pregnancy status on adaptive immune responses of Canadian Holstein replacement heifers.

    PubMed

    Hine, B C; Cartwright, S L; Mallard, B A

    2011-02-01

    Selection for production traits with little or no emphasis on health traits has led to an increase in the incidence of disease in Canadian dairy herds. We describe here a patented protocol for estimating the breeding value for immune responsiveness in heifers that combines measures of both cell-mediated (CM) and antibody-mediated (AM) immune responses (IR). The ability of putative type 1 and type 2 antigens used to induce CMIR and AMIR, respectively, was assessed in replacement Holstein heifers, and the effects of age and pregnancy on type 1 and type 2 IR bias were estimated. Results demonstrated that the type 1 and type 2 antigens induced polarized type 1 and type 2 responses in heifers regardless of age and pregnancy status, and can therefore be used to identify animals with superior overall immune responsiveness. However, age and pregnancy status had significant effects on adaptive IR profiles, highlighting the need for appropriate statistical modeling of such effects when ranking animals on their ability to mount CM and AMIR. Responses became increasingly type 1 biased as heifers approached 12 mo of age, from which point, responses then became increasingly type 2 biased with age and length of gestation. Knowledge of how age and pregnancy influence the dynamics of type 1 and type 2 IR bias is expected to improve our ability to select animals with enhanced immune responsiveness and aid in the development of effective vaccines through strategic targeting of vaccine components to recipients. PMID:21257066

  19. Family socioeconomic status and child executive functions: the roles of language, home environment, and single parenthood.

    PubMed

    Sarsour, Khaled; Sheridan, Margaret; Jutte, Douglas; Nuru-Jeter, Amani; Hinshaw, Stephen; Boyce, W Thomas

    2011-01-01

    The association between family socioeconomic status (SES) and child executive functions is well-documented. However, few studies have examined the role of potential mediators and moderators. We studied the independent and interactive associations between family SES and single parenthood to predict child executive functions of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and working memory and examined child expressive language abilities and family home environment as potential mediators of these associations. Sixty families from diverse SES backgrounds with a school-age target child (mean [SD] age = 9.9 [0.96] years) were evaluated. Child executive functioning was measured using a brief battery. The quality of the home environment was evaluated using the Home Observation for the Measurement of the Environment inventory. Family SES predicted the three child executive functions under study. Single parent and family SES were interactively associated with children's inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility; such that children from low SES families who were living with one parent performed less well on executive function tests than children from similarly low SES who were living with two parents. Parental responsivity, enrichment activities and family companionship mediated the association between family SES and child inhibitory control and working memory. This study demonstrates that family SES inequalities are associated with inequalities in home environments and with inequalities in child executive functions. The impact of these disparities as they unfold in the lives of typically developing children merits further investigation and understanding. PMID:21073770

  20. Changes in Pituitary Function with Aging and Implications for Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Veldhuis, Johannes D.

    2014-01-01

    The pituitary gland has a role in puberty, reproduction, stress-adaptive responses, sodium and water balance, uterine contractions, lactation, thyroid function, growth, body composition and skin pigmentation. Ageing is marked by initially subtle erosion of physiological signalling mechanisms, resulting in lower incremental secretory-burst amplitude, more disorderly patterns of pituitary hormone release and blunted 24 h rhythmic secretion. Almost all pituitary hormones are altered by ageing in humans, often in a manner dependent upon sex, body composition, stress, comorbidity, intercurrent illness, medication use, physical frailty, caloric intake, immune status, level of exercise, and neurocognitive decline. The aim of this article is to critically discuss the mechanisms mediating clinical facets of changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary axis during ageing, and the extent to which confounding factors operate to obscure ageing effects. PMID:23438832

  1. Relationship of depressive symptoms to functional status in women with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Song, Eun Kyeung; Moser, Debra K.; Lennie, Terry A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Among patients with heart failure, women have worse functional status than do men, but little research has focused on determining factors that influence functional status in either sex. Objectives To compare factors that influence functional status in men and women with heart failure and to test whether depressive symptoms mediate the relationship between physical symptoms and functional status. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive study design was used. A total of 231 patients, 133 men and 98 women, were recruited from an inpatient heart failure clinic in South Korea. Functional status (the Korean Activity Scale/Index), physical symptoms (the Symptom Status Questionnaire), depressive symptoms (the Beck Depression Inventory), and situational factors (living status, socioeconomic status) were measured. Hierarchical multiple regression and mediation analysis were used for data analysis. Results Women (mean score, 24.5; SD, 17.3) had worse functional status than did men (mean score, 31.9; SD, 20.1; P=.004). Dyspnea on exertion (β = −0.16), ankle swelling (β = −0.19), fatigue (β = −0.20), and depressive symptoms (β = −0.19) were independently associated with functional status in women, whereas only dyspnea on exertion (β = −0.30) influenced functional status of men in hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Mediation analysis indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relationship between physical symptoms and functional status in women with heart failure, but not in men. Conclusions Distinct physical and psychological symptoms influence functional status in women with heart failure. A systematic multidimensional intervention may be required to target depressive symptoms to improve functional status in women with heart failure. PMID:19556413

  2. Factors Impacting Functional Status in Veterans of Recent Conflicts With PTSD.

    PubMed

    Kozel, F Andrew; Didehbani, Nyaz; DeLaRosa, Bambi; Bass, Christina; Schraufnagel, Caitlin D; Morgan, Cassie Rae; Jones, Penelope; Spence, Jeffrey S; Hart, John

    2016-01-01

    Veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) underwent a systematic evaluation to determine which factors were associated with the degree of functional status. Demographic information, self-report scales, and symptom ratings performed by trained evaluators were investigated in multiple regression models to determine their contribution to functional status. Ninety-six participants were included in the model assessing degree of functional status. Depressive symptoms, a depressive disorder diagnosis, and to a lesser extent, the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale were selected in the final model that best predicted the degree of functional status. Depressive symptoms significantly affect the function of veterans with PTSD. PMID:26670785

  3. Influence of socioeconomic status on lung function and prediction equations in Indian children.

    PubMed

    Raju, P Sitarama; Prasad, K V V; Ramana, Y Venkata; Balakrishna, N; Murthy, K J R

    2005-06-01

    The present study was carried out to assess the influence of socioeconomic status on lung functions and to suggest prediction equations for Indian children. For this purpose, 2,616 normal, healthy schoolchildren aged between 5-15 years were recruited. Boys were classified into three groups, i.e., high-income (HIG), middle-income (MIG), and low-income (LIG), while girls were classified into HIG and LIG groups, based on socioeconomic status (SES). Height, weight, chest circumference, body surface area (BSA), fat-free mass (FFM), and body fat were assessed. Forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC), FEV1/FVC ratio, and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were measured. The results, before and after adjustment of physical characteristics, showed that anthropometry, body composition, and lung functions were significantly higher in HIG compared to MIG and LIG children, while in girls, no differences were observed in physical characteristics after adjustments. Multiple linear regression equations were developed to predict FEV1, FVC, and PEFR, using independent variables like age, height, fat-free mass, and SES. It is opined that these equations could be used as Indian reference equations for healthy children based on the SES. PMID:15789442

  4. BODY IMAGE AMONG MEN WHO PRACTICE BODY BUILDING: COMPARISON BY AGE, ECONOMIC STATUS, AND CITY SIZE.

    PubMed

    Silva, Diego A S; Da Silva, Rafael C; Gonçalves, Eliane C A

    2015-10-01

    Identifying the factors that influence the body image of body builders is important for understanding this construct. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between body image and age, socioeconomic status, and place of residence of body builders from two cities in Brazil. A cross-sectional study of 301 body builders with an average age of 25.2 yr. (SD = 3.5) was carried out. The Muscle Silhouette Measure scale was used, in which the discrepancy between current and desired silhouette was examined. Older body builders showed greater discrepancy between current and desired silhouette, reflecting their desire for a more muscular body. PMID:26445150

  5. EARLY CHILDHOOD LENGTH-FOR-AGE IS ASSOCIATED WITH THE WORK STATUS OF FILIPINO YOUNG ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Carba, Delia B.; Tan, Vivencia L.; Adair, Linda S.

    2009-01-01

    Most studies on childhood health and human capital in developing countries examine how early childhood linear growth relates to later human productivity as reflected in schooling success. Work status is another important human capital outcome related to early child health. This study examines the relationship of linear growth restriction at two years of age to work status in young adults who have, for the most part completed their schooling and further explores whether this relationship differs by gender. The analysis sample of 1,795 was drawn from participants in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, which followed individuals from birth to age 20–22 years. Work status in 2005 was represented by three categories: not working, working in an informal job, and working in a formal job. Formal work in the Philippines, as in most countries, is associated with regular hours, higher wages and benefits. Analyses were stratified by gender and current school enrolment, and adjusted for socioeconomic status and attained years of schooling. Among males no longer in school, higher length-for-age Z score (LAZ) at age 2 was associated with a 40% increase in likelihood of formal work compared to not working. In females, each 1 unit increase in LAZ was associated with 0.2 higher likelihood of formal vs. informal work. No significant associations were observed in the small sample of young adults still in school. To improve job prospects of young adults, it is important to provide proper nutrition in early childhood and adequate educational opportunities during schooling years. PMID:19261549

  6. Transgenerational interactions involving parental age and immune status affect female reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Nystrand, M.; Dowling, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the parental phenotype can influence offspring phenotypic expression, independent of the effects of the offspring's own genotype. Nonetheless, the evolutionary implications of such parental effects remain unclear, partly because previous studies have generally overlooked the potential for interactions between parental sources of non-genetic variance to influence patterns of offspring phenotypic expression. We tested for such interactions, subjecting male and female Drosophila melanogaster of two different age classes to an immune activation challenge or a control treatment. Flies were then crossed in all age and immune status combinations, and the reproductive success of their immune- and control-treated daughters measured. We found that daughters produced by two younger parents exhibited reduced reproductive success relative to those of other parental age combinations. Furthermore, immune-challenged daughters exhibited higher reproductive success when produced by immune-challenged relative to control-treated mothers, a pattern consistent with transgenerational immune priming. Finally, a complex interplay between paternal age and parental immune statuses influenced daughter's reproductive success. These findings demonstrate the dynamic nature of age- and immune-mediated parental effects, traceable to both parents, and regulated by interactions between parents and between parents and offspring. PMID:25253454

  7. Neurocognitive and Functional Correlates of Mobile Phone Use in Middle-Aged and Older Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Depp, Colin A; Harmell, Alexandrea L; Vahia, Ipsit V; Mausbach, Brent T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to examine the association of mobile phone use and ownership with psychopathology, cognitive functioning and functional outcome in 196 outpatients aged 40 and older who were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Methods Participants reported their past and current mobile phone use on a standardized self-report scale and they were administered tests of global cognition, functional capacity and informant-rated functional outcome. Results The great majority of subjects had used a mobile phone (78%) but few currently owned one (27%). After adjusting for age (mean age 51), any past mobile phone use was associated with less severe negative symptoms, and higher global cognitive performance, functional capacity, and functional outcome. A total of 60% of participants reported being comfortable with mobile phones, but comfort was not associated with any cognitive or functional outcomes. Conclusions Most older patients with schizophrenia have used mobile phones and lifetime mobile phone use is a positive indicator of cognitive and functional status. PMID:25768842

  8. Aging impacts isolated lymphoid follicle development and function

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Immunosenescence is the age-related decline and dysfunction of protective immunity leading to a marked increase in the risk of infections, autoimmune disease, and cancer. The majority of studies have focused on immunosenescence in the systemic immune system; information concerning the effect of aging on intestinal immunity is limited. Isolated lymphoid follicles (ILFs) are newly appreciated dynamic intestinal lymphoid structures that arise from nascent lymphoid tissues, or cryptopatches (CP), in response to local inflammatory stimuli. ILFs promote "homeostatic" responses including the production of antigen-specific IgA, thus playing a key role in mucosal immune protection. ILF dysfunction with aging could contribute to immunosenescence of the mucosal system, and accordingly we examined phenotypic and functional aspects of ILFs from young (2 month old) and aged (2 year old) mice. Results We observed that aged mice have increased numbers of ILFs and increased numbers of structures corresponding to an early stage of CPs transforming into ILFs. The cellular composition of ILFs in aged mice is altered with a smaller B-lymphocyte population and an increased T-lymphocyte population. The ILF T-lymphocyte population is notable by the presence of CD4+ CD8αα+ T-lymphocytes, which are absent from the systemic compartment. The smaller B-lymphocyte population in ILFs from aged mice is directly correlated with decreased mRNA and protein expression of CCL20 and CXCL13, two chemokines that play crucial roles in recruiting B-lymphocytes into ILFs. Aged mice had elevated levels of serum and fecal immunoglobulins and despite the decreased B-lymphocyte population, ILFs from aged mice displayed increased IgA production. The immunoglobulin repertoire was skewed in aged mice, and ILFs demonstrated a repertoire usage similar to that of the systemic pool in both young and aged mice. Conclusions Here we observed that ILF development, cellular composition, and immunoglobulin

  9. Mitochondrial function in ageing: coordination with signalling and transcriptional pathways.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fei; Sancheti, Harsh; Liu, Zhigang; Cadenas, Enrique

    2016-04-15

    Mitochondrial dysfunction entailing decreased energy-transducing capacity and perturbed redox homeostasis is an early and sometimes initiating event in ageing and age-related disorders involving tissues with high metabolic rate such as brain, liver and heart. In the central nervous system (CNS), recent findings from our and other groups suggest that the mitochondrion-centred hypometabolism is a key feature of ageing brains and Alzheimer's disease. This hypometabolic state is manifested by lowered neuronal glucose uptake, metabolic shift in the astrocytes, and alternations in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle function. Similarly, in liver and adipose tissue, mitochondrial capacity around glucose and fatty acid metabolism and thermogenesis is found to decline with age and is implicated in age-related metabolic disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. These mitochondrion-related disorders in peripheral tissues can impact on brain functions through metabolic, hormonal and inflammatory signals. At the cellular level, studies in CNS and non-CNS tissues support the notion that instead of being viewed as autonomous organelles, mitochondria are part of a dynamic network with close interactions with other cellular components through energy- or redox-sensitive cytosolic kinase signalling and transcriptional pathways. Hence, it would be critical to further understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the communication between mitochondria and the rest of the cell. Therapeutic strategies that effectively preserves or improve mitochondrial function by targeting key component of these signalling cascades could represent a novel direction for numerous mitochondrion-implicated, age-related disorders. PMID:26293414

  10. Functional Status of Long-Term Breast Cancer Survivors: Demonstrating Chronicity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polinsky, Margaret L.

    1994-01-01

    Surveyed 223 breast cancer survivors 16 months to 32 years from original surgery to assess their current physical, psychological, and social functional status. Although general measures of functioning indicated high physical, psychological, and social functional status, measures specific to breast cancer diagnosis and treatment indicated problems…

  11. The aging of elite male athletes: age-related changes in performance and skeletal muscle structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Faulkner, John A.; Davis, Carol S.; Mendias, Christopher L.; Brooks, Susan V.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The paper addresses the degree to which the attainment of the status as an elite athlete in different sports ameliorates the known age-related losses in skeletal muscle structure and function. Design The retrospective design, based on comparisons of published data on former elite and masters athletes and data on control subjects, assessed the degree to which the attainment of ‘elite and masters athlete status’ ameliorated the known age-related changes in skeletal muscle structure and function. Setting Institutional. Participants Elite male athletes. Interventions Participation in selected individual and team sports. Main Outcome Measurements Strength, power, VO2 max and performance. Results For elite athletes in all sports, as for the general population, age-related muscle atrophy begins at about 50 years of age. Despite the loss of muscle mass, elite athletes who maintain an active life style age gracefully with few health problems. Conversely, those who lapse into inactivity regress toward general population norms for fitness, weight control, and health problems. Elite athletes in the dual and team sports have careers that rarely extend into the thirties. Conclusions Life long physical activity does not appear to have any impact on the loss in fiber number. The loss of fibers can be buffered to some degree by hypertrophy of fibers that remain. Surprisingly, the performance of elite athletes in all sports appears to be impaired before the onset of the fiber loss. Even with major losses in physical capacity and muscle mass, the performance of elite and masters athletes is remarkable. PMID:19001883

  12. Older Age Does Not Affect Healing Time and Functional Outcomes After Fracture Nonunion Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Taormina, David P.; Shulman, Brandon S.; Karia, Raj; Spitzer, Allison B.; Konda, Sanjit R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Elderly patients are at risk of fracture nonunion, given the potential setting of osteopenia, poorer fracture biology, and comorbid medical conditions. Risk factors predicting fracture nonunion may compromise the success of fracture nonunion surgery. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of patient age on clinical and functional outcome following long bone fracture nonunion surgery. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data identified 288 patients (aged 18-91) who were indicated for long bone nonunion surgery. Two-hundred and seventy-two patients satisfied study inclusion criteria and analyses were performed comparing elderly patients aged ≥65 years (n = 48) with patients <65 years (n = 224) for postoperative wound complications, Short Musculoskeletal Functional Assessment (SMFA) functional status, healing, and surgical revision. Regression analyses were performed to look for associations between age, smoking status, and history of previous nonunion surgery with healing and functional outcome. Twelve-month follow-up was obtained on 91.5% (249 of 272) of patients. Results: Despite demographic differences in the aged population, including a predominance of medical comorbidities (P < .01) and osteopenia (P = .02), there was no statistical differences in the healing rate of elderly patients (95.8% vs 95.1%, P = .6) or time to union (6.2 ± 4.1 months vs. 7.2 ± 6.6, P = .3). Rates of postoperative wound complications and surgical revision did not statistically differ. Elderly patients reported similar levels of function up to 12 months after surgery. Regression analyses failed to show any significant association between age and final union or time to union. There was a strong positive association between smoking and history of previous nonunion surgery with time to union. Age was associated (positively) with 12-month SMFA activity score. Conclusions: Smoking and failure of previous surgical

  13. Vitamin status and cognitive function in a long-term care population

    PubMed Central

    Paulionis, Lina; Kane, Sheri-Lynn; Meckling, Kelly A

    2005-01-01

    Background Ageing can be associated with poor dietary intake, reduced nutrient absorption, and less efficient utilization of nutrients. Loss of memory and related cognitive function are also common among older persons. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of inadequate vitamin status among long-term care patients and determine if an association exists between vitamin status and each of three variables; cognitive function, vitamin supplementation, and medications which alter gastric acid levels. Methods Seventy-five patients in a long-term care hospital in Guelph, Ontario were recruited to a cross-sectional study. 47 were female and the mean age was 80.7 (+/-11.5) years, ranging from 48 to 100 years. Blood was used to measure levels of vitamins B12 (cobalamin), B6 (pyridoxal-5'-phosphate/PLP), erythrocyte folate, vitamin B3 (niacin) and homocysteine (Hcy). The Standardized Mini-Mental State Examination (SMMSE) was administered to measure cognitive function. A list of medications and vitamin supplementation for each patient was provided by the pharmacy. Results The prevalence of low vitamin (B12, B6, erythrocyte folate, niacin) or high metabolite (homocysteine) levels among 75 patients were as follows: B12 <148 pmol/L in 5/75 (6.7%); B12 between 148 and 221 pmol/L in 26/75 (34.7%); B6 ≤30 nmol/L in 4/75 (5.3%); erythrocyte folate <370 nmol/L in 1/75 (1.3%); niacin ratio ≤1 in 20/75 (26.7%); homocysteine >13.3 μmol/L in 31/75 (41.3%). There was no significant difference among residents grouped into marked (n = 44), mild (n = 14), or normal (n = 9) cognitive function when evaluating the effect of vitamin status. There were no significant differences in mean B12 and homocysteine levels between users and non-users of drug therapy (Losec, Zantac, or Axid). Compared to vitamin supplement non-users, supplemented residents had significantly higher mean B12 (p < 0.0001) and erythrocyte folate (p < 0.05) concentrations and significantly lower mean homocysteine (p

  14. Nutritional status, biological maturation and cardiorespiratory fitness in Azorean youth aged 11–15 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sex and individual differences in biological maturity status can influence height, weight, and body fat. Thus, the rigorous control of these variables seems necessary for estimating overweight and obesity in adolescents. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and over-fatness in Azorean adolescents and to examine the contributions of chronological age, sex, estimated maturity status, and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to the risk of overweight and obesity and over-fatness. Methods The sample comprised 1,206 youth aged 11–15 years (626 boys and 580 girls) from the Azores Islands, Portugal. Body mass, stature, and skinfolds (triceps and subscapular) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated and percent fat was predicted from skinfolds. Age- and sex-specific IOTF cut-off values of the BMI defined nutritional status. Biological maturation was estimated as present height expressed as a percentage of predicted adult (mature) stature. The CRF was analyzed from the 20-m shuttle run test. Results The total prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were of 31% and 27%, respectively. Low CRF (unfit) and being average and advanced in maturity status were positively and significantly associated with overweight/obesity and with risk of being over-fatness in both sexes. Conclusions High prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and over-fatness were identified in Azorean youth, and low CRF and advanced biological maturation were positively associated with overweight/obesity and over-fatness in our sample of adolescents. PMID:23697718

  15. Influence of diet on iron, copper, and zinc status in children under 24 months of age.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Andrew; Redworth, Edward Wallis; Morgan, Jane B

    2004-03-01

    The objective of the study was to determine whether iron and micronutrient status is improved with an increased amount of meat in the diet. To this end, a longitudinal prospective study with infants recruited at 4 mo and followed until 24 mo of age was undertaken. One hundred ninety-eight infants formed the original study cohort; 48 withdrew before the end of the study. Subjects were classified as nonmeat eaters or as mixed (red and white)-meat eaters subgrouped into tertiles depending on the meat content reported in diet diaries. Seven-day weighed food records were recorded at 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 mo. Blood samples taken at 4, 12, and 24 mo were analyzed for parameters of iron and micronutrient status. Iron intake increased during the first year, thereafter remaining constant. The percentages of subjects with hemoglobin values below 110 g/L were 34.1, 23.1, and 13.4 at 4, 12, and 24 mo, respectively. For parameters of iron status, the number of results below the reference range was determined for each diet group and a significant negative relationship between serum iron and meat intake at 12 mo of age was seen (p<0.023). There was a trend for hemoglobin concentrations to be inversely related to the meat intake, at the same age (p<0.068). No effects on zinc or copper status were seen. We conclude that a weak association between dietary meat and iron/Hb suggests a positive role for red meat. There was no disadvantage to the nonmeat-eating infants with respect to zinc or copper. PMID:14997021

  16. Considering maturation status and relative age in the longitudinal evaluation of junior rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Till, K; Cobley, S; O' Hara, J; Cooke, C; Chapman, C

    2014-06-01

    This study longitudinally evaluated whether maturation and relative age interact with time during adolescence to differentially affect the development of anthropometric and fitness characteristics in junior rugby league players. Anthropometric and fitness characteristics of 81 junior players selected into the UK Rugby Football League's talent identification and development process were assessed over three consecutive occasions (i.e., under-13s, -14s, -15s). Players were grouped and compared in relation to maturational status (i.e., early, average, late) and relative age quartile (i.e., quartile 1). Repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance identified significant (P < 0.001) overall main effects for maturation group, relative age quartile and importantly a maturation group by time interaction. Findings showed that the early-maturing group had the greatest anthropometric characteristics and medicine ball throw across the three occasions. However, the late-maturing group increased their height (early = 5.0 cm, late = 10.3 cm), medicine ball throw and 60-m sprint (early = -0.46 s, late = -0.85 s) the most throughout the 2-year period. Early (de)selection policies currently applied in talent identification and development programs are questionable when performance-related variables are tracked longitudinally. During adolescence, maturation status alongside relative age should be considered and controlled for when assessing athlete potential for future progression. PMID:23289942

  17. Weight status and bullying behaviors among Chinese school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoqun; Chen, Gui; Yan, Junxia; Luo, Jiayou

    2016-02-01

    This study was to examine the relationship between measured weight status and three experiences as victims, bullies and bully-victims. The participants were 10,587 Chinese school-aged students (girls: 5,527, boys: 5,060) who ranged in age from 7 to 18 years old. Height and weight were measured. Bullying behavior was obtained by one-to-one interview in 7-10 years older students and group-administered surveys in 11-18 years older students. The results showed that, obese girls were more likely to be victimized (OR=1.73, CI: 1.16-2.59) compared to normal students. For boys, obesity was not associated with victimization, but obese boys (OR=1.45, CI: 1.04-2.03), especially 7-13 years old boys (OR=1.98, CI: 1.35-2.90) were more likely to bully others; obese boys also were more likely to be victim/bullies (OR=1.67, CI: 1.05-2.64). Weight victimization in Chinese school-aged children is not as common as in the west countries, but obese girls clearly realize more victimization, and obese younger boys show obvious aggression. Related departments should provide specific intervention for school bullying according students' weight status, age and gender. PMID:26773898

  18. Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Age: Exploring Intersections in Preterm Birth Disparities among Teen Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Coley, Sheryl L.; Nichols, Tracy R.; Rulison, Kelly L.; Aronson, Robert E.; Brown-Jeffy, Shelly L.; Morrison, Sharon D.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined disparities in adverse birth outcomes and compared contributing socioeconomic factors specifically between African-American and White teen mothers. This study examined intersections between neighborhood socioeconomic status (as defined by census-tract median household income), maternal age, and racial disparities in preterm birth (PTB) outcomes between African-American and White teen mothers in North Carolina. Using a linked dataset with state birth record data and socioeconomic information from the 2010 US Census, disparities in preterm birth outcomes for 16,472 teen mothers were examined through bivariate and multilevel analyses. African-American teens had significantly greater odds of PTB outcomes than White teens (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 1.21, 1.56). Racial disparities in PTB rates significantly varied by neighborhood income; PTB rates were 2.1 times higher for African-American teens in higher income neighborhoods compared to White teens in similar neighborhoods. Disparities in PTB did not vary significantly between teens younger than age 17 and teens ages 17-19, although the magnitude of racial disparities was larger between younger African-American and White teens. These results justify further investigations using intersectional frameworks to test the effects of racial status, neighborhood socioeconomic factors, and maternal age on birth outcome disparities among infants born to teen mothers. PMID:25729614

  19. Family obligations and individuation among immigrant youth: Do generational status and age at immigration matter?

    PubMed

    Oznobishin, Olga; Kurman, Jenny

    2016-08-01

    Immigrant children and adolescents often assume parental roles in their families and may feel guilty about psychologically separating and individuating from the family. However, little is known about this phenomenon and youth' generational status and age at immigration. We investigated various aspects of family obligations (instrumental and emotional roles, language and culture brokering, perceived unfairness) and individuation among 302 immigrants from the former Soviet Union in Israel: first-generation (n = 44) and second-generation immigrant adolescents (n = 56); young adults who had arrived in Israel before the age of nine (n = 72) and from this age onward (n = 130). Immigrants who had arrived at age nine and older reported adopting more family obligations than other groups. Among the second-generation immigrants, family obligations were related to lower individuation compared to the first-generation immigrants. Possible explanations for the relations between family obligations and individuation according to generational status are suggested. PMID:27348550

  20. Population Distributions of Thymic Function in Adults: Variation by Sociodemographic Characteristics and Health Status.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Lydia; Ferrando-Martínez, Sara; Leal, Manuel; Zhou, Xuan; Sempowski, Gregory D; Wildman, Derek E; Uddin, Monica; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-01-01

    The thymus is critical for mounting an effective immune response and maintaining health. However, epidemiologic studies characterizing thymic function in the population setting are lacking. Using data from 263 adults in the Detroit Neighborhood Health Study, we examined thymic function as measured by the number of signal joint T-cell receptor excision circles (sjTREC) and assessed associations with established indicators of physiological health. Overall, increasing age and male gender were significantly associated with reduced thymic function. Adjusting for covariates, individuals with elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory biomarkers C-reactive protein (β: -0.50 [95% CI: -0.82, -0.18] for moderate elevation, β: -0.29 [95% CI: -0.59, 0.00] for high elevation) and interleukin-6 (β: -0.60 [95% CI: -0.92, -0.28] for moderate elevation, β: -0.43 [95% CI: -0.77, -0.08] for severe elevation) also had lower thymic function. Compared to individuals with a BMI < 25, individuals who were overweight (β: 0.36 [95% CI: 0.07, 0.64]) or obese (β: 0.27 [95% CI: -0.03, 0.56]) had higher thymic function. Differences by self-rated health were not statistically significant. Our findings underscore demographic- and health-related gradients in thymic function among adult residents of Detroit, suggesting thymic function may be an important biomarker of health status in adults at the population level. PMID:27337555

  1. Are dieting-related cognitive impairments a function of iron status?

    PubMed

    Green, Michael W; Elliman, Nicola A

    2013-01-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the impairments in cognitive function observed in unsupported dieting are related to compromised Fe status. During a non-clinical intervention, overweight participants (age: 18-45 years, BMI: 25-30 kg/m²) either participated in a commercially available weight-loss regimen (n 14), dieted without support (n 17) or acted as a non-dieting control group (n 14) for a period of 8 weeks. Measurements of cognitive function and blood chemistry were taken at a pre-diet baseline, after 1 week and 8 weeks of dieting. After 1 week, unsupported dieters displayed impaired verbal memory, executive function and slower reaction speeds than the other two groups, this difference disappearing by the end of the study. There were no significant group-related changes in blood chemistry over the course of the study, although there were group-related changes in a number of self-reported food-related cognitions. In conclusion, impaired cognition among unsupported dieters is not due to compromised Fe status and is most likely to result from psychological variables. PMID:22414889

  2. Executive Functions after Age 5: Changes and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Best, John R.; Miller, Patricia H.; Jones, Lara L.

    2009-01-01

    Research and theorizing on executive function (EF) in childhood has been disproportionately focused on preschool age children. This review paper outlines the importance of examining EF throughout childhood, and even across the lifespan. First, examining EF in older children can address the question of whether EF is a unitary construct. The relations among the EF components, particularly as they are recruited for complex tasks, appear to change over the course of development. Second, much of the development of EF, especially working memory, shifting, and planning, occurs after age 5. Third, important applications of EF research concern the role of school-age children’s EF in various aspects of school performance, as well as social functioning and emotional control. Future research needs to examine a more complete developmental span, from early childhood through late adulthood, in order to address developmental issues adequately. PMID:20161467

  3. AGING AND RESPONSES TO TOXINS IN FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Female reproductive functions improve after puberty to reach a maximum within the first quarter of the lifespan of most mammals. hereafter, there are progressive declines with age leading in most mammalian species to a loss of fertility by midlife. The changes are complex and the...

  4. Executive Functions after Age 5: Changes and Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Best, John R.; Miller, Patricia H.; Jones, Lara L.

    2009-01-01

    Research and theorizing on executive function (EF) in childhood has been disproportionately focused on preschool age children. This review paper outlines the importance of examining EF throughout childhood, and even across the lifespan. First, examining EF in older children can address the question of whether EF is a unitary construct. The…

  5. Walnuts improve neuronal and behavioral function in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction Walnuts are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and polyphenols which have been shown to improve neurochemical and behavioral function. Objectives This study investigated the mechanisms associated with age-related behavioral improvements in rats fed diets supplemented with walnu...

  6. Endorsement of Ellis' Irrational Beliefs as a Function of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Dong Yul; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Children from grades 5, 7, 9, 11, and 13 were administered a modification of Ellis' eleven irrational beliefs questionnaire. As predicted, the younger children showed higher irrational scores, indicating that endorsing irrational beliefs is a function of age. Construct validity and uses of the scale are discussed. (Editor/SJL)

  7. Executive Function in Very Preterm Children at Early School Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarnoudse-Moens, Cornelieke S. H.; Smidts, Diana P.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J.; Weisglas-Kuperus, Nynke

    2009-01-01

    We examined whether very preterm ([less than or equal to] 30 weeks gestation) children at early school age have impairments in executive function (EF) independent of IQ and processing speed, and whether demographic and neonatal risk factors were associated with EF impairments. A consecutive sample of 50 children (27 boys and 23 girls) born very…

  8. 25 CFR 115.430 - Will your account lose its supervised status when you reach the age of 18?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... reach the age of 18? 115.430 Section 115.430 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Will your account lose its supervised status when you reach the age of 18? Your account will no longer be supervised when you reach the age of 18 unless statutory language or a tribal resolution...

  9. 25 CFR 115.430 - Will your account lose its supervised status when you reach the age of 18?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... reach the age of 18? 115.430 Section 115.430 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Will your account lose its supervised status when you reach the age of 18? Your account will no longer be supervised when you reach the age of 18 unless statutory language or a tribal resolution...

  10. Optimism and depression as predictors of physical and mental health functioning: the Normative Aging Study.

    PubMed

    Achat, H; Kawachi, I; Spiro, A; DeMolles, D A; Sparrow, D

    2000-01-01

    Dispositional optimism has been linked in previous studies to better health outcomes. We sought to examine the independent associations of dispositional optimism and depressive symptoms with physical and mental functioning in a cohort of healthy middle-aged and older men. The study was conducted among 659 subjects in the Veterans Administration (VA) Normative Aging Study. Dispositional optimism and depressive symptomatology were measured in 1991 and 1990, respectively, by the Life Orientation Test and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies--Depression Scale (CES-D). The dependent variables, functioning and well-being, were measured in 1992 by the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). In multivariate regression models, optimism was associated with higher levels of general health perceptions, vitality, and mental health, and lower levels of bodily pain, but not to physical functioning, social functioning, or role limitations due to physical or emotional problems. Depressive symptomatology was associated with reduced levels of functioning across all SF-36 domains. The findings for optimism and depression were statistically significant after mutual adjustment in multivariate regression models. Optimism and depression are independent predictors of functional status among aging men. PMID:10962705

  11. Health, functioning and disability in older adults – current status and future implications

    PubMed Central

    Chatterji, Somnath; Byles, Julie; Cutler, David; Seeman, Teresa; Verdes, Emese

    2016-01-01

    Summary Aging is a dynamic process with trends in health status of older adults varying over time due to a range of factors. We examined reported trends in morbidity and mortality among older adults over the past two decades in order to determine patterns of ageing across the world. We found some evidence for compression of morbidity, i.e., less amount of time spent in worse health, when: a) studies were of a good quality based on evaluation criteria scores; b) a disability- or impairment-related measure of morbidity was used; c) studies were longitudinal or; d) studies were conducted in the United States and some other high income countries. Many studies reported evidence to the contrary, i.e., for an expansion of morbidity but with different methods these are not directly comparable. Expansion of morbidity was more common when trends in chronic disease prevalence were studied. Our secondary analysis of data from longitudinal ageing surveys present a similar picture. However, there are considerable variations across countries in patterns of limitations in functioning and within countries over time with no discernible explanations. Data from low income countries is very sparse and efforts to collect information on the health of older adults in less-developed regions of the world is urgently required. Studies focussing on refining measurement with a core set of domains of functioning and studying the impacts of these evolving patterns on the health care system and their economic implications are needed. PMID:25468158

  12. Effects of age and sex on copper absorption, turnover, and status

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.E.; Milne, D.B. )

    1991-03-15

    Healthy, free-living men and women aged 20 to 59 years were studied to determine the effects of age and sex on Cu absorption, biological half-life (BH) and status. Additional women who were taking oral contraceptives (OCH) or estrogens were compared to women the same ages who did not take hormones. After an overnight fast, subjects provided a blood sample and ate breakfast labeled with 2.5 {mu}Ci Cu-67. Total Cu-67 ingested was determined after the meal by counting subjects in a whole-body gamma counter. Whole body retention of Cu-67 was monitored by 10 additional counts during the next 21 days. Cu absorption (%A) was calculated by extrapolation of the linear portion of a semi-log plot of % retention vs time. BH was {minus}1n2/slope. %A was significantly greater in women than men aged 20-50, but was not affected by age. BH was not significantly affected by either age or sex. Plasma Cu, enzymatic ceruloplasmin (Cp), and RID Cp were significantly higher in women than men, but SOD and in vitro Cu-67 uptake by RBCs did not differ. None of the biochemical indices were significantly affected by age, except RID Cp, which increased with age. Plasma Cu, enzymatic Cp, and SOD activity were higher in women aged 20-39 taking OCH than in those not taking OCH, but %A and BH did not differ between the groups. Trends in women 50-59 taking estrogen or not were similar to findings for women with/without OCH. These data suggest that dietary Cu requirements may differ between men and women.

  13. Aging and male reproductive function: a mitochondrial perspective.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Sandra; Amaral, Alexandra; Ramalho-Santos, Joao

    2013-01-01

    Researching the effects of aging in the male reproductive system is not trivial. Not only are multiple changes at molecular, cellular and endocrine levels involved, but any findings must be discussed with variable individual characteristics, as well as with lifestyle and environmental factors. Age-related changes in the reproductive system include any aspect of reproductive function, from deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and of local auto/paracrine interactions, to effects on testicular stem cells, defects in testicular architecture and spermatogenesis, or sperm with decreased functionality. Several theories place mitochondria at the hub of cellular events related to aging, namely regarding the accumulation of oxidative damage to cells and tissues, a process in which these organelles play a prominent role, although alternative theories have also emerged. However, oxidative stress is not the only process involved in mitochondrial-related aging; mitochondrial energy metabolism, changes in mitochondrial DNA or in mitochondrial-dependent testosterone production are also important. Crucially, all these issues are likely interdependent. We will review evidence that suggests that mitochondria constitute a common link between aging and fertility loss. PMID:23277044

  14. Counseling the post-radical prostatectomy patients about functional recovery: high predictiveness of current status

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J.; Kent, Matthew; Mulhall, John; Sandhu, Jaspreet

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop prediction models to help counsel post-radical prostatectomy patients about functional recovery. Methods The study included 2162 patients undergoing radical prostatectomy at a major cancer center who reported urinary and erectile function at one year or at two years and at least 1 prior follow-up at 3, 6, 9, or 12 months. We created logistic regression models predicting function at one or two years on the basis of function at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months (2 years only), with the additional predictors of age, stage, grade, PSA, nerve-sparing status and baseline functional score. Results No variable other than current functional score had a consistent, statistically significant relationship with outcome. The area-under-the-curves for predicting function at 2 years based on current function alone at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months were, respectively, 0.796, 0.831, 0.882, and 0.885 for erectile function and 0.789, 0.862, 0.869 and 0.876 for urinary function. Patients using one pad at 6 months had only a 50% probability of being pad free at 2 years; this dropped to 36% for patients using 2 pads. This suggests that there is an opportunity for early identification and possible referral of patients likely to have long-term urinary dysfunction. Conclusions Assessment of urinary and erectile function in the first post-operative year is strongly predictive of long-term outcome and can guide patient counseling and decisions about rehabilitative treatments. PMID:24824411

  15. Reaction to Frustration as a Function of Learning Potential Status. Volume 1, Number 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Budoff, Milton; Pines, Ayala

    Twenty seven educable retarded children (ages 11 to 16) were divided into three groups based on learning potential status: highscorers, gainers, and nongainers. A dexterity test and a mirror drawing of a six-pointed star were administered, the latter in a stress-producing manner. Learning potential status mainly predicted the rate of learning on…

  16. A higher oxidative status accelerates senescence and aggravates age-dependent disorders in SAMP strains of mice.

    PubMed

    Hosokawa, Masanori

    2002-11-01

    The SAM strain of mice is actually a group of related inbred strains consisting of series of SAMP (accelerated senescence-prone, short-lived) and SAMR (accelerated senescence-resistant, longer-lived) strains. Comparing with the SAMR strains, the SAMP strains of mice show a more accelerated senescence process, shorter lifespan, and an earlier onset and more rapid progress of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders observed in humans, including senile osteoporosis, degenerative joint disease, age-related deficits in learning and memory, olfactory bulb and forebrain atrophy, presbycusis and retinal atrophy, senile amyloidosis, immunosenescence, senile lungs, and diffuse medial thickening of the aorta. The higher oxidative stress observed in the SAMP strains of mice are partly caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, and may be one cause of the senescence acceleration and age-dependent alterations in cell structure and function, including neuronal cell degeneration. This senescence acceleration is also observed during senescence/crisis in cultures of isolated fibroblast-like cells from SAMP strains of mice, and was associated with a hyperoxidative status. These observations suggest that the SAM strains are useful tools in the attempt to understand the mechanisms of age-dependent degeneration of cells and tissues, and their aggravation, and to develop clinical interventions. PMID:12470893

  17. Aerobic Fitness, Micronutrient Status, and Academic Achievement in Indian School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Ishaan K.; Kurpad, Anura V.; Chomitz, Virginia R.; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants’ aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman’s rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05). After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score), children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg-1 * min-1) had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and

  18. Aerobic fitness, micronutrient status, and academic achievement in Indian school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Desai, Ishaan K; Kurpad, Anura V; Chomitz, Virginia R; Thomas, Tinku

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness has been shown to have several beneficial effects on child health. However, research on its relationship with academic performance has been limited, particularly in developing countries and among undernourished populations. This study examined the association between aerobic fitness and academic achievement in clinically healthy but nutritionally compromised Indian school-aged children and assessed whether micronutrient status affects this association. 273 participants, aged 7 to 10.5 years, were enrolled from three primary schools in Bangalore, India. Data on participants' aerobic fitness (20-m shuttle test), demographics, anthropometry, diet, physical activity, and micronutrient status were abstracted. School-wide exam scores in mathematics and Kannada language served as indicators of academic performance and were standardized by grade level. The strength of the fitness/achievement association was analyzed using Spearman's rank correlation, multiple variable logistic regression, and multi-level models. Significant positive correlations between aerobic capacity (VO2 peak) and academic scores in math and Kannada were observed (P < 0.05). After standardizing scores across grade levels and adjusting for school, gender, socioeconomic status, and weight status (BMI Z-score), children with greater aerobic capacities (mL * kg(-1) * min(-1)) had greater odds of scoring above average on math and Kannada exams (OR=1.08, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.15 and OR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04 to 1.18, respectively). This association remained significant after adjusting for micronutrient deficiencies. These findings provide preliminary evidence of a fitness/achievement association in Indian children. While the mechanisms by which aerobic fitness may be linked to academic achievement require further investigation, the results suggest that educators and policymakers should consider the adequacy of opportunities for physical activity and fitness in schools for both their physical and

  19. Parental Identity and Its Relation to Parenting and Psychological Functioning in Middle Age

    PubMed Central

    Fadjukoff, Päivi; Pulkkinen, Lea; Lyyra, Anna-Liisa; Kokko, Katja

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Objective. This article focuses on identity as a parent in relation to parenting and psychological functioning in middle age. Design. Drawn from the Jyväskylä Longitudinal Study of Personality and Social Development, 162 participants (53% females) with children (age 36), represented the Finnish age-cohort born in 1959. Parental identity was assessed at ages 36, 42, and 50. Results. In both women and men, parental identity achievement increased from age 36 to 42 and remained stable to 50. The level of parental identity achievement was higher in women than in men. Achievement was typical for women and foreclosure for men. Participants’ education, occupational status, and number of offspring were not related to parental identity status. As expected, parental identity achievement was associated with authoritative (indicated by higher nurturance and parental knowledge about the child’s activities) parenting style. No significant associations emerged between parental identity foreclosure and restrictiveness as an indicator of authoritarian parenting style. The diffused men outscored others in parental stress. Achieved parental identity was related to generativity in both genders and to higher psychological and social well-being in men. Conclusions. At present, many parenting programs are targeted to young parents. This study highlighted the importance of a later parenting phase at around age 40, when for many, the children are approaching puberty. Therefore, parenting programs and support should also be designed for middle-aged parents. Specifically men may need additional support for their active consideration and engagement in the fathering role. © Päivi Fadjukoff, Lea Pulkkinen, Anna-Liisa Lyyra, and Katja Kokko This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-No Derivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and

  20. Infectious disease burden and cognitive function in young to middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Gale, Shawn D; Erickson, Lance D; Berrett, Andrew; Brown, Bruce L; Hedges, Dawson W

    2016-02-01

    Prior research has suggested an association between exposure to infectious disease and neurocognitive function in humans. While most of these studies have explored individual viral, bacterial, and even parasitic sources of infection, few have considered the potential neurocognitive burden associated with multiple infections. In this study, we utilized publically available data from a large dataset produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that included measures of neurocognitive function, sociodemographic variables, and serum antibody data for several infectious diseases. Specifically, immunoglobulin G antibodies for toxocariasis, toxoplasmosis, hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C, cytomegalovirus, and herpes 1 and 2 were available in 5662 subjects. We calculated an overall index of infectious-disease burden to determine if an aggregate measure of exposure to infectious disease would be associated with neurocognitive function in adults aged 20-59 years. The index predicted processing speed and learning and memory but not reaction time after controlling for age, sex, race-ethnicity, immigration status, education, and the poverty-to-income ratio. Interactions between the infectious-disease index and some sociodemographic variables were also associated with neurocognitive function. In summary, an index aggregating exposure to several infectious diseases was associated with neurocognitive function in young- to middle-aged adults. PMID:26598104

  1. Socioeconomic status and executive function: developmental trajectories and mediation.

    PubMed

    Hackman, Daniel A; Gallop, Robert; Evans, Gary W; Farah, Martha J

    2015-09-01

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) predicts executive function (EF), but fundamental aspects of this relation remain unknown: the developmental course of the SES disparity, its continued sensitivity to SES changes during that course, and the features of childhood experience responsible for the SES-EF relation. Regarding course, early disparities would be expected to grow during development if caused by accumulating stressors at a given constant level of SES. Alternatively, they would narrow if schooling partly compensates for the effects of earlier deprivation, allowing lower-SES children to 'catch up'. The potential for later childhood SES change to affect EF is also unknown. Regarding mediating factors, previous analyses produced mixed answers, possibly due to correlation amongst candidate mediators. We address these issues with measures of SES, working memory and planning, along with multiple candidate mediators, from the NICHD Study of Early Childcare (n = 1009). Early family income-to-needs and maternal education predicted planning by first grade, and income-to-needs predicted working memory performance at 54 months. Effects of early SES remained consistent through middle childhood, indicating that the relation between early indicators of SES and EF emerges in childhood and persists without narrowing or widening across early and middle childhood. Changes in family income-to-needs were associated with significant changes in planning and trend-level changes in working memory. Mediation analyses supported the role of early childhood home characteristics in explaining the association between SES and EF, while early childhood maternal sensitivity was specifically implicated in the association between maternal education and planning. Early emerging and persistent SES-related differences in EF, partially explained by characteristics of the home and family environment, are thus a potential source of socioeconomic disparities in achievement and health across

  2. Health, functioning, and disability in older adults--present status and future implications.

    PubMed

    Chatterji, Somnath; Byles, Julie; Cutler, David; Seeman, Teresa; Verdes, Emese

    2015-02-01

    Ageing is a dynamic process, and trends in the health status of older adults aged at least 60 years vary over time because of several factors. We examined reported trends in morbidity and mortality in older adults during the past two decades to identify patterns of ageing across the world. We showed some evidence for compression of morbidity (ie, a reduced amount of time spent in worse health), in four types of studies: 1) of good quality based on assessment criteria scores; 2) those in which a disability-related or impairment-related measure of morbidity was used; 3) longitudinal studies; or 4) studies undertaken in the USA and other high-income countries. Many studies, however, reported contrasting evidence (ie, for an expansion of morbidity), but with different methods, these measures are not directly comparable. Expansion of morbidity was more common when trends in chronic disease prevalence were studied. Our secondary analysis of data from longitudinal ageing surveys presents similar results. However, patterns of limitations in functioning vary substantially between countries and within countries over time, with no discernible explanation. Data from low-income countries are very sparse, and efforts to obtain information about the health of older adults in less-developed regions of the world are urgently needed. We especially need studies that focus on refining measurements of health, functioning, and disability in older people, with a core set of domains of functioning, that investigate the effects of these evolving patterns on the health-care system and their economic implications. PMID:25468158

  3. Age of first arrest varies by gambling status in a cohort of young adults

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Silvia S.; Lee, Grace P.; Santaella, Julian; Liu, Weiwei; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Storr, Carla L.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives To describe the association between social and problem gambling and first criminal arrest by age 23 in a cohort of urban, mainly African-American youth. Methods: Data for this study was derived from several annual interviews being completed on a community sample of 617 participants during late adolescence until age 23. Information on gambling status, engagement in deviant behaviors, illegal drug use, and arrest history were collected through yearly interviews. Analysis was carried out using Nelson-Aalen cumulative hazard models and simple and adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results More problem gamblers had been arrested before age 23 than social gamblers and non-gamblers, i.e. 65% of problem gamblers were arrested before age 23, compared to 38% of social gamblers and 24% non-gamblers. Social gambling was only significantly associated with the hazard of first arrest by age 23 in the unadjusted model (HR: 1.6, p<.001), but not after adjustment for covariates (HR: 1.1, p=0.47). Problem gambling was significantly associated with the hazard of first arrest by age 23 years in the unadjusted (HR: 3.6,p<.001) and adjusted models (HR:1.6, p=0.05). Conclusions and Scientific Significance Problem gambling was significantly associated with earlier age of being arrested. Dilution effects after adjustment for several deviant behaviors and illegal drug use by age 17 suggest that youth exposed to certain common factors may result in engagement in multiple risky behaviors, including problem gambling. Studies are needed to investigate the developmental pathways that lead to these combined behaviors among youth. PMID:24628694

  4. Aging and iodine loading of silver-functionalized aerogels

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, S.H.; Jubin, R.T.; Anderson, K.K.; Walker, J.F.

    2013-07-01

    Engineered silver-functionalized silica aerogels are being investigated for their potential application in off-gas treatment at a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. Reprocessing will release several key volatile radionuclides, including iodine-129. To achieve regulatory compliance, iodine-129 must be removed from any off-gas stream prior to environmental discharge. Ag{sup 0}-functionalized aerogels have been demonstrated to have high iodine-capture capacity, high porosity, and potential for conversion into a waste form. Capture materials used in off-gas treatment may be exposed to a heated, high-humidity, acidic gas stream for months. Extended exposure to this stream could affect sorbent performance. It was the aim of this study to evaluate what impacts might be observed when Ag{sup 0}-functionalized aerogels prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were contacted with a dry air stream for up to 6 months and then used to adsorb iodine from a synthetic off-gas stream. Results demonstrate that there is some loss of iodine-capture capacity caused by aging, but that this loss is not as marked as for aging of more traditional iodine sorbents, such as silver-impregnated mordenite. Specifically, aging silver-functionalized aerogel under a dry air stream for up to 6 months can decrease its iodine capacity from 41 wt% to 32 wt%. (authors)

  5. AGING AND IODINE LOADING OF SILVER-FUNCTIONALIZED AEROGELS

    SciTech Connect

    Bruffey, Stephanie H; Jubin, Robert Thomas; Anderson, Kaara K; Walker Jr, Joseph Franklin

    2013-01-01

    Engineered silver-functionalized silica aerogels are being investigated for their application in off-gas treatment at a used nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. Reprocessing will release several key volatile radionuclides, including iodine-129. To achieve regulatory compliance, iodine-129 must be removed from any off-gas stream prior to environmental discharge. Silver-functionalized aerogels have been demonstrated to have high iodine capture capacity, high porosity and potential for conversion into a waste form. Capture materials used in off-gas treatment may be exposed to a heated, high humidity, acidic gas stream for months. Extended exposure to this stream could affect sorbent performance. It was the aim of this study to evaluate what impacts might be observed when Ag0-functionalized aerogels prepared at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory were contacted with a dry air stream for up to 6 months and then used to adsorb iodine from a synthetic off-gas stream. Results demonstrate that there is some loss of iodine capture capacity caused by aging, but that this loss is not as marked as for aging of more traditional iodine sorbents, such as silver-impregnated mordenite. Specifically, aging silver-functionalized aerogel under a dry air stream for up to 6 months can decrease its iodine capacity from 41wt% to 32wt%.

  6. Sexual selection on Drosophila serrata male pheromones does not vary with female age or mating status.

    PubMed

    Gershman, S; Delcourt, M; Rundle, H D

    2014-06-01

    Mate preferences are costly and are thought to evolve due to the direct and/or indirect benefits they provide. Such costs and benefits may vary in response to intrinsic and extrinsic factors with important evolutionary consequences. Limited attention has been given to quantifying such variation and understanding its causes, most notably with respect to the direction and strength of preferences for multivariate sexual displays. In Drosophila serrata, female preferences target a pheromone blend of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs). We used a factorial design to test whether female age and mating status generated variation in the strength and direction of sexual selection on male CHCs. Replicate choice mating trials were conducted using young and old females (4 or 10 days post-emergence) that were either virgin or previously mated. The outcome of such trials is known to capture variation in female mate preferences, although male-male interactions may also contribute. Directional sexual selection on male CHCs was highly significant within each treatment, but there was little evidence of any variation among treatments. The absence of treatment effects implies that the multivariate combination of male CHCs preferred by females was constant with respect to female age and mating status. To the extent that male-male interactions may also contribute, our results similarly imply that these did not vary among treatments groups. With respect to D. serrata mate preferences, our results suggest that either plasticity with respect to age and mating status is not beneficial to females, or preference expression is somehow constrained. PMID:24828752

  7. Clinical characteristics as a function of referral status among substance users in residential treatment.

    PubMed

    Banducci, Anne N; Dahne, Jennifer; Magidson, Jessica F; Chen, Kevin; Daughters, Stacey B; Lejuez, C W

    2013-04-01

    In the United States, substance users who voluntarily (VO) elect to receive treatment and substance users who are court-mandated (CM) to receive treatment typically obtain care within the same facilities. Little is known about the clinical characteristics that differentiate these individuals. The current study provides rates of specific DSM-IV Axis I and Axis II psychiatric and substance use disorders, comorbidities, childhood trauma, motivation, and other clinical and demographic characteristics as a function of referral status, among individuals in residential substance use treatment (463 participants, M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American). Participants were interviewed and diagnosed using the Structure Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and the Diagnostic Interview for Personality Disorders. Within our sample, VO individuals, as compared to CM individuals had significantly higher rates of psychiatric disorders (68.7% versus 55.2%, respectively), including mood disorders, major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, and borderline personality disorder. Additionally, they were significantly more likely to have alcohol dependence (43.0% versus 20.8%) and cocaine dependence (66.5% versus 48.9%). Elevated rates of comorbidities and childhood abuse were also observed among VO individuals, while motivation did not differ as a function of referral status. Overall, VO individuals appeared to have more severe problems than their CM counterparts which may suggest that they require more intensive or different types of treatment. PMID:23380487

  8. Age, scrapie status, PrP genotype and follicular dendritic cells in ovine ileal Peyer's patches.

    PubMed

    Marruchella, Giuseppe; Ligios, Ciriaco; Di Guardo, Giovanni

    2012-10-01

    Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) residing within ileal Peyer's patches (PPs) are of crucial relevance for sheep scrapie early pathogenesis and subsequent scrapie prion neuroinvasion. In this study, ileal PP follicles were significantly more numerous in lambs than in adult Sarda breed sheep, with significant differences being also found in lymphoid follicle area, perimeter and FDC density. Furthermore, PrPd deposition within ileal PPs and host's PrP genotype did not significantly influence these parameters. We conclude that age significantly affects FDC density in ileal PPs from Sarda breed ovines, independently from host's scrapie status and PrP genotype. PMID:21962485

  9. The Effect of Age, Gender, Refractive Status and Axial Length on the Measurements of Hertel Exophthalmometry

    PubMed Central

    Karti, Omer; Selver, Ozlem B; Karahan, Eyyup; Zengin, Mehmet O; Uyar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the normal distribution of exophthalmometric values in Turkish adult population and the effect of age, gender, refractive status and axial length on globe position. Methods : One hundred and twenty-two males and 114 healthy females with age ranging from 18 to 87 years were included in the study. The study population was recruited from patients presenting to our institution for routine refractive examination. Hertel exophthalmometer was used to measure the degree of ocular protrusion. Effect of age, refractive error, interpupillary distance, and axial length on globe position was detected with linear regression analyses. Results : The mean Hertel exophthalmometric size was 15.7+2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm). The mean value for males was 16.1±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm), and for females 15.5±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 20 mm). The mean distance between the lateral rims of the orbit was 102 + 5.1 mm (range; 88 to 111mm). The mean exophthalmometric values were not statistically different in males and females. Age and mean spherical equivalents were negatively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Axial length was positively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Conclusion : The exophthalmometric measurement of the eye is affected by the age, spherical equivalent and the axial length. Standard normative values of the Hertel exophthalmometric measurements should be reevaluated with larger samples. PMID:26089994

  10. Representation of Functional Status Concepts from Clinical Documents and Social Media Sources by Standard Terminologies

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, Jinqiu; Mohanty, April F.; Rashmi, V.H.; Weir, Charlene R.; Bray, Bruce E.; Zeng-Treitler, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Patient-reported functional status is widely recognized as an important patient-centered outcome that adds value to medical care, research, and quality improvement. Functional status outcomes are, however, not routinely or uniformly collected in the medical record, except in certain small patient populations (e.g. geriatrics, nursing home residents). To utilize patient reported functional status for clinical research and practice, we manually collected 2,763 terms from clinical records and social media sites and modeled them on the widely used Short Form-36 Health Survey. We then examined the coverage of the Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) for these functional status terms through automated mapping. Most terms (85.9%) did not have exact matches in the UMLS. The partial matches were prevalent, however, they typically did not capture the terms’ exact semantics. Our study suggests that there is a need to extend existing standard terminologies to incorporate functional status terms used by patients and clinicians. PMID:26958215

  11. Process of precocious functional aging in workers of laundries.

    PubMed

    Mafra, Simone Caldas Tavares; Carlos, Celina Angélica Lisboa Valente; Silva, Vania Eugênia da

    2012-01-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO), as well as researchers of the whole world, it has been demonstrating concern with the subject of the aging related to the work and it recognizes that modifications in the several systems of the human body take to the gradual decrease in the effectiveness of each one of them, because the aging caused by the work advances apprenticeships of the cycle of the man's life, not respecting the natural state of that process. In this sense, it was aimed at with this research to investigate the relative aspects to the capacity for the work and to the workers' with responsibility to realize the work in the laundries service, verifying if they present signs of precocious functional aging. PMID:22316746

  12. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  13. Marital status integration, suicide disapproval, and societal integration as explanations of marital status differences in female age-specific suicide rates.

    PubMed

    Cutright, Phillips; Stack, Steven; Fernquist, Robert

    2007-12-01

    Sociological analyses of suicide have often neglected female suicide rates. Three competing explanations are tested to determine why the suicide rates of married women are, typically, lower than the suicide rates of women who are not married: (1) marital status integration, (2) societal integration, and (3) a nation's normative order about disapproval of suicide. Data refer to age and marital status-specific female suicide rates from 12 developed countries. The results provide the strongest support for the marital status integration theory and consistent support for the social integration perspective. There is also mixed support for the cultural disapproval of suicide hypothesis. PMID:18275377

  14. Health Literacy, Cognitive Ability, and Functional Health Status among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Serper, Marina; Patzer, Rachel E; Curtis, Laura M; Smith, Samuel G; O'Conor, Rachel; Baker, David W; Wolf, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether previously noted associations between health literacy and functional health status might be explained by cognitive function. Data Sources/Study Setting Health Literacy and Cognition in Older Adults (“LitCog,” prospective study funded by National Institute on Aging). Data presented are from interviews conducted among 784 adults, ages 55–74 years receiving care at an academic general medicine clinic or one of four federally qualified health centers in Chicago from 2008 to 2010. Study Design Study participants completed structured, in-person interviews administered by trained research assistants. Data Collection Health literacy was measured using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine, and Newest Vital Sign. Cognitive function was assessed using measures of long-term and working memory, processing speed, reasoning, and verbal ability. Functional health was assessed with SF-36 physical health summary scale and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System short form subscales for depression and anxiety. Principal Findings All health literacy measures were significantly correlated with all cognitive domains. In multivariable analyses, inadequate health literacy was associated with worse physical health and more depressive symptoms. After adjusting for cognitive abilities, associations between health literacy, physical health, and depressive symptoms were attenuated and no longer significant. Conclusions Cognitive function explains a significant proportion of the associations between health literacy, physical health, and depression among older adults. Interventions to reduce literacy disparities in health care should minimize the cognitive burden in behaviors patients must adopt to manage personal health. PMID:24476068

  15. Aging and immune function: a possible role for growth hormone.

    PubMed

    Gelato, M C

    1996-01-01

    Elderly individuals have four to five times the case rate of cancer, tuberculosis and herpes zoster and six to seven times the fatality rate from pneumonia compared to young adults. This may be causally related to two changes that occur with aging, i.e. decreased growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) production and decreased immune function. Data from our laboratory as well as others have shown that, based on either GH secretory dynamics or IGF-1 levels, approximately 40% of adults aged 60 and older are GH deficient. In the same population of subjects, immune function decreases such that there is a decline in cell-mediated and humoral immune responsiveness. Some of these immune deficits have been shown to be reversed in humans and primates by GH and/or IGF-1 treatment. This paper will review some of these data. PMID:8742118

  16. Anaerobic function of CNS white matter declines with age.

    PubMed

    Hamner, Margaret A; Möller, Thomas; Ransom, Bruce R

    2011-04-01

    The mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is generally believed to be completely dependent on the presence of oxygen (O(2)) to maintain energy levels necessary for excitability. However, previous studies on CNS white matter (WM) have shown that a large subset of CNS-myelinated axons of mice aged 4 to 6 weeks remains excitable in the absence of O(2). We investigated whether this surprising WM tolerance to anoxia varied with age. Acutely isolated mouse optic nerve (MON), a purely myelinated WM tract, was studied electrophysiologically. Excitability in the MONs from 1-month-, 4-month-, and 8-month-old mice was assessed quantitatively as the area under the supramaximal compound action potential (CAP). Anoxia-resistant WM function declined with age. After 60  minutes of anoxia, ∼23% of the CAP remained in 1-month-old mice, 8% in 4-month-old mice, and ∼0 in the 8-month-old group. Our results indicated that although some CNS axons function anaerobically in young adult animals, they lose this ability in later adulthood. This finding may help explain the clinical impression that favorable outcome after stroke and other brain injuries declines with age. PMID:21179073

  17. Race Differences in Age-Trends of Autonomic Nervous System Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Williams, David R.; Love, Gayle D.; McKinley, Paula S.; Sloan, Richard P.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to consider race differences in age-trends of autonomic nervous system functioning, using a national dataset with a broad age range. Methods Measures of baseline heart rate variability (HRV) and HRV reactivity were derived from electrocardiograph (ECG) recordings taken at rest and during cognitive stress tasks. Age-trends in HRV and HRV reactivity were compared among 204 African Americans and 833 Whites ages 34 to 83 years (M=53.7, SD=11.4), before and after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Results For HRV-reactivity, age-trends were steeper among African Americans and lower-SES participants than Whites and higher-SES participants. For baseline HRV, age-trends varied by SES but not race. Discussion Results relating to HRV-reactivity (but not baseline HRV) were consistent with hypotheses suggesting that African Americans are exposed to higher levels of stress and experience accelerated declines in health across the life span. The relevance of the findings to research on social stress and health disparities is discussed. PMID:23781017

  18. Association of Eating Behavior With Nutritional Status and Body Composition in Primary School-Aged Children.

    PubMed

    Tay, Chee Wee; Chin, Yit Siew; Lee, Shoo Thien; Khouw, Ilse; Poh, Bee Koon

    2016-07-01

    Problematic eating behaviors during childhood may lead to positive energy balance and obesity. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the association of eating behaviors with nutritional status and body composition in Malaysian children aged 7 to 12 years. A total of 1782 primary schoolchildren were randomly recruited from 6 regions in Malaysia. The multidimensional Children's Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (CEBQ) was reported by parents to determine the 8 different dimensions of eating styles among children. Body mass index (BMI), BMI-for-age Z-score, waist circumference, and body fat percentage were assessed. Linear regression analyses revealed that both food responsiveness and desire to drink subscales were positively associated with a child's body adiposity, whereas satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, and emotional undereating subscales were negatively associated with adiposity (all P < .05). A multidimensional eating style approach based on the CEBQ is needed to promote healthy eating behaviors in order to prevent excessive weight gain and obesity problems among Malaysian children. PMID:27252248

  19. The impact of aging and hearing status on verbal short-term memory.

    PubMed

    Verhaegen, Clémence; Collette, Fabienne; Majerus, Steve

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the impact of hearing status on age-related decrease in verbal short-term memory (STM) performance. This was done by administering a battery of verbal STM tasks to elderly and young adult participants matched for hearing thresholds, as well as to young normal-hearing control participants. The matching procedure allowed us to assess the importance of hearing loss as an explanatory factor of age-related STM decline. We observed that elderly participants and hearing-matched young participants showed equal levels of performance in all verbal STM tasks, and performed overall lower than the normal-hearing young control participants. This study provides evidence for recent theoretical accounts considering reduced hearing level as an important explanatory factor of poor auditory-verbal STM performance in older adults. PMID:24007209

  20. Processing of temporal fine structure as a function of age

    PubMed Central

    Grose, John H.; Mamo, Sara K.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to determine whether the processing of temporal fine structure diminishes with age, even in the presence of relatively normal audiometric hearing. Temporal fine structure processing was assessed by measuring the discrimination of inter-aural phase differences (IPDs). The hypothesis was that IPD discrimination is more acute in middle-aged observers than in older observers but that acuity in middle-aged observers is nevertheless poorer than in young adults. Design Two experiments were undertaken. The first measured discrimination of 0-and π-radian inter-aural phases as a function of carrier frequency. The stimulus was a 5-Hz sinusoidally amplitude modulated tone where, in the signal waveform, the inter-aural phase of the carrier was inverted during alternate modulation periods. The second experiment measured IPD discrimination at fixed frequencies. The stimulus was a pair of tone pulses where, in the signal, the trailing pulse contained an IPD. A total of 39 adults with normal audiograms below 2000 Hz participated: 15 younger, 12 middle-aged, and 12 older. Results Experiment 1 showed that the highest carrier frequency at which a π-radian IPD could be discriminated from the diotic, 0-radian standard was significantly lower in middle-aged listeners than young adults, and lower still in older listeners. Experiment 2 indicated that middle-aged listeners were less sensitive to IPDs than young adults at all but the lowest frequencies tested. Older listeners, as a group, had the poorest thresholds. Conclusions These results suggest that deficits in temporal fine structure processing are evident in the pre-senescent auditory system. This adds to the accumulating evidence that deficiencies in some aspects of auditory temporal processing emerge relatively early in the aging process. It is possible that early-emerging temporal processing deficits manifest themselves in challenging speech-in-noise environments. PMID:20592614

  1. Docosahexaenoic acid status in females of reproductive age with maple syrup urine disease.

    PubMed

    Mazer, Laura M; Yi, Sarah H L; Singh, Rani H

    2010-04-01

    Individuals with maple syrup urine disease (MSUD) have impaired metabolism of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) valine, isoleucine, and leucine. Life-long dietary therapy is recommended to restrict BCAA intake and thus prevent poor neurological outcomes and death. To maintain adequate nutritional status, the majority of protein and nutrients are derived from synthetic BCAA-free medical foods with variable fatty acid content. Given the restrictive diet and the importance of omega-3 fatty acids, particularly docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in neurological development, this study evaluated the dietary and fatty acid status of females of reproductive age with MSUD attending a metabolic camp. Healthy controls of similar age and sex were selected from existing normal laboratory data. Total lipid fatty acid concentration in plasma and erythrocytes was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Participants with MSUD had normal to increased concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte alpha linolenic acid (ALA) but significantly lower concentrations of plasma and erythrocyte docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) as percent of total lipid fatty acids compared with controls (plasma DHA: MSUD 1.03 +/- 0.35, controls 2.87 +/- 1.08; P = 0.001; erythrocyte DHA: MSUD 2.58 +/- 0.58, controls 3.66 +/- 0.80; P = 0.011). Dietary records reflected negligible or no DHA intake over the 3-day period prior to the blood draw (range 0-2 mg). These results suggest females of reproductive age with MSUD have lower blood DHA concentrations than age-matched controls. In addition, the presence of ALA in medical foods and the background diet may not counter the lack of preformed DHA in the diet. The implications of these results warrant further investigation. PMID:20217236

  2. Sarcopenic obesity in aging population: current status and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Kohara, Katsuhiko

    2014-02-01

    The combination of sarcopenia and obesity, an age-related change in body composition, is a concern in the aged society. Sarcopenic obesity is not the combination of two conditions, but is more related to cardio-metabolic and functional abnormalities. Sarcopenic obesity is associated with more physical functional decline than simple obesity. Sarcopenic obesity may be more insulin resistant, and have a higher risk for metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis than simple obesity. However, the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity differs substantially among studies because of the lack of a standard definition. For further understanding of the pathophysiological role of sarcopenic obesity, a standardized definition for both sarcopenia and obesity is necessary. PMID:23821364

  3. Assessment of Functional Change and Cognitive Correlates in the Progression from Healthy Cognitive Aging to Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Schmitter-Edgecombe, Maureen; Parsey, Carolyn M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective There is currently limited understanding of the course of change in everyday functioning that occurs with normal aging and dementia. To better characterize the nature of this change, we evaluated the types of errors made by participants as they performed everyday tasks in a naturalistic environment. Method Participants included cognitively healthy younger adults (YA; N = 55) and older adults (OA; N =88), and individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI: N =55) and dementia (N = 18). Participants performed eight scripted everyday activities (e.g., filling a medication dispenser) while under direct observation in a campus apartment. Task performances were coded for the following errors: inefficient actions, omissions, substitutions, and irrelevant actions. Results Performance accuracy decreased with age and level of cognitive impairment. Relative to the YAs, the OA group exhibited more inefficient actions which were linked to performance on neuropsychological measures of executive functioning. Relative to the OAs, the MCI group committed significantly more omission errors which were strongly linked to performance on memory measures. All error types were significantly more prominent in individuals with dementia. Omission errors uniquely predicted everyday functional status as measured by both informant-report and a performance-based measure. Conclusions These findings suggest that in the progression from healthy aging to MCI, everyday task difficulties may evolve from task inefficiencies to task omission errors, leading to inaccuracies in task completion that are recognized by knowledgeable informants. Continued decline in cognitive functioning then leads to more substantial everyday errors, which compromise ability to live independently. PMID:24933485

  4. Molecular Basis of Klotho: From Gene to Function in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuechi

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of the Klotho (KL) gene, which was originally identified as a putative aging-suppressor gene, has generated tremendous interest and has advanced understanding of the aging process. In mice, the overexpression of the KL gene extends the life span, whereas mutations to the KL gene shorten the life span. The human KL gene encodes the α-Klotho protein, which is a multifunctional protein that regulates the metabolism of phosphate, calcium, and vitamin D. α-Klotho also may function as a hormone, although the α-Klotho receptor(s) has not been found. Point mutations of the KL gene in humans are associated with hypertension and kidney disease, which suggests that α-Klotho may be essential to the maintenance of normal renal function. Three α-Klotho protein types with potentially different functions have been identified: a full-length transmembrane α-Klotho, a truncated soluble α-Klotho, and a secreted α-Klotho. Recent evidence suggests that α-Klotho suppresses the insulin and Wnt signaling pathways, inhibits oxidative stress, and regulates phosphatase and calcium absorption. In this review, we provide an update on recent advances in the understanding of the molecular, genetic, biochemical, and physiological properties of the KL gene. Specifically, this review focuses on the structure of the KL gene and the factors that regulate KL gene transcription, the key sites in the regulation of α-Klotho enzyme activity, the α-Klotho signaling pathways, and the molecular mechanisms that underlie α-Klotho function. This current understanding of the molecular biology of the α-Klotho protein may offer new insights into its function and role in aging. PMID:25695404

  5. Socioeconomic status and age at menarche: An examination of multiple indicators in an ethnically diverse cohort

    PubMed Central

    Deardorff, Julianna; Abrams, Barbara; Ekwaru, J. Paul; Rehkopf, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Ethnic disparities exist in US girls' ages at menarche. Overweight and low socioeconomic status (SES) may contribute to these disparities but past research has been equivocal. We sought to determine which SES indicators were associated uniquely with menarche, for which ethnic groups, and whether associations operated through overweight. Methods Using National Longitudinal Study of Youth data, we examined associations between SES indicators and age at menarche. Participants were 4851 girls and their mothers. We used survival analyses to examine whether SES, at various time points, was associated with menarche, whether body mass index (BMI) mediated associations, and whether race/ethnicity modified associations. Results Black and Hispanic girls experienced menarche earlier than whites. After adjusting for SES, there was a 50% reduction in the effect estimate for “being Hispanic” and 40% reduction for “being Black” versus “being white” on menarche. SES indicators were associated uniquely with earlier menarche, including mother's unmarried status and lower family income. Associations varied by race/ethnicity. BMI did not mediate associations. Conclusion Racial differences in menarche may in large part be due to SES differences. Future experimental or quasi-experimental studies should examine whether intervening on SES factors could have benefits for delaying menarche among Blacks and Hispanics. PMID:25108688

  6. Employment status and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Bromberger, J T; Matthews, K A

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the psychological effects of paid employment and nonemployment, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in 541 middle-aged women. METHODS. Women were seen for an extensive baseline evaluation and were reevaluated in an identical manner 3 years later. They were divided into four "synthetic" cohorts, based upon employment status at these two assessments. RESULTS. At baseline, nonemployed women reported higher levels of depressive symptoms than employed women, with nonemployed women with less education, low support from family and friends, or low marital satisfaction the most symptomatic. Symptoms decreased in women who were nonemployed initially but employed at the later exam; in all other groups, symptoms increased. Unlike the cross-sectional findings, however, the longitudinal findings showed that women who were nonemployed at baseline and had low levels of education, social support, or marital satisfaction did not benefit more from subsequent employment than did their counterparts who had high levels of these factors. CONCLUSIONS. New paid work may have a positive effect on mood for middle-aged women. However, given the contradictions between our cross-sectional and longitudinal results, caution should be exercised in drawing conclusions from cross-sectional studies that likely confound employment status, symptoms, and moderating variables. PMID:8296940

  7. [Evaluation of socio-economic status of the orthognathous and disgnathous school age examinees].

    PubMed

    Stefanac-Papić, J

    1991-01-01

    Purpose of this investigation is verification of socio-economic status of two orthodontic groups of examinees, to find out differences and similarities between them. Out of total sample of 640 elementary school age children, 320 are orthognathous (E) and 320 disgnathous (D). The disgnathous subjects have a specific malocclusion; early tooth loss or secondary crowding. According to their sex (male, female), orthodontic condition (E, D) and age (7-14 years) children are classified into 8 groups (each consisting of 20 examinees). Socio-economic status is assessed by using data on the occupation and education level (high = V, medium = S, low = Z) of the subjects' parents. A specific questionnaire is created for the technical performance of the investigation. The results are statistically analyzed and presented in tables. The data processing is made by using UNIVAC-1110 computer in FORTRAN system language. The parents of the orthognathous (E) children are mostly of a higher and high (V) education level as compared to the parents of the disgnathous (D) children who are mostly of a lower (Z) education level. The ratio is 54.3% E to 44.6% PS. The difference is statistically significant on the level of 0.05 (x2 = 6.04, df = 2). This might indicate that a higher level of parents' education contributes to a more successful influence of parents on the environmental factors which predominantly cause orthodontic anomaly of a premature tooth loss and secondary crowding. PMID:1819954

  8. Influence of HIV status and age on cognitive representations of others.

    PubMed

    Carstensen, L L; Fredrickson, B L

    1998-11-01

    In 2 studies the postulate that the perception of time left in life influences the ways that people conceptualize social relationships was explored. It was hypothesized that when time is limited, emotional aspects of relationships are highly salient. In Study 1, a card-sort paradigm involving similarity judgments demonstrated, for a sample of persons 18 to 88 years old, that the prominence of affect in the mental representations of prospective social partners is positively associated with age. In Study 2, the same experimental approach was applied to a sample of young gay men similar to one another in age, but notably different in their health status (that is, HIV negative; HIV positive, asymptomatic; and HIV positive, symptomatic). It was found that, with age held constant, increasing closeness to the end of life is also associated with an increasing prominence of affect in the mental representations of social partners. The results suggest that the perception of limited time, rather than chronological age, is the critical variable influencing mental representations of social partners. PMID:9848799

  9. Dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age.

    PubMed

    Khor, Geok Lin; Duraisamy, G; Loh, Su Peng; Green, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    The protective role of folic acid taken during the periconceptual period in reducing the occurrence of neural tube defects (NTD) has been well documented by epidemiological evidence, randomized controlled trials and intervention studies. Much of the evidence is derived from western populations while similar data on Asian subjects is relatively nascent. Baseline data on folate status of Malaysian women is lacking, while NTD prevalence is estimated as 10 per 10,000 births. This study was conducted with the objective of determining the dietary and blood folate status of Malaysian women of childbearing age. A total of 399 women comprising 140 Malay, 131 Chinese and 128 Indian subjects were recruited from universities and worksites in the suburbs of Kuala Lumpur. Inclusion criteria were that the subjects were not pregnant or breastfeeding, not taking folic acid supplements, not habitual drinkers or smokers. Based on a 24-hour recall, the median intake level for folate was 66 microg (15.7-207.8 microg), which amounts to 16.5% of the Malaysian Recommended Nutrient Intakes level. The median (5-95th percentiles) values for plasma and red cell folate (RBC) concentrations were 11 (4-33) nmol/L and 633 (303-1209) nmol/L respectively. Overall, nearly 15.1% showed plasma folate deficiency (< 6.8 nmol/L), with Indian subjects having the highest prevalence (21.5%). Overall prevalence of RBC folate deficiency (<363 nmol/L) was 9.3%, and an almost similar level prevailed for each ethnic group. Only 15.2% had RBC concentration exceeding 906 nmol/L, which is associated with a very low risk of NTD. The result of this study point to the need for intervention strategies to improve the blood folate status of women of childbearing age, so that they have adequate protection against the occurrence of NTD at birth. PMID:16837426

  10. Secular Trends in Growth and Nutritional Status of Mozambican School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Fernanda Karina; Maia, José A. R.; Gomes, Thayse Natacha Q. F.; Daca, Timóteo; Madeira, Aspacia; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Prista, António

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine secular changes in growth and nutritional status of Mozambican children and adolescents between 1992, 1999 and 2012. Methods 3374 subjects (1600 boys, 1774 girls), distributed across the three time points (523 subjects in 1992; 1565 in 1999; and 1286 in 2012), were studied. Height and weight were measured, BMI was computed, and WHO cut-points were used to define nutritional status. ANCOVA models were used to compare height, weight and BMI across study years; chi-square was used to determine differences in the nutritional status prevalence across the years. Results Significant differences for boys were found for height and weight (p<0.05) across the three time points, where those from 2012 were the heaviest, but those in 1999 were the tallest, and for BMI the highest value was observed in 2012 (1992<2012, 1999<2012). Among girls, those from 1999 were the tallest (1992<1999, 1999>2012), and those from 2012 had the highest BMI (1999<2012). In general, similar patterns were observed when mean values were analyzed by age. A positive trend was observed for overweight and obesity prevalences, whereas a negative trend emerged for wasting, stunting-wasting (in boys), and normal-weight (in girls); no clear trend was evident for stunting. Conclusion Significant positive changes in growth and nutritional status were observed among Mozambican youth from 1992 to 2012, which are associated with economic, social and cultural transitional processes, expressing a dual burden in this population, with reduction in malnourished youth in association with an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity. PMID:25473837

  11. Plasma vitamin D levels and cognitive function in aging women: the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Bartali, Benedetta; Devore, Elizabeth; Grodstein, Francine; Kang, Jae H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin D may play a role in preserving cognitive function. However, there is a paucity of prospective studies on the relationship between vitamin D and cognition with aging. The aim of this study was to examine the association between plasma levels of vitamin D and subsequent cognitive function. Methods This is a prospective study including 1,185 women aged 60–70 years from the Nurses’ Health Study, who had plasma 25-hydroxy-vitamin D levels measured in 1989–1990 and completed an initial Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status approximately 9 years later. Subsequently, three follow-up cognitive assessments were conducted at 1.5–2.0 years intervals. We used multivariable-adjusted linear regression to model initial cognitive function, and mixed linear regression to model change in cognitive function over time. Results Lower vitamin D levels were associated with significantly worse cognitive function 9 years later. For example, the mean global composite score averaging all the cognitive tests was 0.20 lower (95% Confidence Interval (CI):−0.33,−0.08; p-trend=0.009) in women in the lowest quintile (median=14.1 ng/mL) compared with women in the highest quintile of vitamin D (median=38.4 ng/mL). The observed differences were equivalent to the effect estimates we found for women who were approximately 4–6 years apart in age. However, vitamin D levels were not significantly associated with subsequent cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. Conclusions Higher levels of plasma vitamin D in women aged 60–70 years were associated with better cognitive function about a decade later but were not associated with cognitive decline during 6 years of follow-up. PMID:24676321

  12. Comprehensive smoke alarm coverage in lower economic status homes: alarm presence, functionality, and placement.

    PubMed

    Sidman, Elanor A; Grossman, David C; Mueller, Beth A

    2011-08-01

    The objectives of this study are to estimate smoke alarm coverage and adherence with national guidelines in low- to mid-value owner-occupied residences, and to identify resident demographic, behavioral, and building characteristics and other fire and burn safety practices associated with smoke alarm utilization. Baseline visits were conducted with 779 households in King County, Washington, for a randomized trial of smoke alarm functionality. Presence, functionality, features, and location of pre-existing smoke alarms were ascertained by staff observation and testing. Household and building descriptors were collected using questionnaires. Households were classified by presence of smoke alarms, functional alarms, and functional and properly mounted alarms placed in hallways and on each floor but not in recommended avoidance locations. Smoke alarms were present in 89%, and functional units in 78%, of households. Only 6-38% met all assessed functionality and placement recommendations. Homes frequently lacked alarms in any bedrooms or on each floor. Building age, but not renovation status, was associated with all dimensions of smoke alarm coverage; post-1980 constructions were 1.7 times more likely to comply with placement recommendations than were pre-1941 homes (95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Respondent education and race/ethnicity, children <5 years, residency duration, number of floors, wood stoves and fireplaces, number of smoke alarms, recency of smoke alarm testing, carbon monoxide monitors, and fire ladders displayed varying relationships with alarm presence, functionality, and placement. Strategies for maintaining smoke alarms in functional condition and improving compliance with placement recommendations are necessary to achieve universal coverage, and will benefit the majority of households. PMID:21107891

  13. Growth status of small for gestational age Indian children from two socioeconomic strata

    PubMed Central

    Khadilkar, Vaman V.; Mandlik, Rubina M.; Palande, Sonal A.; Pandit, Deepa S.; Chawla, Meghna; Nadar, Ruchi; Chiplonkar, Shashi A.; Kadam, Sandeep S.; Khadilkar, Anuradha A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess growth and factors associated with growth in children born small for gestational age (SGA) from two socioeconomic strata in comparison to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Methods: Retrospective study conducted at two hospitals in Pune, 0.5–5 years, 618 children: 189-SGA from upper socioeconomic strata (USS), 217-SGA from lower socioeconomic strata (LSS), and 212 appropriate for gestational age healthy controls were randomly selected. Birth and maternal history, socioeconomic status, length/height, and weight of children were recorded. Anthropometric data were converted to Z scores (height for age Z-score [HAZ], weight for age Z-score [WAZ]) using WHO AnthroPlus software. Results: The HAZ and WAZ of the SGA group were significantly lower as compared to the controls and that of the LSS SGAs were lower than USS SGAs (P < 0.05). Thirty two percent children were stunted (HAZ <−2.0) in USS and 49% in LSS (P < 0.05). Twenty nine percent children in the USS SGA group were stunted at 2 years and 17% at 5 years. In the LSS SGA group, 54% children were stunted at 2 years and 46% at 5 years. Generalized linear model revealed normal vaginal delivery (β = 0.625) and mother's age (β =0.072) were positively associated and high SES (β = −0.830), absence of major illness (β = −1.01), higher birth weight (β = −1.34) were negatively associated for risk of stunting (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Children born SGA showed poor growth as compared to controls. Special attention to growth is necessary in children from LSS, very low birth weight babies, and those with major illnesses during early years of life. PMID:27366721

  14. Do general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status account for performance on the Children's Gambling Task?

    PubMed Central

    Mata, Fernanda; Sallum, Isabela; Miranda, Débora M.; Bechara, Antoine; Malloy-Diniz, Leandro F.

    2013-01-01

    Studies that use the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and its age-appropriate versions as indices of affective decision-making during childhood and adolescence have demonstrated significant individual differences in scores. Our study investigated the association between general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status (SES) and its effect on the development of affective decision-making in preschoolers by using a computerized version of the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). We administered the CGT and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) to 137 Brazilian children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old to assess their general intellectual functioning. We also used the Brazilian Criterion of Economic Classification (CCEB) to assess their SES. Age differences between 3- and 4-years-old, but not between 4- and 5-years-old, confirmed the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo (2004), indicating the rapid development of affective decision-making during the preschool period. Both 4- and 5-years-old performed significantly above chance on blocks 3, 4, and 5 of the CGT, whereas 3-years-old mean scores did not differ from chance. We found that general intellectual functioning was not related to affective decision-making. On the other hand, our findings showed that children with high SES performed better on the last block of the CGT in comparison to children with low SES, which indicates that children from the former group seem more likely to use the information about the gain/loss aspects of the decks to efficiently choose cards from the advantageous deck throughout the task. PMID:23760222

  15. Influence of the Plantar Cutaneous Information in Postural Regulation Depending on the Age and the Physical Activity Status.

    PubMed

    Maitre, Julien; Paillard, Thierry P

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare the balance control adaptation to different supporting surfaces depending on the age and the physical activity status. The balance control of two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who practiced regular physical activity (active groups) and two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who did not practice physical activity (non-active groups) was compared on a firm surface and on a foam surface. The parameters of the center of foot pressure (COP) displacement were compared between the groups. The two older groups were more disturbed than the two younger groups when they stood on a foam surface and there was no difference between active and non-active groups. This result may be linked to the structural and functional involutions of the plantar cutaneous sole and foot that occur with age advancement. The participants' physical activity practice might be not specific enough to generate a more efficient postural adaption to the foam condition for the active groups than the non-active groups within their respective age groups. PMID:27582699

  16. Influence of the Plantar Cutaneous Information in Postural Regulation Depending on the Age and the Physical Activity Status

    PubMed Central

    Maitre, Julien; Paillard, Thierry P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to compare the balance control adaptation to different supporting surfaces depending on the age and the physical activity status. The balance control of two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who practiced regular physical activity (active groups) and two groups of young (n = 17) and old (n = 17) participants who did not practice physical activity (non-active groups) was compared on a firm surface and on a foam surface. The parameters of the center of foot pressure (COP) displacement were compared between the groups. The two older groups were more disturbed than the two younger groups when they stood on a foam surface and there was no difference between active and non-active groups. This result may be linked to the structural and functional involutions of the plantar cutaneous sole and foot that occur with age advancement. The participants’ physical activity practice might be not specific enough to generate a more efficient postural adaption to the foam condition for the active groups than the non-active groups within their respective age groups. PMID:27582699

  17. Gender differences, aging and hormonal status in mucosal injury and repair.

    PubMed

    Grishina, Irina; Fenton, Anne; Sankaran-Walters, Sumathi

    2014-04-01

    As the "baby boomers" age, the percentage of the population over sixty-five years of age is increasing rapidly. Chronic disease management is an important component in the care of the elderly. The effects of aging on different organ systems are also pertinent; such as the weakening homeostatic response to injury in the older individuals. Mucosal surfaces have the largest combined surface area in the body and are the site of important host microbe interactions, especially in the gut which is prone to injury, both from local and systemic insult. This susceptibility has been known to increase with age. Therefore it is important to understand the interplay between aging, injury and recovery at the mucosal surface. Sex hormones play an important role in the maintenance of the mucosal barrier function as well as the mucosa associated immune function in both genders. Menopause in women is a defined time period in which major hormonal changes occur such as a decline in systemic estradiol levels. The differential levels of sex hormones contribute to the sexual dimorphism seen in response to injury at the mucosal surface, prior to and following menopause. Thus the effect of sex hormone and aging on mucosal mechanisms in response to injury is an important area of investigation. PMID:24729941

  18. The Interaction Effect of Gender and Socioeconomic Status on Development of Preschool-Aged Children in Greece

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giagazoglou, Paraskevi

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and describe the effect of gender and socioeconomic status (SES) on preschool-aged children's overall development. Two hundred fifty-five preschoolers (125 boys and 130 girls), with a mean age of 56 plus or minus 9 months, were randomly selected from day care centers and kindergartens of different areas of…

  19. Voluntary Delay of Reinforcement as a Function of Model Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walls, Richard T.; Smith, Tennie S.

    1970-01-01

    Adult vocational rehabilitation clients in a resident training program were engaged in a task involving the assemble of bolts, washers, and nuts, and were given their choice of a smaller reward immediately or a delayed larger reward. Subjects tended to imitate the decision of the video-tape model (both high and medium status). (Author)

  20. Beyond Social Address: Linking Socioeconomic Status to Family Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luster, Tom

    The present study attempts to move beyond the social address research design to investigate the process by which socioeconomic status (SES) exerts its influence on parenting practices. Of particular interest were maternal practices related to cognitive outcomes in children. The conceptual model of the study was based on the reliable finding that…

  1. Role Conflict in Women as a Function of Marital Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevill, Dorothy; Damico, Sandra

    1975-01-01

    Questionnaires on eight role conflict categories (time management, relations with husband, household management, financial, child care, expectations for self, expectations of others, and guilt) were administered to 518 women. Marital status was found to be a significant variable with married women expressing more conflict than did other women.…

  2. Induced abortion. Effects of marital status, age and parity on choice of pregnancy termination.

    PubMed

    Skjeldestad, F E; Borgan, J K; Daltveit, A K; Nymoen, E H

    1994-03-01

    Data from the Abortion File of the Central Bureau of Statistics in Norway for 1979-90 were used to examine the relative risks of induced abortion among groups varying by marital status, age, and parity for four 3-year time periods. Between January 1979 and December 1990, 639,551 births were registered and 174,590 pregnancies were terminated by abortion. The mean number of induced abortions in three-year periods increased from 12,800 to 14,600 (14%), and births increased from 50,700 to 58,800 (16%). The two prominent groups having abortions were unmarried women without children aged less than 30 years (40%) and married women with 2 or more children. Declines in abortion occurred among married women with two or more children, from 24% of all abortions in 1979-81 to 15% in 1988-90. Unmarried, pregnant women aged more than 20 years of age experienced a decline in abortion terminations. Unmarried teenage abortions remained stable. Pregnancy terminations increased primarily for married women aged 10-24 years without children. The lowest group with abortions comprised married childless women aged 25-29 years: the reference group. Unmarried women, regardless of age and parity, ended their pregnancies 40-50 times more often than the reference group. Registration of data affected the data by overestimation of abortions among single teenagers by 4% for all time periods. Although abortions increased among unmarried women aged over 20 years, there was still a decline in the proportion of pregnancies terminated by abortion among unmarried women aged over 20 years. Births among cohabiting or unmarried women increased more than the relative number of abortions among unmarried women. Cohabitation increased from 12% in 1977 to 30% in 1988. The suggestion was that the decreasing trend in abortion among pregnant unmarried women might be related to the changes in consensual unions. Data from the 1988 Norway Fertility Survey found that 40% of births were to childless married couples not

  3. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  4. Executive Function Mediates Effects of Gestational Age on Functional Outcomes and Behavior in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Loe, Irene M.; Feldman, Heidi M.; Huffman, Lynne C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the role of executive function (EF) skills, measured by parent-rating and performance-based instruments, as mediators of the effects of gestational age on functional outcomes and behavior symptoms in preterm and full term preschoolers. Patients and methods Children born preterm (n=70; mean gestational age 29.6 weeks and mean birth weight 1365g) were compared to children born full term (n=79) on composite measures of EF (using the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function and a performance-based EF battery), adaptive function, prereading skills, and behavior symptoms. For the entire sample, mediation analyses examined the effect of gestational age on outcomes with EF as mediator. Results Compared to children born full term, children born preterm had significantly higher parent-rated EF scores and lower performance-based EF scores, both indicating more problems; further, children born preterm had lower adaptive function and prereading scores and more problematic behavior. Gestational age contributed to adaptive function, prereading skills, and behavior symptoms for all children. EF acted as a mediator of gestational age for all three outcomes; different patterns emerged for parent-rated and performance-based EF evaluations. For adaptive function, both EF measures significantly mediated effects of gestational age; for prereading skills, only performance-based EF was significant; for behavior symptoms, only parent-rated EF was significant. Conclusions We propose standard assessment of EF, using both parent-rating and performance-based EF measures, in young preterm children and other children at risk of EF impairments. EF skills are measurable, mediate important functional outcomes, and may serve as intervention targets. PMID:24906034

  5. Serum folate, vitamin B-12 and cognitive function in middle and older age: The HAPIEE study

    PubMed Central

    Horvat, Pia; Gardiner, Julian; Kubinova, Ruzena; Pajak, Andrzej; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Schöttker, Ben; Pikhart, Hynek; Peasey, Anne; Jansen, Eugene; Bobak, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background Nutrient status of B vitamins, particularly folate and vitamin B-12, may be related to cognitive ageing but epidemiological evidence remains inconclusive. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the association of serum folate and vitamin B-12 concentrations with cognitive function in middle-aged and older adults from three Central and Eastern European populations. Methods Men and women aged 45–69 at baseline participating in the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study were recruited in Krakow (Poland), Kaunas (Lithuania) and six urban centres in the Czech Republic. Tests of immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency and letter search were administered at baseline and repeated in 2006–2008. Serum concentrations of biomarkers at baseline were measured in a sub-sample of participants. Associations of vitamin quartiles with baseline (n = 4166) and follow-up (n = 2739) cognitive domain-specific z-scores were estimated using multiple linear regression. Results After adjusting for confounders, folate was positively associated with letter search and vitamin B-12 with word recall in cross-sectional analyses. In prospective analyses, participants in the highest quartile of folate had higher verbal fluency (p < 0.01) and immediate recall (p < 0.05) scores compared to those in the bottom quartile. In addition, participants in the highest quartile of vitamin B-12 had significantly higher verbal fluency scores (β = 0.12; 95% CI = 0.02, 0.21). Conclusions Folate and vitamin B-12 were positively associated with performance in some but not all cognitive domains in older Central and Eastern Europeans. These findings do not lend unequivocal support to potential importance of folate and vitamin B-12 status for cognitive function in older age. Long-term longitudinal studies and randomised trials are required before drawing conclusions on the role of these vitamins in cognitive decline. PMID:26808046

  6. Identity statuses and psychosocial functioning in Turkish youth: a person-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Morsunbul, Umit; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Cok, Figen; Meeus, Wim

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we tested whether the five identity statuses of the original Meeus-Crocetti model could be extracted in a Turkish sample. Their three-factor model of identity was used to examine identity formation. Participants were 1201 (59.6% females) youth aged between 12 and 24 years (Mage = 17.53 years, SDage = 3.25). Findings revealed that the five identity statuses extracted in previous studies (Crocetti, Rubini, Luyckx, & Meeus, 2008; Crocetti, Schwartz, Fermani, Klimstra, & Meeus, 2012) also emerged in a sample of Turkish adolescents and emerging adults. Findings indicated that gender and age affected the distribution of the individuals among the five identity statuses. Furthermore, individuals in the five identity statuses represented distinct profiles according to personality and self characteristics, problem behaviors and well-being, and interpersonal and group relationships. Finally, the status × age interactions indicated that the searching moratorium status became more problematic with age. Implications and suggestions for future research are also discussed. PMID:26411790

  7. STATUS REPORT FOR AGING STUDIES OF EPDM O-RING MATERIAL FOR THE H1616 SHIPPING PACKAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.

    2012-08-31

    This is an interim status report for tasks carried out per Task Technical Plan SRNL-STI-2011-00506. A series of tasks/experiments are being performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory to monitor the aging performance of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) Orings used in the H1616 shipping package. The data will support the technical basis to extend the annual maintenance of the EPDM O-rings in the H1616 shipping package and to predict the life of the seals at bounding service conditions. Current expectations are that the O-rings will maintain a seal at bounding normal temperatures in service (152 F) for at least 12 months. The baseline aging data review suggests that the EPDM O-rings are likely to retain significant mechanical properties and sealing force at bounding service temperatures to provide a service life of at least 2 years. At lower, more realistic temperatures, longer service life is likely. Parallel compression stress relaxation and vessel leak test efforts are in progress to further validate this assessment and quantify a more realistic service life prediction. The H1616 shipping package O-rings were evaluated for baseline property data as part of this test program. This was done to provide a basis for comparison of changes in material properties and performance parameters as a function of aging. This initial characterization was limited to physical and mechanical properties, namely hardness, thickness and tensile strength. These properties appear to be consistent with O-ring specifications. Three H1616-1 Containment Vessels were placed in test conditions and are aging at temperatures ranging from 160 to 300 F. The vessels were Helium leak-tested initially and have been tested at periodic intervals after cooling to room temperature to determine if they meet the criterion of leaktightness defined in ANSI standard N14.5-97 (< 1E-07 std cc air/sec at room temperature). To date, no leak test failures have occurred. The cumulative time at

  8. Aging, regional cerebral blood flow, and neuropsychological functioning

    SciTech Connect

    MacInnes, W.D.; Golden, C.J.; Gillen, R.W.; Sawicki, R.F.; Quaife, M.; Uhl, H.S.; Greenhouse, A.J.

    1984-10-01

    Previous studies found changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns related to both age and various cognitive tasks. However, no study has yet demonstrated a relationship between rCBF and performance on the Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery (LNNB) in an elderly group. Seventy-nine elderly volunteers (56-88 years old), both healthy and demented, underwent the /sup 133/xenon inhalation rCBF procedure and were given the LNNB. The decrements in the gray-matter blood flow paralleled decrements in performance on the LNNB. Using partial correlations, a significant proportion of shared variance was observed between gray-matter blood flow and the LNNB scales. However, there was much less of a relationship between white-matter blood flow and performance on the LNNB. This study suggests that even within a restricted age sample rCBF is related in a global way to neuropsychological functioning.

  9. Classification of debtor credit status and determination amount of credit risk by using linier discriminant function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aidi, Muhammad Nur; Sari, Resty Indah

    2012-05-01

    A decision of credit that given by bank or another creditur must have a risk and it called credit risk. Credit risk is an investor's risk of loss arising from a borrower who does not make payments as promised. The substantial of credit risk can lead to losses for the banks and the debtor. To minimize this problem need a further study to identify a potential new customer before the decision given. Identification of debtor can using various approaches analysis, one of them is by using discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis in this study are used to classify whether belonging to the debtor's good credit or bad credit. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. Before step built the discriminant function, selection of explanatory variables should be done. Purpose of selection independent variable is to choose the variable that can discriminate the group maximally. Selection variables in this study using different test, for categoric variable selection of variable using proportion chi-square test, and stepwise discriminant for numeric variable. The result of this study are two discriminant functions that can identify new debtor. The selected variables that can discriminating two groups of debtor maximally are status of existing checking account, credit history, credit amount, installment rate in percentage of disposable income, sex, age in year, other installment plans, and number of people being liable to provide maintenance. This classification produce a classification accuracy rate is good enough, that is equal to 74,70%. Debtor classification using discriminant analysis has risk level that is small enough, and it ranged beetwen 14,992% and 17,608%. Based on that credit risk rate, using discriminant analysis on the classification of credit status can be used effectively.

  10. Longitudinal Analysis of Physical Performance, Functional Status, Physical Activity, and Mood in Relation to Executive Function Among Older Fallers

    PubMed Central

    Best, John R.; Davis, Jennifer C.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Older fallers are at risk of experiencing functional decline within 1 to 3 years; however, not all older fallers show near-term decline. Executive function (EF), which refers to the cognitive processes important for goal-oriented and controlled behavior, may be one factor that underlies resiliency against decline. OBJECTIVES To examine whether good EF at baseline and maintenance of EF over time predict maintenance of physical performance, functional status, physical activity, and mood over a one-year period. Conversely, to examine whether baseline functioning in these non-cognitive domains predicts maintenance of EF over the same period of time. DESIGN 12-month prospective cohort study. SETTING Vancouver Falls Prevention Clinic. PARTICIPANTS Community-dwelling older adults (N = 199; mean age = 81.6; 63% female) referred to the clinic after suffering a fall. MEASURMENTS At each time point, structural equation modeling created a latent EF variable from performance on five EF tasks. Physical performance (physiological falls risk and gait speed), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), physical activity, and depressive symptoms were also assessed at each time point. RESULTS Higher baseline EF predicted decreases in depressive symptoms and maintenance of IADLs from baseline to follow-up (p<.01). Improvements in EF correlated with increases in gait speed and physical activity, and with the maintenance of IADLs over the follow-up (p<.05). All effects were independent of demographic characteristics and global cognitive function. Baseline performance in the non-cognitive domains did not predict changes in EF. CONCLUSION Among older fallers, EF is a marker for resiliency in several non-cognitive domains, and therefore, should be assessed. Furthermore, interventions to improve EF should be tested among older fallers with EF deficits. PMID:26096385

  11. Brazilian green propolis improves immune function in aged mice

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Weina; Wu, Jianquan; Wei, Jingyu; Pu, Lingling; Guo, Changjiang; Yang, Jijun; Yang, Ming; Luo, Haiji

    2014-01-01

    Aging weakened innate and adaptive immunity both quantitatively and qualitatively. Some components in propolis could stimulate immune function in young animals or cultured immune cells in vitro. Few studies had been carried out in the aged. The present study was to evaluate the effects of Brazilian green propolis supplementation on the immunological parameters in aged mice. Eighty Kunming mice, aged 15–18 months, were randomly assigned to the control and three experimental groups supplemented with different doses (83.3, 157.4 and 352.9 mg/kg.bw respectively) of Brazilian green propolis. The experiment lasted for 4 weeks. Contents of total polyphenol, flavonoid, cinnamic acid and artepillin-C in Brazilian green propolis were analyzed. Splenic NK cytotoxic, T lymphocyte proliferation and antibody generation cells, as well as the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages, ear swelling, and serum contents of IgG, IgM, hemolysin and cytokines were measured. After 4 weeks of treatment, the phagocytosis of peritoneal macrophages was enhanced in 157.4 mg/kg and 352.9 mg/kg groups. Ear swelling increased in all propolis treatmented groups. Antibodies specific to sheep erythrocytes were higher in the groups receiving 157.4 and 352.9 mg/kg.bw than that of control group. IgG level dramatically increased in the groups receiving 83.3 and 157.4 mg/kg.bw in comparison to the control group. These results indicate that administration of Brazilian green propolis have a positive effect on innate and adaptive immunity in aged mice. PMID:25120274

  12. Socioeconomic factors, immigration status, and cancer screening among Mexican American women aged 75 and older

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Ortiz, Carlos A.; Markides, Kyriakos S.

    2011-01-01

    To explore the association between socioeconomic factors and acculturation with cancer screening methods, we analyzed data from the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly, on 1,272 women aged 75 and older residing in the United States in 2004-2005. We found that lower Pap smear or mammography uses were associated with older age, lower education, and having public health insurance compared to private. Other factors associated with mammography use were depressive symptoms, cognition and functional limitations. In sum, socioeconomic factors and health insurance coverage determine cancer screening utilization in very old Mexican American women but not acculturation. PMID:21058091

  13. Age-Related Differences and Heterogeneity in Executive Functions: Analysis of NAB Executive Functions Module Scores.

    PubMed

    Buczylowska, Dorota; Petermann, Franz

    2016-05-01

    Normative data from the German adaptation of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery were used to examine age-related differences in 6 executive function tasks. A multivariate analysis of variance was employed to investigate the differences in performance in 484 participants aged 18-99 years. The coefficient of variation was calculated to compare the heterogeneity of scores between 10 age groups. Analyses showed an increase in the dispersion of scores with age, varying from 7% to 289%, in all subtests. Furthermore, age-dependent heterogeneity appeared to be associated with age-dependent decline because the subtests with the greatest increase in dispersion (i.e., Mazes, Planning, and Categories) also exhibited the greatest decrease in mean scores. In contrast, scores for the subtests Letter Fluency, Word Generation, and Judgment had the lowest increase in dispersion with the lowest decrease in mean scores. Consequently, the results presented here show a pattern of age-related differences in executive functioning that is consistent with the concept of crystallized and fluid intelligence. PMID:26953227

  14. Functional Disability Among Late Middle-Aged and Older Adults Admitted to a Safety-Net Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Rebecca T.; Pierluissi, Edgar; Guzman, David; Kessell, Eric R.; Goldman, L. Elizabeth; Sarkar, Urmimala; Schneidermann, Michelle; Critchfield, Jeffrey M.; Kushel, Margot B.

    2014-01-01

    Background Although individuals with lower socioeconomic status may develop functional disability at younger ages, little is known about the prevalence and correlates of functional disability among late middle-aged and older patients admitted to safety-net hospitals. Objectives To determine the prevalence of pre-admission functional disability among late middle-aged and older safety-net inpatients, and to identify characteristics associated with functional disability by age. Design Cross-sectional analysis. Setting Safety-net hospital in San Francisco, California. Participants English, Spanish, and Chinese-speaking community-dwelling patients aged 55 and older admitted to a safety-net hospital with anticipated return to the community (N = 699). Measurements At hospital admission, patients reported their need for help performing 5 activities of daily living (ADLs) and 7 instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) 2 weeks before admission. ADL disability was defined as needing help performing 1 or more ADLs and IADL disability as needing help performing 2 or more IADLs. Participant characteristics were assessed, including sociodemographics, health status, health-related behaviors, and health-seeking behaviors. Results Overall, 28.3% of participants reported that they had an ADL disability 2 weeks prior to admission and 40.4% reported an IADL disability. The prevalence of pre-admission ADL disability was 28.9% among those 55-59 years, 20.7% among those 60-69 years, and 41.2% among those aged 70 and older (P<.001). The prevalence of IADL disability had a similar distribution. The characteristics associated with functional disability differed by age: among adults aged 55-59, African Americans had a higher odds of ADL and/or IADL disability, while among participants aged 60-69 and aged 70 and older, inadequate health literacy was associated with functional disability. Conclusion Pre-admission functional disability is common among patients aged 55 and older admitted

  15. Education and Physical Activity Mediate the Relationship between Ethnicity and Cognitive Function in Late Middle Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Masel, Meredith C.; Raji, Mukaila; Peek, M. Kristen

    2013-01-01

    Objective Minority status has been implicated as a risk factor for disparate scores on cognitive function tests in older adults. Research on ethnicity and cognitive function has yielded socioeconomic status (SES), particularly education, as a primary reason for the discrepancy. Other factors, such as physical activity may provide insight into the relationship. Despite this knowledge, few studies have thoroughly examined the mediating characteristics of education or physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function in younger aged groups. Most research conducted focuses only on older adults during a time when degeneration of brain tissue may complicate the exploration of the relationships among ethnicity and cognitive function. The current research will expand existing knowledge about education, physical activity, and cognitive function in minority groups. Design The study presents data from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults (n=9,204, mean age +-sd=55.8+-3.1). Regression and mediation testing determined the mediating effects of education and physical activity in the relationship between ethnicity and cognitive function. Results Significant association between white ethnicity and higher scores on cognitive tests was evident as early as late middle age. The magnitude of the association significantly diminished on adjusting for education and leisure time physical activity. Conclusion Our data suggest a potential mediating role of education and physical activity on the ethnic differences in cognitive tests in late middle aged white, black, and Hispanic adults. Our findings suggest a need for studies to understand if adult education and culturally-appropriate physical activity interventions in middle age influence ethnic disparities in prevalence of cognitive impairment in old age. PMID:20401816

  16. Silymarin improves vascular function of aged ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Demirci, Buket; Dost, Turhan; Gokalp, Filiz; Birincioglu, Mustafa

    2014-06-01

    Both aging and estrogen depletion lead to endothelial dysfunction, which is the main reason of many cardiovascular diseases. Previous reports have shown that cell protective effect of silymarin (SM) depends on its antioxidant and phytoestrogenic properties. We investigated the effect of SM on vascular stiffness of aged menopausal rats and the involvement of estrogenic activity in this effect. Isolated rat aortas were obtained from 22-month-old rats, after 18 months of ovariectomy (OVX) follow-up. Each ring was incubated in tissue bath either with SM (50 mg/L) and 17β-estradiol (10 μM, E2) or in the presence of SM/fulvestrant (50 mg/L, 10 μM). Endothelium-intact rings were precontracted with phenylephrine (0.001-30 μM) or high potassium (40 mM); endothelium-dependent/independent relaxant responses were obtained using acetylcholine (0.001-30 μM) and sodium nitroprusside (0.0001-3 μM), respectively. While phenylephrine sensitivity was significantly increased in OVX rats, relaxations were significantly less in aged OVX rats compared with young rats. In spite of the presence of estrogen antagonist, immediate SM treatment restored the endothelial function and vascular tone better than estrogen replacement. Additionally, as a complementary and alternative medicine, it does not cause estrogenic side effects when taken acutely. PMID:24123505

  17. Language development and everyday functioning of children with hearing loss assessed at 3 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Ching, Teresa Y. C.; Crowe, Kathryn; Martin, Vivienne; Day, Julia; Mahler, Nicole; Youn, Samantha; Street, Laura; Cook, Cassandra; Orsini, Julia

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports language ability and everyday functioning of 133 children with hearing impairment who were evaluated at 3 years of age, as part of the Longitudinal Outcomes of Children with Hearing Impairment (LOCHI) study. The language abilities of children were evaluated using the Preschool Language Scale (PLS-4), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Diagnostic Evaluation of Articulation and Phonology (DEAP) and Child Development Inventory (CDI). Everyday functioning of children was evaluated by interviewing parents using the Parents’ Evaluation of Aural/oral performance of Children (PEACH) questionnaire. There were significant correlations among language measures, and also between the standardized language measures and the PEACH. On average, children who had language deficits exhibited difficulties in everyday functioning. The evidence lends support to a systematic use of parents’ observations to evaluate communicative functioning of children in real life. On average, children’s language attainment decreased as hearing loss increased, more so for children of less highly educated parents. Factors that were not significantly associated with speech and language outcomes at 3 years were age of amplification and socioeconomic status. As multiple factors affect children’s outcomes, it will be possible to examine their effects on outcomes of children when all data in the LOCHI study are available. PMID:20420353

  18. Functional Behavior Assessment in Schools: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Cynthia M.; Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Campbell, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Functional behavior assessment is becoming a commonly used practice in school settings. Accompanying this growth has been an increase in research on functional behavior assessment. We reviewed the extant literature on documenting indirect and direct methods of functional behavior assessment in school settings. To discern best practice guidelines…

  19. Vitamin D Status and Early Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Millen, Amy E.; Voland, Rick; Sondel, Sherie A.; Parekh, Niyati; Horst, Ronald L.; Wallace, Robert B.; Hageman, Gregory S.; Chappell, Rick; Blodi, Barbara A.; Klein, Michael L.; Gehrs, Karen M.; Sarto, Gloria E.; Mares, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (nmol/L) and the prevalence of early age-related macular degeneration (AMD) was investigated among participants of the Carotenoids in Age-Related Eye Disease Study. Methods Stereoscopic fundus photographs, taken from 2001–2004, assessed AMD status. Baseline (1994–1998) serum samples were available for 25(OH)D assays in 1,313 women with complete ocular and risk factor data. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for early AMD (n=241), among 1,287 without advanced disease, were estimated with logistic regression and adjusted for age, smoking, iris pigmentation, family history of AMD, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hormone therapy use. Results In multivariate models, no significant relationship was observed between early AMD and 25(OH)D (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.79, 95% CI=0.50–1.24; p for trend=0.47). A significant age interaction (p=0.0025) suggested selective mortality bias in women ≥75 years: serum 25(OH)D was associated with decreased odds of early AMD in women <75 years (n=968) and increased odds in women ≥75 years (n=319) (OR for quintile 5 vs. 1=0.52, 95% CI=0.29–0.91; p for trend=0.02 and 1.76, 95% CI=0.77–4.13; p for trend=0.05, respectively). Further adjustment for body mass index and recreational physical activity, predictors of 25(OH)D, attenuated the observed association in women <75 years. Additionally, among women <75 years, intake of vitamin D from foods and supplements was related to decreased odds of early AMD in multivariate models; no relationship was observed with self-reported time spent in direct sunlight. Conclusions High serum 25(OH)D concentrations may protect against early AMD in women <75 years. PMID:21482873

  20. Immunosenescence and macrophage functional plasticity: dysregulation of macrophage function by age-associated microenvironmental changes

    PubMed Central

    Stout, Robert D.; Suttles, Jill

    2005-01-01

    Summary The macrophage lineage displays extreme functional and phenotypic heterogeneity which appears to due in large part to the ability of macrophages to functionally adapt to changes in their tissue microenvironment. This functional plasticity plays a critical role in their ability to respond to tissue damage and/or infection and to contribute to clearance of damaged tissue and invading microorganisms, to contribute to recruitment of the adaptive immune system, and to contribute to resolution of the wound and of the immune response. Evidence has accumulated that environmental influences, such as stromal function and imbalances in hormones and cytokines, contribute significantly to the dysfunction of the adaptive immune system. The innate immune sytem also appears to be dysfunctional in aged animals and humans. Herein, the hypothesis is presented and discussed that the observed age-associated “dysfunction” of macrophages is the result of their functional adaptation to the age-associated changes in tissue environments. The resultant loss of orchestration of the manifold functional capabilities of macrophages would undermine the efficacy of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. If the macrophages maintain functional plasticity during this dysregulation, they would be a prime target of cytokine therapy that could enhance both innate and adaptive immune systems. PMID:15882345

  1. Functional Changes in the Human Auditory Cortex in Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Profant, Oliver; Tintěra, Jaroslav; Balogová, Zuzana; Ibrahim, Ibrahim; Jilek, Milan; Syka, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Hearing loss, presbycusis, is one of the most common sensory declines in the ageing population. Presbycusis is characterised by a deterioration in the processing of temporal sound features as well as a decline in speech perception, thus indicating a possible central component. With the aim to explore the central component of presbycusis, we studied the function of the auditory cortex by functional MRI in two groups of elderly subjects (>65 years) and compared the results with young subjects (age-related changes at the level of the auditory cortex. The fMRI showed only minimal activation in response to the 8 kHz stimulation, despite the fact that all subjects heard the stimulus. Both elderly groups showed greater activation in response to acoustical stimuli in the temporal lobes in comparison with young subjects. In addition, activation in the right temporal lobe was more expressed than in the left temporal lobe in both elderly groups, whereas in the young control subjects (YC) leftward lateralization was present. No statistically significant differences in activation of the auditory cortex were found between the MP and EP groups. The greater extent of cortical activation in elderly subjects in comparison with young subjects, with an asymmetry towards the right side, may serve as a compensatory mechanism for the impaired processing of auditory information appearing as a consequence of ageing. PMID:25734519

  2. Diet, nutritional knowledge and health status of urban middle-aged Malaysian women.

    PubMed

    Pon, L W; Noor-Aini, M Y; Ong, F B; Adeeb, N; Seri, S S; Shamsuddin, K; Mohamed, A L; Hapizah, N; Mokhtar, A; Wan, H Wh

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to assess nutritional and health status as well as nutritional knowledge in urban middle-aged Malaysian women. The impact of menopause on diet and health indices was also studied. The study included 360 disease free women, non users of HRT,aged > or =45 years with an intact uterus recruited from November 1999 to October 2001. Personal characteristics, anthropometric measurements and blood sample were acquired followed by clinical examination. Nutrient intake and nutritional knowledge was determined by a quantitative FFQ and KAP. The findings showed that urban middle-aged women, aged 51.65+/-5.40 years had energy intakes (EI) 11% below RDA, consisting of 53% carbohydrates, 15% protein and a 32% fat which declined with age. The sample which comprised of 42.5% postmenopausal women had a satisfactory diet and healthy lifestyle practices. Premenopausal women consumed more dietary fat (6%) with other aspects of diet comparable to the postmenopausal women. Iron intake was deficient in premenopausal women, amounting to 56% RDA contributing to a 26% prevalence of anaemia. Overall, calcium intake reached 440 mg daily but dairy products were not the main source. The postmenopaused had a more artherogenic lipid profile with significantly higher total cholesterol (TC) and LDL-C, but more premenopausal women were overweight/obese (49% versus 35%). EI was the strongest predictor for BMI and waist circumference (WC), with WC itself an independent predictor of fasting blood sugar and TC with BMI strongly affecting glucose tolerance. High nutritional knowledge was seen in 39% whereas 20% had poor knowledge. Newspapers and magazines, followed by the subject's social circle, were the main sources of nutritional information. Nutritional knowledge was positively associated with education, household income, vitamin/ mineral supplementation and regular physical activity but inversely related to TC. In conclusion, middle-aged urban women had an adequate diet

  3. Vitamin B12 status of pregnant Indian women and cognitive function in their 9-year-old children

    PubMed Central

    Bhate, Vidya; Deshpande, Swapna; Bhat, Dattatray; Joshi, Niranjan; Ladkat, Rasika; Watve, Sujala; Fall, Caroline; de Jager, Celeste A.; Refsum, Helga; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent research has highlighted the influence of maternal factors on the health of the offspring. Intrauterine experiences may program metabolic, cardiovascular, and psychiatric disorders. We have shown that maternal vitamin B12 status affects adiposity and insulin resistance in the child. Vitamin B12 is important for brain development and function. Objective We investigated the relationship between maternal plasma vitamin B12 status during pregnancy and the child's cognitive function at 9 years of age. Methods We studied children born in the Pune Maternal Nutrition Study. Two groups of children were selected on the basis of maternal plasma vitamin B12 concentration at 28 weeks of gestation: group 1 (n = 49) included children of mothers with low plasma vitamin B12 (lowest decile, < 77 pM) and group 2 (n = 59) children of mothers with high plasma vitamin B12 (highest decile, > 224 pM). Results Children from group 1 performed more slowly than those from group 2 on the Color Trail A test (sustained attention, 182 vs. 159 seconds; p < .05) and the Digit Span Backward test (short-term memory, p <.05), after appropriate adjustment for confounders. There were no differences between group 1 and group 2 on other tests of cognitive function (intelligence, visual agnosia). Conclusions Maternal vitamin B12 status in pregnancy influences cognitive function in offspring. PMID:19227049

  4. Vitamin A status in pregnant women in Iran in 2001 and its relationship with province and gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Olang, Beheshteh; Abdollahi, Zahra; Neshati, Roshanak; Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Naghavi, Mohsen; Yngve, Agneta

    2014-01-01

    Background Vitamin A deficiency is considered as one of the public health problems among pregnant women worldwide. Population representative data on vitamin A status in pregnancy have not previously been published from Iran. Objectives The aim of this study was to publish data on vitamin A status in pregnant women in all the provinces of Iran in 2001, including urban and rural areas, and to describe the association of vitamin A status with maternal age, gestational age, and parity. Design This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on 3,270 healthy pregnant women from the entire country, 2,631 with gestational age ≤36 weeks, and 639 with gestational age >36 weeks. Vitamin A status was determined in serum using high-performance liquid chromatography. Result Retinol levels corresponding to deficiency were detected in 6.6% (<0.36 µmol/L) and 18% had insufficient vitamin A levels (≥0.36–<0.7 µmol/L). Suboptimal level of serum retinol was observed in 55.3% of the pregnant women (0.7–1.4 µmol/L). Only about 20% of the women had optimal values (>1.4 µmol/L). The level of serum retinol was lower in older pregnant women (p=0.008), and at higher gestational age (p=0.009). High vitamin A levels were observed in pregnant women in the central areas of Iran and the lowest values in those in the southern areas of Iran. Conclusions The vitamin A status was good in 2001 but should be closely monitored also in the future. About 25% of pregnant women had a vitamin A status diagnosed as insufficient or deficient (<0.7 µmol/L). The mean serum retinol decreased as the gestational age increased. The clinical significance of this finding should be further investigated, followed by a careful risk group approach to supplementation during pregnancy. PMID:25317119

  5. The interplay of subjective social status and essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging on cortisol reactivity to challenge in older adults.

    PubMed

    Weiss, David; Weiss, Mona

    2016-08-01

    Older adults are more likely than younger adults to experience stress when confronted with cognitive challenges. However, little is known about individual differences that might explain why some older adults exhibit stronger stress responses than others. We examined the interplay of two social-cognitive factors to explain older adults' cortisol reactivity: (1) subjective social status, and (2) essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. We hypothesized that, depending on whether older adults believe that aging-related cognitive decline is inevitable versus modifiable, low subjective social status should lead to stronger or weaker cortisol reactivity. Using longitudinal data, we assessed the impact of cognitive challenges on stress reactivity in a sample of older adults (N = 389; 61-86 years). As predicted, regression analyses confirmed that 44 min after cognitively challenging tasks, older adults exhibited a significantly different cortisol reactivity depending on their subjective social status and their essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging. Specifically, older adults with low subjective social status and high essentialist beliefs showed a significantly elevated cortisol reactivity. We discuss the role of essentialist beliefs about cognitive aging to predict when and why high versus low subjective social status leads to stress responses in older adults. PMID:27159187

  6. The life experience and status of Chinese rural women from observation of three age groups.

    PubMed

    Dai, K

    1991-03-01

    Interview data gathered during 2 surveys in Anhui and Shejiang Provinces in 1986 and 1987 are used to depict changes in the social status and life situation of rural women in China in 3 age groups, 18-36, 37-55, and 56 and over. For the younger women, marriage increasingly is a result of discussion with parents, not arrangement, but 3rd-party introductions are increasing. They are active in household and township enterprises and aspire to more education and economic independence. The middle-aged group experienced war and revolution and now work nonstop under the responsibility system of household production, aspiring to university education for sons and enterprise work for daughters. The older women, while supported by their sons, live a frugal existence. In general, preference for sons is still prevalent and deep-seated. At the same time, the bride price and costs of marriage are increasing and of widespread concern. Rural socioeconomic growth is required before Confucian traditions are overcome. PMID:12179888

  7. Intelligibility of foreign-accented speech: Effects of listening condition, listener age, and listener hearing status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Sarah Hargus

    2005-09-01

    It is well known that, for listeners with normal hearing, speech produced by non-native speakers of the listener's first language is less intelligible than speech produced by native speakers. Intelligibility is well correlated with listener's ratings of talker comprehensibility and accentedness, which have been shown to be related to several talker factors, including age of second language acquisition and level of similarity between the talker's native and second language phoneme inventories. Relatively few studies have focused on factors extrinsic to the talker. The current project explored the effects of listener and environmental factors on the intelligibility of foreign-accented speech. Specifically, monosyllabic English words previously recorded from two talkers, one a native speaker of American English and the other a native speaker of Spanish, were presented to three groups of listeners (young listeners with normal hearing, elderly listeners with normal hearing, and elderly listeners with hearing impairment; n=20 each) in three different listening conditions (undistorted words in quiet, undistorted words in 12-talker babble, and filtered words in quiet). Data analysis will focus on interactions between talker accent, listener age, listener hearing status, and listening condition. [Project supported by American Speech-Language-Hearing Association AARC Award.

  8. Obstructive Sleep Apnea is Related to Impaired Cognitive and Functional Status after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Aaronson, Justine A.; van Bennekom, Coen A.M.; Hofman, Winni F.; van Bezeij, Tijs; van den Aardweg, Joost G.; Groet, Erny; Kylstra, Wytske A.; Schmand, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common sleep disorder in stroke patients and is associated with prolonged hospitalization, decreased functional outcome, and recurrent stroke. Research on the effect of OSA on cognitive functioning following stroke is scarce. The primary objective of this study was to compare stroke patients with and without OSA on cognitive and functional status upon admission to inpatient rehabilitation. Design: Case-control study. Setting and Patients: 147 stroke patients admitted to a neurorehabilitation unit. Interventions: N/A. Measurements: All patients underwent sleep examination for diagnosis of OSA. We assessed cognitive status by neuropsychological examination and functional status by two neurological scales and a measure of functional independence. Results: We included 80 stroke patients with OSA and 67 stroke patients without OSA. OSA patients were older and had a higher body mass index than patients without OSA. OSA patients performed worse on tests of attention, executive functioning, visuoperception, psychomotor ability, and intelligence than those without OSA. No differences were found for vigilance, memory, and language. OSA patients had a worse neurological status, lower functional independence scores, and a longer period of hospitalization in the neurorehabilitation unit than the patients without OSA. OSA status was not associated with stroke type or classification. Conclusions: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a lower cognitive and functional status in patients admitted for stroke rehabilitation. This underlines the importance of OSA as a probable prognostic factor, and calls for well-designed randomized controlled trials to study its treatability. Citation: Aaronson JA, van Bennekom CA, Hofman WF, van Bezeij T, van den Aardweg JG, Groet E, Kylstra WA, Schmand B. Obstructive sleep apnea is related to impaired cognitive and functional status after stroke. SLEEP 2015;38(9):1431–1437. PMID

  9. Functional Imaging of Working Memory and Peripheral Endothelial Function in Middle-Aged Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Tarumi, Takashi; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Sugawara, Jun; Swann-Sternberg, Tali; Goudarzi, Katayoon; Haley, Andreana P.

    2010-01-01

    The current study examined the relationship between a prognostic indicator of vascular health, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and working memory-related brain activation in healthy middle-aged adults. Forty-two participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing a 2-Back working memory task. Brachial artery…

  10. Tritium-based age/streamflow relationships and catchment function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, M. K.; Morgenstern, U.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding runoff generation is important for management of freshwater systems. Determining transit time distributions (TTDs) of streamwaters and how they change with flow gives information on the flowpaths and water storages in catchments - fundamental for understanding the responses of streams to stressors such as pollution, land use change and climate change. This work uses tritium measurements on single samples to determine TTDs and how they change with flow. Such use of tritium is only practical so far in the Southern Hemisphere, because of its much-lower input of bomb-tritium in the 1960s. Another advantage of tritium is that it reveals the full spectrum of ages present in streams, whereas oxygen-18 or chloride variations only show younger ages (i.e. truncated TTDs). Case studies are presented for two New Zealand catchments, both with volcanic ash substrates. The first (Toenepi) is a dairy catchment near Hamilton, which shows well-constrained power law relationships between mean transit time (MTT) and flow, and between silica concentration and flow. Baseflow MTTs vary from 2.5 to 157 years. The second (Tutaeuaua) is a pastoral farming catchment near Taupo. Results for nested catchments along the stream also show power law relationships for both MTT and silica with flow. Baseflow MTTs vary from 1 to 11 years. Although the MTT data could be represented approximately by straight lines in log-log plots, hysteresis effects due to catchment wetness variations did disturb the relationships. Having TTDs from individual samples focusses attention on the nature of the water storages supplying the stream at the times of sampling. The flow record contains information on catchment function, which can enhance the value of the age data, provided such information can be satisfactorily interpreted. A new baseflow estimation method is used to determine the slow storage (aka groundwater) fraction in the stream. The age data is showing that slow storages have mean ages of

  11. Do Hours Spent Viewing Television at Ages 3 and 4 Predict Vocabulary and Executive Functioning at Age 5?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankson, A. Nayena; O'Brien, Marion; Leerkes, Esther M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Marcovitch, Stuart D.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the impact of television viewing at ages 3 and 4 on vocabulary and at age 5 on executive functioning in the context of home learning environment and parental scaffolding. Children (N = 263) were seen in the lab when they were 3 years old and then again at ages 4 and 5. Parents completed measures assessing child television viewing and…

  12. Phenotypic Variability in Resting-State Functional Connectivity: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Evan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We reviewed the extant literature with the goal of assessing the extent to which resting-state functional connectivity is associated with phenotypic variability in healthy and disordered populations. A large corpus of work has accumulated to date (125 studies), supporting the association between intrinsic functional connectivity and individual differences in a wide range of domains—not only in cognitive, perceptual, motoric, and linguistic performance, but also in behavioral traits (e.g., impulsiveness, risky decision making, personality, and empathy) and states (e.g., anxiety and psychiatric symptoms) that are distinguished by cognitive and affective functioning, and in neurological conditions with cognitive and motor sequelae. Further, intrinsic functional connectivity is sensitive to remote (e.g., early-life stress) and enduring (e.g., duration of symptoms) life experience, and it exhibits plasticity in response to recent experience (e.g., learning and adaptation) and pharmacological treatment. The most pervasive associations were observed with the default network; associations were also widespread between the cingulo-opercular network and both cognitive and affective behaviors, while the frontoparietal network was associated primarily with cognitive functions. Associations of somatomotor, frontotemporal, auditory, and amygdala networks were relatively restricted to the behaviors linked to their respective putative functions. Surprisingly, visual network associations went beyond visual function to include a variety of behavioral traits distinguished by affective function. Together, the reviewed evidence sets the stage for testing causal hypothesis about the functional role of intrinsic connectivity and augments its potential as a biomarker for healthy and disordered brain function. PMID:23294010

  13. Biomotor status and kinesiological education of girls aged 10 to 12 years--example: volleyball.

    PubMed

    Milić, Mirjana; Grgantov, Zoran; Katić, Ratko

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to define processes of orientation and/or selection towards sports game of volleyball in schoolgirls of Kastela, aged 10-12, by examining the relations between regular classes of physical education (PE) and extracurricular sport activities. For this purpose, two morphological measures were used (body height and body mass) and a set of 11 motor tests (6 basic motor abilities tests and 5 motor achievement tests) on a sample of 242 girls aged 10-12 was used, divided into a subsample of 42 girls participating in volleyball training (Volleyball players) and a subsample of 200 girls who do not participate in volleyball training (volleyball non-players). Based on the comparison of test results of schoolgirls from Kastela and Croatian norms, factor analysis of applied variables and discriminant analysis of these variables between volleyball players and non-players, processes and/or phases of selection in forming quality volleyball players were defined. Selection processes are preceded by orientation processes in physical education classes, i.e. choosing those sport activities which are in accordance with the biomotor status of students. Results have shown that orientation and initial selection in female volleyball needs to be executed based on the motor set of psychomotor speed, repetitive strength of the trunk and flexibility (muscle tone regulation), and body height. Volleyball training has affected the muscle mass development and the development of strength factors, so that explosive strength of jumping and/or takeoff along with body height, has predominantly differentiated female volleyball players from non-players, aged 10 to 12, and serve and spike quality will have dominant influence on the match outcome. PMID:23213958

  14. Marital status, gender, and depression: analysis of the baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA).

    PubMed

    Jang, Soong-Nang; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chang, Jiyeun; Boo, Kachung; Shin, Hyun-Gu; Lee, Hyejung; Cho, Sung-il

    2009-12-01

    Marital status is a robust predictor of health outcomes in Western populations. However, data from Asian cultures remain sparse, and some studies suggest marked gender differences in the health benefits of marriage among Asian populations. We investigated the influence of marital status on depressive symptoms in older adult Koreans. Data were obtained from a sample of adults aged 45 to 85 years (4016 men, 5003 women) who participated in the 2006 cross-sectional baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. A multiple regression model was used to examine the association between marital status and depressive symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status, living arrangement, disability, and number of chronic diseases. In women aged 75 to 85 years, no significant differences were found between women who were married versus those who were widowed, divorced, or separated with regard to depressive symptoms. These findings were driven by increasing depressive symptoms among married women with age. Whereas divorced and widowed men in the sample reported higher rates of depressive symptoms than did married men, the difference between married vs. widowed/divorced women converged as they aged. This pattern of depressive symptoms by gender and life stage may reflect the distinctive influence of the Asian context on relations between men and women, such as traditional gender roles and patriarchal norms for older generation. PMID:19819601

  15. Are morphologic and functional consequences of status epilepticus in infant rats progressive?

    PubMed

    Kubová, H; Mareš, P

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined whether status epilepticus (SE) induced by LiCl-pilocarpine in immature rats (postnatal day [P]12) interferes with normal development; leads to progressive epileptogenesis, or cognitive decline and to pathology similar to that seen in human temporal lobe epilepsy. We correlated the extent of pathologic changes with the severity of functional alterations or epilepsy. SE-induced changes were compared with those of rats with SE induced at P25. Animals of both ages were exposed to a battery of behavioral tests for up to 3months after SE. Rats with SE at P12 showed mild retardation of psychomotor development and delayed habituation, whereas rats with SE at P25 showed no habituation. Assessment in adulthood using the Morris water maze test revealed that SE at both P12 and P25 led to cognitive impairment and that the severity of the impairment increased with age. A handling test revealed increased aggression in rats with SE at P25, but not in rats with SE at P12. Epilepsy was diagnosed with continuous video-electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring for up to 7d. P25 rats were monitored at 5months after SE and seizures were detected in 83.3% of animals. P12 animals were divided into two groups and monitored at 5 or 7months after SE. Both the severity and incidence of spontaneous recurrent seizures tended to progress with time, and their incidence increased from 50% to 87.5% at 5 and 7months, respectively. Morphometric analysis and stereologic assessment of hilar neurons performed after video-EEG monitoring revealed atrophy of temporal brain structures, enlargement of lateral ventricles, and loss of hilar neurons in both age groups. In P12 rats, morphologic damage also tended to progress over time. Performance of animals in the Morris water maze correlated with the severity of damage, but not with seizure parameters. PMID:23305765

  16. [Socio-demographic status of elderly and senile age people died from alcohol-attributable states in Arkhangelsk].

    PubMed

    Solov'ev, A G; Mordovskiĭ, É A; Viaz'min, A M

    2014-01-01

    To determine the characteristics of the socio-demographic status of elderly and senile age people died of alcohol-attributable states in Arkhangelsk, data from the medical certificate of death was analyzed. Data of death for persons who died in the city of Arkhangelsk in the period from 1 July 2011 to 30 June 2012 (one year) were copied out. The vast majority of alcohol conditioned deaths among men occurs in middle (working) age, 1/3 of women--over the age of 60 years. The alcohol-attributable mortality revealed the transformation of the structure of women over the age of 60 years compared with the mature age. Gender and age significantly affect the probability of death from alcohol only attribute states after 60 years. The results of the study indicate a different impact on the character of the individual sociodemographic factors on the probability of death from alcohol-attributable states in elderly and senile age. PMID:25051776

  17. Relationship of Right Ventricular Size and Function with Respiratory Status in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Mehmood, Muddassir; Ambach, Stephanie A; Taylor, Michael D; Jefferies, John L; Raman, Subha V; Taylor, Robin J; Sawani, Hemant; Mathew, Jacob; Mazur, Wojciech; Hor, Kan N; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R

    2016-06-01

    The relationship between pulmonary function and right ventricle (RV) in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has not been evaluated. Using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), we describe the relationship of RV size and function with spirometry in a DMD cohort. Fifty-seven boys undergoing CMR and pulmonary function testing within 1 month at a single center (2013-2015) were enrolled. Comparisons of RV ejection fraction (RVEF) and end-diastolic volume index (RVEDVI) were made across categories of percent forced vital capacity (FVC%), and relationships were assessed. Mean age was 15.5 ± 3.5 years. Spirometry and CMR were performed within 3.9 ± 4.1 days. Median FVC% was 92.0 % (67.5-116.5 %). Twenty-three (40 %) patients had abnormal FVC% (<80 %) of which 13 (57 %) had mild (FVC% 60-79 %), 6 (26 %) had moderate (FVC% 40-59 %), and 4 (17 %) had severe (FVC <40 %) reductions. Mean RVEF was 58.3 ± 3.7 %. Patients with abnormal FVC% were older and had lower RVEF and RVEDVI. Both RVEF and RVEDVI were significantly associated with FVC% (r = 0.31, p = 0.02 and r = 0.39, p = 0.003, respectively). In a large DMD cohort, RVEF and RVEDVI were related to FVC%. Worsening respiratory status may guide monitoring of cardiac function in these patients. PMID:26936620

  18. Biology of frailty: Modulation of ageing genes and its importance to prevent age-associated loss of function.

    PubMed

    Viña, Jose; Tarazona-Santabalbina, Francisco Jose; Pérez-Ros, Pilar; Martínez-Arnau, Francisco Miguel; Borras, Consuelo; Olaso-Gonzalez, Gloria; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Frailty is associated with loss of functional reserve as well as with the prediction of adverse events in the old population. The traditional criteria of frailty are based on five physical determinations described in the Cardiovascular Health Study. We propose that biological and genetic markers of frailty should be used to increase the predictive capacity of the established clinical indeces. In recent times, research for biological markers of frailty has gained impetus. Finding a biological markers with diagnostic and prognostic capacity would be a major milestone to identify frailty risk, and also pre-frailty status. In the first section of the manuscript, we review the available biomarkers that help to monitor and prevent the evolution and the efficacy of interventions to delay the onset of frailty and to prevent its progression to incapacity. We also discuss the contribution of genetics to frailty. There are scientific bases that support that genetics influences frailty, although environmental factors probably will have the highest contribution. We review the known SNPs of the genes associated with frailty and classify them, taking into account the pathway in which they are involved. We also highlight the importance of longevity genes and their possible relation with frailty, citing centenarians who reach a very old age as an example of successful ageing. Finally, the reversibility of frailty is discussed. It can potentially be treated with nutritional or pharmacological interventions. However, physical exercise seems to be the most effective strategy to treat and prevent frailty. The last section of the manuscript is devoted to explaining the recommendations on the appropriate design of an exercise protocol to maximize its beneficial effects in a population of frail individuals. PMID:27164416

  19. Effects of dietary fatty acids on mitochondrial phospholipid compositions, oxidative status and mitochondrial gene expression of zebrafish at different ages.

    PubMed

    Betancor, M B; Almaida-Pagán, P F; Hernández, A; Tocher, D R

    2015-10-01

    Mitochondrial decay is generally associated with impairment in the organelle bioenergetics function and increased oxidative stress, and it appears that deterioration of mitochondrial inner membrane phospholipids (PL) and accumulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations are among the main mechanisms involved in this process. In the present study, mitochondrial membrane PL compositions, oxidative status (TBARS content and SOD activity) and mtDNA gene expression of muscle and liver were analyzed in zebrafish fed two diets with lipid supplied either by rapeseed oil (RO) or a blend 60:40 of RO and DHA500 TG oil (DHA). Two feeding trials were performed using zebrafish from the same population of two ages (8 and 21 months). Dietary FA composition affected fish growth in 8-month-old animals, which could be related to an increase in stress promoted by diet composition. Lipid peroxidation was considerably higher in mitochondria of 8-month-old zebrafish fed the DHA diet than in animals fed the RO diet. This could indicate higher oxidative damage to mitochondrial lipids, very likely due to increased incorporation of DHA in PL of mitochondrial membranes. Lipids would be among the first molecules affected by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and lipid peroxidation could propagate oxidative reactions that would damage other molecules, including mtDNA. Mitochondrial lipid peroxidation and gene expression of 21-month-old fish showed lower responsiveness to diet composition than those of younger fish. Differences found in the effect of diet composition on mitochondrial lipids between the two age groups could be indicating age-related changes in the ability to maintain structural homeostasis of mitochondrial membranes. PMID:26156499

  20. Adult cognitive ability and socioeconomic status as mediators of the effects of childhood disadvantage on salivary cortisol in aging adults

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Carol E.; Spoon, Kelly; Thompson, Wesley; Hauger, Richard L.; Hellhammer, Dirk H.; Jacobson, Kristen C.; Lupien, Sonia; Lyons, Michael J.; McCaffery, Jeanne; McKenzie, Ruth; Mendoza, Sally P.; Panizzon, Matthew S.; Ramundo, Ana; Shahroudi, Afrand; Kremen, William S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this longitudinal study we investigate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis regulation. Two mechanisms by which early life stress may affect later pathophysiology are through its influence on cognitive functioning or later socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage. We predicted that individual differences in young adult cognitive ability and midlife SES would mediate the influence of childhood disadvantage on midlife cortisol. On each of three nonconsecutive days, participants provided five salivary cortisol samples corresponding to their diurnal rhythm (N = 727 men; mean age 55, SD = 2.6). We calculated three measures of cortisol regulation (area-under-the curve cortisol reflecting total daytime cortisol output; cortisol-awakening-response; and wake-to-bed slope), averaging scores for each measure across multiple days. Childhood disadvantage combined four dichotomous indicators used previously by Rutter (1985): father low SES; mother education less than 12th grade; major family disruption/separation before age 18; and large family size (more than 5 siblings). The two mediators were a measure of general cognitive ability assessed at age 20 and highest achieved midlife SES. Men from more disadvantaged childhoods were significantly more likely to have dysregulated cortisol at midlife, with higher daytime cortisol levels decades after their childhood experience. Effects of childhood disadvantage were both direct and indirect. Cognitive ability and adult SES, however, only partially mediated the associations between early life stress and midlife cortisol. Specific indirect effects accounted for 33.8% of the total effect of childhood disadvantage [β = 0.12 (0.05; 0.18)] on total daytime cortisol. Associations remained significant after accounting for ethnicity, smoking status, and self-reported depressive symptoms. PMID:23684478

  1. Learning Disabilities and Intellectual Functioning in School-Aged Children With Prenatal Cocaine Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Connie E.; Culbertson, Jan L.; Accornero, Veronica H.; Xue, Lihua; Anthony, James C.; Bandstra, Emmalee S.

    2009-01-01

    Risk for developing a learning disability (LD) or impaired intellectual functioning by age 7 was assessed in full-term children with prenatal cocaine exposure drawn from a cohort of 476 children born full term and enrolled prospectively at birth. Intellectual functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children–Third Edition (Wechsler,1991) shortform, and academic functioning was assessed using the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test (WIAT; Wechsler,1993) Screener by examiners blind to exposure status. LDs were categorized based on ability-achievement discrepancy scores, using the regression-based predicted achievement method described in the WIAT manual. The sample in this report included 409 children (212 cocaine-exposed, 197 non-cocaine-exposed) from the birth cohort with available data. Cumulative incidence proportions and relative risk values were estimated using STATA software (Statacorp, 2003). No differences were found in the estimate of relative risk for impaired intellectual functioning (IQ below 70) between children with and without prenatal cocaine exposure (estimated relative risk = .95;95%confidence interval [CI] = 0.65,1.39; p = .79). The cocaine-exposed children had 2.8 times greater risk of developing a LD by age 7 than non-cocaine-exposed children (95%CI = 1.05,7.67; p = .038; IQ ≥ 70 cutoff). Results remained stable with adjustment for multiple child and care-giver covariates, suggesting that children with prenatal cocaine exposure are at increased risk for developing a learning disability by age 7 when compared to their non-cocaine-exposed peers. PMID:17083299

  2. First in the Class? Age and the Education Production Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cascio, Elizabeth U.; Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2016-01-01

    We estimate the effects of relative age in kindergarten using data from an experiment where children of the same age were randomly assigned to different kindergarten classmates. We exploit the resulting experimental variation in relative age in conjunction with variation in expected kindergarten entry age based on birth date to account for…

  3. Effect of Functional Status on the Quality of Bowel Preparation in Elderly Patients Undergoing Screening and Surveillance Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Akash; Lin, Lisa; Bernheim, Oren; Bagiella, Emilia; Jandorf, Lina; Itzkowitz, Steven H.; Shah, Brijen J.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Optimal bowel preparation is essential for successful screening or for surveillance colonoscopy (SC). Inadequate bowel preparation is associated with older age, the male gender, and the presence of certain comorbidities. However, the association between patients’ functional status and bowel preparation quality has not been studied. We prospectively examined the relationship between functional status, namely, the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and ambulate, and the quality of bowel preparation in elderly patients undergoing SC. Methods Before undergoing SC, 88 elderly patients were surveyed regarding their functional status, specifically regarding their ability to perform ADLs and ambulate a quarter of a mile. Gastroenterologists then determined the quality of the bowel preparation, which was classified as either adequate or inadequate. Then, the frequency of inadequate bowel preparation in patients who did or did not experience difficulty performing ADLs and ambulating was calculated. Results Difficulty ambulating (unadjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.83; p<0.001), difficulty performing ADLs (OR, 2.93; p=0.001), and history of diabetes (OR, 2.88; p=0.007) were significant univariate predictors of inadequate bowel preparation. After adjusting for the above variables, only difficulty ambulating (adjusted OR, 5.78; p=0.004) was an independent predictor of inadequate bowel preparation. Conclusions Difficulty with ambulation is a strong predictor of inadequate bowel preparation in elderly patients undergoing SC. PMID:27021501

  4. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  5. Intestinal morphology adjustments caused by dietary restriction improves the nutritional status during the aging process of rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Belém, Mônica; Cirilo, Carla Possani; de Santi-Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal; de Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José

    2015-09-01

    During the aging process, the body's systems change structurally and loss of function can occur. Ingesting a smaller amount of food has been considered a plausible proposal for increased longevity with the quality of life. However, the effects of dietary restriction (DR) during aging are still poorly understood, especially for organs of the digestive system. This study aimed to describe the body weight, oxidative status and possible morphological changes of the intestinal wall of rats submitted to DR during the aging process (7 to 18months old). Twelve 7-month-old male Wistar rats fed ad libitum since birth were assigned to two groups: control group (CG, n=6) fed ad libitum from 7 to 18months old; and dietary restriction group (DRG, n=6) fed 50% of the amount of chow consumed by the CG from 7 to 18months old. The body weight, feed and water intake were monitored throughout the experiment. Blood, periepididymal adipose tissue (PAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RAT), and the small intestine were collected at 18months old. The blood was collected to evaluate its components and oxidative status. Sections from the duodenum and ileum were stained with HE, PAS and AB pH2.5 for morphometric analyses of the intestinal wall components, and to count intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs), goblet cells and cells in mitosis in the epithelium. DR rats showed a reduction in weight, naso-anal length, PAT, RAT and intestinal length; however, they consumed more water. Blood parameters indicate that the DR rats remained well nourished. In addition, they showed lower lipid peroxidation. Hypertrophy of the duodenal mucosa and atrophy of the ileal mucosa were observed. The number of goblet cells and IELs was reduced, but the mitotic index remained unaltered in both duodenum and ileum. In conclusion, 50% dietary restriction for rats from 7 to 18months old contributed to improving their nutritional parameters but, to achieve this, adjustments were required in the structure of the body

  6. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Kidney Injury: Present Status

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hai Ying; Chen, Tian Wu; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalization that is characterized by a sudden loss of renal excretory function and associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. Although the pathophysiology of renal functional impairment in the setting of AKI remains poorly understood, previous studies have identified changes in renal hemodynamics, perfusion, and oxygenation as key factors in the development and progression of AKI. The early assessment of these changes remains a challenge. Many established approaches are not applicable to humans because of their invasiveness. Functional renal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers an alternative assessment tool that could be used to evaluate renal morphology and function noninvasively and simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this review is to illustrate the principle, application, and role of the techniques of functional renal MR imaging, including blood oxygen level-dependent imaging, arterial spin labeling, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging, in the management of AKI. The use of gadolinium in MR imaging may exacerbate renal impairment and cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Therefore, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging will not be discussed in this paper. PMID:26925411

  7. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Acute Kidney Injury: Present Status.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hai Ying; Chen, Tian Wu; Zhang, Xiao Ming

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication of hospitalization that is characterized by a sudden loss of renal excretory function and associated with the subsequent development of chronic kidney disease, poor prognosis, and increased mortality. Although the pathophysiology of renal functional impairment in the setting of AKI remains poorly understood, previous studies have identified changes in renal hemodynamics, perfusion, and oxygenation as key factors in the development and progression of AKI. The early assessment of these changes remains a challenge. Many established approaches are not applicable to humans because of their invasiveness. Functional renal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging offers an alternative assessment tool that could be used to evaluate renal morphology and function noninvasively and simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this review is to illustrate the principle, application, and role of the techniques of functional renal MR imaging, including blood oxygen level-dependent imaging, arterial spin labeling, and diffusion-weighted MR imaging, in the management of AKI. The use of gadolinium in MR imaging may exacerbate renal impairment and cause nephrogenic systemic fibrosis. Therefore, dynamic contrast-enhanced MR imaging will not be discussed in this paper. PMID:26925411

  8. Somatic and Functional Status of Boys from Various Social and Environmental Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domaradzki, Jaroslaw; Ignasiak, Zofia; Slawinska, Teresa

    2009-01-01

    Study aim: To assess the somatic and fitness status of adolescent boys from polluted industrial areas. Material and methods: A group of 313 boys aged 11-15 years from 5 villages located in the copper mine area in South-Western Poland were classified by the degree of lead and cadmium pollution (high--very high) and by parents' education…

  9. Probiotic modulation of dendritic cell function is influenced by ageing.

    PubMed

    You, Jialu; Dong, Honglin; Mann, Elizabeth R; Knight, Stella C; Yaqoob, Parveen

    2014-02-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critical for the generation of T-cell responses. DC function may be modulated by probiotics, which confer health benefits in immunocompromised individuals, such as the elderly. This study investigated the effects of four probiotics, Bifidobacterium longum bv. infantis CCUG 52486, B. longum SP 07/3, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (L.GG) and L. casei Shirota (LcS), on DC function in an allogeneic mixed leucocyte reaction (MLR) model, using DCs and T-cells from young and older donors in different combinations. All four probiotics enhanced expression of CD40, CD80 and CCR7 on both young and older DCs, but enhanced cytokine production (TGF-β, TNF-α) by old DCs only. LcS induced IL-12 and IFNγ production by DC to a greater degree than other strains, while B. longum bv. infantis CCUG 52486 favoured IL-10 production. Stimulation of young T cells in an allogeneic MLR with DC was enhanced by probiotic pretreatment of old DCs, which demonstrated greater activation (CD25) than untreated controls. However, pretreatment of young or old DCs with LPS or probiotics failed to enhance the proliferation of T-cells derived from older donors. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that ageing increases the responsiveness of DCs to probiotics, but this is not sufficient to overcome the impact of immunosenescence in the MLR. PMID:24094416

  10. Cognitive control, goal maintenance, and prefrontal function in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Jessica L; Barch, Deanna M; Racine, Caroline A; Braver, Todd S

    2008-05-01

    Cognitive control impairments in healthy older adults may partly reflect disturbances in the ability to actively maintain goal-relevant information, a function that depends on the engagement of lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). In 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging studies, healthy young and older adults performed versions of a task in which contextual cues provide goal-relevant information used to bias processing of subsequent ambiguous probes. In Study 1, a blocked design and manipulation of the cue-probe delay interval revealed a generalized pattern of enhanced task-related brain activity in older adults but combined with a specific delay-related reduction of activity in lateral PFC regions. In Study 2, a combined blocked/event-related design revealed enhanced sustained (i.e., across-trial) activity but a reduction in transient trial-related activation in lateral PFC among older adults. Further analyses of within-trial activity dynamics indicated that, within these and other lateral PFC regions, older adults showed reduced activation during the cue and delay period but increased activation at the time of the probe, particularly on high-interference trials. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that age-related impairments in goal maintenance abilities cause a compensatory shift in older adults from a proactive (seen in young adults) to a reactive cognitive control strategy. PMID:17804479

  11. Gene Risk Factors for Age-Related Brain Disorders May Affect Immune System Function

    MedlinePlus

    ... for age-related brain disorders may affect immune system function June 17, 2014 Scientists have discovered gene ... factors for age-related neurological disorders to immune system functions, such as inflammation, offers new insights into ...

  12. Analytical approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of aging and aging-related disease: redox status and proteomics.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, V; Dattilo, S; Petralia, A; Parenti, R; Pennisi, M; Koverech, G; Calabrese, V; Graziano, A; Monte, I; Maiolino, L; Ferreri, T; Calabrese, E J

    2015-05-01

    Basal levels of oxidants are indispensible for redox signaling to produce adaptive cellular responses such as vitagenes linked to cell survival; however, at higher levels, they are detrimental to cells, contributing to aging and to the pathogenesis of numerous age-related diseases. Aging is a complex systemic process and the major gap in aging research reminds the insufficient knowledge about pathways shifting from normal "healthy" aging to disease-associated pathological aging. The major complication of normal "healthy" aging is in fact the increasing risk of age-related diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative pathologies that can adversely affect the quality of life in general, with enhanced incidences of comorbidities and mortality. In this context, global "omics" approaches may help to dissect and fully study the cellular and molecular mechanisms of aging and age-associated processes. The proteome, being more close to the phenotype than the transcriptome and more stable than the metabolome, represents the most promising "omics" field in aging research. In the present study, we exploit recent advances in the redox biology of aging and discuss the potential of proteomics approaches as innovative tools for monitoring at the proteome level the extent of protein oxidative insult and related modifications with the identification of targeted proteins. PMID:25824967

  13. Measuring changes in functional status among patients with schizophrenia: the link with cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Matza, Louis S; Buchanan, Robert; Purdon, Scot; Brewster-Jordan, Jessica; Zhao, Yang; Revicki, Dennis A

    2006-10-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) includes neuropsychological deficits in attention, working memory, verbal learning, and problem solving. These deficits have been shown to be linked to impairment in functional status (eg, social behavior, work performance, and activities of daily living) among patients with schizophrenia in cross-sectional studies. Less is known about the relationship between cognitive and functional change over time, such as potential functional implications of treatment-related improvement in CIAS. The purpose of this review is to summarize research on the association between change in CIAS and change in functional status, to discuss responsiveness of functional outcomes measures, and to provide recommendations for future research and measure development. Nine longitudinal studies were located on the link between CIAS and functional status, and 8 functional outcomes measures were used across these studies. The 9 studies offer initial support for a link between change in cognitive function and change in functional status. However, inconsistent findings across studies indicate that available research is preliminary, and substantial questions remain unanswered. Shortcomings of functional status measures are noted: most instruments were not developed for the target population, and none have demonstrated responsiveness to cognitive change among schizophrenic patients. It is recommended that new functional outcome measures be developed that are specifically designed to be responsive to change in cognition, with domains previously shown to be related to cognitive ability. When creating new functional outcomes measures for assessment of patients with schizophrenia, responsiveness to change in CIAS should be evaluated as part of the development and validation process. PMID:16829550

  14. What Are the Links between Maternal Social Status, Hippocampal Function, and HPA Axis Function in Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Margaret A.; How, Joan; Araujo, Melanie; Schamberg, Michelle A.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2013-01-01

    The association of parental social status with multiple health and achievement indicators in adulthood has driven researchers to attempt to identify mechanisms by which social experience in childhood could shift developmental trajectories. Some accounts for observed linkages between parental social status in childhood and health have hypothesized…

  15. Advisory Councils: Role, Function, Status, Responsibility and Operation. Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuay, Paul L.; Watters, Edmond A.

    After defining trade advisory committees as groups of individuals who have been selected because of their special knowledge and expertise to give advice on education programs, this report identifies the functions of the advisory committee in the areas of educational objectives, instructional content, program evaluation, review of equipment and…

  16. Assessing the Functional Status of Older Cancer Patients in an Ambulatory Care Visit

    PubMed Central

    Overcash, Janine

    2015-01-01

    Functional status assessment is a useful and essential component of the complete history and physical exam of the older patient diagnosed with cancer. Functional status is the ability to conduct activities that are necessary for independence and more executive activities, such as money management, cooking, and transportation. Assessment of functional status creates a portal into interpreting the health of in older persons. Understanding limitations and physical abilities can help in developing cancer treatment strategies, patient/family teaching needs, and in-home services that enhance patient/family care. This article will review the benefits of functional assessment, instruments that can be used during an ambulatory care visit, and interventions that can address potential limitations. PMID:27417801

  17. Was She Really Sexually Harassed? The Effects of a Victim's Age and the Job Status of the Initiator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Martin F.; Smith, Robert J.

    With the increased number of women in the work force, sexual harassment is receiving increased attention from the federal government, journalists, researchers, and counselors. To investigate the influence of two contextual variables (status of the initiator and age of the victim) on perceptions of sexual harassment allegations, 123 college…

  18. The Effects of Age and Infant Hearing Status on Maternal Use of Prosodic Cues for Clause Boundaries in Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kondaurova, Maria V.; Bergeson, Tonya R.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the effects of age and hearing status of a child on maternal use of pitch change, preboundary vowel lengthening, and pause duration, all of which are prosodic cues correlated with clause boundaries in infant-directed speech. Method: Mothers' speech to infants with normal hearing (NH; n = 18), infants who are…

  19. The Relationship between Socioeconomic Status at Age One, Opportunities to Learn and Achievement in Mathematics in Fourth Grade in Peru

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cueto, Santiago; Guerrero, Gabriela; Leon, Juan; Zapata, Mayli; Freire, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Using Young Lives longitudinal data from Peru, this paper explores the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) measured at the age of one, opportunities to learn (OTL) and achievement in mathematics ten years later. Four variables of OTL were measured: hours of class per year, curriculum coverage, quality of teachers' feedback, and…

  20. Prevalence of Overweight in North Florida Elementary and Middle School Children: Effects of Age, Sex, Ethnicity, and Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Suzanne B.; Pilkington, Lorri L.; Deeb, Larry C.; Jeffers, Sheila; He, Jianghua; Lamp, Camilla

    2007-01-01

    Background: The number of overweight children has been rapidly increasing, although its prevalence varies by age, sex, ethnicity, and socioeconomic (SES) status. Methods: Height and weight assessments were used to calculate body mass index (BMI) and BMI percentile on more than 17,000 children in 1 north Florida school district's elementary and…

  1. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

  2. Performance of San Joaquin Delta College Freshmen Students in Reading, Writing and Math by Ethnicity, High School Status and Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Merrilee R.; And Others

    A study was conducted in fall 1985 to determine how well students at San Joaquin Delta College (SJDC) were prepared in reading, writing, and mathematics, comparing students by ethnicity, high school status, and age. SJDC uses the Comparative Guidance Placement (CGP) Tests to to assess all new students who do not have an Associate of Arts degree or…

  3. Parenting, Family Socioeconomic Status, and Child Executive Functioning: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochette, Émilie; Bernier, Annie

    2014-01-01

    Family socioeconomic status (SES) and the quality of maternal behavior are among the few identified predictors of child executive functioning (EF), and they have often been found to have interactive rather than additive effects on other domains of child functioning. The purpose of this study was to explore their interactive effects in the…

  4. NEUTROPHIL FUNCTION AND ENERGY STATUS IN HOLSTEIN COWS WITH UTERINE HEALTH DISORDERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the associations between peripheral blood neutrophil (PMN) function, energy status, and uterine health in periparturient dairy cows. Data were collected from 83 multiparous Holstein cows. Blood samples for PMN function determination were collected w...

  5. Effect of Circulation Parameters on Functional Status of HepaRG Spheroids Cultured in Microbioreactor.

    PubMed

    Semenova, O V; Petrov, V A; Gerasimenko, T N; Aleksandrova, A V; Burmistrova, O A; Khutornenko, A A; Osipyants, A I; Poloznikov, A A; Sakharov, D A

    2016-07-01

    We studied the relationship between microcirculation parameters and functional status of HepaRG cells in spheroids and chose an optimal regimen within the physiologically permissible limits of mechanical impact for the cells that maintains the expression of functional genes of the liver. PMID:27496037

  6. Predicting Functional Status Following Amputation After Lower Extremity Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Suckow, Bjoern D.; Goodney, Philip P.; Cambria, Robert A.; Bertges, Daniel J.; Eldrup-Jorgensen, Jens; Indes, Jeffrey E.; Schanzer, Andres; Stone, David H.; Kraiss, Larry W.; Cronenwett, Jack L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Some patients who undergo lower extremity bypass (LEB) for critical limb ischemia ultimately require amputation. The functional outcome achieved by these patients after amputation is not well known. Therefore, we sought to characterize the functional outcome of patients who undergo amputation after LEB, and to describe the pre- and perioperative factors associated with independent ambulation at home after lower extremity amputation. Methods Within a cohort of 3,198 patients who underwent an LEB between January, 2003 and December, 2008, we studied 436 patients who subsequently received an above-knee (AK), below-knee (BK), or minor (forefoot or toe) ipsilateral or contralateral amputation. Our main outcome measure consisted of a “good functional outcome,” defined as living at home and ambulating independently. We calculated univariate and multivariate associations among patient characteristics and our main outcome measure, as well as overall survival. Results Of the 436 patients who underwent amputation within the first year following LEB, 224 of 436 (51.4%) had a minor amputation, 105 of 436 (24.1%) had a BK amputation, and 107 of 436 (24.5%) had an AK amputation. The majority of AK (75 of 107, 72.8%) and BK amputations (72 of 105, 70.6%) occurred in the setting of bypass graft thrombosis, whereas nearly all minor amputations (200 of 224, 89.7%) occurred with a patent bypass graft. By life-table analysis at 1 year, we found that the proportion of surviving patients with a good functional outcome varied by the presence and extent of amputation (proportion surviving with good functional outcome = 88% no amputation, 81% minor amputation, 55% BK amputation, and 45% AK amputation, p = 0.001). Among those analyzed at long-term follow-up, survival was slightly lower for those who had a minor amputation when compared with those who did not receive an amputation after LEB (81 vs. 88%, p = 0.02). Survival among major amputation patients did not significantly

  7. Association of Impaired Functional Status at Hospital Discharge and Subsequent Rehospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Erik H.; Needham, Dale M.; Atanelov, Levan; Knox, Brenda; Friedman, Michael; Brotman, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine whether functional status near the time of discharge from acute care hospitalization is associated with acute care readmission. PATIENTS AND METHODS Retrospective cohort study of 9405 consecutive patients admitted from an acute care hospital to an inpatient rehabilitation facility between July 1, 2006 and December 31, 2012. Patients’ functional status at admission to the rehabilitation facility was assessed by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score, and divided into low, middle, or high functional status. The main outcome was readmission to an acute care hospital within 30 days of acute care discharge (for all patients and by subgroup according to diagnostic group: medical, orthopedic, or neurologic). RESULTS There were 1182 (13%) readmissions. FIM score was significantly associated with readmission, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for low and middle versus high FIM score category of 3.0 (2.5-3.6; P < 0.001) and 1.5 (95% CI: 1.3-1.8; P < 0.001), respectively. This relationship between FIM score and read-mission held across diagnostic category. Medical patients with low functional status had the highest readmission rate (OR: 29%; 95% CI: 25%-32%) and an adjusted OR for readmission of 3.2 (95% CI: 2.4-4.3, P < 0.001) compared to medical patients with high FIM scores. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE For patients admitted to an acute inpatient rehabilitation facility, functional status near the time of discharge from an acute care hospital is strongly associated with acute care readmission, particularly for medical patients with greater functional impairments. Reducing functional status decline during acute care hospitalization may be an important strategy to lower readmissions. PMID:24616216

  8. S-sulfocysteine synthase function in sensing chloroplast redox status

    PubMed Central

    Gotor, Cecilia; Romero, Luis C.

    2013-01-01

    The minor chloroplastic O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase isoform encoded by the CS26 gene in Arabidopsis thaliana has been described as an S-sulfocysteine synthase enzyme that plays an important role in chloroplast function. This enzyme is located in the thylakoid lumen, and its S-sulfocysteine activity is essential for the proper photosynthetic performance of the chloroplast under long-day growth conditions. Based on the present knowledge of this enzyme, we suggest that S-sulfocysteine synthase functions as a protein sensor to detect the accumulation of thiosulfate as a result of the inadequate detoxification of reactive oxygen species generated under conditions of excess light to produce the S-sulfocysteine molecule that triggers protection mechanisms of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:23333972

  9. Current Status of Functional Imaging in Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Guido K.W.; Kaye, Walter H.

    2013-01-01

    Eating Disorders are complex psychiatric problems that involve biologic and psychological factors. Brain imaging studies provide insights how functionally connected brain networks may contribute to disturbed eating behavior, resulting in food refusal and altered body weight, but also body preoccupations and heightened anxiety. In this article we review the current state of brain imaging in eating disorders, and how such techniques may help identify pathways that could be important in the treatment of those often detrimental disorders. PMID:22532388

  10. Proteins: sequence to structure and function--current status.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Sandhya R; Jayaram, B

    2010-11-01

    In an era that has been dominated by Structural Biology for the last 30-40 years, a dramatic change of focus towards sequence analysis has spurred the advent of the genome projects and the resultant diverging sequence/structure deficit. The central challenge of Computational Structural Biology is therefore to rationalize the mass of sequence information into biochemical and biophysical knowledge and to decipher the structural, functional and evolutionary clues encoded in the language of biological sequences. In investigating the meaning of sequences, two distinct analytical themes have emerged: in the first approach, pattern recognition techniques are used to detect similarity between sequences and hence to infer related structures and functions; in the second ab initio prediction methods are used to deduce 3D structure, and ultimately to infer function, directly from the linear sequence. In this article, we attempt to provide a critical assessment of what one may and may not expect from the biological sequences and to identify major issues yet to be resolved. The presentation is organized under several subtitles like protein sequences, pattern recognition techniques, protein tertiary structure prediction, membrane protein bioinformatics, human proteome, protein-protein interactions, metabolic networks, potential drug targets based on simple sequence properties, disordered proteins, the sequence-structure relationship and chemical logic of protein sequences. PMID:20887265

  11. Scaling functional status within the interRAI suite of assessment instruments

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As one ages, physical, cognitive, and clinical problems accumulate and the pattern of loss follows a distinct progression. The first areas requiring outside support are the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living and over time there is a need for support in performing the Activities of Daily Living. Two new functional hierarchies are presented, an IADL hierarchical capacity scale and a combination scale integrating both IADL and ADL hierarchies. Methods A secondary analyses of data from a cross-national sample of community residing persons was conducted using 762,023 interRAI assessments. The development of the new IADL Hierarchy and a new IADL-ADL combined scale proceeded through a series of interrelated steps first examining individual IADL and ADL item scores among persons receiving home care and those living independently without services. A factor analysis demonstrated the overall continuity across the IADL-ADL continuum. Evidence of the validity of the scales was explored with associative analyses of factors such as a cross-country distributional analysis for persons in home care programs, a count of functional problems across the categories of the hierarchy, an assessment of the hours of informal and formal care received each week by persons in the different categories of the hierarchy, and finally, evaluation of the relationship between cognitive status and the hierarchical IADL-ADL assignments. Results Using items from interRAI’s suite of assessment instruments, two new functional scales were developed, the interRAI IADL Hierarchy Scale and the interRAI IADL-ADL Functional Hierarchy Scale. The IADL Hierarchy Scale consisted of 5 items, meal preparation, housework, shopping, finances and medications. The interRAI IADL-ADL Functional Hierarchy Scale was created through an amalgamation of the ADL Hierarchy (developed previously) and IADL Hierarchy Scales. These scales cover the spectrum of IADL and ADL challenges faced by persons in the community

  12. Depression, disability and functional status among community dwelling older adults in South Africa: Evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Andrew; Burns, Jonathan K

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the relationship between depression and functional status among a community-dwelling elderly population of 65 years and older in South Africa. Method Data from the first wave of the South African National Income Dynamics Study (SA-NIDS) was used, this being the first longitudinal panel survey of a nationally representative sample of households. The study focused on the data for resident adults 65 years and older (n=1,429). Depression was assessed using the 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Functional status, pertaining to both difficulty and dependency in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and physical functioning and mobility (PFM), were assessed using 11 items. Results Functional challenges were generally higher in the older age group. There was a significant association between depression and functional dependency in ADL (adjusted OR=2.57 [CI: 1.03-6.41]), IADL (adjusted OR=2.76 [CI: 1.89-4.04]) and PFM (adjusted OR=1.66 [CI: 1.18-2.33]) but the relationship between depression and functional status, particularly PFM, appeared weaker in older age. Conclusion The relationship between depression symptoms and function is complex. Functional characteristics between older and younger older populations are diverse, and caution is indicated against overgeneralizing the challenges related to depression and function among this target population. PMID:23512338

  13. Functional Status of Elderly Adults Before and After Interventions for Critical Limb Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Todd R.; Petroski, Gregory F.; Kruse, Robin L.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The impact of interventions for Critical Limb Ischemia (CLI) on functional status in the elderly remains unclear. Open and endovascular procedures were evaluated. Methods Medicare inpatient claims were linked with nursing home assessment data to identify elective admissions for lower extremity procedures for CLI. A functional impairment score (0-28; higher scores indicating greater impairment) based on residents' need for assistance with self-care activities, walking, and locomotion was calculated before and after interventions. Hierarchical modeling determined the effect of the surgery on residents' function, controlling for comorbidity, cognition, and pre-hospital function. Results 352 and 350 patients underwent open and endovascular procedures, respectively (rest pain: 84; ulceration: 351; and gangrene: 267). Hospitalization was associated with a significant worsening in function following both procedures. Disease severity was associated with the amount of initial decline but not with the rate of recovery (p>.35). Residents who received open surgery improved more quickly following hospital discharge (p=.011). Conclusions In the frail elderly, open and endovascular procedures for CLI were associated with similar initial declines in functional status, suggesting that compared with open procedures, less invasive endovascular procedures were not associated with maintaining baseline function. In this select population, endovascular procedures for CLI were not associated with improved functional status over time compared to open. Six months post-hospital, patients who received traditional open bypass had significantly better functional status than those who received endovascular procedures for all CLI diagnoses. Further analysis is required to assist stakeholders in performing procedures most likely to preserve functional status in the frail elderly and nursing home population. PMID:24139567

  14. The aging memory: Modulating epigenetic modifications to improve cognitive function.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Rosalina

    2016-09-01

    Age-related cognitive decline is a major concern in society. Here, I discuss recent evidence that shows an age-related modulation of gene transcription by epigenetic modifications. Epigenetic modifications, such as histone acetylation, is unbalanced in aging, with an increase in histone deacetylation, that limits the expression of plasticity-related genes. By modifying the balance towards histone acetylation, histone deacetylase inhibitors present a new pharmacological approach to ameliorate age-related cognitive deficits. PMID:27390098

  15. The Effects of Perinatal Morbidity and Environmental Factors on Health Status of Preterm Children at Age 12

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robin June; Sullivan, Mary C.; Hawes, Katheleen; Marks, Amy Kerivan

    2009-01-01

    Children born prematurely have later morbidity, yet little is known about their health in adolescence. This study examined multiple dimensions of health at age 12 and the predictors of biological, behavioral, social, and physical environmental factors. ANOVA and logistic regression models were tested. Perinatal morbidity predicted health at age 12. Preterm status increases the risk of later alterations in health. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, intraventricular hemorrhage, small-for-gestational age, parental perception of child health, and parental psychological distress affect later health. Prematurity and perinatal morbidity continue to impact child health 12 years after birth. PMID:19268232

  16. Age-dependent effects of esculetin on mood-related behavior and cognition from stressed mice are associated with restoring brain antioxidant status.

    PubMed

    Martín-Aragón, Sagrario; Villar, Ángel; Benedí, Juana

    2016-02-01

    Dietary antioxidants might exert an important role in the aging process by relieving oxidative damage, a likely cause of age-associated brain dysfunctions. This study aims to investigate the influence of esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin), a naturally occurring antioxidant in the diet, on mood-related behaviors and cognitive function and its relation with age and brain oxidative damage. Behavioral tests were employed in 11-, 17- and 22-month-old male C57BL/6J mice upon an oral 35day-esculetin treatment (25mg/kg). Activity of antioxidant enzymes, GSH and GSSG levels, GSH/GSSG ratio, and mitochondrial function were analyzed in brain cortex at the end of treatment in order to assess the oxidative status related to mouse behavior. Esculetin treatment attenuated the increased immobility time and enhanced the diminished climbing time in the forced swim task elicited by acute restraint stress (ARS) in the 11- and 17-month-old mice versus their counterpart controls. Furthermore, ARS caused an impairment of contextual memory in the step-through passive avoidance both in mature adult and aged mice which was partially reversed by esculetin only in the 11-month-old mice. Esculetin was effective to prevent the ARS-induced oxidative stress mostly in mature adult mice by restoring antioxidant enzyme activities, augmenting the GSH/GSSG ratio and increasing cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity in cortex. Modulation of the mood-related behavior and cognitive function upon esculetin treatment in a mouse model of ARS depends on age and is partly due to the enhancement of redox status and levels of COX activity in cortex. PMID:26290950

  17. [The functional status of the cerebral cortex after replacement of skull base bone defects].

    PubMed

    Shevtsov, V I; Khudiaev, A T; Shein, A P; D'iachkov, A N; Men'shchikova, I A; Krivonogova, Z M; Mukhtiaeva, S V

    2002-01-01

    The functional status of the cerebral cortex was evaluated by EEG before and different periods after prolonged cranial osteoplasty made by the type of replacement of skull base bone defects in patients with dyscirculatory encephalopathies of various genesis. Seven patients aged 20 to 50 years undergone repair of skull base bone defects (both posttraumatic and simulated) by the procedures developed at the Russian Research Center "VTO" were examined. The bioelectrical activity of the brain was recorded and analyzed on a PEGASUS digital 16-channel EEG system (EMS, Austria) by using the Fourie prompt conversion test (spectral analysis) and amplitude-frequency mapping. After multimodality treatment, all the patients showed a positive changes in the whole range of EEG parameters, which appeared as an increase in basic rhythm power, a decrease in the focal area of slow-wave activity and in the interhemispheral asymmetry coefficient, which in combination of neurological regression is regarded as indirect evidence for the vasoactivity of prolonged cranial osteoplasty. PMID:11989290

  18. Transverse Momentum Dependent (TMD) Parton Distribution Functions: Status and Prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, I. I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; Ferrera, G.; Grados Luyando, J.; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Kasemets, T.; Kutak, K.; Lansberg, J. P.; Lelek, A.; Lykasov, G.; Madrigal Martinez, J. D.; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, E. R.; Petreska, E.; Pisano, C.; Plačakytė, R.; Radescu, V.; Radici, M.; Schnell, G.; Scimemi, I.; Signori, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Taheri Monfared, S.; Van der Veken, F. F.; van Haevermaet, H. J.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vladimirov, A. A.; Wallon, S.

    We provide a concise overview on transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum q_T spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low q_T, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present an application of a new tool, TMDlib, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  19. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions: Status and prospects*

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, Ian I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; et al

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum qT spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low qT, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present the application of a new tool, TMDLIB, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  20. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-12-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life.

  1. The status of computerized cognitive testing in aging: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Wild, Katherine; Howieson, Diane; Webbe, Frank; Seelye, Adriana; Kaye, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Background Early detection of cognitive decline in the elderly has become of heightened importance in parallel with the recent advances in therapeutics. Computerized assessment may be uniquely suited to early detection of changes in cognition in the elderly. We present here a systematic review of the status of computer-based cognitive testing focusing on detection of cognitive decline in the aging population. Methods All studies purporting to assess or detect age-related changes in cognition or early dementia/mild cognitive impairment (MCI) by means of computerized testing were included. Each test battery was rated on availability of normative data, level of evidence for test validity and reliability, comprehensiveness, and usability. All published studies relevant to a particular computerized test were read by a minimum of two reviewers, who completed rating forms containing the above-mentioned criteria. Results Of the 18 test batteries identified from the initial search, eleven were appropriate to cognitive testing in the elderly and were subjected to systematic review. Of those 11, five were either developed specifically for application with the elderly or have been used extensively with that population. Even within the computerized testing genre, great variability existed in manner of administration, ranging from fully examiner administered to fully self-administered. All tests had at least minimal reliability and validity data, commonly reported in peer-reviewed articles. However, level of rigor of validity testing varied widely. Conclusion All test batteries exhibited some of the strengths of computerized cognitive testing: standardization of administration and stimulus presentation, accurate measures of response latencies, automated comparison in real-time with an individual’s prior performance as well as with age-related norms, and efficiencies of staffing and cost. Some, such as the MCIS, adapted complicated scoring algorithms to enhance the information

  2. Macronutrient balance, reproductive function, and lifespan in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Solon-Biet, Samantha M; Walters, Kirsty A; Simanainen, Ulla K; McMahon, Aisling C; Ruohonen, Kari; Ballard, John William O; Raubenheimer, David; Handelsman, David J; Le Couteur, David G; Simpson, Stephen J

    2015-03-17

    In invertebrates, reproductive output and lifespan are profoundly impacted by dietary macronutrient balance, with these traits achieving their maxima on different diet compositions, giving the appearance of a resource-based tradeoff between reproduction and longevity. For the first time in a mammal, to our knowledge, we evaluate the effects of dietary protein (P), carbohydrate (C), fat (F), and energy (E) on lifespan and reproductive function in aging male and female mice. We show that, as in invertebrates, the balance of macronutrients has marked and largely opposing effects on reproductive and longevity outcomes. Mice were provided ad libitum access to one of 25 diets differing in P, C, F, and E content, with reproductive outcomes assessed at 15 months. An optimal balance of macronutrients exists for reproductive function, which, for most measures, differs from the diets that optimize lifespan, and this response differs with sex. Maximal longevity was achieved on diets containing a P:C ratio of 1:13 in males and 1:11 for females. Diets that optimized testes mass and epididymal sperm counts (indicators of gamete production) contained a higher P:C ratio (1:1) than those that maximized lifespan. In females, uterine mass (an indicator of estrogenic activity) was also greatest on high P:C diets (1:1) whereas ovarian follicle number was greatest on P:C 3:1 associated with high-F intakes. By contrast, estrous cycling was more likely in mice on lower P:C (1:8), and the number of corpora lutea, indicative of recent ovulations, was greatest on P:C similar to those supporting greatest longevity (1:11). PMID:25733862

  3. Clinical implications of altered thyroid status in male testicular function.

    PubMed

    Wajner, Simone Magagnin; Wagner, Márcia Santos; Maia, Ana Luiza

    2009-11-01

    Thyroid hormones are involved in the development and maintenance of virtually all tissues. Although for many years the testis was thought to be a thyroid-hormone unresponsive organ, studies of the last decades have demonstrated that thyroid dysfunction is associated not only with abnormalities in morphology and function of testes, but also with decreased fertility and alterations of sexual activity in men. Nowadays, the participation of triiodothyronine (T3) in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell proliferation, testicular maturation, and steroidogenesis is widely accepted, as well as the presence of thyroid hormone transporters and receptors in testicular cells throughout the development process and in adulthood. But even with data suggesting that T3 may act directly on these cells to bring about its effects, there is still controversy regarding the impact of thyroid diseases on human spermatogenesis and fertility, which can be in part due to the lack of well-controlled clinical studies. The current review aims at presenting an updated picture of recent clinical data about the role of thyroid hormones in male gonadal function. PMID:20126850

  4. Functional Visual Acuity in Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Tomita, Yohei; Nagai, Norihiro; Suzuki, Misa; Shinoda, Hajime; Uchida, Atsuro; Mochimaru, Hiroshi; Izumi-Nagai, Kanako; Sasaki, Mariko; Tsubota, Kazuo; Ozawa, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose We evaluated whether a functional visual acuity (FVA) system can detect subtle changes in central visual acuity that reflect pathological findings associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Twenty-eight patients with unilateral AMD and logMAR monocular best corrected VA better than 0 in both eyes, as measured by conventional chart examination, were analyzed between November 2012 and April 2013. After measuring conventional VA, FVA, and contrast VA with best correction, routine eye examinations including spectral domain–optical coherence tomography were performed. Standard Schirmer test was performed, and corneal and lens densities were measured. Results The FVA score (p < 0.001) and visual maintenance ratio (p < 0.001) measured by the FVA system, contrast VA (p < 0. 01), and conventional VA (p < 0.01) were significantly worse in the AMD-affected eyes than in the fellow eyes. No significant differences were observed in the anterior segment conditions. Forward stepwise regression analysis demonstrated that the length of interdigitation zone disruption, as visualized by optical coherence tomography imaging, correlated with the FVA score (p < 0.01) but not with any other parameters investigated. Conclusions The FVA system detects subtle changes in best corrected VA in AMD-affected eyes and reflects interdigitation zone disruption, an anatomical change in the retina recorded by optical coherence tomography. Further studies are required to understand the value of the FVA system in detecting subtle changes in AMD. PMID:26583795

  5. Ovarian cycle activity varies with respect to age and social status in free-ranging elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Elizabeth W.; Meyer, Jordana M.; Putman, Sarah B.; Schulte, Bruce A.; Brown, Janine L.

    2013-01-01

    Free-ranging African elephants live in a fission–fusion society, at the centre of which is the matriarch. Matriarchs are generally older females that guide their families to resources and co-ordinate group defense. While much is known about elephant society, knowledge is generally lacking about how age affects the physiology of wild elephants. Investigation of the ovarian activity of free-ranging elephants could provide insight into the reproductive ageing process, with implications for population management. Faecal samples were collected from 46 individuals ranging in age from 14 to 60 years for a 2-year period, and progestagen metabolite analyses were used to examine relationships between social status, age, season, and ovarian activity in female elephants in Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. Social status was the strongest predictor of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in non-pregnant elephants, with grand matriarchs (n = 6) having the lowest values compared with matriarchs (n = 21) and non-matriarch females (n = 19). Likewise, social status and age were the strongest predictors of faecal progestagen metabolite concentrations in pregnant elephants (n = 27). The number of years since a non-pregnant female gave birth to her last calf (post-partum duration) was longer for older females with a higher social status, as well as during the dry season. Our results indicate that social standing and age of elephants are related to reproductive function, and that older females exhibit reductions in ovarian capacity. These results expand our understanding of reproduction and fertility throughout an elephant's lifespan, and the factors that impact gonadal function in free-ranging females. Given that possible over-abundance of elephants in areas such as Addo Elephant National Park is fuelling the debate over how best to manage these populations, knowledge about the reproductive potential of high-ranking females can provide managers with

  6. Age and Adaptive Functioning in Children and Adolescents with ASD: The Effects of Intellectual Functioning and ASD Symptom Severity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Trenesha L.; Gray, Sarah A. O.; Kamps, Jodi L.; Enrique Varela, R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the moderating effects of intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity on the relation between age and adaptive functioning in 220 youth with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Regression analysis indicated that intellectual functioning and ASD symptom severity moderated the relation between age and adaptive…

  7. Association between smoking status and the parameters of vascular structure and function in adults: results from the EVIDENT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The present study analyses the relation between smoking status and the parameters used to assess vascular structure and function. Methods This cross-sectional, multi-centre study involved a random sample of 1553 participants from the EVIDENT study. Measurements: The smoking status, peripheral augmentation index and ankle-brachial index were measured in all participants. In a small subset of the main population (265 participants), the carotid intima-media thickness and pulse wave velocity were also measured. Results After controlling for the effect of age, sex and other risk factors, present smokers have higher values of carotid intima-media thickness (p = 0.011). Along the same lines, current smokers have higher values of pulse wave velocity and lower mean values of ankle-brachial index but without statistical significance in both cases. Conclusions Among the parameters of vascular structure and function analysed, only the IMT shows association with the smoking status, after adjusting for confounders. PMID:24289208

  8. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Doets, Esmée L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Szczecińska, Anna; Dullemeijer, Carla; Souverein, Olga W; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Brzozowska, Anna; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 μg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function should be considered for underpinning vitamin B12 recommendations in the future. The authors summarized dose-response evidence from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on the relation of vitamin B12 intake and status with cognitive function in adults and elderly people. Two randomized controlled trials and 6 cohort studies showed no association or inconsistent associations between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that serum/plasma vitamin B12 (50 pmol/L) was not associated with risk of dementia (4 cohort studies), global cognition z scores (4 cohort studies), or memory z scores (4 cohort studies). Although dose-response evidence on sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status (methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin) was scarce, 4 of 5 cohort studies reported significant associations with risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or global cognition. Current evidence on the relation between vitamin B12 intake or status and cognitive function is not sufficient for consideration in the development of vitamin B12 recommendations. Further studies should consider the selection of sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status. PMID:23221971

  9. Coenzyme Q10 serum concentration and redox status in European adults: influence of age, sex, and lipoprotein concentration

    PubMed Central

    Niklowitz, Petra; Onur, Simone; Fischer, Alexandra; Laudes, Matthias; Palussen, Michael; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is synthesized in almost all human tissues and presumably involved in age-related alterations and diseases. Here, we examined the impact of aging and sex on the serum CoQ10 status in 860 European adults ranging in age from 18 to 82 years. We identified an inverse U-shaped relationship between CoQ10 concentration and age. Women showed lower cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 levels than men, irrespective of age. As observed in both sexes, the decrease in CoQ10 concentration in older subjects was accompanied by a shift in the redox status in favour of the oxidized form. A strong positive correlation was found for total CoQ10 and cholesterol concentrations (Spearman’s, p≤1E-74). We found strong negative correlations between total (Spearman’s, p≤1E-07) and between cholesterol-adjusted CoQ10 concentration (Spearman’s, p≤1E-14) and the proportion of the oxidized form of CoQ10. These correlations were not dependent on age and sex and were attenuated by supplementation with 150 mg/day reduced CoQ10 for 14 days. Overall, our results are useful to define risk groups with critical CoQ10 status in humans. In particular, older subjects were characterized by impaired CoQ10 status due to their lowered serum CoQ10 concentration and concomitant decrease of CoQ10 redox capacity. PMID:27257350

  10. Transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions: Status and prospects*

    SciTech Connect

    Angeles-Martinez, R.; Bacchetta, A.; Balitsky, Ian I.; Boer, D.; Boglione, M.; Boussarie, R.; Ceccopieri, F. A.; Cherednikov, I. O.; Connor, P.; Echevarria, M. G.; Ferrera, G.; Grados Luyando, J.; Hautmann, F.; Jung, H.; Kasemets, T.; Kutak, K.; Lansberg, J. P.; Lykasov, G.; Madrigal Martinez, J. D.; Mulders, P. J.; Nocera, E. R.; Petreska, E.; Pisano, C.; Placakyte, R.; Radescu, V.; Radici, M.; Schnell, G.; Signori, A.; Szymanowski, L.; Taheri Monfared, S.; Van der Veken, F. F.; van Haevermaet, H. J.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vladimirov, A. A.; Wallon, S.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we review transverse momentum dependent (TMD) parton distribution functions, their application to topical issues in high-energy physics phenomenology, and their theoretical connections with QCD resummation, evolution and factorization theorems. We illustrate the use of TMDs via examples of multi-scale problems in hadronic collisions. These include transverse momentum qT spectra of Higgs and vector bosons for low qT, and azimuthal correlations in the production of multiple jets associated with heavy bosons at large jet masses. We discuss computational tools for TMDs, and present the application of a new tool, TMDLIB, to parton density fits and parameterizations.

  11. [The neuromotor functional status of patients with circulatory encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Ivaniv, A P; Shmakova, I P

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to reveal the secondary neuromuscular disorders in 104 patients with spondylogenic discirculatory encephalopathy and to study the influence of different methods of combined physiotherapy (laser irradiation, troxevasin vacuum-phonophoresis, vacuum-message) on dynamics of electroneuromyographic (ENMG) indices. The application of electroneuromyography (ENMGST-01 apparatus) permitted to establish that pathological neurophysiological phenomena developed in patients progrediently and were qualitatively unstable. It was also determined that combined usage of laser-photobiostimulation and troxevasin vacuum-phonophoresis promoted more steadfast liquidation of neurological signs of the disease as well as the improvement of functional state of neuromotor system. Moreover, the usage of combined ENMG methods significantly contributed to understanding of pathological processes underlying the evaluated neurophysiological syndromes. The authors made the conclusion about high effectiveness and good perspectives of craniocaudal coefficient's application for determination of correlations between clinical state of patients and diagnostic tests' data. PMID:9281282

  12. Quantifying Health Status and Function in Marfan Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rao, Sandesh S; Venuti, Kristen D; Dietz, Harry C; Sponseller, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Two hundred thirty patients were prospectively enrolled in this study and completed various portions of the Short Form 36 and a study-specific questionnaire (visual analog scale 1 to 10, comprising three separate questionnaires) to evaluate quality of life and function in patients with Marfan syndrome. The greatest health concern was cardiac problems (high in 70% of patients), followed by spine issues and generalized fatigue (both high, in 53%). The most severe reported pain involved the back: 105 patients (46%) rated pain as 6 to 10 on the visual analog scale. Among the 72 patients who responded to work life questions, work hours were reduced because of treatment in 59 (82%) or directly because of Marfan syndrome in 29 (40%). Across all Short Form 36 domains, patients scored significantly lower than United States population norms (p<.05); physical health scores were considerably lower than mental health scores. PMID:27082886

  13. Status of point spread function determination for Keck adaptive optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragland, S.; Jolissaint, L.; Wizinowich, P.; Neyman, C.

    2014-07-01

    There is great interest in the adaptive optics (AO) science community to overcome the limitations imposed by incomplete knowledge of the point spread function (PSF). To address this limitation a program has been initiated at the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) to demonstrate PSF determination for observations obtained with Keck AO science instruments. This paper aims to give a broad view of the progress achieved in this area. The concept and the implementation are briefly described. The results from on-sky on-axis NGS AO measurements using the NIRC2 science instrument are presented. On-sky performance of the technique is illustrated by comparing the reconstructed PSFs to NIRC2 PSFs. Accuracy of the reconstructed PSFs in terms of Strehl ratio and FWHM are discussed. Science cases for the first phase of science verification have been identified. More technical details of the program are presented elsewhere in the conference.

  14. Investigating the Visual-Motor Integration Skills of 60-72-Month-Old Children at High and Low Socio-Economic Status as Regard the Age Factor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Zülfiye Gül; Ahmetoglu, Emine; Aral, Neriman

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to define whether age creates any differences in the visual-motor integration skills of 60-72 months old children at low and high socio-economic status. The study was conducted on a total of 148 children consisting of 78 children representing low socio-economic status and 70 children representing high socio-economic status in the…

  15. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women.

    PubMed

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26-65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p=0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p<0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p=0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  16. Effects of acute exercise on liver function and blood redox status in heavy drinkers

    PubMed Central

    GEORGAKOULI, KALLIOPI; MANTHOU, EIRINI; FATOUROS, IOANNIS G.; DELI, CHARIKLIA K.; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.; KOURETAS, DEMETRIOS; KOUTEDAKIS, YIANNIS; THEODORAKIS, YANNIS; JAMURTAS, ATHANASIOS Z.

    2015-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can induce oxidative stress, resulting in the development of several diseases. Exercise has been reported to prevent and/or improve a number of health issues through several mechanisms, including an improvement in redox status. It has also been previously suggested that exercise can help individuals with alcohol use disorders reduce their alcohol intake; however, research in this field is limited. The aim of the present study was to investigage the effects of acute exercise of moderate intensity on the liver function and blood redox status in heavy drinkers. For this purpose, a total of 17 heavy drinkers [age, 31.6±3.2 years; body mass index (BMI), 27.4±0.8 kg/m2; experimental group (EG)] and 17 controls [age, 33.5±1.3 years; BMI, 26.1±1.4 kg/m2; control group (CG), who did not exceed moderate alcohol consumption], underwent one trial of acute exercise of moderate intensity (50–60% of the heart rate reserve) for 30 min on a cycle ergometer, following an overnight fast, and abstaining from smoking and alcohol consumption. Blood samples were obtained before and immediately after exercise for later determination of the indices of liver function and blood redox status. The subjects in the EG had significantly higher (p<0.05) baseline γ-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) levels compared to the subjects in the CG. Exercise thus resulted in significantly higher γ-GT levels (p<0.005) only in the EG. No significant differences in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) baseline levels were observed between the 2 groups. Following exercise, the AST levels increased significantly (p<0.001) in both groups, whereas the ALT levels increased significantly (p<0.01) only in the EG. The baseline glutathione (GSH) levels were significantly lower (p<0.05) and remained low following exercise in the EG. In addition, we observed a trend for higher (p=0.07) baseline levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), which

  17. Impact of seasonal variation, age and smoking status on human semen parameters: The Massachusetts General Hospital experience

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zuying; Godfrey-Bailey, Linda; Schiff, Isaac; Hauser, Russ

    2004-01-01

    Background To investigate the relationship of human semen parameters with season, age and smoking status. Methods The present study used data from subjects recruited into an ongoing cross-sectional study on the relationship between environmental agents and semen characteristics. Our population consisted of 306 patients who presented to the Vincent Memorial Andrology Laboratory of Massachusetts General Hospital for semen evaluation. Sperm concentration and motility were measured with computer aided sperm analysis (CASA). Sperm morphology was scored using Tygerberg Kruger strict criteria. Regression analyses were used to investigate the relationships between semen parameters and season, age and smoking status, adjusting for abstinence interval. Results Sperm concentration in the spring was significantly higher than in winter, fall and summer (p < 0.05). There was suggestive evidence of higher sperm motility and percent of sperm with normal morphology in the spring than in the other seasons. There were no statistically significant relationships between semen parameters and smoking status, though current smokers tended to have lower sperm concentration. We also did not find a statistically significant relationship between age and semen parameters. Conclusions We found seasonal variations in sperm concentration and suggestive evidence of seasonal variation in sperm motility and percent sperm with normal morphology. Although smoking status was not a significant predictor of semen parameters, this may have been due to the small number of current smokers in the study. PMID:15507127

  18. Small-for-Gestational-Age Births are Associated with Maternal Relationship Status: A Population-Wide Analysis.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Jecca Rhea; Sanders, Lee; Cousens, Simon

    2016-08-01

    Objectives To examine the association between maternal relationship status during pregnancy and infant birth outcomes. Methods Observational study of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979, a nationally representative sample of 12,686 men and women between the ages of 14 and 21. We used data from surveys of women reporting childbirth between 1979 and 2004. Relationship status was defined as relationship with an opposite-sex partner in the child's birth year. Relationship stability was defined as the consistency in relationship status in the 1 year before, of, and after the child's birth. Childbirth outcome included small-for-gestational age (SGA) infant. We applied random effects logistic regression models to assess the association between relationship status and stability and childbirth outcome-adjusting for maternal race, infant sex, history of miscarriage, employment, maternal age, multiparity, cohort-entry year, household poverty status, and tobacco use. Results The study included 4439 women with 8348 live births. In fully adjusted models, term SGA infants were more commonly born to partnered women (AOR 1.81; 95 % CI 1.20-2.73) and unmarried women (AOR 1.82; CI 1.34-2.47; LRT p value 0.0001), compared to married women. SGA infants were also more commonly born in unstable relationships (AOR 1.72; 95 % CI 1.14-2.63; LRT p value 0.01) compared to stable relationships. Conclusions for Practice Maternal relationship status and stability during pregnancy is independently associated with risk of SGA infant birth. PMID:27007984

  19. Assessment of NDE for key indicators of aging cables in nuclear power plants - Interim status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, S. W.; Ramuhalli, P.; Fifield, L. S.; Prowant, M. S.; Dib, G.; Tedeschi, J. R.; Suter, J. D.; Jones, A. M.; Good, M. S.; Pardini, A. F.; Hartman, T. S.

    2016-02-01

    Degradation of the cable jacket, electrical insulation, and other cable components of installed cables within nuclear power plants (NPPs) is known to occur as a function of age, temperature, radiation, and other environmental factors. System tests verify cable function under normal loads; however, the concern is over cable performance under exceptional loads associated with design-basis events (DBEs). The cable's ability to perform safely over the initial 40-year planned and licensed life has generally been demonstrated and there have been very few age-related cable failures. With greater than 1000 km of power, control, instrumentation, and other cables typically found in an NPP, replacing all the cables would be a severe cost burden. Justification for life extension to 60 and 80 years requires a cable aging management program to justify cable performance under normal operation as well as accident conditions. Currently the gold standard for determining cable insulation degradation is the elongation-at-break (EAB). This, however, is an ex-situ measurement and requires removal of a sample for laboratory investigation. A reliable nondestructive examination (NDE) in-situ approach is desirable to objectively determine the suitability of the cable for service. A variety of tests are available to assess various aspects of electrical and mechanical cable performance, but none of these tests are suitable for all cable configurations nor does any single test confirm all features of interest. Nevertheless, the complete collection of test possibilities offers a powerful range of tools to assure the integrity of critical cables. Licensees and regulators have settled on a practical program to justify continued operation based on condition monitoring of a lead sample set of cables where test data is tracked in a database and the required test data are continually adjusted based on plant and fleet-wide experience. As part of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program sponsored

  20. Women Who Work: Part I, the Relative Importance of Age, Education and Marital Status for Participation in the Labour Force. Special Labour Force Studies No. 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allingham, John D.

    This paper is intended to provide a systematic treatment of some hypotheses relating to labor force participation determinants, and an illustration of the relative importance of age, education, and marital status for female participation. Marital status, education, and age have all been shown to affect participation rates. On an impressionistic…

  1. Romanticism as a function of age, sex, and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Regan, Pamela C; Anguiano, Carlos

    2010-12-01

    This study examined the association between romanticism (operationalized as mean score on the Romantic Beliefs Scale) and age, sex, and ethnicity in a large community sample (N = 436). Age was negatively correlated with romanticism scores; as age increased, romanticism scores decreased. No sex differences were found; men and women had similar, moderate scores. Although ethnicity largely was unrelated to romanticism, Asian/Pacific Islander participants were significantly more romantic than were African-American participants. PMID:21323155

  2. Age at Immigration and Kidney Function among Self-Identified Healthy Africans in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mana; Mwendwa, Denée T; Sims, Regina; Ricks, Madia; Sumner, Anne E

    2016-02-01

    Kidney disease disparately affects those of African descent. Age trends have generally been established for kidney function in the overall US population, but the contribution of age at the time of immigration for African immigrants is unknown. To examine the independent and joint effects of age and age at the time of immigration, and kidney function. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated for 93 African immigrants (60 % male; mean age = 33.5). Hierarchical regression and post hoc analyses revealed a significant age × age at the time of immigration interaction after accounting for traditional risk factors among those who immigrated at age ≤21. Younger age at the time of immigration to the US may exacerbate an inverse relationship between age and kidney function in a self-identified healthy African immigrant sample. Investigation of biopsychosocial factors associated with kidney health among African immigrants is warranted. PMID:25420783

  3. Berry effects on cognition and motor function in aging

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the last century, the lifespan of humans has almost doubled. Consequently, the percent of the population that is over the age of 65 years has markedly increased, making age-related pathologies a growing concern. Research has demonstrated, in both human and animals, that psychomotor and cognitive...

  4. Acai fruit improves motor and cognitive function in aged rats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Aged rats show impaired performance on motor and cognitive tasks that require the use of spatial learning and memory. In previous studies, we have shown the beneficial effects of various berry fruits (blueberries, strawberries, and blackberries) in reversing age-related deficits in behavioral and ne...

  5. Mother-Infant Interaction and Intellectual Functioning at Age Six.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tulkin, Steven R.; Covitz, Frances E.

    This study looked at the relationship between mother-infant interaction and children's performance on cognitive measures at age 6. The data on mother-infant interaction were collected for 30 middle class and 30 working class, first born Caucasian girls, 10 months of age. The data collection consisted of observations made in the home and measures…

  6. Functional Neuroimaging of Self-Referential Encoding with Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutchess, Angela H.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2010-01-01

    Aging impacts memory formation and the engagement of frontal and medial temporal regions. However, much of the research to date has focused on the encoding of neutral verbal and visual information. The present fMRI study investigated age differences in a social encoding task while participants made judgments about the self or another person.…

  7. Prenatal Drug Exposure: Effects on Cognitive Functioning at 5 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Pulsifer, Margaret B.; Butz, Arlene M.; Foran, Megan O’Reilly; Belcher, Harolyn M. E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this cross-sectional study was to compare cognitive functioning at age 5 years in prenatal drug-exposed children with nondrug-exposed children from a comparable inner-city environment. Children with prenatal drug exposure scored significantly lower on measures of language, school readiness skills, impulse control, and visual attention span/sequencing than controls matched for age and socioeconomic status. Intelligence, visual-motor, manual dexterity, and sustained attention scores were not significantly different between groups. The total sample scored significantly below the normative mean on standardized measures of intelligence, language, school readiness, visual-motor skills, impulse control, and sustained attention, with 40% scoring at least 1 standard deviation below the mean (IQ <85) on a measure of intelligence. Findings suggest that children with prenatal drug exposure are at increased risk for learning and attention problems and are in need of close developmental surveillance and possible intervention to support school success and improve behavioral outcome. PMID:17766581

  8. Differences in Field Dependence-Independence Cognitive Style as a Function of Socioeconomic Status, Sex, and Cognitive Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forns-Santacana, Maria; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzed field dependence-independence (FDI) cognitive style as function of socioeconomic status, sex, and cognitive competence in seven year olds (n=117). Subjects of upper-middle socioeconomic status achieved significantly higher scores that did subjects of low socioeconomic status on five McCarthy Scales and on FDI variable. Boys scored higher…

  9. Modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis function by social status in rainbow trout.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Jennifer D; Esbaugh, Andrew J; Vijayan, Mathilakath M; Gilmour, Kathleen M

    2012-04-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) form stable dominance hierarchies when confined in pairs. These hierarchies are driven by aggressive competition over limited resources and result in one fish becoming dominant over the other. An important indicator of low social status is sustained elevation of circulating cortisol levels as a result of chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. In the present study it was hypothesized that social status modulates the expression of key proteins involved in the functioning of the HPI axis. Cortisol treatment and fasting were used to assess whether these characteristics seen in subordinate fish also affected HPI axis function. Social status modulated plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, cortisol synthesis, and liver glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression. Plasma ACTH levels were lower by approximately 2-fold in subordinate and cortisol-treated fish, consistent with a negative feedback role for cortisol in modulating HPI axis function. Although cortisol-treated fish exhibited differences in corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and CRF-binding protein (CRF-BP) mRNA relative abundances in the preoptic area and telencephalon, respectively, no effect of social status on CRF or CRF-BP was detected. Head kidney melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA relative levels were unaffected by social status, while mRNA relative abundances of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (P450scc) enzyme were elevated in dominant fish. Liver GR2 mRNA and total GR protein levels in subordinate fish were lower than control values by approximately 2-fold. In conclusion, social status modulated the functioning of the HPI axis in rainbow trout. Our results suggest altered cortisol dynamics and reduced target tissue response to this steroid in subordinate fish, while the higher transcript levels for steroid biosynthesis in dominant fish leads us to propose an

  10. The level of association between functional performance status measures and patient-reported outcomes in cancer patients: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Charissa F.; Roberts, Kailey E.; Saracino, Rebecca M.; Hernandez, Marisol; Basch, Ethan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The process of assessing patient symptoms and functionality using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and functional performance status (FPS) is an essential aspect of patient-centered oncology research and care. However, PRO and FPS measures are often employed separately or inconsistently combined. Thus, the purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the level of association between PRO and FPS measures to determine their differential or combined utility. Methods A systematic search was conducted using five databases (1966 to February 2014) to identify studies that described an association between PRO and FPS. Studies were excluded if they were non-cancer specific, did not include adults aged 18 or older, or were review articles. Publications were selected for review by consensus among two authors, with a third author arbitrating as needed. Results A total of 18 studies met inclusion criteria. FPS was primarily assessed by clinicians using the ECOG Performance Status or Karnofsky Performance Status measures. PROs were captured using a variety of measures, with numerous domains assessed (e.g., pain, fatigue, and general health status). Concordance between PROs and FPS measures was widely variable, falling in the low to moderate range (0.09–0.72). Conclusions Despite consistency in the method of capture of PROs or FPS, domain capture varied considerably across reviewed studies. Irrespective of the method of capturing PROs or FPS, the quantified level of association between these two areas was moderate at best, providing evidence that FPS and PRO assessments offer unique information to assist clinicians in their decision-making. PMID:26314706

  11. Metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function during acute nutrient restriction of beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of acute nutritional restriction on metabolic status, gonadotropin secretion, and ovarian function of heifers was determined in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 14-mo-old heifers were fed a diet supplying 1.2 × maintenance energy requirements (1.2M). After 10 d, heifers were fed 1.2M or were res...

  12. Children's Sleep and Cognitive Functioning: Race and Socioeconomic Status as Moderators of Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckhalt, Joseph A.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Keller, Peggy

    2007-01-01

    Race and socioeconomic status (SES) moderated the link between children's sleep and cognitive functioning. One hundred and sixty-six 8- to 9-year-old African and European American children varying in SES participated. Sleep measures were actigraphy, sleep diaries, and self-report; cognitive measures were from the Woodcock-Johnson III and reaction…

  13. Socioeconomic Status and Functional Brain Development--Associations in Early Infancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomalski, Przemyslaw; Moore, Derek G.; Ribeiro, Helena; Axelsson, Emma L.; Murphy, Elizabeth; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette; Johnson, Mark H.; Kushnerenko, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) impacts on both structural and functional brain development in childhood, but how early its effects can be demonstrated is unknown. In this study we measured resting baseline EEG activity in the gamma frequency range in awake 6-9-month-olds from areas of East London with high socioeconomic deprivation. Between-subject…

  14. Developmental Status and Social-Emotional Functioning of Young Children Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haskett, Mary E.; Armstrong, Jenna Montgomery; Tisdale, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The developmental status and social-emotional functioning of young children who are homeless has received inadequate attention in spite of high rates of homelessness among families with young children and the potentially negative impact of homelessness and associated stressors on children's well-being. The aim of this study was to gain…

  15. The Correlates of Tracking Policy: Opportunity Hoarding, Status Competition, or a Technical-Functional Explanation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sean; Price, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this analysis, the authors explore the relationship between the social context of high schools and school-to-school variation in tracking policies. The authors consider three explanations for the implementation of highly elaborated tracking systems: opportunity hoarding, status competition, and a technical-functional explanation. Building on…

  16. Circulating Cathelicidin Concentrations in a Cohort of Healthy Children: Influence of Age, Body Composition, Gender and Vitamin D Status

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2–7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OH)D and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OH)D at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child’s current level); and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student’s t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort’s median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6–3368.6) and did not correlate with 25(OH)D, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively). Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001). Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child’s current 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively). This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OH)D values and warrants additional studies for further observation. PMID:27152524

  17. Association between nutritional status and dental caries in permanent dentition among primary schoolchildren aged 12-14 years, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Narksawat, Kulaya; Tonmukayakul, Utsana; Boonthum, Angsana

    2009-03-01

    This cross-sectional study assessed associations between nutrition and dental caries in permanent dentition and identified oral hygiene indicators among older children aged 12-14 years in primary schools in Thailand. The study was comprised of 862 schoolchildren from five provinces representing five regions of Thailand, from both rural and urban areas, including Bangkok. The dental hygeine status was assessed by evaluating for decayed teeth, missing teeth due to decay, and filled teeth index (DMFT index). Weight and height were measured to evaluate the nutritional status; hygiene practices assessed by interview. The results show a negative relationship between nutritional status and the DMFT index, which increased when the nutritional status decreased (Spearman's rho correlation = -0.140, p < 0.001). The results from multiple logistic regression analysis showed normal weight and thin schoolchildren were more likely to have a DMFT of at least 1 by 1.94 times (OR = 1.94; 95%CI = 1.25-3.00, p = 0.004) and 2.22 times (OR = 2.22; 95%CI = 1.20-4.09, p = 0.001), respectively, compared to overweight and obese children. Normal and thin schoolchildren had a higher risk for dental caries than overweight and obese children aged 12-14 years in Thailand. School health promotion activities should emphasize eating habit improvement in order to reduce the incidence of caries. PMID:19323020

  18. Risks of Decreased Renal Function and Increased Albuminuria for Glycemic Status and Metabolic Syndrome Components: Taichung Community Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Li, Chia-Ing; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Lin, Wen-Yuan; Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lai, Ming-May; Lee, Yih-Dar; Yang, Chuan-Wei; Li, Tsai-Chung

    2014-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to assess the association of glycemic status and decreased renal function as determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria in an adult Taiwanese metropolitan population. Methods. We did a cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of 2,350 Taiwanese adults aged 40 years and over living in a metropolitan city in Taiwan from 2004 to 2005. Glycemic status was classified as normal glycemia, hyperglycemia, and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Renal function was assessed with eGFR using modified Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation for Chinese. Albuminuria was determined by the urinary albumin-creatinine ratio. Decreased renal function was defined as eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and albuminuria as the albumin-creatinine ratio >30 mg g−1 creatinine. Results. 593 (25.23%) had hyperglycemia and 287 (12.21%) had T2D. As glycemia level increased, the prevalence of albuminuria and decreased eGFR increased. After adjustment, T2D was associated with an OR of 2.93 (95% CI: 2.11–4.07) for albuminuria, and an OR of 2.05 (95% CI: 1.18–3.58) for decreased eGFR. Conclusions. In a representative sample from a metropolitan city in Taiwan, T2D was associated with albuminuria and decreased eGFR. PMID:24900991

  19. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Menger, Katja E; James, Andrew M; Cochemé, Helena M; Harbour, Michael E; Chouchani, Edward T; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Partridge, Linda; Murphy, Michael P

    2015-06-30

    Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster. PMID:26095360

  20. Willingness to Disclose Sexually Transmitted Infection Status to Sex Partners Among College-Aged Men in the United States.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Elizabeth J; McGregor, Kyle A; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Hardy Hansen, Cathlene; Ott, Mary A

    2016-03-01

    Disclosure of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to sexual partners is critical to the prevention, treatment, and control of STIs. We examine personal intra and interpersonal influences on willingness to disclose STI status among college-aged men. Participants (n = 1064) were aged 17 to 24 years and recruited from a variety of university and community venues. Using independent-samples t test, Pearson χ test, and binary logistic regression, we examined the relationship between willingness to disclose an STI and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, including age, masculinity values, interpersonal violence, partner cell phone monitoring, alcohol and/or drug use, condom use, number and characteristics of sex partners, and previous STI. Results reveal that among college-aged men, type of sex partner and masculinity values are significant variables in predicting whether or not an individual is willing to disclose. These data can inform STI control programs to more effectively address the complex issues associated with STI disclosure to sex partners. PMID:26859810

  1. Self-perceived physical functioning and health status among fully ambulatory multiple sclerosis patients.

    PubMed

    Pugliatti, Maura; Riise, Trond; Nortvedt, Monica W; Carpentras, Giovanni; Sotgiu, M Alessandra; Sotgiu, Stefano; Rosati, Giulio

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the self-perceived health status among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with no or mild disability according to the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) and the impact of self-rated physical functioning. A sample of fully ambulatory (EDSS < or = 3.5) consecutive patients with MS was included after screening for major cognitive impairment. The EDSS was used to measure nervous system signs or disability, and the self-rated health status was assessed using the SF-36 Health Survey. The normative SF-36 data for the general population of Italy were used for comparison. The 197 MS patients analyzed (150 women and 47 men) had significantly lower mean SF-36 scores than the general population, except for bodily pain. The scores did not differ significantly by gender. The same analysis performed on a subsample of 105 patients (79 women and 26 men) with minimal disability in one functional system (EDSS < or = 2.0) yielded similar results. EDSS was weakly correlated with the physical functioning subscale and explained only 2% of the variance in the physical functioning subscale. The regression of the physical functioning subscale on the other seven SF-36 subscales was significantly lower among MS patients than in the general population for all subscales, except for role limitation due to physical health problems and social functioning. Neither disease course nor duration correlated significantly with SF-36 subscales. The SF-36 physical functioning subscale seemed to indicate physical functioning more sensitively than EDSS. These findings should encourage the implementation of specific strategies aimed at improving the quality of the self-perceived health status already in the early disease stage. PMID:18283408

  2. Urinary iodine, thyroid function, and thyroglobulin as biomarkers of iodine status.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Elizabeth N; Caldwell, Kathleen L

    2016-09-01

    The accurate assessment of population iodine status is necessary to inform public health policies and clinical research on iodine nutrition, particularly the role of iodine adequacy in normal neurodevelopment. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) directly reflects dietary iodine intake and is the most common indicator used worldwide to assess population iodine status. The CDC established the Ensuring the Quality of Iodine Procedures program in 2001 to provide laboratories that measure urinary iodine with an independent assessment of their analytic performance; this program fosters improvement in the assessment of UIC. Clinical laboratory tests of thyroid function (including serum concentrations of the pituitary hormone thyrotropin and the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine) are sometimes used as indicators of iodine status, although such use is often problematic. Even in severely iodine-deficient regions, there is a great deal of intraindividual variation in the ability of the thyroid to adapt. In most settings and in most population subgroups other than newborns, thyroid function tests are not considered sensitive indicators of population iodine status. However, the thyroid-derived protein thyroglobulin is increasingly being used for this purpose. Thyroglobulin can be measured in either serum or dried blood spot (DBS) samples. The use of DBS samples is advantageous in resource-poor regions. Improved methodologies for ascertaining maternal iodine status are needed to facilitate research on developmental correlates of iodine status. Thyroglobulin may prove to be a useful biomarker for both maternal and neonatal iodine status, but validated assay-specific reference ranges are needed for the determination of iodine sufficiency in both pregnant women and neonates, and trimester-specific ranges are possibly needed for pregnant women. UIC is currently a well-validated population biomarker, but individual biomarkers that could be used for research, patient care

  3. Serum Retinol Concentrations, Race, and Socioeconomic Status in of Women of Childbearing Age in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Corrine; Lyden, Elizabeth; Abresch, Chad; Anderson-Berry, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vitamin A is an essential nutrient during pregnancy and throughout the lifecycle due to its role in the development of critical organ systems. Because maternal tissue is progressively depleted of vitamin A to supply fetal demands, women who become pregnant while possessing marginal vitamin A reserves are at increased risk of vitamin A inadequacy as pregnancy progresses. Few studies have assessed the relationship between socioeconomic factors and retinol status in women of childbearing age. Methods: We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to assess the relationship between serum retinol concentrations and socioeconomic factors in women of childbearing age. Women 14–45 years of age (n = 3170) from NHANES cycles 2003–2004 and 2005–2006 were included. Serum retinol concentrations were divided into categories according to World Health Organization criteria. All statistical procedures accounted for the weighted data and complex design of the NHANES sample. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The poverty score and race were significantly associated with vitamin A status after adjustment for confounders. Odds of retinol concentrations of <1.05 µmol/L were 1.85 times higher for those of lower socioeconomic status when compared to those of higher status (95% CI: 1.12–3.03, p = 0.02), and 3.1 times higher for non-Hispanic blacks when compared to non-Hispanic whites (95% CI: 1.50–6.41, p = 0.002). Dietary intakes of retinol activity equivalents were significantly lower in groups with higher poverty scores (p = 0.004). Conclusion There appear to be disparities in serum vitamin A levels in women of childbearing age related to income and race in the United States. PMID:27548213

  4. Assessment of Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease Status among Elderly Residing in Old Age Homes of Madhya Pradesh

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Rohit; Gautam, Nalam Radhika; Kumar, P Mahesh; Kadhiresan, R; Saxena, Vrinda; Jain, Suyog

    2015-01-01

    Background: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out to assess the dental caries and periodontal disease status of elderly residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 599 elderly people residing in old age homes of Madhya Pradesh, India using cluster sampling methodology. The clinical findings were recorded using modified WHO Oral Health Assessment form (1997) to assess periodontal status as per community periodontal index, loss of attachment, WHO dentition status, and treatment needs. Results: In the present study, the caries prevalence among dentate subjects was found among 41.9% of the dentate subjects and the mean decayed, missed, and filled teeth was found to be 8.28 ± 4.779 with the mean number of decayed being 1.51. In the dentate population, 0% had healthy periodontal tissue, 0.26% had bleeding, and 24.5% had calculus, 52.1% had shallow pockets and 23.1% had deep pockets as their highest score and this difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). In the current study, 37.9% inmates were completely edentulous. This study also showed that as age advanced the prevalence increased from 23.1% to 55.4%. The difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The oral health status of elderly people was found to be poor. Hence, it is concluded from this study that tooth loss is higher among the geriatric group residing in old age homes and is associated with many demographic and behavioral risk indicators. PMID:26464541

  5. Differences in the association between high blood pressure and cognitive functioning among the general Japanese population aged 70 and 80 years: The SONIC study.

    PubMed

    Ryuno, Hirochika; Kamide, Kei; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Nakama, Chikako; Oguro, Ryosuke; Kabayama, Mai; Kawai, Tatsuo; Kusunoki, Hiroshi; Yokoyama, Serina; Imaizumi, Yuki; Takeya, Miyuki; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Takeda, Masao; Takami, Yoichi; Itoh, Norihisa; Yamamoto, Koichi; Takeya, Yasushi; Sugimoto, Ken; Nakagawa, Takeshi; Ikebe, Kazunori; Inagaki, Hiroki; Masui, Yukie; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Takayama, Michiyo; Arai, Yasumichi; Takahashi, Ryutaro; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2016-07-01

    High blood pressure in middle age (up to 64 years) has been proposed as a predictive indicator of dementia. However, the association between hypertension and the cognitive functioning is controversial in older age groups. The aim of this study was to investigate this association in 70-80-year-old participants in the Japanese study of Septuagenarians, Octogenarians and Nonagenarians Investigation with Centenarians (SONIC). Participants aged 70 (±1) and 80 (±1) years (n=1000 and 973, respectively) were randomly recruited from the general population in Japan. Cognitive functioning was measured by the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Blood pressure and other medical and social variables were analyzed by multiple regression analyses. High systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly correlated with a reduced cognitive functioning only in participants aged 70 years. Additionally, this correlation became more marked in participants with uncontrolled blood pressure at age 70 years. In contrast, SBP was not significantly correlated with the cognitive functioning at age 80 years. Nutritional status indicators such as serum albumin and frequency of going outdoors were significantly associated with cognitive functioning at age 80 years. Our findings indicate that high SBP has a significant role in cognitive functioning at age 70 years; however, blood pressure is less important as a risk factor for cognitive decline at age 80 years. PMID:27009579

  6. Extensive Air Shower Characteristics as Functions of Shower Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giller, Maria; Stojek, Hubert; Wieczorek, Grzegorz

    We show that extensive air showers (EAS) are all very similar when described by shower age and Molière length unit. This allows to analyze fluorescence and Cherenkov light emitted by showers in a unified and simple way.

  7. Improvements in Iron Status and Cognitive Function in Young Women Consuming Beef or Non-Beef Lunches

    PubMed Central

    Blanton, Cynthia

    2013-01-01

    Iron status is associated with cognitive performance and intervention trials show that iron supplementation improves mental function in iron-deficient adults. However, no studies have tested the efficacy of naturally iron-rich food in this context. This investigation measured the hematologic and cognitive responses to moderate beef consumption in young women. Participants (n = 43; age 21.1 ± 0.4 years) were randomly assigned to a beef or non-beef protein lunch group [3-oz (85 g), 3 times weekly] for 16 weeks. Blood was sampled at baseline, and weeks 8 and 16, and cognitive performance was measured at baseline and week 16. Body iron increased in both lunch groups (p < 0.0001), with greater improvement demonstrated in women with lower baseline body iron (p < 0.0001). Body iron had significant beneficial effects on spatial working memory and planning speed (p < 0.05), and ferritin responders (n = 17) vs. non-responders (n = 26) showed significantly greater improvements in planning speed, spatial working memory strategy, and attention (p < 0.05). Lunch group had neither significant interactions with iron status nor consistent main effects on test performance. These findings support a relationship between iron status and cognition, but do not show a particular benefit of beef over non-beef protein consumption on either measure in young women. PMID:24379009

  8. The growth status of North Korean refugee children and adolescents from 6 to 19 years of age.

    PubMed

    Pak, Sunyoung

    2010-12-01

    This paper is a study of the growth status of 1406 North Korean refugee children and adolescents who were between 6 and 19.9 years of age at the time of their arrival in South Korea, during the years 1995-2007, as compared with that of their South Korean peers. Refugee children of 6.5 years of age were found to be taller and heavier than North Korean children of the same age residing in North Korea. On the other hand, all of the North Korean refugee boys and girls were shorter and weighed less than their South Korean peers. This disparity in height and weight growth status was smallest during the pre-teen years and then began to increase, peaking in the mid-teen years and decreasing in the late-teen years, with the late-teen disparity being still larger than the pre-teen one. This pattern of disparity suggests that the greatest gap observed in mid-teen years was caused by differences in growth tempos during the period of pubertal growth and that the final differences in body size between the North and South Korean adults were partly pubertal in origin. The mean height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and weight-for-age z-score (WAZ) of the North Korean refugee boys were significantly lower than those of the North Korean refugee girls, indicating that the girls' growth status was better than that of the boys. In addition, the WAZ of the North Korean refugee children and adolescents was higher than their HAZ, indicating that their growth in height is poorer than that of weight. A regression analysis revealed that the mean HAZ of North Korean refugee children and adolescents born between 1995 and 1999, a period during which North Korea suffered a famine, was not statistically significantly lower than that of those born earlier. The time that the North Korean children and adolescents spent outside of North Korea before entering South Korea was discovered to have had a positive effect on their growth status, suggesting that they experienced some degree of catch-up growth while

  9. Longitudinal Predictors of Functional Impairment in Older Adults in Europe – Evidence from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Hajek, André; König, Hans-Helmut

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine time-dependent predictors of functional impairment in older adults in Europe longitudinally. Methods Data were derived from the Survey of Health Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (2004–2013). Functional impairment was assessed by using activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) indices. Fixed effects regressions were used to estimate the effects of sociodemographic factors (age, marital status, living situation, and income deciles (median split)), lifestyle factors (smoking status and alcohol consumption per week), depression, cognitive function and chronic diseases on the outcome variables. Results Longitudinal regressions revealed that functional impairment increased significantly with age, the occurrence of depression, cognitive impairment, the number of chronic conditions, and less than daily alcohol consumption in the total sample and in both sexes. Moreover, the onset of smoking and living without a spouse/partner in household increased functional impairment in the total sample. The effect of depression on functional impairment was significantly more pronounced in men. Conclusion Our findings highlight the relevance of changes in age, depression, cognitive function, smoking and chronic diseases for functional impairment. Since particularly depression and smoking may be avoidable, developing strategies to prevent depression or stop smoking might be useful approaches to postpone functional impairment in older adults. PMID:26784698

  10. The Age-Crime Curve in Adolescence and Early Adulthood Is Not Due to Age Differences in Economic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Elizabeth P.; Steinberg, Laurence D.; Piquero, Alex R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most consistent findings in developmental criminology is the "age-crime curve"--the observation that criminal behavior increases in adolescence and decreases in adulthood. Recently, Brown and Males (Justice Policy J 8:1-30, 2011) conducted an analysis of aggregate arrest, poverty, and population data from California and concluded that…

  11. Multidomain Trajectories of Psychological Functioning in Old Age: A Longitudinal Perspective on (Uneven) Successful Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morack, Jennifer; Ram, Nilam; Fauth, Elizabeth B.; Gerstorf, Denis

    2013-01-01

    Life-span developmentalists have long been interested in the nature of and the contributing factors to successful aging. Using variable-oriented approaches, research has revealed critical insights into the intricacies of human development and successful aging. In the present study, we opted instead for a more subgroup-oriented approach and…

  12. Nutrition as a part of healthy aging and reducing cardiovascular risk: improving functionality in later life using quality protein, with optimized timing and distribution.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Beryl M; Axford, Samantha

    2014-09-01

    Aging is associated with many physiological changes, which may in time lead to numerous pathophysiological outcomes, including adverse vascular events. For example, senescence of the immune system and cellular senescence both contribute to rising inflammation with age, potentially induced by the overall burden of comorbid illness, adipose tissue mass, diet, socioeconomic status, and physical activity. In turn, this chronic inflammation decreases physical and cognitive performance, and promotes sarcopenia and the syndrome of frailty. These events and others decrease the functionality of life as we age and include an increased risk of thrombosis and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. In this review, we aim to overview the aging process primarily as related to functional impairment, and provide evidence for the role of protein, and specifically differential quality protein, in particular whey protein, and timing and distribution of intake, to help reduce some of the morbid effects of aging, including reducing obesity, improving glycemic control, and improving vascular function. PMID:25151523

  13. Vitamin E Status and Metabolism in Adult and Aged Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Null Mice

    PubMed Central

    Traber, Maret G.; Mustacich, Debbie J.; Sullivan, Laura C.; Leonard, Scott W.; Ahern-Rindell, Amelia; Kerkvliet, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is involved in regulation of mechanisms for detoxification of xenobiotics, as well as vitamin A metabolism. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble nutrient whose metabolism is initialized via the cytochrome P450 system. Thus, AhR absence could alter hepatic regulation of α-tocopherol metabolism. To test this hypothesis, we assessed vitamin E status in adult (2–5 m) and old (21–22 m), wildtype and AhR-null mice. Plasma α-tocopherol concentrations in AhR null mice (2.3 ± 1.2 μmol/L, n= 19) were lower than those of wildtype mice (3.2 ± 1.2, n=17, P=0.0131); those in old mice (3.2 ± 1.2, n= 20) were higher than those of adults (2.2 ± 1.0, n=16, p=0.0075). Hepatic α-tocopherol concentrations were not different between genotypes, but were nearly double in old (32 ± 8 nmol/g, n=20) as compared with adult mice (17 ± 2, n=16, p<0.0001). Hepatic Cyp3a concentrations in AhR-null mice were greater than those in wildtypes (p=0.0011). Genotype (p=0.0047), sex (p<0.0001) and age (p<0.0001) were significant modifiers of liver α-tocopherol metabolite (α-CEHC) concentrations. In general, Cyp3a concentrations correlated with hepatic α-tocopherol (r= 0.3957, p<0.05) and α-CEHC (r=0.4260, p<0.05) concentrations. Since there were no significant genotype differences in the hepatic α- or γ-tocopherol concentrations, AhR null mice did not have dramatically altered vitamin E metabolism. Since they did have higher hepatic α-CEHC concentrations, these data suggest metabolism was up-regulated in the AhR null mice in order to maintain the hepatic tocopherol concentrations similar to those of wildtypes. PMID:20153623

  14. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung.

    PubMed

    Caniard, Anne; Ballweg, Korbinian; Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-10-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age-related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase-like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging. PMID:26540298

  15. An investigation into the relationship between age and physiological function in highly active older adults

    PubMed Central

    Pollock, Ross D; Carter, Scott; Velloso, Cristiana P; Duggal, Niharika A; Lord, Janet M; Lazarus, Norman R; Harridge, Stephen D R

    2015-01-01

    Despite extensive research, the relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly characterised and there are currently no reliable markers of human ageing. This is probably due to a number of confounding factors, particularly in studies of a cross-sectional nature. These include inter-subject genetic variation, as well as inter-generational differences in nutrition, healthcare and insufficient levels of physical activity as well as other environmental factors. We have studied a cohort of highly and homogeneously active older male (n = 84) and female (n = 41) cyclists aged 55–79 years who it is proposed represent a model for the study of human ageing free from the majority of confounding factors, especially inactivity. The aim of the study was to identify physiological markers of ageing by assessing the relationship between function and age across a wide range of indices. Each participant underwent a detailed physiological profiling which included measures of cardiovascular, respiratory, neuromuscular, metabolic, endocrine and cognitive functions, bone strength, and health and well-being. Significant associations between age and function were observed for many functions. The maximal rate of oxygen consumption ( showed the closest association with age (r = −0.443 to −0.664; P < 0.001), but even here the variance in age for any given level was high, precluding the clear identification of the age of any individual. The results of this cross-sectional study suggest that even when many confounding variables are removed the relationship between function and healthy ageing is complex and likely to be highly individualistic and that physical activity levels must be taken into account in ageing studies. Key Points The relationship between age and physiological function remains poorly defined and there are no physiological markers that can be used to reliably predict the age of an individual. This could be due to a variety of confounding

  16. Employment Status as an Indicator of Recovery and Function One Year after Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Eleshia J; Ehlers, Shawna L; Bronars, Carrie A; Patten, Christi A; Brockman, Tabetha A; Cerhan, James R; Hogan, William J; Hashmi, Shahrukh K; Gastineau, Dennis A

    2016-09-01

    Employment after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an indicator of post-transplantation recovery and function, with economic and social implications. As survival rates for HSCT continue to improve, greater emphasis can be placed on factors affecting the quality of post-transplantation survival, including the ability to resume employment. A sample of recipients of autologous or allogeneic HSCT was accrued (n = 1000) to complete a longitudinal lifestyle survey before transplantation and at 1 year after transplantation. The present study examines associations between employment and patient characteristics, disease variables, illness status, and quality of life among 1-year survivors (n = 702). Participants had a mean age of 55 years (range, 18 to 78) and were predominately male (59.7%), married/partnered (77.1%), and non-Hispanic Caucasian (89.5%); most (79.4%) had received autologous transplantation. Of the 690 participants reporting some form of employment before illness diagnosis, 62.4% had returned to work by 1 year after HSCT. Full-time employment at 1 year after HSCT was significantly associated with remission of illness, improved illness, fewer post-transplantation hospitalizations, less fatigue and pain, higher quality of life, and higher rating of perceived health. Those unemployed because of their health reported the highest rates of fatigue and pain and lowest quality of life, and they were most likely to report poor perceived health. These findings highlight work reintegration as an important outcome and marker of survivors' overall adjustment after transplantation. Identifying factors affecting post-transplantation employment offers opportunities for behavioral interventions to target modifiable risk factors to optimize post-transplantation survivorship, inclusive of increased rates of return to work and decreased rates of associated disability. PMID:27220264

  17. Psychiatric Morbidity, Pain Perception, and Functional Status of Chronic Pain Patients in Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Rajmohan, V; Kumar, Suresh K

    2013-01-01

    Context: Psychological factors, such as that exist when we experience pain, can profoundly alter the strength of pain perception. Aim: The study aims to estimate the prevalence of psychiatric disorders, and its association with perception of pain and functional status in chronic patients in palliative care. Materials and Methods: The sample was selected via simple randomisation and post consent were assessed using (1) a semi- structured questionnaire to elicit socio-demographic information and medical data (2) Brief Pain Inventory (3) ICD-10 Symptom Checklist (4) ICD-10-Diagnostic Criteria for Research (DCR) (5) Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) (6) Covi Anxiety Rating Scale (7) Karnofsky Performance Status Scale. Data was analysed using independent sample t test and chi square test. Results: The psychiatric morbidity was 67% with depression and adjustment disorders being the major diagnosis. There was a significant association between psychiatric morbidity pain variables (P = 0.000). Psychiatric morbidity significantly impaired activity, mood, working, walk, sleep, relationship, and enjoyment. There was no association between aetiology of pain, type of cancer, treatment for primary condition and treatment for pain and psychiatric morbidity. The functional status of cancer patients was also poorer in patients with psychiatric morbidity (P = 0.008). Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of psychiatric illness in chronic pain patients of any aetiology. Psychiatric morbidity is associated with increased pain perception, impairment in activity and poor functional status. PMID:24347904

  18. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  19. Mediation and moderation: Testing relationships between symptom status, functional health, and quality of life in HIV patients

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G.; Sousa, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptoms status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is partially mediated by Disability. Common and unique ideas from three approaches to examining moderation of effects in mediational models (Edwards & Lambert, 2007; Preacher, Rucker, & Hayes, 2007; MacKinnon, 2008) were used to test whether (a) the direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL and (b) the relationship of Disability to QOL are moderated by age. In the mediation model, both the direct and the indirect (mediated) effects were significant. The direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL was significantly moderated by age, but the relationship of Disability to QOL was not. High Symptoms were associated with lower QOL at all ages, but that this relationship became stronger at older ages. We compare the three approaches and consider their advantages over traditional approaches to combining mediation and moderation. PMID:20706561

  20. Mediation and moderation: Testing relationships between symptom status, functional health, and quality of life in HIV patients.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Ehri; West, Stephen G; Sousa, Karen H

    2009-03-01

    We extended Wilson and Cleary's (1995) health-related quality of life model to examine the relationships among symptoms status (Symptoms), functional health (Disability), and quality of life (QOL). Using a community sample (N = 956) of male HIV positive patients, we tested a mediation model in which the relationship between Symptoms and QOL is partially mediated by Disability. Common and unique ideas from three approaches to examining moderation of effects in mediational models (Edwards & Lambert, 2007; Preacher, Rucker, & Hayes, 2007; MacKinnon, 2008) were used to test whether (a) the direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL and (b) the relationship of Disability to QOL are moderated by age. In the mediation model, both the direct and the indirect (mediated) effects were significant. The direct relationship of Symptoms to QOL was significantly moderated by age, but the relationship of Disability to QOL was not. High Symptoms were associated with lower QOL at all ages, but that this relationship became stronger at older ages. We compare the three approaches and consider their advantages over traditional approaches to combining mediation and moderation. PMID:20706561

  1. APOE and COMT polymorphisms are complementary biomarkers of status, stability, and transitions in normal aging and early mild cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Roger A.; DeCarlo, Correne A.; MacDonald, Stuart W. S.; Vergote, David; Jhamandas, Jack; Westaway, David

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Research has reported associations among selected genetic susceptibility biomarkers and risk of (a) normal cognitive aging decrements, (b) established mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and (c) sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). In focusing on the transitional normal-to-early MCI phase, we examine associations among three theoretically relevant polymorphisms (APOE [rs429358, rs7412], BDNF [rs6265], COMT [rs4680]) and both baseline cognitive status (MCI vs. normal aging) and two-wave (four-year) longitudinal stability or change profiles. The latter included three profiles: (a) stable as normal aging, (b) stable or chronic impairment (MCI-to-MCI), and (c) emergence of impairment (normal-to-MCI). Method: Genotyped older adults (n = 237 at baseline; age range = 64–91; 62% women) from the Victoria Longitudinal Study were examined for (a) independent and interactive associations of three genetic polymorphisms with (b) two objectively classified cognitive status groups (not-impaired controls (NIC) and MCI) at (c) both baseline and across a two-wave (four-year) longitudinal interval. Results: First, logistic regression revealed that the presence of at least one APOE ε4 allele (the risk factor for AD) was linked to greater baseline risk of objective MCI. Second, multinomial logistic regression revealed that (a) the presence of an APOE ε4 allele was associated with an increased risk of 4-year MCI status stability (chronicity), and (b) the COMT homozygous risk genotype (G/G or Val/Val) was associated with an increased risk of both MCI-to-MCI stability (chronicity) and emerging NIC-to-MCI conversion. Discussion: Both chronicity and emergence of objectively classified early cognitive impairment may be genetically heterogeneous phenomena, with influences from a panel of both normal cognitive aging (COMT) and AD-related (APOE) polymorphisms. PMID:25249975

  2. Machine learning classification of resting state functional connectivity predicts smoking status

    PubMed Central

    Pariyadath, Vani; Stein, Elliot A.; Ross, Thomas J.

    2014-01-01

    Machine learning-based approaches are now able to examine functional magnetic resonance imaging data in a multivariate manner and extract features predictive of group membership. We applied support vector machine (SVM)-based classification to resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) data from nicotine-dependent smokers and healthy controls to identify brain-based features predictive of nicotine dependence. By employing a network-centered approach, we observed that within-network functional connectivity measures offered maximal information for predicting smoking status, as opposed to between-network connectivity, or the representativeness of each individual node with respect to its parent network. Further, our analysis suggests that connectivity measures within the executive control and frontoparietal networks are particularly informative in predicting smoking status. Our findings suggest that machine learning-based approaches to classifying rsFC data offer a valuable alternative technique to understanding large-scale differences in addiction-related neurobiology. PMID:24982629

  3. Trajectories of cognitive decline and functional status in the frail older adults.

    PubMed

    Nikolova, Rossitza; Demers, Louise; Béland, François

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the implications of different levels of cognitive decline on functional status in frail older adults. Four cognitive trajectories, including two with catastrophic cognitive decline, were defined in a 3-year study. Participants with complete cognitive and functional status data at baseline, 12 and 36 months of follow-up were included in the study (n=456). Data were analysed with repeated measures statistics. Substantial functional deterioration over time was observed for the participants with catastrophic cognitive decline. Catastrophic cognitive decline influenced performance in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and activities of daily living (ADL) at 12 months, whereas basic physical and mental actions were affected at 36 months. IADL were found to deteriorate more than ADL. The results have implications on planning appropriate geriatric rehabilitation and long-term care program. PMID:17976840

  4. Age and sex-related changes in rat brain mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Guevara, Rocío; Gianotti, Magdalena; Roca, Pilar; Oliver, Jordi

    2011-01-01

    Aging is responsible for the decline in the function of mitochondria and their increase in size and number--adaptive mechanism to restore mitochondrial function. Estrogens increase mitochondrial function, especially in female rats. The aim of this study was to determine the age-related changes in rat brain mitochondrial function focusing on sex differences. Cellular and mitochondrial protein and DNA content, mitochondrial oxidative and phosphorylative function in male and female rat brain from four different age groups (6, 12, 18 and 24 months old) were analyzed. Mitochondria protein/DNA content decreased with aging shifting toward lesser mitochondrial functional capacity and the mitochondria number increased. A sex dimorphism was determined, with female rat brain showing mitochondria with greater functional capacity than males. These sex differences gradually increased during aging. PMID:21471708

  5. Associations between hair cortisol concentration, income, income dynamics and status incongruity in healthy middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Serwinski, Bianca; Salavecz, Gyöngyvér; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Steptoe, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    A body of research demonstrates that financial disadvantage is associated with general health inequalities and higher mortality rates. Most studies make use of cross-sectional analyses, although income can also be viewed as a dynamic concept. The use of endocrine-markers as proxies for health can provide information about the pathways involved in these associations. Hair cortisol analysis has been developed as a method for assessing sustained cortisol output as it provides an estimate of cumulative cortisol secretion over a prolonged time. The present study assessed income and income trajectory over a 4-year period in 164 working women (aged 26–65) in relation to hair cortisol in a longitudinal design. A negative association between hair cortisol and concurrent income was found (p = 0.025) and hair cortisol and changes in income over 4 years (p < 0.001), after adjustment for age, BMI, smoking status, hair treatment and country. Status incongruity, a mismatch between educational status and income group, was related to higher cortisol levels compared with status congruity (p = 0.009). These findings suggest that psychoneuroendocrinological pathways might partially explain the relationship between lower socio-economic status and adverse health outcomes. Future longitudinal research using hair cortisol analysis is warranted to clarify the time course of social mobility in relation to long-term cortisol, to investigate other underlying psychosocial factors implicated in these associations, and to determine the exact health implications of the neuroendocrine perturbations in individuals with limited economic resources. PMID:26923848

  6. Behavioral Functioning among Mexican-Origin Children: Does Parental Legal Status Matter?*

    PubMed Central

    Landale, Nancy S.; Hardie, Jessica Halliday; Oropesa, R. S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.

    2015-01-01

    Using data on 2,535 children included in the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, we investigate how the legal status of immigrant parents shapes their children’s behavioral functioning. Variation in internalizing and externalizing problems among Mexican youth with undocumented mothers, documented or naturalized citizen mothers, and U.S.-born mothers is analyzed using a comparative framework that contrasts their experience with that of other ethnoracial groups. Our findings reinforce the importance of differentiating children of immigrants by parental legal status in studying health and well-being. Children of undocumented Mexican migrants have significantly higher risks of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems than their counterparts with documented or naturalized citizen mothers. Regression results are inconsistent with simple explanations that emphasize group differences in socioeconomic status, maternal mental health, or family routines. PMID:25722124

  7. Comparison of Physical Fitness Status between Middle-aged and Elderly Male Laborers According to Lifestyle Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Mi-hyun; Shin, Joong-il; Yang, Dong-joo; Yang, Yeong-ae

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] We sought to examine the relationship between lifestyle behavior and physical fitness in middle-aged and elderly laborers. [Subjects] In total, 2,469 male laborers between 45 and 64 years of age residing in eight cities in South Korea were studied between January and December 2007. [Methods] Age, height, and weight were evaluated as general characteristics. Lifestyle behavior items included exercise, dietary habits, smoking, drinking, and sleeping hours. Physical fitness was assessed by measuring muscle strength, muscle endurance, flexibility, reflexes, and agility. [Results] In terms of physical fitness status, all items except handgrip strength showed significant changes according to exercise frequency. Dietary habits were associated with significant differences in the Sargent jump and whole-body reaction time between groups. Smoking and drinking were associated with significant differences in sit-ups between subgroups. Sleeping hours demonstrated significant differences in the Sargent jump and whole-body reaction time between groups. [Conclusion] Although there were differences according to physical fitness status, exercise frequency, dietary habits, smoking, drinking, and sleeping hours showed significant associations with physical fitness. Thus, healthy lifestyle behaviors, such as regular exercise, regular dietary habits, not smoking, moderate drinking, and adequate sleep, are important for physical fitness management and work capacity improvement in middle-aged and elderly laborers. PMID:25540509

  8. Death Anxiety as a Function of Aging Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Jeremy P.; Christopher, Andrew N.; Walter, Mark I.

    2007-01-01

    To assess how different facets of aging anxiety contributed to the prediction of tangible and existential death anxiety, 167 Americans of various Christian denominations completed a battery of questionnaires. Multiple regression analyses, controlling for demographic variables and previously demonstrated predictors of death anxiety, revealed that…

  9. Proteasome function is not impaired in healthy aging of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Lukas, Christina; Yildirim, Ali Ö.; Eickelberg, Oliver; Meiners, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Aging is the progressive loss of cellular function which inevitably leads to death. Failure of proteostasis including the decrease in proteasome function is one hallmark of aging. In the lung, proteasome activity was shown to be impaired in age‐related diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, little is known on proteasome function during healthy aging. Here, we comprehensively analyzed healthy lung aging and proteasome function in wildtype, proteasome reporter and immunoproteasome knockout mice. Wildtype mice spontaneously developed senile lung emphysema while expression and activity of proteasome complexes and turnover of ubiquitinated substrates was not grossly altered in lungs of aged mice. Immunoproteasome subunits were specifically upregulated in the aged lung and the caspase‐like proteasome activity concomitantly decreased. Aged knockout mice for the LMP2 or LMP7 immunoproteasome subunits showed no alteration in proteasome activities but exhibited typical lung aging phenotypes suggesting that immunoproteasome function is dispensable for physiological lung aging in mice. Our results indicate that healthy aging of the lung does not involve impairment of proteasome function. Apparently, the reserve capacity of the proteostasis systems in the lung is sufficient to avoid severe proteostasis imbalance during healthy aging. PMID:26540298

  10. Stem cell-based therapies for age-related macular degeneration: current status and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Yalin; Zhao, Manli; Su, Guangming

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the major causes of irreversible blindness both in developed and developing countries. During the past decades, the managements of neovascular AMD (wet AMD) have dramatically progressed. However, still no effective treatment for non-neovascular AMD (dry AMD) which was characterized by geographic macular atrophy. Recent advances in stem cell sciences have demonstrated that retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells can be generated from several types of stem cells (including embryonic stem cells, induced pluripotent stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, et al) by cell co-culturing or defined factors. Additionally, studies also showed that visual function could be recovered by transplantation of these cells into subretinal space in vivo. Moreover, the United States Food and Drug Administration already approved several clinical trials to evaluate the efficiencies of stem cell based cell transplantation for dry AMD patients. Till now, a few patients enrolled in these studies achieved promising outcomes. This review will summarize recent advances in stem cell based RPE differentiation, transplantation, and the preliminary results of clinical trials. The obstacles and prospects in this field will also be discussed. PMID:25550892

  11. Stone Composition as a Function of Age and Sex

    PubMed Central

    Rule, Andrew D.; Krambeck, Amy E.; Williams, James C.; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Mehta, Ramila A.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objectives Kidney stones are heterogeneous but often grouped together. The potential effects of patient demographics and calendar month (season) on stone composition are not widely appreciated. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The first stone submitted by patients for analysis to the Mayo Clinic Metals Laboratory during 2010 was studied (n=43,545). Stones were classified in the following order: any struvite, any cystine, any uric acid, any brushite, majority (≥50%) calcium oxalate, or majority (≥50%) hydroxyapatite. Results Calcium oxalate (67%) was the most common followed by hydroxyapatite (16%), uric acid (8%), struvite (3%), brushite (0.9%), and cystine (0.35%). Men accounted for more stone submissions (58%) than women. However, women submitted more stones than men between the ages of 10–19 (63%) and 20–29 (62%) years. Women submitted the majority of hydroxyapatite (65%) and struvite (65%) stones, whereas men submitted the majority of calcium oxalate (64%) and uric acid (72%) stones (P<0.001). Although calcium oxalate stones were the most common type of stone overall, hydroxyapatite stones were the second most common before age 55 years, whereas uric acid stones were the second most common after age 55 years. More calcium oxalate and uric acid stones were submitted in the summer months (July and August; P<0.001), whereas the season did not influence other stone types. Conclusions It is well known that calcium oxalate stones are the most common stone type. However, age and sex have a marked influence on the type of stone formed. The higher number of stones submitted by women compared with men between the ages of 10 and 29 years old and the change in composition among the elderly favoring uric acid have not been widely appreciated. These data also suggest increases in stone risk during the summer, although this is restricted to calcium oxalate and uric acid stones. PMID:25278549

  12. Nutritional and functional status indicators in residents of a long-term care facility.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Jessica A; Nowson, Caryl A; Ackland, Leigh M

    2009-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study, we determined whether results from the Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), and Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL), were associated with nutritional status and mobility in long-term care residents. One hundred and fifteen study participants (mean [SD] age: 80.2 [10.6]) provided informed consent. Fifty eight percent (n = 66) responded to all three questionnaires: 12 were assessed as malnourished (MNA < 17) and 28 were depressed (GDS >or = 6). Higher levels of depression were associated with lower serum zinc (n = 71, r = -.356, p = .001) and associated with a slower Timed Up and Go test (TUG, n = 38, r = .301, p = .030). MNA was also associated with serum zinc (n = 44, r = .307, P = .021). Non responders to questionnaires (n = 36) had a lower BMI (mean difference: -2.5 +/- 1.0 kg/m(2), p = .013) and serum 25(OH)D (-8.7 +/- 3.8 nmol/l, p = .023) vs. responders. The GDS, in addition to the MNA, is useful in identifying poor nutritional status in residential care. Intervention programs that target depression and poor nutritional status could potentially improve overall quality of life, but it is not clear if depression is leading to poor nutritional status or if poor nutrition is leading to depression. PMID:19234994

  13. Sleep Patterns in the Healthy Aged: Relationship with Intellectual Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinz, Patricia N.

    1977-01-01

    Sleep patterns of elderly subjects (N=12) differed from young adult levels. When sleep variables were compared with individual changes in intellectual function measured across the seventh through 10th decades of life, a positive correlation was found between time in REM sleep and several longitudinal measures of mental functioning. (Author)

  14. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: correlations with age, sex, educational status and psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, P; Kaprinis, G; Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K

    2013-01-01

    extrapyramidal symptomatology. Factors such as sex, age or family history of schizophrenia, are said to influence the performance of neurological examination, whereas relative few studies have provided longitudinal follow-up data on neurological soft signs in a sufficient number of patients, in order to address a possible deterioration of neurological functions. Finally, one additional difficulty when analyzing the NSS literature lies in the diversity of symptoms that are evaluated in the studies and/or non-standardized procedures or scoring. We will review some basic issues concerning recurrent difficulties in the measurement and definition of soft signs, as well as controversies on the significance of these signs with respect to clinical subtyping of schizophrenia, and social and demographic variables. PMID:24486976

  15. APOE genotype and age modifies the correlation between cognitive status and metabolites from hippocampus by a 2D 1H-MRS in non-demented elders

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Renyuan; Liang, Xue; Yu, Tingting; Chen, Xiaoling; Feng, Jie; Guo, Aibin; Xie, Yu; Yang, Haiyan; Huang, Mingmin; Tian, Chuanshuai

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the associations among age, Apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype, metabolic changes in the hippocampus detected by 2D 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), and neuropsychological measures of cognition in non-demented elders. Materials and Methods. We studied a cohort of 16 cognitively normal controls (CN) and 11 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) patients between 66 and 88 years old who were genotyped for APOE genetic polymorphism. Measurements of 2D1H-MRS metabolites were obtained in the hippocampus region. Adjusting by age among all subjects, the association between metabolic changes and cognitive function was measured by Spearman partial rank-order correlation. The effect of APOE status was measured by separating the subjects into APOE genotype subgroups, including the APOEε4 carriers and APOEε4 non-carriers. Results. In contrast to the CN group matched with age, gender, and education, aMCI patients showed increased myo-inositol (mI)/Creatine (Cr) ratio only in the right hippocampus. No differences were noted on N-acetylaspartate (NAA)/Cr and mI/NAA from bilateral hippocampus, and so was mI/Cr ratio in left hippocampus between aMCI and CN. The mI/Cr ratio from the right hippocampus in non-demented elders was negatively correlated with Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores. Whether ε4 genotype or age was added as a covariate, none of the correlation effects remained significant. Additionally, adjusting for age and APOE genotype together, there was no significant correlation between them. Conclusion. Since the higher mI/Cr from the right hippocampus of the patients with aMCI than those from CN, the mI/Cr could be a more specific predictor of general cognitive function in aMCI patients. There is an association between higher mI/Cr in right hippocampus and worse cognitive function for the non-demented older adults, and the correlation could be modified by APOE status and age. That provided a window on objectively understanding the

  16. The effects of omega 3 fatty acid supplementation on brain tissue oxidative status in aged wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Avramovic, N; Dragutinovic, V; Krstic, D; Colovic, MB; Trbovic, A; de Luka, S; Milovanovic, I; Popovic, T

    2012-01-01

    Background: The omega 3 fatty acids play an important role in many physiological processes. Their effect is well documented in neurodegenerative diseases and inflammatory diseases. Also, aging as a biophysiological process could be influenced by eicosapentanoic acid (EPA) and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) components of fish oil. However there are not many studies showing the effect of PUFA (polyunsaturated FA) suplementation in eldery brain functions and the response to oxidative strees. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on levels of lipid peroxidation and oxidant/antioxidant status of brain tissue in aged (24 months old) Wistar rats. Methods: Animals were divided in two groups. Control group (n=8) was fed with standard laboratory food and received water ad libitum. Treated group (n=8) was also fed with standard laboratory food, water ad libitum and received fish oil capsules (EPA+DHA) for 6 weeks. Daily dose was 30mg EPA and 45mg DHA (capsules: 200mg EPA and 300mg DHA; in-house method). At the end of treatment animals were sacrificed and brains were collected and frozen on -80ºC. The levels of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde - MDA), activity of catalase (CAT) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were examined in cerebral cortex. Catalase activity was determined by measuring the decrease in absorbance (H2O2 degradation) at 240 nm for 3 min and expressed as U/mg protein. Total SOD (superoxide dismutase) activity was performed at room temperature according to the method of Misra and Fridovich. The extent of lipid peroxidation (LPO) was estimated as the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive product malondialdehyde (MDA) by using the method of Aruoma et al. The incorporation of fatty acids in cellular membranes was confirmed by gas chromatography. Results: Our results showed that lipid peroxidation significantly decreased in treated animal group, where MDA concentration was 0.38±0.001 vs

  17. Effect of Elective Bentall Procedure on Left Ventricular Systolic Function and Functional Status: Long-Term Follow-Up in 90 patients

    PubMed Central

    Otasevic, Petar; Micovic, Slobodan; Tomic, Slobodan; Milojevic, Predrag; Boskovic, Srdjan; Djukanovic, Bosko

    2016-01-01

    Because there are so few data on the long-term effects on left ventricular systolic function and functional status in patients who electively undergo Bentall procedures, we established a retrospective study group of 90 consecutive patients. This group consisted of 71 male and 19 female patients (mean age, 54 ± 10 yr) who had undergone the Bentall procedure to correct aortic valve disease and aneurysm of the ascending aorta, from 1997 through 2003 in a single tertiary-care center. We monitored these patients for a mean period of 117 ± 41 months for death, left ventricular ejection fraction and volume indices, and functional capacity as determined by New York Heart Association (NYHA) class. There were no operative deaths. The survival rate was 73.3% during follow-up. There were 10 cardiac and 13 noncardiac deaths, and 1 death of unknown cause. Echocardiography was performed before the index procedure and again after 117 ± 41 months. In surviving patients, statistically significant improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction, in comparison with preoperative values (0.49 ± 0.11 vs 0.41 ± 0.11; P <0.0001), was noted at follow-up. Similarly, we observed statistically significant reductions in left ventricular end-systolic (39.24 ± 28.7 vs 48.77 ± 28.62 mL/m2) and end-diastolic volumes (54.63 ± 6.97 vs 59.17 ± 8.92 mL/m2; both P <0.0001). Most patients (53/66 [80.3%]) progressed from a higher to a lower NYHA class during the follow-up period. The Bentall procedure significantly improved long-term left ventricular systolic function and functional status in surviving patients who underwent operation on a nonemergency basis. PMID:27127424

  18. Motor Control and Aging: Links to Age-Related Brain Structural, Functional, and Biochemical Effects

    PubMed Central

    Seidler, Rachael D.; Bernard, Jessica A.; Burutolu, Taritonye B.; Fling, Brett W.; Gordon, Mark T.; Gwin, Joseph T.; Kwak, Youngbin; Lipps, David B.

    2009-01-01

    Although connections between cognitive deficits and age-associated brain differences have been elucidated, relationships with motor performance are less well understood. Here, we broadly review age-related brain differences and motor deficits in older adults in addition to cognition-action theories. Age-related atrophy of the motor cortical regions and corpus callosum may precipitate or coincide with motor declines such as balance and gait deficits, coordination deficits, and movement slowing. Correspondingly, degeneration of neurotransmitter systems—primarily the dopaminergic system—may contribute to age-related gross and fine motor declines, as well as to higher cognitive deficits. In general, older adults exhibit involvement of more widespread brain regions for motor control than young adults, particularly the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia networks. Unfortunately these same regions are the most vulnerable to age-related effects, resulting in an imbalance of “supply and demand”. Existing exercise, pharmaceutical, and motor training interventions may ameliorate motor deficits in older adults. PMID:19850077

  19. Social functioning and age across affective and non-affective psychoses

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Elizabeth A.; Öngür, Dost; Cohen, Bruce M.; Lewandowski, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Both non-affective and affective psychoses are associated with deficits in social functioning across the course of the illness. However, it is not clear how social functioning varies among diagnostic groups as a function of age. The current study examined the relationship between social functioning and age in schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SZA), and psychotic bipolar disorder (PBD). We found that individuals with PBD had the highest functioning while individuals with SZ had the poorest. The functioning of individuals with SZA fell in between the other groups. We also found that older ages were associated with poorer functioning. Although there was not a significant diagnostic group by age interaction, visual inspection of our data suggests a subtly steeper trajectory of decline in PBD. These results indicate that a decline in social functioning with may be an important area of unmet need in treatment across psychotic disorders. PMID:25503785

  20. The longitudinal and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and host genotype upon neurocognitive functioning

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Andrew J.; Reynolds, Sandra; Cox, Christopher; Miller, Eric N.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; Becker, James T.; Martin, Eileen; Sacktor, Ned

    2014-01-01

    Background Both HIV-1 infection and illicit stimulant use can adversely impact neurocognitive functioning, and these effects can be additive. However, significant variability exists such that as-of-yet unidentified exogenous and endogenous factors affect ones risk for neurocognitive impairment. Both HIV and stimulant literature indicates that host genetic variants in immunologic and dopamine-related genes are one such factor. In this study the individual and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and genotype upon neurocognitive functioning was examined longitudinally over a 10 year period. Methods 952 Caucasian HIV+ and HIV− cases from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were included. All cases had at least two comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations between 1985 and 1995. Pre-HAART data was examined in order to avoid the confounding effect of variable drug regimens. Linear mixed models were used, with neurocognitive domain scores as the outcome variables. Results No 4-way interactions were found, indicating that HIV and stimulant use do not interact over time to affect neurocognitive functioning as a function of genotype. Multiple 3-way interactions were found that involved genotype and HIV status. All immunologic-related genes found to interact with HIV status affected neurocognitive functioning in the expected direction; however, only CCL2 and CCL3 affected HIV+ individuals specifically. Dopamine-related genetic variants generally affected HIV-negative individuals only. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals who also used stimulants was not significantly different from those who did not use stimulants. Conclusion The findings support the role of immunologic-related genetic differences in CCL2 and CCL3 in neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals; however their impact is minor. Consistent with findings from another cohort, DA-related genetic differences do not appear to impact the longitudinal neurocognitive functioning of HIV

  1. The longitudinal and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and host genotype upon neurocognitive functioning.

    PubMed

    Levine, Andrew J; Reynolds, Sandra; Cox, Christopher; Miller, Eric N; Sinsheimer, Janet S; Becker, James T; Martin, Eileen; Sacktor, Ned

    2014-06-01

    Both human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection and illicit stimulant use can adversely impact neurocognitive functioning, and these effects can be additive. However, significant variability exists such that as-of-yet unidentified exogenous and endogenous factors affect one's risk for neurocognitive impairment. Literature on both HIV and stimulant use indicates that host genetic variants in immunologic and dopamine-related genes are one such factor. In this study, the individual and interactive effects of HIV status, stimulant use, and genotype upon neurocognitive functioning were examined longitudinally over a 10-year period. Nine hundred fifty-two Caucasian HIV+ and HIV- cases from the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study were included. All cases had at least two comprehensive neurocognitive evaluations between 1985 and 1995. Pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) data were examined in order to avoid the confounding effect of variable drug regimens. Linear mixed models were used, with neurocognitive domain scores as the outcome variables. No four-way interactions were found, indicating that HIV and stimulant use do not interact over time to affect neurocognitive functioning as a function of genotype. Multiple three-way interactions were found that involved genotype and HIV status. All immunologically related genes found to interact with HIV status affected neurocognitive functioning in the expected direction; however, only C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CCL3 affected HIV+ individuals specifically. Dopamine-related genetic variants generally affected HIV-negative individuals only. Neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals who also used stimulants was not significantly different from those who did not use stimulants. The findings support the role of immunologically related genetic differences in CCL2 and CCL3 in neurocognitive functioning among HIV+ individuals; however, their impact is minor. Being consistent with findings from another cohort

  2. Relation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D status with skeletal muscle mass by sex and age group among Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Ko, Min Jung; Yun, Sungha; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Kirang

    2015-12-14

    The objective of this study was to examine whether high serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was associated with high skeletal muscle mass, taking into account the effects of sex and age among the participants of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) aged 40 years or older. This was a cross-sectional study using data from the 2009 to 2010 KNHANES; a total of 8406 subjects (3671 men and 4735 women) were included. The appendicular skeletal muscle mass index (ASMMI, kg/m2) was estimated to measure the skeletal muscle mass. Hypovitaminosis was classified when the level of serum 25(OH)D was <20 ng/ml. The general linear model adjusted for confounding factors was used to determine differences in means of ASMMI by 25(OH)D status. The mean values of ASMMI were higher for men when compared with women. Women had a greater proportion of hypovitaminosis (71·1%) compared with men (53·2%). After adjusting for multiple factors, men were seen to have significant differences in ASMMI based on 25(OH)D status regardless of age, showing a lower mean value of ASSMI in those with hypovitaminosis. However, there was no difference in ASMMI by 25(OH)D status among women in both younger and older age groups. In conclusion, we found that there might be a positive relationship between 25(OH)D and skeletal muscle mass in men, indicating that interventions to improve 25(OH)D levels that are aimed at increasing muscle mass could be beneficial for men with more rapid decreased rate of skeletal muscle mass. PMID:26420417

  3. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Karakochuk, Crystal D.; Michaux, Kristina D.; Chai, Tze L.; Chan, Benny B.; Whitfield, Kyly C.; Barr, Susan I.; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J.

    2016-01-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18–45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100–199 and 150–249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  4. Median Urinary Iodine Concentrations Are Indicative of Adequate Iodine Status among Women of Reproductive Age in Prey Veng, Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Karakochuk, Crystal D; Michaux, Kristina D; Chai, Tze L; Chan, Benny B; Whitfield, Kyly C; Barr, Susan I; McLean, Judy; Talukder, Aminuzzaman; Hou, Kroeun; Ly, Sokhoing; Green, Tim J

    2016-03-01

    Iodine deficiency disorders are estimated to affect over 1.9 million people worldwide. Iodine deficiency is especially serious for women during pregnancy and lactation because of the negative consequences for both mother and infant. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the median urinary iodine concentration (UIC) as a population-level indicator of iodine status among rural women farmers of reproductive age (18-45 years) in the province of Prey Veng, Cambodia. A total of 450 women provided a spot morning urine sample in 2012. Of those women, 93% (n = 420) were non-pregnant and 7% (n = 30) were pregnant at the time of collection. UIC was quantified using the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction with modifications. The median UIC of non-pregnant (139 μg/L) and pregnant women (157 μg/L) were indicative of adequate iodine status using the WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD epidemiological criteria for both groups (median UIC between 100-199 and 150-249 μg/L, respectively). We conclude that non-pregnant and pregnant women in rural Prey Veng, Cambodia had adequate iodine status based on single spot morning urine samples collected in 2012. More research is warranted to investigate iodine status among larger and more representative populations of women in Cambodia, especially in light of recent policy changes to the national program for universal salt iodization. PMID:26950151

  5. Visually-induced reorientation illusions as a function of age.

    PubMed

    Howard, I P; Jenkin, H L; Hu, G

    2000-09-01

    We reported previously that supine subjects inside a furnished room who are tilted 90 degrees may experience themselves and the room as upright to gravity. We call this the levitation illusion because it creates sensations similar to those experienced in weightlessness. It is an example of a larger class of novel static reorientation illusions that we have explored. Stationary subjects inside a furnished room rotating about a horizontal axis experience complete self rotation about the roll or pitch axis. We call this a dynamic reorientation illusion. We have determined the incidence of static and dynamic reorientation illusions in subjects ranging in age from 9 to 78 yr. Some 90% of subjects of all ages experienced the dynamic reorientation illusion but the percentage of subjects experiencing static reorientation illusions increased with age. We propose that the dynamic illusion depends on a primitive mechanism of visual-vestibular interaction but that static reorientation illusions depend on learned visual cues to the vertical arising from the perceived tops and bottoms of familiar objects and spatial relationships between objects. Older people become more dependent on visual polarity to compensate for loss in vestibular sensitivity. Of 9 astronauts, 4 experienced the levitation illusion. The relationship between susceptibility to reorientation illusions on Earth and in space has still to be determined. We propose that the Space Station will be less disorienting if pictures of familiar objects line the walls. PMID:10993316

  6. Intrinsic and Extrinsic School Motivation as a Function of Age: The Mediating Role of Autonomy Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillet, Nicolas; Vallerand, Robert J.; Lafreniere, Marc-Andre K.

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of the present research was to investigate school intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, and amotivation as a function of age in a sample of 1,600 elementary and high school students aged 9-17 years. First, results revealed a systematic decrease in intrinsic motivation and self-determined extrinsic motivation from age 9 to 12 years,…

  7. Interrelationship of Postoperative Delirium and Cognitive Impairment and Their Impact on the Functional Status in Older Patients Undergoing Orthopaedic Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Chih-Kuang; Chu, Chin-Liang; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Yu-Te; Lu, Ti; Hsu, Chien-Jen; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2014-01-01

    Background The impact of postoperative delirium on post-discharge functional status of older patients remains unclear, and little is known regarding the interrelationship between cognitive impairment and post-operative delirium. Therefore, the main purpose was to evaluate the post-discharge functional status of patients who experience delirium after undergoing orthopaedic surgery and the interrelationship of postoperative delirium with underlying cognitive impairment. Method This prospective cohort study, conducted at a tertiary care medical center from April 2011 to March 2012, enrolled all subjects aged over 60 years who were admitted for orthopaedic surgery. The baseline characteristics (age, gender, BMI, and living arrangement), surgery-related factors (ASA class, admission type, type of surgery, and length of hospital stay), results of geriatric assessment (postoperative delirium, cognition, depressive mood, comorbidity, pain, malnutrition, polypharmacy, ADL, and instrumental [I]ADL) and 1–12-month postoperative ADL and IADL functional status were collected for analysis. Results Overall, 9.1% of 232 patients (mean age: 74.7±7.8 years) experienced postoperative delirium, which was significantly associated with IADL decline at only 6 and 12 months postoperatively (RR: 6.22, 95% CI: 1.08–35.70 and RR: 12.54, 95% CI: 1.88–83.71, respectively). Delirium superimposed on cognitive impairment was a significant predictor for poor functional status at 6 and 12 months postoperatively (RR: 12.80, 95% CI: 1.65–99.40 for ADL at the 6th month, and RR: 7.96, 95% CI: 1.35–46.99 at the 12th month; RR: 13.68, 95% CI: 1.94–96.55 for IADL at the 6th month, and RR: 30.61, 95% CI: 2.94–318.54 at the 12th month, respectively). Conclusion Postoperative delirium is predictive of IADL decline in older patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery, and delirium superimposed on cognitive impairment is an independent risk factor for deterioration of ADL and IADL functional status

  8. A Nanoparticle-based Sensor Platform for Cell Tracking and Status/Function Assessment.

    PubMed

    Yeo, David; Wiraja, Christian; Chuah, Yon Jin; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly popular choices for labeling and tracking cells in biomedical applications such as cell therapy. However, all current types of nanoparticles fail to provide real-time, noninvasive monitoring of cell status and functions while often generating false positive signals. Herein, a nanosensor platform to track the real-time expression of specific biomarkers that correlate with cell status and functions is reported. Nanosensors are synthesized by encapsulating various sensor molecules within biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. Upon intracellular entry, nanosensors reside within the cell cytoplasm, serving as a depot to continuously release sensor molecules for up to 30 days. In the absence of the target biomarkers, the released sensor molecules remain 'Off'. When the biomarker(s) is expressed, a detectable signal is generated (On). As a proof-of-concept, three nanosensor formulations were synthesized to monitor cell viability, secretion of nitric oxide, and β-actin mRNA expression. PMID:26440504

  9. A Nanoparticle-based Sensor Platform for Cell Tracking and Status/Function Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, David; Wiraja, Christian; Chuah, Yon Jin; Gao, Yu; Xu, Chenjie

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are increasingly popular choices for labeling and tracking cells in biomedical applications such as cell therapy. However, all current types of nanoparticles fail to provide real-time, noninvasive monitoring of cell status and functions while often generating false positive signals. Herein, a nanosensor platform to track the real-time expression of specific biomarkers that correlate with cell status and functions is reported. Nanosensors are synthesized by encapsulating various sensor molecules within biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles. Upon intracellular entry, nanosensors reside within the cell cytoplasm, serving as a depot to continuously release sensor molecules for up to 30 days. In the absence of the target biomarkers, the released sensor molecules remain ‘Off’. When the biomarker(s) is expressed, a detectable signal is generated (On). As a proof-of-concept, three nanosensor formulations were synthesized to monitor cell viability, secretion of nitric oxide, and β-actin mRNA expression. PMID:26440504

  10. Trajectories of Aggression from Toddlerhood to Age 9 Predict Academic and Social Functioning through Age 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Susan B.; Spieker, Susan; Burchinal, Margaret; Poe, Michele D.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Using longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, we examined behavior problems and social and academic outcomes from ages 9 through 12 in children classified into five trajectories of physical aggression, on the basis of maternal ratings obtained from 24 months through 9 years (N = 1195). Methods:…

  11. Aging synaptic mitochondria exhibit dynamic proteomic changes while maintaining bioenergetic function

    PubMed Central

    Stauch, Kelly L.; Purnell, Phillip R.; Fox, Howard S.

    2014-01-01

    Aging correlates with a progressive impairment of mitochondrial homeostasis and is an influential factor for several forms of neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying age-related alterations in synaptosomal mitochondria, a neuronal mitochondria population highly susceptible to insults and critical for brain function, remain incompletely understood. Therefore this study investigates the synaptic mitochondrial proteomic and bioenergetic alterations that occur with age. The utilization of a state of the art quantitative proteomics approach allowed for the comparison of protein expression levels in synaptic mitochondria isolated from 5 (mature), 12 (old), and 24 (aged) month old mice. During the process of aging we find that dynamic proteomic alterations occur in synaptic mitochondria. Despite direct (mitochondrial DNA deletions) and indirect (increased antioxidant protein levels) signs of mitochondrial damage in the aged mice, there was an overall maintenance of mitochondrial function. Therefore the synaptic mitochondrial proteomic changes that occur with aging correlate with preservation of synaptic mitochondrial function. PMID:24827396

  12. Early Childbearing, Marital Status, and Women's Health and Mortality after Age 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henretta, John C.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between a woman's childbearing history and her later health and mortality, with primary focus on whether the association between them is due to early and later socioeconomic status. Data are drawn from the Health and Retirement Study birth cohort of 1931-1941. Results indicate that, conditional on reaching…

  13. The Questions about Behavioral Function (QABF): Current Status as a Method of Functional Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Functional assessment has now entered the mainstream for evaluation and to aid in the treatment of challenging behaviors, while experimental functional analysis was at the forefront of this movement, this particular methodology has proven to be impractical, and thus has limited utility in real world settings. As a result of these factors…

  14. Associations of Smoking and Alcohol Consumption With Disease Activity and Functional Status in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bing; Rho, Young Hee; Cui, Jing; Iannaccone, Christine K.; Frits, Michelle L.; Karlson, Elizabeth W.; Shadick, Nancy A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the associations of smoking and alcohol consumption with disease activity and functional status in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We conducted a prospective study consisting of 662 RA patients followed up to 7 years from the Brigham and Women’s Hospital Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study. Smoking and alcohol consumption were assessed through yearly questionnaires. The disease activity and functional status were measured by the Disease Activity Score examined in 28 commonly affected joints (DAS28-CRP3) and Modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (MHAQ) assessed annually. Linear mixed models were developed to assess the longitudinal effects of smoking and alcohol consumption on DAS28-CRP3 and MHAQ after adjustment for potential confounders. The HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (HLA-SE) by smoking and alcohol interactions were also evaluated in the analysis. Results The median follow-up time of the cohort was 4 years. Current smoking was not associated with DAS28-CRP3 in this study, but was associated with a higher MHAQ than non-smokers in seropositive RA (p=0.05). Alcohol consumption showed an approximate J-shaped relationship with MHAQ, with the minima occurring at 5.1–10.0 grams/day. Compared to no alcohol use, alcohol consumption of 5.1–10.0 grams/day was associated with a significant decrease of MHAQ (P=0.02). When stratified by HLA-SE, the effect of alcohol consumption appeared to be stronger in HLA-SE positive RA than HLA-SE negative RA. Conclusion We found that current smoking was associated with a worse functional status, while moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a better functional status in RA. Replications of these findings in other prospective studies are needed. PMID:24293566

  15. Functional Decline in Children Undergoing Selective Dorsal Rhizotomy after Age 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacWilliams, Bruce A.; Johnson, Barbara A.; Shuckra, Amy L.; D'Astous, Jacques L.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare function and gait in a group of children older than most children who received selective dorsal rhizotomy (SDR) with age- and function-matched peers who received either orthopedic surgery or no surgical intervention. Method: A retrospective study examined ambulatory children with diplegic cerebral palsy, aged between 10 years and…

  16. Relating Worry and Executive Functioning During Childhood: The Moderating Role of Age.

    PubMed

    Geronimi, Elena M C; Patterson, Heather L; Woodruff-Borden, Janet

    2016-06-01

    The associations between worry and executive functioning across development have not been previously explored. Examining the interrelationships between these variables in childhood may further elucidate the cognitive nature of worry as well as its developmental course. Hypotheses predicted that difficulties with executive functioning would correlate with child worry; based on extant literature, age-related hypotheses were proposed for particular aspects of executive functioning. Children (N = 130) participated in the present study. Difficulties with executive functioning and child worry were assessed. Results demonstrated that each executive functioning subscale correlated with worry. The relations between worry and several facets of executive functioning were no longer significant at older ages, while the relations between worry and the facets of inhibition, shifting, and emotional control did not demonstrate age-related interaction effects. Overall, the findings suggest that worry is associated with executive functioning at young ages and that this association takes distinct forms during different childhood stages. PMID:26268800

  17. Photoplethysmographic Waveform as a Function of Subject's Age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nippolainen, E.; Podolian, N. P.; Romashko, R. V.; Kulchin, Y. N.; Kamshilin, A. A.

    In this report we present the experimental study of imaging photoplethysmography in the area of the palm and wrist of fifty-six healthy subjects. We found that the amplitude of the PPG waveform is unevenly distributed over the studied area forming the hot spots with the elevated amplitude. There is clear tendency of the amplitude increasing in the hottest spots with the age of the subject. These observations support the recently proposed model of photoplethysmography in which pulse oscillations of the arterial transmural pressure deform the connective-tissue components of the dermis resulting in periodical changes of both the light scattering and absorption.

  18. Symptoms and functional health status of individuals with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS).

    PubMed

    Berglund, B; Nordström, G

    2001-10-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is an inherited connective tissue disorder that can have a substantial impact on daily life. The aims of this study were to describe the symptoms reported in a group of individuals with EDS and to investigate the impact on functional health status by means of the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP). Seventy-seven individuals, members of the Swedish EDS Association, completed 2 mailed questionnaires. The most frequent symptoms were related to activity, e.g., joint problems (75%), to pain (71%), and to skin/tissue (52%). Pain was reported by 37 individuals (48%) as their most severe symptom. The SIP results showed an overall mean score of 13.0 (females 13.9, males 5.6), compared with a Swedish reference group with a SIP score 1.3. Women with EDS reported a better functional health status than females with rheumatoid arthritis (overall SIP score 13.9 versus 21.4). In comparison with women with fibromyalgia, the EDS females rated their functional health status as worse on the physical dimension (p <0.05) and the subscale home management (p <0.05), and as better on the subscale work (p <0.05). Impact of EDS on the individual's daily life needs to be acknowledged, assessed, and evaluated in healthcare. PMID:17039161

  19. Social participation and the onset of functional disability by socioeconomic status and activity type: The JAGES cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ashida, Toyo; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori

    2016-08-01

    The impact of social participation on older adults' health may differ by individual socioeconomic status (SES). Consequently, we examined SES effect modification on the associations between types of social activity participation and incident functional disability. Cohort data from the 2003 Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study (JAGES) was utilized. This included individuals who were aged 65 or older and functionally independent at baseline. Analysis was carried out on 12,991 respondents after acquisition of information about their long-term care (LTC) status in Japan. Incident functional disability was defined based on medical certification and LTC information was obtained from municipal insurance databases. Cox proportional hazard regression was conducted for analysis. Results indicated that participants in a sport (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.51, 0.85) or hobby group (HR: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.87), or who had a group facilitator role (HR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.66, 1.02) were less likely to be disabled. While men with 13 or more years of education were less likely to become disabled if they held facilitator roles, this association was weak among men with 0-5years of education (HR of interaction term between 0 and 5years of education and facilitator role dummy variable=3.95; 95% CI: 1.30, 12.05). In conclusion, the association between group participation and smaller risk of the functional disability was stronger among highly educated older adults. Intervention programs promoting social participation should consider participants' socioeconomic backgrounds. PMID:27235600

  20. Age-dependent change in executive function and gamma 40 Hz phase synchrony.

    PubMed

    Paul, Robert H; Clark, C Richard; Lawrence, Jeffrey; Goldberg, Elkhonon; Williams, Leanne M; Cooper, Nicholas; Cohen, Ronald A; Brickman, Adam M; Gordon, Evian

    2005-03-01

    Decline in cognitive function is well recognized, yet few neurophysiological correlates of age-related cognitive decline have been identified. In this study we examined the impact of age on neurocognitive function and Gamma phase synchrony among 550 normal subjects (aged 11-70). Gamma phase synchrony was acquired to targets in the auditory oddball paradigm. The two tasks of executive function were switching of attention and an electronic maze. Subjects were divided into four age groups, which were balanced for sex. We hypothesized that reduced cognitive performance among older healthy individuals would be associated with age-related changes in gamma phase synchrony. Results showed a significant decrease in executive function in the oldest (51-70 years) age group. ANOVAs of age-by-frontal Gamma synchrony also showed a significant effect of age on Gamma phase synchrony in the left frontal region that corresponded modestly to the age effect found on executive task performance, with reduced performance associated with increased gamma synchrony. The results indicate that age-related changes in cognitive function evident among elderly individuals may in part be related to decreased ability to integrate information and this may be reflected as a compensatory increase in gamma synchrony in frontal regions of the brain. PMID:16035141

  1. Subliminal strengthening: improving older individuals' physical function over time with an implicit-age-stereotype intervention.

    PubMed

    Levy, Becca R; Pilver, Corey; Chung, Pil H; Slade, Martin D

    2014-12-01

    Negative age stereotypes that older individuals assimilate from their culture predict detrimental outcomes, including worse physical function. We examined, for the first time, whether positive age stereotypes, presented subliminally across multiple sessions in the community, would lead to improved outcomes. Each of 100 older individuals (age=61-99 years, M=81) was randomly assigned to an implicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, an explicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, a combined implicit- and explicit-positive-age-stereotype-intervention group, or a control group. Interventions occurred at four 1-week intervals. The implicit intervention strengthened positive age stereotypes, which strengthened positive self-perceptions of aging, which, in turn, improved physical function. The improvement in these outcomes continued for 3 weeks after the last intervention session. Further, negative age stereotypes and negative self-perceptions of aging were weakened. For all outcomes, the implicit intervention's impact was greater than the explicit intervention's impact. The physical-function effect of the implicit intervention surpassed a previous study's 6-month-exercise-intervention's effect with participants of similar ages. The current study's findings demonstrate the potential of directing implicit processes toward physical-function enhancement over time. PMID:25326508

  2. Mexican Queso Chihuahua: functional properties of aging cheese

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Queso Chihuahua, a traditional, semi-hard cheese manufactured from raw milk (RM) in northern Mexico, is being replaced by pasteurized milk (PM) versions because of food safety concerns and to extend shelf-life. In this study, the functional traits of authentic Mexican Queso Chihuahua made with RM o...

  3. IMPACT OF AGING ON CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION AND REACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally thought that senescence in mammals is accompanied by an overall decline in functional integrity of the organism and its ability to adapt to various environmental challenges. onsiderable body of evidence has shown that in both human and laboratory animals, advancin...

  4. Is access to specialist assessment of chest pain equitable by age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status? An enhanced ecological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sekhri, Neha; Hemingway, Harry; Walsh, Niamh; Eldridge, Sandra; Junghans, Cornelia; Feder, Gene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether access to rapid access chest pain clinics of people with recent onset symptoms is equitable by age, socioeconomic status, ethnicity and gender, according to need. Design Retrospective cohort study with ecological analysis. Setting Patients referred from primary care to five rapid access chest pain clinics in secondary care, across England. Participants Of 8647 patients aged ≥35 years referred to chest pain clinics with new-onset stable chest pain but no known cardiac history, 7570 with documented census ward codes, age, gender and ethnicity comprised the study group. Patients excluded were those with missing date of birth, gender or ethnicity (n=782) and those with missing census ward codes (n=295). Outcome measures Effects of age, gender, ethnicity and socioeconomic status on clinic attendance were calculated as attendance rate ratios, with number of attendances as the outcome and resident population-years as the exposure in each stratum, using Poisson regression. Attendance rate ratios were then compared with coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality ratios to determine whether attendance was equitable according to need. Results Adjusted attendance rate ratios for patients aged >65 years were similar to younger patients (1.1, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.16), despite population CHD mortality rate ratios nearly 15 times higher in the older age group. Women had lower attendance rate ratios (0.81, 95% CI 0.77 to 0.84) and also lower population CHD mortality rate ratios compared with men. South Asians had higher attendance rates (1.67, 95% CI 1.57 to 1.77) compared with whites and had a higher standardised CHD mortality ratio of 1.46 (95% CI 1.41 to 1.51). Although univariable analysis showed that the most deprived patients (quintile 5) had an attendance rate twice that of less deprived quintiles, the adjusted analysis showed their attendance to be 13% lower (0.87, 95% CI 0.81 to 0.94) despite a higher population CHD mortality rate. Conclusion

  5. Association of smoking status, cumulative smoking, duration of smoking cessation, age of starting smoking, and depression in Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many previous studies did not sufficiently control for several confounding factors that may affect the association between smoking and depression, such as socioeconomic status. We investigated the association between depression and smoking status, smoking exposure, duration of smoking cessation, and age of starting smoking while controlling for socioeconomic factors. Methods This study was based on a community health survey performed in Jeollanam-do, South Korea, between September and November 2009. In total, 20,084 subjects (9,118 males and 10,966 females) were included in the analysis. Information on smoking characteristics, such as smoking status, pack-years of smoking, and age of starting smoking, was collected using a standardized questionnaire. Depression was defined using the Korean CES-D score. Results The odds ratios (ORs) of depression were 1.35 (0.92–1.98) for former smokers and 1.77 (1.27–2.48) for current-smokers among males, and 2.67 (1.38–5.16) for former smokers and 3.72 (2.11–6.54) for current-smokers among females, after adjusting for other confounding factors. Compared to light smoking, heavy smoking was significantly associated with depression in males [OR = 3.97, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.42–11.14], but not in females (OR = 1.24, 95% CI = 0.73–2.09). No significant associations between depression and age of starting smoking and duration of smoking cessation were observed among former smokers. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that smoking is strongly associated with depression, particularly among females. These findings suggest that depression prevention may need to be combined with smoking prevention and that different strategies may be needed for males and females. PMID:22938088

  6. Cadmium in blood and urine--impact of sex, age, dietary intake, iron status, and former smoking--association of renal effects.

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Ing-Marie; Bensryd, Inger; Lundh, Thomas; Ottosson, Helena; Skerfving, Staffan; Oskarsson, Agneta

    2002-01-01

    We studied determinants of cadmium status and kidney function in nonsmoking men and women living on farms in southern Sweden. Median blood Cd (BCd) was 1.8 nmol/L (range, 0.38-18) and median urinary Cd (UCd) was 0.23 nmol/mmol creatinine (range, 0.065-0.99). The intake of Cd per kilogram body weight did not significantly differ between sexes and did not correlate with BCd or UCd, which may be explained by a low and varying bioavailibility of Cd from food items. However, when a subgroup of the study population, couples of never-smoking men and women, were compared, a lower intake per kilogram body weight was found in the women, but the women had a 1.8 times higher BCd and a 1.4 times higher UCd. The higher female BCd and UCd may be explained by higher absorption due to low iron status. BCd and UCd both increased with age and were higher in the ex-smokers, who had stopped smoking more than 5 years before the study, compared to never-smokers. The contribution of locally produced food to the total Cd intake was relatively low and varied. Males living in areas with low soil Cd had lower UCd than the others. However, Cd levels in kidneys from pigs, fed locally produced cereals, did not predict BCd or UCd in humans at the same farms. The kidney function parameter ss2-microglobulin-creatinine clearance was related to UCd, whereas urinary protein-HC, N-acetyl-ss-glucoseaminidase or albumin-creatinine clearance was not when age was accounted for. Hence, even at the low exposure levels in this study population, there was an indication of effect on biochemical markers of renal function. PMID:12460796

  7. Sexual Functioning Morbidity Among Cancer Survivors: Current Status and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    ANDERSEN, BARBARA L.

    2009-01-01

    The current article reviews available data and considers methodologic issues for future research in which sexual functioning among adult cancer patients is an endpoint variable. Circumstances that may cause sexual disruption for any cancer patient are suggested, including mood disturbance, changed health status, somatization, and reprioritization of life concerns. Data on the incidence and magnitude of sexual functioning morbidity following the diagnosis and treatment of cancer at major organ sites, including breast, genital, colon, rectum, and bladder, are reviewed. Finally, strategies for continuing descriptive study of the sexual problems of cancer patients are suggested. Such data are necessary to eventually target preventive or therapeutic resources to patients in greatest need. PMID:3978569

  8. Advanced Pubertal Status at Age 11 and Lower Physical Activity in Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Birgitta L.; Birch, Leann L.; Trost, Stewart G.; Davison, Kirsten Krahnstoever

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between pubertal timing and physical activity. Study design A longitudinal sample of 143 adolescent girls was assessed at ages 11 and 13 years. Girls' pubertal development was assessed at age 11 with blood estradiol levels, Tanner breast staging criteria, and parental report of pubertal development. Girls were classified as early maturers (n = 41) or later maturers (n = 102) on the basis of their scores on the 3 pubertal development measures. Dependent variables measured at age 13 were average minutes/day of moderate to vigorous and vigorous physical activity as measured by the ActiGraph accelerometer. Results Early-maturing girls had significantly lower self-reported physical activity and accumulated fewer minutes of moderate to vigorous and vigorous physical activity and accelerometer counts per day at age 13 than later maturing girls. These effects were independent of differences in percentage body fat and self-reported physical activity at age 11. Conclusion Girls experiencing early pubertal maturation at age 11 reported lower subsequent physical activity at age 13 than their later maturing peers. Pubertal maturation, in particular early maturation relative to peers, may lead to declines in physical activity among adolescent girls. PMID:17961691

  9. Aging Study Of EPDM O-Ring Material For The H1616 Shipping Package - Three Year Status

    SciTech Connect

    Stefek, T.; Daugherty, W.; Skidmore, E.

    2015-11-05

    This is a 3-year status report for tasks carried out per Task Technical Plan SRNL-STI-2011-00506. A series of tasks/experiments were performed at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to monitor the aging performance of ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM) O-rings used in the H1616 shipping package. The test data provide a technical basis to extend the annual maintenance of the H1616 shipping package to three years and to predict the life of the EPDM O-rings at the bounding service conditions.

  10. Probabilistic age classification with Bayesian networks: A study on the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Emanuele; Pinchi, Vilma; Taroni, Franco

    2016-01-01

    In the past few decades, the rise of criminal, civil and asylum cases involving young people lacking valid identification documents has generated an increase in the demand of age estimation. The chronological age or the probability that an individual is older or younger than a given age threshold are generally estimated by means of some statistical methods based on observations performed on specific physical attributes. Among these statistical methods, those developed in the Bayesian framework allow users to provide coherent and transparent assignments which fulfill forensic and medico-legal purposes. The application of the Bayesian approach is facilitated by using probabilistic graphical tools, such as Bayesian networks. The aim of this work is to test the performances of the Bayesian network for age estimation recently presented in scientific literature in classifying individuals as older or younger than 18 years of age. For these exploratory analyses, a sample related to the ossification status of the medial clavicular epiphysis available in scientific literature was used. Results obtained in the classification are promising: in the criminal context, the Bayesian network achieved, on the average, a rate of correct classifications of approximatively 97%, whilst in the civil context, the rate is, on the average, close to the 88%. These results encourage the continuation of the development and the testing of the method in order to support its practical application in casework. PMID:26699731

  11. Cortisol Function Among Early School-aged Homeless Children

    PubMed Central

    Cutuli, J. J.; Wiik, Kristen L.; Herbers, Janette E.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Masten, Ann S.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Homelessness represents a context of extreme poverty and risk for child development. This study compared the relative influence of two classes of risk in the context of homelessness. Levels of socioeconomic resource-related risk and negative lifetime events were examined with respect to morning cortisol levels and cortisol response to a set of cognitive tasks. Participants were 66 children between the ages of 4 and 7 years staying in an emergency shelter for families. Adversities largely reflecting family level negative life events predicted higher levels of morning cortisol and differences in initial level and change over the course of the session of cognitive tasks. In contrast, a socioeconomic cumulative risk score was not associated with morning or session-related differences in cortisol. PMID:20022181

  12. Mind over age--stereotype activation and olfactory function.

    PubMed

    Miller, Stacie S; Gordon, Amy R; Olsson, Mats J; Lundström, Johan N; Dalton, Pamela

    2013-02-01

    Given that context affects olfaction and the elderly exhibit olfactory deficits, the current study tested whether a subtle change in internal context, evoked by priming the elderly stereotype, would affect performance in a variety of olfactory tasks including odor sensitivity, discrimination, and identification (Experiment 1), as well as perceived odor intensity, pleasantness and familiarity, and an odor reaction time task (Experiment 2). Such internalization of the elderly stereotype has been demonstrated with slower walking speeds and fewer words recalled in a memory task. In the current study, 76 participants first listened to a presentation about age-related declines in olfaction and then participated in 3 language tasks which, unbeknownst to them, served as the elderly stereotype priming manipulation. This priming manipulation was effective at decreasing walking speed and word recall, confirming the findings of previous researchers; however, olfaction was not affected. Whether olfaction is resistant to stereotype priming is discussed. PMID:23118205

  13. Predictors of Adolescent Functioning in Girls with Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Role of Childhood ADHD, Conduct Problems, and Peer Status

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Predictors of adolescent functioning were studied in an ethnically diverse sample of girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) (n = 140) and age- and ethnicity-matched comparison girls (n = 88) who participated in naturalistic summer programs during childhood. Over a five-year follow-up (sample retention = 92%; age range = 11.3–18.2 years), conduct problems were predicted by hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptoms and noncompliance (NC). Academic achievement was predicted only by inattention symptoms, whereas school suspensions/expulsions were predicted by inattention symptoms (ADHD sample only), NC, and negative peer status. Substance use was predicted by NC and HI symptoms. Internalizing problems were predicted by HI symptoms, noncompliance, and covert antisocial behavior. Finally, initial peer status was the only significant predictor of later negative social preference. PMID:16836474

  14. Cross-sectional associations of oral health measures with cognitive function in late middle–aged adults

    PubMed Central

    Naorungroj, Supawadee; Schoenbach, Victor J.; Beck, James; Mosley, Thomas H.; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Alonso, Alvaro; Heiss, Gerardo; Slade, Gary D.

    2016-01-01

    Background It has not been established to what extent oral health is associated with cognitive function in late middle–aged adults. In this study, which is part of the national Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study, the authors investigated whether tooth loss and periodontitis are associated with lower cognitive function. Methods The authors analyzed ARIC data measuring cognitive function in 11,097 participants from 1996 through 1998 according to tests of delayed word recall, digit-symbol substitution (DSS) and word fluency; 9,874 participants answered dental screening questions. Of the 8,554 dentate participants, 5,942 received oral examinations. The authors used measures of dental status, number of teeth and periodontitis (classified according to the Biofilm-Gingival Interface Index) in multiple linear regression models to estimate these factors’ cross-sectional association with cognitive scores, adjusting for sociodemographic factors, cigarette smoking, alcohol use and diabetes. Results Approximately 13 percent of participants were edentulous. Of the dentate participants, 27.3 percent had fewer than 20 teeth and 12.4 percent had pocket depth of 4 millimeters or more with severe bleeding. Compared with dentate participants, edentulous participants had lower scores for all cognitive tests. Among the dentate participants, having fewer teeth and gingival bleeding were associated with lower DSS and word fluency test scores, although periodontal pocket depth was not. Conclusions In this cohort, edentulism was correlated with lower cognitive status. Tooth loss and gingival bleeding were markers of poorer executive function among dentate people. Practical Implications The association of lower cognitive scores with edentulism suggests that past oral diseases may be a risk indicator for cognitive decline, whereas the association with gingival inflammation indicates a possible effect of cognitive decline on oral health. Practitioners should be aware that

  15. The Satz-Mogel short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale--revised: effects of global mental status and age on test-retest reliability.

    PubMed

    McPherson, S; Buckwalter, G J; Tingus, K; Betz, B; Back, C

    2000-10-01

    Abbreviated versions of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (WAIS-R) have been developed as time saving devices that provide accurate estimates of overall level of general intellectual functioning while decreasing test administration time. The Satz-Mogel short form of the WAIS-R has received substantial attention in the literature as an accurate measure of intellectual functions when compared with the Full WAIS-R. However, most studies comparing the Satz-Mogel version to the Full WAIS-R have only provided correlational analyses. Our study was an attempt to apply a more rigorous statistical methodology in determining if the Full WAIS-R and abbreviated versions are equivalent. We explored the impact of level of global mental status and age on the Satz-Mogel version. Although the two forms of the test correlated highly, repeated measures design indicated significant differences between Satz-Mogel and Full WAIS-R when participants were divided into groups based on level of global impairment and age. Our results suggest that the Satz-Mogel version of the test may not be equivalent to the full WAIS-R and is likely to misrepresent a patient's level of intellectual functioning, particularly for patients with progressive degenerative conditions. The implications of applying Satz-Mogel scoring to the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III (WAIS-III) are discussed. PMID:11094390

  16. Sleep disturbances and sexual function among men aged 45–75 years in an urban area of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Charandabi, Sakineh Mohammadalizadeh; Rezaei, Nazanin; Hakimi, Sevil; Khatami, Shiva; valizadeh, Reza; Azadi, Arman

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Aging in men is associated with various physical and mental symptoms, including sleep problems and sexual dysfunction. The aim of this study was to determine the status of sleep disorders and sexual dysfunction in men aged 45–75 years in Ilam, Iran. Materials and methods In this population-based cross-sectional study, 390 men aged 45–75 years were selected by cluster randomization in Ilam–Iran. Data were collected using 0–100 brief sexual function inventory and the sleep disorder questionnaires. Results Totally, 34.6% of men complained about sleep disorders: 17.4% about falling asleep, 12.8% about frequent nocturnal awakenings, 12.8% about waking up in the early hours in the morning and problem in falling asleep again, and 24.9% about fatigue and tiredness despite getting enough sleep. There was a significant relationship between all aspects of sexual function and the common problems related to sleep (p<0.001). The older, unemployed, illiterate men, those with inadequate income, those affected by chronic diseases, and/or urinary incontinence had significantly inferior sexual function compared with the others. Conclusion According to the high prevalence of sleep disorders in men as well as its association with sexual dysfunction, adopting health measures in this regard is necessary. PMID:27217906

  17. Age-related decline in functional connectivity of the vestibular cortical network.

    PubMed

    Cyran, Carolin Anna Maria; Boegle, Rainer; Stephan, Thomas; Dieterich, Marianne; Glasauer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    In the elderly, major complaints include dizziness and an increasing number of falls, possibly related to an altered processing of vestibular sensory input. In this study, we therefore investigate age-related changes induced by processing of vestibular sensory stimulation. While previous functional imaging studies of healthy aging have investigated brain function during task performance or at rest, we used galvanic vestibular stimulation during functional MRI in a task-free sensory stimulation paradigm to study the effect of healthy aging on central vestibular processing, which might only become apparent during stimulation processing. Since aging may affect signatures of brain function beyond the BOLD-signal amplitude-such as functional connectivity or temporal signal variability-we employed independent component analysis and partial least squares analysis of temporal signal variability. We tested for age-associated changes unrelated to vestibular processing, using a motor paradigm, voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging. This allows us to control for general age-related modifications, possibly originating from vascular, atrophic or structural connectivity changes. Age-correlated decreases of functional connectivity and increases of BOLD-signal variability were associated with multisensory vestibular networks. In contrast, no age-related functional connectivity changes were detected in somatosensory networks or during the motor paradigm. The functional connectivity decrease was not due to structural changes but to a decrease in response amplitude. In synopsis, our data suggest that both the age-dependent functional connectivity decrease and the variability increase may be due to deteriorating reciprocal cortico-cortical inhibition with age and related to multimodal vestibular integration of sensory inputs. PMID:25567421

  18. The effect of age on clinical outcomes and health status in the Bypass Angioplasty Revascularization Investigation 2 Diabetes Trial (BARI 2D)

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sheng-Chia; Hlatky, Mark A.; Faxon, David; Ramanathan, Kodangudi; Adler, Dale; Mooradian, Arshag; Rihal, Charanjit; Stone, Roslyn A.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Kelsey, Sheryl F.; Brooks, Maria Mori

    2011-01-01

    Objective The objective was to determine the extent to which effectiveness of cardiac and diabetes treatment strategies varies by patient age. Background The impact of age on the effectiveness of revascularization and hyperglycemia treatments has not been thoroughly investigated. Methods In BARI 2D, 2368 patients with documented stable heart disease and type 2 diabetes were randomized to receive prompt revascularization versus initial medical therapy with deferred revascularization and insulin-sensitization versus insulin-provision for hyperglycemia treatment. Patients were followed for an average of 5.3 years. Cox regression and mixed models were used to investigate the effect of age and randomized treatment assignment on clinical and health status outcomes. Results The effect of prompt revascularization versus medical therapy did not differ by age for death (interaction p=0.99), major cardiovascular events (interaction p=0.081), angina (interaction p=0.98) or health status outcomes. After intervention, participants of all ages had significant angina and health status improvement. Younger participants experienced a smaller decline in health status during follow-up than older participants (age by time interaction p<0.01). The effect of the randomized glycemia treatment on clinical and health status outcomes was similar for patients of different ages. Conclusion Among patients with stable heart disease and type 2 diabetes, relative beneficial effects of a strategy of prompt revascularization versus initial medical therapy, and insulin-sensitizing versus insulin-providing therapy on clinical endpoints, symptom relief, and perceived health status outcomes do not vary by age. Health status improved significantly after treatment for all ages, and this improvement was sustained longer among younger patients. PMID:21835316

  19. [Status and changes of soil nutrients in rhizosphere of Abelmoschus manihot different planting age].

    PubMed

    Tang, Li-Xia; Tan, Xian-He; Zhang, Yu; Liu, Xiao-Ning

    2013-11-01

    Using soil chemical analysis method and combining with ICP-AES determination of mineral nutrition element content in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla Results show that along with the increase of planting age, the nitrogen (total N), available P and organic matter in rhizosphere soil of Abelmoschus Corolla content declined year by year and the soil got acidification. Heavy metal element content in agricultural land does not exceed national standards, but the content of element mercury (Hg) in rhizosphere soil of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla declined. Request of microelement such as manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) had a increase tendency, but the content of magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) increased, and other nutrient elements had no changed rules or unchanged apparently. Consequently, exploring the change rules of different planting age Abelmoschus Corolla soil in rhizosphere as theoretical guidance of rational fertilization and subducting continuous cropping obstscles. PMID:24558867

  20. Sixth Status Report: Testing of Aged Softwood Fiberboard Material for the 9975 Shipping Package

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2015-03-31

    Samples have been prepared from several 9975 lower fiberboard subassemblies fabricated from softwood fiberboard. Physical, mechanical and thermal properties have been measured following varying periods of conditioning in each of several environments. These tests have been conducted in the same manner as previous testing on cane fiberboard samples. Overall, similar aging trends are observed for softwood and cane fiberboard samples, with a few differences. Some softwood fiberboard properties tend to degrade faster in some environments, while some cane fiberboard properties degrade faster in the two most aggressive environments. As a result, it is premature to assume both materials will age at the same rates, and the preliminary aging models developed for cane fiberboard might not apply to softwood fiberboard. However, it is expected that both cane and softwood fiberboard assemblies will perform satisfactorily in conforming packages stored in a typical KAC storage environment for up to 15 years. Samples from an additional 3 softwood fiberboard assemblies have begun aging during the past year to provide information on the variability of softwood fiberboard behavior. Aging and testing of softwood fiberboard will continue and additional data will be collected to support development of an aging model specific to softwood fiberboard.

  1. Mediators of the relationship between socioeconomic status and allostatic load in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study (CHASRS)

    PubMed Central

    Hawkley, Louise C.; Lavelle, Leah A.; Berntson, Gary G.; Cacioppo, John T.

    2011-01-01

    Low socioeconomic status (SES) has been associated with higher levels of allostatic load (AL). Posited mechanisms for this association include stress, personality, psychosocial variables, coping, social networks, and health behaviors. This study examines whether these variables explain the SES-AL relationship in a population-based sample of 208 51–69 year-old White, Black, and Hispanic adults in the Chicago Health, Aging, and Social Relations Study. AL was based on nine markers of physiological dysregulation. SES was inversely associated with a composite measure of AL; hostility and poor sleep quality helped to explain the association between AL and SES. Factor analyses revealed four AL components corresponding to the bodily systems of interest. SES was significantly associated with two AL components, suggesting that the effects of SES on physiological dysregulation are specific to certain systems in a middle to early-old age population. PMID:21342206

  2. Characterization of Dry-Air Aged Granules of Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Fryxell, Glen E.; Robinson, Matthew J.

    2012-09-01

    This is a letter report to complete level 3 milestone "Assess aging characteristics of silica aerogels" for DOE FCRD program. Recently, samples of Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel were aged in flowing dry air for up to 6 months and then loaded with iodine. This dry-air aging simulated the impact of long-term exposure to process gases during process idling. The 6-month aged sample exhibited an iodine sorption capacity of 32 mass%, which was 9 mass % lower than that for an un-aged Ag0-functionalized silica aerogel. In an attempt to understand this decrease in sorption capacity, we characterized physical properties of the aged samples with Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed no impact of aging on the aerogel microstructure or the silver nanoparticles in the aerogel, including their spatial distribution and morphology.

  3. Calcinosis in juvenile dermatomyositis is influenced by both anti-NXP2 autoantibody status and age at disease onset

    PubMed Central

    Tansley, Sarah L.; Betteridge, Zoe E.; Shaddick, Gavin; Gunawardena, Harsha; Arnold, Katie; Wedderburn, Lucy R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Calcinosis is a major cause of morbidity in JDM and has previously been linked to anti-NXP2 autoantibodies, younger age at disease onset and more persistent disease activity. This study aimed to investigate the clinical associations of anti-NXP2 autoantibodies in patients with JDM stratified by age at disease onset. Methods. A total of 285 patients with samples and clinical data were recruited via the UK Juvenile Dermatomyositis Cohort and Biomarker Study. The presence of anti-NXP2 was determined by both immunoprecipitation and ELISA. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the age-dependent relationship between anti-NXP2 and the development of calcinosis and disease activity measures. Results. We identified anti-NXP2 autoantibodies in 56 patients (20%). While in all patients younger age at disease onset was associated with an increased risk of calcinosis and this relationship was nearly linear, anti-NXP2 autoantibodies substantially increased the risk of calcinosis across all ages (P = 0.025) and were detectable prior to calcinosis development. Children with anti-NXP2 autoantibodies had a greater degree of weakness (median lowest ever Childhood Myositis Assessment Score 29.6 vs 42) and were less likely to be in remission at 2 years post-diagnosis. No difference in disease activity was seen 4 years post-diagnosis. Conclusion. Children diagnosed at a young age have a high risk of calcinosis regardless of autoantibody status. However, the presence of anti-NXP2 autoantibodies substantially increases the risk of calcinosis across all ages and is associated with disease severity. PMID:24987158

  4. Effects of socioeconomic status on physical and mental health of hemodialysis patients in Japan: differences by age, period, and cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sugisawa, Hidehiro; Shimizu, Yumiko; Kumagai, Tamaki; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Ohira, Seiji; Shinoda, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Study purpose Whether or not socioeconomic status (SES)-related differences in the health of hemodialysis patients differ by age, period, and birth cohort remains unclear. We examined whether SES-related gaps in physical and mental health change with age, period, and birth cohort for hemodialysis patients. Methods Data were obtained from repeated cross-sectional surveys conducted in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, with members of a national patients’ association as participants. We used raking adjustment to create a database which had similar characteristics to the total sample of dialysis patients in Japan. SES was assessed using family size-adjusted income levels. We divided patients into three groups based on their income levels: below the first quartile, over the second quartile and under the third quartile, and over the fourth quartile. We used the number of dialysis complications as a physical health indicator and depressive symptoms as a mental health indicator. We used a cross-classified random-effects model that estimated fixed effects of age categories and period as level-1 factors, and random effects of birth cohort as level-2 factors. Results Relative risk of dialysis complications in respondents below the first quartile compared with ones over the fourth quartile was reduced in age categories >60 years. Mean differences in depressive symptoms between respondents below the first quartile and ones over the fourth quartile peaked in the 50- to 59-year-old age group, and were reduced in age groups >60 years. In addition, mean differences varied across periods, widening from 1996 to 2006. There were no significant birth cohort effects on income differences for dialysis complications or depressive symptoms. Conclusion The number of dialysis complications and depressive symptoms in dialysis patients were affected by income differences, and the degree of these differences changed with age category and period. PMID:27471405

  5. Perspiration Functions in Different Ethnic, Age, and Sex Populations: Modification of Sudomotor Function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Murota, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The sudomotor mechanism, wich contributes to tolerating thermal environments, is affected by not only the body temperature, but also sex, ethnicity, exercise training, region, season, and heat adaptation. Aging attenuates the sudomotor function by the decreased peripheral sensitivity to acetylcholine and demyelination of innervating nerves. Women show less sudomotor activity than men. Heat adaptation with sudomotor modification is induced by repetitive physical and/or thermal training. Short-term heat acclimation increases sweat gland activity. Long-term heat acclimation results in a reduction in the sweating response to stimuli. Residents of tropical areas sweat less and more slowly than residents of temperate areas. Short-term heat acclimation enhances the sweating response. Long-term heat acclimation, from seasonal change or migration, diminishes the sweating response. Also, deacclimation can be induced by migration from a tropical area to a temperate area. Body composition, especially brown adipose tissue, and weight affect thermal responses. Further studies should investigate BAT and endocrinal pyrogens as additional factors. PMID:27584970

  6. Grape Powder Improves Age-Related Decline in Mitochondrial and Kidney Functions in Fischer 344 Rats.

    PubMed

    Pokkunuri, Indira; Ali, Quaisar; Asghar, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects and mechanism of grape powder- (GP-) mediated improvement, if any, on aging kidney function. Adult (3-month) and aged (21-month) Fischer 344 rats were treated without (controls) and with GP (1.5% in drinking water) and kidney parameters were measured. Control aged rats showed higher levels of proteinuria and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), which decreased with GP treatment in these rats. Renal protein carbonyls (protein oxidation) and gp (91phox) -NADPH oxidase levels were high in control aged rats, suggesting oxidative stress burden in these rats. GP treatment in aged rats restored these parameters to the levels of adult rats. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate and sodium excretion were low in control aged rats suggesting compromised kidney function, which improved with GP treatment in aged rats. Interestingly, low renal mitochondrial respiration and ATP levels in control aged rats were associated with reduced levels of mitochondrial biogenesis marker MtTFA. Also, Nrf2 proteins levels were reduced in control aged rats. GP treatment increased levels of MtTFA and Nrf2 in aged rats. These results suggest that GP by potentially regulating Nrf2 improves aging mitochondrial and kidney functions. PMID:27528887

  7. Grape Powder Improves Age-Related Decline in Mitochondrial and Kidney Functions in Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Quaisar

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects and mechanism of grape powder- (GP-) mediated improvement, if any, on aging kidney function. Adult (3-month) and aged (21-month) Fischer 344 rats were treated without (controls) and with GP (1.5% in drinking water) and kidney parameters were measured. Control aged rats showed higher levels of proteinuria and urinary kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), which decreased with GP treatment in these rats. Renal protein carbonyls (protein oxidation) and gp91phox-NADPH oxidase levels were high in control aged rats, suggesting oxidative stress burden in these rats. GP treatment in aged rats restored these parameters to the levels of adult rats. Moreover, glomerular filtration rate and sodium excretion were low in control aged rats suggesting compromised kidney function, which improved with GP treatment in aged rats. Interestingly, low renal mitochondrial respiration and ATP levels in control aged rats were associated with reduced levels of mitochondrial biogenesis marker MtTFA. Also, Nrf2 proteins levels were reduced in control aged rats. GP treatment increased levels of MtTFA and Nrf2 in aged rats. These results suggest that GP by potentially regulating Nrf2 improves aging mitochondrial and kidney functions. PMID:27528887

  8. Sociodemographic factors in a pediatric chronic pain clinic: The roles of age, sex and minority status in pain and health characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Subhadra; Taub, Rebecca; Tsao, Jennie CI; Meldrum, Marcia; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about how sociodemographic factors relate to children’s chronic pain. This paper describes the pain, health, and sociodemographic characteristics of a cohort of children presenting to an urban tertiary chronic pain clinic and documents the role of age, sex and minority status on pain-related characteristics. A multidisciplinary, tertiary clinic specializing in pediatric chronic pain. Two hundred and nineteen patients and their parents were given questionnaire packets to fill out prior to their intake appointment which included demographic information, clinical information, Child Health Questionnaire – Parent Report, Functional Disability Index – Parent Report, Child Somatization Index – Parent Report, and a Pain Intensity Scale. Additional clinical information was obtained from patients’ medical records via chart review. This clinical sample exhibited compromised functioning in a number of domains, including school attendance, bodily pain, and health compared to normative data. Patients also exhibited high levels of functional disability. Minority children evidenced decreased sleep, increased somatization, higher levels of functional disability, and increased pain intensity compared to Caucasians. Caucasians were more likely to endorse headaches than minorities, and girls were more likely than boys to present with fibromyalgia. Younger children reported better functioning than did teens. The results indicate that sociodemographic factors are significantly associated with several pain-related characteristics in children with chronic pain. Further research must address potential mechanisms of these relationships and applications for treatment. PMID:21686073

  9. Association analysis of insulin-like growth factor-1 axis parameters with survival and functional status in nonagenarians of the Leiden Longevity Study

    PubMed Central

    Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Beekman, Marian; de Craen, Anton J.M.; Westendorp, Rudi G.J.; van Heemst, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Reduced insulin/insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) signaling has been associated with longevity in various model organisms. However, the role of insulin/IGF-1 signaling in human survival remains controversial. The aim of this study was to test whether circulating IGF-1 axis parameters associate with old age survival and functional status in nonagenarians from the Leiden Longevity Study. This study examined 858 Dutch nonagenarian (males≥89 years; females≥91 years) siblings from 409 families, without selection on health or demographic characteristics. Nonagenarians were divided over sex-specific strata according to their levels of IGF-1, IGF binding protein 3 and IGF-1/IGFBP3 molar ratio. We found that lower IGF-1/IGFBP3 ratios were associated with improved survival: nonagenarians in the quartile of the lowest ratio had a lower estimated hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.73 (0.59 – 0.91) compared to the quartile with the highest ratio (ptrend=0.002). Functional status was assessed by (Instrumental) Activities of Daily Living ((I)ADL) scales. Compared to those in the quartile with the highest IGF-1/IGFBP3 ratio, nonagenarians in the lowest quartile had higher scores for ADL (ptrend=0.001) and IADL (ptrend=0.003). These findings suggest that IGF-1 axis parameters are associated with increased old age survival and better functional status in nonagenarians from the Leiden Longevity Study. PMID:26568155

  10. Serum vitamin A status is associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome among school-age children in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiaoping; Peng, Rong; Cao, Jiaoyang; Kang, Yu; Qu, Ping; Liu, Youxue; Xiao, Xiaoqiu; Li, Tingyu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the association of vitamin A status with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) in school-age children in Chongqing, China. A cross-sectional study was conducted of 1,928 children aged 7~11 years from 5 schools in Chongqing, China. Body height, weight, waist circumference (WC) and blood pressure were measured. Blood glucose, lipids and vitamin A were determined. Overall prevalences for overweight, obesity and MS were 10.1%, 6.7% and 3.5%, respectively. There were 274 (14.2%) marginally vitamin A deficient (MVAD) children and 53 (2.8%) vitamin A deficient (VAD) children, respectively. Serum vitamin A in the obese group was significantly lower than in the overweight and normal weight groups (p<0.001). Body mass index (BMI), WC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and glucose were strongly associated with vitamin A status (p<0.05). In a separate model adjusted for age and sex, compared with normal children, participants with obesity had a significantly higher risk of having vitamin A insufficiency (<=1.05 μmol/L) (OR: 2.37; 95% CI: 1.59, 3.55) (p<0.001), and participants with MS had a 1.99-fold (95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) greater risk of having vitamin A insufficiency (p=0.016), while participants with VAD had significantly higher risk of having MS (OR: 3.82; 95% CI: 1.44, 10.2) (p=0.007). Vitamin A insufficiency among Chongqing urban school-age children was found to be a severe health problem, significantly associated with obesity, hypertriglyceridemia and MS. PMID:27440692

  11. Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections and Nutritional Status in School-age Children from Rural Communities in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, Jose Antonio; Usuanlele, Mary-Theresa; Rueda, Maria Mercedes; Canales, Maritza; Gyorkos, Theresa W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections are endemic in Honduras and efforts are underway to decrease their transmission. However, current evidence is lacking in regards to their prevalence, intensity and their impact on children's health. Objectives To evaluate the prevalence and intensity of STH infections and their association with nutritional status in a sample of Honduran children. Methodology A cross-sectional study was done among school-age children residing in rural communities in Honduras, in 2011. Demographic data was obtained, hemoglobin and protein concentrations were determined in blood samples and STH infections investigated in single-stool samples by Kato-Katz. Anthropometric measurements were taken to calculate height-for-age (HAZ), BMI-for-age (BAZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) to determine stunting, thinness and underweight, respectively. Results Among 320 children studied (48% girls, aged 7–14 years, mean 9.76±1.4) an overall STH prevalence of 72.5% was found. Children >10 years of age were generally more infected than 7–10 year-olds (p = 0.015). Prevalence was 30%, 67% and 16% for Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworms, respectively. Moderate-to-heavy infections as well as polyparasitism were common among the infected children (36% and 44%, respectively). Polyparasitism was four times more likely to occur in children attending schools with absent or annual deworming schedules than in pupils attending schools deworming twice a year (p<0.001). Stunting was observed in 5.6% of children and it was associated with increasing age. Also, 2.2% of studied children were thin, 1.3% underweight and 2.2% had anemia. Moderate-to-heavy infections and polyparasitism were significantly associated with decreased values in WAZ and marginally associated with decreased values in HAZ. Conclusions STH infections remain a public health concern in Honduras and despite current efforts were highly prevalent in the studied community. The role of multiparasite

  12. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84-8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12-8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78-7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83-9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61-9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children. PMID:27495020

  13. Effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children in rural western China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chao; Zhu, Ni; Zeng, Lingxia; Dang, Shaonong; Zhou, Jing; Yan, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prenatal and postnatal malnutrition on the intellectual functioning of early school-aged children. We followed the offspring of women who had participated in a trial of prenatal supplementation with different combinations of micronutrients and who remained resident in the study field. We measured their intellectual functioning using the Wechsler intelligence scale for children (WISC-IV). Height-for-age, weight-for-age, and body mass index (BMI)-for-age were used as anthropometric nutritional status indices. Four of the 5 composite scores derived from the WISC-IV, except for working memory index (WMI), were significantly lower in low birth weight children after adjusting for confounds. All 5 composite scores, including full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ), verbal comprehension index (VCI), WMI, perceptual reasoning index (PRI), and processing speed index (PSI) were significant lower in stunted and underweight children. The differences in the means of WISC-IV test scores were greatest between stunted and nonstunted children. The means for FSIQ, VCI, WMI, PRI, and PSI were as follows: 5.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.84–8.92), 5.08 (95% CI: 1.12–8.41), 4.71 (95% CI: 1.78–7.66), 6.13 (95% CI: 2.83–9.44), and 5.81 (95% CI: 2.61–9.00). These means were lower in stunted children after adjusting for confounds. Our results suggest the important influences of low birth weight and postnatal malnutrition (stunting, low body weight) on intellectual functioning in early school-aged children. PMID:27495020

  14. Systematic biases in functional status assessment of elderly adults: effects of different data sources.

    PubMed

    Rubenstein, L Z; Schairer, C; Wieland, G D; Kane, R

    1984-11-01

    Measuring functional status using specific instruments is an important part of geriatric assessment. These instruments, however, often rely on data sources different from those with which they were originally validated. To study possible biasing effects of different data sources on functional status scores, we examined scores for two widely used instruments (the Lawton Personal Self-Maintenance Scale, PSMS, and Instrumental Activities of Daily Living, IADL, Scale) on a group of hospitalized elderly (n = 61) using three different data sources (the patients themselves, the patients' nurses, and significant others). Analysis showed that PSMS scores derived from patients were significantly higher than scores derived from significant others (p less than .025) and that patient-derived IADL scores were significantly higher than both nurse-derived scores (p less than .001) and significant-other-derived scores (p less than .001). We also compared scores for a group of nursing home patients (n = 68) on the Katz Activities of Daily Living (ADL) Scale, using data obtained from patients and their nurses. Again, the patient-derived scores were significantly higher than those from nurses (p less than .001). We conclude that data sources for determining patient functional ability are not interchangeable and that patients may overstate their functional abilities, whereas significant others may understate them, relative to judgments of skilled nursing personnel. PMID:6436360

  15. Evaluation of sexuality in a Paraguayan mid-aged female urban population using the six-item Female Sexual Function Index.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, S C; Chedraui, P; Pérez-López, F R; Ortiz-Benegas, M E; Palacios-De Franco, Y

    2016-06-01

    Background There are scant data related to sexuality assessed among mid-aged women from Paraguay. Objective To assess sexual function in a sample of mid-aged Paraguayan women. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which 265 urban-living women from Asunción (Paraguay) aged 40-65 years were surveyed with the six-item version of the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI-6) and a questionnaire containing personal and partner data. Results The median age of the sample was 48 years, 48.2% were postmenopausal (median/interquartile range age at menopause 46/13 years), 11.3% used hormone therapy, 37.0% used psychotropic drugs, 44.5% had hypertension, 7.2% diabetes, 46.1% abdominal obesity and 89.4% had a partner (n = 237). Overall, 84.1% (223/265) of surveyed women were sexually active, presenting a median total FSFI-6 score of 23.0, and 25.6% obtained a total score of 19 or less, suggestive of sexual dysfunction (lower sexual function). Upon bivariate analysis, several factors were associated with lower total FSFI-6 scores; however, multiple linear regression analysis found that lower total FSFI-6 scores (worse sexual function) were significantly correlated to the postmenopausal status and having an older partner, whereas coital frequency was positively correlated to higher scores (better sexual function). Conclusion In this pilot sample of urban-living, mid-aged Paraguayan women, as determined with the FSFI-6, lower sexual function was related to menopausal status, coital frequency and partner age. There is a need for more research in this regard in this population. PMID:26940601

  16. The functions of biological diversity in an age of extinction.

    PubMed

    Naeem, Shahid; Duffy, J Emmett; Zavaleta, Erika

    2012-06-15

    Ecosystems worldwide are rapidly losing taxonomic, phylogenetic, genetic, and functional diversity as a result of human appropriation of natural resources, modification of habitats and climate, and the spread of pathogenic, exotic, and domestic plants and animals. Twenty years of intense theoretical and empirical research have shown that such biotic impoverishment can markedly alter the biogeochemical and dynamic properties of ecosystems, but frontiers remain in linking this research to the complexity of wild nature, and in applying it to pressing environmental issues such as food, water, energy, and biosecurity. The question before us is whether these advances can take us beyond merely invoking the precautionary principle of conserving biodiversity to a predictive science that informs practical and specific solutions to mitigate and adapt to its loss. PMID:22700920

  17. Developmental changes in word recognition threshold from two to five years of age in children with different middle ear status.

    PubMed

    Hall, Amanda J; Munro, Kevin J; Heron, Jon

    2007-07-01

    The aims were to: (1) provide word recognition thresholds (WRTs) at 31, 43, and 61 months of age; (2) investigate developmental changes over time; (3) investigate the relationship between OME and WRT, and (4) investigate the relationship between WRT and hearing thresholds. Around 1000 children were tested longitudinally as part of the ALSPAC study, using an adaptive measure of word recognition in quiet. Mean WRTs were 28, 23, and 23 dB (A) at 31, 43, and 61 months, respectively. Normal auditory development is associated with a mean improvement in WRT of 5 dB between age 31 and 61 months. There was a mean increase in WRT of +5 dB and +15 dB when OME was present in one and two ears, respectively. Thus, both unilateral and bilateral OME results in a detrimental effect on hearing ability for speech. Additionally, early and 'persistent' OME is associated with greater disability. However by 61 months, previous OME status was not significant. To our knowledge, this is the largest longitudinal study reporting WRT in preschool children with different middle ear status. PMID:17680467

  18. Association of Age-Related Macular Degeneration with Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzymes Activity and Serum Total Antioxidant Status

    PubMed Central

    Plestina-Borjan, Ivna; Katusic, Damir; Medvidovic-Grubisic, Maria; Supe-Domic, Daniela; Bucan, Kajo; Tandara, Leida; Rogosic, Veljko

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to estimate association of the oxidative stress with the occurrence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The activities of erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT) and additionally serum total antioxidant status (TAS) were used as indicators of the oxidative stress level. 57 AMD patients (32 early and 25 late AMD) and 50 healthy, age and gender matched controls were included. GPx activity (P < 0.001) and serum TAS (P = 0.015) were significantly lower in AMD patients. The difference was not significant for SOD or CAT activities. Significant interaction between GPx and SOD was detected (P = 0.003). At high levels of SOD activity (over 75th percentile), one standard deviation decrease in GPx increases the odds for AMD for six times (OR = 6.22; P < 0.001). ROC analysis revealed that combined values of GPx activity and TAS are significant determinants of AMD status. Accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 75%, 95%, 52%, 69%, and 90%, respectively. The study showed that low GPx activity and TAS are associated with AMD. SOD modulates the association of GPx and AMD. The results suggest that erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity and serum TAS could be promising markers for the prediction of AMD. PMID:25815109

  19. Vagal Recovery From Cognitive Challenge Moderates Age-Related Deficits in Executive Functioning.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Olga V; Kimhy, David; McKinley, Paula S; Burg, Matthew M; Schwartz, Joseph E; Lachman, Margie E; Tun, Patricia A; Ryff, Carol D; Seeman, Teresa E; Sloan, Richard P

    2016-05-01

    Decline in executive functioning (EF) is a hallmark of cognitive aging. We have previously reported that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with better EF. This study examined the association between vagal recovery from cognitive challenge and age-related differences in EF among 817 participants in the Midlife in the U.S. study (aged 35-86). Cardiac vagal control was measured as high-frequency heart rate variability. Vagal recovery moderated the association between age and EF (β = .811, p = .004). Secondary analyses revealed that older participants (aged 65-86) with faster vagal recovery had superior EF compared to their peers who had slower vagal recovery. In contrast, among younger (aged 35-54) and middle-aged (aged 55-64) participants, vagal recovery was not associated with EF. We conclude that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with reduced deficits in EF among older, but not younger individuals. PMID:26303063

  20. Vagal Recovery From Cognitive Challenge Moderates Age-Related Deficits in Executive Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, Olga V.; Kimhy, David; McKinley, Paula S.; Burg, Matthew M.; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Lachman, Margie E.; Tun, Patricia A.; Ryff, Carol D.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Sloan, Richard P.

    2015-01-01

    Decline in executive functioning (EF) is a hallmark of cognitive aging. We have previously reported that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with better EF. This study examined the association between vagal recovery from cognitive challenge and age-related differences in EF among 817 participants in the Midlife in the U.S. study (aged 35–86). Cardiac vagal control was measured as high-frequency heart rate variability. Vagal recovery moderated the association between age and EF (β = .811, p = .004). Secondary analyses revealed that older participants (aged 65–86) with faster vagal recovery had superior EF compared to their peers who had slower vagal recovery. In contrast, among younger (aged 35–54) and middle-aged (aged 55–64) participants, vagal recovery was not associated with EF. We conclude that faster vagal recovery from cognitive challenge is associated with reduced deficits in EF among older, but not younger individuals. PMID:26303063

  1. Gender Disparity in Late-life Cognitive Functioning in India: Findings From the Longitudinal Aging Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. Methods. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. Discussion. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. PMID:24622150

  2. Nutrition and Aging: Assessment and Treatment of Compromised Nutritional Status in Frail Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Jennie L; Dumbrell, Andrea C

    2006-01-01

    Nutrition is an important determinant of health in persons over the age of 65. Malnutrition in the elderly is often underdiagnosed. Careful nutritional assessment is necessary for both the successful diagnosis and development of comprehensive treatment plans for malnutrition in this population. The purpose of this article is to provide clinicians with an educational overview of this essential but often underecognized aspect of geriatric assessment. This article will review some common issues in nutrition for the elderly in both hospital and community settings. The complexity and impact of multiple comorbidities on the successful nutritional assessment of elderly patients is highlighted by using case scenarios to discuss nutritional issues common to elderly patients and nutritional assessment tools. Three case studies provide some context for an overview of these issues, which include the physiology of aging, weight loss, protein undernutrition, impaired cognition, malnutrition during hospitalization, screening procedures, and general dietary recommendations for patients 65 years of age and older. PMID:18047259

  3. Lifecourse socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes: the role of chronic inflammation in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing.

    PubMed

    Stringhini, Silvia; Zaninotto, Paola; Kumari, Meena; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G David

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association between lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of type 2 diabetes at older ages, ascertaining the extent to which adult lifestyle factors and systemic inflammation explain this relationship. Data were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) which, established in 2002, is a representative cohort study of ≥50-year olds individuals living in England. SES indicators were paternal social class, participants' education, participants' wealth, and a lifecourse socioeconomic index. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) and lifestyle factors were measured repeatedly; diabetes incidence (new cases) was monitored over 7.5 years of follow-up. Of the 6218 individuals free from diabetes at baseline (44% women, mean aged 66 years), 423 developed diabetes during follow-up. Relative to the most advantaged people, those in the lowest lifecourse SES group experienced more than double the risk of diabetes (hazard ratio 2.59; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.81-3.71). Lifestyle factors explained 52% (95%CI:30-85) and inflammatory markers 22% (95%CI:13-37) of this gradient. Similar results were apparent with the separate SES indicators. In a general population sample, socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of type 2 diabetes extend to older ages and appear to partially originate from socioeconomic variations in modifiable factors which include lifestyle and inflammation. PMID:27101929

  4. Fasting, but Not Aging, Dramatically Alters the Redox Status of Cysteine Residues on Proteins in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Menger, Katja E.; James, Andrew M.; Cochemé, Helena M.; Harbour, Michael E.; Chouchani, Edward T.; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M.; Partridge, Linda; Murphy, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Altering the redox state of cysteine residues on protein surfaces is an important response to environmental challenges. Although aging and fasting alter many redox processes, the role of cysteine residues is uncertain. To address this, we used a redox proteomic technique, oxidative isotope-coded affinity tags (OxICAT), to assess cysteine-residue redox changes in Drosophila melanogaster during aging and fasting. This approach enabled us to simultaneously identify and quantify the redox state of several hundred cysteine residues in vivo. Cysteine residues within young flies had a bimodal distribution with peaks at ∼10% and ∼85% reversibly oxidized. Surprisingly, these cysteine residues did not become more oxidized with age. In contrast, 24 hr of fasting dramatically oxidized cysteine residues that were reduced under fed conditions while also reducing cysteine residues that were initially oxidized. We conclude that fasting, but not aging, dramatically alters cysteine-residue redox status in D. melanogaster. PMID:26095360

  5. Lifecourse socioeconomic status and type 2 diabetes: the role of chronic inflammation in the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    PubMed Central

    Stringhini, Silvia; Zaninotto, Paola; Kumari, Meena; Kivimäki, Mika; Batty, G. David

    2016-01-01

    We examined the association between lifecourse socioeconomic status (SES) and the risk of type 2 diabetes at older ages, ascertaining the extent to which adult lifestyle factors and systemic inflammation explain this relationship. Data were drawn from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) which, established in 2002, is a representative cohort study of ≥50-year olds individuals living in England. SES indicators were paternal social class, participants’ education, participants’ wealth, and a lifecourse socioeconomic index. Inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and fibrinogen) and lifestyle factors were measured repeatedly; diabetes incidence (new cases) was monitored over 7.5 years of follow-up. Of the 6218 individuals free from diabetes at baseline (44% women, mean aged 66 years), 423 developed diabetes during follow-up. Relative to the most advantaged people, those in the lowest lifecourse SES group experienced more than double the risk of diabetes (hazard ratio 2.59; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.81–3.71). Lifestyle factors explained 52% (95%CI:30–85) and inflammatory markers 22% (95%CI:13–37) of this gradient. Similar results were apparent with the separate SES indicators. In a general population sample, socioeconomic inequalities in the risk of type 2 diabetes extend to older ages and appear to partially originate from socioeconomic variations in modifiable factors which include lifestyle and inflammation. PMID:27101929