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Sample records for age gastric cancer

  1. Gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Douglass, H.O. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer.

  2. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Espejo Romero, H

    1991-01-01

    Gastric cancer, especially adenocarcinoma, is variable in incidence on the world. In this paper, there is a review of the epidemiology and the etiopathogenic factors of the disease: genetics, hereditary, immunologic and environmental and, also, of the so called precursor diseases: atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia, gastric adenoma, gastrectomized patients, pernicious anemia and Menetrier's disease. There is an explanation about the changes of the gastric epithelium related both with the intestinal and diffuse type of adenocarcinoma; the anatomo-pathological notion of macroscopic advanced-Borrmann and early cancer-Japanese classification and the clinical and diagnostic procedures are included with the fundamentals of therapeutic management.

  3. Patients with Old Age or Proximal Tumors Benefit from Metabolic Syndrome in Early Stage Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian-xin; Yu, Hong-mei; Liang, Wei-ping; Jin, Ying; Ren, Chao; He, Ming-ming; Chen, Wei-wei; Luo, Hui-yan; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Li, Yu-hong; Xu, Rui-hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. Methods Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. Results Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P = 0.036). Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P = 0.009 in multivariate analysis) or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P = 0.047 in multivariate analysis). No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P = 0.052 in univariate analysis). Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors. PMID:24599168

  4. Patients with old age or proximal tumors benefit from metabolic syndrome in early stage gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiao-li; Qiu, Miao-zhen; Lin, Huan-xin; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian-xin; Yu, Hong-mei; Liang, Wei-ping; Jin, Ying; Ren, Chao; He, Ming-ming; Chen, Wei-wei; Luo, Hui-yan; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Li, Yu-hong; Xu, Rui-hua

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P=0.036). Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P=0.009 in multivariate analysis) or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P=0.047 in multivariate analysis). No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P=0.052 in univariate analysis). Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors.

  5. Gastric cancer in young people under 30 years of age: worse prognosis, or delay in diagnosis?

    PubMed Central

    López-Basave, Horacio Noé; Morales-Vásquez, Flavia; Ruiz-Molina, Juan Manuel; Ñamendys-Silva, Silvio A; Vela-Sarmiento, Itzel; Ruan, Javier Melchor; Rosciano, Alejandro E Padilla; Calderillo-Ruiz, German; Díaz-Romero, Consuelo; Herrera-Gómez, Angel; Meneses-García, Abelardo A

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease with nonspecific early symptoms. Its incidence and prognosis in young patients has shown considerable variability. Purpose of the study Our objective was to retrospectively study patients from our institution aged <30 years with gastric carcinoma. The study was undertaken to describe the experience of gastric cancer in this population, and to demonstrate its specific clinical and pathological characteristics. Materials and methods We reviewed the cases of histologically confirmed gastric cancer between 1985 and 2006 at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of Mexico (INCan); emphasis in our review was placed on clinical presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic intervention, pathology, and the results. Results Thirty cases of gastric carcinoma were reviewed. The patients’ median age was 27 years (range, 18–30 years) and the male:female ratio was 1:1. Conclusion Gastric cancer exhibits different behavior in patients aged, 30 years, but delay in diagnosis and the tumor’s behavior appear to be the most important factors in prognosis of the disease. PMID:23580357

  6. Gastric microbiome and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Kyle M; Morrow, Casey D; Smith, Phillip D

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the stomach is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The single strongest risk factor for gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastric inflammation. Among persons with H. pylori infection, strain-specific components, host immune responses, and environmental factors influence the risk for gastric disease, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach, although only a small proportion of infected persons develop the malignancy. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have uncovered a complex community of noncultivatable inhabitants of the human stomach. The interaction between these inhabitants, collectively referred to as the gastric microbiota, and H. pylori likely affects gastric immunobiology and possibly the sequelae of H. pylori infection. Thus, characterization of the gastric microbiota in subjects with and without H. pylori infection could provide new insight into gastric homeostasis and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated disease, including gastric cancer.

  7. Gastric Microbiome and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, Kyle M.; Morrow, Casey D.; Smith, Phillip D.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer of the stomach is the fourth most common cancer worldwide. The single strongest risk factor for gastric cancer is Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastric inflammation. Among persons with H. pylori infection, strain-specific components, host immune responses, and environmental factors influence the risk for gastric disease, including adenocarcinoma of the stomach, although only a small proportion of infected persons develop the malignancy. Recent advances in DNA sequencing technology have uncovered a complex community of non-cultivatable inhabitants of the human stomach. The interaction between these inhabitants, collectively referred to as the gastric microbiota, and H. pylori likely impacts gastric immunobiology and possibly the sequelae of H. pylori infection. Thus, characterization of the gastric microbiota in subjects with and without H. pylori infection could provide new insight into gastric homeostasis and the pathogenesis of H. pylori-associated disease, including gastric cancer. PMID:24855010

  8. [Gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Belén Fraile, M; Serra Bartual, M; Segarra Sánchez, J; Richart Rufino, M J

    1991-11-01

    Gastric cancer represents a disorder which incidence has come down last years. Its etiology is unknown, but diet is the principal determinant risk of suffering it. Clinic history is not much useful, because in the early stage symptoms can fail and in the late stage are inespecific. Election diagnosis is endoscopy. Surgery is the only curative treatment. By these features, it would be useful to left under vigilance to: a) patients 40 years older with dispepsia; b) patients following gastric operations; c) patients with disorders presenting aclorhidria. The authors report a clinic case that can be of frequent presentation in primary assistance.

  9. Characteristics and prognosis of gastric cancer in patients aged ≥ 70 years

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yue-Xiang; Deng, Jing-Yu; Guo, Han-Han; Ding, Xue-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Na; Wang, Bao-Gui; Zhang, Li; Liang, Han

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the prognostic value of age for gastric cancer and identify the optimal treatment for elderly gastric cancer patients. METHODS: We enrolled 920 patients with gastric cancer who underwent gastrectomy between January 2003 and December 2007 in our center. Patients were categorized into three groups: younger group (age < 50 years), middle-aged group (50-69 years), and elderly group (≥ 70 years). Clinicopathological features were compared among the three groups and potential prognostic factors were analyzed. The log-rank test was used to assess statistical differences between curves. Independent prognostic factors were identified by the Cox proportional hazards regression model. Stratified analysis was used to investigate the impact of age on survival at each stage. Cancer-specific survival was also compared among the three groups by excluding deaths due to reasons other than gastric cancer. We analyzed the potential prognostic factors for patients aged ≥ 70 years. Finally, the impact of extent of lymphadenectomy and postoperative chemotherapy on survival for each age group was evaluated. RESULTS: In the elderly group, there was a male predominance. At the same time, cancers of the upper third of the stomach, differentiated type, and less-invasive surgery were more common than in the younger or middle-aged groups. Elderly patients were more likely to have advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage and larger tumors, but less likely to have distant metastasis. Although 5-year overall survival (OS) rate specific to gastric cancer was not significantly different among the three groups, elderly patients demonstrated a significantly lower 5-year OS rate than the younger and middle-aged patients (elderly vs middle-aged vs younger patients = 22.0% vs 36.6% vs 38.0%, respectively). In the TNM-stratified analysis, the differences in OS were only observed in patients with II and III tumors. In multivariate analysis, only surgical margin status, pT4, lymph

  10. Differences in the prognosis of early gastric cancer according to sex and age

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Do Dam; Oh, Seong Tae; Yook, Jeong Hwan; Kim, Byung-Sik; Kim, Beom Su

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have compared early gastric cancer (EGC) outcomes according to sex and age. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 2085 patients who underwent curative gastrectomy for EGC between 1989 and 2000. Prognosis and risk factors for nodal involvement were evaluated according to sex and age. Results: Male sex and age were independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) but not relapse-free survival (RFS). In young (⩽55 years) patients, there were no significant differences in RFS and OS between men and women. However, older (>55 years) men had a poorer OS and older women had a poorer RFS. Young female patients had a higher proportion of gastric cancer-related death than young male patients. Female sex was an independent risk factor for nodal involvement in younger patients. Conclusions: Young women with EGC should be more intensively treated and monitored than other patient groups and should not be treated by endoscopic resection. PMID:28203280

  11. Aged black garlic extract induces inhibition of gastric cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Jiao, Fei; Wang, Qin-Wen; Wang, Juan; Yang, Ke; Hu, Rong-Rong; Liu, Han-Chen; Wang, Hong-Yang; Wang, Yi-Shan

    2012-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that garlic extracts possess significant anticancer actions. However, no studies have been reported on the effects of aged black garlic extracts (ABGE) on gastric cancer in vitro or in vivo. To examine the potential action of ABGE against gastric cancer, the present study evaluated its effect on the inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in SGC-7901 human gastric cancer cells. Additionally, we performed an in vivo study by inoculating the murine foregastric carcinoma cell line in Kunming mice and treating them with various doses of ABGE (0, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) for 2 weeks. Dose-dependent apoptosis was detected in ABGE-treated cells in in vitro studies. In tumor-bearing mice, significant antitumor effects of ABGE were observed, such as growth inhibition of inoculated tumors. Further investigation of serum superoxide dismutases, glutathione peroxidase, interleukin-2 and the increased indices of spleen and thymus indicated that the anticancer action of ABGE may be partly due to its antioxidant and immunomodulative effects.

  12. Epigenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2012-06-01

    Cancer is considered one of the major health issues worldwide, and gastric cancer accounted for 8% of total cases and 10% of total deaths in 2008. Gastric cancer is considered an age-related disease, and the total number of newly diagnosed cases has been increasing as a result of the higher life expectancy. Therefore, the basic mechanisms underlying gastric tumorigenesis is worth investigation. This review provides an overview of the epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling complex and miRNA, involved in gastric cancer. As the studies in gastric cancer continue, the mapping of an epigenome code is not far for this disease. In conclusion, an epigenetic therapy might appear in the not too distant future.

  13. Gastric cancer: Basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Molina-Castro, Silvia; Pereira-Marques, Joana; Figueiredo, Ceu; Machado, Jose C; Varon, Christine

    2017-09-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most incident and deadliest malignancies in the world. Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease and the end point of a long and multistep process, which results from the stepwise accumulation of numerous (epi)genetic alterations, leading to dysregulation of oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways. Gastric cancer stem cells have emerged as fundamental players in cancer development and as contributors to gastric cancer heterogeneity. For this special issue, we will report last year's update on the gastric cancer molecular classification, and in particular address the gastric cancer groups who could benefit from immune checkpoint therapy. We will also review the latest advances on gastric cancer stem cells, their properties as gastric cancer markers and therapeutic targets, and associated signaling pathways. The understanding of the molecular basis underlying gastric cancer heterogeneity and of the role played by gastric cancer stem cells in cancer development and heterogeneity is of major significance, not only for identifying novel targets for cancer prevention and treatment, but also for clinical management and patient stratification for targeted therapies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Lung, gastric and colorectal cancer mortality by occupation and industry among working-aged men in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Prieto-Merino, David; Smith, Derek R.

    2017-01-01

    We examined occupational and industrial differences in lung, gastric, and colorectal cancer risk among Japanese men of working age (25–64 years) using the 2010 Japanese national survey data for occupation and industry-specific death rates. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the age-adjusted incident rate ratios by lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers, with manufacturing used as the referent occupation or industry. Unemployed Japanese men and those in manufacturing had an 8–11-fold increased risk of lung, gastric and colorectal cancer. The highest mortality rates for lung and colorectal cancer by occupation were “administrative and managerial” (by occupation) and “mining” (by industry). For gastric cancer, the highest mortality rate was “agriculture” (by occupation) and “mining” (by industry). By occupation; Japanese men in service occupations, those in administrative and managerial positions, those in agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and those in professional and engineering categories had higher relative mortality risks for lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers. By industry; mining, electricity and gas, fisheries, and agriculture and forestry had the higher mortality risks for those cancers. Unemployed men had higher mortality rates than men in any occupation and industry for all three cancers. Overall, this study suggests that for Japanese men, occupations and industries may be a key social determinant of health. PMID:28230191

  15. Lung, gastric and colorectal cancer mortality by occupation and industry among working-aged men in Japan.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Hisashi; Wada, Koji; Prieto-Merino, David; Smith, Derek R

    2017-02-23

    We examined occupational and industrial differences in lung, gastric, and colorectal cancer risk among Japanese men of working age (25-64 years) using the 2010 Japanese national survey data for occupation and industry-specific death rates. Poisson regression models were used to estimate the age-adjusted incident rate ratios by lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers, with manufacturing used as the referent occupation or industry. Unemployed Japanese men and those in manufacturing had an 8-11-fold increased risk of lung, gastric and colorectal cancer. The highest mortality rates for lung and colorectal cancer by occupation were "administrative and managerial" (by occupation) and "mining" (by industry). For gastric cancer, the highest mortality rate was "agriculture" (by occupation) and "mining" (by industry). By occupation; Japanese men in service occupations, those in administrative and managerial positions, those in agriculture, forestry and fisheries, and those in professional and engineering categories had higher relative mortality risks for lung, gastric, and colorectal cancers. By industry; mining, electricity and gas, fisheries, and agriculture and forestry had the higher mortality risks for those cancers. Unemployed men had higher mortality rates than men in any occupation and industry for all three cancers. Overall, this study suggests that for Japanese men, occupations and industries may be a key social determinant of health.

  16. Treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Orditura, Michele; Galizia, Gennaro; Sforza, Vincenzo; Gambardella, Valentina; Fabozzi, Alessio; Laterza, Maria Maddalena; Andreozzi, Francesca; Ventriglia, Jole; Savastano, Beatrice; Mabilia, Andrea; Lieto, Eva; Ciardiello, Fortunato; De Vita, Ferdinando

    2014-01-01

    The authors focused on the current surgical treatment of resectable gastric cancer, and significance of peri- and post-operative chemo or chemoradiation. Gastric cancer is the 4th most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery remains the only curative therapy, while perioperative and adjuvant chemotherapy, as well as chemoradiation, can improve outcome of resectable gastric cancer with extended lymph node dissection. More than half of radically resected gastric cancer patients relapse locally or with distant metastases, or receive the diagnosis of gastric cancer when tumor is disseminated; therefore, median survival rarely exceeds 12 mo, and 5-years survival is less than 10%. Cisplatin and fluoropyrimidine-based chemotherapy, with addition of trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 positive patients, is the widely used treatment in stage IV patients fit for chemotherapy. Recent evidence supports the use of second-line chemotherapy after progression in patients with good performance status PMID:24587643

  17. Obesity and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Jun; Zhou, Yongning; Qiao, Liang

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is an important public health problem worldwide. It increases the risk of many chronic diseases such as diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Meanwhile, obesity is a major risk factor for several types of cancer including gastric cancer. Possible mechanisms linking obesity with gastric cancer may include obesity associated gastro-oesophageal reflux, insulin resistance, altered levels of adiponectin, leptin, ghrelin, and an abnormally increased blood level of insulin-like growth factor (IGF). Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-recognized risk factor for peptic ulcer and gastric cancer. Recent studies have revealed an increased prevalence of H. pylori infection in obese patients, providing another clue for the increased incidence of gastric cancer in obese population. If this connection can be confirmed in animal models and a large cohort of patients, then eradicating H. pylori together with life style modification in obese individuals may help prevent the development of gastric cancer in the increasingly obese population.

  18. Genetics of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Strand, Matthew S; Lockhart, Albert Craig; Fields, Ryan C

    2017-04-01

    Gastric cancer represents a major cause of cancer mortality worldwide despite a declining incidence. New molecular classification schemes developed from genomic and molecular analyses of gastric cancer have provided a framework for understanding this heterogenous disease, and early findings suggest these classifications will be relevant for designing and implementing new targeted therapies. The success of targeted therapy and immunotherapy in breast cancer and melanoma, respectively, has not been duplicated in gastric cancer, but trastuzumab and ramucirumab have demonstrated efficacy in select populations. New markers that predict therapeutic response are needed to improve patient selection for both targeted and immunotherapies.

  19. Gastrin and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Waldum, Helge L.; Sagatun, Liv; Mjønes, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer although occurring in reduced frequency is still an important disease, partly because of the bad prognosis when occurring in western countries. This decline in occurrence may mainly be due to the reduced prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, which is the most important cause of gastric cancer. There exist many different pathological classifications of gastric carcinomas, but the most useful seems to be the one by Lauren into intestinal and diffuse types since these types seldom transform into the other and also have different epidemiology. During the nearly 30 years that have passed since the groundbreaking description of Hp as the cause of gastritis and gastric cancer, a continuous search for the mechanism by which Hp infection causes gastric cancer has been done. Interestingly, it is mainly atrophic gastritis of the oxyntic mucosa that predisposes to gastric cancer possibly by inducing hypoacidity and hypergastrinemia. There are many arguments in favor of an important role of gastrin and its target cell, the enterochromaffin-like cell, in gastric carcinogenesis. The role of gastrin in gastric carcinogenesis implies caution in the long-term treatment with inhibitors of gastric acid secretion inducing secondary hypergastrinemia, in a common disease like gastroesophageal reflux disease. PMID:28144230

  20. Surgery for gastric cancer patients of age 85 and older: Multicenter survey

    PubMed Central

    Konishi, Hirotaka; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Itoh, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Kenichiro; Kakihara, Naoki; Takemura, Manabu; Okugawa, Kaori; Uchiyama, Kiyoshi; Nakata, Masashi; Nishi, Hiroshi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Komatsu, Shuhei; Okamoto, Kazuma; Otsuji, Eigo

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the surgical therapies for gastric cancer (GC) patients of age 85 or older in a multicenter survey. METHODS Therapeutic opportunities for elderly GC patients have expanded in conjunction with extended life expectancy. However, the number of cases encountered in a single institution is usually very small and surgical therapies for elderly GC patients have not yet been standardized completely. In the present study, a total of 134 GC patients of age 85 or older who underwent surgery in 9 related facilities were retrospectively investigated. The relationships between surgical therapies and clinicopathological or prognostic features were analyzed. RESULTS Eighty-nine of the patients (66%) presented with a comorbidity, and 26 (19% overall) presented with more than two comorbidities. Radical lymphadenectomy was performed in 59 patients (44%), and no patient received pre- or post-operative chemotherapy. Forty of the patients (30%) experienced perioperative complications, but no surgical or perioperative mortality occurred. Laparoscopic surgery was performed in only 12 of the patients (9.0%). Univariate and multivariate analyses of the 113 patients who underwent R0 or R1 resection identified the factors of pT3/4 and limited lymphadenectomy as predictive of worse prognosis (HR = 4.68, P = 0.02 and HR =2.19, P = 0.05, respectively). Non-cancer-specific death was more common in cStage I patients than in cStage II or III patients. Limited lymphadenectomy correlated with worse cancer-specific survival (P = 0.01), particularly in cStage II patients (P < 0.01). There were no relationships between limited lymphadenectomy and any comorbidities, except for cerebrovascular disease (P = 0.07). CONCLUSION Non-cancer-specific death was not negligible, particularly in cStage I, and gastrectomy with radical lymphadenectomy appears to be an effective treatment for cStage II elderly GC patients. PMID:28275301

  1. Dermatoglyphs and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zivanović-Posilović, Gordana; Milicić, Jasna; Bozicević, Dubravko

    2003-06-01

    Gastric cancer is very common malignant disease, etiology of which is still unknown. Some studies consider that it is caused by a joint activity of both genetic and environmental factors. Digito-palmar dermatoglyphs were already used to determine hereditary base of some malignant diseases (breast, lung and colorectal cancer) and it was the reason for investigations of the correlation of their quantity features at patients with gastric cancer (36 males and 32 females) and the control groups of phenotypically healthy persons (50 males and 50 females). By performing statistical data processing of the multivariate and univariate analysis, as well as of discriminant ones, it was possible to prove the existence of heterogeneity between the investigated groups. Higher incidence of gastric cancer and the blood group A could be confirmed, as well. From the obtained findings can be concluded, that the results of quantitative analysis of digitopalmar dermatoglyphs affirm the existence of genetic predisposition for development of gastric cancer.

  2. Current issues in gastric cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Patru, C L; Surlin, V; Georgescu, I; Patru, Emilia

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer, one of the most common malignant tumors of digestive tract continues to be a major health problem by frequency, aggressiveness and low rate of cure in symptomatic stage. Although its incidence is decreasing (especially in the West), globally the gastric cancer is ranked fourth in incidence among cancers at various sites. Despite these developments, the gastric cancer mortality, overall declining globally, is high. especially in the West where even if diagnosed fewer cases of gastric cancer, TNM stages are advanced and have a poor prognosis. In contrast, in Japan, where the incidence is still high, the percentage of cases diagnosed at the stage of "early gastric cancer" has greatly increased, thus improving prognosis. Gastric neoplasia affects more men, age range 50-70 years, disadvantaged social classes and black race. In Romania the gastric cancer incidence is increasing over recent years, presenting variations across the country being more common in men compared with women, reaching a peak of incidence around age 60. Gastric cancer mortality in the world places Romania among the countries with average mortality. Gastric cancer prognosis remains extremely reserved, in close correlation with tumor stage at diagnosis, surgical treatment being the only possibility to provide improved survival, especially in the early stages. Improvement of survival rate in recent years is due to increased gastric resectability result of an earlier diagnosis, a more complex treatment and a closer monitoring of the population at risk.

  3. Helicobacter pylori and early gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Craanen, M E; Blok, P; Dekker, W; Tytgat, G N

    1994-01-01

    The relation between Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia, and early gastric cancer was studied by examining gastrectomy specimens from 31 intestinal type and 22 diffuse type carcinomas. A total of 298 patients with antral gastritis were used as controls. Atrophic changes and intestinal metaplasia were significantly more common in intestinal type early gastric cancer compared with diffuse type early gastric cancer (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). H pylori was found in 61.3% of intestinal type early gastric cancer and in 54.5% of diffuse type early gastric cancer (NS). The age adjusted prevalence of intestinal metaplasia in the patients with antral gastritis was higher in H pylori positive patients in all age groups studied. Comparing gastritis patients with patients with intestinal type early gastric cancer showed the age adjusted prevalence of intestinal metaplasia to be significantly higher in the patients with early gastric cancer in all age groups studied. In conclusion, H pylori is associated with both types of early gastric carcinoma. Intestinal metaplasia formation seems to be a multifactorial process in which H pylori may play a part. These findings suggest that gastric cancer may be included in the spectrum of H pylori associated diseases, although many questions about causality remain to be answered. PMID:7959189

  4. Occupation and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Raj, A; Mayberry, J; Podas, T

    2003-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. There are several risk factors, with occupation emerging as one of these. There is considerable evidence that occupations in coal and tin mining, metal processing, particularly steel and iron, and rubber manufacturing industries lead to an increased risk of gastric cancer. Other "dusty" occupations—for example, wood processing, or work in high temperature environments have also been implicated but the evidence is not strong. The mechanism of pathogenesis of gastric cancer is unclear and the identification of causative agents can be difficult. Dust is thought to be a contributor to the pathological process, but well known carcinogens such as N-nitroso compounds have been detected in some environments. Further research on responsible agents is necessary and screening for detection of precursor gastric cancer lesions at the workplace merits consideration. PMID:12782770

  5. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Gastric Cancer Patients Aged over 80 Years: A Retrospective Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho; Han, Seungbong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims The average human life expectancy is increasing worldwide, thus the proportion of elderly gastric cancer patients is also increasing. In this case-control study, we investigated the clinical and oncologic outcomes of gastric cancer in patients over 80 years old. Methods From January 2004 to December 2010, 291 patients aged over 80 years old (case group) were diagnosed and treated with gastric cancer at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. From the same period, 291 patients aged 18 to 80 years old were selected as the control group. The clinical findings and clinical outcomes of gastric cancer were retrospectively reviewed and compared between the two groups. Results There were significant differences in the overall 5-year survival rate between the case and control groups (30.9% vs. 73.8%, respectively; P<0.001). In patients who received the curative treatment, overall 3- and 5-year survival rates showed 74.3% and 57.9% in case group and 91.6% and 86.5% in the control group. When analysis was confined to resectable elderly patients with a favorable performance, the curative resection group showed significantly better overall 3- and 5-year survival rates than the conservative treatment group (73.7% and 58.8% vs. 29.8% and 0%, respectively). Conclusions Although elderly gastric cancer patients show an advanced stage at diagnosis and poor prognosis compared with non-elderly patients, elderly patients with good performance could benefit from curative resection. Thus, the clinical decision whether to undergo curative resection or conservative management should be made on an individualized basis. PMID:27942044

  6. Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Gastric Cancer Patients Aged over 80 Years: A Retrospective Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Jung; Ahn, Ji Yong; Jung, Hwoon-Yong; Lee, Jeong Hoon; Jung, Kee Wook; Kim, Do Hoon; Choi, Kee Don; Song, Ho June; Lee, Gin Hyug; Kim, Jin-Ho; Han, Seungbong

    2016-01-01

    The average human life expectancy is increasing worldwide, thus the proportion of elderly gastric cancer patients is also increasing. In this case-control study, we investigated the clinical and oncologic outcomes of gastric cancer in patients over 80 years old. From January 2004 to December 2010, 291 patients aged over 80 years old (case group) were diagnosed and treated with gastric cancer at Asan Medical Center, Seoul, Korea. From the same period, 291 patients aged 18 to 80 years old were selected as the control group. The clinical findings and clinical outcomes of gastric cancer were retrospectively reviewed and compared between the two groups. There were significant differences in the overall 5-year survival rate between the case and control groups (30.9% vs. 73.8%, respectively; P<0.001). In patients who received the curative treatment, overall 3- and 5-year survival rates showed 74.3% and 57.9% in case group and 91.6% and 86.5% in the control group. When analysis was confined to resectable elderly patients with a favorable performance, the curative resection group showed significantly better overall 3- and 5-year survival rates than the conservative treatment group (73.7% and 58.8% vs. 29.8% and 0%, respectively). Although elderly gastric cancer patients show an advanced stage at diagnosis and poor prognosis compared with non-elderly patients, elderly patients with good performance could benefit from curative resection. Thus, the clinical decision whether to undergo curative resection or conservative management should be made on an individualized basis.

  7. Immunotherapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Matsueda, Satoko; Graham, David Y

    2014-02-21

    Gastric cancer is the second most common of cancer-related deaths worldwide. In the majority of cases gastric cancer is advanced at diagnosis and although medical and surgical treatments have improved, survival rates remain poor. Cancer immunotherapy has emerged as a powerful and promising clinical approach for treatment of cancer and has shown major success in breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma. Here, we provide an overview of concepts of modern cancer immunotherapy including the theory, current approaches, remaining hurdles to be overcome, and the future prospect of cancer immunotherapy in the treatment of gastric cancer. Adaptive cell therapies, cancer vaccines, gene therapies, monoclonal antibody therapies have all been used with some initial successes in gastric cancer. However, to date the results in gastric cancer have been disappointing as current approaches often do not stimulate immunity efficiently allowing tumors continue to grow despite the presence of a measurable immune response. Here, we discuss the identification of targets for immunotherapy and the role of biomarkers in prospectively identifying appropriate subjects or immunotherapy. We also discuss the molecular mechanisms by which tumor cells escape host immunosurveillance and produce an immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. We show how advances have provided tools for overcoming the mechanisms of immunosuppression including the use of monoclonal antibodies to block negative regulators normally expressed on the surface of T cells which limit activation and proliferation of cytotoxic T cells. Immunotherapy has greatly improved and is becoming an important factor in such fields as medical care and welfare for human being. Progress has been rapid ensuring that the future of immunotherapy for gastric cancer is bright.

  8. Gastric cancer and trastuzumab: first biologic therapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gunturu, Krishna S.; Woo, Yanghee; Beaubier, Nike; Remotti, Helen E.

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains difficult to cure and has a poor overall prognosis. Chemotherapy and multimodality therapy has shown some benefit in the treatment of gastric cancer. Current therapies for gastric cancer have their limitations; thus, we are in need of newer treatment options including targeted therapies. Here, we review the biologic therapy with trastuzumab in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)+ gastric cancer. PMID:23450234

  9. Familial Gastric Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W.; Duda, Dan G.; Hong, Theodore S.; Kwak, Eunice L.; Mullen, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Implications for Practice: Although the majority of gastric adenocarcinomas are sporadic with many of those related to chronic Helicobacter pylori infection, approximately 10% of the cases show familial aggregation, and a specific hereditary cause is determined in 1%–3% cases. This review describes the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. Ultimately, a better understanding of the biology of these conditions should allow early identification and intervention as part of a multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, and pathologists. PMID:26424758

  10. Age-Specific Gastric Cancer Risk Indicated by the Combination of Helicobacter pylori Sero-Status and Serum Pepsinogen Levels

    PubMed Central

    Eybpoosh, Sana; Talebkhan, Yeganeh; Saberi, Samaneh; Esmaeili, Maryam; Oghalaie, Akbar; Ebrahimzadeh, Fatemeh; Karimi, Toktam; Abdirad, Afshin; Nahvijou, Azin; Mohagheghi, Mohammad Ali; Eshagh Hosseini, Mahmoud; Mohammadi, Marjan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Serologic screening of gastric cancer (GC) by serum pepsinogens (sPG) levels and Helicobacter pylori (Hp) sero-status, though highly informative, has provided heterogeneous results. Here, we have evaluated the modifying effects of demographic factors on the risk impact of Hp sero-status/sPG levels in gastric cancer, with particular emphasis on age. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 1341 individuals (GC = 578, healthy = 763), who were stratified into two age groups: 35-59 years (middle-aged, n = 830) and ≥ 60 years (60 years-plus, n = 511). Demographic factors and serological states (Hp sero-staus and sPG levels) were recorded by subject interview and serum ELISAs, respectively. Covariate-specific odds ratios were calculated by multivariable logistic regression. Results: Hp infection was consistently associated with increased sPGI and sPGII levels in the 60 year-plus, but not the middle-aged group. The joint examination of the variable states of the three serum biomarkers (Hp serology, sPGI, and sPGI/II ratio), in the 60 year-plus age group, demonstrated a stepwise escalation of risk from the single (sPGIlow; OR = 2.6), to double (sPGIlow/sPGI/IIlow; OR = 3.55, and Hppositive/sPGIlow; OR = 5.0) and ultimately triple (Hppositive/PGIlow/PGI/IIlow; OR = 10.48) positive states, in reference to the triple negatives. However, this pattern was not exhibited in the middle-aged subjects. Conclusion: Age was clearly identified as a modifying factor on the risk projection of the combined states of Hp serology and sPG levels in gastric cancer screening, reflected by the augmented (~10.5 fold) risk of GC in the triple positive (Hppositive/sPGIlow/sPGI/IIlow) 60 year-plus subjects, which was not evident in the middle-aged group. PMID:26117138

  11. Nutrition and gastric cancer in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yalçin, Suayib

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains to be one of leading causes of cancer deaths despite worldwide decreasing incidence. In Turkey gastric cancer incidence is 9.6/100,000 in men and 5.7/100,000 in females. Gastric cancer is also one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in Turkey with a crude death rate of 5.84/100,000 in men, 3.7/100,000 in women. The mean age of patients diagnosed with gastric cancer is 56 years in Turkey. The relatively high rate of gastric cancer in Turkey is mainly due to dietary factors. The traditional food preservation such as salt curing or smoking and lack of refrigeration of food play a significant role in gastric cancer development in the country. There are etiological and epidemiological differences among geographical regions in Turkey. Gastric cancer is seen much more often in the central, northeastern, and eastern part of Turkey. Increased HP pylori infection is also another important reason for increased incidence of gastric cancer in some parts of the country.

  12. Gastric metastasis of bilateral breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Belaïd, Asma; Mghirbi, Fahmi; Béhi, Khalil; Doghri, Raoudha; Benna, Farouk

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The most frequent metastatic sites are lung, bone, liver and brain. On the other hand, gastric metastases are rare. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer (SBBC) occurs rarely. Lobular carcinoma is the histological type most often associated with bilateral breast carcinomas and gastric metastases. We made a retrospective study including four patients followed in the Salah Azaiez Institute, for a bilateral breast cancer with gastric metastases. We analyzed the epidemiological, anatomoclinical and therapeutic particularities of this rare entity. Symptoms were unspecific. The diagnosis of gastric metastasis of the SBBC was confirmed by a histopathological examination of an endoscopic biopsy. The median age was 46.2 years (range, 36–51 years) and the median time until the gastric involvement was 19 months (range, 0–41 months). None of patients had a surgical treatment for the gastric location. All Patients received at least one line of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Median survival following the detection of gastric involvement was 22 months (range, 1–56 months). Gastric metastases from breast cancer are rare and frequently associated with other distant metastasis. Symptoms are unspecific and endoscopy may not be contributive. Therefore, gastric involvement is underestimated. Lobular infiltrating carcinoma (LIC) is the most histological type incriminated in its occurrence. The supply of immunohistochemistry is crucial to distinguish between primary or metastatic gastric cancer. PMID:28280631

  13. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients. PMID:25630323

  14. Clinical epidemiology of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ang, Tiing Leong; Fock, Kwong Ming

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality and the fourth most common cancer globally. There are, however, distinct differences in incidence rates in different geographic regions. While the incidence rate of gastric cancer has been falling, that of gastric cardia cancers is reportedly on the rise in some regions. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor of non-cardia gastric cancer, and data has emerged concerning the role of H. pylori eradication for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Dietary, lifestyle and metabolic factors have also been implicated. Although addressing these other factors may contribute to health, the actual impact in terms of cancer prevention is unclear. Once irreversible histological changes have occurred, endoscopic surveillance would be necessary. A molecular classification system offers hope for molecularly tailored, personalised therapies for gastric cancer, which may improve the prognosis for patients.

  15. Gastric cancer: basic aspects.

    PubMed

    Resende, Carlos; Thiel, Alexandra; Machado, José C; Ristimäki, Ari

    2011-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a world health burden, ranging as the second cause of cancer death worldwide. Etiologically, GC arises not only from the combined effects of environmental factors and susceptible genetic variants but also from the accumulation of genetic and epigenetic alterations. In the last years, molecular oncobiology studies brought to light a number of genes that are implicated in gastric carcinogenesis. This review is intended to focus on the recently described basic aspects that play key roles in the process of gastric carcinogenesis. Genetic variants of the genes IL-10, IL-17, MUC1, MUC6, DNMT3B, SMAD4, and SERPINE1 have been reported to modify the risk of developing GC. Several genes have been newly associated with gastric carcinogenesis, both through oncogenic activation (GSK3β, CD133, DSC2, P-Cadherin, CDH17, CD168, CD44, metalloproteinases MMP7 and MMP11, and a subset of miRNAs) and through tumor suppressor gene inactivation mechanisms (TFF1, PDX1, BCL2L10, XRCC, psiTPTE-HERV, HAI-2, GRIK2, and RUNX3). It also addressed the role of the inflammatory mediator cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in the process of gastric carcinogenesis and its importance as a potential molecular target for therapy.

  16. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer in very elderly patients age 85 or older

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Ko; Hikichi, Takuto; Nakamura, Jun; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Waragai, Yuichi; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Konno, Naoki; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2017-01-01

    Background and study aims The safety and efficacy of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for early gastric cancer (EGC) in very elderly patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of ESD for EGC in patients age 85 years and older. Patients and methods Patients who underwent ESD for EGC between September 2003 and April 2015 were divided into 3 groups: the very elderly (≥ 85 years; 43 patients), the elderly (65 – 84 years; 511 patients), and the non-elderly ( ≤ 64 years; 161 patients). Adverse events (AEs) were used as the primary endpoint to assess the safety of ESD, and the ESD treatment outcomes (i. e., en bloc resection rate, complete en bloc resection rate, and curative resection rate) and the overall survival rate after ESD were the secondary endpoints. These parameters were retrospectively evaluated in the 3 groups. Results There were no significant differences in AEs (non-elderly, elderly, and very elderly: 7.3, 9.5, and 12.5 %, respectively, P = 0.491) or in the en bloc resection and complete en bloc resection rates among the three groups. However, there was a significant difference in the curative resection rates (non-elderly, elderly, and very elderly: 91.5, 84.1, and 77.1 %, respectively, P = 0.014). Regarding overall survival, there was a significant difference among the three groups (1-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival rates: non-elderly: 98.6, 90.2, and 74.7 %; elderly: 97.2, 86.2, and 61.9 %; and very elderly: 92.7, 66.8, and 34.4 %, respectively, P = 0.001). Moreover, the overall survival rate in the very elderly patients with cardiovascular disease was significantly lower than that in the very elderly patients without cardiovascular disease (P < 0.001). Conclusions ESD is an acceptable treatment for EGC in patients 85 years of age or older in terms of safety. However, the overall survival after ESD in the very elderly patients with cardiovascular

  17. Age trend of the male to female sex ratio in surgical gastric cancer patients at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Junxiu; He, Yongjun; Guo, Zhen

    2014-08-21

    In previous reports concerning the association between sex disparity and age, gastric cancer (GC) patients were simply divided into younger and older groups by age. We analyzed the age trend of the male to female sex ratio (MFSR) in GC based on patient sequential age in order to observe the changing process of MFSR with age. One thousand seven hundred fifty-one surgical gastric adenocarcinoma patients aged 26 to 85 years were investigated between January 1996 and December 2010. The patients were grouped by age intervals of 5 years. The Cochran-Armitage trend test was used to determine how the MFSR changed with age. The median age of the 1,751 patients with GC was 60 years (26 to 85 years). There were 1,334 male and 417 female patients (MFSR was 3.20). Cochran-Armitage trend test analysis showed that total MFSR increased significantly with age (Z = 5.964, P < 0.0001). Further studies on age groups of 26 to 60 years and 61 to 85 years were conducted. The trend test showed that MFSR increased significantly with age from 26 to 60 years (Z = 7.433, P < 0.0001). However, MFSR did not increase in ages 61 to 85 years (Z = -0.607, P = 0.544). MFSR in GC presented an increasing trend until 60 years of age. The male GC patients showed an increasing tendency, and female GC patients showed a decreasing tendency with age. This trend reached a plateau phase after 60 years of age.

  18. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  19. Gastric cancer and family history

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates worldwide. Identifying individuals at high risk is important for surveillance and prevention of gastric cancer. Having first-degree relatives diagnosed with gastric cancer is a strong and consistent risk factor for gastric cancer, but the pathogenic mechanisms behind this familial aggregation are unclear. Against this background, we reviewed the risk factors for gastric cancer in those with a first-degree relative with gastric cancer, and the possible causes for familial clustering of gastric cancer including bacterial factors, inherited genetic susceptibility, environmental factors or a combination thereof. Among individuals with a family history, current or past Helicobacter pylori infection, having two or more first-degree affected relatives or female gender was associated with an increased risk of developing gastric cancer. To date, no specific single nucleotide polymorphism has been shown to be associated with familial clustering of gastric cancer. H. pylori eradication is the most important strategy for preventing gastric cancer in first-degree relatives of gastric cancer patients, particularly those in their 20s and 30s. Early H. pylori eradication could prevent the progression to intestinal metaplasia and reduce the synergistic effect on gastric carcinogenesis in individuals with both H. pylori infection and a family history. Endoscopic surveillance is also expected to benefit individuals with a family history. Further large-scale, prospective studies are warranted to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and optimal time point for endoscopy in this population. Moreover, genome-wide association studies that incorporate environmental and dietary factors on a ‘big data’ basis will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:27809451

  20. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Home Health Conditions hereditary diffuse gastric cancer hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close ... Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an inherited disorder ...

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastric Adenoma and Gastric Cancer in Colorectal Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims. To evaluate the incidence of gastric adenoma and gastric cancer in colorectal cancer patients, as well as the clinicopathological features that affect their incidence. Methods. Among patients who underwent surgery after being diagnosed with colorectal cancer between January 2004 and December 2013 at Chungnam National University Hospital, 142 patients who underwent follow-up upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were assigned to the patient group. The control group included 426 subjects randomly selected. The patient group was subdivided into two: one that developed gastric adenoma or cancer and one that did not. Clinicopathological characteristics were compared between these groups. Results. In total, 35 (24.6%) colorectal cancer patients developed a gastric adenoma or gastric cancer, which was higher than the number in the control group (20 [4.7%] patients; p < 0.001). Age, alcohol history, and differentiation of colorectal cancer were associated with higher risks of gastric adenoma or gastric cancer, with odds ratios of 1.062, 6.506, and 5.901, respectively. Conclusions. In colorectal cancer patients, screening with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is important, even if no lesions are noted in the upper gastrointestinal tract at colorectal cancer diagnosis. Endoscopic screening is particularly important with increasing age, history of alcohol consumption, and poor cancer differentiation. PMID:28105047

  2. Gastric Cancers Missed During Endoscopy in England.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, Georgina; Groene, Oliver; Riley, Stuart; Hardwick, Richard; Crosby, Tom; Hoare, Jonathan; Hanna, George B; Greenaway, Kimberley; Cromwell, David A

    2015-07-01

    Single-center studies have estimated that 4.6% to 25.8% of gastric cancers are missed at endoscopy. We performed a population-based study to make a more precise estimate of factors associated with missed lesions in England. We performed a retrospective population-based observational cohort study of 2727 patients diagnosed with gastric cancer from April 2011 through March 2012 in England, using linked records from 3 national data sets. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients who had undergone endoscopy in the 3 to 36 months before a diagnosis of gastric cancer. We determined this proportion for the entire cohort and for subgroups. Of the 2727 patients in the cohort, 8.3% (95% confidence interval, 7.2%-9.3%) underwent endoscopic evaluation in the 3 to 36 months before their diagnosis of gastric cancer. An endoscopy within 3 to 36 months of diagnosis was associated with a diagnosis of early stage cancer (stages 0 or 1, 11.5%; stage 2, 7.9%; stages 3 or 4, 6.9%; P = .01 for stage 0 or 1 vs stage 2 or greater), younger age at diagnosis (<55 y, 13.3% vs ≥55 y, 7.8%; P = .03), and female sex (10% of women vs 7.3% of men; P = .01). Gastric ulcers were detected in 15% of endoscopies performed at any time in the 3 years before cancer diagnosis, and in 64% of endoscopies performed 3 to 6 months before a diagnosis of gastric cancer. Based on a retrospective analysis of medical records in England, in 8.3% of patients with gastric cancer, their cancer was missed at endoscopy within the 3 previous years. A previous endoscopy detected benign gastric ulcers more frequently than any other lesion in patients who later were diagnosed with gastric cancer. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Current Perspectives on Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Marqués-Lespier, Juan M; González-Pons, María; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is third leading cause of cancer-related death. Only 28.3% of new GC cases survive more than 5 years. Although incidence has declined in the United States, an increase is estimated for 2016. Risk factors include sex (risk is higher in men), Helicobacter pylori infection, heredity, and lifestyle. GC is usually diagnosed between the ages of 60-80 years. Prognosis of GC is largely dependent on the tumor stage at diagnosis and classification as intestinal or diffuse type; diffuse-type GC has worse prognosis. Chemoprevention has been shown to decrease risk, but is currently not used clinically. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [GASTRIC CANCER IN YOUNG PATIENTS

    PubMed

    Quispe, Dolly; Ruiz, Eloy; Celis, Juan; Berrospi, Francisco; Payet, Eduardo

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In order to determine a the clinicopatological features in young patients with gastric cancer and compare them with aged patients.PATIENTS AND METHODS: For this study, we selected the clinical charts from the total of patients with histological proved diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma admitted at the INEN between 1980 and 1996 whose age was less than 31 year (Young group, n =92). As a comparison group (Average Group) we chose of the same universe, a random sample of 184 patients between 50 to 70 years of age. Epidemiological, clinical and histological features, operability and resecability, TNM stage, type of surgery and follow-up of both groups were analyzed.RESULTS: In the Young Group in compared with Average Group, females were more frequent (73.9% vs. 50.5% p<0.001); mucocelular type (70% vs. 31.0%, p<0.001) and undifferentiated carcinoma (75% vs. 32.6%, p>0.001). The mean survival time in the Young Group was 74.9 months and in the Average Group was 36.03 months (p=0.26), there were no significant differences in the survival between resecability and sex (p=0.10 and p=0.41).CONCLUSION: The females and undifferentiated carcinoma was the most frequent features in the young patients with gastric cancer. The survival in this group is better than the average group but this was a no significant difference because the diagnosis was made in late stages.

  5. [Hereditary gastric and pancreatic cancer].

    PubMed

    Langner, C

    2017-05-01

    Most cases of gastric and pancreatic cancer are sporadic, but familial clustering can be observed in approximately 10% of cases. Hereditary gastric cancer accounts for a very low percentage of cases (1-3%) and two syndromes have been characterized: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) and gastric adenocarcinoma and proximal polyposis of the stomach (GAPPS). Gastric and pancreatic cancer can develop in the setting of other hereditary cancer syndromes, such as hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome (HBOC), Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), or various hamartomatous polyposis syndromes, including juvenile polyposis and Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis carry an increased risk of cancer (40-55%).

  6. Usefulness of Photodynamic Diagnosis and Therapy using Talaporfin Sodium for an Advanced-aged Patient with Inoperable Gastric Cancer (a secondary publication)

    PubMed Central

    Oinuma, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: In Japan the rise in the average life expectancy has caused an increase in the proportion of the population who are classed as geriatric. Accordingly, the number of elderly people being treated for cancer is increasing concomitantly. However, with the increase in age, the numbers of prior complications also increase. This is especially so in the advanced-aged patients, defined in Japan as those over the age of 85. Such complications may be too high risk for radical surgery and a less invasive treatment is warranted. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a noninvasive treatment approved by the Japanese National Health Insurance for the treatment of early stage superficial type esophageal and gastric cancers, early stage uterine cervical cancers and dysplasia, and early and advanced lung cancer. We report herein on the efficacy of palliative PDT using talaporfin sodium (Laserphyrin®) for a case of inoperable gastric cancer. Material and methods: The patient was an 87-year-old-man, a diabetic with histories of diabetic nephropathy, cerebral infarction and myocardial infarction. This patient was first diagnosed as having gastric cancer in 2007 but surgery and chemotherapy were contraindicated due to his poor physical status and poor renal function, respectively, owing to the anticipated side effects. The patient was referred to our institution after hearing of PDT in 2009. He was treated with 1 course of porfimer sodium PDT and 3 courses of talaporfin sodium PDT with photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) during the period from September, 2009 to June, 2011. Results: The massive gastric cancer located in the cardia was successfully treated with 4 PDT sessions without any serious complications; therefore the patient was able to orally ingest food until his death due to natural causes other than the cancer, in October, 2011. Conclusion: Talaporfin sodium PDT is safe and effective treatment for advanced-aged patients suffering from inoperable gastric cancer. PMID

  7. Therapeutic strategies in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wong, J E L; Ito, Y; Correa, P; Peeters, K C M J; van de Velde, C J H; Sasako, M; Macdonald, J

    2003-12-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be a major public health problem and is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. These statistics led the American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) International Affairs Committee to choose gastric cancer as the topic for the International Symposium held at the 2003 ASCO Annual Meeting. Dr Yoshiaki Ito will discuss the role of RUNX3 in the genesis and progression of human gastric cancer. Dr Pelayo Correa will present a compelling argument on the use of Helicobacter pylori therapy and antioxidants in selected high-risk population as chemoprevention strategies for gastric cancer. The controversy regarding the role of extended lymph node dissection for gastric cancer will be discussed by Dr Cornelis J.H. Van De Velde and Dr Mitsuru Sasako. Dr Van De Velde will present the European surgical approach to gastric cancer, and Dr Sasako will review the Japanese experience. The issues of whether certain patients benefit from more aggressive surgical dissection and the potential risks compared with benefits will also be discussed. Dr John Macdonald will discuss the role of adjuvant chemotherapy and adjuvant chemoradiotherapy in resected gastric cancer, as well as the role of chemotherapy in metastatic gastric cancer.

  8. Obesity at adolescence and gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Song, Minkyo; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Yang, Jae Jeong; Sung, Hyuna; Lee, Yunhee; Lee, Hwi-Won; Kong, Seong-Ho; Lee, Hyuk-Joon; Kim, Hyung-Ho; Kim, Sang Gyun; Yang, Han-Kwang; Kang, Daehee

    2015-02-01

    During the last few decades, prevalence of obesity has risen rapidly worldwide, markedly in children and adolescents. Epidemiologic studies have associated obesity to several cancer types, yet little is known for the effect of early life exposure to obesity on cancer risk in later life, especially in gastric cancer. Thus, the present study aimed to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) of adolescence and the risk of gastric cancer. A multicenter case-control study was conducted between 2010 and 2014 in Korea with 1,492 incident gastric cancer cases and 1,492 controls matched by age and sex. The BMI at age 18 was calculated by using weight and height from questionnaire. The association with the risk of gastric cancer was evaluated using odds ratios by logistic regression model adjusted for potential confounding factors. Compared with BMI 21.75 kg/m(2), higher BMI at age 18 was associated with higher risk of gastric cancer showing a nonlinear, threshold effect. Statistically significant odds ratio was observed in men with BMI higher than 25.3 kg/m(2) (OR 1.13, 95 % CI 1.01-1.27) and in women with BMI 25.3 kg/m(2) and above (OR 1.25, 95 % CI 1.01-1.55). Similar to some other cancer types, overweight or obese in adolescence was found to be associated with the increased risk of gastric cancer. The results imply for stratified approach of tactics in prevention of gastric cancer in different population.

  9. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  10. Gene methylation in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yiping; Dang, Siwen; Hou, Peng

    2013-09-23

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and remains the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Over 70% of new cases and deaths occur in developing countries. In the early years of the molecular biology revolution, cancer research mainly focuses on genetic alterations, including gastric cancer. Epigenetic mechanisms are essential for normal development and maintenance of tissue-specific gene expression patterns in mammals. Disruption of epigenetic processes can lead to altered gene function and malignant cellular transformation. Recent advancements in the rapidly evolving field of cancer epigenetics have shown extensive reprogramming of every component of the epigenetic machinery in cancer, including DNA methylation, histone modifications, nucleosome positioning, noncoding RNAs, and microRNAs. Aberrant DNA methylation in the promoter regions of gene, which leads to inactivation of tumor suppressor and other cancer-related genes in cancer cells, is the most well-defined epigenetic hallmark in gastric cancer. The advantages of gene methylation as a target for detection and diagnosis of cancer in biopsy specimens and non-invasive body fluids such as serum and gastric washes have led to many studies of application in gastric cancer. This review focuses on the most common and important phenomenon of epigenetics, DNA methylation, in gastric cancer and illustrates the impact epigenetics has had on this field. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Screening of gastric cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    In North-Eastern Asian countries, where incidence and mortality of gastric cancer remain very high, population-based gastric cancer screenings have been conducted under governmental subsidy in Japan and Korea. Reduction of gastric cancer mortality by the screening was documented in Japan, but the Japanese gastric cancer screening with the X-ray photofluorography is criticized for its high cost and a low uptake rate. Although the Korean program seems to achieve a high-rate of uptake with increasing use of endoscopy, the work load is substantial. In the meantime, more attention in the world turns to primary prevention through eradication of Helicobacter pylori. Indeed, fairly large-scale studies to examine the feasibility of mass-eradication to prevent gastric cancer are underway in China and Taiwan. In the future, gastric cancer screening should incorporate 'screen to treat' of H. pylori infection at younger age followed by endoscopic surveillance for subjects at risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic and radiographic screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okada, Katsuo; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic screening, we undertook a population-based cohort study in which both radiographic and endoscopic screenings for gastric cancer have been carried out. The subjects were selected from the participants of gastric cancer screening in two cities in Japan, Tottori and Yonago, from 2007 to 2008. The subjects were defined as participants aged 40-79 years who had no gastric cancer screening in the previous year. Follow-up of mortality was continued from the date of the first screening to the date of death or up to December 31, 2013. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the relative risk (RR) of gastric cancer incidence, gastric cancer death, all cancer deaths except gastric cancer death, and all-causes death except gastric cancer death. The number of subjects selected for endoscopic screening was 9950 and that for radiographic screening was 4324. The subjects screened by endoscopy showed a 67% reduction of gastric cancer compared with the subjects screened by radiography (adjusted RR by sex, age group, and resident city = 0.327; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.118-0.908). The adjusted RR of endoscopic screening was 0.968 (95%CI, 0.675-1.387) for all cancer deaths except gastric cancer death, and 0.929 (95%CI, 0.740-1.168) for all-causes death except gastric cancer death. This study indicates that endoscopic screening can reduce gastric cancer mortality by 67% compared with radiographic screening. This is consistent with previous studies showing that endoscopic screening reduces gastric cancer mortality.

  13. [Gastric cancer invading the muscularis propia].

    PubMed

    Ruiz, E; Quispe, D; Celis, J; Berrospi, F; Payet, E

    2001-01-01

    Determine the clinical features and the survival of patients with gastric cancer invading the muscularis propia. We reviewed the clinical records of the patients with gastric cancer invading the muscularis propia, that had undergone surgical treatment at the National Cancer Institute (INEN) between 1950 and 1999. We considered age, sex, location of the tumor, regional lymph node metastases (N), distant metastases (M), TNM stage and survival. 202 patients had gastric cancer invading the muscularis propia, the mean age was 60.03 years, 105 (52%) were females, in 69% the neoplasm was in the antrum and in 22% in the body. We found regional lymph node metastases in 48% and distant metastases in 1%; 52.1% was in the IB TNM stage and 3.1% in the IV. The five year survival rate using Kaplan Meier was 66%, patients with N0, N1, N2 and N3 had 78%, 70%, 25% and 0% respectively.

  14. Inflammation, atrophy, and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fox, James G.; Wang, Timothy C.

    2006-01-01

    The association between chronic inflammation and cancer is now well established. This association has recently received renewed interest with the recognition that microbial pathogens can be responsible for the chronic inflammation observed in many cancers, particularly those originating in the gastrointestinal system. A prime example is Helicobacter pylori, which infects 50% of the world’s population and is now known to be responsible for inducing chronic gastric inflammation that progresses to atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and gastric cancer. This Review provides an overview of recent progress in elucidating the bacterial properties responsible for colonization of the stomach, persistence in the stomach, and triggering of inflammation, as well as the host factors that have a role in determining whether gastritis progresses to gastric cancer. We also discuss how the increased understanding of the relationship between inflammation and gastric cancer still leaves many questions unanswered regarding recommendations for prevention and treatment. PMID:17200707

  15. Clinical outcomes and prognostic factors in gastric cancer patients aged ≥85 years undergoing endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Masau; Oda, Ichiro; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Abe, Seiichiro; Nonaka, Satoru; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Taniguchi, Hirokazu; Sekine, Shigeki; Saito, Yutaka

    2017-05-01

    Although the number of gastric cancer patients aged ≥85 years indicated for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has increased, little is known about the outcomes and prognostic factors. This study aimed to investigate the clinical outcomes and prognostic factors for overall survival (OS) of patients aged ≥85 years who underwent ESD for gastric cancer. We retrospectively reviewed 108 patients aged ≥85 years with 149 gastric cancers treated by ESD between 1999 and 2014 at our institution. The clinical outcomes and prognosis were evaluated. Furthermore, the relationships between patient and lesion characteristics with OS were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and a Cox proportional hazards model. All patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status (PS) of 0 to 1. En bloc, R0, and curative resections were achieved in 98.0%, 91.3%, and 72.7%, respectively, without severe adverse events requiring surgery. During a median follow-up period of 40.2 months (range, 1.8-108.7 months), 23 patients died, including 2 of gastric cancer. The 3-year (54.3% vs 95.9%) and 5-year (54.3% vs 76.3%) OS rates were significantly lower in patients with a low (<44.6) as opposed to a higher (≥44.6) prognostic nutritional index (PNI) (P < .001). The PNI was independently prognostic of OS (hazard ratio, 7.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.2-22.9; P = .001). ESD is feasible for gastric cancer patients aged ≥85 years with good PS. However, low PNI was found to be prognostic of reduced OS, indicating the need to evaluate the PNI in determining whether to perform ESD. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    Overview Gastric cancer has been traditionally defined by the Correa paradigm as a progression of sequential pathological events that begins with chronic inflammation [1]. Infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the typical explanation for why the stomach becomes chronically inflamed. Acute gastric inflammation then leads to chronic gastritis, atrophy particularly of acid-secreting parietal cells, metaplasia due to mucous neck cell expansion from trans-differentiation of zymogenic cells to dysplasia and eventually carcinoma [2]. The chapter contains an overview of gastric anatomy and physiology to set the stage for signaling pathways that play a role in gastric tumorigenesis. Finally, the major known mouse models of gastric transformation are critiqued in terms of the rationale behind their generation and contribution to our understanding of human cancer subtypes. PMID:27573785

  17. Acetaldehyde and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Salaspuro, Mikko

    2011-04-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene polymorphisms associating with enhanced acetaldehyde exposure and markedly increased cancer risk in alcohol drinkers provide undisputable evidence for acetaldehyde being a local carcinogen not only in esophageal but also in gastric cancer. Accordingly, acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages has recently been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. Microbes are responsible for the bulk of acetaldehyde production from ethanol both in saliva and Helicobacter pylori-infected and achlorhydric stomach. Acetaldehyde is the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke and it readily dissolves into saliva during smoking. Many foodstuffs and 'non-alcoholic' beverages are important but unrecognized sources of local acetaldehyde exposure. The cumulative cancer risk associated with increasing acetaldehyde exposure suggests the need for worldwide screening of the acetaldehyde levels of alcoholic beverages and as well of the ethanol and acetaldehyde of food produced by fermentation. The generally regarded as safe status of acetaldehyde should be re-evaluated. The as low as reasonably achievable principle should be applied to the acetaldehyde of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and food. Risk groups with ADH-and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms, H. pylori infection or achlorhydric atrophic gastritis, or both, should be screened and educated in this health issue. L-cysteine formulations binding carcinogenic acetaldehyde locally in the stomach provide new means for intervention studies.

  18. Combined cholecystectomy in gastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shuo-Lun; Yang, Jyh-Chin; Wu, Jin-Ming; Lai, I-Rue; Chen, Chiung-Nien; Lin, Ming-Tsan; Lai, Hong-Shiee

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have described the risk factors of gallstone formation in gastric cancer patients after gastrectomy, but few studies focus on the management of asymptomatic gallstones. Our goal is to examine the rationale of simultaneous cholecystectomy during gastric cancer surgery, and influence of surgical mortality, morbidity and overall survival after combined cholecystectomy and gastrectomy. We retrospectively reviewed 445 gastric cancer patients and the gallbladders evaluated by abdominal ultrasound or computed tomography preoperatively and postoperatively. Clinicopathologic factors, including surgical morbidity, mortality and overall survival of combined surgery, were compared between patients receiving gastrectomy with simultaneous cholecystectomy and patients receiving gastrectomy only. We also evaluated the risk factors of gallstone formation after gastrectomy and the probability of subsequent cholecystectomy after gastrectomy in gastric cancer patients with or without asymptomatic gallstones. Of 445 gastric cancer patients, 52 (11.7%) patients had asymptomatic gallstones upon diagnosis of gastric cancer. Among patients with healthy gallbladders, 15.2% developed gallstones after gastrectomy. Men and older patients (age over 60) had significantly higher risk of gallstone formation. Rate of subsequent cholecystectomy in patients with and without preoperative asymptomatic gallstones was 30.8% and 4.5%, respectively (p = 0.005). The rates of mortality and morbidity were not significantly different between combined surgery (3.4%, 24.2%) and gastrectomy only (3.1%, 22%). There was also no significant difference in 5-year survival between combined surgery (61%) and gastrectomy only (63%) groups. Combined cholecystectomy for asymptomatic gallstone in gastric cancer surgery may be considered. It was not associated with increased surgical morbidity or mortality, and had no significant effect on overall survival. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published

  19. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  20. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do.

  1. [Cancer of the gastric stump].

    PubMed

    Rojas Bravo, F; Montero, L

    1992-01-01

    627 cases of gastric cancer treated surgically during the last 5 years, at the Hospital Nacional "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" from Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social (Lima-Perú) were revised. 4 of the patients had been operated before of hemigastrectomy or antrectomy with pyloroplasty for peptic ulcer. The time between the first operation and diagnosis of cancer of the gastric stump was more than 20 years. 3 of these cases were able to be resected. The international incidence of cancer in the gastric stump is 1.1% to 9.2% according to different authors. The risk is higher after 15 years. In the pathogenesis are advocated the lower gastric acidity, biliary reflux, the presence of bacteria, the formation of nitrosamines, intestinal metaplasia, etc. Is necessary to perform periodic endoscopic survey in patients who were treated surgically of peptic ulcer with antrectomy or hemigastrectomy with more than 15 years of evolution.

  2. Endoscopic gastric atrophy is strongly associated with gastric cancer development after Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Osamu; Yamaji, Yutaka; Yoshida, Shuntaro; Matsumoto, Shuhei; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Kanazawa, Takamitsu; Hata, Keisuke

    2017-05-01

    Risk factors for gastric cancer during continuous infection with Helicobacter pylori have been well documented; however, little has been reported on the risk factors for primary gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication. We conducted a retrospective, endoscopy-based, long-term, large-cohort study to clarify the risk factors for gastric cancer following H. pylori eradication. Patients who achieved successful H. pylori eradication and periodically underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy surveillance thereafter at Toyoshima Endoscopy Clinic were enrolled. The primary endpoint was the development of gastric cancer. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox's proportional hazards models. Gastric cancer developed in 15 of 1232 patients. The cumulative incidence rates were 1.0 % at 2 years, 2.6 % at 5 years, and 6.8 % at 10 years. Histology showed that all gastric cancers (17 lesions) in the 15 patients were of the intestinal type, within the mucosal layer, and <20 mm in diameter. Based on univariate analysis, older age and higher endoscopic grade of gastric atrophy were significantly associated with gastric cancer development after eradication of H. pylori, and gastric ulcers were marginally associated. Multivariate analysis identified higher grade of gastric atrophy (hazard ratio 1.77; 95 % confidence interval 1.12-2.78; P = 0.01) as the only independently associated parameter. Endoscopic gastric atrophy is a major risk factor for gastric cancer development after H. pylori eradication. Further long-term studies are required to determine whether H. pylori eradication leads to regression of H. pylori-related gastritis and reduces the risk of gastric cancer.

  3. Treatment of resectable gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dikken, Johan L.; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Coit, Daniel G.; Shah, Manish A.; Verheij, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    Stomach cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, despite its declining overall incidence. Although there are differences in incidence, etiology and pathological factors, most studies do not separately analyze cardia and noncardia gastric cancer. Surgery is the only potentially curative treatment for advanced, resectable gastric cancer, but locoregional relapse rate is high with a consequently poor prognosis. To improve survival, several preoperative and postoperative treatment strategies have been investigated. Whereas perioperative chemotherapy and postoperative chemoradiation (CRT) are considered standard therapy in the Western world, in Asia postoperative monochemotherapy with S-1 is often used. Several other therapeutic options, although generally not accepted as standard treatment, are postoperative combination chemotherapy, hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy and preoperative radiotherapy and CRT. Postoperative combination chemotherapy does show a statistically significant but clinically equivocal survival advantage in several meta-analyses. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is mainly performed in Asia and is associated with a higher postoperative complication rate. Based on the currently available data, the use of postoperative radiotherapy alone and the use of intraoperative radiotherapy should not be advised in the treatment of resectable gastric cancer. Western randomized trials on gastric cancer are often hampered by slow or incomplete accrual. Reduction of toxicity for preoperative and especially postoperative treatment is essential for the ongoing improvement of gastric cancer care. PMID:22282708

  4. Gastric cancer in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, F; Buiatti, E; Palli, D

    1991-01-01

    Although Gastric Cancer (GC) death rates are decreasing worldwide, in high risk areas GC is still a major public health problem. Italy is one of the European countries with the highest mortality rates for GC (males: 17.3; females: 8.2 x 100,000 inhabitants in 1987) which represents the third cause of death due to cancer in 1987, accounting for over 14,000 deaths per year (10% of cancer deaths). Reasons for the geographic variability in GC occurrence within the country are reviewed, discussing the results of two recent analytical epidemiological studies carried out in Italy. These large case-control studies focused on dietary factors, involving high and low-risk areas for GC (Florence, Siena, Forlì, Imola, Cremona, Genoa, Cagliari, and Milan). Low socio-economic status, family history of GC, residence in rural areas were associated to GC risk, while migration from southern areas and body mass index were inversely related to GC. Consumption of traditional soups, meat, salted and dried fish, cold cuts and seasoned cheeses, as well as the intake of animal proteins and nitrites were related to an increased GC risk. On the contrary consumption of fresh fruit, citrus fruit, raw vegetables, spices, garlic and olive oil, and vitamin C, E and beta-carotene intake were found to be protective factors. Among diet-related factors, preference for salty foods and frequent broiling were positively related to GC, while the longstanding availbility of a refrigerator or freezer and the habits of consuming frozen foods were associated with decreased GC risk. These results are discussed in detail, considering the main hypotheses on GC carcinogenesis.

  5. Does bariatric surgery decrease gastric cancer risk?

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Pablo; Padilla, David; Villarejo, Pedro; Menéndez, Jose M; Lora, David

    2012-01-01

    In the attempt to establish the different incidence between cancer in anatomically whole stomachs and cancer in patients who have undergone a surgical procedure for morbid obesity, a review on the epidemiology of bariatric surgery and stomach cancer and a correlation with the global incidence of stomach cancer (comparing it with the median age of patients who developed neoplasms after bariatric surgery) have been conducted. This was a descriptive study of the gastric neoplasms located at the gastric pouch, bypassed stomach or in the esophagogastric junction, following bariatric surgery described in the medical literature. Twenty-one cases of gastric neoplasm located at the gastric pouch, in the bypassed stomach or in the esophagogastric junction were described after bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery seems to produce a decrease in the incidence of cancer when comparing obese patients who were operated and obese patients who have not, so additional studies are needed to compare the cancer incidence between the general population and patients undergoing bariatric surgery. New studies will determine if it is necessary to focus on the early detection of pathological processes at the excluded digestive tract.

  6. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-06-14

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  7. Familial Clustering of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yoon Jin; Kim, Nayoung; Jang, Woncheol; Seo, Bochang; Oh, Sooyeon; Shin, Cheol Min; Lee, Dong Ho; Jung, Hyun Chae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This comprehensive cross-sectional study aimed to identify factors contributing to familial aggregation of gastric cancer (GC). A total of 1058 GC patients and 1268 controls were analyzed separately according to the presence or absence of a first-degree relative of GC (GC-relative). Logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, residence during childhood, smoking, alcohol intake, monthly income, spicy food ingestion, Helicobacter pylori status and host cytokine polymorphisms was performed. Cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) positivity was a distinctive risk factor for GC in the family history (FH)-positive group (odds ratio [OR], 2.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.42–4.00), while current/ex-smoker, moderate to strong spicy food ingestion, and non-B blood types were more closely associated with GC in the FH-negative group. Among the FH-positive group, alcohol consumption showed a synergistic carcinogenic effect in the at least 2 GC-relatives group compared to the 1 GC-relative group (1.71 vs. 9.58, P for interaction = 0.026), and this was dose-dependent. In the subjects with ≥2 GC-relatives, TGFB1-509T/T was a risk factor for GC (OR 23.74; 95% CI 1.37–410.91), as were rural residency in childhood, alcohol consumption, spicy food ingestion, and cagA positivity. These results suggest that subjects with FH may be a heterogeneous group in terms of gastric cancer susceptibility. Especially, subjects with ≥2 GC-relatives should undergo risk stratification including TGFB1-509T/T and alcohol consumption. PMID:27196462

  8. Recapitulating Human Gastric Cancer Pathogenesis: Experimental Models of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; El Zaatari, Mohamad; Merchant, Juanita L

    2016-01-01

    This review focuses on the various experimental models to study gastric cancer pathogenesis, with the role of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) used as the major examples. We review differences in human stomach anatomy compared to the stomachs of the experimental models, including the mouse and invertebrate models such as Drosophila and C. elegans. The contribution of major signaling pathways, e.g., Notch, Hedgehog, AKT/PI3K is discussed in the context of their potential contribution to foregut tumorigenesis. We critically examine the rationale behind specific GEMMs, chemical carcinogens, dietary promoters, Helicobacter infection, and direct mutagenesis of relevant oncogenes and tumor suppressor that have been developed to study gastric cancer pathogenesis. Despite species differences, more efficient and effective models to test specific genes and pathways disrupted in human gastric carcinogenesis have yet to emerge. As we better understand these species differences, "humanized" versions of mouse models will more closely approximate human gastric cancer pathogenesis. Towards that end, epigenetic marks on chromatin, the gut microbiota, and ways of manipulating the immune system will likely move center stage, permitting greater overlap between rodent and human cancer phenotypes thus providing a unified progression model.

  9. Pembrolizumab, Combination Chemotherapy, and Radiation Therapy Before Surgery in Treating Adult Patients With Locally Advanced Gastroesophageal Junction or Gastric Cardia Cancer That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-30

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Gastric Cardia Adenocarcinoma; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer

  10. Trends in oral cavity, pharyngeal, oesophageal and gastric cancer mortality rates in Spain, 1952-2006: an age-period-cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Seoane-Mato, Daniel; Aragonés, Nuria; Ferreras, Eva; García-Pérez, Javier; Cervantes-Amat, Marta; Fernández-Navarro, Pablo; Pastor-Barriuso, Roberto; López-Abente, Gonzalo

    2014-04-11

    Although oral cavity, pharyngeal, oesophageal and gastric cancers share some risk factors, no comparative analysis of mortality rate trends in these illnesses has been undertaken in Spain. This study aimed to evaluate the independent effects of age, death period and birth cohort on the mortality rates of these tumours. Specific and age-adjusted mortality rates by tumour and sex were analysed. Age-period-cohort log-linear models were fitted separately for each tumour and sex, and segmented regression models were used to detect changes in period- and cohort-effect curvatures. Among men, the period-effect curvatures for oral cavity/pharyngeal and oesophageal cancers displayed a mortality trend that rose until 1995 and then declined. Among women, oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer mortality increased throughout the study period whereas oesophageal cancer mortality decreased after 1970. Stomach cancer mortality decreased in both sexes from 1965 onwards. Lastly, the cohort-effect curvature showed a certain degree of similarity for all three tumours in both sexes, which was greater among oral cavity, pharyngeal and oesophageal cancers, with a change point in evidence, after which risk of death increased in cohorts born from the 1910-1920s onwards and decreased among the 1950-1960 cohorts and successive generations. This latter feature was likewise observed for stomach cancer. While the similarities of the cohort effects in oral cavity/pharyngeal, oesophageal and gastric tumours support the implication of shared risk factors, the more marked changes in cohort-effect curvature for oral cavity/pharyngeal and oesophageal cancer could be due to the greater influence of some risk factors in their aetiology, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. The increase in oral cavity/pharyngeal cancer mortality in women deserves further study.

  11. Overdiagnosis of gastric cancer by endoscopic screening

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer screening using endoscopy has recently spread in Eastern Asian countries showing increasing evidence of its effectiveness. However, despite the benefits of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer, its major harms include infection, complications, false-negative results, false-positive results, and overdiagnosis. The most serious harm of endoscopic screening is overdiagnosis and this can occur in any cancer screening programs. Overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of cancers that would never have been found if there is no cancer screening. Overdiagnosis has been estimated from randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and modeling. It can be calculated on the basis of a comparison of the incidence of cancer between screened and unscreened individuals after the follow-up. Although the estimation method for overdiagnosis has not yet been standardized, estimation of overdiagnosis is needed in endoscopic screening for gastric cancer. To minimize overdiagnosis, the target age group and screening interval should be appropriately defined. Moreover, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully considered to effectively introduce endoscopic screening in communities. Further research regarding overdiagnosis is warranted when evaluating the effectiveness of endoscopic screening. PMID:28250897

  12. Overdiagnosis of gastric cancer by endoscopic screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2017-02-16

    Gastric cancer screening using endoscopy has recently spread in Eastern Asian countries showing increasing evidence of its effectiveness. However, despite the benefits of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer, its major harms include infection, complications, false-negative results, false-positive results, and overdiagnosis. The most serious harm of endoscopic screening is overdiagnosis and this can occur in any cancer screening programs. Overdiagnosis is defined as the detection of cancers that would never have been found if there is no cancer screening. Overdiagnosis has been estimated from randomized controlled trials, observational studies, and modeling. It can be calculated on the basis of a comparison of the incidence of cancer between screened and unscreened individuals after the follow-up. Although the estimation method for overdiagnosis has not yet been standardized, estimation of overdiagnosis is needed in endoscopic screening for gastric cancer. To minimize overdiagnosis, the target age group and screening interval should be appropriately defined. Moreover, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully considered to effectively introduce endoscopic screening in communities. Further research regarding overdiagnosis is warranted when evaluating the effectiveness of endoscopic screening.

  13. Etiology and Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Xiao Jiao; Lin, Jia Cheng; Tu, Shui Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous malignant disease associated with environmental and genetic predisposing factors. While gastric cancer incidence and mortality fell greatly globally over the past decades, it remains the fourth cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Thus, prevention of gastric cancer is still a major strategy for improvement of gastric cancer prognosis. Summary Helicobacter pylori infection has been demonstrated to be a major risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Unhealthy diet and lifestyle, including high-salt food, smoking and drinking, are able to induce genotypic and phenotypic transformation of gastric epithelial cells. Gene mutations (such as E-cadherin) in stomach epithelial cells are major genetic causes for gastric cancer. The eradication of H. pylori has been demonstrated to be an effective approach for primary prevention of gastric cancer. Increased intake of a diet rich in vegetables and fresh fruits as well as smoking cessation have been shown to reduce the incidence of gastric cancer. The secondary prevention strategy is to screen premalignant gastric lesions by endoscopy. Biomarker tests are also reliable methods to identify gastric precancerous lesions. Endoscopy screening is still the gold standard for diagnosis of gastric cancer. Key Message H. pylori infection, a diet rich in salted and/or smoked food and red meat, as well as gene mutations are major risk factors for the development of gastric cancer. Practical Implications The eradication of H. pylori is a major primary preventive strategy of gastric cancer. A healthy lifestyle, including increased intake of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables, reduced intake of salted and smoked food and red meat, a reduction of alcohol intake as well as smoking cessation will be effective approaches for the prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:27722154

  14. Biomarkers of Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Cara L; Torres, Javier; Solnick, Jay V

    2013-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori-associated gastric cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and is predicted to become even more common in developing countries as the population ages. Since gastric cancer develops slowly over years to decades, and typically progresses though a series of well-defined histologic stages, cancer biomarkers have potential to identify asymptomatic individuals in whom surgery might be curative, or even those for whom antibiotics to eradicate H. pylori could prevent neoplastic transformation. Here we describe some of the challenges of biomarker discovery, summarize current approaches to biomarkers of gastric cancer, and explore some recent novel strategies. PMID:23851317

  15. Familial gastric cancer - clinical management.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Rebecca C; Caldas, Carlos

    2006-01-01

    The clinical management of familial gastric cancer is the same as that for sporadic gastric cancer at the current time. As the causative mutations for these cases are identified this should lead to the development of specific treatments which target the molecular abnormality. The only germline mutations identified so far occur within the E-cadherin gene (CDHI) and they account for approximately 30% of familial gastric cancer cases. When index patients fulfilling the clinical criteria for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer syndrome have a CDHI mutation identified then genetic testing of asymptomatic relatives should be considered. The clinical sequelae of testing positive for such a mutation are profound and therefore it is essential that counselling is given prior to genetic testing. The management options are surveillance endoscopy and prophylactic gastrectomy. In this chapter the practicalities of genetic testing are discussed as well as the pros and cons of the two management options. It is essential that experience of these rare families is pooled so that surveillance and treatment can be optimised in the future.

  16. Pathogenetic mechanisms in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jing; Qu, Yi-Ping; Hou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is a major public health issue as the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent advances have improved our understanding of its molecular pathogenesis, as best exemplified by elucidating the fundamental role of several major signaling pathways and related molecular derangements. Central to these mechanisms are the genetic and epigenetic alterations in these signaling pathways, such as gene mutations, copy number variants, aberrant gene methylation and histone modification, nucleosome positioning, and microRNAs. Some of these genetic/epigenetic alterations represent effective diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets for GC. This information has now opened unprecedented opportunities for better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of gastric carcinogenesis and the development of novel therapeutic strategies for this cancer. The pathogenetic mechanisms of GC are the focus of this review. PMID:25320518

  17. [Prognostic factors for gastric cancer without lymph node involvement].

    PubMed

    Tapia, Oscar; Villaseca, Miguel; Bellolio, Enrique; Araya, Juan Carlos; Roa, Juan Carlos

    2011-04-01

    The absence of lymph node involvement (N0) in gastric cancer is associated with a better survival. However some N0 gastric tumors still have a bad prognosis. To study demographic and morphological variables associated with prognosis in N0 gastric carcinoma. Review of pathological records of a regional general hospital, identifying patients with a N0 gastric cancer surgically excised between 1986 and 2003. In the study period, 459 gastrectomies were performed for gastric cancer and in 32%, the tumor was devoid of lymph node involvement. These later patients were followed for a median of 64 months with a 71% five years actuarial survival. Bivariate analysis identified age, tumor size, gastric wall infiltration, pathological type according to Lauren and Ming, lymphovascular involvement, number of lymph nodes excised and TNM stage as prognostic values Multivariate analysis disclosed the level of gastric wall infiltration, the presence of a poorly differentiated tumor, lymphatic vascular involvement, number of excise lymph nodes and tumor size as independent prognostic factors. N0 gastric tumors are found in 32% of gastrectomies for gastric cancer and have a 71% five years actuarial survival. Gastric wall infiltration, pathological degree of differentiation tumor size and lymphovascular involvement are independent prognostic factors.

  18. Functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is a highly regulated catabolic pathway responsible for the degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged intracellular organelles. Perturbations in autophagy are found in gastric cancer. In host gastric cells, autophagy can be induced by Helicobacter pylori (or H. pylori) infection, which is associated with the oncogenesis of gastric cancer. In gastric cancer cells, autophagy has both pro-survival and pro-death functions in determining cell fate. Besides, autophagy modulates gastric cancer metastasis by affecting a wide range of pathological events, including extracellular matrix (ECM) degradation, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), tumor angiogenesis, and tumor microenvironment. In addition, some of the autophagy-related proteins, such as Beclin 1, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (MAP1-LC3), and p62/sequestosome 1 (SQSTM1) have certain prognostic values for gastric cancer. In this article, we review the recent studies regarding the functional role of autophagy in gastric cancer. PMID:26910278

  19. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the fourth most common cancer in the world. The number of deaths from stomach cancer has ... risk of stomach cancer: Diet Not eating enough fresh fruits and vegetables is linked to an increased ...

  20. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... finding cancer before it causes symptoms ) decreases a person's chance of dying from the disease. For some types of cancer, ... Studies showed that screening a large number of people for stomach cancer using these tests did not decrease the risk of dying from stomach cancer. More studies are needed to ...

  1. Adipokines and ghrelin in gastric cancer cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Kerem, Mustafa; Ferahkose, Zafer; Yilmaz, Utku Tonguc; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Ofluoglu, Ebru; Bedirli, Abdulkadir; Salman, Bulent; Sahin, Tevfik Tolga; Akin, Murat

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of the adipocytokines, ghrelin and leptin in gastric cancer cachexia. METHODS: Resistin, ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, insulin and insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I), were measured in 30 healthy subjects, and 60 gastric cancer patients of which 30 suffered from cancer-induced cachexia and 30 served as a control group. The relationships between hormones, body mass index (BMI) loss ratio, age, gender, and Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS) were investigated. RESULTS: Cachexia patients had higher tumor stage and GPS when compared with non-cachexia patients (P < 0.05). Ghrelin, resistin, leptin, adiponectin and IGF-I, showed a significant correlation with BMI loss ratio and GPS (P < 0.05). A strong correlation was seen between GPS and BMI loss (R = -0.570, P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis indicated that BMI loss was significantly independent as a predictor of ghrelin, resistin, leptin and IGF-I (P < 0.05). Existence of an important significant relationship between resistin and insulin resistance was also noted. CONCLUSION: These results showed that serum ghrelin, leptin, adiponectin, and IGF-I play important roles in cachexia-related gastric cancers. No relationship was found between resistin and cancer cachexia. Also, because of the correlation between these parameters and GPS, these parameters might be used as a predictor factor. PMID:18595130

  2. Non-coding RNAs and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Fei; Chen, Sheng-Can; Xia, Tian; Jiang, Xiao-Ming; Shao, Yong-Fu; Xiao, Bing-Xiu; Guo, Jun-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) play key roles in development, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Altered ncRNA expression is associated with gastric cancer occurrence, invasion, and metastasis. Moreover, aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly related to gastric cancer tumor stage, size, differentiation and metastasis. MiRNAs interrupt cellular signaling pathways, inhibit the activity of tumor suppressor genes, and affect the cell cycle in gastric cancer cells. Some miRNAs, including miR-21, miR-106a and miR-421, could be potential markers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a new research hotspot among cancer-associated ncRNAs, play important roles in epigenetic, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation. Several gastric cancer-associated lncRNAs, such as CCAT1, GACAT1, H19, and SUMO1P3, have been explored. In addition, Piwi-interacting RNAs, another type of small ncRNA that is recognized by gastroenterologists, are involved in gastric carcinogenesis, and piR-651/823 represents an efficient diagnostic biomarker of gastric cancer that can be detected in the blood and gastric juice. Small interfering RNAs also function in post-transcriptional regulation in gastric cancer and might be useful in gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833871

  3. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  4. Gastric cancer and coal mine dust exposure. A case-control study

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.G.

    1983-10-01

    Based on evidence that coal miners have elevated gastric cancer mortality rates, a case-control study was developed to assess the gastric cancer risk of coal mine dust exposure. Forty-six cases of US white male gastric cancer deaths from NIOSH coal miner cohorts were individually matched by age to controls. From these data we show that a statistically elevated gastric cancer risk exists for miners who have prolonged exposure to coal mine dust and prolonged exposure to cigarette smoke. Coal workers' pneumoconiosis, a disease defined in terms of coal dust deposition in the lungs, was not found to be a gastric cancer risk.

  5. What gastric cancer proteomic studies show about gastric carcinogenesis?

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; de Oliveira Gigek, Carolina; do Santos, Leonardo Caires; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marilia Cardoso

    2016-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a complex, heterogeneous, and multistep disease. Over the past decades, several studies have aimed to determine the molecular factors that lead to gastric cancer development and progression. After completing the human genome sequencing, proteomic technologies have presented rapid progress. Differently from the relative static state of genome, the cell proteome is dynamic and changes in pathologic conditions. Proteomic approaches have been used to determine proteome profiles and identify differentially expressed proteins between groups of samples, such as neoplastic and nonneoplastic samples or between samples of different cancer subtypes or stages. Therefore, proteomic technologies are a useful tool toward improving the knowledge of gastric cancer molecular pathogenesis and the understanding of tumor heterogeneity. This review aimed to summarize the proteins or protein families that are frequently identified by using high-throughput screening methods and which thus may have a key role in gastric carcinogenesis. The increased knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis will clearly help in the development of new anticancer treatments. Although the studies are still in their infancy, the reviewed proteins may be useful for gastric cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and patient management.

  6. Molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Wen-Jia; Gao, Jin-Bo

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Chemotherapy is one of the major treatments for gastric cancer, but drug resistance limits the effectiveness of chemotherapy, which results in treatment failure. Resistance to chemotherapy can be present intrinsically before the administration of chemotherapy or it can develop during chemotherapy. The mechanisms of chemotherapy resistance in gastric cancer are complex and multifactorial. A variety of factors have been demonstrated to be involved in chemoresistance, including the reduced intracellular concentrations of drugs, alterations in drug targets, the dysregulation of cell survival and death signaling pathways, and interactions between cancer cells and the tumor microenvironment. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance in gastric cancer and on recent studies that have sought to overcome the underlying mechanisms of chemoresistance. PMID:27672425

  7. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

    PubMed Central

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P < 0.0001). When stratified by age, the prevalence was highest among young patients, and tended to decrease in patients aged 50 years or older. The anti-East-Asian CagA-specific antibody was negative in 99.4% of H. pylori-positive Mongolian patients. Chronic inflammation, neutrophil activity, glandular atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia scores were significantly lower in Mongolian compared to Japanese H. pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001), with the exception of the intestinal

  8. [Laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer: initial experience].

    PubMed

    Berrospi, Francisco; Celis, Juan; Ruíz, Eloy; Payet, Eduardo; Chávez, Iván; Young, Frank

    2008-01-01

    To report the initial experience with the laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy (LADG) with D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. Between May 2006 and May 2007, 29 consecutive GC patients with gastric cancer underwent LADG with D2 lymphadenectomy. The operation consisted in a laparoscopic time to perform lymphadenectomy and mobilization of the distal stomach, followed by a minilaparotomy for exteriorization of the specimen and construction of a hand sewn anastomosis. Twenty-nine patients underwent LADG with D2 lymphadenectomy for gastric cancer. Mean age was 58.2 years. Mean operative time was 287.4 min. Mean number of lymph nodes resected was 42.6. Twelve patients were early gastric cancer, and seventeen were advanced gastric cancer. Mean proximal and distal resection margin were 5.8 cm and 3.5 cm, respectively. Resection margins were negative in all cases. Mean number of lymph nodes resected was 42.6. Thirty-day morbidity rate was 10.3 %. There were no postoperative deaths.CONCLUSION. The short-term results of our LADG with D2 lymphadenectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer shows that a radical surgery, in terms of resection margins and lymphadenectomy, can be done with low morbidity.

  9. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  10. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course.

  11. Worldwide practice in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brenkman, Hylke JF; Haverkamp, Leonie; Ruurda, Jelle P; van Hillegersberg, Richard

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the current status of gastric cancer surgery worldwide. METHODS: An international cross-sectional survey on gastric cancer surgery was performed amongst international upper gastro-intestinal surgeons. All surgical members of the International Gastric Cancer Association were invited by e-mail to participate. An English web-based survey had to be filled in with regard to their surgical preferences. Questions asked included hospital volume, the use of neoadjuvant treatment, preferred surgical approach, extent of the lymphadenectomy and preferred anastomotic technique. The invitations were sent in September 2013 and the survey was closed in January 2014. RESULTS: The corresponding specific response rate was 227/615 (37%). The majority of respondents: originated from Asia (54%), performed > 21 gastrectomies per year (79%) and used neoadjuvant chemotherapy (73%). An open surgical procedure was performed by the majority of surgeons for distal gastrectomy for advanced cancer (91%) and total gastrectomy for both early and advanced cancer (52% and 94%). A minimally invasive procedure was preferred for distal gastrectomy for early cancer (65%). In Asia surgeons preferred a minimally invasive procedure for total gastrectomy for early cancer also (63%). A D1+ lymphadenectomy was preferred in early gastric cancer (52% for distal, 54% for total gastrectomy) and a D2 lymphadenectomy was preferred in advanced gastric cancer (93% for distal, 92% for total gastrectomy) CONCLUSION: Surgical preferences for gastric cancer surgery vary between surgeons worldwide. Although the majority of surgeons use neoadjuvant chemotherapy, minimally invasive techniques are still not widely adapted. PMID:27099448

  12. Gastric cancer and related epigenetic alterations

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Trupti N; Roy, Soumyadipta; Ravi, Revathi

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer, a malignant and highly proliferative condition, has significantly affected a large population around the globe and is known to be caused by various factors including genetic, epigenetic, and environmental influences. Though the global trend of these cancers is declining, an increase in its frequency is still a threat because of changing lifestyles and dietary habits. However, genetic and epigenetic alterations related to gastric cancers also have an equivalent contribution towards carcinogenic development. DNA methylation is one of the major forms of epigenetic modification which plays a significant role in gastric carcinogenesis. Methylation leads to inactivation of some of the most important genes like DNA repair genes, cell cycle regulators, apoptotic genes, transcriptional regulators, and signalling pathway regulators; which subsequently cause uncontrolled proliferation of cells. Mutations in these genes can be used as suitable prognostic markers for early diagnosis of the disease, since late diagnosis of gastric cancers has a huge negative impact on overall patient survival. In this review, we focus on the important epigenetic mutations that contribute to the development of gastric cancer and the molecular pathogenesis underlying each of them. Methylation, acetylation, and histone modifications play an integral role in the onset of genomic instability, one of the many contributory factors to gastric cancer. This article also covers the constraints of incomplete knowledge of epigenetic factors influencing gastric cancer, thus throwing light on our understanding of the disease. PMID:28144288

  13. Diabetes and gastric cancer: the potential links.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Tseng, Farn-Hsuan

    2014-02-21

    This article reviews the epidemiological evidence linking diabetes and gastric cancer and discusses some of the potential mechanisms, confounders and biases in the evaluation of such an association. Findings from four meta-analyses published from 2011 to 2013 suggest a positive link, which may be more remarkable in females and in the Asian populations. Putative mechanisms may involve shared risk factors, hyperglycemia, Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, high salt intake, medications and comorbidities. Diabetes may increase the risk of gastric cancer through shared risk factors including obesity, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia and smoking. Hyperglycemia, even before the clinical diagnosis of diabetes, may predict gastric cancer in some epidemiological studies, which is supported by in vitro, and in vivo studies. Patients with diabetes may also have a higher risk of gastric cancer through the higher infection rate, lower eradication rate and higher reinfection rate of H. pylori. High salt intake can act synergistically with H. pylori infection in the induction of gastric cancer. Whether a higher risk of gastric cancer in patients with diabetes may be ascribed to a higher intake of salt due to the loss of taste sensation awaits further investigation. The use of medications such as insulin, metformin, sulfonylureas, aspirin, statins and antibiotics may also influence the risk of gastric cancer, but most of them have not been extensively studied. Comorbidities may affect the development of gastric cancer through the use of medications and changes in lifestyle, dietary intake, and the metabolism of drugs. Finally, a potential detection bias related to gastrointestinal symptoms more commonly seen in patients with diabetes and with multiple comorbidities should be pointed out. Taking into account the inconsistent findings and the potential confounders and detection bias in previous epidemiological studies, it is expected that there are still more to be

  14. Gastric juice long noncoding RNA used as a tumor marker for screening gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yongfu; Ye, Meng; Jiang, Xiaoming; Sun, Weiliang; Ding, Xiaoyun; Liu, Zhong; Ye, Guoliang; Zhang, Xinjun; Xiao, Bingxiu; Guo, Junming

    2014-11-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play a crucial role in tumorigenesis. However, the value of lncRNAs in the diagnosis of gastric cancer remains unknown. To identify whether lncRNA-AA174084 is a potential marker for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC), the authors investigated its levels in tissues, blood, and gastric juices from patients with various stage of gastric tumorigenesis. Total RNA in 860 specimens from patients and healthy controls was extracted. Levels of AA174084 in 134 paired GC tissues, 127 gastric mucosal tissues, 335 plasma samples, and 130 gastric juice samples at each stage of gastric tumorigenesis were measured using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis. The potential association between AA174084 levels and patients' clinicopathologic features were analyzed. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for differentiating GC patients from controls. Expression levels of AA174084 were down-regulated significantly in 95 of 134 GC tissues (71%) compared with the levels in paired, adjacent, normal tissues (P < .001). AA174084 levels had significant, negative correlations with age (P = .031), Borrmann type (P = .016), and perineural invasion (P = .032). Plasma AA174084 levels in patients with GC dropped markedly on day 15 after surgery compared with preoperative levels (P < .001) and were associated with invasion (P = .049) and lymphatic metastasis (P = .042). AA174084 levels in gastric juice from patients with GC were significantly higher than the levels in normal mucosa or in patients with minimal gastritis, gastric ulcers, and atrophic gastritis (P < .001). The area under ROC was up to 0.848 (P < .001). AA174084 may have potential as marker for the early diagnosis of GC. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  15. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: Indian enigma.

    PubMed

    Misra, Vatsala; Pandey, Renu; Misra, Sri Prakash; Dwivedi, Manisha

    2014-02-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a gram negative microaerophilic bacterium which resides in the mucous linings of the stomach. It has been implicated in the causation of various gastric disorders including gastric cancer. The geographical distribution and etiology of gastric cancer differ widely in different geographical regions and H. pylori, despite being labeled as a grade I carcinogen, has not been found to be associated with gastric cancer in many areas. Studies in Asian countries such as Thailand, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Iran, Saudi Arabian countries, Israel and Malaysia, have reported a high frequency of H. pylori infection co-existing with a low incidence of gastric cancer. In India, a difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection and gastric cancer has been noted even in different regions of the country leading to a puzzle when attempting to find the causes of these variations. This puzzle of H. pylori distribution and gastric cancer epidemiology is known as the Indian enigma. In this review we have attempted to explain the Indian enigma using evidence from various Indian studies and from around the globe. This review covers aspects of epidemiology, the various biological strains present in different parts of the country and within individuals, the status of different H. pylori-related diseases and the molecular pathogenesis of the bacterium.

  16. Nutrition and Gastric Cancer Risk: An Update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Data from epidemiologic, experimental, and animal studies indicate that diet plays an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. High intake of fresh fruit and vegetable, lycopene and lycopene-containing food products, and potentially vitamin C and selenium may reduce the risk for gastric can...

  17. Analysis of surgery for incurable gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Honguang; Chen, Wenhu; Lin, Yehua; Qin, Jiangfeng; Wang, Lifang

    2015-12-18

    It is important to evaluate the curability of and avoid unnecessary exploratory surgery for gastric cancer preoperatively. However, no related research has been reported until now. The aim of this study was to evaluate the factors influencing surgery for incurable gastric cancer. 310 cases of T3-4 gastric cancer patients were analyzed retrospectively, including 141 cases with radical surgery and 169 with surgery for incurable gastric cancer. The incurable factors were categorized as T status (unresectable T4 tumor), N status (unresectable lymph node), peritoneal metastasis, and distant metastasis. χ (2) test and logistic regression were performed to analyze the associations between curability, T status, N status, peritoneal metastasis, or distant metastasis and clinicopathological data. Esophageal involvement and T grade were associated with curability. Cardia involvement and Borrmann type were associated with T status. Esophageal involvement and T grade were associated with N status. Gastric body involvement, esophageal involvement, and T grade were associated with peritoneal metastasis. Gastric antrum involvement was associated with distant metastasis. The influencing factors of surgery for incurable gastric cancer should be analyzed preoperatively. Resectability should be evaluated according to these influencing factors combined with imaging analysis.

  18. [Bone metastasis of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Sudo, Hideo; Takagi, Yu; Katayanagi, So; Hoshino, Sumito; Suda, Takeshi; Hibi, Yasuhiro; Ito, Kazushige; Tsutida, Akihiko; Aoki, Tatsuya

    2006-08-01

    We evaluated 19 patients with bone metastasis after surgery for gastric cancer. In a number of cases, the located in the tumor was U and M region, of macroscopic 3, and the histological type was poorly-differentiated adenocarcinoma with high-grade of lymphatic invasion. The major symptom was lumbago and back pain. The serum AFP level was high in 73.7% of the cases, and LDH was high in 47.7%. The metastatic lesion was predominantly seen in the bone with red pulp such as lumbar and thoracic vertebra and rib. The median survival time was 189 days (range: 24-509) with a poor prognosis. However, newly developed anticancer drugs were very effective for some cases, indicating that such chemotherapy should be tried for cases with bone metastasis.

  19. Serum biomarker screening for the diagnosis of early gastric cancer using SELDI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Dianliang; Guo, Chunbao

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we performed a proteomic analysis of sera from stage I gastric cancer patients using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS) and established a diagnostic model for the early diagnosis of stage I gastric cancer. Serum samples from 169 gastric cancer patients and 83 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals were analyzed by SELDI-TOF-MS ProteinChip array technology. The SELDI-TOF-MS spectral data were analyzed using the Biomarker Wizard™ and Biomarker Patterns™ software to find differential proteins and develop a classification tree for gastric cancer. A total of 34 mass peaks were identified. Six peaks at a mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of 2873, 3163, 4526, 5762, 6121 and 7778 were used to construct the diagnostic model. The model effectively distinguished gastric cancer samples from control samples, achieving a sensitivity and specificity of 93.49 and 91.57%, respectively. In addition, we identified 3 of the 6 protein peaks at 2873, 6121 and 7778 m/z, which distinguished between stage I and stage II/III/IV gastric cancer. The model had an accuracy of 88.89% for the identification of stage I gastric cancer. In conclusion, the diagnostic model for the detection of serum proteins by SELDI-TOF-MS ProteinChip array technology correctly distinguishes gastric cancer from healthy samples, and has the ability to screen and distinguish between early gastric cancer from advanced gastric cancer.

  20. Gastric juice miR-129 as a potential biomarker for screening gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xing; Luo, Lin; Wu, Yibo; Yu, Xiuchong; Liu, Yang; Yu, Xuelin; Zhao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinjun; Cui, Long; Ye, Guoliang; Le, Yanping; Guo, Junming

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles during the occurrence and development of gastric cancer. Conventional serological tests for screening gastric cancer have limits on sensitivity and specificity. Several miRNAs in peripheral blood have been used as biomarkers of gastric cancer. However, most of these miRNAs are shared by several types of cancer. Thanks to the tissue specificity of gastric juice, here we examined the feasibility of using gastric juice miR-129-1/2, which are aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer, to screen gastric cancer. Total of 141 gastric juices samples from gastric cancer, gastric ulcer, atrophic gastritis, and minimal gastritis patients or subjects with normal mucosa were collected by gastroscopy. The gastric juice miR-129-1/2 levels were detected by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for differentiating patients with gastric cancer from patients with benign gastric diseases. We showed that, compared with patients with benign gastric diseases, patients with gastric cancer had significantly lower levels of gastric juice miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p. The areas under ROC curve (AUC) were 0.639 and 0.651 for miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p, respectively. Using the parallel combination test, the AUC was up to 0.656. In summary, our results suggest that gastric juice miR-129-1-3p and miR-129-2-3p are potential biomarkers for the screening gastric cancer, and the detection of gastric juice miRNAs is a convenient non-invasion method for the diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  1. Epigenetic alterations in gastric cancer (Review).

    PubMed

    Fu, Du-Guan

    2015-09-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common types of cancer and the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. An increasing number of recent studies have confirmed that gastric cancer is a multistage pathological state that arises from environmental factors; dietary factors in particulary are considered to play an important role in the etiology of gastric cancer. Improper dietary habits are one of the primary concerns as they influence key molecular events associated with the onset of gastric carcinogenesis. In the field of genetics, anticancer research has mainly focused on the various genetic markers and genetic molecular mechanisms responsible for the development of this of this disease. Some of this research has proven to be very fruitful, providing insight into the possible mechamisms repsonsible for this disease and into possible treatment modalities. However, the mortality rate associated with gastric cancer remains relatively high. Thus, epigenetics has become a hot topic for research, whereby genetic markers are bypassed and this research is directed towards reversible epigenetic events, such as methylation and histone modifications that play a crucial role in carcinogenesis. The present review focuses on the epigenetic events which play an important role in the development and progression of this deadly disease, gastric cancer.

  2. Short- and long-term outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer in elderly patients aged 75 years and older.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Kondo, Hitoshi; Fujii, Ryoji; Minagawa, Takeyoshi; Fujie, Shinya; Kimura, Tomohiro; Ihara, Hideyuki; Yoshizaki, Naohito; Hirayama, Michiaki; Oyamada, Yumiko; Okushiba, Shunichi

    2017-05-01

    Only a few studies have reported long-term outcomes for endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of early gastric cancer (EGC) in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of ESD for EGC in elderly patients ≥75 years with respect to both short- and long-term outcomes. We reviewed the clinical data of elderly patients ≥75 years who had undergone ESD for EGC at Tonan Hospital from January 2003 to May 2010. A total of 177 consecutive patients, including 145 with curative resection (CR) and 32 with noncurative resection (non-CR), were examined. Of the 32 patients with non-CR, 15 underwent additional surgery, and lymph node metastases were found in 3 patients. The remaining 17 patients were followed without additional surgery because of advanced age or poor general condition. Procedure-related complications, such as post-ESD bleeding, perforation and pneumonia, were within the acceptable range. The 5-year survival rates of patients with CR, those with additional surgery after non-CR, and those without additional surgery after non-CR were 84.6, 73.3, and 58.8 %, respectively. No deaths were attributable to the original gastric cancer; patients succumbed to other illnesses, including malignancy and respiratory disease. In elderly patients, ESD is an acceptable treatment for EGC in terms of both short- and long-term outcomes. Careful clinical assessment of elderly patients is necessary before ESD. After ESD, medical follow-up is important so that other malignancies and diseases that affect the elderly are not overlooked.

  3. Translating gastric cancer genomics into targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Ang, Yvonne L E; Yong, Wei Peng; Tan, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer is a common disease with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. Many gastric cancers harbour potentially actionable targets, including over-expression and mutations in tyrosine kinase pathways. Agents have been developed against these targets with varying success- in particular, the use of trastuzumab in HER2-overexpressing gastric cancers has resulted in overall survival benefits. Gastric cancers also have high levels of somatic mutations, making them candidates for immunotherapy; early work in this field has been promising. Recent advances in whole genome and multi-platform sequencing have driven the development of molecular classification systems, which may in turn guide the selection of patients for targeted treatment. Moving forward, challenges will include the development of appropriate biomarkers to predict responses to targeted therapy, and the application of new molecular classifications into trial development and clinical practice.

  4. Dietary flavonoids and gastric cancer risk in a Korean population.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Lee, Jeonghee; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kwon, Oran; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-11-10

    Gastric cancer is the most common cancer among men in Korea, and dietary factors are closely associated with gastric cancer risk. We performed a case-control study using 334 cases and 334 matched controls aged 35-75 years. Significant associations were observed in total dietary flavonoids and their subclasses, with the exception of anthocyanidins and isoflavones (OR (95% CI): 0.49 (0.31-0.76), p trend = 0.007 for total flavonoids). However, these associations were not significant after further adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption (OR (95% CI): 0.62 (0.36-1.09), p trend = 0.458 for total flavonoids). Total flavonoids and their subclasses, except for isoflavones, were significantly associated with a reduced risk gastric cancer in women (OR (95% CI): 0.33 (0.15-0.73), p trend = 0.001 for total flavonoids) but not in men (OR (95% CI): 0.70 (0.39-1.24), p trend = 0.393 for total flavonoids). A significant inverse association with gastric cancer risk was observed in flavones, even after additional adjustment for fruits and vegetable consumption in women. No significantly different effects of flavonoids were observed between H. pylori-positive and negative subjects. In conclusion, dietary flavonoids were inversely associated with gastric cancer risk, and these protective effects of dietary flavonoids were prominent in women. No clear differences were observed in the subgroup analysis of H. pylori and smoking status.

  5. Molecular classification of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chia, N-Y; Tan, P

    2016-05-01

    Gastric cancer (GC), a heterogeneous disease characterized by epidemiologic and histopathologic differences across countries, is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Treatment of GC patients is currently suboptimal due to patients being commonly treated in a uniform fashion irrespective of disease subtype. With the advent of next-generation sequencing and other genomic technologies, GCs are now being investigated in great detail at the molecular level. High-throughput technologies now allow a comprehensive study of genomic and epigenomic alterations associated with GC. Gene mutations, chromosomal aberrations, differential gene expression and epigenetic alterations are some of the genetic/epigenetic influences on GC pathogenesis. In addition, integrative analyses of molecular profiling data have led to the identification of key dysregulated pathways and importantly, the establishment of GC molecular classifiers. Recently, The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) network proposed a four subtype classification scheme for GC based on the underlying tumor molecular biology of each subtype. This landmark study, together with other studies, has expanded our understanding on the characteristics of GC at the molecular level. Such knowledge may improve the medical management of GC in the future. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Gastric Cancer Regional Detection System.

    PubMed

    Ural, Berkan; Hardalaç, Fırat; Serhatlioğlu, Selami; İlhan, Mustafa Necmi

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a novel system was created to localize cancerous regions for stomach images which were taken with computed tomography(CT). The aim was to determine the coordinates of cancerous regions which spread in the stomach area in the color space with using this system. Also, to limit these areas with a high accuracy ratio and to feedback to the user of this system were the other objectives. This integration was performed with using energy mapping, analysis methods and multiple image processing methods and the system which was consisted from these advanced algorithms was appeared. For this work, in the range of 25-40 years and when gender discrimination was insignificant, 30 volunteer patients were chosen. During the formation of the system, to exalt the accuracy to the maximum level, 2 main stages were followed up. First, in the system, advanced image processing methods were processed between each other and obtained data were studied. Second, in the system, FFT and Log transformations were used respectively for the first two cases, then these transformations were used together for the third case. For totally three cases, energy distribution and DC energy intensity analysis were done and the performance of this system was investigated. Finally, with using the system's unique algorithms, a non-invasive method was achieved to detect the gastric cancer and when FFT and Log transformation were used together, the maximum success rate was obtained and this rate was calculated as 83,3119 %.

  7. Helicobacter pylori, Cancer, and the Gastric Microbiota.

    PubMed

    Wroblewski, Lydia E; Peek, Richard M

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this disease. Although the stomach was once thought to be a sterile environment, it is now known to house many bacterial species leading to a complex interplay between H. pylori and other residents of the gastric microbiota. In addition to the role of H. pylori virulence factors, host genetic polymorphisms, and diet, it is now becoming clear that components of the gastrointestinal microbiota may also influence H. pylori-induced pathogenesis. In this chapter, we discuss emerging data regarding the gastric microbiota in humans and animal models and alterations that occur to the composition of the gastric microbiota in the presence of H. pylori infection that may augment the risk of developing gastric cancer.

  8. Robot-assisted surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Procopiuc, Livia; Tudor, Ştefan; Mănuc, Mircea; Diculescu, Mircea; Vasilescu, Cătălin

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer is a relatively new research field, with convincing results mostly stemming from Asian countries. The use of the robotic surgery platform, thus far assessed as a safe procedure, which is also easier to learn, sets the background for a wider spread of minimally invasive technique in the treatment of gastric cancer. This review will cover the literature published so far, analyzing the pros and cons of robotic surgery and highlighting the remaining study questions. PMID:26798433

  9. Metachronous Gastric Cancer Following Curative Endoscopic Resection of Early Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Abe, Seiichiro; Oda, Ichiro; Minagawa, Takeyoshi; Sekiguchi, Masau; Nonaka, Satoru; Suzuki, Haruhisa; Yoshinaga, Shigetaka; Bhatt, Amit; Saito, Yutaka

    2017-09-18

    This review article summarizes knowledge about metachronous gastric cancer (MGC) occurring after curative endoscopic resection (ER) of early gastric cancer (EGC), treatment outcomes of patients who developed MGC, and efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication to prevent MGC. The incidence of MGC following curative ER increases over time and is higher than in patients undergoing gastrectomy. Increasing age and multifocal EGC are independent risk factors for developing MGC. An MGC following curative ER is usually a small (<20 mm) and differentiated intramucosal cancer. Most MGC lesions are found at an early stage on semiannual or annual surveillance endoscopy and are successfully treated by further ER, with excellent long-term outcomes. Eradication of H. pylori may reduce the risk of MGC following ER of EGC, but further prospective studies with long-term outcomes are required. Surveillance endoscopy following gastric ER should be continued indefinitely, due to the risk of MGC even after successful H. pylori eradication. Risk stratification and tailored endoscopic surveillance schedules need to be developed.

  10. Gastric cancer - clinical and epidemiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Venerito, Marino; Link, Alexander; Rokkas, Theodoros; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) ranks fifth for cancer incidence and second for cancer deaths. Epidemiological data showed that survivors of Hodgkin's lymphoma and patients with pernicious anemia etiologically linked to autoimmune gastritis are at increased risk of GC. Screening of patients with autoimmune thyroid disease by means of pepsinogen (PG) I and PG I/II detected autoimmune gastritis with oxyntic gastric atrophy in one of four patients and may be recommended for GC prevention purposes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer reported a positive association between consumption of processed meet and increased GC risk. A new GC risk prediction model based on biological markers, age, gender, smoking status, family history of GC, and consumption of highly salted food showed good predictive performance, and might prompt individuals to modify their lifestyle habits, attend regular check-up visits or participate in screening programs. A novel GC classification based on gene expression of primary resected cancers correlated with clinicopathological features. Noncoding RNA for GC screening remains the focus of multiple studies. Patients with early GC undergoing endoscopic resection are more likely to develop metachronous lesions than patients undergoing surgery and endoscopic surveillance is warranted in this special cohort. The addition of gastrectomy to chemotherapy did not improve survival of patients with advanced GC and a single noncurable factor. Apatinib, a novel oral vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor, improved the median overall survival of patients with advanced GC and progressive disease after two or more lines of prior chemotherapy of nearly 3 months.

  11. Korean Gastric Cancer Association Nationwide Survey on Gastric Cancer in 2014

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The Korean Gastric Cancer Association (KGCA) has conducted nationwide surveys every 5 years, targeting patients who received surgical treatment for gastric cancer. We report the results of the 2014 nationwide survey and compare them to those of the 1995, 1999, 2004, and 2009 surveys. Materials and Methods From March 2015 to January 2016, a standardized case report form was sent to every member of the KGCA via e-mail. The survey consisted of 29 questions, regarding patient demographics as well as tumor-, and surgery-related factors. The completed data forms were analyzed by the KGCA information committee. Results Data on 15,613 patients were collected from 69 institutions. The mean age was 60.9±12.1 years, and the proportion of patients more than 70 years of age increased from 9.1% in 1995 to 25.3% in 2014. Proximal cancer incidence steadily increased from 11.2% in 1995 to 16.0% in 2014. Early gastric cancer incidence consistently increased and accounted for 61.0% of all cases in 2014. The surgical approach was diversified in 2014, and 7,818 cases (50.1%) were treated with a minimally invasive approach. The most common anastomosis was Billroth I (50.2%) after distal gastrectomy, and the proportion of Roux-en-Y anastomoses performed increased to 8.6%. Conclusions The results of this survey are expected to be important data for future studies and to be useful for generating a national cancer control program. PMID:27752390

  12. Multidisciplinary management for esophageal and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Boniface, Megan M; Wani, Sachin B; Schefter, Tracey E; Koo, Phillip J; Meguid, Cheryl; Leong, Stephen; Kaplan, Jeffrey B; Wingrove, Lisa J; McCarter, Martin D

    2016-01-01

    The management of esophageal and gastric cancer is complex and involves multiple specialists in an effort to optimize patient outcomes. Utilizing a multidisciplinary team approach starting from the initial staging evaluation ensures that all members are in agreement with the plan of care. Treatment selection for esophageal and gastric cancer often involves a combination of chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and palliative interventions (endoscopic and surgical), and direct communication between specialists in these fields is needed to ensure appropriate clinical decision making. At the University of Colorado, the Esophageal and Gastric Multidisciplinary Clinic was created to bring together all experts involved in treating these diseases at a weekly conference in order to provide patients with coordinated, individualized, and patient-centered care. This review details the essential elements and benefits of building a multidisciplinary program focused on treating esophageal and gastric cancer patients. PMID:27217796

  13. Considerations about gastric cancer proteomics.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Carlos Eduardo; McCormick, Thaís Messias; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Fischer, Juliana DE Saldanha DA Gama; Aquino, Priscila Ferreira DE; Bravo, Guilherme Pinto; Carvalho, Maria DA Glória DA Costa

    2016-01-01

    The frequency of molecular studies aimed to analyze promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes and global proteomics in gastric carcinogenesis is increasing. Nonetheless, only a few considered the different types of stomach cells, the tumor location and the influence of Helicobacter pylori and Epstein Barr virus infection (EBV). Molecular differences relating to anatomical and histological tumor areas were also recently described. The authors propose a molecular classification of gastric cancer, dividing it into four subtypes: tumors positive for EBV; microsatellite unstable tumors; genomically stable tumors and tumors with chromosomal instability. RESUMO A frequência de estudos moleculares visando a analisar os promotores de metilação de genes supressores de tumor e proteômica globais na carcinogênese gástrica está aumentando. No entanto, apenas alguns consideraram os diferentes tipos de células do estômago, a localização do tumor e a influência da infecção por Helicobacter pylori e pelo vírus Epstein-Barr (EBV). Diferenças moleculares relacionadas com áreas tumorais anatômicas e histológicas também foram recentemente descritas. Os autores propõem uma classificação molecular de câncer gástrico, dividindo-o em quatro subtipos: tumores positivos para o EBV; tumores microssatélite instáveis; tumores genomicamente estáveis ​​e tumores com instabilidade cromossômica.

  14. Demethylchlortetracycline-binding proteins in uninvolved gastric mucosa of gastric carcinoma and gastric ulcer patients. Demonstration of a difference between the uninvolved mucosa of ulcer and cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lo, E; Thronton, H; Orwell, R L; Piper, D W

    1976-01-01

    The uninvolved gastric mucosa of gastric ulcer and gastric carcinoma patients has been compared in in vitro studies as regards their capacity to bind demethylchlortetracycline (DMCT). Dialysis experiments demonstrated excessive binding of DMCT in gastric cancer. Several electrophoretic fractions were observed that bound DMCT; it was demonstrated that these fractions differed in the uninvolved mucosa of gastric ulcer and gastric cancer patients.

  15. [Morbidity and mortality related to gastroenteroanastomosis in advanced gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Berrospi, F; Ruiz, E; Morante, C; Celis, J; Montalbelti, J A

    1995-01-01

    Determination of the postoperative morbidity and mortality after gastroenterostomy in patients with unresectable gastric cancer. Retrospective review of clinical records of all patients with obstructive distal gastric cancer who underwent gastroenterostomy at the Instituto de Enfermedades Neoplásicas between 1980 and 1993. The following factors were analyzed: age, sex, hemoglobin, albumin, preoperative risk, ascites, extent of disease, operative time, hospital stay, morbidity and mortality. 198 gastroenterostomy were done with a morbidity and mortality rates of 20% and 10%, respectively. Pneumonia was the principal cause of postoperative morbidity and mortality. High operative risk, adjacent organ invasion by the tumor and peritoneal metastasis were factors associated with increased postoperative morbidity (p > 0.05). High operative risk was the only prognostic factor for postoperative mortality (p < 0.01). Because of high postoperative morbidity and mortality, gastroenterostomy should not be done in patients with unresectable gastric cancer and high preoperative risk.

  16. Endoscopic Gastric Cancer Screening and Surveillance in High-Risk Groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a major cancer problem world-wide and future incidence will likely increase due to rapidly aging population demographics. Population-based screening is being undertaken in Korea and Japan, where gastric cancer incidence rates are high, and seems to be effective in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. However, such strategies are difficult to implement in countries with a low incidence or limited resources. Thus, screening strategies should be directed towards high-risk population subgroups. Gastric cancer has a relatively long mean sojourn time, and prognosis of early-stage disease is excellent. In general population, screening at 2-year interval in Korea seems to be effective for early-stage diagnosis. In subjects with atrophic gastritis or intestinal metaplasia, surveillance is recommended at 1 to 3 years intervals according to European and Japanese recommendation. Screening intervals for family members with sporadic gastric cancer has not yet been adequately evaluated, but 1-year interval is recommended for hereditary diffuse gastric cancer family-members. Gastric cancer patients treated by endoscopic resection are the highest-risk group, and 1-year interval surveillance can detect most metachronous gastric cancers at an early stage. Future gastric cancer surveillance strategies using endoscopy should be guided by risk-stratification assessment, and further refinement of optimal surveillance intervals is needed. PMID:25505714

  17. Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer: current status of the Austrain-Czech-German gastric cancer prevention trial (PRISMA-Study)

    PubMed Central

    Miehlke, S.; Kirsch, C.; Dragosics, B.; Gschwantler, M.; Oberhuber, G.; Antos, D.; Dite, P.; Luter, J.; Labenz, J.; Leodolter, A.; Malfertheiner, P.; Neubauer, A.; Ehninger, G.; Stolte, M.; rffer, E. Bayerdö

    2001-01-01

    AIM: To test the hypothesis that Helicobacter pylori eradication alone can reduce the incidence of gastric cancer in a subgroup of individuals with an increased risk for this fatal disease. METHODS: It is a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled multinational multicenter trial. Men between 55 and 65 years of age with a gastric cancer phenotype of Helicobacter pylori gastritis are randomized to receive a 7 day course of omeprazole 2 × 20 mg, clarithromycin 2 × 500 mg, and amoxicillin 2 × 1 g for 7 days, or omeprazole 2 × 20 mg plus placebo. Follow-up endoscopy is scheduled 3 months after therapy, and thereafter in one-year intervals. Predefined study endpoints are gastric cancer, precancerous lesions (dysplasia, adenoma), other cancers, and death. RESULTS: Since March 1998, 1524 target patients have been screened, 279 patients (18.3%) had a corpus dominant type of H. pylori gastritis, and 167 of those were randomized (58.8%). In the active treatment group (n = 86), H. pylori infection infection was cured in 88.9% of patients. Currently, the cumulative follow-up time is 3046 months (253. 38 patient years, median follow up 16 months). So far, none of the patients developed gastric cancer or any precancerous lesion. Three (1.8%) patients reached study endpoints other than gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: Among men between 55 and 65 years of age, the gastric cancer phenotype of H. pylori gastritis appears to be more common than expected. Further follow up and continuing recruitment are necessary to fulfil the main aim of the study. PMID:11819768

  18. [Early gastric cancer surgically treated at Rebagliati Hospital: study of 76 cases during 5 years].

    PubMed

    Portanova, Michel; Mena, Victor; Yábar, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of early gastric cancer surgically treated in the Gastric Cancer Unit at Rebagliati National Hospital between January 2004 and December 2008. Mean age was 68 years; males, distal location, submucosa infiltration and intestinal histological type predominate in these patients. Lymph node involvement was 13%.

  19. [Expression of long noncoding RNA STCAT3 in gastric cancer tissues and its effect on malignant phenotype of gastric cancer cells].

    PubMed

    Zhang, J F; Sun, Z S; Zhang, Q F; Ding, W F; Wu, X H; Mao, Z B

    2016-12-13

    Objective: To detect the expression of long noncoding RNA(lncRNA)stomach cancer-associated transcript-3(STCAT3) in gastric cancer tissues, adjacent tissues, human gastric cancer cell lines and normal gastric epithelial cell lines, and to investigate the relationship between STCAT3 expression and clinicopathological features and malignant phenotype of gastric cancer. Methods: Quantitative fluorescent real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was applied to detect the lncRNA STCAT3 expression levels in gastric cancer tissues, paired adjacent non-tumorous tissues, in order to explore the relationship between STCAT3 expression and clinicopathological features of gastric cancer. lncRNA STCAT3 low-expressing and high-expressing gastric cancer cell lines were transfected with expression plasmid to simulate gain-of-function, or interference plasmid to achieve loss-of-function. Cell proliferation was measured with CCK-8 and colony formation assay, cell migration with scratch assay, and cell invasion with Transwell migration assay. human gastric tumor were also transplanted to nude mice to detect the effect of lncRNA STCAT3 on tumorigenesis. Results: The expression of lncRNA STCAT3 was generally up-regulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with the adjacent tissues(12.55±0.16 vs 6.52±0.14), with median expression level in gastric cancer tissues being 6.03 higher (P<0.05). Meanwhile, the expression level of lncRNA STCAT3 in gastric cancer tissues was not correlated with age or gender (both P>0.05), while positively correlated with TNM stage (P<0.05). Interference of lncRNA STCAT3 expression in BGC-823 cells was found associated with significantly suppressed colony formation, proliferation, invasion, and migration (all P<0.05). Over-expression of lncRNA STCAT3 in AGS cells were also founded could promote the gastric cancer cells' proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion (all P<0.05). Conclusions: lncRNA STCAT3 may participate in the proliferation and

  20. [Ways to personalized medicine for gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Röcken, C

    2013-09-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common tumor and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world. Approximately 70 % of the patients already have lymph node metastases at the time of the diagnosis leading to a median overall survival time of 16.7 months. Complete resection of the primary tumor with D2 lymphadenectomy offers the only chance of cure in the early stages of the disease. Survival of more locally advanced gastric cancer was improved by the introduction of perioperative, adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy of gastric cancer; however, the identification of novel predictive and diagnostic targets is urgently needed. Our own studies on gastric cancer biology identified several putative tumor biologically relevant G-protein-coupled receptors (e.g. AT1R, AT2R, CXCR4, FZD7, LGR4, LGR5, LGR6). Some of these receptors are also putative stem cell markers and may serve as future targets of an individualized therapy of gastric cancer.

  1. Immunotherapy for gastric premalignant lesions and cancer.

    PubMed

    Zorzetto, Valerio; Maddalo, Gemma; Basso, Daniela; Farinati, Fabio

    2012-06-01

    Chronic atrophic gastritis, a precancerous change for gastric cancer, shows a loss of appropriate glands, Helicobacter pylori infection and autoimmune gastritis being the two main etiologic factors. While H. pylori eradication is the mandatory treatment for the former, no etiologic treatment is available for the latter, in which a Th1-type response, modulated by Tregs and Th17 cells, is involved. H. pylori-related atrophic gastritis is a risk factor for gastric adenocarcinoma, while autoimmune atrophic gastritis is also linked to a substantial risk of gastric type I carcinoid, related to the chronic stimulus exerted by hypergastrinemia on enterochromaffin-like cells. Several studies have been published on gastric cancer treatment through an active specific immunotherapy, aimed at improving the immunoregulatory response and increasing the circulating tumor-specific T cells. No study on immunotherapy of carcinoids is available but, in our experience, the administration of an antigastrin 17 vaccine induced carcinoid regression in two out of three patients treated.

  2. Chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anna Dorothea; Syn, Nicholas Lx; Moehler, Markus; Grothe, Wilfried; Yong, Wei Peng; Tai, Bee-Choo; Ho, Jingshan; Unverzagt, Susanne

    2017-08-29

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. In "Western" countries, most people are either diagnosed at an advanced stage, or develop a relapse after surgery with curative intent. In people with advanced disease, significant benefits from targeted therapies are currently limited to HER-2 positive disease treated with trastuzumab, in combination with chemotherapy, in first-line. In second-line, ramucirumab, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, demonstrated significant survival benefits. Thus, systemic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for advanced gastric cancer. Uncertainty remains regarding the choice of the regimen. To assess the efficacy of chemotherapy versus best supportive care (BSC), combination versus single-agent chemotherapy and different chemotherapy combinations in advanced gastric cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and Embase up to June 2016, reference lists of studies, and contacted pharmaceutical companies and experts to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We considered only RCTs on systemic, intravenous or oral chemotherapy versus BSC, combination versus single-agent chemotherapy and different chemotherapy regimens in advanced gastric cancer. Two review authors independently identified studies and extracted data. A third investigator was consulted in case of disagreements. We contacted study authors to obtain missing information. We included 64 RCTs, of which 60 RCTs (11,698 participants) provided data for the meta-analysis of overall survival. We found chemotherapy extends overall survival (OS) by approximately 6.7 months more than BSC (hazard ratio (HR) 0.3, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.24 to 0.55, 184 participants, three studies, moderate-quality evidence). Combination chemotherapy extends OS slightly (by an additional month) versus single-agent chemotherapy (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.89, 4447 participants, 23 studies, moderate-quality evidence), which is

  3. Chronic myelocytic leukemia and gastric cancer in the same patient.

    PubMed Central

    Butala, A.; Kalra, J.; Rosner, F.

    1989-01-01

    The association of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) and gastric cancer is very rare. We report a case of CML associated with gastric cancer and review the pertinent literature of 15 previously reported cases. PMID:2661837

  4. Endoscopic treatment for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Min, Yang Won; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Jun Haeng; Kim, Jae J.

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the most common causes of cancer death. However the proportion of early gastric cancer (EGC) at diagnosis is increasing. Endoscopic treatment for EGC is actively performed worldwide in cases meeting specific criteria. Endoscopic mucosal resection can treat EGC with comparable results to surgery for selected cases. Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) increases the en bloc and complete resection rates and reduces the local recurrence rate. ESD has been performed with expanded indication and is expected to be more widely used in the treatment of EGC through the technological advances in the near future. This review will describe the techniques, indications and outcomes of endoscopic treatment for EGC. PMID:24782609

  5. Early gastric cancer in Menetrier's disease.

    PubMed

    Remes-Troche, Jose Maria; Zapata-Colindres, Juan Carlos; Starkman, Ivethe; De Anda, Jazmin; Arista-Nasr, Julian; Valdovinos-Diaz, Miguel Angel

    2009-01-01

    Uncommon conditions such as pernicious anaemia and hypertrophic gastropathies have been considered as risk factors for gastric cancer; however, the exact increase in risk is unknown. Menetrier's disease is a rare hyperproliferative disorder of the stomach caused by an overexpression of tumour growth factor α, a ligand for the tyrokinase epidermal growth factor receptor, resulting in a selective expansion of surface mucous cells in the body and fundus of the stomach. There have been nearly 200 cases of Menetrier's disease reported in the literature yet less than 15 have been associated with gastric adenocarcinoma. Here, we report an early stage gastric adenocarcinoma detected incidentally in a patient recently diagnosed with Menetrier's disease.

  6. Challenges of deciphering gastric cancer heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Hudler, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is in decline in most developed countries; however, it still accounts for a notable fraction of global mortality and morbidity related to cancer. High-throughput methods are rapidly changing our view and understanding of the molecular basis of gastric carcinogenesis. Today, it is widely accepted that the molecular complexity and heterogeneity, both inter- and intra-tumour, of gastric adenocarcinomas present significant obstacles in elucidating specific biomarkers for early detection of the disease. Although genome-wide sequencing and gene expression studies have revealed the intricate nature of the molecular changes that occur in tumour landscapes, the collected data and results are complex and sometimes contradictory. Several aberrant molecules have already been tested in clinical trials, although their diagnostic and prognostic utilities have not been confirmed thus far. The gold standard for the detection of sporadic gastric cancer is still the gastric endoscopy, which is considered invasive. In addition, genome-wide association studies have confirmed that genetic variations are important contributors to increased cancer risk and could participate in the initiation of malignant transformation. This hypothesis could in part explain the late onset of sporadic gastric cancers. The elaborate interplay of polymorphic low penetrance genes and lifestyle and environmental risk factors requires additional research to decipher their relative impacts on tumorigenesis. The purpose of this article is to present details of the molecular heterogeneity of sporadic gastric cancers at the DNA, RNA, and proteome levels and to discuss issues relevant to the translation of basic research data to clinically valuable tools. The focus of this work is the identification of relevant molecular changes that could be detected non-invasively. PMID:26457012

  7. New advances in targeted gastric cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lazăr, Daniela Cornelia; Tăban, Sorina; Cornianu, Marioara; Faur, Alexandra; Goldiş, Adrian

    2016-01-01

    Despite a decrease in incidence over past decades, gastric cancer remains a major global health problem. In the more recent period, survival has shown only minor improvement, despite significant advances in diagnostic techniques, surgical and chemotherapeutic approaches, the development of novel therapeutic agents and treatment by multidisciplinary teams. Because multiple genetic mutations, epigenetic alterations, and aberrant molecular signalling pathways are involved in the development of gastric cancers, recent research has attempted to determine the molecular heterogeneity responsible for the processes of carcinogenesis, spread and metastasis. Currently, some novel agents targeting a part of these dysfunctional molecular signalling pathways have already been integrated into the standard treatment of gastric cancer, whereas others remain in phases of investigation within clinical trials. It is essential to identify the unique molecular patterns of tumours and specific biomarkers to develop treatments targeted to the individual tumour behaviour. This review analyses the global impact of gastric cancer, as well as the role of Helicobacter pylori infection and the efficacy of bacterial eradication in preventing gastric cancer development. Furthermore, the paper discusses the currently available targeted treatments and future directions of research using promising novel classes of molecular agents for advanced tumours. PMID:27570417

  8. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. METHODS: Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. RESULTS: The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. CONCLUSION: Lectin microarray can differentiate the different

  9. Use of lectin microarray to differentiate gastric cancer from gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei-Li; Li, Yang-Guang; Lv, Yong-Chen; Guan, Xiao-Hui; Ji, Hui-Fan; Chi, Bao-Rong

    2014-05-14

    To investigate the feasibility of lectin microarray for differentiating gastric cancer from gastric ulcer. Twenty cases of human gastric cancer tissue and 20 cases of human gastric ulcer tissue were collected and processed. Protein was extracted from the frozen tissues and stored. The lectins were dissolved in buffer, and the sugar-binding specificities of lectins and the layout of the lectin microarray were summarized. The median of the effective data points for each lectin was globally normalized to the sum of medians of all effective data points for each lectin in one block. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastric cancer tissues and their corresponding gastric ulcer tissues were subjected to Ag retrieval. Biotinylated lectin was used as the primary antibody and HRP-streptavidin as the secondary antibody. The glycopatterns of glycoprotein in gastric cancer and gastric ulcer specimens were determined by lectin microarray, and then validated by lectin histochemistry. Data are presented as mean ± SD for the indicated number of independent experiments. The glycosylation level of gastric cancer was significantly higher than that in ulcer. In gastric cancer, most of the lectin binders showed positive signals and the intensity of the signals was stronger, whereas the opposite was the case for ulcers. Significant differences in the pathological score of the two lectins were apparent between ulcer and gastric cancer tissues using the same lectin. For MPL and VVA, all types of gastric cancer detected showed stronger staining and a higher positive rate in comparison with ulcer, especially in the case of signet ring cell carcinoma and intra-mucosal carcinoma. GalNAc bound to MPL showed a significant increase. A statistically significant association between MPL and gastric cancer was observed. As with MPL, there were significant differences in VVA staining between gastric cancer and ulcer. Lectin microarray can differentiate the different glycopatterns in gastric cancer and

  10. Targeting Smoothened Sensitizes Gastric Cancer to Chemotherapy in Experimental Models

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huifa; Tian, Yongsheng; Yu, Xiangyang

    2017-01-01

    Background The Hedgehog pathway receptor smoothened (SMO) has critical roles in tumor progression. However, whether SMO is a key factor regulating gastric cancer chemotherapy resistance is unknown. Material/Methods We investigated the potential functions of SMO in inducing gastric cancer paclitaxel resistance in clinical samples, gastric cancer cell lines (424GC and AGS), and subcutaneous syngeneic mouse models. Results We found high SMO expression in paclitaxel-resistant gastric cancer clinical samples. Paclitaxel gastric cancer cells had higher SMO expression than in drug-sensitive cells. Upregulating SMO expression induced paclitaxel resistance in gastric cells lines via enhancing cell proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis. The combination of IPI-926, an inhibitor of SMO, with paclitaxel decreased cell viability of paclitaxel-resistant gastric cancer cells in vitro and controlled tumor growth in animal models. Conclusions The Hedgehog pathway receptor SMO is an important regulator of gastric cancer paclitaxel resistance and could be a target for sensitizing paclitaxel-resistant tumors. PMID:28350784

  11. Prognostic Significance of Signet Ring Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taghavi, Sharven; Jayarajan, Senthil N.; Davey, Adam; Willis, Alliric I.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Studies in Asia have questioned the dictum that signet ring cell carcinoma (SRC) has a worse prognosis than other forms of gastric cancer. Our study determined differences in presentation and outcomes between SRC and gastric adenocarcinoma (AC) in the United States. Patients and Methods The National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was reviewed for SRC and AC from 2004 to 2007. Results We reviewed 10,246 cases of patients with gastric cancer, including 2,666 of SRC and 7,580 of AC. SRC presented in younger patients (61.9 v 68.7 years; P < .001) and less often in men (52.7% v 68.7%; P < .001). SRC patients were more frequently black (11.3% v 10.9%), Asian (16.4% v 13.2%), American Indian/Alaska Native (0.9% v 0.8%), or Hispanic (23.3% v 14.0%; P < .001). SRC was more likely to be stage T3-4 (45.8% v 33.3%), have lymph node spread (59.7% v 51.8%), and distant metastases (40.2% v 37.6%; P < .001). SRC was more likely to be found in the lower (30.7% v 24.2%) and middle stomach (30.6% v 20.7%; P < .001). Median survival was not different between the two (AC, 14.0 months v SRC, 13.0 months; P = .073). Multivariable analyses demonstrated SRC was not associated with mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.11; P = .150). Mortality was associated with age (HR, 1.01; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.02; P < .001), black race (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.20; P = .026), and tumor grade. Variables associated with lower mortality risk included Asian race (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91; P < .001) and surgery (HR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.34 to 0.39; P < .001). Conclusion In the United States, SRC significantly differs from AC in extent of disease at presentation. However, when adjusted for stage, SRC does not portend a worse prognosis. PMID:22927530

  12. Is screening and surveillance for early detection of gastric cancer needed in Korean Americans?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Gwang Ha; Bang, Sung Jo; Ende, Alexander R.; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2015-01-01

    The incidence rate of gastric cancer in Korean Americans is over five times higher than that in non-Hispanic whites, and is similar to the incidence of colorectal cancer in the overall United States population. In Korea, the National Cancer Screening Program recommends endoscopy or upper gastrointestinal series for people aged 40 years and older every 2 years. However, the benefit of gastric cancer screening in Korean Americans has not been evaluated. Based on epidemiologic studies, Korean Americans appear to have more similar gastric cancer risk factors to Koreans as opposed to Americans of European descent, though the risk of gastric cancer appears to decrease for subsequent generations. Therefore, in accordance with recent recommendations regarding screening for gastric cancer in Korea, endoscopic screening for gastric cancer in Korean Americans should be considered, especially in those with known atrophic gastritis/intestinal metaplasia or a family history of gastric cancer. In the future, additional studies will needed to assess whether a screening program for gastric cancer in Korean Americans will result in a survival benefit. PMID:26552450

  13. Is screening and surveillance for early detection of gastric cancer needed in Korean Americans?

    PubMed

    Kim, Gwang Ha; Bang, Sung Jo; Ende, Alexander R; Hwang, Joo Ha

    2015-11-01

    The incidence rate of gastric cancer in Korean Americans is over five times higher than that in non-Hispanic whites, and is similar to the incidence of colorectal cancer in the overall United States population. In Korea, the National Cancer Screening Program recommends endoscopy or upper gastrointestinal series for people aged 40 years and older every 2 years. However, the benefit of gastric cancer screening in Korean Americans has not been evaluated. Based on epidemiologic studies, Korean Americans appear to have more similar gastric cancer risk factors to Koreans as opposed to Americans of European descent, though the risk of gastric cancer appears to decrease for subsequent generations. Therefore, in accordance with recent recommendations regarding screening for gastric cancer in Korea, endoscopic screening for gastric cancer in Korean Americans should be considered, especially in those with known atrophic gastritis/intestinal metaplasia or a family history of gastric cancer. In the future, additional studies will needed to assess whether a screening program for gastric cancer in Korean Americans will result in a survival benefit.

  14. Helicobacter pylori: gastric cancer and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Polk, D. Brent; Peek, Richard M.

    2010-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the dominant species of the human gastric microbiome, and colonization causes a persistent inflammatory response. H. pylori-induced gastritis is the strongest singular risk factor for cancers of the stomach; however, only a small proportion of infected individuals develop malignancy. Carcinogenic risk is modified by strain-specific bacterial components, host responses and/or specific host–microbe interactions. Delineation of bacterial and host mediators that augment gastric cancer risk has profound ramifications for both physicians and biomedical researchers as such findings will not only focus the prevention approaches that target H. pylori-infected human populations at increased risk for stomach cancer but will also provide mechanistic insights into inflammatory carcinomas that develop beyond the gastric niche. PMID:20495574

  15. Helicobacter pylori: gastric cancer and beyond.

    PubMed

    Polk, D Brent; Peek, Richard M

    2010-06-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the dominant species of the human gastric microbiome, and colonization causes a persistent inflammatory response. H. pylori-induced gastritis is the strongest singular risk factor for cancers of the stomach; however, only a small proportion of infected individuals develop malignancy. Carcinogenic risk is modified by strain-specific bacterial components, host responses and/or specific host-microbe interactions. Delineation of bacterial and host mediators that augment gastric cancer risk has profound ramifications for both physicians and biomedical researchers as such findings will not only focus the prevention approaches that target H. pylori-infected human populations at increased risk for stomach cancer but will also provide mechanistic insights into inflammatory carcinomas that develop beyond the gastric niche.

  16. Treatment modalities for early gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; del Rio, Maria Guerra

    2015-01-01

    Different treatment modalities have been proposed in the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC). Endoscopic resection (ER) is an established treatment that allows curative treatment, in selected cases. In addition, ER allows for an accurate histological staging, which is crucial when deciding on the best treatment option for EGC. Recently, endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) and endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) have become alternatives to surgery in early gastric cancer, mainly in Asian countries. Patients with “standard” criteria can be successfully treated by EMR techniques. Those who meet “expanded” criteria may benefit from treatment by ESD, reducing the need for surgery. Standardized ESD training system is imperative to promulgate effective and safe ESD technique to practices with limited expertise. Although endoscopic resection is an option in patients with EGC, surgical treatment continues to be a widespread therapeutic option worldwide. In this review we tried to point out the treatment modalities for early gastric cancer. PMID:26380052

  17. Prognostic factors for gastrectomy in elderly patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Hideo; Kubota, Hisako; Higashida, Masaharu; Akiyama, Takashi; Shiotani, Akiko; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2017-03-11

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the age-specific prognostic factors in patients who underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer. The medical records of 366 patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgical resection at our hospital between January 2007 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Of the 366 patients, 117 were aged 75 years or older and 249 were aged 74 years or younger. All factors that were identified as significant using univariate analysis were included in the multivariate analysis. The median follow-up duration was 52.9 months (range, 1.0-117.5 months). We found that in patients aged 75 years or older, postoperative complications and the extent of cancer were independent prognostic factors of overall survival and disease-free survival. In contrast, in patients aged 74 years or younger, only the lymph node status and postoperative chemotherapy were independent prognostic factors for overall survival and disease-free survival, respectively. Pathological outcomes and postoperative complications are important prognostic factors for survival in patients aged 75 years or older with gastric cancer, whereas pathological outcomes and postoperative chemotherapy are important prognostic factors for survival in patients aged 74 years or younger. Because the prevention of postoperative complications may contribute to improvements in the prognosis of elderly patients with gastric cancer, we suggest that it is necessary to consider limited surgery instead of radical surgery, depending on the patient's general condition and co-morbidities.

  18. Epigenetic inactivation of protein kinase D1 in gastric cancer and its role in gastric cancer cell migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mirang; Jang, Hay-Ran; Kim, Jeong-Hwan; Noh, Seung-Moo; Song, Kyu-Sang; Cho, June-Sik; Jeong, Hyun-Yong; Norman, Jim C; Caswell, Patrick T; Kang, Gyeong Hoon; Kim, Seon-Young; Yoo, Hyang-Sook; Kim, Yong Sung

    2008-03-01

    Protein kinase D (PKD) 1 influences cell migration by mediating both trans-Golgi vesicle fission and integrin recycling to the cell surface. Using restriction landmark genomic scanning methods, we found that the promoter region of PKD1 was aberrantly methylated in gastric cancer cell lines. Silencing of PKD1 expression was detected in 72.7% of gastric cancer cell lines examined, and the silencing was associated with CpG hypermethylation in the promoter region of PKD1. Treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine and trichostatin A partially reversed PKD1 methylation and restored gene expression in PKD1-silenced cell lines. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis of 96 paired clinical primary gastric cancer samples revealed that 59% of the analyzed tumors had a >2-fold decrease in PKD1 expression compared with each normal-appearing tissue and that this downregulation of PKD1 expression was significantly correlated with increased methylation. We also observed a gradual increase in the level of promoter methylation of PKD1 in aging, normal-appearing mucosal tissues, suggesting that PKD1 methylation may be one of the earliest events that predispose an individual to gastric cancer. PKD1 expression was required for directional migration of gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, knock down of PKD1 by RNA interference promoted the invasiveness of cell lines that expressed PKD1 at relatively high levels. Based on these results, we propose that PKD1 is frequently silenced by epigenetic regulation, which plays a role in cell migration and metastasis in gastric cancer.

  19. Role of the CacyBP/SIP protein in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Huihong; Meng, Juan; Jin, Haifeng; Li, Yuanfei; Wang, Jinbo

    2015-05-01

    Various reports indicate that calcyclin binding protein/Siah-1-interacting protein (CacyBP/SIP) is an important protein in tumorigenesis, but whether CacyBP/SIP promotes or suppresses cancer may depend on the cell type. In order to investigate whether CacyBP/SIP is significant in gastric cancerous tumorigenesis, the present study used immunohistochemistry to analyze 181 gastric cancer tissue samples, as well as 181 healthy tissue samples from the same gastric cancer patients. The immunohistochemical results were compared against patient data and pathological analysis of the tissue slices, including gender, age, degree of tumor differentiation and tumor, node, metastasis (TNM) stage. In addition, the level of CacyBP/SIP expression was detected in three frozen tissue samples of gastric adenocarcinoma using western blot analysis. Of the 181 cases analyzed in the present study, 80 cases were identified as non-metastatic gastric cancer and 101 cases were identified as gastric cancer that had metastasized to the lymph nodes. Tissue biopsies from the two sets of patients were examined using immunohistochemistry to identify the level of CacyBP/SIP expression in metastatic and primary gastric cancer tissues. Statistical analyses were performed on all data. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed that CacyBP/SIP was expressed in 31% (56/181) of gastric adenocarcinoma tissue samples and 7% (12/181) of adjacent non-cancerous gastric tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, the expression levels of CacyBP/SIP were higher in cancerous tissue compared with the adjacent non-cancerous gastric tissue using western blotting. No association was identified between CacyBP/SIP expression and patient age (P=0.975), gender (P=0.185), degree of tumor differentiation (P=0.076) or TNM stage (P=0.979). Among the 101 patients with metastatic gastric cancer, CacyBP/SIP was expressed at primary sites in 31% (31/101) of cases and at metastatic sites in 26% (26/101) of cases (P=0.434). However, among the

  20. Improving the outcomes in gastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Tegels, Juul J W; De Maat, Michiel F G; Hulsewé, Karel W E; Hoofwijk, Anton G M; Stoot, Jan H M B

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer remains a significant health problem worldwide and surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment option. Gastric cancer surgery is generally considered to be high risk surgery and five-year survival rates are poor, therefore a continuous strive to improve outcomes for these patients is warranted. Fortunately, in the last decades several potential advances have been introduced that intervene at various stages of the treatment process. This review provides an overview of methods implemented in pre-, intra- and postoperative stage of gastric cancer surgery to improve outcome. Better preoperative risk assessment using comorbidity index (e.g., Charlson comorbidity index), assessment of nutritional status (e.g., short nutritional assessment questionnaire, nutritional risk screening - 2002) and frailty assessment (Groningen frailty indicator, Edmonton frail scale, Hopkins frailty) was introduced. Also preoperative optimization of patients using prehabilitation has future potential. Implementation of fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery programs is showing promising results, although future studies have to determine what the exact optimal strategy is. Introduction of laparoscopic surgery has shown improvement of results as well as optimization of lymph node dissection. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has not shown to be beneficial in peritoneal metastatic disease thus far. Advances in postoperative care include optimal timing of oral diet, which has been shown to reduce hospital stay. In general, hospital volume, i.e., centralization, and clinical audits might further improve the outcome in gastric cancer surgery. In conclusion, progress has been made in improving the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer treatment is high risk surgery and many areas for future research remain.

  1. Improving the outcomes in gastric cancer surgery

    PubMed Central

    Tegels, Juul JW; De Maat, Michiel FG; Hulsewé, Karel WE; Hoofwijk, Anton GM; Stoot, Jan HMB

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a significant health problem worldwide and surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment option. Gastric cancer surgery is generally considered to be high risk surgery and five-year survival rates are poor, therefore a continuous strive to improve outcomes for these patients is warranted. Fortunately, in the last decades several potential advances have been introduced that intervene at various stages of the treatment process. This review provides an overview of methods implemented in pre-, intra- and postoperative stage of gastric cancer surgery to improve outcome. Better preoperative risk assessment using comorbidity index (e.g., Charlson comorbidity index), assessment of nutritional status (e.g., short nutritional assessment questionnaire, nutritional risk screening - 2002) and frailty assessment (Groningen frailty indicator, Edmonton frail scale, Hopkins frailty) was introduced. Also preoperative optimization of patients using prehabilitation has future potential. Implementation of fast-track or enhanced recovery after surgery programs is showing promising results, although future studies have to determine what the exact optimal strategy is. Introduction of laparoscopic surgery has shown improvement of results as well as optimization of lymph node dissection. Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy has not shown to be beneficial in peritoneal metastatic disease thus far. Advances in postoperative care include optimal timing of oral diet, which has been shown to reduce hospital stay. In general, hospital volume, i.e., centralization, and clinical audits might further improve the outcome in gastric cancer surgery. In conclusion, progress has been made in improving the surgical treatment of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer treatment is high risk surgery and many areas for future research remain. PMID:25320507

  2. Decreased expression of TLR7 in gastric cancer tissues and the effects of TLR7 activation on gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, JIONG; DONG, LEI; QIN, BIN; SHI, HAITAO; GUO, XIAOYAN; WANG, YAN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to determine the expression of Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) in gastric cancer tissues and investigate the effects of its activation on gastric cancer cells. Patients with gastric cancer (n=30) and patients without gastric cancer (control; n=14) who underwent gastroscopy were enrolled in the study. Gastric cancer and cancer-adjacent tissues were obtained from the patients with gastric cancer, and normal gastric epithelial tissues were obtained from the control patients. The TLR7 mRNA and protein expressions in different tissues were investigated by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The present study also determined the effects of TLR7 activation by the agonist imiquimod on TLR7 protein expression, proinflammatory cytokine secretion and viability in SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR7 were significantly downregulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with cancer-adjacent and normal gastric epithelial tissues (P<0.01). Imiquimod significantly increased TLR7 protein expression levels, and promoted the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in SGC-7901 cells. Furthermore, imiquimod inhibited the proliferation of SGC-7901 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Thus, the present study identified that the expression of TLR7 was decreased in gastric cancer tissues, and TLR7 activation enhanced TLR7 expression, promoted the production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibited the growth of gastric cancer cells. PMID:27347192

  3. Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Pseudoachalasia, and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mizrak, Dilsa; Alkan, Ali; Erdogdu, Batuhan; Utkan, Gungor

    2015-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a rare, inherited skeletal disorder characterized by abnormalities of type 1 collagen. Malignancy is rarely reported in patients with OI and it was suggested that this disease can protect against cancer. Here, we report a 41-year-old woman with symptoms of achalasia where repeated treatment of pneumatic dilation and stent replacement was unsuccessful; therefore, surgery was performed. Pathology showed gastric adenocarcinoma unexpectedly. Chemotherapy was given after assessing dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) enzyme activity, which can be deficient in OI patients. This is the first report of gastric cancer mimicking achalasia in a patient with OI. PMID:25874139

  4. Gastric cancer: epidemiology and risk factors.

    PubMed

    de Martel, Catherine; Forman, David; Plummer, Martyn

    2013-06-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the major malignancies in the world. This article summarizes the current understanding of the worldwide burden of this disease, its geographic variation, and temporal trends. An overview is presented of known risk factors, including genetic, dietary, and behavioral, but focuses on Helicobacter pylori infection as the most important factor in noncardia gastric cancer. When the data and the literature allow, we distinguish between cardia and noncardia sub-sites, as it is now clear that these two anatomic locations present distinct and sometimes opposite epidemiological characteristics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Sarcopenia and Visceral Obesity in Esophageal and Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-17

    Esophageal Cancer; Gastric Cancer; Sarcopenia; Sarcopenic Obesity; Obesity; Visceral Obesity; Quality of Life; Surgery; Complication of Treatment; Chemotherapeutic Toxicity; Physical Activity; Oncology

  6. Prevalence of deleterious ATM germline mutations in gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Tao, Hou-Quan; He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment.

  7. Correlation between SNPs in CDH1 and gastric cancer in Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Jintao; Wang, Lihui; Wang, Lan; Ma, Yunjia; Wang, Yuhua; Chen, Jianhong; Zhao, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Many recent studies revealed that the single nucleotide polymorphisms have considerable effects on the susceptibility of cancer, such as prostate cancer, lung cancer and gastric cancer. The E-cadherin, a calcium-dependent transmembrane glycoprotein encoded by CDH1 gene, is critical for epithelial construction, intercellular adhesion and cell migration. Some associations have been reported between single nucleotide polymorphisms and gastric cancer in the Chinese population. Objective To investigate whether the single nucleotide polymorphism in CDH1 gene is associated with the susceptibility of gastric cancer in the Chinese population. Material and methods The genotypes of 5 known single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs33935154, rs121964871, rs121964874, rs121964875, rs121964876) were determined in 359 gastric cancer patients and 368 healthy controls. High resolution melting curve detection and sequencing analysis were used in the present study. Results There is a statistical significance in the rs121964871 C>G polymorphism between gastric cancer patients and healthy controls (OR=1.769, 95%CI: 1.051–2.976). Elderly male individuals (>50 years of age) carrying this risk factor may be more susceptible to gastric cancer. Conclusions The results indicated that the rs121964871 C>G polymorphism is associated with the susceptibility of gastric cancer in the Chinese population, with some age and sex-dependent tendencies observed.

  8. Aberrant expression of intelectin-1 in gastric cancer: its relationship with clinicopathological features and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liduan; Weng, Mixia; Qi, Meng; Qi, Teng; Tong, Ling; Hou, Xiaohua; Tong, Qiangsong

    2012-01-01

    Human intelectin-1 (ITLN-1) is a novel identified galactose-binding lectin that is expressed in the colonic goblet cells. Since gastric adenocarcinomas can arise through a process of intestinalization, we speculate that ITLN-1 may be aberrantly expressed in gastric cancer. This study was undertaken to examine the ITLN-1 expression in gastric cancer and correlate it with clinical outcomes. One hundred and ninety-six gastric cancer patients were evaluated for the ITLN-1 expression by immunohistochemistry. The ITLN-1 transcripts were measured by real-time quantitative PCR. ITLN-1 expression was absent in normal gastric mucosa, whereas areas of intestinal metaplasia revealed ITLN-1 immunoreactivity. One hundred and forty-two gastric cancer patients (72.4%) were positive for ITLN-1 expression. In a subtotal of 20 patients, ITLN-1 transcripts were significantly enhanced in gastric cancer tissues than in normal gastric mucosa (P < 0.001). The expression rate of ITLN-1 was higher in intestinal-type carcinomas than in diffuse-type carcinomas (P = 0.003). ITLN-1 positivity in gastric cancer was positively correlated with tumor differentiation (P = 0.001) and CDX2 expression (P < 0.001), and inversely correlated with depth of invasion (P = 0.007), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.001), distant metastasis (P = 0.014), clinical stage (P = 0.006), Ki-67 expression (P = 0.001), and heparanase expression (P < 0.001), without correlation with age, gender, tumor location, or tumor size. In univariate and multivariate analyses, ITLN-1 was an independent prognostic factor for longer survival of gastric cancer patients (P = 0.001). The aberrant ITLN-1 expression in gastric cancer is correlated with clinicopathological features and may be a useful prognostic factor for predicting the outcomes of gastric cancer patients.

  9. Improvements in diagnosis have changed the incidence of histological types in advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Y.; Mori, M.; Kamakura, T.; Haraguchi, Y.; Saku, M.; Sugimachi, K.

    1995-01-01

    The data on 912 patients with early cancer and 1245 with advanced cancer who were seen between 1971 and 1990 were compared. The incidence of undifferentiated-type cancer increased significantly in patients with advanced gastric cancer, but not in patients with early gastric cancer. When the histological types were compared with regard to sex, age and location in patients with early gastric cancer the undifferentiated type was found to increase only in males, while in patients with advanced gastric cancer the undifferentiated type increased in both sexes as well as in younger patients and in both the upper and middle third of the stomach. These differences in the trends between early and advanced cancers are probably due to the different degrees of diagnostic accuracy for the early detection of histological types. PMID:7640228

  10. Intake of soy products and other foods and gastric cancer risk: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwang-Pil; Park, Sue K; Yang, Jae Jeong; Ma, Seung Hyun; Gwack, Jin; Shin, Aesun; Kim, YeonJu; Kang, Daehee; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2013-09-05

    Gastric cancer, the most common cancer in the world, is affected by some foods or food groups. We examined the relationship between dietary intake and stomach cancer risk in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort (KMCC). The KMCC included 19 688 Korean men and women who were enrolled from 1993 to 2004. Of those subjects, 9724 completed a brief 14-food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Through record linkage with the Korean Central Cancer Registry and National Death Certificate databases, we documented 166 gastric cancer cases as of December 31, 2008. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs. Frequent intake of soybean/tofu was significantly associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, after adjustment for age, sex, cigarette smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and area of residence (P for trend = 0.036). We found a significant inverse association between soybean/tofu intake and gastric cancer risk among women (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22-0.78). Men with a high soybean/tofu intake had a lower risk of gastric cancer, but the reduction was not statistically significant (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.52-1.13). There was no interaction between soybean/tofu intake and cigarette smoking in relation to gastric cancer risk (P for interaction = 0.268). Frequent soybean/tofu intake was associated with lower risk of gastric cancer.

  11. Intake of Soy Products and Other Foods and Gastric Cancer Risk: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kwang-Pil; Park, Sue K.; Yang, Jae Jeong; Ma, Seung Hyun; Gwack, Jin; Shin, Aesun; Kim, YeonJu; Kang, Daehee; Chang, Soung-Hoon; Shin, Hai-Rim; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2013-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer, the most common cancer in the world, is affected by some foods or food groups. We examined the relationship between dietary intake and stomach cancer risk in the Korean Multi-Center Cancer Cohort (KMCC). Methods The KMCC included 19 688 Korean men and women who were enrolled from 1993 to 2004. Of those subjects, 9724 completed a brief 14-food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Through record linkage with the Korean Central Cancer Registry and National Death Certificate databases, we documented 166 gastric cancer cases as of December 31, 2008. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs. Results Frequent intake of soybean/tofu was significantly associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer, after adjustment for age, sex, cigarette smoking, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and area of residence (P for trend = 0.036). We found a significant inverse association between soybean/tofu intake and gastric cancer risk among women (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.78). Men with a high soybean/tofu intake had a lower risk of gastric cancer, but the reduction was not statistically significant (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.52–1.13). There was no interaction between soybean/tofu intake and cigarette smoking in relation to gastric cancer risk (P for interaction = 0.268). Conclusions Frequent soybean/tofu intake was associated with lower risk of gastric cancer. PMID:23812102

  12. Classification of nodal stations in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Costamagna, Guido; Doglietto, Giovanni Battista; Alfieri, Sergio

    2017-01-01

    The lymphatic drainage from the stomach is anatomically elaborate and it is very hard to predict the pattern of lymph node (LN) metastases from gastric cancer (GC). However, there are LN stations metastases that are more frequently observed depending on the tumor location. Furthermore, the incidence of metastasis to various regional LN stations depends on the depth of gastric-wall invasion. The Japanese Gastric Cancer Association (JGCA) classifies the regional LNs draining the stomach into 33 regional lymphatic stations. These are distinguished into three (N1–N3) groups with respect to the location of the primary tumor. The aim of this classification is to provide a common language for the clinical, surgical, and pathological description of GC. PMID:28217752

  13. Glucose metabolism in gastric cancer: The cutting-edge

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Lian-Wen; Yamashita, Hiroharu; Seto, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in gastric cancer cells differs from that of normal epithelial cells. Upregulated aerobic glycolysis (Warburg effect) in gastric cancer meeting the demands of cell proliferation is associated with genetic mutations, epigenetic modification and proteomic alteration. Understanding the mechanisms of aerobic glycolysis may contribute to our knowledge of gastric carcinogenesis. Metabolomic studies offer novel, convenient and practical tools in the search for new biomarkers for early detection, diagnosis, prognosis, and chemosensitivity prediction of gastric cancer. Interfering with the process of glycolysis in cancer cells may provide a new and promising therapeutic strategy for gastric cancer. In this article, we present a brief review of recent studies of glucose metabolism in gastric cancer, with primary focus on the clinical applications of new biomarkers and their potential therapeutic role in gastric cancer. PMID:26877609

  14. Outcome of Gastric Cancer Surgery in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Owing to increased life expectancy, the number of elderly patients with gastric cancer has increased. This study aimed to identify the outcomes of gastric cancer patients aged 80 years or older through comparison of their clinicopathological characteristics, surgical outcomes, and oncologic outcomes. Materials and Methods Between January 2006 and December 2013, the records of 478 patients who underwent surgery for gastric cancer were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups: patients <80 years old (n=446) and patients ≥80 years old (n=32). Results There were no significant differences in sex, body mass index, length of hospital stay, duration of surgery, depth of invasion, nodal metastasis, histologic type, or tumor size between the two groups. However, significant differences were found for the American Society of Anesthesiologist score and the serum albumin level between the two groups. Postoperative morbidity, mortality, disease-free survival, and recurrence rate did not differ between curatively resected patients in the two groups. Conclusions In elderly patients with gastric cancer, active treatment including radical gastrectomy is necessary. PMID:28053812

  15. [Gastric cancer: epidemiologic profile 2001-2007 in Lima, Peru].

    PubMed

    Chirinos, Jesús L; Carbajal, Luz A; Segura, María D; Combe, J; Akiba, S

    2012-01-01

    To describe and compare the demographic and social characteristics as well as lifestyles of patients with gastric cancer against patients with other important gastric disorders, who attended at main reference health services in Lima, Peru. Case control study, matched by sex and age + 2 years, applying a questionnaire to 96 cases with gastric cancer, and to 96 controls from September 2001 to November 2007. There were no significant differences about ethnicity; marital status; exposure to minerals, wood, and metal dusts; tobacco and alcohol; red meat consumption; salt addition; food temperature. 87, 5% of the control group had lesions in the gastric antrum, and 73% of cases group had a tubular adenocarcinoma (56%) in the gastric antrum. There was no family history of cancer in 85% patients of cases group and 59% of controls, (with significant difference). There were significant differences in low scholarship level of cases, as well as for their mothers and fathers (OR 3.75, 3.9, and 3.49 respectively), fruit or vegetables intake, milk or cheese consumption (minus of once a day) (OR 2, 3, 2, 57 and 2, 9 respectively), type of fuel for cooking (firewood, charcoal, and kerosene OR 5, 25), lack of use of refrigerator (OR 8, 4). The profile of a gastric cancer patient was to proceed from the Andean zone (high altitude +3000 meters over sea level) and jungle, low education level (low socioeconomic level), low consumption of fruits, vegetables and milk, use of firewood, charcoal, or kerosene to cook, and no use of refrigerator. The most frequent histological diagnosis in the case group was tubular adenocarcinoma.

  16. Prognostic implication of hepatoduodenal ligament lymph nodes in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sung Eun; Choi, Min-Gew; Lee, Jun Ho; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract There has been controversy regarding whether hepatoduodenal lymph node (HDLN) metastasis in gastric cancer is distant or regional metastasis. HDLN positivity was classified as distant metastasis in the 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) classification, but it was reclassified as regional lymph node metastasis in the 8th AJCC classification. The aim of our study is to verify prognostic significance of HDLN metastasis in gastric cancer. This retrospective study enrolled patients with gastric cancer who underwent D2 gastrectomy from January 2007 to June 2010. HDLN was classified as a regional lymph node. Total number of patients was 3175; 143 (4.5%) of them had HDLN metastasis. The HDLN positivity was significantly associated with older age, more advanced tumor stage, undifferentiated histologic type, and pathologic diagnosis of lymphatic, vascular, and perineural invasions. Five-year survival rate of HDLN-positive patients with stages I to III disease was significantly higher than that of stage IV group (59.3% vs 18.8%, P = 0.001). In patients with stage III disease, 5-year survival rate of HDLN-positive group was significantly lower than that of HDLN-negative group (51.7% vs 66.3%, P = 0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that HDLN metastasis was an independent prognostic factor. HDLN has a different prognostic significance from other regional lymph nodes in advanced stage of gastric cancer though its positivity is not considered as distant metastasis. HDLN positivity itself seems to be an independent prognostic factor in gastric cancer, and the survival outcomes of patients with stage III disease need to be reconsidered according to HDLN positivity. PMID:28353581

  17. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Yang, Jianjun; Hong, Liu; Sun, Li; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Fan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and gastric cancer is relatively high, and its prognosis is controversial due to the complex and variant kinds of presentation. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer. From May 2010 to November 2015, a total of 241 gastric GIST patients were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. The patients with coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer were recorded. The clinicopathological features and prognoses of patients were analyzed. Among 241 patients, 24 patients had synchronous gastric cancer (synchronous group) and 217 patients did not (no-synchronous group). The synchronous group presented a higher percentage of elders (66.7% vs 39.6%, P = 0.001) and males (87.5% vs 48.4%, P < 0.001) than the no-synchronous group. The tumor diameter, mitotic index, and National Institutes of Health degree were also significantly different between the 2 groups (all P < 0.05). The 5-year disease-free survival and disease-specific survival rates of synchronous group were significantly lower than those of no-synchronous group (54.9% vs 93.5%, P < 0.001; 37.9% vs 89.9%, P < 0.001, respectively). However, the 5-year overall survival rates between synchronous and gastric cancer groups were comparable (37.9% vs 57.6%, P = 0.474). The coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer was common in elder male patients. The synchronous GIST was common in low-risk category. The prognosis of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer was worse than that of primary-single gastric GIST, but was comparable with primary-single gastric cancer. PMID:27828865

  18. Clinicopathological features and prognosis of coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhen; Liu, Shushang; Zheng, Gaozan; Yang, Jianjun; Hong, Liu; Sun, Li; Fan, Daiming; Zhang, Hongwei; Feng, Fan

    2016-11-01

    The coexistence of gastric gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) and gastric cancer is relatively high, and its prognosis is controversial due to the complex and variant kinds of presentation. Thus, the present study aimed to explore the clinicopathological features and prognostic factors of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer.From May 2010 to November 2015, a total of 241 gastric GIST patients were retrospectively enrolled in the present study. The patients with coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer were recorded. The clinicopathological features and prognoses of patients were analyzed.Among 241 patients, 24 patients had synchronous gastric cancer (synchronous group) and 217 patients did not (no-synchronous group). The synchronous group presented a higher percentage of elders (66.7% vs 39.6%, P = 0.001) and males (87.5% vs 48.4%, P < 0.001) than the no-synchronous group. The tumor diameter, mitotic index, and National Institutes of Health degree were also significantly different between the 2 groups (all P < 0.05). The 5-year disease-free survival and disease-specific survival rates of synchronous group were significantly lower than those of no-synchronous group (54.9% vs 93.5%, P < 0.001; 37.9% vs 89.9%, P < 0.001, respectively). However, the 5-year overall survival rates between synchronous and gastric cancer groups were comparable (37.9% vs 57.6%, P = 0.474).The coexistence of gastric GIST and gastric cancer was common in elder male patients. The synchronous GIST was common in low-risk category. The prognosis of gastric GIST with synchronous gastric cancer was worse than that of primary-single gastric GIST, but was comparable with primary-single gastric cancer.

  19. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    For stomach (gastric) cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test for the general U.S. population. Review the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for gastric cancer using barium-meal photofluorography, gastric endoscopy, or serum pepsinogen in this expert-reviewed summary.

  20. NCI International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    A collaboration among NCI and extramural investigators, established by DCEG in 2006, that utilizes data and biospecimens from completed and ongoing case series and observational studies of gastric cancer to replicate and extend findings from previous studies hindered by small numbers of EBV-positive cases, and to stimulate multidisciplinary research in this area.

  1. [Volumes of lymphadenectomy in gastric cancer surgery].

    PubMed

    Cherniavskiĭ, A A; Lavrov, N A

    2015-01-01

    It is summarized an experience of 1528 resections for gastric cancer supplemented by D1-, D2-, D2,5- and D3-lymphadenectomy in 751, 241, 359 and 177 patients resrectively. Unconventional type D2.5 means D2-lymphodis section with additional lymphadenectomy along hepatoduodenal ligament and superior retropancreatic nodes as well as omental bursa removal with lymphodis section of esophageal opening crura. Analysis of immediate and remote results is presented. It is concluded that D3-lymphadenectomy is minimally preferred over D2.5-type in gastric cancer staging. D3-lymphodis section has the largest number of especially purulent and pancreatogenic postoperative complications. D2.5-lymphadenectomy significantly increases 5-year survival in comparison with D2-lymphodis section (from 51.2 ± 4.9 to 64.0 ± 4.1%; p<0.001) and may be chosen for any radical surgery for gastric cancer including early forms. Localized proximal tumors which are in distinctive for metastasis into hepatoduodenal ligament lymph nodes are exception. D3-lymphodis section did not impact on survival in comparison with D2,5-lymphadenectomy. Only patients with antral cancer after distal subtotal gastric resection had 5-year survival increasing on 8 % (from 60.6 ± 7.5 to 68.5 ± 6.3%).

  2. [Hereditary gastric and pancreatic cancer predisposition syndromes].

    PubMed

    Leoz, María Liz; Sánchez, Ariadna; Carballal, Sabela; Ruano, Lucía; Ocaña, Teresa; Pellisé, María; Castells, Antoni; Balaguer, Francesc; Moreira, Leticia

    2016-01-01

    The most common hereditary gastrointestinal cancers are colorectal, mainly hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) and familial adenomatous polyposis. Other extracolonic neoplasms, including the gastric and pancreatic adenocarcinomas, are less well known and studied because they account for a relatively small percentage of hereditary gastrointestinal cancers. Nonetheless, they merit special attention because of the high associated morbidity and mortality rates. We review the hereditary and familial syndromes associated with gastric and pancreatic cancers with a view to improving knowledge and understanding of these diseases, in order to heighten diagnostic suspicion and thus implement appropriate diagnostic strategies, screening, surveillance and treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  3. Sensitive and Specific Detection of Early Gastric Cancer Using DNA Methylation Analysis of Gastric Washes

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Kim, Hyun Soo; Castoro, Ryan J.; Chung, Woonbok; Estecio, Marcos R. H.; Kondo, Kimie; Guo, Yi; Ahmed, Saira S.; Toyota, Minoru; Itoh, Fumio; Suk, Ki Tae; Cho, Mee-Yon; Shen, Lanlan; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Issa, Jean-Pierre J.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Aberrant DNA methylation is an early and frequent process in gastric carcinogenesis and could be useful for detection of gastric neoplasia. We hypothesized that methylation analysis of DNA recovered from gastric washes could be used to detect gastric cancer. Methods We studied 51 candidate genes in 7 gastric cancer cell lines and 24 samples (training set) and identified 6 for further studies. We examined the methylation status of these genes in a test set consisting of 131 gastric neoplasias at various stages. Finally, we validated the 6 candidate genes in a different population of 40 primary gastric cancer samples and 113 non-neoplastic gastric mucosa samples. Results 6 genes (MINT25, RORA, GDNF, ADAM23, PRDM5, MLF1) showed frequent differential methylation between gastric cancer and normal mucosa in the training, test and validation sets. GDNF and MINT25 were most sensitive molecular markers of early stage gastric cancer while PRDM5 and MLF1 were markers of a field defect. There was a close correlation (r=0.5 to 0.9, p=0.03 to 0.001) between methylation levels in tumor biopsy and gastric washes. MINT25 methylation had the best sensitivity (90%), specificity (96%), and area under the ROC curve (0.961) in terms of tumor detection in gastric washes. Conclusions These findings suggest MINT25 is a sensitive and specific marker for screening in gastric cancer. Additionally we have developed a new methodology for gastric cancer detection by DNA methylation in gastric washes. PMID:19375421

  4. [Matrix metalloproteases as molecular markers in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    de la Peña, Sol; Sampieri, Clara L; León-Córdoba, Kenneth

    2010-02-06

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-associated mortality in the world. Prognosis in patients with gastric cancer is difficult to establish because it is commonly diagnosed when gastric wall invasion and metastasis have occurred. Currently, some members of the extracellular matrix metalloproteinases have been identified, whose expression in gastric tumor tissue is significantly elevated compared to healthy gastric tissue. Matrix metalloproteinases are 24 zinc-dependent endopeptidases that catalyze the proteolysis of the extracellular matrix. This degradation allows the cancer cells invade the surrounding stroma and trigger metastasis. Upregulation of certain matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer has been associated with a poor prognosis and elevated invasive capacity. This review compiles evidence about the genetic expression of matrix metalloproteinases in gastric cancer and their role in tumour invasion and metastasis, emphasizing their potential as molecular markers of prognosis.

  5. Gastric cancer in Gwynedd. Possible links with bracken.

    PubMed Central

    Galpin, O. P.; Whitaker, C. J.; Whitaker, R.; Kassab, J. Y.

    1990-01-01

    One hundred and one histologically confirmed gastric cancer patients in Gwynedd, North Wales, were matched by sex, age and social class to two hospital inpatients without cancer. Seventy-seven of the gastric cancer cases were also matched, using the same criteria, to a patient with a confirmed cancer of a different site (excluding oesophagus). A questionnaire was used to determine bracken exposure and source of water in childhood. Residential and occupational histories were obtained and the consumption of buttermilk, a potential vector of the bracken carcinogens, was quantified. Comparison of the gastric cancer patients with the non-cancer controls indicated that exposure to bracken in childhood had an increased risk (RR = 2.34, P less than 0.001) compared to no exposure and that length of residence in Gwynedd was associated with increased risk (RR = 2.46 for durations of 61 years and over, P less than 0.01). Consumption of buttermilk in childhood and adulthood was attended by increased risk (RR = 1.61 and 1.86 respectively, the latter being statistically significant, P less than 0.05). Neither the residence effect nor consumption of buttermilk in adulthood remained significant when considered in a multivariate analysis with bracken exposure. PMID:2337510

  6. Trends and predictions for gastric cancer mortality in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Giusti, Angela Carolina Brandão; de Oliveira Salvador, Pétala Tuani Candido; dos Santos, Juliano; Meira, Karina Cardoso; Camacho, Amanda Rodrigues; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Souza, Dyego L B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the effect of age-period and birth cohort on gastric cancer mortality, in Brazil and across its five geographic regions, by sex, in the population over 20 years of age, as well as make projections for the period 2010-2029. METHODS: An ecological study is presented herein, which distributed gastric cancer-related deaths in Brazil and its geographic regions. The effects of age-period and birth cohort were calculated by the Poisson regression model and projections were made with the age-period-cohort model in the statistical program R. RESULTS: Progressive reduction of mortality rates was observed in the 1980’s, and then higher and lower mortality rates were verified in the 2000’s, for both sexes, in Brazil and for the South, Southeast and Midwest regions. A progressive decrease in mortality rates was observed for the Northeast (both sexes) and North (men only) regions within the period 1995-1999, followed by rising rates. CONCLUSION: Regional differences were demonstrated in the mortality rates for gastric cancer in Brazil, and the least developed regions of the country will present increases in projected mortality rates. PMID:27605887

  7. Trends and predictions for gastric cancer mortality in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Souza Giusti, Angela Carolina Brandão; de Oliveira Salvador, Pétala Tuani Candido; Dos Santos, Juliano; Meira, Karina Cardoso; Camacho, Amanda Rodrigues; Guimarães, Raphael Mendonça; Souza, Dyego L B

    2016-07-28

    To analyze the effect of age-period and birth cohort on gastric cancer mortality, in Brazil and across its five geographic regions, by sex, in the population over 20 years of age, as well as make projections for the period 2010-2029. An ecological study is presented herein, which distributed gastric cancer-related deaths in Brazil and its geographic regions. The effects of age-period and birth cohort were calculated by the Poisson regression model and projections were made with the age-period-cohort model in the statistical program R. Progressive reduction of mortality rates was observed in the 1980's, and then higher and lower mortality rates were verified in the 2000's, for both sexes, in Brazil and for the South, Southeast and Midwest regions. A progressive decrease in mortality rates was observed for the Northeast (both sexes) and North (men only) regions within the period 1995-1999, followed by rising rates. Regional differences were demonstrated in the mortality rates for gastric cancer in Brazil, and the least developed regions of the country will present increases in projected mortality rates.

  8. High Hepsin expression predicts poor prognosis in Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingming; Zhao, Junjie; Tang, Wenyi; Wang, Yanru; Peng, Peike; Li, Lili; Song, Shushu; Wu, Hao; Li, Can; Yang, Caiting; Wang, Xuefei; Zhang, Chunyi; Gu, Jianxin

    2016-01-01

    Hepsin, a membrane-associated serine protease, is frequently upregulated in epithelial cancers and involved in cancer progression. Our study aims to describe the expression pattern and evaluate the clinical implication of hepsin in gastric cancer patients. The mRNA expression of hepsin was analyzed in 50 gastric cancer and matched non-tumor tissues, which was downregulated in 78% (39/50) of gastric cancer. By searching and analyzing four independent datasets from Oncomine, we obtained the similar results. Furthermore, we evaluated the hepsin expression by IHC in tissue microarray (TMA) containing 220 Gastric Cancer specimens. More importantly, Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyses were taken to access the prognosis of gastric cancer and predicted that hepsin protein expression was one of the significant and independent prognostic factors for overall survival of Gastric Cancer. PMID:27841306

  9. Review of docetaxel in the treatment of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tetzlaff, Eric D; Cheng, Jonathan D; Ajani, Jaffer A

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a global health problem accounting for 800,000 cancer related deaths annually. Often diagnosed at an advanced stage, the treatment of gastric cancer with chemotherapy is directed towards palliating cancer related symptoms with only modest improvements in survival. In addition, no regimen has emerged as a globally accepted standard. New therapeutic options are desperately needed for the treatment of gastric cancer. Docetaxel given in combination has recently emerged as a new option for patients with advanced gastric cancer. This review focuses on the treatment of advanced gastric cancer utilizing docetaxel-based therapy and the novel additions of biotherapy to the existing cytotoxic platforms. In addition, the current investigations of docetaxel for the treatment of potentially curable gastric cancer will be discussed. PMID:19209281

  10. Gastric cancer incidence among Hispanics in California: patterns by time, nativity, and neighborhood characteristics.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ellen T; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Fish, Kari; Schupp, Clayton W; Parsonnet, Julie; DeRouen, Mindy C; Keegan, Theresa H M; Clarke, Christina A; Glaser, Sally L

    2012-05-01

    Better understanding about gastric cancer incidence patterns among Hispanics by birthplace, socioeconomic status (SES), and acculturation can improve preventive strategies and disease models. Incidence rates, rate ratios, and estimated annual percent change (EAPC) in rates of anatomic and histologic subtype-specific gastric cancer were calculated by age, sex, and nativity among Hispanics using California Cancer Registry data from 1988 through 2004. Incidence rates in 1998 to 2002 were compared by neighborhood SES and Hispanic enclave status according to 2000 US Census data. Incidence rates of diffuse gastric cancer increased from 1988 through 2004 among foreign-born Hispanic men (EAPC: 3.5%, 95% CI: 1.5%-5.5%) and U.S.-born Hispanic women (EAPC: 3.0%, 95% CI: 0.7%-5.3%). During the same time period, incidence rates of intestinal gastric cancer declined significantly and both cardia and noncardia gastric cancer were steady or declined among foreign-born and U.S.-born Hispanic men and women. Noncardia and both intestinal and diffuse gastric cancer were more common in foreign-born than U.S.-born Hispanic men and women, and in those from lower SES, higher enclave neighborhoods. By contrast, among younger and middle-aged Hispanic men, cardia tumors were more common in the U.S.-born than the foreign-born, and in higher SES, lower enclave neighborhoods. Varying gastric cancer risk factors among Hispanic subgroups and increasing rates of diffuse gastric cancer in foreign-born Hispanic men and U.S.-born Hispanic women merit further investigation to identify separate disease etiologies. Age, sex, birthplace, SES, and acculturation modify gastric cancer incidence in Hispanics and should be considered when examining disease risk and prevention.

  11. Outcome after emergency surgery in patients with a free perforation caused by gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tsujimoto, Hironori; Hiraki, Shuichi; Sakamoto, Naoko; Yaguchi, Yoshihisa; Horio, Takuya; Kumano, Isao; Akase, Takayoshi; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Aiko, Satoshi; Ono, Satoshi; Ichikura, Takashi; Kazuo, Hase

    2010-01-01

    Perforation of gastric cancer is rare and it accounts for less than 1% of the incidences of an acute abdomen. In this study, we reviewed cases of benign or malignant gastric perforation in terms of the accuracy of diagnosis and investigated the clinical outcome after emergency surgery in patients with a free perforation caused by gastric cancer. On the basis of pathological examination, gastric cancer was diagnosed in 8 patients and benign ulcer perforation in 32 patients. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis by pathological examination were 50, 93.8 and 85%, respectively. Except for age, there were no differences in the other demographic characteristics between patients with gastric cancer and benign ulcer perforation. The median survival time of patients with perforated gastric cancer was 195 days after surgery. Patients with gastric cancer perforation had a poorer overall survival rate than those who had T3 tumors without perforation. In addition, in patients with perforation, recurrence of peritoneum occurred more frequently. In conclusion, to improve the survival rate of patients with perforated gastric cancer and to improve the accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis, endoscopic examination and/or pathological examination of the frozen section should be performed, if possible. A balanced surgical strategy using laparoscopic local repair as the first-step of surgery, followed by radical open gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy may be considered.

  12. Outcome after emergency surgery in patients with a free perforation caused by gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    TSUJIMOTO, HIRONORI; HIRAKI, SHUICHI; SAKAMOTO, NAOKO; YAGUCHI, YOSHIHISA; HORIO, TAKUYA; KUMANO, ISAO; AKASE, TAKAYOSHI; SUGASAWA, HIDEKAZU; AIKO, SATOSHI; ONO, SATOSHI; ICHIKURA, TAKASHI; KAZUO, HASE

    2010-01-01

    Perforation of gastric cancer is rare and it accounts for less than 1% of the incidences of an acute abdomen. In this study, we reviewed cases of benign or malignant gastric perforation in terms of the accuracy of diagnosis and investigated the clinical outcome after emergency surgery in patients with a free perforation caused by gastric cancer. On the basis of pathological examination, gastric cancer was diagnosed in 8 patients and benign ulcer perforation in 32 patients. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis by pathological examination were 50, 93.8 and 85%, respectively. Except for age, there were no differences in the other demographic characteristics between patients with gastric cancer and benign ulcer perforation. The median survival time of patients with perforated gastric cancer was 195 days after surgery. Patients with gastric cancer perforation had a poorer overall survival rate than those who had T3 tumors without perforation. In addition, in patients with perforation, recurrence of peritoneum occurred more frequently. In conclusion, to improve the survival rate of patients with perforated gastric cancer and to improve the accuracy of intraoperative diagnosis, endoscopic examination and/or pathological examination of the frozen section should be performed, if possible. A balanced surgical strategy using laparoscopic local repair as the first-step of surgery, followed by radical open gastrectomy with lymphadenectomy may be considered. PMID:23136615

  13. [Image processing of early gastric cancer cases].

    PubMed

    Inamoto, K; Umeda, T; Inamura, K

    1992-11-25

    Computer image processing was used to enhance gastric lesions in order to improve the detection of stomach cancer. Digitization was performed in 25 cases of early gastric cancer that had been confirmed surgically and pathologically. The image processing consisted of grey scale transformation, edge enhancement (Sobel operator), and high-pass filtering (unsharp masking). Gery scale transformation improved image quality for the detection of gastric lesions. The Sobel operator enhanced linear and curved margins, and consequently, suppressed the rest. High-pass filtering with unsharp masking was superior to visualization of the texture pattern on the mucosa. Eight of 10 small lesions (less than 2.0 cm) were successfully demonstrated. However, the detection of two lesions in the antrum, was difficult even with the aid of image enhancement. In the other 15 lesions (more than 2.0 cm), the tumor surface pattern and margin between the tumor and non-pathological mucosa were clearly visualized. Image processing was considered to contribute to the detection of small early gastric cancer lesions by enhancing the pathological lesions.

  14. Risk Factors and Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Daniyal, Muhammad; Ahmad, Saeed; Ahmad, Mukhtiar; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad; Akram, Muhammad; Ur Rehman, Saif; Sultana, Sabira

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the 2nd most common cause of death among all cancers and is the 4th most common cancer in the world. The number of deaths due to gastric cancer is about 800,000 annually. Gastric cancer is more common in men as compared to women and is 3rd most common cancer after colorectal and breast cancers in women. A progressive rise in the incidence rate has been observed in females over the last 5 years. The highest incidence of stomach cancer is in China, South America and Eastern Europe. The incidence of gastric cancer has 20 fold variation worldwide. Global variation is linked by two factors which play important role in developing gastric cancer. One is infection with Helicobacter pylori and the 2nd is diet. South Asia is a region with low risk, despite a high prevalence of H.pylori. Gastric carcinoma is common in southern region of India. Gastric cancer is more readily treated if diagnosed early. This study aims to provide awareness about gastric cancer as well as an updated knowledge about risk factors and epidemiology of gastric cancer in Pakistan.

  15. Impact of endoscopic screening on mortality reduction from gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato; Ogoshi, Kazuei; Narisawa, Rintarou; Kishi, Tomoki; Kato, Toshiyuki; Fujita, Kazutaka; Sano, Masatoshi; Tsukioka, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate mortality reduction from gastric cancer based on the results of endoscopic screening. METHODS: The study population consisted of participants of gastric cancer screening by endoscopy, regular radiography, and photofluorography at Niigata city in 2005. The observed numbers of cumulative deaths from gastric cancers and other cancers were accumulated by linkage with the Niigata Prefectural Cancer Registry. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of gastric cancer and other cancer deaths in each screening group was calculated by applying the mortality rate of the reference population. RESULTS: Based on the results calculated from the mortality rate of the population of Niigata city, the SMRs of gastric cancer death were 0.43 (95%CI: 0.30-0.57) for the endoscopic screening group, 0.68 (95%CI: 0.55-0.79) for the regular radiographic screening group, and 0.85 (95%CI: 0.71-0.94) for the photofluorography screening group. The mortality reduction from gastric cancer was higher in the endoscopic screening group than in the regular radiographic screening group despite the nearly equal mortality rates of all cancers except gastric cancer. CONCLUSION: The 57% mortality reduction from gastric cancer might indicate the effectiveness of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer. Further studies and prudent interpretation of results are needed. PMID:25741155

  16. The current situation for gastric cancer in Chile

    PubMed Central

    Caglevic, Christian; Silva, Shirley; Mahave, Mauricio; Rolfo, Christian; Gallardo, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a neoplasm with a high incidence and mortality rate in Chile where more than 3000 people die every year from this type of cancer. This study shows the clinical and epidemiological considerations of this disease, information about translational research on this pathology in Chile, the contribution of Chilean doctors to the development of gastric cancer management awareness and the general situation of gastric cancer in Chile. PMID:28105078

  17. Resveratrol: A potential challenger against gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zulueta, Aida; Caretti, Anna; Signorelli, Paola; Ghidoni, Riccardo

    2015-10-07

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Late diagnosis and classical therapeutic approaches such as surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy make this disease a still threatening tumor. Genetic asset, environmental stress, dietary habit and infections caused by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are the major causes concurring to GC initiation. A common mechanism is induction of radicals resulting in gastric mucosal injury. A regular food intake of antioxidant and radical scavenging agents has been proposed to exert protection against tumorigenesis. Resveratrol belongs to the polyphenol flavonoids class of antioxidants produced by a restricted number of plants. Resveratrol exerts bactericidal activity against H. pylori and is a powerful antioxidant, thus acting as a tumor preventive agent. Resveratrol intracellular signaling results in growth arrest and apoptosis, so that it can be directed against tumor progression. Resveratrol therapeutic potential against GC initiation and progression are reviewed here.

  18. Gastric cancer after mini-gastric bypass surgery: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chun-Chi; Lee, Wei-Jei; Ser, Kong-Han; Chen, Jung-Chien; Tsou, Jun-Juin; Chen, Shu-Chun; Kuan, Wai-Sang

    2013-11-01

    Gastric cancer in the stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass or mini-gastric bypass is rare, but a few cases have been reported since 1991, when the first case emerged. According to the literature, the interval between bypass surgery and the diagnosis of cancer ranged from 1 to 22 years. Given the difficulty of monitoring a bypassed stomach, the potential for gastric cancer must be considered, especially in countries with high incidence of this cancer. The literature reported the first case in the Asia-Pacific region - a woman developed advanced gastric cancer in her stomach 9 years after laparoscopic mini-gastric bypass for morbid obesity. © 2013 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  19. Early gastric cancer. A 25-year surgical experience.

    PubMed Central

    Moreaux, J; Bougaran, J

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Special emphasis has been placed on pathologic features, survival after surgical treatment, and prognostic factors. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Incidence is much lower in Western countries than in Japan. All degrees of tumor differentiation met in invasive cancer may be found. Prognosis is remarkably good, compared with advanced gastric cancer. METHODS: After reexamination of the pathologic specimens of 115 patients, 101 patients were included in this study; 58 were male. Mean age was 60.7 years. Preoperative biopsies were positive in 88%. The lesion was located in the antrum in 78 patients. Subtotal gastrectomy was performed in 85 patients and total gastrectomy in 13 patients with a RI lymph node resection. RESULTS: Cancer was extended to submucosa in 68.3%, poorly differentiated in 48.5%, and multifocal in 12.9% of patients. Lymph node involvement was present in 18.8%. Secondary deaths (n = 25) were in relation with the cancer in 6 patients only. The 5-, 10-, 15-, and 20-year actuarial crude survival rates were 88, 65, 58, and 51%, respectively. The survival rate was significantly higher for mucosal lesions than for submucosal lesions (p < 0.01). Survival showed no significant correlation with lymph node involvement, tumor size, and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Subtotal gastrectomy is recommended, except for proximal lesions, with survey of the gastric stump. Prognosis is significantly better for cancers limited to mucosa. Early gastric cancer is not a specific entity. Transitions between early and advanced carcinomas, especially observed in the poorly differentiated carcinomas with signet ring cells, suggest that this type of cancer should be a precursor of the invasive gastric carcinomas. PMID:8385441

  20. The Clinical Evidence Linking Helicobacter pylori to Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Moss, Steven F

    2017-03-01

    Gastric cancer has long been recognized to be accompanied and preceded by chronic gastritis, lasting decades. Arguably, the most important development in our understanding of gastric cancer pathogenesis over the past 50 years has been the realization that, for most cases of gastric cancer, Helicobacter pylori is the cause of the underlying gastritis. Gastritis can promote gastric carcinogenesis, typically via the Correa cascade of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Nested case-control studies have shown that H pylori infection increases the risk of gastric cancer significantly, both of the intestinal and diffuse subtypes, and that H pylori is responsible for approximately 90% of the world's burden of noncardia gastric cancer. Based largely on randomized studies in high gastric cancer prevalence regions in East Asia, it appears that primary and tertiary intervention to eradicate H pylori can halve the risk of gastric cancer. Some public health authorities now are starting screening and treatment programs to reduce the burden of gastric cancer in these high-risk areas. However, there is currently much less enthusiasm for initiating similar attempts in the United States. This is partially because gastric cancer is a relatively less frequent cause of cancer in the United States, and in addition there are concerns about theoretical downsides of H pylori eradication, principally because of the consistent inverse relationship noted between H pylori and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Nevertheless, establishing a link between chronic H pylori infection and gastric cancer has led to novel insights into cancer biology, the gastrointestinal microbiome, and on individual and population-based gastric cancer prevention strategies.

  1. Metabolic syndrome and esophageal and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yulan; Ness-Jensen, Eivind; Hveem, Kristian; Lagergren, Jesper; Lu, Yunxia

    2015-12-01

    The role of the metabolic syndrome in the etiology of esophageal and gastric cancer is unclear. This was a large nationwide cohort study based on data from 11 prospective population-based cohorts in Norway with long-term follow-up, the Cohort of Norway (CONOR) and the third Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3). The metabolic syndrome was assessed by objective anthropometric and metabolic biochemical measures and was defined by the presence of at least three of the following five factors: increased waist circumference, elevated triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertension and high glucose. Newly diagnosed cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma and gastric adenocarcinoma were identified from the Norwegian Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for potential confounders. Among 192,903 participants followed up for an average of 10.6 years, 62 developed esophageal adenocarcinoma, 64 had esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma and 373 had gastric adenocarcinoma. The metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma (HR 1.44, 95% CI 1.14-1.82), but not associated with esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR 1.32, 95% CI 0.77-2.26) or esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.64-1.83). Increased waist circumference was associated with an increased HR of esophageal adenocarcinoma (HR 2.48, 95% CI 1.27-4.85). No significant association was found between any single component of the metabolic syndrome and risk of esophageal squamous-cell carcinoma. High waist circumference (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.05-2.80), hypertension (HR 2.41, 95% CI 1.44-4.03) and non-fasting glucose (HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.18-2.56) were also related to an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in women, but not in men. Metabolic syndrome was associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in women. Of

  2. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  3. Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.

    1981-01-01

    Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.

  4. Gastric Cancer in Young Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dhobi, Manzoor A.; Wani, Khursheed Alam; Parray, Fazl Qadir; Wani, Rouf A.; Peer, G. Q.; Abdullah, Safiya; Wani, Imtiyaz A.; Wani, Muneer A.; Shah, Mubashir A.; Thakur, Natasha

    2013-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to see the clinical, pathological, and demographic profile of young patients with stomach carcinoma besides association with p53. Patients and Methods. Prospective study of young patients with stomach carcinoma from January 2005 to December 2009. A total of 50 patients with age less than 40 years were studied. Results. Male female ratio was 1 : 1.08 in young patients and 2.5 : 1 in older patients. A positive family history of stomach cancer in the first degree relatives was present in 10% of young patients. Resection was possible only in 50% young patients. 26% young patients underwent only palliative gastrojejunostomy. The most common operation was lower partial gastrectomy in 68%. Amongst the intraoperative findings peritoneal metastasis was seen in 17.4% in young patients. 50% young patients presented in stage IV as per AJCC classification (P value .004; sig.). None of the patients presented as stage 1 disease in young group. Conclusion. Early detection of stomach carcinoma is very important in all patients but in young patients it is of paramount importance. PMID:24381753

  5. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: a public health priority.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-04-28

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  6. Gastric cancer research in Mexico: A public health priority

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Clara Luz; Mora, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed review studies conducted on Mexican patients diagnosed with gastric cancer and/or diseases associated with its development, in which at least one Mexican institute has participated, and to assess their contributions to the primary and secondary prevention of this disease. A search of the Medline database was conducted using the following keywords: gastric/stomach cancer, Mexico. Studies of the Mexican population were selected in which at least one Mexican Institute had participated and where the findings could support public policy proposals directed towards the primary or secondary prevention of gastric cancer. Of the 148 studies found in the Medline database, 100 were discarded and 48 were reviewed. According to the analysis presented, these studies were classified as: epidemiology of gastric cancer (5/48); risk factors and protectors relating to gastric cancer (9/48); relationship between Helicobacter pylori and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (16/48); relationship between the Epstein-Barr virus and pathologies associated with gastric cancer and the development of the disease (3/48); molecular markers for the development of diseases associated with gastric cancer and gastric cancer (15/48). Mexico requires a program for the prevention and control of gastric cancer based on national health indicators. This should be produced by a multidisciplinary committee of experts who can propose actions that are relevant in the current national context. The few studies of gastric cancer conducted on the Mexican population in national institutes highlight the poor connection that currently exists between the scientific community and the health sector in terms of resolving this health issue. Public policies for health research should support projects with findings that can be translated into benefits for the population. This review serves to identify national research groups studying gastric cancer in the Mexican

  7. Randomized trials and quality assurance in gastric cancer surgery.

    PubMed

    Dikken, Johan L; Cats, Annemieke; Verheij, Marcel; van de Velde, Cornelis J H

    2013-03-01

    A D2 lymphadenectomy can be considered standard of surgical care for advanced resectable gastric cancer. Currently, several multimodality strategies are used, including postoperative monochemotherapy in Asia, postoperative chemoradiotherapy in the United States, and perioperative chemotherapy in Europe. As the majority of gastric cancer patients are treated outside the framework of clinical trials, quality assurance programs, including referral to high-volume centers and clinical auditing are needed to improve gastric cancer care on a nationwide level. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. [Near-infrared Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Jin, Shaoqin; Mao, Hua

    2014-03-01

    To establish a method for early diagnosis of gastric cancer using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. A rapid near-infrared Raman system was used to examine the tissue specimens of pathologically confirmed gastric cancer (33 cases), gastric precancerous lesions (27 cases), and normal gastric mucosa (45 cases). All the specimens were obtained from 105 patients undergoing gastrectomy or endoscopic biopsy of suspected gastric lesions. High-quality Raman spectra ranging from 700 to 1800 cm(-1) were acquired from the gastric tissues within 5 s. The distribution pattern of Raman spectra in gastric cancer differed significantly from those of gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, particularly in the spectral ranges of 853 cm(-1), 936 cm(-1), 1003 cm(-1), 1032 cm(-1), 1174 cm(-1), 1208 cm(-1), 1323 cm(-1), 1335 cm(-1), 1450 cm(-1), and 1655 cm(-1), which contained signals related to proteins, nucleic acids and lipids. The diagnostic decision algorithm based on the Raman peak intensity ratios of I1003/ I1337, I1003/I1445, I1003/I1655, and I1156/I1655 yielded remarkable differences in gastric cancer from gastric precancerous lesions and normal gastric mucosa, and the ratios were significantly higher in normal gastric tissues (P<0.05). The discrimination based on near-infrared Raman spectroscopy using PCA-LDA algorithms associated with leave- one-out and cross-validation method showed diagnostic sensitivities of 81.5%, 85.3%, and 100%, and specificities of 86.4%, 100%, and 97.4% for normal gastric mucosa, precancerous lesions and gastric cancer, respectively. near-infrared Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with intensity ratio algorithms shows the potential for noninvasive diagnosis and detection of gastric malignancy at the molecular level.

  9. Current role of surgical therapy in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Ryan; Miner, Thomas J

    2006-01-01

    Surgery is currently the only potentially curative treatment for gastric cancer. Since the inception of the gastrectomy for cancer of the stomach, there has been debate over the bounds of surgical therapy, balancing potential long-term survival with perioperative morbidity and mortality. This review delineates the current role of surgery in preoperative staging, curative resection, and palliative treatment for gastric cancer. PMID:16489635

  10. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    There is no standard or routine screening test for stomach (gastric) cancer. Stomach (gastric) cancer is not common in the U.S. Learn about tests that have been studied to detect or screen for stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  11. Relationship between Salt Preference and Gastric Cancer Screening: An Analysis of a Nationwide Survey in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jeongseon; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between excessive salt intake and gastric cancer risk, and this potential risk increases the need for adequate gastric cancer screening in individuals with high salt intake. However, the association between salt intake and gastric cancer screening in the general population has rarely been investigated. We explored the association between salt preference and participation in gastric cancer screening among a nationally representative Korean population. Materials and Methods The study population was derived from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) 2006-2007, an annual nationwide interview survey investigating cancer screening rates. Of 4,055 individuals who participated in the KNCSS 2006-2007, 3,336 individuals aged over 40 years were included in our analysis. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Results Individuals with higher salt preference were less likely to participate in regular gastric cancer screening. After adjusting for age, sex, monthly household income, education, family history of cancer, and self-rated health status, ORs for undergoing regular gastric cancer screening were 1.00, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.12), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00), 0.77 (95% CI, 0.56 to 1.05), and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.92) according to the level of salt preference (p for trend=0.048). Conclusion Individuals with higher salt preference showed suboptimal gastric cancer screening adherence compared to those with a lower salt preference. These findings highlight the need for better delivery of educational messages to change risk perceptions regarding gastric cancer screening practice. PMID:26693914

  12. Relationship between Salt Preference and Gastric Cancer Screening: An Analysis of a Nationwide Survey in Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Jeongseon; Choi, Kui Son; Suh, Mina; Park, Boyoung; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2016-07-01

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated an association between excessive salt intake and gastric cancer risk, and this potential risk increases the need for adequate gastric cancer screening in individuals with high salt intake. However, the association between salt intake and gastric cancer screening in the general population has rarely been investigated. We explored the association between salt preference and participation in gastric cancer screening among a nationally representative Korean population. The study population was derived from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS) 2006-2007, an annual nationwide interview survey investigating cancer screening rates. Of 4,055 individuals who participated in the KNCSS 2006-2007, 3,336 individuals aged over 40 years were included in our analysis. The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were estimated using polytomous logistic regression. Individuals with higher salt preference were less likely to participate in regular gastric cancer screening. After adjusting for age, sex, monthly household income, education, family history of cancer, and self-rated health status, ORs for undergoing regular gastric cancer screening were 1.00, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.61 to 1.12), 0.74 (95% CI, 0.54 to 1.00), 0.77 (95% CI, 0.56 to 1.05), and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.16 to 0.92) according to the level of salt preference (p for trend=0.048). Individuals with higher salt preference showed suboptimal gastric cancer screening adherence compared to those with a lower salt preference. These findings highlight the need for better delivery of educational messages to change risk perceptions regarding gastric cancer screening practice.

  13. Menstrual and Reproductive Factors and Risk of Gastric and Colorectal Cancer in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Lope, Virginia; Fernández de Larrea, Nerea; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Martín, Vicente; Moreno, Victor; Costas, Laura; Longo, Federico; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Llorca, Javier; Ascunce, Nieves; Peiró-Pérez, Rosana; Altzibar, Jone M.; Tardón, Adonina; Alguacil, Juan; Navarro, Carmen; Sierra, Ángeles; Vega, Ana Belén; Villafañe, Amaya; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina; Aragonés, Nuria

    2016-01-01

    Background Sex hormones play a role in gastric cancer and colorectal cancer etiology, however, epidemiological evidence is inconsistent. This study examines the influence of menstrual and reproductive factors over the risk of both tumors. Methods In this case-control study 128 women with gastric cancer and 1293 controls, as well as 562 female and colorectal cancer cases and 1605 controls were recruited in 9 and 11 Spanish provinces, respectively. Population controls were frequency matched to cases by age and province. Demographic and reproductive data were directly surveyed by trained staff. The association with gastric, colon and rectal cancer was assessed using logistic and multinomial mixed regression models. Results Our results show an inverse association of age at first birth with gastric cancer risk (five-year trend: OR = 0.69; p-value = 0.006). Ever users of hormonal contraception presented a decreased risk of gastric (OR = 0.42; 95%CI = 0.26–0.69), colon (OR = 0.64; 95%CI = 0.48–0.86) and rectal cancer (OR = 0.61; 95%CI = 0.43–0.88). Postmenopausal women who used hormone replacement therapy showed a decreased risk of colon and rectal tumors. A significant interaction of educational level with parity and months of first child lactation was also observed. Conclusion These findings suggest a protective role of exogenous hormones in gastric and colorectal cancer risk. The role of endogenous hormones remains unclear. PMID:27776142

  14. Risk factors for delayed gastric emptying caused by anastomosis edema after subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Paik, Hyun-June; Choi, Chang-In; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Jeon, Tae-Yong; Kim, Dong-Heon; Son, Gyung-Mo; Lee, Si-Hak; Hwang, Sun-Hwi

    2014-09-01

    Delayed gastric emptying (DGE) is one of the most troublesome complications after subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer. We evaluated operative and perioperative variables to assess for independent risk factors of DGE caused by anastomosis edema. The study retrospectively reviewed clinical data of 382 consecutive patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer between 2009 and 2011 at a single institution. Delayed gastric emptying had occurred in twelve patients (3.1%). Univariate analysis revealed high body mass index (>25kg/m2), open gastrectomy, and Billroth II or Roux-en Y reconstructions to be significant factors for delayed gastric emptying. Multivariate analysis identified high body mass index and open gastrectomy as predictors of delayed gastric emptying. To avoid delayed gastric emptying, surgeons should take care in creating the gastrointestinal anastomosis, particularly in patients with high BMI or in cases of open gastrectomy.

  15. Determinants of gastric cancer screening attendance in Korea: a multi-level analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yunryong; Cho, Belong; Son, Ki Young; Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Hosung; Yang, Hyung-Kook; Shin, Aesun; Yoo, Keun-Young

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to assess individual and area-level determinants of gastric cancer screening participation. Data on gastric cancer screening and individual-level characteristics were obtained from the 2007-2009 Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The area-level variables were collected from the 2005 National Population Census, 2008 Korea Medical Association, and 2010 National Health Insurance Corporation. The data were analyzed using multilevel logistic regression models. The estimated participation rate in gastric cancer screening adhered to the Korea National Cancer Screening Program guidelines was 44.0% among 10,658 individuals aged over 40 years who were included in the analysis. Among the individual-level variables, the highest income quartile, a college or higher education level, living with spouse, having a private health insurance, limited general activity, previous history of gastric or duodenal ulcer, and not currently smoking were associated with a higher participation rate in gastric cancer screening. Urbanization showed a significant negative association with gastric cancer screening attendance among the area-level factors (odds ratio (OR) = 0.73; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.57-0.93 for the most urbanized quartile vs. least urbanized quartile). There are differences in gastric cancer screening attendance according to both individual and regional area characteristics.

  16. CD147 expression in human gastric cancer is associated with tumor recurrence and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Dake; Zhu, Shaojun; Li, Jipeng; Ji, Gang; Wang, Weizhong; Wu, Guosheng; Zheng, Jianyong

    2014-01-01

    CD147 is correlated with tumor aggressiveness in various human malignancies. Here, we investigated CD147 protein expression in 223 patients with gastric cancer by immunohistochemistry and analyzed its association with disease-free and overall survival. CD147 was increased in gastric cancer compared to normal tissues. Additionally, CD147 expression was associated with gastric cancer invasion, metastasis and TNM stage, whereas it was not related to age, sex, differentiation status, tumor site or Lauren classification. Kaplan-Meier analysis confirmed that CD147 was associated with disease-free and overall survival in patients with gastric cancer; i.e., patients with positive CD147 staining tend to have worse disease-free and overall survival. Moreover, Cox's proportional hazards analysis demonstrated that CD147 was an independent marker of disease-free and overall survival for patients with gastric cancer. These results confirm the association of CD147 with gastric cancer invasion and metastasis and prove that CD147 might be an indicator of tumor recurrence and prognosis in gastric cancer.

  17. EXPRESSION MECHANISM AND CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF NOB1 IN GASTRIC CANCER TISSUE AND ADJACENT NORMAL TISSUE.

    PubMed

    Zhou, W-P; Liu, X; Yang, Y; Liu, Y-F

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effect and relationship of NOB1 in the development of gastric cancer, based on an analysis of NOB1expression in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent tissue. Thirty gastric cancer tissue samples taken during surgery with complete pathological data and their related adjacent normal tissue were examined in this study. NOB1 protein expression in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Real-time PCR was used to detect NOB1 mRNA expression, which provided a basis on which to explore the clinical pathological characteristics for patients with gastric cancer. Results show that NOB1 protein in gastric cancer tissue and adjacent normal tissue were diffusely expressed both in the cytoplasm and nucleus. The positive expression rate in gastric cancer tissue was 73%, higher than that in adjacent normal tissue (47%). Both the reference NAPDH and NOB1 amplification are reflected in the amplification curve in standard S-shape and the unimodal solubility curve which was not altered by non-specific amplification and primer dimer. NOB1 mRNA relative expression in cancer tissue was 4.899∓1.412. NOB1 expression had no direct relationship with the patients’ age, gender, tumor differentiation or infiltration degree, lymphatic metastasis, distant metastasis nor pTNM periodization, but was directly related to the size of the tumor. All the findings in this paper suggest that NOB1 can be one of the focuses for diagnosing and treating gastric cancer and that its protein expression is likely to increase with the growth of tumor, thus playing a great role in the incidence and development of gastric cancer.

  18. High incidence of oesophageal and gastric cancer in Kashmir in a population with special personal and dietary habits.

    PubMed Central

    Khuroo, M S; Zargar, S A; Mahajan, R; Banday, M A

    1992-01-01

    Over a three year period (1 July 1986 to 30 June 1989) all newly diagnosed and histologically proved cases of oesophageal and gastric cancer were recorded prospectively. Some 1515 cases of oesophageal cancer (1050 men and 465 women) and 966 cases of gastric cancer (789 men and 177 women) were registered. Seven patients had simultaneous oesophageal and gastric cancer. Age standardised incidence rates for oesophageal cancer were: men 43.6/100,000 per year; women 27.9/100,000 per year. The rates for gastric cancer were: men 36.7/100,000 per year, women 9.9/100,000 per annum. These figures were three to six times higher than those recorded by cancer registries in Banglore, Madras, and Bombay. The incidence rates for oesophageal and gastric cancer in Islamabad (southern district of Kashmir) were 4.1 to 5.4 times higher in men and 1.5 to 2.0 times higher in women than those for Kupwara (northern district of Kashmir). The incidence rates for oesophageal and gastric cancer in Muslims, Hindus, and Sikhs were different. The epidemiology of oesophageal cancer in Kashmir was similar to that found in the 'Asian oesophageal cancer belt'. At the same time Kashmir also had an unprecedented high incidence of gastric cancer. Kashmiries have special personal and dietary habits. Further studies are needed to define the relation between these habits and the occurrence of oesophageal and gastric cancer. PMID:1740265

  19. Cronkhite-Canada syndrome associated with esophageal and gastric cancers: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Sohei; Takayama, Tomoyoshi; Wakatsuki, Kohei; Tanaka, Tetsuya; Migita, Kazuhiro; Nakajima, Yoshiyuki

    2015-06-01

    Cronkhite-Canada Syndrome (CCS) is a rare non-inherited gastrointestinal polyposis syndrome with characteristic ectodermal changes. We report an extremely unusual case of CCS associated with primary esophageal and gastric cancers. A 74-year-old Japanese man with symptoms of anorexia and diarrhea was found to have primary esophageal and gastric cancers, as well as multiple gastric and colonic polyps. Based on the physical findings of onychodystrophy and alopecia, we diagnosed CCS. Because of his age and nutritional status, we decided to perform total gastrectomy for gastric cancer and chemoradiotherapy for esophageal cancer, upon completion of which the patient was started on steroid therapy for the CCS. After 1 week of steroid therapy, the patient's watery diarrhea improved. We recommend that for patients with CCS, the therapeutic strategy be carefully considered based on the patient's nutritional status, the severity of the CCS, and the extent of gastrointestinal cancer.

  20. Whole-genome reconstruction and mutational signatures in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, Niranjan; Bertrand, Denis; Hillmer, Axel M; Zang, Zhi Jiang; Yao, Fei; Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Teo, Audrey S M; Cutcutache, Ioana; Zhang, Zhenshui; Lee, Wah Heng; Sia, Yee Yen; Gao, Song; Ariyaratne, Pramila N; Ho, Andrea; Woo, Xing Yi; Veeravali, Lavanya; Ong, Choon Kiat; Deng, Niantao; Desai, Kartiki V; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Hibberd, Martin L; Shahab, Atif; Rao, Jaideepraj; Wu, Mengchu; Teh, Ming; Zhu, Feng; Chin, Sze Yung; Pang, Brendan; So, Jimmy B Y; Bourque, Guillaume; Soong, Richie; Sung, Wing-Kin; Tean Teh, Bin; Rozen, Steven; Ruan, Xiaoan; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Tan, Patrick B O; Ruan, Yijun

    2012-12-13

    Gastric cancer is the second highest cause of global cancer mortality. To explore the complete repertoire of somatic alterations in gastric cancer, we combined massively parallel short read and DNA paired-end tag sequencing to present the first whole-genome analysis of two gastric adenocarcinomas, one with chromosomal instability and the other with microsatellite instability. Integrative analysis and de novo assemblies revealed the architecture of a wild-type KRAS amplification, a common driver event in gastric cancer. We discovered three distinct mutational signatures in gastric cancer--against a genome-wide backdrop of oxidative and microsatellite instability-related mutational signatures, we identified the first exome-specific mutational signature. Further characterization of the impact of these signatures by combining sequencing data from 40 complete gastric cancer exomes and targeted screening of an additional 94 independent gastric tumors uncovered ACVR2A, RPL22 and LMAN1 as recurrently mutated genes in microsatellite instability-positive gastric cancer and PAPPA as a recurrently mutated gene in TP53 wild-type gastric cancer. These results highlight how whole-genome cancer sequencing can uncover information relevant to tissue-specific carcinogenesis that would otherwise be missed from exome-sequencing data.

  1. Whole-genome reconstruction and mutational signatures in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is the second highest cause of global cancer mortality. To explore the complete repertoire of somatic alterations in gastric cancer, we combined massively parallel short read and DNA paired-end tag sequencing to present the first whole-genome analysis of two gastric adenocarcinomas, one with chromosomal instability and the other with microsatellite instability. Results Integrative analysis and de novo assemblies revealed the architecture of a wild-type KRAS amplification, a common driver event in gastric cancer. We discovered three distinct mutational signatures in gastric cancer - against a genome-wide backdrop of oxidative and microsatellite instability-related mutational signatures, we identified the first exome-specific mutational signature. Further characterization of the impact of these signatures by combining sequencing data from 40 complete gastric cancer exomes and targeted screening of an additional 94 independent gastric tumors uncovered ACVR2A, RPL22 and LMAN1 as recurrently mutated genes in microsatellite instability-positive gastric cancer and PAPPA as a recurrently mutated gene in TP53 wild-type gastric cancer. Conclusions These results highlight how whole-genome cancer sequencing can uncover information relevant to tissue-specific carcinogenesis that would otherwise be missed from exome-sequencing data. PMID:23237666

  2. Diagnosis and Management of High Risk Group for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Hyuk; Kim, Nayoung

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is associated with high morbidity and mortality worldwide. To reduce the socioeconomic burden related to gastric cancer, it is very important to identify and manage high risk group for gastric cancer. In this review, we describe the general risk factors for gastric cancer and define high risk group for gastric cancer. We discuss strategies for the effective management of patients for the prevention and early detection of gastric cancer. Atrophic gastritis (AG) and intestinal metaplasia (IM) are the most significant risk factors for gastric cancer. Therefore, the accurate selection of individuals with AG and IM may be a key strategy for the prevention and/or early detection of gastric cancer. Although endoscopic evaluation using enhanced technologies such as narrow band imaging-magnification, the serum pepsinogen test, Helicobacter pylori serology, and trefoil factor 3 have been evaluated, a gold standard method to accurately select individuals with AG and IM has not emerged. In terms of managing patients at high risk of gastric cancer, it remains uncertain whether H. pylori eradication reverses and/or prevents the progression of AG and IM. Although endoscopic surveillance in high risk patients is expected to be beneficial, further prospective studies in large populations are needed to determine the optimal surveillance interval. PMID:25547086

  3. Gastric cancer following bariatric surgery: a review.

    PubMed

    Orlando, Giulio; Pilone, Vincenzo; Vitiello, Antonio; Gervasi, Rita; Lerose, Maria A; Silecchia, Gianfranco; Puzziello, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Bariatric procedures can induce a massive weight loss that lasts for >15 years after surgery; in addition, they achieve important metabolic effects including diabetes resolution in the majority of morbidly obese patients. However, some bariatric interventions may cause gastroesophageal reflux disease and other serious complications. The aim of our study is to evaluate the risk of cancer after bariatric surgery. We conducted a review of the literature about the cases of gastric cancer arising after any bariatric procedure, including a case of adenocarcinoma incidentally discovered by the authors 6 months after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding. Globally, 17 case reports describing 18 patients were retrieved, including the case study by the authors. The diagnosis of tumor was at a mean of 8.6 years after bariatric surgery, 9.3 years after RYGB, and 8.1 years after restrictive procedures. The adenocarcinoma represented most cases (15 patients, 83%). In the patients with RYGB, the adenocarcinoma was localized in the excluded stomach in 5 patients (83%) and in the pouch in 1 patient (17%). After a restrictive procedure, the cancer was localized in the pouch in 5 patients (62.5%), in the pylorus in 2 patients (25%), and in lesser curvature only in 1 patient (12.5%). There is a lack of evidence about a connection between the late occurrence of gastric adenocarcinoma and the bariatric surgery. For this reason, although the preoperative upper endoscopy is still mandatory, there is no need for a regular endoscopic evaluation of patients after surgery.

  4. Risk of Gastric Cancer Among Patients With Intestinal Metaplasia of the Stomach in a US Integrated Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kavya M; Chang, Jonathan I; Shi, Jiaxiao M; Wu, Bechien U

    2016-10-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) is a common finding from routine endoscopies. Although GIM is an early step in gastric carcinogenesis, there is controversy regarding routine surveillance of patients with GIM in regions with a low prevalence of gastric cancer. We aimed to determine the incidence of gastric cancer among patients with GIM and risk factors for gastric cancer. We performed a retrospective cohort study of patients from the Kaiser Permanente Southern California region diagnosed with GIM from 2000 through 2011. GIM was identified by a keyword search of pathology reports; gastric cancer cases were identified by cross-reference with an internal cancer registry. The incidence of gastric cancer in patients with GIM (n = 923; median age at diagnosis, 68 y) was compared with that of an age- and sex-matched reference population (controls). Risk factors such as ethnicity, smoking status, history of Helicobacter pylori infection, and family history of gastric cancer were evaluated by individual Cox proportional hazards regression. We then performed a second case-cohort study to evaluate the risk of gastric cancer based on the location and extent of GIM. The median duration of follow-up evaluation was 4.6 years (interquartile range, 3.0-6.7 y). We identified 25 patients with GIM who developed gastric cancers. Seventeen cases of cancer were diagnosed at the same time as the diagnosis of GIM. Eight cases of cancer were identified within a median time period of 4.6 years after a diagnosis of GIM (interquartile range, 2-5.7 y). The overall incidence rate for the cohort was 1.72 (95% confidence interval, 0.74-3.39). Among the risk factors evaluated, only family history (hazard ratio, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-9.7; P = .012) and extent of GIM (odds ratio, 9.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-50.4) increased the risk for gastric cancer. The incidence rate for gastric cancer in patients with a positive family history was 8.12 (95% confidence interval, 1

  5. Prevention of Gastric Cancer: Eradication of Helicobacter pylori and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuya; Nakagawa, Mitsuru; Kiriyama, Yuka; Toyoda, Takeshi; Cao, Xueyuan

    2017-01-01

    Although its prevalence is declining, gastric cancer remains a significant public health issue. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori is known to colonize the human stomach and induce chronic atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer. Results using a Mongolian gerbil model revealed that H. pylori infection increased the incidence of carcinogen-induced adenocarcinoma, whereas curative treatment of H. pylori significantly lowered cancer incidence. Furthermore, some epidemiological studies have shown that eradication of H. pylori reduces the development of metachronous cancer in humans. However, other reports have warned that human cases of atrophic metaplastic gastritis are already at risk for gastric cancer development, even after eradication of these bacteria. In this article, we discuss the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication and the morphological changes that occur in gastric dysplasia/cancer lesions. We further assess the control of gastric cancer using various chemopreventive agents. PMID:28771198

  6. Pylorus-Preserving Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seung-Young; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    Pylorus-preserving gastrectomy (PPG) is a function-preserving surgery for the treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC), aiming to decrease the complication rate and improve postoperative quality of life. According to the Japanese gastric cancer treatment guidelines, PPG can be performed for cT1N0M0 gastric cancer located in the middle-third of the stomach, at least 4.0 cm away from the pylorus. Although the length of the antral cuff gradually increased, from 1.5 cm during the initial use of the procedure to 3.0 cm currently, its optimal length still remains unclear. Standard procedures for the preservation of pyloric function, infra-pyloric vessels, and hepatic branch of the vagus nerve, make PPG technically more difficult and raise concerns about incomplete lymph node dissection. The short- and long-term oncological and survival outcomes of PPG were comparable to those for distal gastrectomy, but with several advantages such as a lower incidence of dumping syndrome, bile reflux, and gallstone formation, and improved nutritional status. Gastric stasis, a typical complication of PPG, can be effectively treated by balloon dilatation and stent insertion. Robot-assisted pylorus-preserving gastrectomy is feasible for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach in terms of the short-term clinical outcome. However, any benefits over laparoscopy-assisted PPG (LAPPG) from the patient's perspective have not yet been proven. An ongoing Korean multicenter randomized controlled trial (KLASS-04), which compares LAPPG and laparoscopy-assisted distal gastrectomy for EGC in the middle-third of the stomach, may provide more clear evidence about the advantages and oncologic safety of PPG. PMID:27433390

  7. A Phase I/II Study of Oblimersen Plus Cisplatin and Fluorouracil in Gastric & Esophageal Junction Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-06-10

    Adenocarcinoma of the Esophagus; Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Esophageal Cancer; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Esophagus; Stage III Esophageal Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Esophageal Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  8. Repression of PES1 expression inhibits growth of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Jieping; Zhou, Xiaodong; Lan, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Guobin; Jiang, Xuping; Huang, Zongming

    2016-03-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. However, precise molecular mechanisms underlining its development are far from clear. We recently reported that PES1 promoted development of breast cancer and ovarian cancer as an oncogene. In this study, we reported that ablation of endogenous PES1 resulted in significant suppression of cell proliferation and growth and led to cell cycle arrest in G2 or G1 phase, respectively, in two gastric cancer cell lines (AGS and N87) in vitro. Meanwhile, silencing of PES1 obviously decreased expressions of cyclin D1, HIF-1α, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expressions and increased p21WAF1 expression. Re-expression of PES1 in these two kinds of PES1 knockdown cells rescued these effects. In vivo, repression of endogenous PES1 expression suppressed gastric tumor growth in nude mice. In addition, 40.7 % (24/59) of gastric cancer tissues showed PES1 expression via immunohistochemical (IHC) staining. However, there were not any positive PES1 stainings in matched adjacent tissues. Our results demonstrated that repression of PES1 changed expressions of some cell proliferation- and angiogenesis-related genes and inhibited gastric cancer growth, and PES1 expression increased in gastric cancer tissues. These results suggest that PES1 may play an important role in development of gastric cancer. PES1 may be a potential target for gastric cancer therapy.

  9. Current issues and future perspectives of gastric cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and "screen and treat" method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker development road map. Several observational studies have reported the effectiveness of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. On the other hand, serologic testing has mainly been used for targeting the high-risk group for gastric cancer. To date, the effectiveness of new techniques for gastric cancer screening has remained limited. However, endoscopic screening is presently in the last trial phase of development before their introduction to population-based screening. To effectively introduce new techniques for gastric cancer screening in a community, incidence and mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be initially and thoroughly evaluated by conducting reliable studies. In addition to effectiveness evaluation, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully assessed before introducing these new techniques for population-based screening.

  10. Current issues and future perspectives of gastric cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. About half of the incidence of gastric cancer is observed in East Asian countries, which show a higher mortality than other countries. The effectiveness of 3 new gastric cancer screening techniques, namely, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, serological testing, and “screen and treat” method were extensively reviewed. Moreover, the phases of development for cancer screening were analyzed on the basis of the biomarker development road map. Several observational studies have reported the effectiveness of endoscopic screening in reducing mortality from gastric cancer. On the other hand, serologic testing has mainly been used for targeting the high-risk group for gastric cancer. To date, the effectiveness of new techniques for gastric cancer screening has remained limited. However, endoscopic screening is presently in the last trial phase of development before their introduction to population-based screening. To effectively introduce new techniques for gastric cancer screening in a community, incidence and mortality reduction from gastric cancer must be initially and thoroughly evaluated by conducting reliable studies. In addition to effectiveness evaluation, the balance of benefits and harms must be carefully assessed before introducing these new techniques for population-based screening. PMID:25320514

  11. Relationship between body mass index and the risk of early gastric cancer and dysplasia regardless of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Hyun Young; Lee, Hye Seung; Yoon, Hyuk; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung Ho; Lee, Kyoung-Ho; Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hee Man; Lee, Dong Ho

    2015-10-01

    Obesity is known to be associated with an increased risk of gastric cardia cancer but not with noncardia cancer. In terms of gastric dysplasia, few studies have evaluated its relationship with obesity. In addition, no study on the relationship between obesity and the risk of gastric cancer has analyzed the status of Helicobacter pylori infection. A case-control study was designed to investigate the relationship between obesity and the risk of gastric cancer and dysplasia adjusted for the status of H. pylori infection in Koreans. Nine hundred ninety-eight gastric cancer patients, 313 gastric dysplasia patients, and 1,288 subjects with normal endoscopic findings were included. As gender differences could be the largest confounding factor, the risk of gastric cancer and dysplasia with an increasing body mass index (BMI) was analyzed in men and women, separately, and was adjusted for age, smoking, drinking, family history of gastric cancer, H. pylori infection, atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and serum pepsinogen I/pepsinogen II ratio. Obesity (BMI 25 kg/m(2) or greater but less than 30 kg/m(2)) was associated with increased risk of early gastric cancer [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.657; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.086-2.528; P = 0.019] and well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma (aOR 1.566; 95 % CI 1.011-2.424; P = 0.044) compared with normal BMI status (BMI < 23 kg/m(2)) in men. Obesity was related to gastric dysplasia (aOR 2.086; 95 % CI 1.011-4.302; P = 0.047) in women. The effect of obesity on gastric cancer showed a gender difference. That is, in men it was related to increased risk of early gastric cancer and well or moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, but it was associated with gastric dysplasia in women regardless of H. pylori infection in Korea. Further research into this difference is necessary.

  12. CDH1 methylation in preoperative peritoneal washes is an independent prognostic factor for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qi-Ming; Wang, Xin-Bao; Luo, Jun; Wang, Shi; Fang, Xian-Hua; Yu, Jiang-Liu; Ling, Zhi-Qiang

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives To investigate the clinical value of CDH1 methylation in preoperative peritoneal washes (PPW) from gastric cancer patients. Methods CDH1 methylation was detected by real-time methylation specific-PCR in tumor tissues and corresponding PPW from 92 gastric cancer patients, gastric mucosa from 40 chronic gastritis patients and 48 normal persons. Results CDH1 methylation was found in 75 of 92 (81.5%) gastric cancer tissues, which significantly correlated with size, growth pattern, differentiation, lymphatic invasion, venous invasion, invasion depth, lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, and TNM stage of tumor (all P < 0.05), but its relationship to age, gender, tumor site, and H. pylori infection was not found (all P > 0.05). The percentage of CDH1 methylation in PPW was 48.9%, of which the Aζ value of ROC curve was 0.8 compared to that in gastric cancer tissues. Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that there was a significant difference in disease-free survival (DFS) between the patients with or without methylated CDH1 in their PPW (χ2 = 109.64, P < 0.000). Cox regression analysis revealed CDH1 methylation in PPW was an independent risk factor for gastric cancer patients, with a remarkable decrease in DFS after postoperative 30 months. Conclusions Methylated CDH1 in PPW predicts poor prognosis for gastric cancer patients. J. Surg. Oncol. 2012; 106:765–771. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:22514028

  13. Gastric cancer: Prevention, screening and early diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach. PMID:25320521

  14. Gastric cancer: prevention, screening and early diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Pasechnikov, Victor; Chukov, Sergej; Fedorov, Evgeny; Kikuste, Ilze; Leja, Marcis

    2014-10-14

    Gastric cancer continues to be an important healthcare problem from a global perspective. Most of the cases in the Western world are diagnosed at late stages when the treatment is largely ineffective. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a well-established carcinogen for gastric cancer. While lifestyle factors are important, the efficacy of interventions in their modification, as in the use of antioxidant supplements, is unconvincing. No organized screening programs can be found outside Asia (Japan and South Korea). Although several screening approaches have been proposed, including indirect atrophy detection by measuring pepsinogen in the circulation, none of them have so far been implemented, and more study data is required to justify any implementation. Mass eradication of H. pylori in high-risk areas tends to be cost-effective, but its adverse effects and resistance remain a concern. Searches for new screening biomarkers, including microRNA and cancer-autoantibody panels, as well as detection of volatile organic compounds in the breath, are in progress. Endoscopy with a proper biopsy follow-up remains the standard for early detection of cancer and related premalignant lesions. At the same time, new advanced high-resolution endoscopic technologies are showing promising results with respect to diagnosing mucosal lesions visually and targeting each biopsy. New histological risk stratifications (classifications), including OLGA and OLGIM, have recently been developed. This review addresses the current means for gastric cancer primary and secondary prevention, the available and emerging methods for screening, and new developments in endoscopic detection of early lesions of the stomach.

  15. Expression and clinical significance of matrix metalloproteinase-17 and -25 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YING; YU, SHI-JIE; LI, YAN-XIA; LUO, HE-SHENG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression and clinicopathological features of matrix metalloproteinase 17 (MMP17; also known as MT4-MMP) and MMP25 (also known as MT6-MMP) in gastric cancer. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the expression of MMP17 and MMP25 in 42 cases of gastric carcinoma and normal tissues, and 40 cases of atrophic gastritis. The expression of MMP17 in the normal gastric and atrophic gastritis tissues was significantly lower than that in the gastric cancer tissues (P<0.05). The expression of MMP25 in the gastric cancer and atrophic gastritis tissues was markedly higher compared with the normal gastric tissues (P<0.05). The expression of MMP17 and MMP25 was significantly associated with the depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and serous membrane involvement (P<0.05), but not with patient age and gender, or lesion length, site and histological grade (P>0.05). Therefore, this indicates that the expression of MMP17 and MMP25 is increased with the degree of progress of gastric carcinoma. The detection of MMP17 and MMP25 expression may have clinical value in predicting the prognosis of patients with gastric cancer. PMID:25621036

  16. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Lei; Wu, Ruo-Lin; Xu, A-Man

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with poor prognosis for lack of early detection and effective treatment modalities. The significant influence of tumor microenvironment on malignant cells has been extensively investigated in this targeted-therapy era. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved and fundamental process that is critical for embryogenesis and some other pathophysiological processes, especially tumor genesis and progression. Aberrant gastric EMT activation could endow gastric epithelial cells with increased mesenchymal characteristics and less epithelial features, and promote cancer cell stemness, initiation, invasion, metastasis, and chemo-resistance with cellular adhesion molecules especially E-cadherin concomitantly repressed, which allows tumor cells to disseminate and spread throughout the body. Some pathogens, stress, and hypoxia could induce and aggravate GC via EMT, which is significantly correlated with prognosis. GC EMT is modulated by diverse micro-environmental, membrane, and intracellular cues, and could be triggered by various overexpressed transcription factors, which are downstream of several vital cross-talking signaling pathways including TGF-β, Wnt/β-catenin, Notch, etc. microRNAs also contribute significantly to GC EMT modulation. There are currently some agents which could suppress GC EMT, shedding light on novel anti-malignancy strategies. Investigating potential mechanisms modulating GC cell EMT and discovering novel EMT regulators will further elucidate GC biology, and may provide new biomarkers for early GC detection and potentially efficient targets for preventative and curative anti-GC intervention approaches to prevent local and distant invasions. PMID:26807164

  17. Novel targets in gastric and esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Claudia María; Macarulla, Teresa; Casado, Esther; Ramos, Francisco Javier; Martinelli, Erika; Tabernero, Josep

    2006-08-01

    Esophageal cancer (EC) and gastric cancer (GC) constitute a major cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Recent improvements in both surgical techniques and adjuvant/neoadjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both have increased the survival of patients with loco-regional disease. However, most patients with GC or EC have advanced disease either at diagnosis or during the follow-up, and despite recent advances, these patients still do poorly. Understanding of the molecular pathways that characterize cell growth, cell cycle, apoptosis, angiogenesis and invasion has provided novel targets in cancer therapy. In this review we describe the current status of targeted therapies in the treatment of EC and GC, including EGFR inhibitors, antiangiogenic agents, cell cycle inhibitors, apoptosis promoters and matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors. The emerging data from the clinical development of these compounds has provided novel opportunities in the treatment of EC and GC that will probably translate into clinical benefit for patients with these common malignancies.

  18. Risk Factors for Gallstone Formation after Surgery for Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Jin; Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Young Suk; Ahn, Sang-Hoon; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung-Ho

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of gallstones after gastrectomy for gastric cancer is higher than in the general population. However, the causes and mechanisms of post-gastrectomy gallstones are unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of gallstone formation and the risk factors for their development after gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Of 1,744 gastric cancer patients who underwent gastrectomy at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between January 2010 and December 2012, 1,284 were included in this study and retrospectively reviewed. Patients' age, sex, body mass index (BMI), tumor location, stage, type of gastrectomy, type of reconstruction, and extent of node dissection were evaluated. The incidence of gallstones after gastrectomy for gastric cancer was significantly higher in men than in women (P=0.019). Exclusion of the duodenum during reconstruction was associated with a significantly higher incidence of gallstones (P=0.003). Overweight and obese patients with BMI ≥23 kg/m(2) had significantly higher incidence of gallstones than those with a lower BMI (P=0.006). Multivariate analysis showed that obesity (hazard ratio, HR=1.614; 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.135~2.296; P=0.008), male sex (HR=1.515, 95% CI: 1.029~2.231, P=0.033), and exclusion of the duodenum (HR=1.648, 95% CI: 1.192~2.280, P=0.003) were significant, independent risk factors for gallstones after gastrectomy. The cumulative incidence of gallstones for 5 years after gastrectomy was 15.3%. Male sex, obesity, and exclusion of the duodenum were risk factors for gallstone formation after gastrectomy. Careful surveillance will be required for these patient groups after gastrectomy.

  19. Astragalus extract inhibits proliferation but enhances apoptosis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhengguang; Dong, Liuyi; Zhen, Yinan; Wang, Yanan; Qi, Dongjiang; Xu, Aman; Meng, Xiangling; Li, Weiping

    2016-09-01

    We and others have shown that Astragalus extract (AE) regulates various cellular processes including inflammation and apoptosis. It remains elusive whether and how AE modulates apoptosis in gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The objective of this study is to determine the effects and mechanisms of AE on the proliferation and apoptosis of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells and on tumor growth in orthotopic transplantation gastric tumor model in nude mice. Human gastric adenocarcinoma SGC-7901 cells and nude mice implanted with gastric cancer cells were treated with different concentration of AE and 5-fluorouracil as control. Cellular proliferation, apoptosis and tumor growth as well as interleukin (IL)-6/signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 3 signals pathway were determined. We found that AE inhibited proliferation but caused apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. Furthermore, the tumor growth and volume were reduced by AE administration in nude mice implanted with gastric cancer cells. In addition, treatments with AE decreased the expression of Bcl-2 proteins, whereas the expression of Bax was increased after AE treatment in tumor tissues of nude mice transplanted with human gastric cancer cells. This was associated with AE-mediated reduction of IL-6, phosphorylated Stat3, survivin and vascular endothelial growth factor. Overall, AE enhances apoptosis in gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, which is associated with decreased activation of IL-6/Stat3 signals.

  20. Gastric Cancer Surgery – A Balance of Risk and Radicality

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, Peter; Sivashanmugam, T; White, Martin; Irving, Mark; Wayman, John; Raimes, Simon

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The aim of this study was to determine whether tailoring the extent of resection would allow radical gastric cancer surgery to be performed safely in a UK population. PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 180 consecutive patients (median age 70 years; male:female ratio 2:1) undergoing resection for gastric adenocarcinoma with curative intent were studied. Extent of lymphadenectomy was based upon pre-operative and intra-operative staging, and balanced against the patient's age and fitness. RESULTS In the study group, 83 patients underwent subtotal or distal partial gastrectomy and 97 patients underwent total or proximal partial gastrectomy. Operative procedures were: D1 lymphadenectomy (n = 62); modified (spleen and pancreas preserving) D2 lymphadenectomy (n = 73); D2 lymphadenectomy (n = 42); and extended resection (n = 3). TNM classification was: stage 1 (n = 45); stage 2 (n = 37); stage 3 (n = 61); and stage 4 (n = 37). Of the patients, 48 developed postoperative complications including 17 patients with a major surgical complication. The in-hospital mortality was 1.7% (3 of 180). Predicted mortality according to POSSUM and P-POSSUM was 21.4% and 7.8%, respectively. Disease-specific 5-year survival according to stage was 85.4%, 64.2%, 33.3%, and 6.9%. CONCLUSIONS By tailoring the extent of resection and balancing risk and radicality, gastric cancer surgery can be performed with low mortality in Western patients. PMID:18430340

  1. Gastric cancer surgery--a balance of risk and radicality.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Peter; Sivashanmugam, T; White, Martin; Irving, Mark; Wayman, John; Raimes, Simon

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether tailoring the extent of resection would allow radical gastric cancer surgery to be performed safely in a UK population. A total of 180 consecutive patients (median age 70 years; male:female ratio 2:1) undergoing resection for gastric adenocarcinoma with curative intent were studied. Extent of lymphadenectomy was based upon pre-operative and intra-operative staging, and balanced against the patient's age and fitness. In the study group, 83 patients underwent subtotal or distal partial gastrectomy and 97 patients underwent total or proximal partial gastrectomy. Operative procedures were: D1 lymphadenectomy (n = 62); modified (spleen and pancreas pre-serving) D2 lymphadenectomy (n = 73); D2 lymphadenectomy (n = 42); and extended resection (n = 3). TNM classification was: stage 1 (n = 45); stage 2 (n = 37); stage 3 (n = 61); and stage 4 (n = 37). Of the patients, 48 developed postoperative complications including 17 patients with a major surgical complication. The in-hospital mortality was 1.7% (3 of 180). Predicted mortality according to POSSUM and P-POSSUM was 21.4% and 7.8%, respectively. Disease-specific 5-year survival according to stage was 85.4%, 64.2%, 33.3%, and 6.9%. By tailoring the extent of resection and balancing risk and radicality, gastric cancer surgery can be performed with low mortality in Western patients.

  2. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-05-01

    This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years.

  3. Gastric hyperplastic polyp with focal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Markowski, Adam Roman; Guzinska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a rare case of early adenocarcinoma within the gastric hyperplastic polyp, that was completely resected during an endoscopic procedure, and discusses current recommendations in such cases. Endoscopic resection of polyps with focal dysplasia or cancer is commonly indicated, as long as the procedure can be performed safely. After complete excision of a polyp with atypical focal lesion, endoscopic surveillance is suggested. The frequency of surveillance endoscopy should depend on the precise histopathological diagnosis and possibility of confirming the completeness of the endoscopic resection. If the completeness of the procedure is confirmed both macro- and microscopically, gastric resection does not have to be performed. A follow-up esophago-gastroduodenoscopy should be performed at 1 year and then at 3 years. PMID:25361760

  4. The relationship between gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori in formaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded gastric tissues of gastric cancer patients-scorpion real-time PCR assay findings.

    PubMed

    Naserpour Farivar, Taghi; Johari, Pouran; Najafipour, Reza; Farzam, Amir; Nasirian, Neda; HajManouchehri, Fatemeh; Jahani Hashemi, Hassan; Azimi, Akram; Bahrami, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and it seems that environmental and lifestyle factors and infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) have had a major role in the etiology of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of H. pylori DNA in archival gastric tissues of patients with gastric cancer disease by rapid, sensitive and specific technique of Scorpion Realtime PCR. This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed on 285 paraffin embedded gastric specimens of patients who were pathologically proved for gastric cancer admitted in Bou-Ali, Shahid Rajaie and Dehkhoda hospitals and Bahar and Farzam private laboratory in Qazvin city in Iran during 2009 and 150 paraffin embedded pathological specimens of patients with other proved diagnosis other than gastric cancer. Results of our Scorpion Realtime PCR analysis showed that DNA of H. pylori DNA was present in 78.42% of our total specimens. Modified McMullen's Staining of paraffin embedded sections was positive in 210 patients. Also we were not able to finding significant relationship between demographic characteristics of our studied patients and presence of H. pylori DNA in their formaldehyde fixed paraffin embedded gastric tissues samples. Existence of H. pylori in gastric tissue samples of patients with gastric cancer is controversial and our results indicated that in our studied specimens prevalence of H. pylori was significantly more than recent published reports.

  5. Gastric cancer stem cells in gastric carcinogenesis, progression, prevention and treatment

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kang; Dan, Zeng; Nie, Yu-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    In recent decades, the study of the mechanism of tumorigenesis has brought much progress to cancer treatment. However, cancer stem cell (CSC) theory has changed previous views of tumors, and has provided a new method for treatment of cancer. The discovery of CSCs and their characteristics have contributed to understanding the molecular mechanism of tumor genesis and development, resulting in a new effective strategy for cancer treatment. Gastric CSCs (GCSCs) are the basis for the onset of gastric cancer. They may be derived from gastric stem cells in gastric tissues, or bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. As with other stem cells, GCSCs highly express drug-resistance genes such as aldehyde dehydrogenase and multidrug resistance, which are resistant to chemotherapy and thus form the basis of drug resistance. Many specific molecular markers such as CD44 and CD133 have been used for identification and isolation of GCSCs, diagnosis and grading of gastric cancer, and research on GCSC-targeted therapy for gastric cancer. Therefore, discussion of the recent development and advancements in GCSCs will be helpful for providing novel insight into gastric cancer treatment. PMID:24833872

  6. Current status of randomized controlled trials for laparoscopic gastric surgery for gastric cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoxin; Hu, Yanfeng; Liu, Hao

    2015-08-01

    China alone accounts for nearly 42% of all new gastric cancer cases worldwide, and gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in China nowadays. Without mass screening programs, unfortunately over 80% of all Chinese patients have been diagnosed as advanced diseases. As in other Asian countries, especially Japan and Korea, laparoscopic gastrectomy for the treatment of gastric cancer has gained increasingly popularity in China during the past decade. Whether laparoscopic surgery can be safely and effectively performed in the treatment of gastric cancer remains controversial, particularly with regard to curative intent in advanced diseases. Given the high incidence of these cancers, and their advanced stage at diagnosis, China has a significant interest in determining the safety and effectiveness of laparoscopic gastrectomy. A well-designed randomized controlled trial (RCT) is considered the only feasible way to provide conclusive evidence. To date, China has not played a significant role in terms of conducting RCT concerning laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer. However, an effort has been made by the Chinese researchers, with the great help from our colleagues in neighboring countries such as Korea and Japan, through the establishment of the Chinese Laparoscopic Gastrointestinal Surgery Study Group. In this review, we present the current status of RCT for laparoscopic gastric surgery for gastric cancer in China, including published and ongoing registered RCT.

  7. Coffee intake and gastric cancer risk: The Singapore Chinese Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Ainslie-Waldman, Cheryl E.; Koh, Woon-Puay; Jin, Aizhen; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Butler, Lesley M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite experimental evidence showing chemopreventive effects of coffee-related compounds on gastric carcinogenesis, epidemiologic studies generally do not support coffee-gastric cancer associations. Observational data are lacking among high-risk populations with sufficient regular coffee consumption. Methods We examined the association between caffeinated coffee intake and gastric cancer risk in a population-based cohort that enrolled 63,257 Chinese men and women aged 45–74 years between 1993 and 1998 in Singapore. Incident gastric cancer cases (n=647) were identified after a mean follow-up of 14.7 years. Biomarkers of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection were measured in a subset of gastric cancer cases with blood collected prior to cancer diagnosis and their matched controls. Results In the total cohort, daily versus non-daily coffee intake was associated with a statistically non-significant decrease in gastric cancer risk [hazards ratio (HR) = 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.69, 1.04). In women, the inverse association strengthened and reached statistical significance (HR=0.63; 95% CI: 0.46, 0.87). In analyses restricted to never smokers and nondrinkers of alcohol, inverse associations strengthened in the total cohort (HR=0.69; 95% CI: 0.52, 0.91) and in women (HR=0.52; 95% CI: 0.37, 0.74). There was no coffee-gastric cancer risk association among men, regardless of smoking status or alcohol consumption. Similar results were observed in the nested case-control study after adjustment for H. pylori infection. Conclusion Daily coffee consumption may reduce the risk of gastric cancer in high-risk populations, especially among women. Impact: Research aimed at identifying the compounds in coffee that may protect against gastric carcinogenesis is warranted. PMID:24608187

  8. Coffee intake and gastric cancer risk: the Singapore Chinese health study.

    PubMed

    Ainslie-Waldman, Cheryl E; Koh, Woon-Puay; Jin, Aizhen; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Renwei; Yuan, Jian-Min; Butler, Lesley M

    2014-04-01

    Despite experimental evidence showing chemopreventive effects of coffee-related compounds on gastric carcinogenesis, epidemiologic studies generally do not support coffee-gastric cancer associations. Observational data are lacking among high-risk populations with sufficient regular coffee consumption. We examined the association between caffeinated coffee intake and gastric cancer risk in a population-based cohort that enrolled 63,257 Chinese men and women ages 45 to 74 years between 1993 and 1998 in Singapore. Incident gastric cancer cases (n = 647) were identified after a mean follow-up of 14.7 years. Biomarkers of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection were measured in a subset of gastric cancer cases with blood collected before cancer diagnosis and their matched controls. In the total cohort, daily versus nondaily coffee intake was associated with a statistically nonsignificant decrease in gastric cancer risk [HR = 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-1.04]. In women, the inverse association strengthened and reached statistical significance (HR = 0.63; 95% CI, 0.46-0.87). In analyses restricted to never smokers and nondrinkers of alcohol, inverse associations strengthened in the total cohort (HR = 0.69; 95% CI, 0.52-0.91) and in women (HR = 0.52; 95% CI, 0.37-0.74). There was no coffee-gastric cancer risk association among men, regardless of smoking status or alcohol consumption. Similar results were observed in the nested case-control study after adjustment for H. pylori infection. Daily coffee consumption may reduce the risk of gastric cancer in high-risk populations, especially among women. Research aimed at identifying the compounds in coffee that may protect against gastric carcinogenesis is warranted.

  9. The Rare and Challenging Presentation of Gastric Cancer during Pregnancy: A Report of Three Cases

    PubMed Central

    Norero, Enrique; Canales, Claudio; Martínez, José Miguel; Herrera, María Elisa; Muñoz, Carolina; Jarufe, Nicolás

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated gastric cancer is extremely rare. In many cases, it is diagnosed at an advanced stage because the symptoms during pregnancy are generally overlooked. We report three cases of gastric cancer during pregnancy with various outcomes. The first case included a patient with stage IV gastric cancer who received palliative chemotherapy. This patient had a preterm birth and died 7 months after diagnosis. The second case received neoadjuvant chemotherapy during pregnancy and a total gastrectomy was performed after delivery. She then received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. This patient developed pulmonary metastasis and died of recurrence 41 months after surgery. In the third case, a distal subtotal gastrectomy was performed at week 14 of pregnancy, with no complications. The patient received adjuvant chemoradiotherapy. She is currently without recurrence 14 months after surgery. In patients with pregnancy-associated gastric cancer, treatment decisions are predominantly influenced by clinical stage and gestational age at diagnosis. PMID:28053815

  10. Laparoscopic ultrasound and gastric cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixon, T. Michael; Vu, Huan

    2001-05-01

    The management of gastrointestinal malignancies continues to evolve with the latest available therapeutic and diagnostic modalities. There are currently two driving forces in the management of these cancers: the benefits of minimally invasive surgery so thoroughly demonstrated by laparoscopic surgery, and the shift toward neoadjuvant chemotherapy for upper gastrointestinal cancers. In order to match the appropriate treatment to the disease, accurate staging is imperative. No technological advances have combined these two needs as much as laparascopic ultrasound to evaluate the liver and peritoneal cavity. We present a concise review of the latest application of laparoscopic ultrasound in management of gastrointestinal malignancy.

  11. Scorpion venoms in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Pei-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Venom secretions from snakes, scorpions, spiders and bees, have been widely applied in traditional medicine and current biopharmaceutical research. Possession of anticancer potential is another novel discovery for animal venoms and toxins. An increasing number of studies have shown the anticancer effects of venoms and toxins of snakes, and scorpions in vitro and in vivo, which were achieved mainly through the inhibition of cancer growth, arrest of cell cycle, induction of apoptosis and suppression of cancer metastasis. However, more evidence is needed to support this concept and the mechanisms of anticancer actions are not clearly understood. The present review is focused on the recant updates on anticancer venom research. PMID:27900054

  12. Mean sojourn time of preclinical gastric cancer in Korean men: a retrospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Shin, Sang Yop; Kim, Eun Hee

    2014-07-01

    This retrospective cohort study aimed to estimate the mean sojourn time (MST) of preclinical gastric cancer in Korean men. The subjects consisted of voluntary male screenees aged 40 to 69 years who underwent subsequent screening gastroscopies after testing negative at a baseline screening performed between January 2007 and December 2011. A new case was defined if gastric cancer cells were present in the biopsy specimens obtained from gastroscopy. The follow-up period was calculated as the number of person-years between the date of baseline screening gastroscopy and positive findings at a subsequent screening. The MST was calculated using transition rates of gastric cancer to determine the best screening interval. Of the 171 979 voluntary male screenees, 61 688 (36%) underwent subsequent screening gastroscopies between January 2007 and December 2011. A total of 91 incident cases were found during 19 598 598 person-years of follow-up. The MST of gastric cancer was 2.37 years (95% confidence intervals, 1.92 to 2.96), and those aged 40 to 49 years had a shorter MST than those 50 to 69 years did. These findings support the 2-year interval of screening recommended by the nationwide gastric cancer screening program in Korea. Further studies for the age-specific MST among women are needed. This retrospective cohort study aimed to estimate the mean sojourn time (MST) of preclinical gastric cancer in Korean men. The subjects consisted of voluntary male screenees aged 40 to 69 years who underwent subsequent screening gastroscopies after testing negative at a baseline screening performed between January 2007 and December 2011. A new case was defined if gastric cancer cells were present in the biopsy specimens obtained from gastroscopy. The follow-up period was calculated as the number of person-years between the date of baseline screening gastroscopy and positive findings at a subsequent screening. The MST was calculated using transition rates of gastric cancer to determine

  13. ZnRF3 Induces Apoptosis of Gastric Cancer Cells by Antagonizing Wnt and Hedgehog Signaling.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hongzhen; Cai, Aizhen; Xi, Hongqing; Yuan, Jing; Chen, Lin

    2015-11-01

    A large proportion of malignant cancers of the stomach are gastric adenocarcinoma type. In spite of many studies, the molecular basis for this cancer is still unclear. Deregulated cell proliferative signaling via Wnt/β-catenin and Hedgehog pathways is considered important in the pathogenesis of many cancers including the gastric cancer. Recent studies identified ZnRF3 protein, which is a E3-ubiquitin ligase and which is either deleted or mutated in cancers, to inhibit Wnt signaling. However, the significance of ZnRF3 in the control of gastric cancer and whether it also regulates Hedgehog signaling pathway, is not known. In the present study, we assessed the expression of ZnRF3 in gastric tumors and paracancerous tissues from 58 patients (44 male and 14 female) of different ages and related this to patient survival. We observed a clear relationship between ZnRF3 expression in paracancerous tissue and tumor size. Also, ZnRF3 expression was much higher in tumors from aged patients. Male patients showed higher mortality than the females. Mechanistic studies using normal gastric cells (GES1) and gastric cancer cells (MGC-803) infected with either AdZnRF3 or AdGFP viral vectors, revealed that ZnRF3 overexpression causes significantly more apoptosis and lowered proliferation of cancer cells. ZnRF3 overexpression led to greatly reduced levels of Lgr5, a component of Wnt signaling and also Gli1, a component of Hedgehog signaling. Thus, ZnRF3 negatively influences both the Wnt and Hedgehog proliferative pathways, and probably this way it negatively regulates cancer progression. These results suggest the importance of normal ZnRF3 function in checking the progression of cancer cell growth and indicate that a lack of this protein can lead to poorer clinical outcomes for gastric cancer patients.

  14. Salty Food Preference and Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: The JACC Study

    PubMed Central

    Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Kikuchi, Shogo; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    Background High sodium intake is a potential risk factor of gastric cancer. However, limited information is available on the relationship between salty food preference or intake and risk of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between these variables among the Japanese population. Methods Between 1988 and 1990, 15 732 men and 24 997 women aged 40–79 years old with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease completed a lifestyle questionnaire that included information about food intake. The subjects were enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk Sponsored by Monbusho. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 787 incident gastric cancers were documented. We examined the associations between salty food preference and intake and gastric cancer incidence using the Cox proportional hazard model. Results The risk of gastric cancer among subjects with a strong preference for salty food was approximately 30% higher than among those who preferred normal-level salty food (hazard ratio [HR] 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02–1.67). The risk of gastric cancer in subjects who consumed 3 and ≥4 bowls/day of miso soup was approximately 60% higher than in those who consumed less miso soup (HR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.16–2.39 and HR 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11–2.42, respectively). Sodium intake correlated positively and linearly with risk of gastric cancer (P for trend = 0.002). Conclusions The present study showed that salty food preference, consumption of large quantities of miso soup, and high sodium intake were associated with increased risk of gastric cancer among Japanese people. PMID:26477994

  15. Salty Food Preference and Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: The JACC Study.

    PubMed

    Umesawa, Mitsumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Kikuchi, Shogo; Tamakoshi, Akiko

    2016-01-01

    High sodium intake is a potential risk factor of gastric cancer. However, limited information is available on the relationship between salty food preference or intake and risk of gastric cancer. The aim of the present study was to determine the association between these variables among the Japanese population. Between 1988 and 1990, 15,732 men and 24,997 women aged 40-79 years old with no history of cancer or cardiovascular disease completed a lifestyle questionnaire that included information about food intake. The subjects were enrolled in the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk Sponsored by Monbusho. After a median follow-up of 14.3 years, 787 incident gastric cancers were documented. We examined the associations between salty food preference and intake and gastric cancer incidence using the Cox proportional hazard model. The risk of gastric cancer among subjects with a strong preference for salty food was approximately 30% higher than among those who preferred normal-level salty food (hazard ratio [HR] 1.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.67). The risk of gastric cancer in subjects who consumed 3 and ≥ 4 bowls/day of miso soup was approximately 60% higher than in those who consumed less miso soup (HR 1.67; 95% CI, 1.16-2.39 and HR 1.64; 95% CI, 1.11-2.42, respectively). Sodium intake correlated positively and linearly with risk of gastric cancer (P for trend = 0.002). The present study showed that salty food preference, consumption of large quantities of miso soup, and high sodium intake were associated with increased risk of gastric cancer among Japanese people.

  16. [Immunohistochemical assessment of HER2 expression in gastric cancer. A clinicopathologic study of 93 cases].

    PubMed

    Alvarado-Cabrero, Isabel; Gil-Hernández, Sara; Ruelas-Perea, Ana; Villaverde-Rodríguez, Diego; Montes-Ochoa, José Roberto; Medrano-Guzmán, Rafael

    2017-01-06

    Gastric cancer in Mexico is ranked third in both males and females. Most patients present clinically with advanced disease and treatment options are sparse. HER2 overexpression in gastric cancer is related to poor outcome. Immunohistochemical testing for HER2 is becoming the standard of care for guiding adjuvant treatment of gastric cancer with trastuzumab. To determine the frequency of HER2 overexpression in patients with gastric cancer in the Hospital de Oncología del Centro Médico Nacional, Siglo XXI and its association with other histopathological findings. Patients with gastric cancer who underwent surgery between March 12, 2006-August 31, 2011, were enrolled in this retrospective study. Diagnosis was confirmed by review of slides and immunohistochemistry with anti-HER2 antibody was performed. Scoring was done by Hoffman scoring system. Medical records were evaluated. Ninety-three patients were included in the study, with 43 (46.2%) male and 50 (53.7%) female patients. The median age was 64 years. HER2-positive tumours were identified in 6 patients (6.45%) and located most frequently in the proximal stomach. There was no difference in HER2 overexpression in relation to age, gender or histologic type. In our study, about 7% of patients with gastric cancer were HER2-positive on immunohistochemistry. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. E-Cadherin and Gastric Cancer: Cause, Consequence, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    E-cadherin (epithelial-cadherin), encoded by the CDH1 gene, is a transmembrane glycoprotein playing a crucial role in maintaining cell-cell adhesion. E-cadherin has been reported to be a tumor suppressor and to be down regulated in gastric cancer. Besides genetic mutations in CDH1 gene to induce hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC), epigenetic factors such as DNA hypermethylation also contribute to the reduction of E-cadherin in gastric carcinogenesis. In addition, expression of E-cadherin could be mediated by infectious agents such as H. pylori (Helicobacter pylori). As E-cadherin is vitally involved in signaling pathways modulating cell proliferation, survival, invasion, and migration, dysregulation of E-cadherin leads to dysfunction of gastric epithelial cells and contributes to gastric cancer development. Moreover, changes in its expression could reflect pathological conditions of gastric mucosa, making its role in gastric cancer complicated. In this review, we summarize the functions of E-cadherin and the signaling pathways it regulates. We aim to provide comprehensive perspectives in the molecular mechanism of E-cadherin and its involvement in gastric cancer initiation and progression. We also focus on its applications for early diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy in gastric cancer in order to open new avenues in this field. PMID:25184143

  18. Association of caveolin-1 genotypes with gastric cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Hsueh; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Wen-Shin; Yang, Chuan-Wei; Bau, Da-Tian

    2014-05-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of tumor-related death worldwide, for which the prevalence and mortality rates are very high in developed countries. Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is the main protein in the caveolin family and plays a role in tumorigenesis signaling. The contribution of CAV1 genetic variants to gastric cancer is still largely unknown. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the role of CAV1 genotypes in gastric cancer risk. We recruited 358 gastric patients and 358 cancer-free controls for CAV1 genotyping analysis. Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CAV1, C521A (rs1997623), G14713A (rs3807987), G21985A (12672038), T28608A (rs3757733), T29107A (rs7804372), and G32124A (rs3807992), were genotyped by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. There was a significant difference between the gastric cancer and control groups in the genotypic frequency distribution of the CAV1 G14713A genotypes (p=1.24*10(-5)), with those carrying the A allele having a higher risk for gastric cancer compared to those with the GG genotype (p=0.0001). Our findings suggested that CAV1 genotype may determine the individual susceptibility to gastric cancer, and that the CAV1 G14713A genotype may serve as a novel biomarker for early detection and prediction of gastric cancer.

  19. Role of ARPC2 in Human Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yi; Yu, Chang-Jun; Dai, Fu; Xiong, Jie; Li, Hong-Jun; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Ding, Rui; Wang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be the second most frequent cause of cancer deaths worldwide. However, the exact molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Further research to find potential targets for therapy is critical and urgent. In this study, we found that ARPC2 promoted cell proliferation and invasion in the human cancer cell line MKN-28 using a cell total number assay, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay, cell colony formation assay, migration assay, invasion assay, and wound healing assay. For downstream pathways, CTNND1, EZH2, BCL2L2, CDH2, VIM, and EGFR were upregulated by ARPC2, whereas PTEN, BAK, and CDH1 were downregulated by ARPC2. In a clinical study, we examined the expression of ARPC2 in 110 cases of normal human gastric tissues and 110 cases of human gastric cancer tissues. ARPC2 showed higher expression in gastric cancer tissues than in normal gastric tissues. In the association analysis of 110 gastric cancer tissues, ARPC2 showed significant associations with large tumor size, lymph node invasion, and high tumor stage. In addition, ARPC2-positive patients exhibited lower RFS and OS rates compared with ARPC2-negative patients. We thus identify that ARPC2 plays an aneretic role in human gastric cancer and provided a new target for gastric cancer therapy.

  20. Role of ARPC2 in Human Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-Jun; Dai, Fu; Xiong, Jie; Li, Hong-Jun; Wu, Zheng-Sheng; Ding, Rui; Wang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer continues to be the second most frequent cause of cancer deaths worldwide. However, the exact molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Further research to find potential targets for therapy is critical and urgent. In this study, we found that ARPC2 promoted cell proliferation and invasion in the human cancer cell line MKN-28 using a cell total number assay, MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide) assay, cell colony formation assay, migration assay, invasion assay, and wound healing assay. For downstream pathways, CTNND1, EZH2, BCL2L2, CDH2, VIM, and EGFR were upregulated by ARPC2, whereas PTEN, BAK, and CDH1 were downregulated by ARPC2. In a clinical study, we examined the expression of ARPC2 in 110 cases of normal human gastric tissues and 110 cases of human gastric cancer tissues. ARPC2 showed higher expression in gastric cancer tissues than in normal gastric tissues. In the association analysis of 110 gastric cancer tissues, ARPC2 showed significant associations with large tumor size, lymph node invasion, and high tumor stage. In addition, ARPC2-positive patients exhibited lower RFS and OS rates compared with ARPC2-negative patients. We thus identify that ARPC2 plays an aneretic role in human gastric cancer and provided a new target for gastric cancer therapy. PMID:28694563

  1. Downregulated MicroRNA-133a in Gastric Juice as a Clinicopathological Biomarker for Gastric Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Shao, Juan; Fang, Peng-Hua; He, Biao; Guo, Li-Li; Shi, Ming-Yi; Zhu, Yan; Bo, Ping; Zhen-Wen, Zhen-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Circulatory miR-133a is a marker shared by several types of cancer. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of using miR-133a levels in gastric juice to screen for gastric cancer. A total of 204 samples of gastric juice and mucosa from gastric cancer, atrophic gastritis, gastric ulcer, superficial gastritis and healthy cases were collected by gastroscopy. The results showed that miR-133a levels in gastric juice and carcinoma tissues of patients with gastric cancer were significantly downregulated and positively correlated. Moreover, miR-133a in gastric juice has high operability, high reliability, high sensitivity, high specificity and relative stability, fit for clinical diagnosis of gastric cancer.

  2. Current approaches to gastric cancer in Peru and Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In Peru, the incidence of gastric cancer is reported to be around 15.8 per 100,000 inhabitants and it is the second most common oncological disease in men and the third one in women. Additionally, a high mortality index was reported, especially among poor people. To address this issue, in 2008, Peru initiated several insurance treatment plans of oncological diseases with promising results. In Mexico, there is a high predominance of gastric cancer in male gender compared to female gender, even reaching a 2/1 ratio, and the detection rate of early gastric cancer is low (10% to 20%) which results in a mainly palliative treatment with an overall survival rate in 5 years about 10% to 15% only. In Peru, the average age at diagnosis is around 62.96±14.75 years old and the most frequent symptoms includes abdominal pain, indigestion, loss of appetite, weight loss and gastrointestinal bleeding, while in Mexico, some studies reported an average age at diagnosis around 60.3±4.1 years old (range, 23–78 years old) and the most frequent symptoms were postprandial fullness (74.4%), abdominal pain (37.2%), weight loss (18.6%), and melena (4.6%). The anemia rate was 65.1% with a mean Hb level of 6.14 g/dL. In Peru, the most common gastric cancer type is the intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (around 34%), followed by the diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (18.7%), whilst among Mexicans, the diffuse-type was reported in 55.2% of cases, the intestinal-type was reported in 28.2% and the undifferentiated-type corresponded to 6%. In both, Peru and Mexico, 90% of the associated factors includes tabaquismo, diets rich in salt, smoked foods, and a sedentary lifestyle. Family inheritance and advanced age and pharmacological-resistant Helicobacter pylori infection are also important. Poverty has been heavily associated with a higher incidence of gastric cancer. The management of gastric cancer patients in Peru is carried out by general surgeons or general surgical oncologists. In recent years

  3. Current approaches to gastric cancer in Peru and Mexico.

    PubMed

    Santos, Erlan

    2017-01-01

    In Peru, the incidence of gastric cancer is reported to be around 15.8 per 100,000 inhabitants and it is the second most common oncological disease in men and the third one in women. Additionally, a high mortality index was reported, especially among poor people. To address this issue, in 2008, Peru initiated several insurance treatment plans of oncological diseases with promising results. In Mexico, there is a high predominance of gastric cancer in male gender compared to female gender, even reaching a 2/1 ratio, and the detection rate of early gastric cancer is low (10% to 20%) which results in a mainly palliative treatment with an overall survival rate in 5 years about 10% to 15% only. In Peru, the average age at diagnosis is around 62.96±14.75 years old and the most frequent symptoms includes abdominal pain, indigestion, loss of appetite, weight loss and gastrointestinal bleeding, while in Mexico, some studies reported an average age at diagnosis around 60.3±4.1 years old (range, 23-78 years old) and the most frequent symptoms were postprandial fullness (74.4%), abdominal pain (37.2%), weight loss (18.6%), and melena (4.6%). The anemia rate was 65.1% with a mean Hb level of 6.14 g/dL. In Peru, the most common gastric cancer type is the intestinal-type adenocarcinoma (around 34%), followed by the diffuse-type adenocarcinoma (18.7%), whilst among Mexicans, the diffuse-type was reported in 55.2% of cases, the intestinal-type was reported in 28.2% and the undifferentiated-type corresponded to 6%. In both, Peru and Mexico, 90% of the associated factors includes tabaquismo, diets rich in salt, smoked foods, and a sedentary lifestyle. Family inheritance and advanced age and pharmacological-resistant Helicobacter pylori infection are also important. Poverty has been heavily associated with a higher incidence of gastric cancer. The management of gastric cancer patients in Peru is carried out by general surgeons or general surgical oncologists. In recent years, efforts

  4. Helicobacter pylori infection following partial gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sanghoon; Chun, Hoon Jai

    2014-01-01

    Gastric remnants are an inevitable consequence of partial gastrectomy following resection for gastric cancer. The presence of gastric stumps is itself a risk factor for redevelopment of gastric cancer. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is also a well-known characteristic of gastric carcinogenesis. H. pylori colonization in the remnant stomach therefore draws special interest from clinicians in terms of stomach cancer development and pathogenesis; however, the H. pylori-infected gastric remnant is quite different from the intact organ in several aspects and researchers have expressed conflicting opinions with respect to its role in pathogenesis. For instance, H. pylori infection of the gastric stump produced controversial results in several recent studies. The prevalence of H. pylori infection in the gastric stump has varied among recent reports. Gastritis developing in the remnant stomach presents with a unique pattern of inflammation that is different from the pattern seen in ordinary gastritis of the intact organ. Bile refluxate also has a significant influence on the colonization of the stomach stump, with several studies reporting mixed results as well. In contrast, the elimination of H. pylori from the gastric stump has shown a dramatic impact on eradication rate. H. pylori elimination is recognized to be important for cancer prevention and considerable agreement of opinion is seen among researchers. To overcome the current discrepancies in the literature regarding the role of H. pylori in the gastric stump, further research is required. PMID:24659869

  5. Mouse models for gastric cancer: Matching models to biological questions

    PubMed Central

    Poh, Ashleigh R; O'Donoghue, Robert J J

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer‐related mortality worldwide. This is in part due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease, which often results in late‐stage diagnosis, at which point there are limited treatment options. Even when treated successfully, gastric cancer patients have a high risk of tumor recurrence and acquired drug resistance. It is vital to gain a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying gastric cancer pathogenesis to facilitate the design of new‐targeted therapies that may improve patient survival. A number of chemically and genetically engineered mouse models of gastric cancer have provided significant insight into the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to disease onset and progression. This review outlines the strengths and limitations of current mouse models of gastric cancer and their relevance to the pre‐clinical development of new therapeutics. PMID:26809278

  6. Microsatellite instability of gastric cancer and precancerous lesions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bing; Liu, Hong-Yi; Guo, Shao-Hua; Sun, Peng; Gong, Fang-Ming; Jia, Bao-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether microsatellite instability (MSI) of gastric cancer and precancerous lesions were existed and its effect. Methods: Laser microdissection was used. Gastric, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia and normal mucosa were collected respectively. Five microsatellite loci were selected and MSI was detected by denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: In the five microsatellite loci REF-positive phenotype, intestinal metaplasia MSI was 20.7%. Dysplasia MSI was 22.4%. Gastric MSI was 47.9%, and there was no MSI in normal gastric mucosa. Conclusion: MSI gradually increased from precancerous lesions to gastric cancer. The early detection of MSI may be a potential early warning indicator for early diagnosis of gastric cancer. PMID:26885046

  7. Participation of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Juan; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Tian, Zi-Bin; Dong, Quan-Jiang

    2014-01-01

    There are a large number of bacteria inhabiting the human body, which provide benefits for the health. Alterations of microbiota participate in the pathogenesis of diseases. The gastric microbiota consists of bacteria from seven to eleven phyla, predominantly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Intrusion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) does not remarkably interrupt the composition and structure of the gastric microbiota. Absence of bacterial commensal from the stomach delays the onset of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, while presence of artificial microbiota accelerates the carcinogenesis. Altered gastric microbiota may increase the production of N-nitroso compounds, promoting the development of gastric cancer. Further investigation of the carcinogenic mechanisms of microbiota would benefit for the prevention and management of gastric cancer. PMID:24803806

  8. Participation of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Li; Yu, Xin-Juan; Zhan, Shu-Hui; Jia, Sheng-Jiao; Tian, Zi-Bin; Dong, Quan-Jiang

    2014-05-07

    There are a large number of bacteria inhabiting the human body, which provide benefits for the health. Alterations of microbiota participate in the pathogenesis of diseases. The gastric microbiota consists of bacteria from seven to eleven phyla, predominantly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Fusobacteria. Intrusion by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) does not remarkably interrupt the composition and structure of the gastric microbiota. Absence of bacterial commensal from the stomach delays the onset of H. pylori-induced gastric cancer, while presence of artificial microbiota accelerates the carcinogenesis. Altered gastric microbiota may increase the production of N-nitroso compounds, promoting the development of gastric cancer. Further investigation of the carcinogenic mechanisms of microbiota would benefit for the prevention and management of gastric cancer.

  9. Identification of Gastric Cancer Biomarkers Using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Yong, Wei Peng; Yeow, Chen Hua

    2016-01-01

    Existing gastric cancer diagnosing methods were invasive, hence, a reliable non-invasive gastric cancer diagnosing method is needed. As a starting point, we used 1H NMR for identifying gastric cancer biomarkers using a panel of gastric cancer spheroids and normal gastric spheroids. We were able to identify 8 chemical shift biomarkers for gastric cancer spheroids. Our data suggests that the cancerous and non-cancerous spheroids significantly differ in the lipid composition and energy metabolism. These results encourage the translation of these biomarkers into in-vivo gastric cancer detection methodology using MRI-MS. PMID:27611679

  10. Caspases and their role in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Frejlich, Ewelina; Rudno-Rudzińska, Julia; Janiszewski, Kacper; Salomon, Lukasz; Kotulski, Krzysztof; Pelzer, Oskar; Grzebieniak, Zygmunt; Tarnawa, Robert; Kielan, Wojciech

    2013-01-01

    Caspases (Cysteine Aspartate Specific Proteases) are a group of cysteine-containing proteolytic enzymes produced by the cells of living organisms. They participate in immunological functions, proliferation, cell migration and organization. Caspases also influence the secretion of various regulative factors. Moreover, they are responsible for cellular maturation and reconstruction, and for regulating the number and quality of cells initiating the apoptosis of old cells or those that cannot play their normal role due to abnormalities. Multiple pathological processes are associated with disorders in the activity of caspases. Changes in expression of individual caspases have been observed in gastric cancer. The expression of some caspases is also correlated with particular histological traits and the frequency of metastases, which suggests their possible use as a prognostic factor. It has also been discovered that some somatic mutations in caspase coding genes might lead to inhibition of apoptosis and the progression of the disease. Gene polymorphism may be a gastric cancer risk factor, but may also play a protective function. Considering the less than satisfactory effects of conventional therapeutic methods, the search for alternative ways to activate apoptosis - through gene therapy or selective activation of individual elements of the apoptotic pathways - constitutes a promising direction for studies of new therapeutic strategies. Caspases, enzymes playing a central role in the process of programmed cellular death, may possibly be a key to the development of a more effective anti-cancer therapy.

  11. Gastric Cancer in the Excluded Stomach 10 Years after Gastric Bypass.

    PubMed

    Tinoco, Augusto; Gottardi, Lorena F; Boechat, Eduardo D

    2015-01-01

    According to the Brazilian health authorities, around 2,000 new cases of gastric cancer emerge in Brazil per year (Instituto Nacional de Câncer José Alencar Gomes da Silva, 2014). Indeed, gastric cancer constitutes the second most common cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide and 95% of such malignancies are adenocarcinomas (De Roover et al., 2006, and Clark et al., 2006). Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is a procedure frequently employed in bariatric surgery but restricted access to the excluded stomach means that discovery of gastric lesions is difficult, and diagnosis and treatment may be delayed. We report herein a case of gastric adenocarcinoma in the excluded stomach of a patient submitted to RYGB with the purpose of illustrating the difficulty of diagnosing and treating this rare condition.

  12. Molecular Epidemiology of Gastric Cancer: Current Status and Future Prospects

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zhibin; Ajani, Jaffer A.; Wei, Qingyi

    2007-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction appears to contribute to the etiology of gastric cancer, as suggested by the varying geographic patterns of gastric cancer incidence. Even in areas with a high rate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, only a small proportion of infected individuals develop gastric cancer. It is likely that genetic factors, particularly relatively common genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), may modulate the effects of environmental risk factors by regulating multiple biologic pathways involved in gastric carcinogenesis. Thus, common genetic variants can pose a substantial influence on the population attributable risk, even though the absolute risk associated with each of these variants may be low. Remarkable progress has been made in the field of molecular epidemiology, but it appears that an initial view on the magnitude of the effects of inherited variants was overestimated. Nevertheless, evidence suggests that genetic variants may contribute to the etiology of gastric cancer, particularly those SNPs in genes that are involved in inflammatory response, metabolism of chemical carcinogens, DNA repair, and tumor suppression. Although previous molecular epidemiologic studies of potentially functional polymorphisms in candidate genes and gastric cancer susceptibility lack consistency, they have advanced our knowledge of the role of genetic susceptibility in the etiology of gastric cancer. Future, welldesigned large population-based studies will validate current findings and provide the rationale for identifying at-risk subpopulations for primary prevention of gastric cancer. PMID:19262698

  13. Bacterial overgrowth and diversification of microbiota in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jianhua; Xin, Yongning; Geng, Changxin; Tian, Zibin; Yu, Xinjuan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Microbiota is potentially linked to the development of cancer. However, the features of microbiota in gastric cancer remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the gastric microbiota in cancer. Methods A total of 315 patients, including 212 patients with chronic gastritis and 103 patients with gastric cancer, were enrolled in the study. The bacterial load of gastric mucosa was determined using quantitative PCR. To analyze the biodiversity, structure, and composition of microbiota, amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from 12 patients were pyrosequenced. The sequences were processed and subsequently analyzed. Results The amount of bacteria in gastric mucosa was estimated to be 6.9×108 per gram tissue on average. It was higher in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients (7.80±0.71) compared with those uninfected (7.59±0.57, P=0.005). An increased bacterial load up to 7.85±0.70 was detected in gastric cancer compared with chronic gastritis (P=0.001). The unweighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the structure of microbiota in gastric cancer was more diversified. Five genera of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities were enriched in gastric cancer. The weighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the presence of Helicobacter pylori markedly altered the structure of microbiota, but had little influence on the relative proportions of the other members in the microbiota. Conclusion Findings from this study indicated an altered microbiota in gastric cancer with increased quantity of bacteria, diversified microbial communities, and enrichment of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities. These alterations could contribute toward the gastric carcinogenesis. PMID:26657453

  14. Bacterial overgrowth and diversification of microbiota in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lili; Zhou, Jianhua; Xin, Yongning; Geng, Changxin; Tian, Zibin; Yu, Xinjuan; Dong, Quanjiang

    2016-03-01

    Microbiota is potentially linked to the development of cancer. However, the features of microbiota in gastric cancer remain unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the gastric microbiota in cancer. A total of 315 patients, including 212 patients with chronic gastritis and 103 patients with gastric cancer, were enrolled in the study. The bacterial load of gastric mucosa was determined using quantitative PCR. To analyze the biodiversity, structure, and composition of microbiota, amplicons of the 16S rRNA gene from 12 patients were pyrosequenced. The sequences were processed and subsequently analyzed. The amount of bacteria in gastric mucosa was estimated to be 6.9×10 per gram tissue on average. It was higher in Helicobacter pylori-infected patients (7.80±0.71) compared with those uninfected (7.59±0.57, P=0.005). An increased bacterial load up to 7.85±0.70 was detected in gastric cancer compared with chronic gastritis (P=0.001). The unweighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the structure of microbiota in gastric cancer was more diversified. Five genera of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities were enriched in gastric cancer. The weighted principal coordinate analysis showed that the presence of Helicobacter pylori markedly altered the structure of microbiota, but had little influence on the relative proportions of the other members in the microbiota. Findings from this study indicated an altered microbiota in gastric cancer with increased quantity of bacteria, diversified microbial communities, and enrichment of bacteria with potential cancer-promoting activities. These alterations could contribute toward the gastric carcinogenesis.

  15. MicroRNAs in gastric cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zhaoqi; Wei, Qingxia; She, Junjun

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is common worldwide and has a high rate of metastasis. The underlying molecular mechanism of metastasis are not entirely clear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and are reported to be involved in multiple steps of tumor metastasis. Clarifying their roles in GC metastasis will improve understanding of this disease. Here, we review the involvement of miRNAs in multiple steps of GC metastasis, including epithelial-mesenchymal transitions, anoikis, angiogenesis, invasion, and migration. The clinical application of miRNAs as prognostic biomarkers in GC is also discussed.

  16. Endoscopic Treatment for Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic resection has been accepted as a curative modality for early gastric cancer (EGC). Since conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has been introduced, many improvements in endoscopic accessories and techniques have been achieved. Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using various electrosurgical knives has been performed for complete resection of EGC and enables complete resection of EGC, which is difficult to completely resect in the era of conventional EMR. Currently, ESD is accepted as the standard method for endoscopic resection of EGC in indicated cases. In this review, the history of endoscopic treatment for EGC, overall ESD procedures, and indications and clinical results of endoscopic treatment will be presented. PMID:22076219

  17. Iron deficiency anemia after subtotal gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Roviello, Franco; Fotia, Giuseppe; Marrelli, Daniele; De Stefano, Alfonso; Macchiarelli, Raffaele; Pinto, Enrico

    2004-01-01

    Sideropenic anemia after a gastrectomy is a frequent complication. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of different factors, such as sex, age, atrophic chronic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection and iron malabsorption, in iron deficiency after surgery for gastric cancer. Thirty-seven patients who underwent subtotal gastrectomy for carcinoma of the stomach were prospectively studied following a specific three-year protocol. Iron deficiency was evaluated by hemochromocytometric analysis and serum iron-ferritin level assays. Of the different variables analyzed, atrophic chronic gastritis was associated with a lower mean serum iron level, in particular two years after surgery (65mg/dL vs. 103 mg/dL in subjects without gastritis, P<0.01); a correlation between Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric stump and lower mean serum ferritin level was also found (25+/-6.3 mg/dL vs. 53+/-0.4 mg/dL, P<0.05). On the contrary, no association was observed with the other factors that were evaluated. Among the factors involved in iron deficiency after gastrectomy for cancer of the stomach, atrophic gastritis seems to be the most important, although Helicobacter pylori infection of the gastric stump also seems to play an important role.

  18. Association between serum vitamin D levels and gastric cancer: A retrospective chart analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Neil; Companioni, Rafael Ching; Tiba, Melik; Alkhawam, Hassan; Catalano, Carmine; Sogomonian, Robert; Baum, Joel; Walfish, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine whether there is an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma associated with vitamin D deficiency (VDd). METHODS A retrospective case control study was performed of all patients diagnosed with gastric adenocarcinoma between 2005 and 2015. After we excluded the patients without a documented vitamin D level, 49 patients were included in our study. RESULTS The average age of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma and documented vitamin D level was 64 years old (95%CI: 27-86) and average vitamin D level was 20.8 mg/dL (95%CI: 4-44). Compared to a matched control group, the prevalence of VDd/insufficiency in patients with gastric adenocarcinoma was significantly higher than normal vitamin D levels (83.7% vs 16.3%). Forty-one patients (83.7%) with adenocarcinoma showed VDd/insufficiency compared to 18 (37%) patients with normal vitamin D level without gastric cancer (OR: 8.8, 95%CI: 5-22, P value < 0.0001). The average age of males with gastric adenocarcinoma diagnosis was 60 years old vs 68 years old for females (P = 0.01). Stage II gastric adenocarcinoma was the most prevalent in our study (37%). CONCLUSION We reported a positive relationship between VDd and gastric adenocarcinoma, that is to say, patients with decreased VDd levels have an increased propensity for gastric adenocarcinoma. PMID:27672427

  19. Gastric cancer: The times they are a-changin’

    PubMed Central

    Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Buffoni, Lucio; Spadi, Rosella; Roato, Ilaria

    2015-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Even though during these last decades gastric cancer incidence decreased in Western countries, it remains endemic and with a high incidence in Eastern countries. The survival in advanced and metastatic stage of gastric cancer is still very poor. Recently the Cancer Genoma Atlas Research Network identified four subtypes with different molecular profiles to classify gastric cancer in order to offer the optimal targeted therapies for pre-selected patients. Indeed, the key point is still the selection of patients for the right treatment, on basis of molecular tumor characterization. Since chemotherapy reached a plateau of efficacy for gastric cancer, the combination between cytotoxic therapy and biological agents gets a better prognosis and decreases chemotherapeutic toxicity. Currently, Trastuzumab in combination with platinum and fluorouracil is the only approved targeted therapy in the first line for c-erbB2 positive patients, whereas Ramucirumab is the only approved targeted agent for patients with metastatic gastric cancer. New perspectives for an effective treatment derived from the immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we report an overview on gastric cancer treatments, with particular attention to recent advances in targeted therapies and in immunotherapeutic approach. PMID:26600930

  20. Gastric cancer: The times they are a-changin'.

    PubMed

    Satolli, Maria Antonietta; Buffoni, Lucio; Spadi, Rosella; Roato, Ilaria

    2015-11-15

    Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Even though during these last decades gastric cancer incidence decreased in Western countries, it remains endemic and with a high incidence in Eastern countries. The survival in advanced and metastatic stage of gastric cancer is still very poor. Recently the Cancer Genoma Atlas Research Network identified four subtypes with different molecular profiles to classify gastric cancer in order to offer the optimal targeted therapies for pre-selected patients. Indeed, the key point is still the selection of patients for the right treatment, on basis of molecular tumor characterization. Since chemotherapy reached a plateau of efficacy for gastric cancer, the combination between cytotoxic therapy and biological agents gets a better prognosis and decreases chemotherapeutic toxicity. Currently, Trastuzumab in combination with platinum and fluorouracil is the only approved targeted therapy in the first line for c-erbB2 positive patients, whereas Ramucirumab is the only approved targeted agent for patients with metastatic gastric cancer. New perspectives for an effective treatment derived from the immunotherapeutic strategies. Here, we report an overview on gastric cancer treatments, with particular attention to recent advances in targeted therapies and in immunotherapeutic approach.

  1. Impact of a Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 3a Polymorphism on Susceptibility to Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kuijie; Lei, Zhendong; Yao, Hongliang; Lei, Sanlin; Zhao, Hua

    To investigate single nucleotide polymorphisms in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3a (eIF3a) gene and the risk for gastric cancer within the Chinese population. A total of 322 patients with gastric cancer were selected as the patient group and 340 non-gastric cancer patients were selected as the control group using the case-control method. Polymerase chain reaction-sequence-specific primer technology was leveraged to genotype the rs77382849 single nucleotide polymorphism in the eIF3a gene. The demographic characteristics of the study population and other exposures to risk factors were collected. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between the risk factors and gastric cancer. A higher frequency of the eIF3a rs77382849 GG homozygote genotype was observed in the gastric cancer patients compared with the controls (63.98 vs. 54.41%, p < 0.05). After adjustment of exposure risks, such as age, gender, smoking, and drinking, the rs77382849 single nucleotide polymorphism was still associated with susceptibility to gastric cancer. When the eIF3a rs77382849 GG homozygote genotype was used as the reference group, the GA genotype (GA vs. GG: OR = 0.545, 95% CI: 0.386-0.769, p = 0.001) and AA genotype (AA vs. GG: OR = 0.245, 95% CI: 0.072-0.836, p = 0.025) were both correlated with a significantly decreased risk for gastric cancer development. An association between eIF3a rs77382849 polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer was observed in these Chinese patients. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Characteristics of gastric cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Rubayat; Asombang, Akwi W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2014-04-28

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world with more than 70% of cases occur in the developing world. More than 50% of cases occur in Eastern Asia. GC is the second leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide. In Asia, GC is the third most common cancer after breast and lung and is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Although the incidence and mortality rates are slowly declining in many countries of Asia, GC still remains a significant public health problem. The incidence and mortality varies according to the geographic area in Asia. These variations are closely related to the prevalence of GC risk factors; especially Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its molecular virulent characteristics. The gradual and consistent improvements in socioeconomic conditions in Asia have lowered the H. pylori seroprevalence rates leading to a reduction in the GC incidence. However, GC remains a significant public health and an economic burden in Asia. There has been no recent systemic review of GC incidence, mortality, and H. pylori molecular epidemiology in Asia. The aim of this report is to review the GC incidence, mortality, and linkage to H. pylori in Asia.

  3. Characteristics of gastric cancer in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Rubayat; Asombang, Akwi W; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is the fourth most common cancer in the world with more than 70% of cases occur in the developing world. More than 50% of cases occur in Eastern Asia. GC is the second leading cause of cancer death in both sexes worldwide. In Asia, GC is the third most common cancer after breast and lung and is the second most common cause of cancer death after lung cancer. Although the incidence and mortality rates are slowly declining in many countries of Asia, GC still remains a significant public health problem. The incidence and mortality varies according to the geographic area in Asia. These variations are closely related to the prevalence of GC risk factors; especially Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and its molecular virulent characteristics. The gradual and consistent improvements in socioeconomic conditions in Asia have lowered the H. pylori seroprevalence rates leading to a reduction in the GC incidence. However, GC remains a significant public health and an economic burden in Asia. There has been no recent systemic review of GC incidence, mortality, and H. pylori molecular epidemiology in Asia. The aim of this report is to review the GC incidence, mortality, and linkage to H. pylori in Asia. PMID:24782601

  4. Screening for gastric cancer in Asia: current evidence and practice.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wai K; Wu, Ming-shiang; Kakugawa, Yasuo; Kim, Jae J; Yeoh, Khay-guan; Goh, Khean Lee; Wu, Kai-chun; Wu, Deng-chyang; Sollano, Jose; Kachintorn, Udom; Gotoda, Takuji; Lin, Jaw-town; You, Wei-cheng; Ng, Enders K W; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2008-03-01

    Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer in Asia. Although surgery is the standard treatment for this disease, early detection and treatment is the only way to reduce mortality. This Review summarises the epidemiology of gastric cancer, and the evidence for, and current practices of, screening in Asia. Few Asian countries have implemented a national screening programme for gastric cancer; most have adopted opportunistic screening of high-risk individuals only. Although screening by endoscopy seems to be the most accurate method for detection of gastric cancer, the availability of endoscopic instruments and expertise for mass screening remains questionable--even in developed countries such as Japan. Therefore, barium studies or serum-pepsinogen testing are sometimes used as the initial screening tool in some countries, and patients with abnormal results are screened by endoscopy. Despite the strong link between infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer, more data are needed to define the role of its eradication in the prevention of gastric cancer in Asia. At present, there is a paucity of quality data from Asia to lend support for screening for gastric cancer.

  5. MG7 mimotope-based DNA vaccination for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dexin; Chen, Yu; Fan, Daiming

    2006-04-01

    Gastric cancer is still one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Prevention and treatment of gastric cancer through vaccination has been difficult owing to lack of a specific target and poor immunity. A number of vaccination strategies have been used to augment immune responses against gastric cancer and some progress has been made. In a series of studies, the authors have focused on gastric cancer vaccination approaches based on MG7 mimotopes, which are mimicry epitopes selected from phage-displayed oligopeptide libraries with a gastric cancer cell-specific monoclonal antibody, MG7-Ab. Strategies employed in these studies include viral or plasmid vectors in combination with carrier sequence or unmethylated CpG with synthetic peptides in nanoemulsion. The results demonstrated that MG7 mimotopes could effectively and specifically induce both cellular and humoral immune reactions and in vivo antitumor responses. In particular, a four-MG7 mimotope DNA vaccine was found to elicit much stronger antitumor immune responses in mice compared with its single-mimotope counterpart. These encouraging findings might pave the way for the development of novel MG7 antigen-based vaccination approaches for human gastric cancer. The review also discusses other immune-enhancing vaccination strategies for gastric cancer.

  6. Totally Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Theodorous, Arianne N.; Train, William W.; Goldfarb, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Recent studies have supported minimally invasive techniques as a viable alternative to open surgery in the treatment of gastric cancer. The goal of this study is to review our institution's experience with totally laparoscopic gastrectomy for the treatment of both early- and advanced-stage gastric cancer. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted to examine the short-term outcomes of laparoscopic gastrectomy performed at Monmouth Medical Center between May 2003 and June 2012. We reviewed postoperative complications, surgical margins, number of resected lymph nodes, estimated blood loss, length of stay, narcotic use, and recurrence rate. Results: Forty patients were included in the study. There were 21 cases of adenocarcinoma, 15 cases of gastrointestinal stromal tumor, 2 cases of carcinoid, 1 case of small cell neuroendocrine tumor, and 1 case of squamous cell carcinoma. The mean operative time was 220 minutes (range, 67–450 minutes). The median length of stay was 6 days (range, 1–37 days). The mean number of harvested lymph nodes was 11. Early postoperative complications occurred in 7 patients and included anastomotic stricture, wound infection, intra-abdominal abscess, bowel obstruction, and esophageal pneumatosis. There were two deaths. The Kaplan-Meier 5-year overall and recurrence-free survival rate for all cases of adenocarcinoma was 63.2%. Conclusions: Totally laparoscopic gastrectomy is a reasonable option for the treatment of gastric malignancy, with early data showing acceptable survival rates and perioperative outcomes. Large-scale randomized trials are still needed to confirm oncologic equivalency to open gastrectomy in patients with advanced disease. PMID:24398204

  7. [Time trends and characteristics of gastric cancer incidence in urban Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Wu, Chun-Xiao; Zheng, Ying; Wang, Jie-Jun

    2007-09-01

    To study the time trends during 1973 - 2004 and the current characteristics of gastric cancer incidence in Shanghai and to develop strategies for control and prevention. All data from the Malignant Cancer Registry System of Shanghai were retrieved and time trends of male and female incidence rates for gastric cancer in urban population from 1973 to 2004 were assessed by annual percentage change (APC) of the crude rates and age-adjusted rates. The APC was calculated by fitting a least squares regression line to the natural logarithm of the rates, using the calendar year as a regressor variable. Based on the computerized data from 2002 to 2004, the current characteristics of urban gastric cancer incidence were analyzed regarding sex, age, stage at diagonsis, histopathologic type and location of the tumor (s). The number and structure of population were obtained from Shanghai Municipal Public Security Bureau. The incidence rates were standardized under the world population. The constituent ratios were analyzed by Chi-square test. Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS software package for Windows, version 10.0. Substantially and continuously decreasing trends were noticed in gastric cancer incidence during the past 32 years in urban Shanghai, both in males and in females. The age-standardized rates (ASR) dropped 54.4% in males and 37.6% in females. From 2002 to 2004, 7630 new cases of gastric cancer were registered in urban Shanghai with the ASRs of male and female gastric cancer as 27.4 and 14.0 per 100 000. Under the age of 40, the age-specific incidence was quite low that no differences were found between men and women. However, the incidence increased significantly after age of 40 and differences of increase were shown between the two sexes. About 46.1% of all the cases had detailed records of TNM stage, in which IV stage was the majority while I stage the least. About 74.1% of all the cases were diagnosed histopathologically and 71.7% of all had

  8. Urinary ADAM12 and MMP-9/NGAL complex detect the presence of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Shimura, Takaya; Dagher, Adelle; Sachdev, Monisha; Ebi, Masahide; Yamada, Tamaki; Yamada, Tomonori; Joh, Takashi; Moses, Marsha A

    2015-03-01

    Although the early diagnosis of gastric cancer provides the opportunity for curative endoscopic resection, comprehensive screening endoscopy would be invasive and expensive. To date, there is a complete absence of clinically useful gastric cancer biomarkers. With the goal of discovering noninvasive biomarkers for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer, we have conducted a case-control study using urine samples from individuals with gastric cancer versus healthy control samples. Of the enrolled 106 patients from September, 2012 to April, 2013, a cohort of 70 patients composed of 35 patients with gastric cancer and 35 age- and sex-matched healthy controls was analyzed. The gastric cancer group was composed of stage IA of 62.9% (22/35). The urinary levels of MMP-9/NGAL complex (uMMP-9/NGAL) and ADAM12 (uADAM12) were significantly higher in the gastric cancer group compared with the healthy control group as determined by monospecific ELISAs (uMMP-9/NGAL: median, 85 pg/mL vs. 0 pg/mL; P = 0.020; uADAM12: median, 3.35 ng/mL vs. 1.44 ng/mL; P < 0.001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that both uMMP-9/NGAL and uADAM12 were significant, independent diagnostic biomarkers for gastric cancer. Moreover, MMP-9/NGAL activity was significantly elevated as determined by gelatin zymography. The combination of uMMP-9/NGAL with uADAM12 distinguished between control samples and gastric cancer samples with an AUC of 0.825 (P < 0.001) in an ROC analysis. Significantly, immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated a high coexpression of MMP-9 and NGAL (P < 0.001) and high expression of ADAM12 (P < 0.001) in gastric cancer tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues (N = 35). In summary, uMMP-9/NGAL and uADAM12 are potential noninvasive biomarkers for gastric cancer, including early-stage disease.

  9. Molecular Classification of Gastric Cancer: A new paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Manish A.; Khanin, Raya; Tang, Laura; Janjigian, Yelena Y.; Klimstra, David S.; Gerdes, Hans; Kelsen, David P.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Gastric cancer may be subdivided into three distinct subtypes –proximal, diffuse, and distal gastric cancer– based on histopathologic and anatomic criteria. Each subtype is associated with unique epidemiology. Our aim is to test the hypothesis that these distinct gastric cancer subtypes may also be distinguished by gene expression analysis. Experimental Design Patients with localized gastric adenocarcinoma being screened for a phase II preoperative clinical trial (NCI 5917) underwent endoscopic biopsy for fresh tumor procurement. 4–6 targeted biopsies of the primary tumor were obtained. Macrodissection was performed to ensure >80% carcinoma in the sample. HG-U133A GeneChip (Affymetrix) was used for cDNA expression analysis, and all arrays were processed and analyzed using the Bioconductor R-package. Results Between November 2003 and January 2006, 57 patients were screened to identify 36 patients with localized gastric cancer who had adequate RNA for expression analysis. Using supervised analysis, we built a classifier to distinguish the three gastric cancer subtypes, successfully classifying each into tightly grouped clusters. Leave-one-out cross validation error was 0.14, suggesting that >85% of samples were classified correctly. Gene set analysis with the False Discovery Rate set at 0.25 identified several pathways that were differentially regulated when comparing each gastric cancer subtype to adjacent normal stomach. Conclusions Subtypes of gastric cancer that have epidemiologic and histologic distinction are also distinguished by gene expression data. These preliminary data suggest a new classification of gastric cancer with implications for improving our understanding of disease biology and identification of unique molecular drivers for each gastric cancer subtype. PMID:21430069

  10. Management of gastric cancer in Asia: resource-stratified guidelines.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lin; Shan, Yan-Shen; Hu, Huang-Ming; Price, Timothy J; Sirohi, Bhawna; Yeh, Kun-Huei; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Sano, Takeshi; Yang, Han-Kwang; Zhang, Xiaotian; Park, Sook Ryun; Fujii, Masashi; Kang, Yoon-Koo; Chen, Li-Tzong

    2013-11-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer globally, and is the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide. About three-quarters of newly diagnosed cases in 2008 were from Asian countries. With a high mortality-to-incidence ratio, management of gastric cancer is challenging. We discuss evidence for optimum management of gastric cancer in aspects of screening and early detection, diagnosis, and staging; endoscopic and surgical intervention; and the concepts of perioperative, postoperative, and palliative chemotherapy and use of molecularly targeted therapy. Recommendations are formulated on the basis of the framework provided by the Breast Health Global Initiative, using the categories of basic, limited, enhanced, and maximum level. We aim to provide a stepwise strategy for management of gastric cancer applicable to different levels of health-care resources in Asian countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rabeprazole exhibits antiproliferative effects on human gastric cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    GU, MENGLI; ZHANG, YAN; ZHOU, XINXIN; MA, HAN; YAO, HANGPING; JI, FENG

    2014-01-01

    Intracellular proton extrusion in gastric cancer cells has been reported to promote cancer cell survival under acidic conditions via hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase (H+/K+-ATPase). Rabeprazole is a frequently used second-generation proton pump inhibitor (PPI) that irreversibly inactivates gastric H+/K+-ATPase. Therefore, we hypothesized that rabeprazole could reduce the viability of gastric cancer cells. In the present study, four human gastric cancer cell lines and one non-cancer gastric cell line were cultured. Cell viability, the α- and β-subunits of H+/K+-ATPase and cellular apoptosis were analyzed by dye exclusion assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide staining, respectively. The expression level of total extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2) and phosphorylated-ERK protein was detected by western blot analysis. Gastric cancer cell lines were more tolerant of the acidic culture media than non-cancer cells. Administration of rabeprazole led to a marked decrease in the viability of MKN-28 cells. Exposure to rabeprazole induced significant apoptosis in AGS cells. Rabeprazole completely inhibited the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the MKN-28 cells, whereas the same effect was not observed in either the KATO III or MKN-45 cells. The ERK 1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, attenuated the viability of the AGS cells. A similar antiproliferative effect was observed in the rabeprazole treatment group. In addition, PD98059 and rabeprazole were able to efficaciously inhibit the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 in the gastric cancer cells. Therefore, it was concluded that rabeprazole can attenuate the cell viability of human gastric cancer cells through inactivation of the ERK1/2 signaling pathway. The results of the present study demonstrate that rabeprazole inhibits the viability of gastric cancer cells in vitro and may serve as a novel antineoplastic agent. PMID:25202402

  12. Coffee consumption and risk of gastric and pancreatic cancer--a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bidel, Siamak; Hu, Gang; Jousilahti, Pekka; Pukkala, Eero; Hakulinen, Timo; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2013-04-01

    Only few prospective studies have examined the association between coffee consumption and risk of gastric and pancreatic cancer. This study is designed to evaluate this relationship among Finns, whose coffee consumption is the highest in the world. A total of 60,041 Finnish men and women who were 26-74 years of age and without history of any cancer at baseline were included in the present analyses. Coffee consumption and other study parameters were determined at baseline using standardized measurements. Participants were prospectively followed up for onset of gastric and/or pancreatic cancer, emigration, death or until June 30, 2006. During a mean follow-up period of 18 years, 299 cases of gastric cancer and 235 cases of pancreatic cancer were found. There was a nonsignificant inverse association between coffee consumption and risk of gastric cancer among men but not in the women. The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of stomach and pancreatic cancer incidence for ≥ 10 cups of coffee per day compared with nondrinkers were 0.75 (95% CI, 0.40-1.41) (P for trend = 0.19) and 0.82 (95% CI, 0.38-1.76) (P for trend = 0.95) for the combined population of men and women, respectively. We did not find a significant association between coffee consumption and the risk of gastric and/or pancreatic cancers.

  13. Radiation therapy for advanced gastric cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukiyama, I.; Akine, Y.; Kajiura, Y.; Ogino, T.; Yamashita, K.; Egawa, S.; Hijikata, J.; Kitagawa, T.

    1988-07-01

    A retrospective study of 75 patients with advanced inoperable gastric cancers, referred to the National Cancer Center Hospital between 1962 and 1982, was performed. According to the Borrmann classification based on X ray findings, Type 1 was found in 3 patients, Type 2 in 5, Type 3 in 40, and Type 4 in 15. Twelve patients could not be classified. The histological type was papillary adenocarcinoma in 7 patients, tubular adenocarcinoma in 23, mucinous carcinoma in 6, poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma in 14, signet ring cell carcinoma in 12 and others in 13. The site of remote metastasis in 19 patients was Virchow's lymph node in 8 patients, Douglas pouch in 3, liver and lung in 2 each and others in 4. All patients were treated by a either telecobalt 60 unit or a linear accelerator using 6 Mv photon and the total dose to primary lesion was 4000 cGy in 5 weeks to 7000 cGy in 8-9 weeks. Complete response (CR) was achieved in 6 patients or 8.0%, partial response (PR) in 46 or 61.3%, and no change (NC) in 23 or 30.7%. The response rate based on the sum of CR and PR was about 70%. The 50% survival period in months was 26.5, 7.3, and 3.2, respectively for patients with CR, PR, and NC. For the response of advanced gastric cancer to chemotherapy in the National Cancer Center Hospital, the combined use of UFT and Mitomycin C gave the highest rate, 46%. As for as local response is concerned, the response rate to radiation was 70%, a better result than that of chemotherapy alone.

  14. Dual Roles of Gastric Gland Mucin-specific O-glycans in Prevention of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakayama, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Gastric gland mucin is secreted from gland mucous cells, including pyloric gland cells and mucous neck cells located in the lower layer of the gastric mucosa. These mucins typically contain O-glycans carrying terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (αGlcNAc) attached to the scaffold protein MUC6, and biosynthesis of the O-glycans is catalyzed by the glycosyltransferase, α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (α4GnT). We previously used expression cloning to isolate cDNA encoding α4GnT, and then demonstrated that αGlcNAc functions as natural antibiotic against Helicobacter pylori, a microbe causing various gastric diseases including gastric cancer. More recently, it was shown that αGlcNAc serves as a tumor suppressor for differentiated-type adenocarcinoma. This review summarizes these findings and identifies dual roles for αGlcNAc in gastric cancer. PMID:24761044

  15. Germline CDH1 deletions in hereditary diffuse gastric cancer families

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Carla; Senz, Janine; Kaurah, Pardeep; Pinheiro, Hugo; Sanges, Remo; Haegert, Anne; Corso, Giovanni; Schouten, Jan; Fitzgerald, Rebecca; Vogelsang, Holger; Keller, Gisela; Dwerryhouse, Sarah; Grimmer, Donna; Chin, Suet-Feung; Yang, Han-Kwang; Jackson, Charles E.; Seruca, Raquel; Roviello, Franco; Stupka, Elia; Caldas, Carlos; Huntsman, David

    2009-01-01

    Germline CDH1 point or small frameshift mutations can be identified in 30–50% of hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) families. We hypothesized that CDH1 genomic rearrangements would be found in HDGC and identified 160 families with either two gastric cancers in first-degree relatives and with at least one diffuse gastric cancer (DGC) diagnosed before age 50, or three or more DGC in close relatives diagnosed at any age. Sixty-seven carried germline CDH1 point or small frameshift mutations. We screened germline DNA from the 93 mutation negative probands for large genomic rearrangements by Multiplex Ligation-Dependent Probe Amplification. Potential deletions were validated by RT–PCR and breakpoints cloned using a combination of oligo-CGH-arrays and long-range-PCR. In-silico analysis of the CDH1 locus was used to determine a potential mechanism for these rearrangements. Six of 93 (6.5%) previously described mutation negative HDGC probands, from low GC incidence populations (UK and North America), carried genomic deletions (UK and North America). Two families carried an identical deletion spanning 193 593 bp, encompassing the full CDH3 sequence and CDH1 exons 1 and 2. Other deletions affecting exons 1, 2, 15 and/or 16 were identified. The statistically significant over-representation of Alus around breakpoints indicates it as a likely mechanism for these deletions. When all mutations and deletions are considered, the overall frequency of CDH1 alterations in HDGC is ∼46% (73/160). CDH1 large deletions occur in 4% of HDGC families by mechanisms involving mainly non-allelic homologous recombination in Alu repeat sequences. As the finding of pathogenic CDH1 mutations is useful for management of HDGC families, screening for deletions should be offered to at-risk families. PMID:19168852

  16. Gastric pneumatosis in a small-for-gestational-age neonate.

    PubMed

    Penninga, Luit; Werz, Markus J; Reurings, Jurrian C; Nellensteijn, David R

    2015-08-03

    We describe a dysmature (small-for-gestational-age) neonate born at term with multiple congenital defects, who presented with bloody diarrhoea. The abdominal X-ray showed gastric pneumatosis. The patient was treated conservatively with intravenous fluids and antibiotics, and recovered uneventfully. The patient underwent genetic investigation, and was diagnosed with Cornelia de Lange syndrome. Gastric pneumatosis is rare, and may be the result of neonatal sepsis, gastritis, pyloric stenosis, necrotising enterocolitis of the stomach, misplacement of nasogastric tubes, or non-invasive positive pressure ventilation. Furthermore, it is speculated that gastric pneumatosis might more frequently occur with congenital, cardiac or genetic disorders.

  17. Relationship between gastric cancer and blood trace metal levels

    SciTech Connect

    Saito, K.; Fujimoto, S.; Sasaki, T.; Kurasaki, M.; Kaji, H.

    1981-06-01

    The metal concentrations in whole blood, blood plasma and blood cells of the patients were compared with those of normal subjects. Significantly lower levels of Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn in whole blood of the patients were found. The Cu levels in the blood cells and Zn levels in the blood plasma of patients were of definitely lower levels than those of the normal subjects. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catale (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and delta aminolevulinic dehydratase (ALAD) metal enzymes were assayed in the 30 patients and in 24 normal subjects matches in age to the patients. SOD levels in blood cells of the patients were definitely lower than those of the normal subjects. The CAT activities showed a significantly higher level in the stage II and a significantly lower level in the stage IV and metastatic groups. The activities of GPX and ALAD did not show any significant difference between the patients with gastric cancer and the normal subjects. There were significant negative correlations between CAT activity in whole blood and Cu level in whole blood and blood plasma; also, positive correlations between Zn level and in whole blood and CAT activity, and between Zn level and GPX activity in patients with gastric cancer. Moreover there were positive correlations between Zn level and SOD level in the blood cells and also a negative correlation between Zn level in blood cells and GPX activity in whole blood. These correlations suggested that there may be some important relationship between the metabolism of superoxide anion in gastric cancer patients and advanced cancer.

  18. [Early diagnosis of gastric cancer, a utopian idea? (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Seifert, E

    1981-05-01

    In order to improve the prognosis of gastric cancer it is necessary to discover the lesions at an early stage of the disease. Early gastric cancer has an excellent prognosis with a postoperative survival rate of 77 to 99%. Since 1970 we have diagnosed 76 cases of early gastric cancer and the percentage of early cancer out of all gastric cancers increased from 10 to 23%. This improvement is based on selected examinations of high-risk patients, on better diagnostic methods and on our better knowledge of macroscopic and histological appearance. In particular, the use of snare biopsy in protruding lesions and the implementation of continuous endoscopic-bioptic follow-up of all gastric ulcers until complete healing is achieved have improved the accuracy of histological verification. In 16 out of 76 cases of early gastric cancer a multicentric growth was observed. The diagnosis of gastric cancer at an early stage is not an utopian idea. It is reality when we pay attention to the aspects mentioned before.

  19. Neutrophil-rich gastric carcinoma in the integrated cancer registry of eastern Sicily, Italy.

    PubMed

    Ieni, Antonio; Branca, Giovanni; Parisi, Antonino; Fedele, Francesco; Irato, Eleonora; Venuti, Antonio; Caruso, Rosario A

    2015-01-01

    Neutrophil-rich carcinoma is a variant of gastric carcinoma that has not been well-studied or characterized. The purpose of the present study was to reveal the incidence and clinicopathological findings compared to ordinary gastric carcinoma. A population-based series of 430 gastric cancers, identified between 2003 and 2006 from the province of Messina (insular Italy; population, 662,450), was used. The number of tumor-infiltrating neutrophils was assessed in a semi-quantitative manner using the mean value of 20 non-overlapping high-power fields (magnification, 400; 0.08 mm(2)). Tumors with >10 neutrophils per 20 high-power fields were arbitrarily considered as neutrophil-rich gastric carcinomas. Moreover, MUC1 immunohistochemical expression was investigated to show possible correlation with neutrophil infiltration in gastric carcinomas. Among 193 gastric cancers resected for curative purposes, 30 (15.54%) were represented by neutrophil-rich gastric carcinomas. These tumors occurred more frequently in patients aged more than 72 years (p<0.05), showing an inverse correlation with mucinous subtype according to the WHO classification (p<0.001) and expressed MUC1. However, intensity and distribution of MUC1 was heterogeneous, and independent of neutrophil infiltration within the tumor stroma. Neutrophil-rich carcinoma seems to represent a distinctive morphological variant of gastric carcinoma, although the true mechanism for the infiltration of neutrophils is still unclear. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  20. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician’s believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for “surgical disease” or for “Sippy” diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori

  1. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.

  2. Gastric cancer progression associated with local humoral immune responses.

    PubMed

    Yolanda, López-Vidal; Sergio, Ponce-de-León; Hugo, Esquivel-Solís; Isabel, Amieva-Fernández Rosa; Rafael, Barreto-Zúñiga; Aldo, Torre-Delgadillo; Gonzalo, Castillo-Rojas

    2015-11-21

    Although the association between H. pylori and gastric cancer has been well described, the alterations studies are scarce in the humoral immune response in specific anatomical areas of stomach and during the stages of gastric cancer. The aim in this study was to determine the influence of humoral immune responses against H. pylori infection on gastric carcinoma. We selected 16 gastric cancer cases and approximately one matched control per case at the National Institute of Medical Sciences and Nutrition Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ); all the cases met the inclusion criteria for the study. We obtained three biopsies from each patient and from each of the predetermined regions of the stomach: antrum, angular portion, corpus, and fundus. From the patients with gastric cancer, additional biopsy specimens were obtained from tumor mid-lesion and tumor margin, and additional specimens were collected at least 2 and 5 cm from the tumor margin. We compared IgA levels against H. pylori in each area of stomach between cases and controls as well as between early and advanced stages of gastric cancer. IgA values were strikingly elevated in cancer cases compared with control subjects; a value that was even higher in the distant periphery of tumor but was remarkably decreased toward the carcinoma lesion. The advanced stages of gastric cancer demonstrated the relapse of the humoral immune response in the mid-lesion region of the tumor compared with the tumor margins and adjacent non-tumor tissue. Gastric cancer is characterized by progressive accumulation of a concentrated, specific IgA response against H. pylori, beginning with an abnormal increase in the entire stomach but particularly in the adjacent non-tumor tissue. Thus, it is possible that this strong immune response also participates in some degree in the damage and in the development of gastric cancer to some extent.

  3. Pembrolizumab, Capecitabine, and Radiation Therapy in Treating Patients With Mismatch-Repair Deficient and Epstein-Barr Virus Positive Gastric Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-14

    Epstein-Barr Virus Positive; Gastric Adenocarcinoma; Mismatch Repair Protein Deficiency; Stage IB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage II Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage III Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer AJCC v7

  4. [Eleven Patients with Gastric Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy after Stent Placement for Gastric Outlet Obstruction].

    PubMed

    Endo, Shunji; Nakagawa, Tomo; Konishi, Ken; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Ohta, Katsuya; Nakashima, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Ohmori, Takeshi; Yamada, Terumasa

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic placement of self-expandable metallic stents is reportedly effective for gastric outlet obstructions due to advanced gastric cancer, and is less invasive than gastrojejunostomy. For patients who have good performance status, we administer chemotherapy after stent placement, although the safety and feasibility of this chemotherapy have not yet been discussed in full. Between 2011 and 2015, 15 patients at our institution underwent endoscopic gastroduodenal stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer. Eleven of these patients were administered chemotherapy after stent placement. In our case series, we did not observe any specific adverse event caused by stent placement plus chemotherapy. Adverse events after chemotherapy included anemia of CTCAE Grade 3 in 7 patients. Stent-in-stent placement was needed in 2 patients. Neither stent migration nor perforation was observed. Therefore, chemotherapy after stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer was considered safe and feasible. Stent placement is useful not only as palliative care for patients with terminal-stage disease, but also as one of the multimodal therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

  5. Mean Sojourn Time of Preclinical Gastric Cancer in Korean Men: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Jong-Myon; Shin, Sang Yop; Kim, Eun Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This retrospective cohort study aimed to estimate the mean sojourn time (MST) of preclinical gastric cancer in Korean men. Methods: The subjects consisted of voluntary male screenees aged 40 to 69 years who underwent subsequent screening gastroscopies after testing negative at a baseline screening performed between January 2007 and December 2011. A new case was defined if gastric cancer cells were present in the biopsy specimens obtained from gastroscopy. The follow-up period was calculated as the number of person-years between the date of baseline screening gastroscopy and positive findings at a subsequent screening. The MST was calculated using transition rates of gastric cancer to determine the best screening interval. Results: Of the 171 979 voluntary male screenees, 61 688 (36%) underwent subsequent screening gastroscopies between January 2007 and December 2011. A total of 91 incident cases were found during 19 598 598 person-years of follow-up. The MST of gastric cancer was 2.37 years (95% confidence intervals, 1.92 to 2.96), and those aged 40 to 49 years had a shorter MST than those 50 to 69 years did. Conclusions: These findings support the 2-year interval of screening recommended by the nationwide gastric cancer screening program in Korea. Further studies for the age-specific MST among women are needed. PMID:25139166

  6. CA125 is a potential biomarker to predict surgically incurable gastric and cardia cancer

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Taobo; Chen, Wenhu; Wang, Lifang; Zhao, Hongguang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Preoperative evaluation of the curability of gastric and cardia cancer is important to avoid risks of unnecessary surgery. Our previous study has reported several clinical parameters associated with incurable gastric surgery. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the correlation between CA125 and the curability of gastric and cardia cancer. A total of 297 cases of gastric and cardia cancer were analyzed retrospectively, including 153 cases with radical surgery and 144 with surgery for incurable gastric or cardia cancer. χ2 test was performed to analyze the associations between curability or incurable factors and clinicopathological data, including CA125 value. ROC curves were generated, and cutoff points for curability, T status, N status, peritoneal metastasis, and distant metastasis were found, respectively. Binary logistic regression was performed to verify the associations between dependent variables (curability, T status, N status, peritoneal metastasis, and distant metastasis) and covariates (related clinicopathological data from step 1 and cutoff points from step 2). Esophageal involvement, T grade, and CA125 were risk factors of curability. T grade and Borrmann type were risk factors of T status. T grade and CA125 were risk factors of N status. Age, esophageal involvement, T grade, and CA125 were risk factors of peritoneal metastasis. CA125 was risk factor of distant metastasis. CA125 is a potential biological marker for curability prediction of gastric and cardia cancer. PMID:28002320

  7. Upregulation of plasma C9 protein in gastric cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Poh-Kuan; Lee, Huiyin; Loh, Marie Chiew Shia; Choong, Lee-Yee; Lin, Qingsong; So, Jimmy Bok Yan; Lim, Khong Hee; Soo, Ross Andrew; Yong, Wei Peng; Chan, Siew Pang; Smoot, Duane T.; Ashktorab, Hassan; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Lim, Yoon Pin

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Current biomarkers used in the clinic do not have sufficient sensitivity for gastric cancer detection. To discover new and better biomarkers, protein profiling on plasma samples from 25 normal, 15 early-stage and 21 late-stage cancer was performed using an iTRAQ-LC-MS/MS approach. The level of C9 protein was found to be significantly higher in gastric cancer compared with normal subjects. Immunoblotting data revealed a congruent trend with iTRAQ results. The discriminatory power of C9 between normal and cancer states was not due to inter-patient variations and was independent from gastritis and Helicobacter pylori status of the patients. C9 overexpression could also be detected in a panel of gastric cancer cell lines and their conditioned media compared with normal cells, implying that higher C9 levels in plasma of cancer patients could be attributed to the presence of gastric tumor. A subsequent blind test study on a total of 119 plasma samples showed that the sensitivity of C9 could be as high as 90% at a specificity of 74%. Hence, C9 is a potentially useful biomarker for gastric cancer detection. PMID:20707004

  8. Factors associated with early recurrence after curative surgery for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Wei-Ming; Meng, Qing-Bin; Yu, Jian-Chun; Ma, Zhi-Qiang; Li, Zhi-Tian

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To characterize patterns of gastric cancer recurrence and patient survival and to identify predictors of early recurrence after surgery. METHODS: Clinicopathological data for 417 consecutive patients who underwent curative resection for gastric cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Tumor and node status was reclassified according to the 7th edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer tumor-node-metastasis classification for carcinoma of the stomach. Survival data came from both the patients’ follow-up records and telephone follow-ups. Recurrent gastric cancer was diagnosed based on clinical imaging, gastroscopy with biopsy, and/or cytological examination of ascites, or intraoperative findings in patients who underwent reoperation. Predictors of early recurrence were compared in patients with pT1 and pT2-4a stage tumors. Pearson’s χ2 test and Fisher’s exact test were used to compare differences between categorical variables. Survival curves were constructed using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared via the log-rank test. Variables identified as potentially important for early recurrence using univariate analysis were determined by multivariate logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Of 417 gastric cancer patients, 80 (19.2%) were diagnosed with early gastric cancer and the remaining 337 (80.8%) were diagnosed with locally advanced gastric cancer. After a median follow-up period of 56 mo, 194 patients (46.5%) experienced recurrence. The mean time from curative surgery to recurrence in these 194 patients was 24 ± 18 mo (range, 1-84 mo). Additionally, of these 194 patients, 129 (66.5%) experienced recurrence within 2 years after surgery. There was no significant difference in recurrence patterns between early and late recurrence (P < 0.05 each). For pT1 stage gastric cancer, tumor size (P = 0.011) and pN stage (P = 0.048) were associated with early recurrence of gastric tumors. Patient age, pT stage, pN stage, Lauren histotype, lymphovascular

  9. Epidemio-hygieological aspects of gastric neoplasms in aged patients.

    PubMed

    Shibata, H; Hara, M; Makino, T; Kikuchi, K; Senoue, I; Nomiyama, T; Miwa, M; Suzuki, S; Harasawa, S; Tani, N; Miwa, T

    1982-07-01

    A 100-year-old male who died of gastric carcinoma was discussed and illustrated epidemiohygieologically. According to dynamic population statistics of the Health and Welfare Ministry of Japan, 418 persons over the age of 100 years died in 1979. Among them, 157 (38%) died of cardiovascular diseases and 49 (12%) died of pulmonary diseases, but only six died of neoplasms including two with gastric carcinomas (0.48%). To our knowledge no such case has been reported previously in the literature.

  10. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: association with lobular breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Kasmintan A.; Masciari, Serena; Boyd, Niki; Wiyrick, Sara; Kaurah, Pardeep; Senz, Janine; Burke, Wylie; Lynch, Henry T.; Garber, Judy E.

    2007-01-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) has been shown to be caused by germline mutations in the gene CDH1 located at 16q22.1, which encodes the cell–cell adhesion molecule, E-cadherin. Not only does loss of expression of E-cadherin account for the morphologic differences between intestinal and diffuse gastric cancer (DGC) variants, but it also appears to lead to distinct cellular features which appear to be common amongst related cancers that have been seen in the syndrome. As in most hereditary cancer syndromes, multiple organ sites may be commonly affected by cancer, in HDGC, lobular carcinoma of the breast (LBC) and possibly other organ sites have been shown to be associated with the familial cancer syndrome. Given the complexity of HDGC, not only with regard to the management of the DGC risk, but also with regard to the risk for other related cancers, such as LBC, a multi-disciplinary approach is needed for the management of individuals with known CDH1 mutations. PMID:18046629

  11. The prevalence of colorectal neoplasia in patients with gastric cancer: a Korean Association for the Study of Intestinal Disease (KASID) Study.

    PubMed

    Park, Dong Il; Park, Seung Ha; Yoo, Tae Woo; Kim, Hyun Soo; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Byeon, Jeong-Sik; Koh, Bong Min; Kim, Jin Oh; Shim, Ki-Nam; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Bo In; Choi, Kyu Yong; Lee, Hang Lak; Han, Dong Soo; Baek, Ilhyun; Park, Cheol Hee; Park, Seun Ja

    2010-02-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia, using colonoscopy surveillance, in a cohort of patients with gastric cancers. The association between gastric cancer and colorectal cancer has been conflicting. A total of 543 patients (males, 362; females, 181) with gastric cancer were matched with 2 persons from the population without a diagnosis of gastric cancer as confirmed by endoscopy according to age (+/-2 y), sex, date of colonoscopy examination (+/-2 wk), and endoscopist. Main Outcome was the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia diagnosed by colonoscopy. A significantly higher colorectal cancer prevalence was found in the gastric cancer group, that is, 19 of 543 (3.5%) versus 14 of 1086 (1.3%; P<0.001). The odds of developing colorectal cancer were higher in the presence of gastric cancer (odds ratios, 3.46; 95% confidence interval: 1.51-7.91). Four of the 119 (3.4%) gastric cancer patients below 50 years of age had colorectal cancer in contrast with no cases in the matched controls. The prevalence of colorectal adenoma was higher in the gastric cancer group, with a prevalence of 215 in 543 (39.6%) versus 311 in 1086 (28.6%; P<0.001). The risk of adenoma was also greater among gastric cancer patients (odds ratios, 1.76; 95% confidence interval: 1.34-2.25). Our data reveal a higher prevalence and risk of colorectal cancer in patients diagnosed with gastric cancer, particularly in patients below 50 years of age. Additional studies are needed to explore the geographical differences in the association between gastric cancer and colon cancer.

  12. Preoperative staging of nodal status in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Berlth, Felix; Chon, Seung-Hun; Chevallay, Mickael; Jung, Minoa Karin

    2017-01-01

    An accurate preoperative staging of nodal status is crucial in gastric cancer, because it has a great impact on prognosis and therapeutic decision-making. Different staging methods have been evaluated for gastric cancer in order to predict nodal involvement. So far, no technique could meet the necessary requirements, which include a high detection rate of infiltrated lymph nodes and a low frequency of false-positive results. This article summarizes different staging methods used to assess lymph node status in patients with gastric cancer, evaluates the evidence, and proposes to establish new methods. PMID:28217758

  13. Gastric Cancer with Peritoneal Tuberculosis: Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Alshahrani, Amer Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report a 39-year-old female patient presenting with gastric cancer and tuberculous peritonitis. The differential diagnosis between advanced gastric cancer with peritoneal carcinomatosis and early gastric cancer with peritoneal tuberculosis (TB), and the treatment of these two diseases, were challenging in this case. Physicians should have a high index of suspicion for peritoneal TB if the patient has a history of this disease, especially in areas with a high incidence of TB, such as South Korea. An early diagnosis is critical for patient management and prognosis. A surgical approach including tissue biopsy or laparoscopic exploration is recommended to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27433397

  14. Screening and Early Detection of Gastric Cancer: East Versus West.

    PubMed

    Suh, Yun-Suhk; Yang, Han-Kwang

    2015-10-01

    Low ratio of mortality over incidence of gastric cancer in Asian countries including Korea and Japan could be explained by early detection after screening, different treatment strategy, or genetic disparity between the East and West. Early detection after screening program for gastric cancer and subsequent surgical treatment including appropriate lymph node dissection has been developed successfully in high risk areas such as East Asian countries. Even in countries with a low prevalence of gastric cancer, a specific screening program is recommended for any high-risk population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Surgical resection of late solitary locoregional gastric cancer recurrence in stomach bed.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masanori; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Maejima, Kentaro; Komine, Osamu; Mizutani, Satoshi; Yoshino, Masanori; Bo, Hideki; Kitayama, Yasuhiko; Uchida, Eiji

    2012-07-01

    Late-onset and solitary recurrence of gastric signet ring cell (SRC) carcinoma is rare. We report a successful surgical resection of late solitary locoregional recurrence after curative gastrectomy for gastric SRC carcinoma. The patient underwent total gastrectomy for advanced gastric carcinoma at age 52. Seven years after the primary operation, he visited us again with sudden onset of abdominal pain and vomiting. We finally decided to perform an operation, based on a diagnosis of colon obstruction due to the recurrence of gastric cancer by clinical findings and instrumental examinations. The laparotomic intra-abdominal findings showed that the recurrent tumor existed in the region surrounded by the left diaphragm, colon of splenic flexure, and pancreas tail. There was no evidence of peritoneal dissemination, and peritoneal lavage fluid cytology was negative. We performed complete resection of the recurrent tumor with partial colectomy, distal pancreatectomy, and partial diaphragmectomy. Histological examination of the resected specimen revealed SRC carcinoma, identical in appearance to the previously resected gastric cancer. We confirmed that the intra-abdominal tumor was a locoregional gastric cancer recurrence in the stomach bed. The patient showed a long-term survival of 27 months after the second operation. In the absence of effective alternative treatment for recurrent gastric carcinoma, surgical options should be pursued, especially for late and solitary recurrence.

  16. Transgenic and gene knockout mice in gastric cancer research

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yannan; Yu, Yingyan

    2017-01-01

    Mouse models are useful tool for carcinogenic study. They will greatly enrich the understanding of pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms for gastric cancer. However, only few of mice could develop gastric cancer spontaneously. With the development and improvement of gene transfer technology, investigators created a variety of transgenic and knockout/knockin mouse models of gastric cancer, such as INS-GAS mice and gastrin knockout mice. Combined with helicobacter infection and carcinogens treatment, these transgenic/knockout/knockin mice developed precancerous or cancerous lesions, which are proper for gene function study or experimental therapy. Here we review the progression of genetically engineered mouse models on gastric cancer research, and emphasize the effects of chemical carcinogens or infectious factors on carcinogenesis of genetically modified mouse. We also emphasize the histological examination on mouse stomach. We expect to provide researchers with some inspirations on this field. PMID:27713138

  17. Comparison of "early gastric cancer" in Britain and Japan.

    PubMed Central

    Evans, D M; Craven, J L; Murphy, F; Cleary, B K

    1978-01-01

    Before the introduction of endoscopy, four out of 720 cases of gastric cancer were diagnosed before the cancer had breached the muscularis propia, an incidence of 0.5%. Using endoscopy and endoscopic biopsy, 10 out of 101 cases of gastric cancer were diagnosed at this "early" stage, an incidence of 10%. Their clinical, morphological, and histological characteristics are compared with those of Japanese "early gastric cancers" and reveal a remarkable similarity. The results of this study suggest that a higher proportion of British gastric cancers could be diagnosed at an "early" stage by more intensive investigation of dyspeptic patients using up to date radiological techniques, fibreoptic endoscopy, and endoscopic biopsy. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 PMID:624498

  18. Transgenic and gene knockout mice in gastric cancer research.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yannan; Yu, Yingyan

    2017-01-10

    Mouse models are useful tool for carcinogenic study. They will greatly enrich the understanding of pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms for gastric cancer. However, only few of mice could develop gastric cancer spontaneously. With the development and improvement of gene transfer technology, investigators created a variety of transgenic and knockout/knockin mouse models of gastric cancer, such as INS-GAS mice and gastrin knockout mice. Combined with helicobacter infection and carcinogens treatment, these transgenic/knockout/knockin mice developed precancerous or cancerous lesions, which are proper for gene function study or experimental therapy. Here we review the progression of genetically engineered mouse models on gastric cancer research, and emphasize the effects of chemical carcinogens or infectious factors on carcinogenesis of genetically modified mouse. We also emphasize the histological examination on mouse stomach. We expect to provide researchers with some inspirations on this field.

  19. Gastric Metastasis of Breast Cancer: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Fernandes, Gustavo; Batista Bugiato Faria, Luiza D; de Assis Pereira, Isadora; Neves, Natália C Moreira; Vieira, Yasmine Oliveira; Leal, Alessandro I Cavalcanti

    2016-09-05

    Gastric metastasis is rare but it can be the initial symptom of cancer. The second leading cause of this type of metastasis is breast cancer. A lack of clinical signs and nonspecific side effects of the treatment of primary tumors can lead to the misdiagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsy and immunohistochemistry should be used for diagnosis. Treatment is palliative; it includes chemo, endocrine, and radiation therapies. Four patients with breast cancer and gastric metastasis were identified. All the patients tested positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors, and received chemotherapy and hormone therapy. One patient underwent surgery and two received radiation therapy. Patients with breast cancer and gastrointestinal symptoms should be investigated for gastric metastasis, given its morbidity and negative impact on quality of life.

  20. [Gastric cancer screening in Japan, now and tomorrow].

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Shigemi

    2012-10-01

    The screening rate of gastric cancer in the population surveyed by Japanese government was 34.3% in 2010. The rates differed by medical insurance holders: 60-70% in the big-company insurances; 32% in the national government-assisted small-company insurances; 10% in the local government-assisted non-company individual insurances and the dependents of any insurance holders. The only method of gastric cancer mass screening that Japanese government approves now is sodium bicarbonate-barium X-ray examination. The rate diagnosed as gastric cancer in the system was 0.088% in 2009. A new strategy using serum tests for pepsinogens and Helicobacter pylori-antibody has been proposed. Test and eradication may be the best method for screening high-risk subjects and primary prevention of gastric cancer, and the subsequent cancer screening.

  1. Salt taste preference, sodium intake and gastric cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Xiefu

    2011-01-01

    The risk factors mostly strongly associated with gastric cancer are gastric bacteria Helicobacter pylori and diet. By using a case-control study among residents in China, we examined the association between sodium intake, presence of H,pylori, and gastric cancer risk. A population-based case-control study including 235 cases and 410 controls were used. Potential risk factors of gastric cancer were interview for cases and controls by questionnaire, salt taste preference was measured for all subjects, and IgG antibodies to H,pylori was used for H.pylori infection. Risk measures were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. H.pylori infection and smoking increased the risk of gastric cancer, with the OR(95%CI) of 1.91(1.32-2.79) and 1.47(1.05- 2.05), respectively. Dietary sodium intake independently increased the risk of gastric cancer. Participants with the highest sodium intake(>5g/day) had a high gastric cancer risk [OR(95%CI)= 3.78(1.74-5.44)]. Participants with the salt taste preference at 7.3g/L and ≥ 14.6g/L showed higher risk of gastric cancer [OR(95%) for 7.3g/L and ≥ 14.6g/L were 5.36(2.72-10.97) and 4.75(2.43-8.85), respectively]. A significantly interaction was found between salt taste preference and H.pylori infection (p=0.037). Salt taste preference was significantly correlated with sodium intake (Correlation coefficient=0.46, p< 0.001). Salt taste preference test could be a simple way to evaluate an inherited characteristic of sodium intake, and our study confirms the gastric cancer is associated with sodium intake and H.pylori.

  2. Helicobacter pylori eradication as a preventive tool against gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Hamajima, Nobuyuki; Goto, Yasuyuki; Nishio, Kazuko; Tanaka, Daisuke; Kawai, Sayo; Sakakibara, Hisataka; Kondo, Takaaki

    2004-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), which increases the risk of gastric diseases, including digestive ulcers and gastric cancer, is highly prevalent in Asian countries. There is no doubt that eradication of the bacterium is effective as a treatment of digestive ulcer, but eradication aiming to reduce the gastric cancer risk is still controversial. Observational studies in Japan demonstrated that the eradication decreased the gastric cancer risk among 132 stomach cancer patients undergoing endoscopical resection (65 treated with omeprazol and antibiotics and 67 untreated). In Columbia, 976 participants were randomized into eight groups in a three-treatment factorial design including H. pylori eradication, resulting in significant regression in the H. pylori eradication group. A recent randomized study in China also showed a significant reduction of gastric cancer risk among those without any gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia. Efficacy of eradication may vary in extent among countries with different incidence rates of gastric cancer. Since the lifetime cumulative risk (0 to 84 years old) of gastric cancer in Japan is reported to be 12.7% for males and 4.8% for females (Inoue and Tominaga, 2003), the corresponding values for H. pylori infected Japanese can be estimated at 21.2% in males and 8.0% in females under the assumptions that the relative risk for infected relative to uninfected is 5 and the proportion of those infected is 0.5. Both the fact that not all individuals are infected among those exposed and the knowledge that only a small percentage of individuals infected with the bacterium develop gastric cancer, indicate the importance of gene-environment interactions. Studies on such interactions should provide useful information for anti-H. pylori preventive strategies.

  3. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-induced Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M.

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data indicate that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness demonstrates the sophisticated relationship among H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori’s activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism. PMID:26385073

  4. Pathobiology of Helicobacter pylori-Induced Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Manuel; Peek, Richard M

    2016-01-01

    Colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori and its role in causing gastric cancer is one of the richest examples of a complex relationship among human cells, microbes, and their environment. It is also a puzzle of enormous medical importance given the incidence and lethality of gastric cancer worldwide. We review recent findings that have changed how we view these relationships and affected the direction of gastric cancer research. For example, recent data have indicated that subtle mismatches between host and microbe genetic traits greatly affect the risk of gastric cancer. The ability of H pylori and its oncoprotein CagA to reprogram epithelial cells and activate properties of stemness show the sophisticated relationship between H pylori and progenitor cells in the gastric mucosa. The observation that cell-associated H pylori can colonize the gastric glands and directly affect precursor and stem cells supports these observations. The ability to mimic these interactions in human gastric organoid cultures as well as animal models will allow investigators to more fully unravel the extent of H pylori control on the renewing gastric epithelium. Finally, our realization that external environmental factors, such as dietary components and essential micronutrients, as well as the gastrointestinal microbiota, can change the balance between H pylori's activity as a commensal or a pathogen has provided direction to studies aimed at defining the full carcinogenic potential of this organism. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Metastatic gastric cancer to the female genital tract

    PubMed Central

    Matsushita, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Kazushi; Wakatsuki, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    Metastases to the female genital tract from gastric cancer are rare, but they significantly worsen the prognosis of such patients. The potential routes for metastasis to the female genital tract from gastric cancer include hematogenous spread, lymphatic spread and surface implantation. The rate of lymphatic metastasis to the ovary from gastric cancer has been reported to be higher compared with that from colorectal cancer. Uterine or Fallopian tube metastases are usually secondary to ovarian metastases, which are typically identified prior to the detection of gastric cancer in half of all synchronous cases, with complaints of abdominal distention, pain, palpable mass, or abnormal uterine bleeding. The prognosis of patients with female genital tract metastases from gastric cancer is extremely poor, and is worse compared with that of other primary sites, such as the breast and colorectum. In the past, surgical intervention in such patients consisted mainly of palliative resection to relieve the symptoms associated with a sizeable pelvic mass. However, recent retrospective studies based on a relatively small number of patients have reported that surgical tumor debulking plus chemotherapy may improve the prognosis of patients with metastatic ovarian cancer originating from gastric cancer. PMID:27882232

  6. Epstein–Barr Virus Infection and Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xin-Zu; Chen, Hongda; Castro, Felipe A.; Hu, Jian-Kun; Brenner, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection is found in a subset of gastric cancers. Previous reviews have exclusively focused on EBV-encoded small RNA (EBER) positivity in gastric cancer tissues, but a comprehensive evaluation of other type of studies is lacking. We searched the PubMed database up to September, 2014, and performed a systematic review. We considered studies comparing EBV nucleic acids positivity in gastric cancer tissue with positivity in either adjacent non-tumor tissue of cancer patients or non-tumor mucosa from healthy individuals, patients with benign gastric diseases, or deceased individuals. We also considered studies comparing EBV antibodies in serum from cancer patients and healthy controls. Selection of potentially eligible studies and data extraction were performed by 2 independent reviewers. Due to the heterogeneity of studies, we did not perform formal meta-analysis. Forty-seven studies (8069 cases and 1840 controls) were identified. EBER positivity determined by in situ hybridization (ISH) was significantly higher in cancer tissues (range 5.0%–17.9%) than in adjacent mucosa from the same patients or biopsies from all control groups (almost 0%). High EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA-1) positivity by PCR was found in gastric cancer tissues, but most were not validated by ISH or adjusted for inflammatory severity and lymphocyte infiltration. Only 4 studies tested for EBV antibodies, with large variation in the seropositivities of different antibodies in both cases and controls, and did not find an association between EBV seropositivity and gastric cancer. In summary, tissue-based ISH methods strongly suggest an association between EBV infection and gastric cancer, but PCR method alone is invalid to confirm such association. Very limited evidence from serological studies and the lack of novel antibodies warrant further investigations to identify potential risk factors of EBV for gastric cancer. PMID:25997049

  7. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on the Composition of Gastric Microbiota in the Development of Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Yu, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. In China, gastric cancer has become one of the major threats for public health, ranking second on incidence and third on cause of cancer death. Despite the common risk factors that promote the development of gastric cancer, the huge quantity of microorganism colonies within the gastrointestinal tract, particularly Helicobacter pylori infection, demonstrates a correlation with chronic inflammation and gastric carcinogenesis, as epidemiological studies have determined that H. pylori infection confers approximately 75% of the attributable risk for gastric cancer. Summary The current article draws an overview on the correlation between the microbiota, inflammation and gastric tumorigenesis. H. pylori infection has been identified as the main risk factor as it triggers epithelial barrier disruption, survival signaling as well as genetic/epigenetic modulation. Apart from H. pylori, the existence of a diverse and complex composition of microbiota in the stomach has been identified, which supports a role of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer. Moreover, metagenomics studies focused on the composition and function of the microbiota have associated microbiota with gastric metabolic diseases and even tumorigenesis. Apart from the gastric microbiota, inflammation is another identified contributor to cancer development as well. Key Message Though H. pylori infection and the non-H. pylori microbiota play a role in gastric cancer, the properties of gastric microbiota and mechanisms by which they participate in the genesis of gastric cancer are still not clearly depicted. Moreover, it remains to be understood how the presence of microbiota along with H. pylori infection affects the progress from gastric disease to cancer. Practical Implications This article summarized a clue of the current studies on microbiota, H. pylori infection and the progression from gastric disease to cancer. PMID

  8. Effect of Helicobacter pylori Infection on the Composition of Gastric Microbiota in the Development of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cao, Le; Yu, Ju

    2015-05-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancer types worldwide. In China, gastric cancer has become one of the major threats for public health, ranking second on incidence and third on cause of cancer death. Despite the common risk factors that promote the development of gastric cancer, the huge quantity of microorganism colonies within the gastrointestinal tract, particularly Helicobacter pylori infection, demonstrates a correlation with chronic inflammation and gastric carcinogenesis, as epidemiological studies have determined that H. pylori infection confers approximately 75% of the attributable risk for gastric cancer. The current article draws an overview on the correlation between the microbiota, inflammation and gastric tumorigenesis. H. pylori infection has been identified as the main risk factor as it triggers epithelial barrier disruption, survival signaling as well as genetic/epigenetic modulation. Apart from H. pylori, the existence of a diverse and complex composition of microbiota in the stomach has been identified, which supports a role of microbiota in the development of gastric cancer. Moreover, metagenomics studies focused on the composition and function of the microbiota have associated microbiota with gastric metabolic diseases and even tumorigenesis. Apart from the gastric microbiota, inflammation is another identified contributor to cancer development as well. Though H. pylori infection and the non-H. pylori microbiota play a role in gastric cancer, the properties of gastric microbiota and mechanisms by which they participate in the genesis of gastric cancer are still not clearly depicted. Moreover, it remains to be understood how the presence of microbiota along with H. pylori infection affects the progress from gastric disease to cancer. This article summarized a clue of the current studies on microbiota, H. pylori infection and the progression from gastric disease to cancer.

  9. Relationship of soybean paste soup intake to gastric cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, T

    1982-01-01

    Daily intake of soybean paste soup was found to significantly reduce standardized mortality rates for gastric cancer in an ongoing large-scale prospective study of 122,261 males and 142,857 females aged 40 and above in 29 Japanese health center districts, 1966-1978. The gastric cancer standardized mortality rates were 171.9, 210.2, 240.0, and 255.9 per 100,000 males, and 77.8, 85.3, 97.5, and 113.6 per 100,000 females in daily, occasional, rare, and noningesters, respectively. These relationships remained significant when observed by age group, district, socioeconomic status, dietary pattern, and smoking habit. The risk-reducing effect has also been observed in case-control studies in the past, for both males and females and in urban and rural areas. This beneficial effect could arise from selected compounds such as protease inhibitors and/or other nutritious substances included in the soybean, but it is also possible that it merely reflects the effect of some frequent accompaniment to soybean paste soup, such as green-yellow vegetables.

  10. Five-year Survival Rate for Gastric Cancer in Yazd Province, Central Iran, from 2001 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Akhondi-Meybodi, Mohsen; Ghane, Marzieh; Akhondi-Meybodi, Sara; Dashti, Golnaz

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND The number of patients with gastric cancer is growing worldwide. In Iran (in 2009) of 74067 new cases of cancer, 6886 were diagnosed as having gastric cancer. This study was conducted to investigate 5-year survival rate for gastric cancer in Yazd province, central Iran. METHODS In this descriptive study, the medical records of patients with gastric cancer were collected from the archives of Yazd hospitals from 2001 to 2008. The data gathered included age, sex, type of histopathology, site of involvement, cancer staging, and mode of treatment, which were analyzed using SPSS software version 11.5. To investigate the survival and the factors influencing the survival time of patients, which are the main objectives of this study, Kaplan-Meier method was used and Cox proportional hazards model was fitted to the data. To compare survival function in different subgroups, the log rank test or generalized Wilcoxon test was used. RESULTS 295 cases of gastric cancer were enrolled in the study. The mean age of the subjects was 59.3 ± 9 years. 5-year survival rate of the patients was calculated as 18% where the highest rate was 39% for the age group of 50-60 years and the lowest was 3% for the age group of above 80 years. 5-year survival rates in different groups were as follows: 32% in women, 13% in men; 16% in adenocarcinoma, 46% in other pathologies; 16% in gastric cardia involvement, 17% in antrum; 59% in stage 1, 31% in stage 2, 13% in stage 3, and 3% in stage 4. CONCLUSION The results of this study showed that age, stage of the cancer, mode of therapy, and type of histopathology affected the survival rate of gastric cancer. No significant association was found between the site of involvement and survival rate. In general, the survival rate for gastric cancer was low, which might be due to slow but steady progress of the disease and delayed referral of the patients.

  11. Correlation between Fas and FasL proteins expression in normal gastric mucosa and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Gryko, Mariusz; Guzińska-Ustymowicz, Katarzyna; Pryczynicz, Anna; Cepowicz, Dariusz; Kukliński, Adam; Czyżewska, Jolanta; Kemona, Andrzej; Kędra, Bogusław

    2011-01-01

    The study's objective was to assess the expressions of Fas and FasL proteins in gastric cancer in correlation with chosen clinicohistological parameters. Fas and FasL expression was analyzed in 68 patients with gastric cancer, using the immunohistochemical method. The expression of Fas was found to be lower in gastric cancer cells than in healthy mucosa, both in the lining epithelium and in glandular tubes (28% vs. 48% and 44%; p < 0.001). The expression of FasL was also markedly lower in cancer cells than in glandular tubes, yet higher than in the lining epithelium (51% vs. 73% and 14%; p < 0.01). Positive expressions of FasL and Fas were lower in less advanced gastric cancer cells (T1, T2), than in more advanced tumors (T3, T4), but only in the case of FasL was this difference statistically significant (p < 0.05). Our findings seem to confirm the theory of the impact of apoptotic disorders at the level of Fas receptor and FasL protein in the process of gastric cancer formation and growth, which is manifested in the varied expressions of these proteins in gastric cancer and in the normal lining and glandular epithelium of the stomach. However, the lack of significant differences in the expressions of Fas and FasL in correlation to other clinicohistological parameters indicates the existence of mechanisms that have a greater impact on the process of differentiation of gastric cancers. This in our opinion eliminates these proteins as prognostic factors.

  12. MicroRNAs as potential biomarkers for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Han-Shao; Xiao, Hua-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most common cancer in the world and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. More than 80% of diagnoses occur at the middle to late stage of the disease, highlighting an urgent need for novel biomarkers detectable at earlier stages. Recently, aberrantly expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) have received a great deal of attention as potential sensitive and accurate biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and prognosis. This review summarizes the current knowledge about potential miRNA biomarkers for gastric cancer that have been reported in the publicly available literature between 2008 and 2013. Available evidence indicates that aberrantly expressed miRNAs in gastric cancer correlate with tumorigenesis, tumor proliferation, distant metastasis and invasion. Furthermore, tissue and cancer types can be classified using miRNA expression profiles and next-generation sequencing. As miRNAs in plasma/serum are well protected from RNases, they remain stable under harsh conditions. Thus, potential functions of these circulating miRNAs can be deduced and may implicate their diagnostic value in cancer detection. Circulating miRNAs, as well as tissue miRNAs, may allow for the detection of gastric cancer at an early stage, prediction of prognosis, and monitoring of recurrence and/or lymph node metastasis. Taken together, the data suggest that the participation of miRNAs in biomarker development will enhance the sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic and prognostic tests for gastric cancer. PMID:25232237

  13. [Early gastric cancer: epidemiology, diagnostic and management].

    PubMed

    Koessler, T; Roth, A; Cacheux, W

    2014-05-21

    Stomach cancers are diagnosed at an early stage in less than 10% of cases in Europe. They are superficial tumours, involving the mucosa and the submucosa only. Node involvement is the most important prognostic factor for these tumours. To determine the optimal therapeutic strategy, it is necessary to carry out a precise work-up involving an endoscopy, with chemical or virtual colorations and an echo-endoscopy. Gastric surgery is the reference treatment. Nowadays, endoscopic tumour resection is a validated curative alternative. High quality medical expertise is needed for those tumours with a good prognosis, after evaluating risk for node involvement, and should be followed by Helicobacter pylori eradication and regular endoscopic surveillance.

  14. Phlegmonous Gastritis with Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyung Hee; Kim, Young-Woo; Moon, Hae; Choi, Jee Eun; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jong Yeul; Choi, Il Ju

    2016-01-01

    Phlegmonous gastritis is a rare and rapidly progressive bacterial infection of the stomach wall, with a high mortality rate. Antibiotics with or without surgical treatment are required for treatment. We present a case in which phlegmonous gastritis occurred during the diagnostic evaluation of early gastric cancer. The patient showed improvement after antibiotic treatment, but attempted endoscopic submucosal dissection failed because of submucosal pus. We immediately applied argon plasma coagulation since surgical resection was also considered a high-risk procedure because of the submucosal pus and multiple comorbidities. However, there was local recurrence two years later, and the patient underwent subtotal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection. Considering the risk of incomplete treatment immediately after recovery from phlegmonous gastritis and that recurrent disease can be more difficult to manage, delaying treatment and evaluation until after complete recovery of PG might be a better option in this particular clinical situation. PMID:27752398

  15. Prolyl hydroxylase 3 inhibited the tumorigenecity of gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Cui, Lei; Qu, Jianguo; Dang, Shengchun; Mao, Zhengfa; Wang, Xuqing; Fan, Xin; Sun, Kang; Zhang, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the world, and it is very urgent to develop novel therapeutic strategies. Although HIF-1α is the most highly characterized target of prolyl hydroxylase 3 (PHD3), PHD3 has been shown to regulate several signal pathways independent of HIF-1α. Here, we found that the expression of PHD3 was decreased in the clinical gastric cancer samples and reversely correlated with tumor size and tumor stage. Over-expression of PHD3 in the gastric cancer cells significantly inhibited cell growth in vitro and in vivo, while knockdown the expression of PHD3 promoted the tumorigenecity of gastric cancer cells. Mechanistically, it showed that PHD3 downregulated the expression of beta-catenin and inhibited beta-catenin/T-cell factor (TCF) signaling. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that PHD3 inhibits gastric cancer by suppressing the beta-catenin/TCF signaling and PHD3 might be an important therapeutic target in gastric cancer.

  16. HER2 therapies and gastric cancer: A step forward

    PubMed Central

    de Mello, Ramon Andrade; Marques, Andrea Marin; Araújo, António

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer usually is diagnosed in advanced stages and thus current medical practice affords limited therapeutic options. However, recent studies established the role of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) in clinical management. Trastuzumab, an anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody, acquired a main role in advanced gastric cancer harboring HER2 overexpression and/or amplification improving survival to 17.1 mo according to trastuzumab for gastric cancer phase III trial results. Also, new promising drugs, such as c-Met inhibitors, are in development and assessment for this setting. Certainly, novel drugs will emerge in the next feel years for help oncologists improve clinical management of advanced gastric cancer providing higher survival and quality of life. In this mini-review we will discuss some issues in this regard and provide an actual overview of this setting. PMID:24115812

  17. Laparoscopic gastric surgery for cancer: where do we stand?

    PubMed

    Antonakis, Pantelis T; Ashrafian, Hutan; Isla, Alberto Martinez

    2014-10-21

    Gastric cancer poses a significant public health problem, especially in the Far East, due to its high incidence in these areas. Surgical treatment and guidelines have been markedly different in the West, but nowadays this debate is apparently coming to an end. Laparoscopic surgery has been employed in the surgical treatment of gastric cancer for two decades now, but with controversies about the extent of resection and lymphadenectomy. Despite these difficulties, the apparent advantages of the laparoscopic approach helped its implementation in early stage and distal gastric cancer, with an increase on the uptake for distal gastrectomy for more advanced disease and total gastrectomy. Nevertheless, there is no conclusive evidence about the laparoscopic approach yet. In this review article we present and analyse the current status of laparoscopic surgery in the treatment of gastric cancer.

  18. Epigenetically downregulated Semaphorin 3E contributes to gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Xie, Guo-Hua; Wang, Wei-Wei; Yuan, Xiang-Liang; Xing, Wen-Ming; Liu, Hong-Jing; Chen, Jin; Dou, Min; Shen, Li-Song

    2015-01-01

    Axon guidance protein Semaphorin 3E (Sema3E) promotes tumor metastasis and suppresses tumor cell death. Here, we demonstrated that Sema3E was decreased in gastric cancer. Its levels were inversely associated with tumor progression. Levels of Sema3E were associated with low p300 and high class I histone deacetylase (class I HDAC). Ectopic expression of Sema3E inhibited proliferation and colony formation of gastric cancer cell lines in vitro and xenografts in vivo. Sema3E overexpression inhibited migration and invasion of gastric cancer cells, which was associated with induction of E-cadherin and reduction of Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. We suggest that silencing of Sema3E contributes to the pathogenesis of gastric cancer. PMID:26036259

  19. Gastric cancer management: Kinases as a target therapy.

    PubMed

    Farran, Batoul; Müller, Susanne; Montenegro, Raquel C

    2017-06-01

    The molecular diagnostics revolution has reshaped the practice of oncology by facilitating the identification of genetic, epigenetic and proteomic modifications correlated with cancer, thus delineating 'oncomaps' for various cancer types. These advances have enhanced our understanding of gastric cancer, one of the most fatal diseases worldwide, and culminated in the approval of novel molecular therapies such as trastuzumab. Gastric tumours display recurrent aberrations in key kinase oncogenes such as Her2, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), PI3K, mTOR or c-Met, suggesting that these receptors are amenable to inhibition using specific drug agents. In this review, we examine the mutational landscape of gastric cancer, the use of kinase inhibitors as targeted therapies in gastric tumours and the clinical trials underway for novel inhibitors, highlighting successes, failures and future directions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. [Enzymes in gastric juice. An aid in the diagnosis of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Marino Alarcón, O; Concho Lugo, H; Silva Larralte, T; Tauil Bsereni, E; Solano Nava, P; Machado, D; Chacón Patiño, A

    1996-01-01

    In the present study we measured the activities of the following enzymes: LDH (lactic dehydrogenase), beta-glucuronidase, acid maltase, phosphohexoseisomerase (PHI) and acid proteases in the gastric juice of patients with gastric cancer (n = 50) (Case Group), in endoscopically normal subjects (n = 50) and in subjects with different non tumor-like digestive pathologies (n = 55) (Control Groups). In the patients with gastric carcinoma we found a significant increase in LDH, beta-glucuronidase, PHI and acid maltase activities and a decreased activity of acid proteases. The results agree with previous findings from other workers. The variations of enzyme activities in gastric juice can help to differentiate between malignant and benign processes of the gastric mucosa.

  1. Gastric Cancer: Molecular and Clinical Dimensions

    PubMed Central

    Wadhwa, Roopma; Song, Shumei; Lee, Ju-Seog; Yao, Yixin; Wei, Qingyi; Ajani, Jaffer A.

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) imposes a significant health burden around the globe despite its declining incidence. GC is often diagnosed in advanced stages and carries a poor prognosis. In depth understanding of molecular underpinnings of GC has lagged behind many other cancers of its magnitude, as a result our knowledge base for identifying germline susceptibility traits for risk and somatic drivers of progression (to identify novel therapeutic targets) is limited. A few germline (PLCE1) and somatic (ERBB2, ERBB3, PTEN, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, FGF, TP53, CDH1, and c-MET) alterations are emerging and some are being pursued in the clinic. Novel somatic gene targets, Arid1a, FAT4, and MLL/MLL3 are of interest. Clinically, variations in the therapeutic approaches for localized GC are evident by geographic regions. These are driven by preferences for the adjunctive strategies and the extent of surgery coupled with philosophical divides. However, there is a greater uniformity in approaches to metastatic cancer, an incurable condition. Having realized only modest successes, the momentum is building for carrying out more phase 3 comparative trials and some are using biomarker-based patient selection. Overall, rapid progress in biotechnology is improving our molecular understanding and can help with new drug discovery. The future prospects are excellent for defining biomarker-based subsets of patients and application of specific therapeutics. However, many challenges remain to be tackled. Here we review representative molecular and clinical dimensions of GC. PMID:24061039

  2. Assessing risks for gastric cancer: New tools for pathologists

    PubMed Central

    Genta, Robert M; Rugge, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Although the Sydney Systems (original and updated) for the classification of gastritis have contributed substantially to the uniformity of the reporting of gastric conditions, they lack immediacy in conveying to the user information about gastric cancer risk. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the gastric lesions associated with an increased risk for cancer, and present the rationale for a proposal for new ways of reporting gastritis. In addition to the traditional histopathological data gathered and evaluated according to the Sydney System rules, pathologists could add an assessment expressed as grading and staging of the gastric inflammatory and atrophic lesions and integrate these findings with pertinent laboratory information on pepsinogens and gastrin levels. Such an integrated report could facilitate clinicians’ approach to the management of patients with gastric conditions. PMID:17007013

  3. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Risk of Gastric Cancer in Korea: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the context of the global decrease in mortality due to gastric cancer, previous studies have reported that the effect of chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on the incidence of gastric cancer varies among regions. This systematic review was conducted to investigate H. pylori as a risk factor for gastric cancer in Korea, where the incidence of gastric cancer is among the highest in the world. Methods: A search strategy was established to identify articles published in Korean as well as in English. Ultimately, we included observational studies conducted among Korean patients that designed with an age-matched and sex-matched control group that reported the odds ratio associated with H. pylori. Gastric cancer cases were subdivided into overall (OGC), cardia (CGC), non-cardia (NGC), early (EGC), advanced, intestinal (IGC), and diffuse forms of gastric cancer. Summary odds ratios (SORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in the meta-analysis using a random-effect model. Results: Eleven case-control studies were ultimately selected. H. pylori was associated with an SOR of 1.81 (95% CI, 1.29 to 2.54) for OGC. Additionally, statistically significant risks were observed for CGC, NGC, EGC, and IGC. Conclusions: Chronic H. pylori infection was found to raise the risk of gastric cancer among Koreans, with the highest risk observed for CGC and EGC (SOR=2.88 for both). Follow-up clinical epidemiologic studies are needed to assess the effects of current treatments aimed at eradicating H. pylori infections. PMID:27499162

  4. Recurrent candidiasis and early-onset gastric cancer in a patient with a genetically defined partial MYD88 defect.

    PubMed

    Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn J L; van der Post, Rachel S; de Voer, Richarda M; Kets, C Marleen; Jansen, Trees J G; Jacobs, Liesbeth; Schreibelt, Gerty; de Vries, I Jolanda M; Netea, Mihai G; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline

    2016-04-01

    Gastric cancer is caused by both genetic and environmental factors. A woman who suffered from recurrent candidiasis throughout her life developed diffuse-type gastric cancer at the age of 23 years. Using whole-exome sequencing we identified a germline homozygous missense variant in MYD88. Immunological assays on peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed an impaired immune response upon stimulation with Candida albicans, characterized by a defective production of the cytokine interleukin-17. Our data suggest that a genetic defect in MYD88 results in an impaired immune response and may increase gastric cancer risk.

  5. Host pathogen interactions in Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Karwowska, Zuzanna; Gonciarz, Weronika; Allushi, Bujana; Stączek, Paweł

    2017-03-07

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), discovered in 1982, is a microaerophilic, spiral-shaped gram-negative bacterium that is able to colonize the human stomach. Nearly half of the world's population is infected by this pathogen. Its ability to induce gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been confirmed. The susceptibility of an individual to these clinical outcomes is multifactorial and depends on H. pylori virulence, environmental factors, the genetic susceptibility of the host and the reactivity of the host immune system. Despite the host immune response, H. pylori infection can be difficult to eradicate. H. pylori is categorized as a group I carcinogen since this bacterium is responsible for the highest rate of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early detection of cancer can be lifesaving. The 5-year survival rate for gastric cancer patients diagnosed in the early stages is nearly 90%. Gastric cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages but always progresses over time and begins to cause symptoms when untreated. In 97% of stomach cancer cases, cancer cells metastasize to other organs. H. pylori infection is responsible for nearly 60% of the intestinal-type gastric cancer cases but also influences the development of diffuse gastric cancer. The host genetic susceptibility depends on polymorphisms of genes involved in H. pylori-related inflammation and the cytokine response of gastric epithelial and immune cells. H. pylori strains differ in their ability to induce a deleterious inflammatory response. H. pylori-driven cytokines accelerate the inflammatory response and promote malignancy. Chronic H. pylori infection induces genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells and affects the DNA damage repair systems. Therefore, H. pylori infection should always be considered a pro-cancerous factor.

  6. Host pathogen interactions in Helicobacter pylori related gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chmiela, Magdalena; Karwowska, Zuzanna; Gonciarz, Weronika; Allushi, Bujana; Stączek, Paweł

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), discovered in 1982, is a microaerophilic, spiral-shaped gram-negative bacterium that is able to colonize the human stomach. Nearly half of the world's population is infected by this pathogen. Its ability to induce gastritis, peptic ulcers, gastric cancer and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma has been confirmed. The susceptibility of an individual to these clinical outcomes is multifactorial and depends on H. pylori virulence, environmental factors, the genetic susceptibility of the host and the reactivity of the host immune system. Despite the host immune response, H. pylori infection can be difficult to eradicate. H. pylori is categorized as a group I carcinogen since this bacterium is responsible for the highest rate of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Early detection of cancer can be lifesaving. The 5-year survival rate for gastric cancer patients diagnosed in the early stages is nearly 90%. Gastric cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages but always progresses over time and begins to cause symptoms when untreated. In 97% of stomach cancer cases, cancer cells metastasize to other organs. H. pylori infection is responsible for nearly 60% of the intestinal-type gastric cancer cases but also influences the development of diffuse gastric cancer. The host genetic susceptibility depends on polymorphisms of genes involved in H. pylori-related inflammation and the cytokine response of gastric epithelial and immune cells. H. pylori strains differ in their ability to induce a deleterious inflammatory response. H. pylori-driven cytokines accelerate the inflammatory response and promote malignancy. Chronic H. pylori infection induces genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells and affects the DNA damage repair systems. Therefore, H. pylori infection should always be considered a pro-cancerous factor. PMID:28321154

  7. Prevention strategies for gastric cancer: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Young; von Karsa, Lawrence; Herrero, Rolando

    2014-11-01

    Despite the substantial burden of gastric cancer worldwide, population strategies for primary prevention have not been introduced in any country. Recognizing the causal role of Helicobacter pylori infection, there is increasing interest in population-based programs to eradicate the infection to prevent gastric cancer. Nonetheless, the paucity of available evidence on feasibility and effectiveness has prevented implementation of this approach. There are very few secondary prevention programs based on screening with endoscopy or radiography, notably in the Republic of Korea and Japan, two of the countries with the highest incidence rates of gastric cancer. In Korea, where the organized screening program is in place, survival rate of gastric cancer is as high as 67%. More research is needed to quantify the specific contribution of the screening program to observed declines in mortality rates. Gastric cancer screening is unlikely to be feasible in many Low-Middle Income Countries where the gastric cancer burden is high. Prevention strategies are still under development and the optimal approach may differ depending on local conditions and societal values. The present review gives an overview of the etiology and burden of the disease, and possible prevention strategies for countries and regions confronted with a significant burden of disease.

  8. Robot-assisted laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Stefano; Franceschini, Franco; Patriti, Alberto; Roviello, Franco; Annecchiarico, Mario; Ceccarelli, Graziano; Coratti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Phase III evidence in the shape of a series of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses has shown that laparoscopic gastrectomy is safe and gives better short-term results with respect to the traditional open technique for early-stage gastric cancer. In fact, in the East laparoscopic gastrectomy has become routine for early-stage gastric cancer. In contrast, the treatment of advanced gastric cancer through a minimally invasive way is still a debated issue, mostly due to worries about its oncological efficacy and the difficulty of carrying out an extended lymphadenectomy and intestinal reconstruction after total gastrectomy laparoscopically. Over the last ten years the introduction of robotic surgery has implied overcoming some intrinsic drawbacks found to be present in the conventional laparoscopic procedure. Robot-assisted gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy has been shown to be safe and feasible for the treatment of gastric cancer patients. But unfortunately, most available studies investigating the robotic gastrectomy for gastric cancer compared to laparoscopic and open technique are so far retrospective and there have not been phase III trials. In the present review we looked at scientific evidence available today regarding the new high-tech surgical robotic approach, and we attempted to bring to light the real advantages of robot-assisted gastrectomy compared to the traditional laparoscopic and open technique for the treatment of gastric cancer. PMID:28101302

  9. Alcohol Consumption and Gastric Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ke; Baloch, Zulqarnain; He, Ting-Ting; Xia, Xueshan

    2017-01-01

    Background We sought to determine by meta-analysis the relationship between drinking alcohol and the risk of gastric cancer. Material/Methods A systematic Medline search was performed to identify all published reports of drinking alcohol and the associated risk of gastric cancer. Initially we retrieved 2,494 studies, but after applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, only ten studies were found to be eligible for our meta-analysis. Results Our meta-analysis showed that alcohol consumption elevated the risk of gastric cancer with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.39 (95% CI 1.20–1.61). Additionally, subgroup analysis showed that only a nested case-control report from Sweden did not support this observation. Subgroup analysis of moderate drinking and heavy drinking also confirmed that drinking alcohol increased the risk of gastric cancer. Publication bias analysis (Begg’s and Egger’s tests) showed p values were more than 0.05, suggesting that the 10 articles included in our analysis did not have a publication bias. Conclusions The results from this meta-analysis support the hypothesis that alcohol consumption can increase the risk of gastric cancer; suggesting that effective moderation of alcohol drinking may reduce the risk of gastric cancer. PMID:28087989

  10. Therapeutic mechanism of ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides on gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ai-Hua; Chen, Hua-Sheng; Sun, Bu-Chan; Xiang, Xiao-Ren; Chu, Yun-Fei; Zhai, Fan; Jia, Ling-Chang

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To study the therapeutic mechanism of Ginkgo biloba exocarp polysaccharides (GBEP) on gastric cancer. METHODS: Thirty patients with gastric cancer were treated with oral GBEP capsules. The area of tumors was measured by electron gastroscope before and after treatment, then the inhibitory and effective rates were calculated. The ultrastructures of tumor cells were examined by transmissional electron microscope. Cell culture, MTT, flow cytometry were performed to observe proliferation, apoptosis and changes of relevant gene expression of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells. RESULTS: Compared with the statement before treatment, GBEP capsules could reduce the area of tumors, and the effective rate was 73.4%. Ultrastructural changes of the cells indicated that GBEP could induce apoptosis and differentiation in tumor cells of patients with gastric cancer. GBEP could inhibit the growth of human gastric cancer SGC-7901 cells following 24-72 h treatment in vitro at 10-320 mg/L, which was dose- and time-dependent. GBEP was able to elevate the apoptosis rate and expression of c-fos gene, but reduce the expression of c-myc and bcl-2 genes also in a dose-dependent manner. CONCLUSION: The therapeutic mechanism of GBEP on human gastric cancer may relate to its effects on the expression of c-myc, bcl-2 and c-fos genes, which can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis and differentiation of tumor cells. PMID:14606069

  11. Precursors of gastric carcinoma: a critical review with a brief description of early (curable) gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Antonioli, D A

    1994-10-01

    Gastric adenocarcinoma is among the most common malignancies worldwide. Its etiopathogenesis is complex and, as yet, incompletely understood; however, diet, infection with Helicobacter pylori, and genetic factors are involved. It may be classified into two main types, intestinal and diffuse. The intestinal type has decreased in incidence, whereas the diffuse tumors as well as those confined to the cardia are increasing. Numerous conditions, such as gastritis, gastric atrophy, and intestinal metaplasia (IM), are associated with intestinal type gastric cancer in retrospective studies, but only epithelial dysplasia has a positive predictive value for malignancy. These precursor conditions and lesions are analyzed for their clinicopathological significance in this review, which concludes with a brief summary of curable (early) forms of gastric cancer.

  12. Age of onset of symptoms in duodenal and gastric ulcer.

    PubMed

    Kang, J Y

    1990-08-01

    The influence of the age of onset of symptoms on various clinical features of peptic ulcer was studied in a personal series of 492 patients (duodenal ulcer 363, gastric ulcer 98, combined gastric and duodenal ulcer 31). Duodenal ulcer patients whose age of onset of symptoms was within the first three decades (n = 166) were more likely to be men (77%) and to have a positive family history of dyspepsia (45%) and a history of haemorrhage (46%) when compared with late onset patients (n = 197, men 57%, positive family history 23%, history of haemorrhage 36%). Early onset duodenal ulcer patients also secreted more gastric acid than late onset patients. In contrast, while early onset gastric ulcer patients were more likely to be men, when compared to late onset patients, the two groups were similar in their family history of dyspepsia, their history of haemorrhage, and their gastric acid output. The age of onset of Malay duodenal ulcer patients (mean (SD) 43.6 (16.0] was higher than those for Chinese patients (33.7 (16.1].

  13. Family history of gastric cancer is associated with the risk of colorectal neoplasia in Korean population.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Kim, Nam Hee; Yang, Hyo-Joon; Park, Soo-Kyung; Park, Jung Ho; Park, Dong Il; Sohn, Chong Il

    2017-10-01

    Family history of cancers at different sites except for colorectum has not been evaluated as a risk factor for colorectal neoplasia (CRN). To investigate CRN risk according to family history of cancers at 12 different sites, including stomach and colorectum. A cross-sectional study was performed on 139,497 asymptomatic Koreans who underwent colonoscopy as part of a health check-up. The mean age of the study population was 41.6 and the prevalence of CRN was 16.3%. Multivariate analyses revealed that family histories of CRC (adjusted odds ratio; confidence interval, 1.26; 1.17-1.35) and gastric cancer (1.07; 1.01-1.13) were independent risk factors for CRN. Notably, the risk of CRN increased even more for participants with family histories of both CRC and gastric cancer (1.38; 1.12-1.70). Family history of CRC was associated with risk of CRN in participants aged both <50 and ≥50 years, whereas family history of gastric cancer was associated with risk of CRN in participants aged <50 years (1.22; 1.14-1.30), but not in participants aged ≥50 years (1.08; 0.99-1.18). Family history of gastric cancer was an independent risk factor for CRN, especially in those aged <50years. Persons with family histories of gastric cancer and CRC, especially those with family histories of both, may need to begin colonoscopy earlier. Copyright © 2017 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Present and future state of cancer screening for esophageal cancer and gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Hirotaka; Nagahama, Ryuji; Yoshida, Misao

    2012-01-01

    Recently, endoscopic examinations have played a major role in the diagnosis and treatment in the field of gastroenterology. It is considered that endoscopy would be an important examination for cancer screening of the esophagus and the stomach. However, endoscopic services for cancer screening are in short supply. Furthermore, we have to take the complications and poor economic benefits of endoscopy in to consideration when we apply it as a practical cancer screening system. Thus, an effective primary screening system must be provided for the endoscopic screening of cancer of the esophagus and the stomach. People with a defect in aldehyde dehydrogenase-2(ALDH2)should be distinguished by their facial flushing in drinking and for their high risks of esophageal cancer. In cases with gastric cancer screening by endoscopy, an x-ray study is expected to be a primary screening because of its efficacy. It already has been recommended for population-based screening in Japanese guidelines for gastric cancer screening. In cases with opportunistic screening of gastric cancer, patients should be allowed to choose from several studies such as the x-ray study, direct endoscopy, and the so-called high risk screening of gastric cancer for estimating risks and planning of screening for gastric cancer.

  15. Stromal-Based Signatures for the Classification of Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Uhlik, Mark T; Liu, Jiangang; Falcon, Beverly L; Iyer, Seema; Stewart, Julie; Celikkaya, Hilal; O'Mahony, Marguerita; Sevinsky, Christopher; Lowes, Christina; Douglass, Larry; Jeffries, Cynthia; Bodenmiller, Diane; Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Fischl, Anthony; Gerald, Damien; Xue, Qi; Lee, Jee-Yun; Santamaria-Pang, Alberto; Al-Kofahi, Yousef; Sui, Yunxia; Desai, Keyur; Doman, Thompson; Aggarwal, Amit; Carter, Julia H; Pytowski, Bronislaw; Jaminet, Shou-Ching; Ginty, Fiona; Nasir, Aejaz; Nagy, Janice A; Dvorak, Harold F; Benjamin, Laura E

    2016-05-01

    Treatment of metastatic gastric cancer typically involves chemotherapy and monoclonal antibodies targeting HER2 (ERBB2) and VEGFR2 (KDR). However, reliable methods to identify patients who would benefit most from a combination of treatment modalities targeting the tumor stroma, including new immunotherapy approaches, are still lacking. Therefore, we integrated a mouse model of stromal activation and gastric cancer genomic information to identify gene expression signatures that may inform treatment strategies. We generated a mouse model in which VEGF-A is expressed via adenovirus, enabling a stromal response marked by immune infiltration and angiogenesis at the injection site, and identified distinct stromal gene expression signatures. With these data, we designed multiplexed IHC assays that were applied to human primary gastric tumors and classified each tumor to a dominant stromal phenotype representative of the vascular and immune diversity found in gastric cancer. We also refined the stromal gene signatures and explored their relation to the dominant patient phenotypes identified by recent large-scale studies of gastric cancer genomics (The Cancer Genome Atlas and Asian Cancer Research Group), revealing four distinct stromal phenotypes. Collectively, these findings suggest that a genomics-based systems approach focused on the tumor stroma can be used to discover putative predictive biomarkers of treatment response, especially to antiangiogenesis agents and immunotherapy, thus offering an opportunity to improve patient stratification. Cancer Res; 76(9); 2573-86. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Benefits and harms of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer has remained a serious burden worldwide, particularly in East Asian countries. However, nationwide prevention and screening programs for gastric cancer have not yet been established in most countries except in South Korea and Japan. Although evidence regarding the effectiveness of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer has been increasingly accumulated, such evidence remains weak because it is based on results from studies other than randomized controlled trials. Specifically, evidence was mostly based on the results of cohort and case-control studies mainly conducted in South Korea and Japan. However, the consistent positive results from these studies suggest promising evidence of mortality reduction from gastric cancer by endoscopic screening. The major harms of endoscopic screening include infection, adverse effects, false-positive results, and overdiagnosis. Despite the possible harms of endoscopic screening, information regarding these harms remains insufficient. To provide appropriate cancer screening, a balance of benefits and harms should always be considered when cancer screening is introduced as a public policy. Quality assurance is very important for the implementation of cancer screening to provide high-quality and safe screening and minimize harms. Endoscopic screening for gastric cancer has shown promising results, and thus deserves further evaluation to reliably establish its effectiveness and optimal use. PMID:27605874

  17. Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma: a distinct type of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Park, Sungmin; Choi, Min-Gew; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Kim, Hye Seung; Jung, Sin-Ho; Lee, Jun Ho; Noh, Jae Hyung; Sohn, Tae Sung; Bae, Jae Moon; Kim, Sung

    2015-04-01

    Lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (LELC) is a rare type of gastric carcinoma and has histologic features of intense lymphocytic infiltration. In this study, we attempted to analyze the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival outcome of patients with LELC compared with those with non-lymphoepithelioma-like carcinoma (NLELC). We studied 4282 patients who underwent gastrectomies to treat gastric cancer at the Department of Surgery of the Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, between January 2008 and December 2010. The clinicopathologic features and clinical outcomes of patients with LELC (n = 46) were compared with those with NLELC (n = 4236). In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positivity was performed on the tissue of patients with LELC (n = 46) and NLELC (n = 1247). The patients with LELC are male predominant and had more upper locations, more indeterminate Lauren classifications, lower T stages, less lymphatic invasion, and more positive EBV in situ hybridization compared with those of the NLELC group (80.4% versus 6.5%). Age, histologic type, Lauren type, the location of the tumor, the depth of the invasion, lymph node metastasis, and venous invasion were independent prognostic factors; however, the LELC type itself was not predictive of outcome. The 5-y survival rate of the LELC group (97.7%) was better than that of the NLELC group (89.4%); however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.127). The results of our study suggest that LELC is a less advanced disease than NLELC in terms of depth of invasion and lymphatic invasion at diagnosis. However, our study does not examine LELC as an independent prognostic factor of gastric cancer. Further studies are needed to explore its associations with EBV and a distinct pathway of carcinogenesis from NLELC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The descriptive epidemiology of gastric cancer in Central America and comparison with United States Hispanic populations.

    PubMed

    Corral, Juan E; Delgado Hurtado, Juan J; Domínguez, Ricardo L; Valdez de Cuéllar, Marisabel; Balmore Cruz, Carlos; Morgan, Douglas R

    2015-03-01

    The aims of this study were to delineate the epidemiology of gastric adenocarcinoma in Central America and contrast it with Hispanic-Latino populations in the USA. Published literature and Central America Ministry of Health databases were used as primary data sources, including national, population-based, and hospital-based registries. US data was obtained from the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-Epidemiology End Results Program (SEER) registry. Incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases were analyzed for available data between 1985 and 2011, including demographic variables and pathology information. In Central America, 19,741 incident gastric adenocarcinomas were identified. Two thirds of the cases were male, 20.5 % were under age 55, and 58.5 %were from rural areas. In the SEER database (n = 7871), 57.8 % were male and 28.9 % were under age 55. Among the US Hispanics born in Central America with gastric cancer (n = 1210), 50.3 % of cases were male and 38.1 % were under age 55. Non-cardia gastric cancer was more common in Central America (83.3 %), among US Hispanics (80.2 %), and Hispanics born in Central America (86.3 %). Cancers of the antrum were more common in Central America (73.6 %), whereas cancers of the corpus were slightly more common among US Hispanics (54.0 %). Adenocarcinoma of the diffuse subtype was relatively common, both in Central America (35.7 %) and US Hispanics (69.5 %), although Lauren classification was reported in only 50 % of cases. A significant burden of gastric adenocarcinoma is observed in Central America based upon limited available data. Differences are noted between Central America and US Hispanics. Strengthening population-based registries is needed for improved cancer control in Central America, which may have implications for the growing US Hispanic population.

  19. Gastric adenocarcinoma in common variable immunodeficiency: features of cancer and associated gastritis may be characteristic of the condition.

    PubMed

    De Petris, Giovanni; Dhungel, Bal M; Chen, Longwen; Chang, Yu-Hui H

    2014-10-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. The aim of the study was to determine the morphological features of CVID-associated gastric adenocarcinoma (CAGA) and of the background gastritis. The population of gastric cancer patients with CVID of Mayo Clinic in the period 2000-2010 was studied; 6 cases of CVID (2 males, 4 females, average age 47 years, age range 26-71 years) were found in 5793 patients with gastric cancer in the study period. Each patient underwent gastric resection for which histology slides were reviewed. Chronic gastritis variables, CVID-related findings, and features of the adenocarcinoma were recorded. CAGA was of intestinal type, with high number of intratumoral lymphocytes (ITLs). Cancer was diagnosed in younger patients than in the overall population of gastric cancer. Severe atrophic metaplastic pangastritis with extensive dysplasia was present in the background in 4 cases, with features of lymphocytic gastritis in 2 cases. Features of CVID (plasma cells paucity in 4 of 6 cases, lymphoid nodules prominent in four cases) could be detected. In summary, gastric adenocarcinoma at young age with ITLs, accompanied by atrophic metaplastic pangastritis, should alert the pathologist of the possibility of CAGA. It follows that, in presence of those characteristics, the search of CVID-associated abnormalities should be undertaken in the nonneoplastic tissues.

  20. Expression of NUAK2 in gastric cancer tissue and its effects on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lin; Tong, Shu-Juan; Zhan, Zhen; Wang, Qian; Tian, Yuan; Chen, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the expression and effects of NUAK2 in gastric cancer and adjacent normal gastric tissues. The protein expression levels of NUAK2 were detected by western blot analysis. The effects of NUAK2 expression on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells was detected using an MTT and BrdU incorporation assay. Furthermore, the effects of NUAK2 on proliferation and cancer stem cell markers, both protein and microRNA (miRNA), were investigated by western blot analysis and miRNA microarrays, respectively. The results demonstrated that NUAK2 was able to significantly promote the proliferation of SGC-7901 gastric cancer cells. In addition, NUAK2 overexpression decreased the percentage of cells in the G1 phase and increased the percentage of cells in the S phase. Western blot analysis and miRNA microarrays revealed that overexpression of NUAK2 resulted in increased expression levels of proliferation markers, including c-myc, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, miRNA 21, and gastric cancer stem cell markers, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, CD44 and CD133. In conclusion, NUAK2 expression differed between the tumor and normal gastric tissues. NUAK2 was able to promote the proliferation of gastric cancer cells and regulate their cell cycle. Proliferation and cancer stem cell markers were upregulated by NUAK2 expression. Therefore, the results from the present study suggest that NUAK2 may be a promising target for gastric cancer therapy in the future. PMID:28352350

  1. Significance of microRNA 21 in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Sekar, Durairaj; Krishnan, Ramalingam; Thirugnanasambantham, Krishnaraj; Rajasekaran, Baskaran; Islam, Villianur Ibrahim Hairul; Sekar, Punitha

    2016-11-01

    Despite promising developments of treatment, the mortality due to gastric cancer remains high and the mechanisms of gastric cancer initiation and the development also remains elusive. It has been reported that patients with positive serologic tests for H. pylori have a higher risk of the development of gastric cancer. microRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNA molecules consisting of 21-25 nucleotides (nt) in length. The miRNAs silence their cognate target genes by inhibiting mRNA translation or degrading the mRNA molecules by binding to their 3'-untranslated (UTR) regions and plays a very important role in cancer biology. Recent evidences indicate that miR-21 is overexpressed in tumour tissue, including gastric cancer and plays a vital role in tumour cell proliferation, apoptosis, invasion and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of miR-21 is associated with downregulation of tumour suppressor genes, such as programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), tropomyosin 1, ras homolog gene family member B, and maspin. Silencing of miR-21 through the use of a miR-21 inhibitor affected cancer cell viability, induced cell cycle arrest and increased chemosensitivity to anticancer agents indicating that miR-21 functions as an oncogene. Although an increased expression level of miR-21 has been observed in gastric cancer, studies related to the role of miR-21 in gastric cancer progression is very limited. The main thrust of this mini review is to explain the potency of miR-21 as a prognostic and/or diagnostic biomarker and as a new target for clinical therapeutic for interventions of gastric cancer progression.

  2. Effectiveness of gastric cancer screening programs in South Korea: Organized vs opportunistic models

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Beom Jin; Heo, Chae; Kim, Byoung Kwon; Kim, Jae Yeol; Kim, Jae Gyu

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the outcome and effectiveness of two screening programs, National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opportunistic screening (OS), for the detection of gastric cancer. METHODS: A total of 45  654 subjects underwent upper endoscopy as part of the NCSP or OS at the Chung-Ang University Healthcare System in Korea between January 2007 and December 2010. The study population was comprised of subjects over the age of 40 years. More specifically, subjects who took part in the NCSP were Medicaid recipients and beneficiaries of the National Health Insurance Corporation. Still photographs from the endoscopies diagnosed as gastric cancer were reviewed by two experienced endoscopists. RESULTS: The mean age of the screened subjects was 55 years for men and 54 years for women. A total of 126 cases (0.28%) of gastric cancer were detected from both screening programs; 100 cases (0.3%) from NCSP and in 26 cases (0.2%) from OS. The proportion of early gastric cancer (EGC) detected in NCSP was higher than that in OS (74.0% vs 53.8%, P = 0.046). Among the 34  416 screenees in NCSP, 6585 (19.1%) underwent upper endoscopy every other year as scheduled. Among the 11  238 screenees in OS, 3050 (27.1%) underwent upper endoscopy at least once every two years during the study period. The detection rate of gastric cancer was found to be significantly higher during irregular follow-up than during regular follow-up in both screening programs (0.3% vs 0.2%, P = 0.036). A higher incidence of EGC than advanced gastric cancer was observed during regular follow-up compared with irregular follow-up. CONCLUSION: Compliance to the screening program is more important than the type of screening system used. PMID:23430471

  3. Gastric cancer and salt preference: a population-based cohort study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongseon; Park, Sohee; Nam, Byung-Ho

    2010-05-01

    Although the incidence of gastric cancer is declining, it remains the most common cancer in Korea. There have been discrepancies in epidemiologic studies regarding a causal relation between highly salted food and the risk of gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of salt preference on the incidence of gastric cancer in Korean adults through a population-based, prospective cohort study. Participants were Korean government employees, school faculty members, and their unemployed dependents, aged 30-80 y, who underwent health examinations between 1996 and 1997. In 2003, information on the gastric cancer incidence in these participants was obtained during the 6-7-y follow-up period. The final data analysis included 2,248,129 study subjects. The hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI of the HR were estimated by using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. The age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 person-years for the overall total population, men only, and women only were 97.64, 136.03, and 52.90, respectively. The Cox proportional hazards regression model, with adjustment for possible confounding factors, showed evidence of an increased risk of gastric cancer with salt preference. The HRs were 1.10 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.16) and 1.10 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.17) for the overall total population and men only, respectively. The current findings suggest that salt preference has a marginal positive association with a risk of gastric cancer.

  4. Clinicopathological features and surgical safety of gastric cancer in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Lim, Joo Hyun; Lee, Dong Ho; Shin, Cheol Min; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Young Soo; Jung, Hyun Chae; Song, In Sung

    2014-12-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers, especially among the elderly. However little is known about gastric cancer in elderly patients. This study was designed to evaluate the specific features of gastric cancer in elderly patients. Medical records of 1,107 patients who had radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2005 and December 2009 were reviewed. They were divided into young (<65 yr, n=676), young-old (65-74 yr, n=332), and old-old age group (≥75 yr, n=99). Increased CA 19-9 (5.6%, 13.4%, 14.6%, P=0.001), advanced diseases (42.5%, 47.0%, and 57.6, P=0.014), and node metastasis (37.6%, 38.9%, 51.5%, P=0.029) were more common in the young-old and old-old age groups. There were no significant differences in Helicobacter pylori status (63.6%, 56.7%, 61.2%, P=0.324) between the three groups. Surgery-related complication rates were similar in the three groups (5.3%, 5.1%, 8.1%, P=0.497). Microsatellite instability (P<0.001) and p53 overexpression (P<0.001) were more common among the elderly. The elderly group had more synchronous tumors (7.5%, 10.2%, 17.2%; P=0.006). Surgery can be applied to elderly gastric cancer without significant risk of complications. However, considering the more advanced disease and synchronous tumors among the elderly, care should be taken while deciding the extent of surgery for elderly gastric cancer.

  5. Increase in Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Surgery Regarding the Therapeutic Approach of Gastric Cancer Detected by Cancer Screening in Saga Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Shunsuke; Sakata, Yasuhisa; Iwakiri, Ryuichi; Hara, Megumi; Akutagawa, Kayo; Shimoda, Ryo; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Hidaka, Hidenori; Sakata, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Kazuma; Mizuguchi, Masanobu; Shimoda, Yuichiro; Irie, Hiroyuki; Noshiro, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite recent advances in endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancers, an increase in the uptake of these therapeutic approaches has not yet been fully demonstrated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the change in therapeutic approaches regarding the treatment of gastric cancers detected by cancer screening in Saga Prefecture, Japan between April 2002 and March 2011. Methods Gastric cancer screening by X-ray was performed on 311,074 subjects between April 2002 and March 2011. In total, 534 patients were thereafter diagnosed with gastric cancer. Eighteen subjects were excluded because precise details of their treatment were not available. To evaluate the changes in the therapeutic approach, the observation period was divided into three 3-year intervals: Period I: April 2002 to March 2005; Period II: April 2005 to March 2008; Period III: April 2008 to March 2011. Results The use of open laparotomy for the treatment of gastric cancer decreased, and laparoscopic surgery and endoscopic treatment increased markedly in a time-dependent manner. A 2.5-fold increase in endoscopic treatment, and a 18.4-fold increase in laparoscopic surgery were observed in Period III compared with Period I (after adjusting for age and tumor characteristics). Conclusion Endoscopic treatment and laparoscopic surgery for gastric cancer increased during the investigation period (2002-2011), although the tumor characteristics of the gastric cancers detected through cancer screening in Saga Prefecture, Japan did not show any changes.

  6. Robot-assisted laparoscopic (RAL) surgery for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Alimoglu, Orhan; Atak, Ibrahim; Eren, Tunc

    2014-09-01

    This literature review focuses on the potential benefits and eventual limitations of robotic surgery with respect to the traditional minimally invasive laparoscopic surgical technique for gastric cancer. A literature survey was performed using specific search phrases in PubMed. Series including < 10 cases and series including only an 'open group' of patients in comparison with the 'robotic group' were excluded. Characteristics such as patient demographics, perioperative outcomes and oncological results were analysed. According to the analysis of 12 series, robotic gastric surgery has been shown to be a safe and feasible method. However, a considerable number of studies are composed of early-stage gastric cancer cases and there seems to be a lack of randomized controlled studies. Large prospective randomized studies are still required in order to demonstrate the exact benefits of robotic surgery and its effects on survival in gastric cancer. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Prognostic significance of perigastric tumor deposits in patients with primary gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Anup, Shrestha; Lu, Jun; Zheng, Chao-Hui; Li, Ping; Xie, Jian-Wei; Wang, Jia-Bin; Lin, Jian-Xian; Chen, Qi-Yue; Cao, Long-Long; Lin, Mi; Yu, Qian; Yang, Ying-Hong; Huang, Chang-Ming

    2017-07-19

    The presence and the prognostic significance of perigastric tumor deposits (TDs) in primary gastric cancer have not been extensively studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance perigastric TDs in primary gastric cancer. From 2005 to 2010, 1250 patients underwent R0 gastrectomy at the Department of Gastric Surgery, Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, Fuzhou, China. Out of 1250 patients, 132 patients with perigastric TDs were identified. Additionally, 132 patients with staged matched gastric cancer without tumor deposits were selected as a control group. Perigastric TDs were observed in 132 (10.5%) of the 1250 patients with gastric cancer who underwent R0 gastrectomy. There were 94 males (71.21%) and 38 females (28.79%) (2.47:1). The mean age was 57.21 years. Clinicopathologic characteristics between the two groups matched well. There was a significant difference in the overall survival of those with and without TDs by univariate (p<0.05) and multivariate (p < 0.05) survival analysis. The 1-, 3-and 5-year overall survival rates of patients with TDswere69.6%, 39.3%, and 24.2%, respectively, and were significantly poorer than those of the staged matched control group. There was no correlation between the number of TDs and patient survival in patients with gastric cancer (p>0.05); however, when comparing each pT tumor group with the perigastric TD group, the stage T4 survival rate was very similar to that observed in patients with TDs. Perigastric TDs are an independent predictive prognostic factor for gastric cancer and may be appropriately considered a form of serosal invasion. We suggest that TDs should be included in TNM staging system for better outcomes.

  8. Screening for and surveillance of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Compare, Debora; Rocco, Alba; Nardone, Gerardo

    2014-10-14

    Although the prevalence of gastric cancer (GC) progressively decreased during the last decades, due to improved dietary habit, introduction of food refrigeration and recovered socio-economic level, it still accounts for 10% of the total cancer-related deaths. The best strategy to reduce the mortality for GC is to schedule appropriate screening and surveillance programs, that rises many relevant concerns taking into account its worldwide variability, natural history, diagnostic tools, therapeutic strategies, and cost-effectiveness. Intestinal-type, the most frequent GC histotype, develops through a multistep process triggered by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and progressing from gastritis to atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia. However, the majority of patients infected with H. pylori and carrying premalignant lesions do not develop GC. Therefore, it remains unclear who should be screened, when the screening should be started and how the screening should be performed. It seems reasonable that screening programs should target the general population in eastern countries, at high prevalence of GC and the high-risk subjects in western countries, at low prevalence of GC. As far as concern surveillance, currently, we are lacking of standardized international recommendations and many features have to be defined regarding the optimal diagnostic approach, the patients at higher risk, the best timing and the cost-effectiveness. Anyway, patients with corpus atrophic gastritis, extensive incomplete IM and dysplasia should enter a surveillance program. At present, screening and surveillance programs need further studies to draw worldwide reliable recommendations and evaluate the impact on mortality for GC.

  9. Helicobacter pylori eradication for preventing gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Li, Meng

    2014-05-21

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development, which is one of the most challenging malignant diseases worldwide with limited treatments. In the multistep pathogenesis of GC, H. pylori infection slowly induces chronic active gastritis, which progresses through the premalignant stages of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, and then finally to GC. Although eradication of H. pylori is a reasonable approach for the prevention of GC, there have been some contradictory reports, with only some long-term follow-up data showing efficacy of this approach. The inconsistencies are likely due to the insufficient number of participants, relatively short follow-up periods, poor quality of study designs, and the degree and extent of preneoplastic changes at the time of H. pylori eradication. This review analyzes recent high-quality studies to resolve the discrepancies regarding the eradication of H. pylori for GC prevention. The relationship between H. pylori eradication and GC/precancerous lesions/metachronous GC is examined, and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in the prevention of GC is assessed. Although it is assumed that eradication of H. pylori has the potential to prevent GC, the feasibility and appropriate timing of this strategy for cancer prevention remain to be determined. As a result, additional well-designed trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to clarify this issue.

  10. Helicobacter pylori eradication for preventing gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Bin; Li, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development, which is one of the most challenging malignant diseases worldwide with limited treatments. In the multistep pathogenesis of GC, H. pylori infection slowly induces chronic active gastritis, which progresses through the premalignant stages of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, and then finally to GC. Although eradication of H. pylori is a reasonable approach for the prevention of GC, there have been some contradictory reports, with only some long-term follow-up data showing efficacy of this approach. The inconsistencies are likely due to the insufficient number of participants, relatively short follow-up periods, poor quality of study designs, and the degree and extent of preneoplastic changes at the time of H. pylori eradication. This review analyzes recent high-quality studies to resolve the discrepancies regarding the eradication of H. pylori for GC prevention. The relationship between H. pylori eradication and GC/precancerous lesions/metachronous GC is examined, and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in the prevention of GC is assessed. Although it is assumed that eradication of H. pylori has the potential to prevent GC, the feasibility and appropriate timing of this strategy for cancer prevention remain to be determined. As a result, additional well-designed trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to clarify this issue. PMID:24914325

  11. Changing Trends in Gastric Cancer Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Özer, İlter; Bostancı, Erdal Birol; Ulaş, Murat; Özoğul, Yusuf; Akoğlu, Musa

    2017-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death. It requires multimodal treatment and surgery is the most effective treatment modality. Radical surgery includes total or subtotal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection. The extent of lymphadenectomy still remains controversial. Eastern surgeons have performed D2 or more extended lymphadenectomy while their Western colleagues have performed more limited lymph node dissection. However, the trend has been changing in favour of D2 lymph node dissection in both hemispheres. Currently, D2 is the recommended type of lymphadenectomy in experienced centres in the west. In Japan, D2 lymph node dissection is the standard surgical approach. More extensive lymphadenectomy than D2 has not been found to be associated with improved survival and generally is not performed. Bursectomy and splenectomy are additional controversial issues in surgical performance, and trends regarding them will be discussed. The performance of bursectomy is controversial and there is no clear evidence of its clinical benefit. However, a trend toward better survival in patients with serosal invasion has been reported. Routine splenectomy as a part of lymph node dissection has largely been abandoned, although splenectomy is recommended in selected cases. Minimally invasive surgery has gained wide popularity and indications for minimally invasive procedures have been expanding due to increasing experience and improving technology. Neoadjuvant therapy has been shown to have beneficial effects and seems necessary to provide a survival benefit. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be kept in mind prior to treatment. PMID:28251018

  12. Genetic variants in gastric cancer: Risks and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Rasmussen, Lucas Trevizani; Santos, Leonardo Caires; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Lourenço, Laercio Gomes; Lopes-Filho, Gaspar Jesus; Smith, Marilia Arruda Cardoso

    2017-08-01

    Cancer is a multifactorial disease that involves many molecular alterations. Gastric cancer (GC) is the third leading cause of cancer death worldwide. GC is a highly heterogeneous disease with different molecular and genetics features. Therefore, this review focuses on an overview of the genetic aspects of gastric cancer by highlighting the important impact and role of deletions and/or duplications of chromosomal segments, genomic variants, H. pylori infection and interleukin variants, as found in gene expression and newly proposed molecular classification studies. The challenge is to better understand the mechanisms and different pathways that lead to the development and progression of GC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Aging and gynecologic cancer].

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Arturo A

    2005-01-01

    The interrelation between cancer and ageing in women is emphasized, on its increased incidence, in their molecular background, into the particular biological characteristics of the different tumors and the effects of ageing in the affected women.

  14. Prognostic effects of 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Results from large epidemiologic studies on the association between vitamin D and gastric cancer are controversial. Vitamin D significantly promotes apoptosis in the undifferentiated gastric cancer cell, but the prognostic effects of its levels are unknown. Methods 197 gastric carcinoma patients who received treatment in the cancer centre of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2002 to January 2006 were involved in the study. The stored blood drawn before any treatment was assayed for 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. The clinicopathologic data were collected to examine the prognostic effects of vitamin D. Results The mean vitamin D levels of the 197 gastric patients was 49.85 ± 23.68 nmol/L, among whom 114(57.9%) were deficient in Vitamin D(< 50 nmol/L), 67(34%) were insufficient (50-75 nmol/L) and 16(8.1%) were sufficient (> 75 nmol/L). Clinical stage (P = 0.004) and lymph node metastasis classification (P = 0.009) were inversely associated with vitamin D levels. The patients with high vitamin D levels group (≥ 50 nmol/L) had a higher overall survival compared with the low vitamin D levels group (< 50 nmol/L)(P = 0.018). Multivariate analysis indicated that vitamin D levels were an independent prognostic factor of gastric cancer (P = 0.019). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency may be associated with poor prognosis in gastric cancer. PMID:22284859

  15. A case-control study of gastric cancer in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, N; Plummer, M; Vivas, J; Moreno, V; De Sanjosé, S; Lopez, G; Oliver, W

    2001-08-01

    A case-control study to evaluate risk factors for gastric cancer was carried out among 292 cases of gastric cancer and 485 controls in a high-risk area of Venezuela. Subjects were interviewed using a structured questionnaire, which elicited information on residential history, socio-economic status, family history of gastric diseases, smoking, drinking and dietary habits. Habitual diet was estimated from a meal-structured food frequency questionnaire on 75 food items. There was a strong inverse association with social class, as measured by education and by indicators of poverty. The results of the dietary analysis suggest that a diet high in starch and low in meat, fish and fresh vegetables increases risk of gastric cancer. A protective effect was observed for frequent consumption of allium vegetables. Inverse associations were found with height, which may reflect nutritional status in childhood, and with refrigerator use in the first two decades of life. Alcohol and tobacco consumption was investigated among males only, since the prevalence of alcohol and tobacco use was very low in females. Alcohol drinkers were at higher risk than non-drinkers and there was a small excess risk for current smokers compared with never smokers. There was some evidence of familial aggregation of gastric cancer. These findings will have important implications in planning preventive strategies for gastric cancer in Venezuela.

  16. Local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kinami, Shinichi; Funaki, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hideto; Nakano, Yasuharu; Ueda, Nobuhiko; Kosaka, Takeo

    2017-06-01

    The local resection of the stomach is an ideal method for preventing postoperative symptoms. There are various procedures for performing local resection, such as the laparoscopic lesion lifting method, non-touch lesion lifting method, endoscopic full-thickness resection, and laparoscopic endoscopic cooperative surgery. After the invention and widespread use of endoscopic submucosal dissection, local resection has become outdated as a curative surgical technique for gastric cancer. Nevertheless, local resection of the stomach in the treatment of gastric cancer in now expected to make a comeback with the clinical use of sentinel node navigation surgery. However, there are many issues associated with local resection for gastric cancer, other than the normal indications. These include gastric deformation, functional impairment, ensuring a safe surgical margin, the possibility of inducing peritoneal dissemination, and the associated increase in the risk of metachronous gastric cancer. In view of these issues, there is a tendency to regard local resection as an investigative treatment, to be applied only in carefully selected cases. The ideal model for local resection of the stomach for gastric cancer would be a combination of endoscopic full-thickness resection of the stomach using an ESD device and hand sutured closure using a laparoscope or a surgical robot, for achieving both oncological safety and preserved functions.

  17. Comprehensive characterization of the genomic alterations in human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Juan; Yin, Yanbin; Ma, Qin; Wang, Guoqing; Olman, Victor; Zhang, Yu; Chou, Wen-Chi; Hong, Celine S.; Zhang, Chi; Cao, Sha; Mao, Xizeng; Li, Ying; Qin, Steve; Zhao, Shaying; Jiang, Jing; Hastings, Phil; Li, Fan; Xu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most prevalent and aggressive cancers worldwide, and its molecular mechanism remains largely elusive. Here we report the genomic landscape in primary gastric adenocarcinoma of human, based on the complete genome sequences of five pairs of cancer and matching normal samples. In total, 103,464 somatic point mutations, including 407 nonsynonymous ones, were identified and the most recurrent mutations were harbored by Mucins (MUC3A and MUC12) and transcription factors (ZNF717, ZNF595 and TP53). 679 genomic rearrangements were detected, which affect 355 protein-coding genes; and 76 genes show copy number changes. Through mapping the boundaries of the rearranged regions to the folded three-dimensional structure of human chromosomes, we determined that 79.6% of the chromosomal rearrangements happen among DNA fragments in close spatial proximity, especially when two endpoints stay in a similar replication phase. We demonstrated evidences that microhomology-mediated break-induced replication was utilized as a mechanism in inducing ~40.9% of the identified genomic changes in gastric tumor. Our data analyses revealed potential integrations of Helicobacter pylori DNA into the gastric cancer genomes. Overall a large set of novel genomic variations were detected in these gastric cancer genomes, which may be essential to the study of the genetic basis and molecular mechanism of the gastric tumorigenesis. PMID:25422082

  18. Differential MicroRNA Expression Between Gastric Cancer Tissue and Non-cancerous Gastric Mucosa According to Helicobacter pylori Status

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Won; Kim, Nayoung; Park, Ji Hyun; Kim, Hee Jin; Chang, Hyun; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Jin-Wook; Lee, Dong Ho

    2017-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key post-translational mechanisms which can regulate gene expression in gastric carcinogenesis. To identify miRNAs responsible for gastric carcinogenesis, we compared expression levels of miRNAs between gastric cancer tissue and non-cancerous gastric mucosa according to Helicobacter pylori status. Methods Total RNA was extracted from the cancerous regions of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues of H. pylori-positive (n = 8) or H. pylori-negative (n = 8) patients with an intestinal type of gastric cancer. RNA expression was analyzed using a 3,523 miRNA profiling microarray based on the Sanger miRBase. Validation analysis was performed using TaqMan miRNA assays for biopsy samples from 107 patients consisted of control and gastric cancer with or without H. pylori. And then, expression levels of miRNAs were compared according to subgroups. Results A total of 156 miRNAs in the aberrant miRNA profiles across the miRNA microarray showed differential expression (at least a 2-fold change, P < 0.05) in cancer tissue, compared to noncancerous mucosa in both of H. pylori-negative and -positive samples. After 10 promising miRNAs were selected, validations by TaqMan miRNA assays confirmed that two miRNAs (hsa-miR-135b-5p and hsa-miR-196a-5p) were significantly increased and one miRNA (hsa-miR-145-5p) decreased in cancer tissue compared to non-cancerous gastric mucosa at H. pylori-negative group. For H. pylori-positive group, three miRNAs (hsa-miR-18a-5p, hsa-miR-135b-5p, and hsa-miR-196a-5p) were increased in cancer tissue. hsa-miR-135b-5p and hsa-miR-196a-5p were increased in gastric cancer in both of H. pylori-negative and -positive. Conclusions miRNA expression of the gastric cancer implies that different but partially common gastric cancer carcinogenic mechanisms might exist according to H. pylori status. PMID:28382284

  19. Report on the National Survey of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) for Gastric Cancer in Japan (a secondary publication)

    PubMed Central

    Oinuma, Takeshi; Nishiwaki, Yoshiro

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: A national survey of photodynamic therapy (PDT) was carried out in order to understand the present situation in Japan and the efficacy of PDT for gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: A questionnaire concerning with PDT was sent to all hospitals performing or previously performed PDT. The answers were collected and analyzed. An additional investigation about efficacy of PDT for gastric cancer was conducted for the main 3 hospitals. Results: In 18 of 19 responded hospitals, PDT was performed for 386 cases of superficial early gastric cancer and for 27 cases of advanced gastric cancer. In the 3 main hospitals, a complete response was achieved in 42 of 57 patients (73.7%) of superficial early gastric cancer not indicated for surgery or other endoscopic treatments such as endoscopic submucosal dissection. No serious complication occurred. Conclusions: PDT has been shown to be a safe and effective treatment for early gastric cancer, not only for the intramucosal type, but also for the submucosal invasion. PDT will be one of the important endoscopic treatments for gastric cancer especially in a super ageing society like Japan. PMID:27721560

  20. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer: implications of genetic testing for screening and prophylactic surgery.

    PubMed

    Cisco, Robin M; Ford, James M; Norton, Jeffrey A

    2008-10-01

    Approximately 10% of patients with gastric cancer show familial clustering, and 3% show autosomal dominance and high penetrance. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is an autosomal-dominant, inherited cancer syndrome in which affected individuals develop diffuse-type gastric cancer at a young age. Inactivating mutations in the E-cadherin gene CDH1 have been identified in 30% to 50% of patients. CDH1 mutation carriers have an approximately 70% lifetime risk of developing DGC, and affected women carry an additional 20% to 40% risk of developing lobular breast cancer. Because endoscopic surveillance is ineffective in identifying early HDGC, gene-directed prophylactic total gastrectomy currently is offered for CDH1 mutation carriers. In series of asymptomatic individuals undergoing total gastrectomy for CDH1 mutations, the removed stomachs usually contain small foci of early DGC, making surgery not prophylactic but curative. The authors of this review recommend consideration of total gastrectomy in CDH1 mutation carriers at an age 5 years younger than the youngest family member who developed gastric cancer. Individuals who choose not to undergo prophylactic gastrectomy should be followed with biannual chromoendoscopy, and women with CDH1 mutations also should undergo regular surveillance with magnetic resonance imaging studies of the breast. Because of the emergence of gene-directed gastrectomy for HDGC, today, a previously lethal disease is detected by molecular techniques, allowing curative surgery at an early stage.

  1. Towards personalized perioperative treatment for advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Ru-Lin; Wu, Ai-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers worldwide. Although the rate of gastric cancer has declined dramatically over the past decades in most developed Western countries, it has not declined in East Asia. Currently, a radical gastrectomy is still the only curative treatment for gastric cancer. Over the last twenty years, however, surgery alone has been replaced by a multimodal perioperative approach. To achieve the maximum benefit from the perioperative treatment, a thorough evaluation of the tumor must first be performed. A complete assessment of gastric cancer is divided into two parts: staging and histology. According to the stage and histology of the cancer, perioperative chemotherapy or radiochemotherapy can be implemented, and perioperative targeted therapies such as trastuzumab may also play a role in this field. However, perioperative treatment approaches have not been widely accepted until a series of clinical trials were performed to evaluate the value of perioperative treatment. Although multimodal perioperative treatment has been widely applied in clinical practice, personalization of perioperative treatment represents the next stage in the treatment of gastric cancer. Genomic-guided treatment and efficacy prediction using molecular biomarkers in perioperative treatment are of great importance in the evolution of treatment and may become an ideal treatment method. PMID:25206266

  2. [Epigenetics in the pathogenesis and early detection of gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Corvalán R, Alejandro

    2013-12-01

    Gastric cancer is the first cause of death for cancer in Chile. The recently identified genetic alterations in these tumors have not yielded new biomarkers for the disease. Epigenetics or the study of reversible genomic changes that do not affect protein codifying DNA sequences but cause phenotypic disturbances, is identifying new cancer biomarkers. Specifically, the loss of expression caused by the covalent link of a methyl group to carbon 5 of cytosine (DNA hypermethylation) is extensively evaluated. Performing an epigenetic evaluation of 24 genes, we have identified eight genes associated to the aggressive signet ring cell type gastric cancer, the association between APC hypermethylation and worse prognosis and BRCA1 hypermethylation association with early onset of gastric cancer. The most interesting findings are the hypermethylation of Reprimo gene in plasma as a population biomarker and the tissue over expression of p73 gene (as a consequence of hypomethylation) as a high risk indicator of progression to gastric cancer. All these findings are indicating an important role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis and early detection of gastric cancer.

  3. Lymph node dissection for gastric cancer: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Batista, Thales Paulo; Martins, Mário Rino

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common neoplasms and an important cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Efforts to reduce its high mortality rates are currently focused on multidisciplinary management. However, surgery remains a cornerstone in the management of patients with resectable disease. There is still some controversy as to the extent of lymph node dissection for potentially curable stomach cancer. Surgeons in eastern countries favor more extensive lymph node dissection, whereas those in the West favor less extensive dissection. Thus, extent of lymph node dissection remains one of the most hotly discussed aspects of gastric surgery, particularly because most stomach cancers are now often comprehensively treated by adding some perioperative chemotherapy or chemo-radiation. We provide a critical review of lymph nodes dissection for gastric cancer with a particular focus on its benefits in a multimodal approach. PMID:25992202

  4. Targeting HER 2 and angiogenesis in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Jomrich, G; Schoppmann, S F

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed and the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide. Surgery combined with multimodal therapy remains the only curative therapy. However, local relapse or distant metastases occur in more than 50% of radically resected patients. Due to molecular therapies, targeting HER2 and angiogenesis, major advances in the treatment of gastric cancer could be achieved. Nevertheless, development of resistance to monoclonal antibodies, such as trastuzumab, is arising. Currently a number of promising new therapeutic are under investigation, combining chemotherapy with newly developed agents to overcome cancer resistance. In this review we report current clinical applications of targeted therapies and overview ongoing trials, investigating the use of monoclonal antibodies in (HER2 positive) gastric cancer.

  5. Genome sequence analysis of Helicobacter pylori strains associated with gastric ulceration and gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Mark S; Shaffer, Carrie L; Israel, Dawn A; Peek, Richard M; Cover, Timothy L

    2009-01-01

    Background Persistent colonization of the human stomach by Helicobacter pylori is associated with asymptomatic gastric inflammation (gastritis) and an increased risk of duodenal ulceration, gastric ulceration, and non-cardia gastric cancer. In previous studies, the genome sequences of H. pylori strains from patients with gastritis or duodenal ulcer disease have been analyzed. In this study, we analyzed the genome sequences of an H. pylori strain (98-10) isolated from a patient with gastric cancer and an H. pylori strain (B128) isolated from a patient with gastric ulcer disease. Results Based on multilocus sequence typing, strain 98-10 was most closely related to H. pylori strains of East Asian origin and strain B128 was most closely related to strains of European origin. Strain 98-10 contained multiple features characteristic of East Asian strains, including a type s1c vacA allele and a cagA allele encoding an EPIYA-D tyrosine phosphorylation motif. A core genome of 1237 genes was present in all five strains for which genome sequences were available. Among the 1237 core genes, a subset of alleles was highly divergent in the East Asian strain 98-10, encoding proteins that exhibited <90% amino acid sequence identity compared to corresponding proteins in the other four strains. Unique strain-specific genes were identified in each of the newly sequenced strains, and a set of strain-specific genes was shared among H. pylori strains associated with gastric cancer or premalignant gastric lesions. Conclusion These data provide insight into the diversity that exists among H. pylori strains from diverse clinical and geographic origins. Highly divergent alleles and strain-specific genes identified in this study may represent useful biomarkers for analyzing geographic partitioning of H. pylori and for identifying strains capable of inducing malignant or premalignant gastric lesions. PMID:19123947

  6. Relationship between Social Network and Stage of Adoption of Gastric Cancer Screening among the Korean Population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myung Ha; Choi, Kui Son; Lee, Yoon Young; Suh, Mina; Jun, Jae Kwan

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have examined the relationship between social support and stages of adoption of cancer screening. Here we investigated associations between both structural and functional aspects of social support and stages of adoption of gastric cancer screening in the general population of Korea. The study population was derived from the 2011 Korean National Cancer Screening Survey (KNCSS), an annual cross-sectional survey that uses nationally representative random sampling to investigate cancer screening rates. Data were analyzed from 3,477 randomly selected respondents aged 40-74 years. Respondents were classified according to their stage of adoption of gastric cancer screening: precontemplation (13.2%), contemplation (18.0%), action/maintenance (56.1%), relapse risk (8.5%), and relapse stage (4.1%). Respondents with larger social networks were more likely to be in the contemplation/action/maintenance, or the relapse risk/relapse stages versus the precontemplation stage (OR=1.91, 95%CI: 1.52-2.91; p for tend=0.025). Emotional and instrumental supports were not associated with any stage of adoption of gastric cancer screening. However, respondents who reported receiving sufficient informational support were more likely to be in the relapse risk/relapse stages versus the precontemplation, or the contemplation/action/maintenance stage (p for trend=0.016). Interventions involving interactions between social network members could play an important role in increasing participation in gastric cancer screening.

  7. The descriptive epidemiology of gastric cancer in Central America and comparison with United States Hispanic populations

    PubMed Central

    Corral, Juan E.; Delgado Hurtado, Juan J.; Domínguez, Ricardo L.; de Cuéllar, Marisabel Valdez; Cruz, Carlos Balmore; Morgan, Douglas R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Delineate the epidemiology of gastric adenocarcinoma in Central America and contrast it with Hispanic-Latino populations in the U.S. Methods Published literature and Central America Ministry of Health databases were used as primary data sources, including national, population-based and hospital-based registries. U.S. data was obtained from the NCI-SEER registry. Incident gastric adenocarcinoma cases were analyzed for available data between 1985–2011, including demographic variables and pathology information. Results In Central America, 19,741 incident gastric adenocarcinomas were identified. Two-thirds of cases were male, 20.5% were under age 55, and 58.5% were from rural areas. In the SEER database (n=7,871), 57.8% were male, and 28.9% were under age 55. Among the U.S. Hispanics born in Central America with gastric cancer (n=1,210), 50.3% of cases were male, and 38.1% were under age 55. Noncardia gastric cancer was more common in Central America (83.3%), among U.S. Hispanics (80.2%), and Hispanics born in Central America (86.3%). Cancers of the antrum were more common in Central America (73.6%), whereas cancers of the corpus were slightly more common among U.S. Hispanics (54.0%). Adenocarcinoma of the diffuse subtype was relatively common, both in Central America (35.7%), and U.S. Hispanics (69.5%), although Lauren classification was reported in only 50% of cases. Conclusions A significant burden of gastric adenocarcinoma is observed in Central America based upon limited available data. Differences are noted between Central America and U.S. Hispanics. Strengthening population-based registries is needed for improved cancer control in Central America, which may have implications for the growing U.S. Hispanic population. PMID:25412859

  8. VEGF promotes gastric cancer development by upregulating CRMP4

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Jianjun; Zhai, Ertao; He, Yulong; Wu, Hui; Chen, Chuangqi; Ma, Jinping; Wang, Zhao; Cai, Shirong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the precise role of CRMP4 in gastric tumor growth and patient survival. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CRMP4, VEGF and VEGFR2 were validated by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. We investigated the effects on tumor growth of overexpression and knockdown of CRMP4 both in vitro and in vivo by constructing stable gastric cell lines using lentiviral-mediated transduction and shRNA interference-mediated knockdown of CRMP4 expression. We further validated the role of the ERK/AKT signaling pathways in VEGF and CRMP4 expression using ERK and PI3K inhibitors. Increased expression of VEGF and CRMP4 were observed in gastric cancer tissues compared with tumor-adjacent tissue. We found that higher CRPM4 expression was associated with lymph node metastasis, TNM stage, tumor differentiation and poorer prognosis in gastric cancer patients. In HGC27 and SGC7901 gastric cancer cells, VEGF upregulated CRMP4 in time and dose-dependent manners. Overexpression of CRMP4 increased cell proliferation, migration and invasion, whereas knockdown of CRMP4 expression had opposite effects. VEGF activated CRMP4 expression in gastric cancer cells, and this effect was significantly inhibited by MAPK and PI3K inhibitors (PD98059 and LY294002). In mice, CRMP4 overexpression also resulted in increased tumor growth. These results suggest that increased CRMP4 expression mediated by the activation of VEGF signaling facilitates gastric tumor growth and metastasis, which may have clinical implications associated with a reduced survival rate in gastric cancer patients. PMID:26934554

  9. Age and Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    White, Mary C.; Holman, Dawn M.; Boehm, Jennifer E.; Peipins, Lucy A.; Grossman, Melissa; Henley, S. Jane

    2015-01-01

    This article challenges the idea that cancer cannot be prevented among older adults by examining different aspects of the relationship between age and cancer. Although the sequential patterns of aging cannot be changed, several age-related factors that contribute to disease risk can be. For most adults, age is coincidentally associated with preventable chronic conditions, avoidable exposures, and modifiable risk behaviors that are causally associated with cancer. Midlife is a period of life when the prevalence of multiple cancer risk factors is high and incidence rates begin to increase for many types of cancer. However, current evidence suggests that for most adults, cancer does not have to be an inevitable consequence of growing older. Interventions that support healthy environments, help people manage chronic conditions, and promote healthy behaviors may help people make a healthier transition from midlife to older age and reduce the likelihood of developing cancer. Because the number of adults reaching older ages is increasing rapidly, the number of new cancer cases will also increase if current incidence rates remain unchanged. Thus, the need to translate the available research into practice to promote cancer prevention, especially for adults at midlife, has never been greater. PMID:24512933

  10. Gastric cancer risk factors in subjects with family history.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, S E; Ferraroni, M; La Vecchia, C; Decarli, A

    1997-02-01

    Until now, it has been unclear whether there are differences in various risk factor profiles for familial gastric cancer, i.e., gastric cancer among subjects with a family history of the disease. A total of 722 gastric cancer patients and 2024 controls were admitted between 1985 and 1992 to a network of hospitals in the Greater Milan area. Of these, 88 cases and 103 controls who reported a family history of gastric cancer in first degree relatives were considered in the present analysis. There was no relationship between gastric cancer risk and tobacco smoking or alcohol drinking. Shorter duration of electrical refrigerator use was related to a nonsignificant increased risk and a high daily meal frequency was associated with an increased gastric cancer risk. Significant direct trends of risk were observed for pasta (odds ratio, OR = 4.20 for the highest versus the lowest tertile), bread (OR, 2.86), red meat (OR, 3.38), and preserved meat (OR, 1.90). Inverse associations were observed for increasing consumption of selected vegetables and fruits, chiefly peppers (OR = 0.31), total fruits (OR, 0.47), and citrus fruits (OR, 0.38). With reference to selected micronutrients, a significant inverse trend in risk with increasing consumption for beta-carotene (OR, 0.27) and ascorbic acid (OR, 0.20) was observed. These results suggest that dietary risk factors for subjects with a family history of gastric cancer in first-degree relatives are not appreciably different from well-established risk factors of the disease in the general population.

  11. Helicobacter pylori Update: Gastric Cancer, Reliable Therapy, and Possible Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Graham, David Y.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to development of diverse gastric and extra-gastric diseases. The infection is necessary but not sufficient for development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Its eradication would eliminate a major worldwide cause of cancer death, so there is much interest in identifying how, if, and when this can be accomplished. There are several mechanisms by which H pylori contributes to development of gastric cancer. Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of many cancers associated with inflammation, which is induced by H pylori infection, yet the bacteria also cause genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells. H pylori eradication reduces both. However, many factors must be considered in determining whether treating this bacterial infection will prevent cancer or only reduce its risk—these must be considered in designing reliable and effective eradication therapies. Furthermore, H pylori infection has been proposed to provide some benefits, such as reducing the risks of obesity or childhood asthma, although there are no convincing data to support the benefits of H pylori infections. PMID:25655557

  12. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizrahi, Meir

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk. PMID:27579191

  13. Ischemic Gastropathic Ulcer Mimics Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Daher, Saleh; Lahav, Ziv; Rmeileh, Ayman Abu; Mizrahi, Meir; Khoury, Tawfik

    2016-01-01

    Gastric ulcer due to mesenteric ischemia is a rare clinical finding. As a result, few reports of ischemic gastric ulcers have been reported in the literature. The diagnosis of ischemic gastropathy is seldom considered in patients presenting with abdominal pain and gastric ulcers. In this case report, we describe a patient with increasing abdominal pain, weight loss, and gastric ulcers, who underwent extensive medical evaluation and whose symptoms were resistant to medical interventions. Finally he was diagnosed with chronic mesenteric ischemia, and his clinical and endoscopic abnormalities resolved after surgical revascularization of both the superior mesenteric artery and the celiac trunk.

  14. Gastric polyps diagnosed by double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography mostly arise from the Helicobacter pylori-negative stomach with low risk of gastric cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Chihiro; Yamamichi, Nobutake; Shimamoto, Takeshi; Takahashi, Yu; Mitsushima, Toru; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2017-03-01

    Double-contrast upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography (UGI-XR) is a method broadly used for gastric cancer screening in Japan. Gastric polyp is one of the most frequent findings detected by UGI-XR, but how to handle it remains controversial. Gastric polyps of the 17,264 generally healthy subjects in Japan who underwent UGI-XR or upper gastrointestinal endoscopy (UGI-ES) in 2010 were analyzed. Of the 6,433 UGI-XR examinees (3,405 men and 3,028 women, 47.4 ± 9.0 years old), gastric polyps were detected in 464 men (13.6 %) and 733 women (24.2 %) and were predominantly developed on the non-atrophic gastric mucosa (p < 0.0001). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of gastric polyps has significant association with lower value of serum anti-Helicobacter pylori IgG titer, female gender, lighter smoking habit, older age, and normal range of body mass index (≥18.5 and <25), but not with drinking or serum pepsinogen I/II ratio. During the 3-year follow-up, gastric cancer occurred in 7 subjects (0.11 %), but none of them had gastric polyps at the beginning of the follow-up period. Of the 2,722 subjects with gastric polyps among the 10,831 UGI-ES examinees in the same period, 2,446 (89.9 %) had fundic, 267 (9.8 %) had hyperplastic, and 9 (0.3 %) had adenomatous/cancerous polyps. Gastric polyps diagnosed by UGI-XR predominantly arise on the Helicobacter pylori-negative gastric mucosa with a low risk of gastric cancer in Japan. In the prospective observation, none of the UGI-XR examinees with gastric polyps developed gastric cancer for at least 3 years subsequently.

  15. Clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer in remnant stomach or gastric tube.

    PubMed

    Nishide, N; Ono, H; Kakushima, N; Takizawa, K; Tanaka, M; Matsubayashi, H; Yamaguchi, Y

    2012-06-01

    Little information exists regarding the optimal treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC) in a remnant stomach or gastric tube. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for EGC in a remnant stomach and gastric tube. Between September 2002 and December 2009, ESD was performed in 62 lesions in 59 patients with EGC in a remnant stomach (48 lesions) or gastric tube (14 lesions). Clinicopathological data were retrieved retrospectively to assess the en bloc resection rate, complications, and outcomes. Treatment results were assessed according to the indications for endoscopic resection, and were compared with those of ESD performed in a whole stomach during the same study period. The en bloc resection rates for lesions within the standard and expanded indication were 100 % and 93 %, respectively. Postoperative bleeding occurred in five patients (8 %). The perforation rate was significantly higher (18 %, 11 /62) than that of ESD in a whole stomach (5 %, 69 /1479). Among the perforation cases, eight lesions involved the anastomotic site or stump line, and ulcerative changes were observed in five lesions. The 3-year overall survival rate was 85 %, with eight deaths due to other causes and no deaths from gastric cancer. A high en bloc resection rate was achieved by ESD for EGC in a remnant stomach or gastric tube; however, this procedure is still technically demanding due to the high complication rate of perforation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Localization of thymidine phosphorylase in advanced gastric and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Michiya; Okamoto, Ken; Akimori, Toyokazu; Tochika, Naoshige; Yoshimoto, Tadashi; Okabayashi, Takehiro; Sugimoto, Takeki; Araki, Keijiro

    2004-01-01

    Thymidine phosphorylase (TP) is known to be more concentrated in human cancer tissues than in adjacent normal tissue based on findings using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunohistochemistry. However, the ultrastructural localization of TP in cancer tissues has not previously been demonstrated. We investigated the localization of TP in gastric cancer and colorectal cancer tissue by ELISA, immunohistochemistry, and immunoelectron microscopy. Between April 1997 and May 2000, we obtained surgically resected specimens from 42, 46, and 36 cases of advanced gastric, colon, and rectal cancer, respectively. ELISA demonstrated that the TP level was higher in cancer tissues than in adjacent normal tissue. Immunohistochemically, cancer cells were positive for the enzyme in some cases. However, in a number of cases immunopositive inflammatory cells were also present in cancerous tissues. At the electron microscope level, TP was diffusely distributed in the cytoplasm of cancer cells and in the mitochondria of the neutrophil in gastric cancer tissue. In rectal cancer tissues, cytoplasmic granules in macrophages in cancer tissues were immunoreactive for the TP. These findings suggest that TP is produced by macrophages and exists in neutrophils and cancer cells.

  17. Perioperative chemotherapy for resectable gastric cancer - what is the evidence?

    PubMed

    Bringeland, Erling A; Wasmuth, Hans H; Grønbech, Jon E

    2017-02-28

    The UK MAGIC trial published in 2006 was the first RCT to identify improved long-term survival rates using preoperative chemotherapy for resectable gastric or gastroesophageal cancer. Overnight, the treatment regimen impacted European guidelines. However, the majority of patients underwent limited lymph node dissection, and analyses of the rates of curative resection, downsizing and downstaging were not by intention to treat, rightfully raising concerns about their validity. For the subset of true gastric cancers, meta-analyses may even question the claims of improved long-term survival rates by present-day regimens. A rhetorical question can be posed as to whether downstaging and improved survival rates by preoperative (radio)-chemotherapy for cancers of the distal esophagus or gastric cardia, has confounded our conclusions on the (lack of) effect of present-day regimens of perioperative chemotherapy for true gastric cancers, let alone in a situation with proper lymph node dissection. At present, a plea can be made to move one step back and revert to an RCT with a surgery alone arm. Inclusion criteria and analyses of future RCTs must stratify on tumor location and the Lauren type and embrace the newly developed scheme of sub-classification of gastric cancers based on extensive molecular profiling as reported in the seminal Cancer Genome Atlas Study.

  18. Environmental and lifestyle risk factors of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeong Yeh; Derakhshan, Mohammad H

    2013-06-01

    Effective prevention and early diagnostic strategies are the most important public health interventions in gastric cancer, which remains a common malignancy worldwide. Preventive strategies require identification and understanding of environmental risk factors that lead to carcinogenesis. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the primary carcinogen as this ancient bacterium has a complex ability to interact with its human host. Smoking and salt are strong independent risk factors for gastric cancer whereas alcohol is only a risk when it is heavily consumed. Red meat and high fat increase the risk of gastric cancer however fresh fruits, vegetables (allium family) and certain micronutrients (selenium, vitamin C) reduce the risk, with evidence lacking for fish, coffee and tea. Foods that inhibit H. pylori viability, colonization and infection may reduce cancer risk. Obesity is increasingly recognized as a contributory factor in gastric cardia carcinogenesis. Therefore, modest daily physical activities can be protective against cancer. Foundry workers are at risk for developing gastric cancer with dust iron being an important cause. Other risk factors include Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), possibly JC virus and radiation but the effects of these are likely to remain small.

  19. Current and emerging therapies in unresectable and recurrent gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jou, Erin; Rajdev, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal cancers worldwide despite many advances and options in therapy. As it is often diagnosed at an advanced stage, prognosis is poor with a median overall survival of less than twelve months. Chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for these patients but it confers only a moderate survival advantage. There remains a need for new targeted treatment options and a way to better define patient populations who will benefit from these agents. In the past few years, there has been a better understanding of the biology, molecular profiling, and heterogeneity of gastric cancer. Our increased knowledge has led to the identification of gastric cancer subtypes and to the development of new targeted therapeutic agents. There are now two new targeted agents, trastuzumab and ramucirumab, that have recently been approved for the treatment of advanced and metastatic gastric cancer. There are also many other actively investigated targets, including epidermal growth factor receptor, the phosphatadylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, c-Met, poly ADP-ribose polymerase, and immune checkpoint inhibition. In this review, we discuss the current management of advanced gastric cancer as well as emerging targeted therapies and immunotherapy. PMID:27239108

  20. Advanced gastric cancer: Current treatment landscape and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Digklia, Antonia; Wagner, Anna Dorothea

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer currently ranks fourth in cancer-related mortality worldwide. In the western world, it is most often diagnosed at an advanced stage, after becoming metastatic at distant sites. Patients with advanced disease (locally advanced or metastatic) have a somber prognosis, with a median overall survival of 10-12 mo, and palliative chemotherapy is the mainstay of treatment. In recent years, novel approaches using inhibition of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) have demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free and overall survival, compared with chemotherapy alone, in first-line treatment of patients with overexpression of HER2. In addition, both second-line chemotherapy and treatment with the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-inhibitor ramucirumab demonstrated significant benefits in terms of overall survival, compared with best supportive care, in randomized studies. Moreover, ramucirumab in combination with chemotherapy demonstrated further significant benefits in terms of progression-free and overall survival, compared with chemotherapy alone, in second-line treatment for patients with metastatic gastric cancer. A recently published molecular classification of gastric cancer is expected to improve patient stratification and selection for clinical trials and provide a roadmap for future drug development. Nevertheless, despite these developments the prognosis of patients with advanced gastric cancer remains poor. In this review we discuss current standards of care and outline major topics of drug development in gastric cancer. PMID:26937129

  1. Strategies for gastric cancer in the modern era

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Satoru; Wakasugi, Takehiro; Funahashi, Hitoshi; Takeyama, Hiromitsu

    2010-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common neoplasms in Japan, and it is also the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Nowadays, infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a known risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. Therefore, gastric cancer should be considered as an infectious disease, and in fact, prophylactic eradication of H. pylori may prevent the development of metachronous gastric carcinoma. Before the role of H. pylori was understood, a different approach was used. Recently even after the cancer has developed, some newer therapeutic approaches have been pursued. These newer treatments have been summarized as “minimally invasive therapies” and use endoscopic or laparoscopic techniques. In addition, robotic approaches are being developed that seem to hold a great potential to change the surgical approach. Since basic understanding and treatment of the disease have both changed significantly over the last decade, we present a review of current advances in gastric cancer research and therapy. PMID:21160804

  2. Association of common variants on chromosome 8q24 with gastric cancer in Venezuelan patients.

    PubMed

    Labrador, Luis; Torres, Keila; Camargo, Maria; Santiago, Laskhmi; Valderrama, Elvis; Chiurillo, Miguel Angel

    2015-07-15

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of death in the world, being Central and South America among the regions showing the highest incidence and mortality rates worldwide. Although several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) identified in the chromosomal region 8q24 by genome-wide association studies have been related with the risk of different kinds of cancers, their role in the susceptibility of gastric cancer in Latin American populations has not been evaluated yet. Hereby, we performed a case-control study to explore the associations between three SNPs at 8q24 and gastric cancer risk in Venezuelan patients. We analyzed rs1447295, rs4733616 and rs6983267 SNPs in 122 paraffin-embedded tumor samples from archival bank and 129 samples with chronic gastritis (obtained by upper endoscopy during the study) from the Central Hospital of Barquisimeto (Lara, Venezuela). Genotypes were determined by PCR-RFLP reactions designed in this study for efficient genotyping of formalin-fixed/paraffin-embedded tissues. No significant differences in genotype frequencies between case and control groups were found. However, carriers of the homozygous TT genotype of SNP rs4733616 had an increased risk of developing poorly differentiated gastric cancer according to the codominant (OR=3.59, P=0.035) and the recessive models (OR=4.32, P=0.014, best-fitting model of inheritance), adjusted by age and gender. Our study suggests that the SNP rs4733616 is associated with susceptibility to poorly differentiated gastric cancer in Venezuelans. Additional studies are needed to further interrogate the prognostic value of the rs4733616 marker in this high-risk population for gastric cancer.

  3. Clinical implications of proliferation activity in T1 or T2 male gastric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Woo; Eom, Bang Wool; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Kim, Han-Seong; Kim, Mi-Kyung; Hwang, Hai-Li; Chandra, Vishal; Poojan, Shiv; Song, Yura; Koh, Jae-Soo; Bae, Chang-Dae; Ro, Jungsil; Hong, Kyeong-Man

    2015-11-06

    Proliferation activity has already been established as a prognostic marker or as a marker for anticancer drug sensitivity. In gastric cancer, however, the prognostic significance of proliferation activity is still being debated. Several studies evaluating proliferation activity using Ki-67 have shown controversial results in terms of the relationship between proliferation activity and overall survival (OS) or drug sensitivity in gastric cancer patients. Because cytoskeleton-associated protein 2 (CKAP2) staining has recently been introduced as a marker of proliferation activity, we analyzed 437 gastric cancer tissues through CKAP2 immunohistochemistry, and we evaluated the chromatin CKAP2-positive cell count (CPCC) for proliferation activity. Although the CPCC did not show any significant correlation with OS in the male, female or total number of cases, it did show a significant correlation in the T1 or T2 male patient subgroup, according to log-rank tests (P=0.001) and univariate analysis (P=0.045). Additionally, multivariate analysis with the Cox proportional hazard regression model showed a significant correlation between the CPCC and OS (P=0.039) for the co-variables of age, gender, T stage, N stage, histology, tumor location, tumor size and adjuvant chemotherapy. In male gastric cancer cell lines, faster-growing cancer cells showed higher sensitivity to cisplatin than slow-growing cells. Thus our study indicates that CPCC-measured proliferation activity demonstrates a significantly worse prognosis in T1 or T2 male gastric cancer patients. The CPCC will help to more precisely classify gastric cancer patients and to select excellent candidates for adjuvant chemotherapy, which in turn will facilitate further clinical chemotherapeutic trials.

  4. Airborne exposures and risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sjödahl, Krister; Jansson, Catarina; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Adami, Johanna; Boffetta, Paolo; Lagergren, Jesper

    2007-05-01

    There is an unexplained male predominance among patients with gastric cancer, and many carcinogens are found in male-dominated dusty occupations. However, the relation between occupational exposures and risk of gastric cancer remains unclear. To investigate whether airborne occupational exposures might influence the risk of noncardia gastric cancer, we used a large, prospective cohort study of male Swedish construction workers. These workers were, during the period 1971-1993, regularly invited to health examinations by a nationwide occupational health service organization. Data on job titles and other variables were collected through self-administered questionnaires and forms completed by the health organization's staff. Industrial hygienists assessed 12 specific airborne occupational exposures for 200 job titles. Gastric cancer, death or emigration occurring during follow-up in 1971-2002 were identified by linkage to the Swedish registers of Cancer, Causes of Death and Total Population, respectively. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for attained age, tobacco smoking, calendar period and body mass, were derived from Cox regression. Among 256,357 cohort members, contributing 5,378,012 person-years at risk, 948 noncardia gastric cancers were identified. Increased risk of this tumor was found among workers exposed to cement dust (IRR 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1]), quartz dust (IRR 1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.7]) and diesel exhaust (IRR 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.9]). Dose-response relations were observed for these exposures. No consistent positive associations were found regarding exposure to asbestos, asphalt fumes, concrete dust, epoxy resins, isocyanates, metal fumes, mineral fibers, organic solvents or wood dust. In conclusion, this study provides some support to the hypothesis that specific airborne exposures increase the risk of noncardia gastric cancer.

  5. Survival Analysis of Patients with Interval Cancer Undergoing Gastric Cancer Screening by Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hamashima, Chisato; Shabana, Michiko; Okamoto, Mikizo; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2015-01-01

    Aims Interval cancer is a key factor that influences the effectiveness of a cancer screening program. To evaluate the impact of interval cancer on the effectiveness of endoscopic screening, the survival rates of patients with interval cancer were analyzed. Methods We performed gastric cancer-specific and all-causes survival analyses of patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group and radiographic screening group using the Kaplan-Meier method. Since the screening interval was 1 year, interval cancer was defined as gastric cancer detected within 1 year after a negative result. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to investigate the risk factors associated with gastric cancer-specific and all-causes death. Results A total of 1,493 gastric cancer patients (endoscopic screening group: n = 347; radiographic screening group: n = 166; outpatient group: n = 980) were identified from the Tottori Cancer Registry from 2001 to 2008. The gastric cancer-specific survival rates were higher in the endoscopic screening group than in the radiographic screening group and the outpatients group. In the endoscopic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer and the patients with interval cancer were nearly equal (P = 0.869). In the radiographic screening group, the gastric cancer-specific survival rate of the patients with screen-detected cancer was higher than that of the patients with interval cancer (P = 0.009). For gastric cancer-specific death, the hazard ratio of interval cancer in the endoscopic screening group was 0.216 for gastric cancer death (95%CI: 0.054-0.868) compared with the outpatient group. Conclusion The survival rate and the risk of gastric cancer death among the patients with screen-detected cancer and patients with interval cancer were not significantly different in the annual endoscopic screening. These results suggest the potential of

  6. Systemic and mucosal humoral responses to Helicobacter pylori in gastric cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Crabtree, J E; Wyatt, J I; Sobala, G M; Miller, G; Tompkins, D S; Primrose, J N; Morgan, A G

    1993-01-01

    The systemic IgG response to Helicobacter pylori was examined in 70 patients with gastric cancer. H pylori IgG antibodies were assayed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and serological recognition of H pylori antigens was characterised by western blotting. A percentage of 78.5 were seropositive by ELISA. Two of five patients under age 50 were seronegative. Positivity was unrelated to age, sex, tumour type, or site. Ninety one per cent of ELISA positive cancer patients recognised the H pylori cytotoxin associated 120 kilodalton (kD) protein, significantly more than a control group of 47 ELISA positive patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (72%). Four of 15 ELISA negative cancer patients also showed recognition of this protein in western blots. Mucosal IgA responses to H pylori were examined by immunoblotting supernatants of in vitro cultured resected antral mucosa in an overlapping group of 19 gastric cancer patients. Eighteen had a positive response, including 10 of 11 negative for H pylori by biopsy urease testing. The systemic and local immunoblotting results show that the high seroprevalence of H pylori antibodies detected by ELISA is nevertheless an underestimate of past infection. Dyspepsia screening policies based solely on H pylori ELISA would miss some young patients with gastric cancer. Further study of the relation of the H pylori cytotoxin to gastric precancerous lesions is warranted. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8244098

  7. Expression of ornithine decarboxylase in precancerous and cancerous gastric lesions

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Xin-Pu; Li, Jian-Sheng; Li, Hui-Yan; Zeng, Shi-Ping; Zhao, Ye; Zeng, Jiang-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) in precancerous and cancerous gastric lesions. METHODS: We studied the expression of ODC in gastric mucosa from patients with chronic superficial gastritis (CSG, n = 32), chronic atrophic gastritis [CAG, n = 43; 15 with and 28 without intestinal metaplasia (IM)], gastric dysplasia (DYS, n = 11) and gastric cancer (GC, n = 48) tissues using immunohistochemical staining. All 134 biopsy specimens of gastric mucosa were collected by gastroscopy. METHODS: The positive rate of ODC expression was 34.4%, 42.9%, 73.3%, 81.8% and 91.7% in cases with CSG, CAG without IM, CAG with IM, DYS and GC, respectively (P < 0.01), The positive rate of ODC expression increased in the order of CSG < CAG (without IM) < CAG (with IM) < DYS and finally, GC. In addition, ODC positive immunostaining rate was lower in well-differentiated GC than in poorly-differentiated GC (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The expression of ODC is positively correlated with the degree of malignity of gastric mucosa and development of gastric lesions. This finding indicates that ODC may be used as a good biomarker in the screening and diagnosis of precancerous lesions. PMID:17569126

  8. Stroma-directed molecular targeted therapy in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Kodama, Michiyo; Shinagawa, Kei

    2011-12-08

    Recent studies in molecular and cellular biology have shown that tumor growth and metastasis are not determined by cancer cells alone, but also by a variety of stromal cells. Tumor stroma contains abundant extracellular matrix and several types of cells, including carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs), endothelial cells, pericytes and inflammatory cells including macrophages. In gastric cancer tissues, tumor cells express platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-B. Stromal cells, including CAFs, pericytes and lymphatic endothelial cells, express PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-β. Administration of PDGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor significantly decreases stromal reaction, lymphatic vessel area and pericyte coverage of tumor microvessels. Administration of PDGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor in combination with cytotoxic chemotherapeutic drug(s) impairs the progressive growth and metastasis of gastric cancer. Activated stroma might serve as a novel therapeutic target in cases of gastric cancer.

  9. Gastric Cancer: Descriptive Epidemiology, Risk Factors, Screening, and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Parisa; Islami, Farhad; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Freedman, Neal D.; Kamangar, Farin

    2014-01-01

    Less than a century ago, gastric cancer (GC) was the most common cancer in the United States and perhaps throughout the world. Despite its worldwide decline in incidence over the past century, GC remains a major killer across the globe. This article reviews the epidemiology, screening, and prevention of gastric cancer. We first discuss the descriptive epidemiology of GC, including its incidence, survival, and mortality, including trends over time. Next, we characterize the risk factors for gastric cancer, both environmental and genetic. Serological markers and histological precursor lesions of GC and early detection of GC of using these markers is reviewed. Finally, we discuss prevention strategies and provide suggestions for further research. PMID:24618998

  10. Approach to the surgical management of resectable gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Humair S; Hong, Young K; Al-Refaie, Waddah B

    2016-04-01

    The rates of gastric cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, vary depending on geographic location. Margin-negative gastrectomy and adequate lymphadenectomy (removal of ≥15 lymph nodes) are the cornerstones of multimodal treatment for operable gastric cancer. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be included in the armamentarium for newly diagnosed gastric cancer in order to overcome the limitations of cross-sectional imaging in identifying sub-radiographic hepatic or peritoneal metastases. The benefit of surgical therapy is enhanced by at least 13% when it is integrated with multimodal therapy: either surgery followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy or surgery with perioperative systemic therapy. This multidisciplinary approach to treatment will continue to be an evolving paradigm, especially with the emergence of systemic and targeted therapies.

  11. Approach to the surgical management of resectable gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Quadri, Humair S; Hong, Young K; Al-Refaie, Waddah B

    2016-03-01

    The rates of gastric cancer, which is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide, vary depending on geographic location. Margin-negative gastrectomy and adequate lymphadenectomy (removal of ≥15 lymph nodes) are the cornerstones of multimodal treatment for operable gastric cancer. Diagnostic laparoscopy should be included in the armamentarium for newly diagnosed gastric cancer in order to overcome the limitations of cross-sectional imaging in identifying sub-radiographic hepatic or peritoneal metastases. The benefit of surgical therapy is enhanced by at least 13% when it is integrated with multimodal therapy: either surgery followed by adjuvant chemoradiotherapy or surgery with perioperative systemic therapy. This multidisciplinary approach to treatment will continue to be an evolving paradigm, especially with the emergence of systemic and targeted therapies.

  12. Clinical significance of MET in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, Mikito; Otsuki, Sho; Fujimori, Yoshitaka; Sato, Yuya; Nakagawa, Masatoshi; Kojima, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer (GC), although outcomes remain unfavorable. Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed, and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 have become standard therapy for GC. Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor, c-MET (MET), play key roles in tumor growth through activated signaling pathways from receptor in GC cells. Genomic amplification of MET leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC. This review discusses the clinical significance of MET in GC and examines MET as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC. Preclinical studies in animal models have shown that MET antibodies or small-molecule MET inhibitors suppress tumor-cell proliferation and tumor progression in MET-amplified GC cells. These drugs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatments for metastatic or unresectable GC. PMID:26600931

  13. Clinical significance of NOTCH1 intracellular cytoplasmic domain translocation into the nucleus in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Shinichiro; Ishiguro, Hideyuki; Kimura, Masahiro; Ogawa, Ryo; Miyai, Hirotaka; Tanaka, Tatsuya; Mizoguchi, Koji; Takeyama, Hiromitsu

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown constitutive activation of the Notch signaling pathway in various types of malignancies. However, it remains unclear whether this signaling pathway is activated in gastric cancer. In the present study, the aim was to investigate the role of Notch signaling in gastric cancer by investigating the subcellular localization of Notch-associated proteins in tissue samples from gastric cancer patients. Samples were obtained from 115 gastric cancer patients who had undergone surgery at the Department of Gastroenterological Surgery, Nagoya City University Graduate School of Medical Science without pre-operative chemotherapy or radiation. Subsequently the correlation between translocation of NOTCH1 intracellular cytoplasmic domain (NICD) into the nucleus (as measured by immunostaining) and survival in gastric cancer patients after surgery was investigated. The results were analyzed in reference to the patients' clinicopathological characteristics and the effects of these results on patient prognosis were determined. Significant correlations were observed between NICD nuclear localization and clinicopathological characteristics, such as tumor status (T factor), lymph node status (N factor), pathological stage and differentiation status. No significant correlations were observed between NICD nuclear localization and age, gender, tumor location, vein invasion or lymphatic invasion. Patients with >30% of cancer cell nuclei positively stained for NICD (as revealed by immunostaining) were associated with a significantly shorter survival following surgery than patients with <30% NICD-positive cancer cell nuclei (log-rank test, P=0.0194). Univariate analysis revealed that among the clinicopathological factors examined, T factor [risk rate (RR)=10.870; P=0.0016], N factor (RR=41.667; P=0.0003), lymphatic invasion (RR=13.158; P=0.0125), vein invasion (RR=25.000; P= 0.0019) and translocation of NICD to the nucleus (RR=3.937; P=0.0312) were all identified to be

  14. Gastric microbiota and predicted gene functions are altered after subtotal gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Ching-Hung; Lin, Jaw-Town; Ho, Hsiu J; Lai, Zi-Lun; Wang, Chang-Bi; Tang, Sen-Lin; Wu, Chun-Ying

    2016-02-10

    Subtotal gastrectomy (i.e., partial removal of the stomach), a surgical treatment for early-stage distal gastric cancer, is usually accompanied by highly selective vagotomy and Billroth II reconstruction, leading to dramatic changes in the gastric environment. Based on accumulating evidence of a strong link between human gut microbiota and host health, a 2-year follow-up study was conducted to characterize the effects of subtotal gastrectomy. Gastric microbiota and predicted gene functions inferred from 16S rRNA gene sequencing were analyzed before and after surgery. The results demonstrated that gastric microbiota is significantly more diverse after surgery. Ralstonia and Helicobacter were the top two genera of discriminant abundance in the cancerous stomach before surgery, while Streptococcus and Prevotella were the two most abundant genera after tumor excision. Furthermore, N-nitrosation genes were prevalent before surgery, whereas bile salt hydrolase, NO and N2O reductase were prevalent afterward. To our knowledge, this is the first report to document changes in gastric microbiota before and after surgical treatment of stomach cancer.

  15. Screening for and surveillance of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Compare, Debora; Rocco, Alba; Nardone, Gerardo

    2014-01-01

    Although the prevalence of gastric cancer (GC) progressively decreased during the last decades, due to improved dietary habit, introduction of food refrigeration and recovered socio-economic level, it still accounts for 10% of the total cancer-related deaths. The best strategy to reduce the mortality for GC is to schedule appropriate screening and surveillance programs, that rises many relevant concerns taking into account its worldwide variability, natural history, diagnostic tools, therapeutic strategies, and cost-effectiveness. Intestinal-type, the most frequent GC histotype, develops through a multistep process triggered by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) and progressing from gastritis to atrophy, intestinal metaplasia (IM), and dysplasia. However, the majority of patients infected with H. pylori and carrying premalignant lesions do not develop GC. Therefore, it remains unclear who should be screened, when the screening should be started and how the screening should be performed. It seems reasonable that screening programs should target the general population in eastern countries, at high prevalence of GC and the high-risk subjects in western countries, at low prevalence of GC. As far as concern surveillance, currently, we are lacking of standardized international recommendations and many features have to be defined regarding the optimal diagnostic approach, the patients at higher risk, the best timing and the cost-effectiveness. Anyway, patients with corpus atrophic gastritis, extensive incomplete IM and dysplasia should enter a surveillance program. At present, screening and surveillance programs need further studies to draw worldwide reliable recommendations and evaluate the impact on mortality for GC. PMID:25320506

  16. Subtotal Versus Total Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bozzetti, Federico; Marubini, Ettore; Bonfanti, Giuliano; Miceli, Rosalba; Piano, Chiara; Gennari, Leandro

    1999-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of subtotal (SG) versus total (TG) gastrectomy on the oncologic outcome of patients with cancer of the distal stomach from 28 Italian institutions. Summary Background Data There is controversy over whether SG and TG have a different impact on the 5-year survival probability of patients with cancer of the distal half of the stomach. Methods The present analysis involved 618 patients randomized during surgery to SG (315) or TG (303), provided there was at least 6 cm from the proximal edge of the tumor to the cardia, there was no intraperitoneal or distant spread, and it was possible to remove the tumor entirely. Both surgical treatments included regional lymphadenectomy. Results Four patients died after SG and seven after TG. Median follow-up was 72 months after SG (range 2 to 125) and 75 months after TG (range 7 to 113). Five-year survival probability as computed by the Kaplan-Meier method was 65.3% for SG and 62.4% for TG. The test of equivalence led to the conclusion that the two procedures may be considered equivalent in terms of 5-year survival probability. The analysis of survival using a multivariate Cox regression model showed a statistically significant impact on survival of tumor site, tumor spread within the gastric wall, extent of resection to the spleen plus or minus neighboring organs or structures, and relative frequency of metastasis in resected lymph nodes. Conclusions Both procedures have a similar survival probability. The authors believe that SG, which has been reported to be associated with a better nutritional status and quality of life, should be the procedure of choice, provided that the proximal margin of the resection falls in healthy tissue. PMID:10450730

  17. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Risk factors for stomach (gastric) cancer include certain health conditions (e.g., atrophic gastritis, pernicious anemia, H. pylori infection), genetic factors (e.g., Li-Fraumeni syndrome), or environmental factors (e.g., diet, smoking). Review the evidence on these and other risk factors and interventions to prevent stomach cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  18. Identification of IL11RA and MELK amplification in gastric cancer by comprehensive genomic profiling of gastric cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Takeno, Sylvia Santomi; Gigek, Carolina Oliveira; Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Wisnieski, Fernanda; Chen, Elizabeth Suchi; Araújo, Taíssa Maíra Thomaz; Lima, Eleonidas Moura; Melaragno, Maria Isabel; Demachki, Samia; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Burbano, Rommel Rodriguez; Smith, Marília Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    AIM To identify common copy number alterations on gastric cancer cell lines. METHODS Four gastric cancer cell lines (ACP02, ACP03, AGP01 and PG100) underwent chromosomal comparative genome hybridization and array comparative genome hybridization. We also confirmed the results by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis using the bacterial artificial chromosome clone and quantitative real time PCR analysis. RESULTS The amplification of 9p13.3 was detected in all cell lines by both methodologies. An increase in the copy number of 9p13.3 was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. Moreover, the interleukin 11 receptor alpha (IL11RA) and maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) genes, which are present in the 9p13.3 amplicon, revealed gains of the MELK gene in all the cell lines studied. Additionally, a gain in the copy number of IL11RA and MELK was observed in 19.1% (13/68) and 55.9% (38/68) of primary gastric adenocarcinoma samples, respectively. CONCLUSION The characterization of a small gain region at 9p13.3 in gastric cancer cell lines and primary gastric adenocarcinoma samples has revealed MELK as a candidate target gene that is possibly related to the development of gastric cancer. PMID:27920471

  19. Time trend analysis of gastric cancer incidence in Japan by histological types, 1975-1989

    PubMed Central

    Kaneko, S; Yoshimura, T

    2001-01-01

    Since different histological types (HT) of gastric cancer (GC) may differ in their aetiology, time trend analysis by HT may afford an insight into aetiology. From the Gastric Cancer Registry of Japan, 161 067 cases diagnosed were retrieved between 1975 and 1989 to calculate the annual relative frequencies, stratified by age group and sex, of HT according to the Lauren and the Japanese Research Society for Gastric Cancer (JRSGC) classifications. Age- and sex-specific incidence rates by HT were estimated by multiplying the corresponding national cancer incidence rates of GC by the relative frequencies. Logistic regression models stratified by sex and age group were fitted to determine the time trends of HT. Using the Lauren classification, a decreasing trend of the intestinal type and a stable trend of the diffuse type were found. By the JRSGC classification, significant decreasing trends for most age groups were found for papillary and mucinous adenocarcinomas. Tubular adenocarcinomas (well differentiated type) showed a decreasing trend only in younger age groups. Tubular (moderately differentiated type), poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, and signet ring cell carcinoma were statistically stable during the period. Considering changes in lifestyles of the Japanese, the result suggests that there are three aetiological types of GC. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign http://www.bjcancer.com PMID:11161407

  20. Prediagnosis lifestyle exposures and survival of gastric cancer patients: a cohort study from Portugal.

    PubMed

    Ferronha, I; Castro, C; Carreira, H; Bento, M J; Carvalho, I; Peleteiro, B; Lunet, N

    2012-07-24

    Dietary habits and smoking are recognised as important gastric cancer determinants. However, their impact on prognosis remains poorly understood. We aimed to quantify the association between lifestyles and survival of gastric cancer patients. In 2001-2006, 568 patients were recruited in the two major public hospitals in the north of Portugal. Participants were inquired about smoking and dietary habits regarding the year preceding the diagnosis. The vital status of all participants, up to 2011 (maximum follow-up: 10 years), was assessed through the North Region Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate adjusted (at least for age, sex and education) hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). No significant differences in gastric cancer survival were observed according to smoking status (current vs never smokers, HR=1.00, 95% CI: 0.72-1.38) or alcohol intake (current vs never consumers, HR=0.87, 95% CI: 0.61-1.25). Only a dietary pattern (high consumptions of most food groups and low vegetable soup intake) was significantly associated with a better prognosis among patients with the extent of disease classified as regional spread (HR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.22-0.93). This study shows that prediagnosis lifestyles have a small impact in the survival of gastric cancer patients. © 2012 Cancer Research UK

  1. Interaction of sonic hedgehog (SHH) pathway with cancer stem cell genes in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Samadani, Ali Akbar; Akhavan-Niaki, Haleh

    2015-03-01

    Gastric cancer may appear by frequent genetic or epigenetic changes in oncogenes, tumor suppressor or DNA mismatch repair genes. Molecular studies show the possibility of involvement of certain cancer pathways in gastric cancer. In this respect, DNA methylation is one of the most important epigenetic alterations in gastric cancer and identifying the signaling mechanism and also methylation of some genes that are involved in gastric cancer can help to improve treatment strategies. Relatively, there are many reported methylation alteration of genes in stem cells in all kinds of tumors with some of these genes having a key role in tumor development. Correspondingly, KLF5, CDX1/2, WNT1 and FEM1A are considerable genes in gastric cancer, although many researches and studies have illustrated that sonic hedgehog and expression of its signaling cascade proteins are related in gastric cancer. Relatively, modification in these genes causes many eclectic cancers such as rhabdomyosarcoma and diverse kinds of digestive system tumor development. Conspicuously, these master genes have a noticeable role in stem cell's growth regulation as well as other kinds of cancer such as breast cancer and leukemia. Hence, we concluded that research and studies on methylation and expression of these genes and also the investigation of molecular signaling in gastric cancer can acquire impressive conclusions in order to control and treat this common place and serious problem.

  2. Pathogenesis and risk factors for gastric cancer after Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Ohba, Reina; Iijima, Katsunori

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection was thought to be the main cause of gastric cancer, and its eradication showed improvement in gastric inflammation and decreased the risk of gastric cancer. Recently, a number of studies reported the occurrence of gastric cancer after successful eradication. Patients infected with H. pylori, even after eradication, have a higher risk for the occurrence of gastric cancer when compared with uninfected patients. Metachronous gastric cancer occurs frequently following the endoscopic removal of early gastric cancer. These data indicate that metachronous cancer leads to the occurrence of gastric cancer even after successful eradication of H. pylori. The pathogenesis of this metachronous cancer remains unclear. Further research is needed to identify biomarkers to predict the development of metachronous gastric cancer and methods for gastric cancer screening. In this article, we review the role of the H. pylori in carcinogenesis and the histological and endoscopic characteristics and risk factors for metachronous gastric cancer after eradication. Additionally, we discuss recent risk predictions and possible approaches for reducing the risk of metachronous gastric cancer after eradication. PMID:27672424

  3. Concurrent apatinib and local radiation therapy for advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ming; Deng, Weiye; Cao, Xiaoci; Shi, Xiaoming; Zhao, Huanfen; Duan, Zheping; Lv, Bonan; Liu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Apatinib is a novel anti-angiogenic agent targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, which is effective in patients with chemotherapy-refractory gastric cancer. There are no reports of concurrent apatinib with local radiation therapy in elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer. Patient concerns and Diagnoses: we present the first published report of a 70-year-old male patient with advanced gastric cancer who received concurrent apatinib and local radiation therapy after failure of oxaliplatin and S-1 chemotherapy. Interventions and Outcomes: The patient received concurrent apatinib and local radiation therapy and was followed up 7 months after therapy without disease progress, 14 months later indicated extensive metastasis and this patient died of pulmonary infection. Lessons: Elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer may benefit from concurrent apatinib with local radiation therapy when chemotherapy is not tolerated or successful. Further studies are needed to investigate the clinical outcomes and toxicities associated with concurrent apatinib and radiation therapy in gastric cancer. PMID:28248891

  4. Potential capacity of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato; Goto, Rei

    2017-01-01

    In 2016, the Japanese government decided to introduce endoscopic screening for gastric cancer as a national program. To provide endoscopic screening nationwide, we estimated the proportion of increase in the number of endoscopic examinations with the introduction of endoscopic screening, based on a national survey. The total number of endoscopic examinations has increased, particularly in clinics. Based on the national survey, the total number of participants in gastric cancer screening was 3 784 967. If 30% of the participants are switched from radiographic screening to endoscopic screening, approximately 1 million additional endoscopic examinations are needed. In Japan, the participation rates in gastric cancer screening and the number of hospitals and clinics offering upper gastrointestinal endoscopy vary among the 47 prefectures. If the participation rates are high and the numbers of hospitals and clinics are small, the proportion of increase becomes larger. Based on the same assumption, 50% of big cities can provide endoscopic screening with a 5% increase in the total number of endoscopic examinations. However, 16.7% of the medical districts are available for endoscopic screening within a 5% increase in the total number of endoscopic examinations. Despite the Japanese government's decision to introduce endoscopic screening for gastric cancer nationwide, its immediate introduction remains difficult because of insufficient medical resources in rural areas. This implies that endoscopic screening will be initially introduced to big cities. To promote endoscopic screening for gastric cancer nationwide, the disparity of medical resources must first be resolved.

  5. Robotic surgery for gastric cancer: a technical review.

    PubMed

    Hyung, Woo Jin; Woo, Yanghee; Noh, Sung Hoon

    2011-12-01

    Minimally invasive gastric cancer surgery is gaining acceptance, especially in the treatment of patients with early gastric cancer. While offering patients the benefits of minimally invasive surgery, laparoscopic surgery is limited by several disadvantages such as altered operating view and lack of versatility in surgical instrumentation. Robotic surgery offers the surgeon the benefit of superior 3D visualization, the freedom of the EndoWrist function, and the tremble-filtered control of the four robotic arms. Due to the technical advantages of the robotic surgical system, robotic surgery may facilitate the expansion of minimally invasive surgery over laparoscopy. The application of robotic surgery for gastric cancer is increasing in experienced centers. Most reports of the robotic operating methods are only slightly modified from the laparoscopic technique. Robotic gastric cancer surgery including radical subtotal gastrectomy with D2 lymph node dissection is technically feasible and safe and results in similar short-term postoperative outcomes when compared to laparoscopic surgery. The role of robotic surgery in gastric cancer is promising but awaits further comparative studies of long-term results and cost-effectiveness.

  6. Diet and gastric cancer: a casecontrol study in Fujian Province, China.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei-Min; Yi, Ying-Nan; Luo, Ren-Xia; Zhou, Tian-Shu; Lin, Ru-Tao; Chen, Gui-Dong

    1998-12-01

    AIM:To explore the relationship between consumption of fish sauce, other dietary factors, living habits and the rish kf gastric cancer.METHODS:From May 1994 to July 1995, a population-based 1 2 case-control study was in Carried out inhigh-risk areas of gastric cancer, Changle and Fuqing cities, Fujian Province. Totally 272 cases and 544 age, gender-matched controls were included. Risk state analyses were made by ASRS package.RESULTS:Risk state single-factor analysis indicated that gastric cancer risk rose with high intake of fish sauce(OR =2.57), salted vegetables (OR =1.41), salted/fried fish and small shrimps (OR =1.57), low consumption of fresh vegetables (OR =1.95), fresh citrus fruits (OR =1.41), other fresh fruits (OR =1.31), green tea (OR =1.72), exposure to moldy foods (OR =2.32), irregular dinners (OR =5.47) and familial history of malignancy (OR =3.27).No significant relationship was observed between smoking, drinking, salt intake, use of refrigerator and gastric cancer rish. The results of rish state conditional Logistic regression showed that fish sauce, salted/dried fish and small shrimps, irregular dinners, familial history of malignancy were included in the best rish set. The summary ARS for the four factors was 75.49%.CONCLUSION:High intake of fish sauce, salted foods, moldy foods, irregular dinners and familial history of malignancy were possible risk factors for gastric cancer, whereas fresh vegetables and fruits.and green tea might have protective effects for gastric cancer.

  7. Comparison between Resectable Helicobacter pylori-Negative and -Positive Gastric Cancers.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Jin; Kim, Nayoung; Yoon, Hyuk; Choi, Yoon Jin; Lee, Ju Yup; Kwon, Yong Hwan; Yoon, Kichul; Jo, Hyun Jin; Shin, Cheol Min; Park, Young Soo; Park, Do Joong; Kim, Hyung Ho; Lee, Hye Seung; Lee, Dong Ho

    2016-03-01

    Controversy exists regarding the characteristics of Helicobacter pylori infection-negative gastric cancer (HPIN-GC). The aim of this study was to evaluate clinicopathologic features of HPIN-GC compared to H. pylori infection-positive gastric cancer (HPIP-GC) using a comprehensive analysis that included genetic and environmental factors. H. pylori infection status of 705 resectable gastric cancer patients was determined by the rapid urease test, testing for anti-H. pylori antibodies, histologic analysis and culture of gastric cancer tissue samples, and history of H. pylori eradication. HPIN-GC was defined as gastric cancer that was negative for H. pylori infection based on all five methods and that had no evidence of atrophy in histology or serology. The prevalence of HPIN-GC was 4% (28/705). No significant differences with respect to age, sex, smoking, drinking, family history of gastric cancer or obesity were observed between the two groups. HPIN-GC tumors were marginally more likely to involve the cardia (14.3% for HPIN-GC vs 5.3% for HPIP-GC, p=0.068). The Lauren classification, histology, and TNM stage did not differ according to H. pylori infection status. Microsatellite instability was not different between the two groups, but p53 overexpression in HPIN-GC was marginally higher than in HPIP-GC (56.0% for HPIN-GC vs 37.0% for HPIP-GC, p=0.055). The prevalence of HPIN-GC was extremely low, and its clinicopathologic characteristics were similar to HPIP-GC.

  8. An integrated transcriptomic and computational analysis for biomarker identification in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Juan; Chen, Yunbo; Chou, Wen-Chi; Sun, Liankun; Chen, Li; Suo, Jian; Ni, Zhaohui; Zhang, Ming; Kong, Xiaoxia; Hoffman, Lisabeth L.; Kang, Jinsong; Su, Yingying; Olman, Victor; Johnson, Darryl; Tench, Daniel W.; Amster, I. Jonathan; Orlando, Ron; Puett, David; Li, Fan; Xu, Ying

    2011-01-01

    This report describes an integrated study on identification of potential markers for gastric cancer in patients’ cancer tissues and sera based on: (i) genome-scale transcriptomic analyses of 80 paired gastric cancer/reference tissues and (ii) computational prediction of blood-secretory proteins supported by experimental validation. Our findings show that: (i) 715 and 150 genes exhibit significantly differential expressions in all cancers and early-stage cancers versus reference tissues, respectively; and a substantial percentage of the alteration is found to be influenced by age and/or by gender; (ii) 21 co-expressed gene clusters have been identified, some of which are specific to certain subtypes or stages of the cancer; (iii) the top-ranked gene signatures give better than 94% classification accuracy between cancer and the reference tissues, some of which are gender-specific; and (iv) 136 of the differentially expressed genes were predicted to have their proteins secreted into blood, 81 of which were detected experimentally in the sera of 13 validation samples and 29 found to have differential abundances in the sera of cancer patients versus controls. Overall, the novel information obtained in this study has led to identification of promising diagnostic markers for gastric cancer and can benefit further analyses of the key (early) abnormalities during its development. PMID:20965966

  9. Different gastric microbiota compositions in two human populations with high and low gastric cancer risk in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ines; Woltemate, Sabrina; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Bravo, Luis E; Yepez, Maria Clara; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Delgado, Alberto G; Wilson, Keith T; Peek, Richard M; Correa, Pelayo; Josenhans, Christine; Fox, James G; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2016-01-05

    Inhabitants of Túquerres in the Colombian Andes have a 25-fold higher risk of gastric cancer than inhabitants of the coastal town Tumaco, despite similar H. pylori prevalences. The gastric microbiota was recently shown in animal models to accelerate the development of H. pylori-induced precancerous lesions. 20 individuals from each town, matched for age and sex, were selected, and gastric microbiota analyses were performed by deep sequencing of amplified 16S rDNA. In parallel, analyses of H. pylori status, carriage of the cag pathogenicity island and assignment of H. pylori to phylogeographic groups were performed to test for correlations between H. pylori strain properties and microbiota composition. The gastric microbiota composition was highly variable between individuals, but showed a significant correlation with the town of origin. Multiple OTUs were detected exclusively in either Tumaco or Túquerres. Two operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Leptotrichia wadei and a Veillonella sp., were significantly more abundant in Túquerres, and 16 OTUs, including a Staphylococcus sp. were significantly more abundant in Tumaco. There was no significant correlation of H. pylori phylogeographic population or carriage of the cagPAI with microbiota composition. From these data, testable hypotheses can be generated and examined in suitable animal models and prospective clinical trials.

  10. Different gastric microbiota compositions in two human populations with high and low gastric cancer risk in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ines; Woltemate, Sabrina; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Bravo, Luis E.; Yepez, Maria Clara; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Delgado, Alberto G.; Wilson, Keith T.; Peek, Richard M.; Correa, Pelayo; Josenhans, Christine; Fox, James G.; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Inhabitants of Túquerres in the Colombian Andes have a 25-fold higher risk of gastric cancer than inhabitants of the coastal town Tumaco, despite similar H. pylori prevalences. The gastric microbiota was recently shown in animal models to accelerate the development of H. pylori-induced precancerous lesions. 20 individuals from each town, matched for age and sex, were selected, and gastric microbiota analyses were performed by deep sequencing of amplified 16S rDNA. In parallel, analyses of H. pylori status, carriage of the cag pathogenicity island and assignment of H. pylori to phylogeographic groups were performed to test for correlations between H. pylori strain properties and microbiota composition. The gastric microbiota composition was highly variable between individuals, but showed a significant correlation with the town of origin. Multiple OTUs were detected exclusively in either Tumaco or Túquerres. Two operational taxonomic units (OTUs), Leptotrichia wadei and a Veillonella sp., were significantly more abundant in Túquerres, and 16 OTUs, including a Staphylococcus sp. were significantly more abundant in Tumaco. There was no significant correlation of H. pylori phylogeographic population or carriage of the cagPAI with microbiota composition. From these data, testable hypotheses can be generated and examined in suitable animal models and prospective clinical trials. PMID:26729566

  11. Beyond precision surgery: Molecularly motivated precision care for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y Y; Cheong, J-H

    2017-03-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Despite the high disease prevalence, gastric cancer research has not gained much attention. Recently, genome-scale technology has made it possible to explore the characteristics of gastric cancer at the molecular level. Accordingly, gastric cancer can be classified into molecular subtypes that convey more detailed information of tumor than histopathological characteristics, and these subtypes are associated with clinical outcomes. Furthermore, this molecular knowledge helps to identify new actionable targets and develop novel therapeutic strategies. To advance the concept of precision patient care in the clinic, patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models have recently been developed. PDX models not only represent histology and genomic features, but also predict responsiveness to investigational drugs in patient tumors. Molecularly curated PDX cohorts will be instrumental in hypothesis generation, biomarker discovery, and drug screening and testing in proof-of-concept preclinical trials for precision therapy. In the era of precision medicine, molecularly tailored therapeutic strategies should be individualized for cancer patients. To improve the overall clinical outcome, a multimodal approach is indispensable for advanced cancer patients. Careful, oncological principle-based surgery, combined with a molecularly guided multidisciplinary approach, will open new horizons in surgical oncology.

  12. Chestnut extract induces apoptosis in AGS human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Sook; Kim, Eun Ji; Kim, Sun Hyo

    2011-06-01

    In Korea, chestnut production is increasing each year, but consumption is far below production. We investigated the effect of chestnut extracts on antioxidant activity and anticancer effects. Ethanol extracts of raw chestnut (RCE) or chestnut powder (CPE) had dose-dependent superoxide scavenging activity. Viable numbers of MDA-MD-231 human breast cancer cells, DU145 human prostate cancer cells, and AGS human gastric cancer cells decreased by 18, 31, and 69%, respectively, following treatment with 200 µg/mL CPE for 24 hr. CPE at various concentrations (0-200 µg/mL) markedly decreased AGS cell viability and increased apoptotic cell death dose and time dependently. CPE increased the levels of cleaved caspase-8, -7, -3, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase in a dose-dependent manner but not cleaved caspase-9. CPE exerted no effects on Bcl-2 and Bax levels. The level of X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein decreased within a narrow range following CPE treatment. The levels of Trail, DR4, and Fas-L increased dose-dependently in CPE-treated AGS cells. These results show that CPE decreases growth and induces apoptosis in AGS gastric cancer cells and that activation of the death receptor pathway contributes to CPE-induced apoptosis in AGS cells. In conclusion, CPE had more of an effect on gastric cancer cells than breast or prostate cancer cells, suggesting that chestnuts would have a positive effect against gastric cancer.

  13. The economic burden of advanced gastric cancer in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jihyung; Tsai, Yiling; Novick, Diego; Hsiao, Frank Chi-Huang; Cheng, Rebecca; Chen, Jen-Shi

    2017-09-16

    Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths in both sexes worldwide, especially in Eastern Asia. This study aimed to estimate the economic burden of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) in Taiwan. The costs of AGC in 2013 were estimated using resource use data from a chart review study (n = 122 with AGC) and national statistics. Annual per-patient costs, where patients' follow-up periods were adjusted for, were estimated with 82 patients who had complete resource use data. The costs were composed of direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs (healthcare travel and caregiver costs), morbidity costs, and mortality costs. Relevant unit costs were retrieved mainly from literature and national statistics, and applied to the resource use data. A broad definition of morbidity and mortality costs was employed to value the productivity loss in patients with unpaid employment, economically inactive and unemployed as well as the life years after the age of retirement. Their narrow definitions were also used in sensitivity analyses, using age- and/or sex-specific employment rates. Forgone future earnings/productivity loss were discounted at 3%. Annual per-patient costs were projected to estimate the total costs of AGC at the national level with an estimated number of patients with AGC (N = 2611) in Taiwan in 2013. The mean age of the 82 patients was 59.3 (SD: 11.9) years, and 67.1% were male. Per-patient costs were US$26,431 for direct medical costs, US$4669 for direct non-medical costs, US$5758 for morbidity costs, and US$145,990 for mortality costs (per death). These per-patient costs were projected to incur total AGC costs of US$423 million at the national-level. Mortality costs accounted for 77.3% of the total costs, followed by direct medical costs (16.3%), morbidity costs (3.6%), and direct non-medical costs (2.9%). AGC was found to exert a significant economic burden in Taiwan, incurring US$423 million in 2013. This represents about 0.08% of

  14. Sensitivity of endoscopic screening for gastric cancer by the incidence method.

    PubMed

    Hamashima, Chisato; Okamoto, Mikizo; Shabana, Michiko; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kishimoto, Takuji

    2013-08-01

    Although radiographic screening for gastric cancer has been conducted in Japan, it is anticipated that endoscopy will become a new screening method because of its high detection rate. The sensitivities of endoscopic and radiographic screening were calculated by the detection method and the incidence method based on the results of community-based screening in Japan. There were 56,676 screenings for gastric cancer using endoscopy and radiography from April 2002 to March 2007 in Yonago, Japan. The target age group was from 40 to 79 years. Screen-detected and interval cancers were investigated based on a screening database linked to the Tottori Cancer Registry. All gastric cancers diagnosed within 1 year after a negative screen were considered interval cancers. Based on the screening history, these were divided into prevalence screening and incidence screening. Prevalence screenings included 7,388 for endoscopic screening and 5,410 for radiographic screening, whereas incidence screenings included 18,021 for endoscopic screening and 11,417 for radiographic screening. The sensitivity of prevalence screening calculated by the incidence method was 0.886 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.698-0.976) for endoscopic screening and 0.831 (95% CI = 0.586-0.964) for radiographic screening; however, the difference was not significant (p = 0.626). The sensitivity of incidence screening calculated by the incidence method was 0.954 (95% CI = 0.842-0.994) for endoscopic screening and 0.855 (95% CI = 0.637-0.970) for radiographic screening (p = 0.177). Endoscopic screening for gastric cancer had a higher sensitivity than radiographic screening by the incidence method in both screening rounds. However, further study is needed to evaluate mortality reduction and to estimate overdiagnosis with endoscopic screening for gastric cancer.

  15. Differences in gastric mucosal microbiota profiling in patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using pyrosequencing methods.

    PubMed

    Eun, Chang Soo; Kim, Byung Kwon; Han, Dong Soo; Kim, Seon Young; Kim, Kyung Mo; Choi, Bo Youl; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Yong Sung; Kim, Jihyun F

    2014-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays an important role in the early stage of cancer development. However, various bacteria that promote the synthesis of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may be involved in the later stages. We aimed to determine the microbial composition of gastric mucosa from the patients with chronic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and gastric cancer using 454 GS FLX Titanium. Gastric mucosal biopsy samples were collected from 31 patients during endoscopy. After the extraction of genomic DNA, variable region V5 of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified. PCR products were sequenced using 454 high-throughput sequencer. The composition, diversity, and richness of microbial communities were compared between three groups. The composition of H. pylori-containing Epsilonproteobacteria class appeared to be the most prevalent, but the relative increase in the Bacilli class in the gastric cancer group was noticed, resulting in a significant difference compared with the chronic gastritis group. By analyzing the Helicobacter-dominant group at a family level, the relative abundance of Helicobacteraceae family was significantly lower in the gastric cancer group compared with chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia groups, while the relative abundance of Streptococcaceae family significantly increased. In a UPGMA clustering of Helicobacter-dominant group based on UniFrac distance, the chronic gastritis group and gastric cancer group were clearly separated, while the intestinal metaplasia group was distributed in between the two groups. The evenness and diversity of gastric microbiota in the gastric cancer group was increased compared with other groups. In Helicobacter predominant patients, the microbial compositions of gastric mucosa from gastric cancer patients are significantly different to chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia patients. These alterations of gastric microbial composition may play an important, as-yet-undetermined role in

  16. Effect of pravastatin on the survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bujanda, Luis; Rodríguez-González, Araceli; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Eizaguirre, Emma; Hijona, Elizabeth; Marín, José J.G.; Perugorria, María J.; Banales, Jesús M.; Cosme, Angel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives A fluoropyrimidine plus cisplatin combined with surgery is standard first-line treatment for advanced gastric cancer. We evaluated the effect of pravastatin on overall survival in patients with advanced gastric cancer in a prospective cohort study. Methods At the time of surgery, we assigned 60 patients with advanced gastric cancer (stage III or IV) to receive standard first-line treatment (control group) or standard first-line treatment plus pravastatin at a dose of 40 mg once daily (pravastatin group). The minimum follow-up period was 4 years and the maximum of 6 years. Results The mean of age was 66 years and the TNM stage was III and IV in 65% and 35% of patients, respectively. There was no significant difference between the two groups (control vs pravastatin) in median overall survival (15 vs 14 months; P = 0.8). Predictors of survival were the stage (hazard ratio of death stage IV (III stage as reference): 4.4; 95% CI: 2–9.7; p < 0.05) and older age (hazard ratio of death ≥ 65 years (< 65 years as reference): 2.8; 95% CI: 1.3–6; p < 0.05). Conclusions Pravastatin did not improve outcome in patients with advanced gastric cancer. PMID:26735890

  17. Expression of claudin-11, -23 in different gastric tissues and its relationship with the risk and prognosis of gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liping; Gong, Yuehua; Chen, Moye; Wang, Zeyang; Yuan, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Claudins play an important role in regulating the permeability of epithelial and endothelial cells and in the maintenance of cell polarity. We aimed to investigate expression of claudin-11, -23 in different gastric tissues and its relationship with clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis of gastric cancer. We compared their expression levels in the paired cancerous tissues versus those in the adjacent noncancerous tissues by real-time PCR, western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The results showed that the expression of claudin-11, -23 was greatly increased in paracancerous gastric tissue compared with cancerous tissue. We also compared their expression levels of tissues from gastric cancer, superficial gastritis, and atrophic gastritis by immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that the expression of claudin-11 and 23 was significantly higher in superficial gastritis than that in atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. The expression of claudin-23 was significantly lower in atrophic gastritis than that in gastric cancer, but no obviously difference was observed for claudin-11. As for analysis of clinicopathologic parameters of gastric cancer, logistic multiple regression indicated that claudin-11 was significantly associated with sex, smoking, alcohol, H. pylori infection and Borrmann classification while claudin-23 was significantly associated with vessel cancer embolus. Cox multivariate survival analysis indicated that gastric cancer patients with negative claudin-23 expression had significantly longer overall survival. In conclusion, the expression of claudin-11, -23 was remarkably downregulated in gastric cancer. Abnormal expression of these proteins was significantly correlated with some clinicopathologic parameters. In particular, claudin-23 positive expression was associated with poor prognostic outcomes of gastric cancer patients and may therefore serve as an independent prognosticator of patient survival. PMID:28350854

  18. Totally Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer Associated with Recklinghausen's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakaguchi, Yoshihisa; Ikeda, Osamu; Ohgaki, Kippei; Oki, Eiji; Chinen, Yoshiki; Sakamoto, Yasuo; Minami, Kazuhito; Toh, Yasushi; Okamura, Takeshi

    2010-01-01

    This paper documents the first case of gastric cancer associated with Recklinghausen's disease, which was successfully treated by a totally laparoscopic operation. A 67-year-old woman with Recklinghausen's disease was referred to this department to undergo surgical treatment for early gastric cancer. The physical examination showed multiple cutaneous neurofibromas throughout the body surface, which made an upper abdominal incision impossible. Laparoscopic surgery requiring only small incisions was well indicated, and a totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with lymph node dissection was performed. Billroth I reconstruction was done intra-abdominally using a delta-shaped anastomosis. The patient followed a satisfactory postoperative course with no complications. Since the totally laparoscopic gastrectomy has many advantages over open surgery, it should therefore be preferentially used as a less invasive treatment in the field of gastric cancer. PMID:20672006

  19. Advanced Gastric Cancer Perforation Mimicking Abdominal Wall Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jinbeom; Park, Ilyoung; Lee, Dosang; Sung, Kiyoung; Baek, Jongmin

    2015-01-01

    Surgeons occasionally encounter a patient with a gastric cancer invading an adjacent organ, such as the pancreas, liver, or transverse colon. Although there is no established guideline for treatment of invasive gastric cancer, combined resection with radical gastrectomy is conventionally performed for curative purposes. We recently treated a patient with a large gastric cancer invading the abdominal wall, which was initially diagnosed as a simple abdominal wall abscess. Computed tomography showed that an abscess had formed adjacent to the greater curvature of the stomach. During surgery, we made an incision on the abdominal wall to drain the abscess, and performed curative total gastrectomy with partial excision of the involved abdominal wall. The patient received intensive treatment and wound management postoperatively with no surgery-related adverse events. However, the patient could not receive adjuvant chemotherapy and expired on the 82nd postoperative day. PMID:26468420

  20. Prognostic significance of KLF4 expression in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Isaya; Nagata, Takuya; Sekine, Shinichi; Moriyama, Makoto; Shibuya, Kazuto; Hojo, Shozo; Matsui, Koshi; Yoshioka, Isaku; Okumura, Tomoyuki; Hori, Takashi; Shimada, Yutaka; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2017-01-01

    To understand the roles of pluripotent stem cell-inducing genes in gastric cancer, the expression of Krüppel-like factor 4 (KLF4), Nanog, octamer-binding transcription factor 4 (Oct4), avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-Myc) and sex-determining region Y-box 2 (SOX2) was examined using the newly developed gastric carcinoma tissue microarray. The associations between the immunohistochemical expression levels of the pluripotency-inducing factors and the clinicopathological data of 108 patients with gastric cancer were analyzed. No associations were identified between the expression levels of the five pluripotency-inducing factors and the tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classification or clinicopathological characteristics of the patients. In addition, multivariate analysis revealed no association of Nanog, Oct4, SOX2 or c-Myc with the prognosis of the gastric cancer patients; however, low expression of KLF4 was determined to be an independent negative prognostic factor (P=0.0331), particularly in patients who underwent R0 resection (TNM stages 2 and 3; P=0.0048). In summary, low KLF4 expression was found to be negatively associated with overall survival, and may therefore be a useful prognostic marker in gastric cancer patients. PMID:28356964

  1. Helicobacter pylori update: gastric cancer, reliable therapy, and possible benefits.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2015-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection contributes to the development of diverse gastric and extragastric diseases. The infection is necessary but not sufficient for the development of gastric adenocarcinoma. Its eradication would eliminate a major worldwide cause of cancer death, therefore there is much interest in identifying how, if, and when this can be accomplished. There are several mechanisms by which H pylori contributes to the development of gastric cancer. Gastric adenocarcinoma is one of many cancers associated with inflammation, which is induced by H pylori infection, yet the bacteria also cause genetic and epigenetic changes that lead to genetic instability in gastric epithelial cells. H pylori eradication reduces both. However, many factors must be considered in determining whether treating this bacterial infection will prevent cancer or only reduce its risk-these must be considered in designing reliable and effective eradication therapies. Furthermore, H pylori infection has been proposed to provide some benefits, such as reducing the risks of obesity or childhood asthma. When tested, these hypotheses have not been confirmed and are therefore most likely false. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Hypermethylated DNA as potential biomarkers for gastric cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yanan; Chen, Lu; Li, Jianfang; Yu, Beiqin; Su, Liping; Chen, Xuehua; Yu, Yingyan; Yan, Min; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang

    2011-12-01

    To demonstrate the diagnostic significance of methylation, an important molecular event in gastric carcinogenesis. We used methylation microarray to determine candidate genes, and performed MSP to evaluate the methylation status of them in tissues and sera. The effect of demethylation on mRNA expression was investigated by rt-PCR after gastric cancer cell lines were treated with 5-Aza-dC for 96 h. In tissues and sera of gastric cancer patients, a higher prevalence of methylation was observed for BX141696, WT1, CYP26B1, and KCNA4, compared to healthy people (p<0.05, respectively). Detection of the methylation prevalence of KCNA4 and CYP26B1 together in serum demonstrated the good sensitivity (91.3%) and specificity (92.1%). After 5-Aza-dC treatment in gastric cancer cell lines, the mRNA expression level of these genes was restored. This study underscores the potential application of measurement of serum DNA methylation of these genes, as promising tool for gastric cancer detection. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. RNA interference targeting raptor inhibits proliferation of gastric cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, William Ka Kei; Lee, Chung Wa; Cho, Chi Hin; Chan, Francis Ka Leung; Yu, Jun; Sung, Joseph Jao Yiu

    2011-06-10

    Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is dysregulated in gastric cancer. The biologic function of mTORC1 in gastric carcinogenesis is unclear. Here, we demonstrate that disruption of mTORC1 function by RNA interference-mediated downregulation of raptor substantially inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation through induction of G{sub 0}/G{sub 1}-phase cell cycle arrest. The anti-proliferative effect was accompanied by concomitant downregulation of activator protein-1 and upregulation of Smad2/3 transcriptional activities. In addition, the expression of cyclin D{sub 3} and p21{sup Waf1}, which stabilizes cyclin D/cdk4 complex for G{sub 1}-S transition, was reduced by raptor knockdown. In conclusion, disruption of mTORC1 inhibits gastric cancer cell proliferation through multiple pathways. This discovery may have an implication in the application of mTORC1-directed therapy for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  4. Role of peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Jiang; Song, Xiuqi

    2016-01-01

    Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4) post-translationally converts peptidylarginine to citrulline, appearing to be overexpressed in numerous carcinomas. The current study aimed to investigate the expression of PADI4 in gastric cancer tissues and its effect on the biological activities of SGC-7901 and AGS tumor cell lines. The expression of PADI4 was determined in gastric cancer and normal gastric mucosa tissues using western blot analysis and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Gastric cancer cell lines were divided into the following groups: Mock group (subjected to transfection reagent); negative group [subjected to small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection]; PADI4 siRNA group (subjected to PADI4 siRNA transfection); 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu) group (subjected to 5-Fu); and 5-Fu + siRNA transfection group (subjected to 5-Fu and PADI4 siRNA transfection). The effects of silencing PADI4 with the above measures on the proliferation and invasion of SGC-7901 and AGS cells were determined by MTT and Transwell chamber assays. In addition, propidium iodide staining was performed to detect the effects of PADI4 on the cell cycle. A significant increase in the expression of PADI4 mRNA in gastric cancer tissue compared with normal mucosa tissue was identified (P<0.05). The proliferation and invasion of SGC-7901 and AGS cells were significantly decreased in the PADI4 siRNA group. Furthermore, flow cytometry DNA analysis revealed that silencing PADI4 resulted in significant S phase arrest and marked decrease of cells in the G2/M phase. PADI4 siRNA coupled with 5-Fu significantly enhanced its inhibitory effect on the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. In conclusion, PADI4 demonstrated high expression in gastric cancer and served an important role in the biological activities of gastric cancer cells involving cell proliferation, invasion and cell cycle. As a result, PADI4 may be a valid cancer susceptibility gene and potential target for cancer

  5. Molecular classifiers for gastric cancer and nonmalignant diseases of the gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Meireles, Sibele I; Cristo, Elier B; Carvalho, Alex F; Hirata, Roberto; Pelosof, Adriane; Gomes, Luciana I; Martins, Waleska K; Begnami, Maria D; Zitron, Cláudia; Montagnini, André L; Soares, Fernando A; Neves, E Jordão; Reis, Luiz F L

    2004-02-15

    High incidence of gastric cancer-related death is mainly due to diagnosis at an advanced stage in addition to the lack of adequate neoadjuvant therapy. Hence, new tools aimed at early diagnosis would have a positive impact in the outcome of the disease. Using cDNA arrays having 376 genes either identified previously as altered in gastric tumors or known to be altered in human cancer, we determined expression signature of 99 tissue fragments representing normal gastric mucosa, gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and adenocarcinomas. We first validated the array by identifying molecular markers that are associated with intestinal metaplasia, considered as a transition stage of gastric adenocarcinomas of the intestinal type as well as markers that are associated with diffuse type of gastric adenocarcinomas. Next, we applied Fisher's linear discriminant analysis in an exhaustive search of trios of genes that could be used to build classifiers for class distinction. Many classifiers could distinguish between normal and tumor samples, whereas, for the distinction of gastritis from tumor and for metaplasia from tumor, fewer classifiers were identified. Statistical validations showed that trios that discriminate between normal and tumor samples are powerful classifiers to distinguish between tumor and nontumor samples. More relevant, it was possible to identify samples of intestinal metaplasia that have expression signature resembling that of an adenocarcinoma and can now be used for follow-up of patients to determine their potential as a prognostic test for malignant transformation.

  6. Occupational asbestos exposure and risk of esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer in the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Offermans, Nadine S M; Vermeulen, Roel; Burdorf, Alex; Goldbohm, R Alexandra; Keszei, András P; Peters, Susan; Kauppinen, Timo; Kromhout, Hans; van den Brandt, Piet A

    2014-10-15

    The evidence for an association between occupational asbestos exposure and esophageal, gastric and colorectal cancer is limited. We studied this association specifically addressing risk differences between relatively low and high exposure, risk associated with cancer subtypes, the influence of potential confounders and the interaction between asbestos and smoking in relation to cancer risk. Using the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 58,279 men, aged 55-69 years at baseline), asbestos exposure was estimated by linkage to a job-exposure matrix. After 17.3 years of follow-up, 187 esophageal, 486 gastric and 1,724 colorectal cancer cases were available for analysis. The models adjusted for age and family history of cancer showed that mainly (prolonged) exposure to high levels of asbestos was statistically significantly associated with risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), total and distal colon cancer and rectal cancer. For overall gastric cancer and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (GNCA), also exposure to lower levels of asbestos was associated. Additional adjustment for lifestyle confounders, especially smoking status, yielded non-significant associations with overall gastric cancer and GNCA in the multivariable-adjusted model, except for the prolonged highly exposed subjects (tertile 3 vs. never: HR 2.67, 95% CI: 1.11-6.44 and HR 3.35, 95% CI: 1.33-8.44, respectively). No statistically significant additive or multiplicative interaction between asbestos and smoking was observed for any of the studied cancers. This prospective population-based study showed that (prolonged) high asbestos exposure was associated with overall gastric cancer, EAC, GNCA, total and distal colon cancer and rectal cancer.

  7. Helicobacter pylori serological biomarkers of gastric cancer risk in the MCC-Spain case-control Study.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Larrea-Baz, Nerea; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Michel, Angelika; Romero, Beatriz; Lope, Virginia; Pawlita, Michael; Fernández-Villa, Tania; Moreno, Victor; Martín, Vicente; Willhauck-Fleckenstein, Martina; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Castilla, Jesús; Fernández-Tardón, Guillermo; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Santibáñez, Miguel; Peiró, Rosana; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan; Navarro, Carmen; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Kogevinas, Manolis; Pollán, Marina; de Sanjosé, Silvia; Del Campo, Rosa; Waterboer, Tim; Aragonés, Nuria

    2017-09-06

    Helicobacter pylori infection is one of the main risk factors for non-cardia gastric cancer. However, only a minority of infected persons develop the disease. This study aims at identifying H. pylori related serological biomarkers of risk for gastric cancer. Incident gastric cancer cases and population controls (age, sex and region frequency-matched) from the MCC-Spain multicase-control Study were included. Seroreactivities against 16H. pylori proteins were determined using multiplex serology. Infection was defined as seropositivity against≥4 proteins. Relation of serological results to non-cardia and cardia gastric cancer was assessed using multivariable mixed logistic regression and principal components analysis. Seroprevalence was 88% among 2071 controls, 95% among 202 non-cardia gastric cancer cases (OR=1.9 (95% CI: 1.0-3.6)) and 85% among 62 cardia cancer cases (OR=0.5 (95% CI: 0.3-1.1)). In infected subjects, seropositivity for UreA, HP231, NapA and Cagδ was associated with lower non-cardia gastric cancer risk, while seropositivity for CagA and VacA was associated with higher risk. Seropositivity for CagA and seronegativity for Cagδ maintained the association after additional adjustment by serostatus of significant proteins. We identified two antibody reactivity patterns: the "virulent-pattern", related to a threefold higher risk of non-cardia gastric cancer and the "non-virulent pattern", related to a 60% decreased risk (4th vs. first quartile). In our population, people seropositive for H. pylori were characterized by two patterns of antibody reactivity against H. pylori proteins: 1) Combined high seroreactivity against several proteins, associated with a lower non-cardia gastric cancer risk, and 2) High seroreactivity against CagA and VacA, associated with an increased risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Methylation subtypes and large-scale epigenetic alterations in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zouridis, Hermioni; Deng, Niantao; Ivanova, Tatiana; Zhu, Yansong; Wong, Bernice; Huang, Dan; Wu, Yong Hui; Wu, Yingting; Tan, Iain Beehuat; Liem, Natalia; Gopalakrishnan, Veena; Luo, Qin; Wu, Jeanie; Lee, Minghui; Yong, Wei Peng; Goh, Liang Kee; Teh, Bin Tean; Rozen, Steve; Tan, Patrick

    2012-10-17

    Epigenetic alterations are fundamental hallmarks of cancer genomes. We surveyed the landscape of DNA methylation alterations in gastric cancer by analyzing genome-wide CG dinucleotide (CpG) methylation profiles of 240 gastric cancers (203 tumors and 37 cell lines) and 94 matched normal gastric tissues. Cancer-specific epigenetic alterations were observed in 44% of CpGs, comprising both tumor hyper- and hypomethylation. Twenty-five percent of the methylation alterations were significantly associated with changes in tumor gene expression. Whereas most methylation-expression correlations were negative, several positively correlated methylation-expression interactions were also observed, associated with CpG sites exhibiting atypical transcription start site distances and gene body localization. Methylation clustering of the tumors revealed a CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) subgroup associated with widespread hypermethylation, young patient age, and adverse patient outcome in a disease stage-independent manner. CIMP cell lines displayed sensitivity to 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a clinically approved demethylating drug. We also identified long-range regions of epigenetic silencing (LRESs) in CIMP tumors. Combined analysis of the methylation, gene expression, and drug treatment data suggests that certain LRESs may silence specific genes within the region, rather than all genes. Finally, we discovered regions of long-range tumor hypomethylation, associated with increased chromosomal instability. Our results provide insights into the epigenetic impact of environmental and biological agents on gastric epithelial cells, which may contribute to cancer.

  9. [Treatment of advanced gastric cancer with oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil/ leucovorin (FOLFOX-4 chemotherapy)].

    PubMed

    Garrido, Marcelo; Melgoza, Geraldine; Galindo, Héctor; Madrid, Jorge; Sánchez, César; Nervi, Bruno; Alvarez, Manuel; Orellana, Eric

    2007-11-01

    Chemotherapy improves survival in advanced gastric cancer. However the most active combinations have a high level of toxicity that limits their use. To assess the response, toxicity and survival of patients with advanced gastric cancer, treated with oxaliplatin plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (FOLFOX-4 chemotherapy). Patients with stage IV gastric cancer, according to the American Joint Committee on Cancer or with relapsed disease and functional capacity 0-2 of the South West Oncology Group, were included. FOLFOX-4 chemotherapy was used as first or second line treatment. The response to treatment and survival were assessed. Between 2003 and 2006, 29 patients (median age 52.5 years,