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Sample records for age gender length

  1. The Effect of Age, Gender, Refractive Status and Axial Length on the Measurements of Hertel Exophthalmometry

    PubMed Central

    Karti, Omer; Selver, Ozlem B; Karahan, Eyyup; Zengin, Mehmet O; Uyar, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Purpose : To evaluate the normal distribution of exophthalmometric values in Turkish adult population and the effect of age, gender, refractive status and axial length on globe position. Methods : One hundred and twenty-two males and 114 healthy females with age ranging from 18 to 87 years were included in the study. The study population was recruited from patients presenting to our institution for routine refractive examination. Hertel exophthalmometer was used to measure the degree of ocular protrusion. Effect of age, refractive error, interpupillary distance, and axial length on globe position was detected with linear regression analyses. Results : The mean Hertel exophthalmometric size was 15.7+2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm). The mean value for males was 16.1±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 21 mm), and for females 15.5±2.6 mm (range; 11 to 20 mm). The mean distance between the lateral rims of the orbit was 102 + 5.1 mm (range; 88 to 111mm). The mean exophthalmometric values were not statistically different in males and females. Age and mean spherical equivalents were negatively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Axial length was positively correlated with exophthalmometric measurements. Conclusion : The exophthalmometric measurement of the eye is affected by the age, spherical equivalent and the axial length. Standard normative values of the Hertel exophthalmometric measurements should be reevaluated with larger samples. PMID:26089994

  2. Effects of gestational length, gender, postnatal age, and birth order on visual contrast sensitivity in infants.

    PubMed

    Dobkins, Karen R; Bosworth, Rain G; McCleery, Joseph P

    2009-09-30

    To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Our variables included gestational length (GL), birth weight (BW), gender, postnatal age (PNA), and birth order (BO). Two-month-olds (n = 60) and 6-month-olds (n = 122) were tested. Results revealed that (1) at 2 months, infants with longer GL have higher luminance CS; (2) at both ages, CS significantly increases over a approximately 21-day range of PNA, but this effect is stronger in 2- than 6-month-olds and stronger for chromatic than luminance CS; (3) at 2 months, boys have higher luminance CS than girls; and (4) at 2 months, firstborn infants have higher CS, while at 6 months, non-firstborn infants have higher CS. The results for PNA/GL are consistent with the possibility that P pathway development is more influenced by variables tied to visual experience (PNA), while M pathway development is more influenced by variables unrelated to visual experience (GL). Other variables, including prenatal environment, are also discussed.

  3. Effects of gestational length, gender, postnatal age, and birth order on visual contrast sensitivity in infants

    PubMed Central

    Dobkins, Karen R.; Bosworth, Rain G.; McCleery, Joseph P.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate effects of visual experience versus preprogrammed mechanisms on visual development, we used multiple regression analysis to determine the extent to which a variety of variables (that differ in the extent to which they are tied to visual experience) predict luminance and chromatic (red/green) contrast sensitivity (CS), which are mediated by the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) subcortical pathways, respectively. Our variables included gestational length (GL), birth weight (BW), gender, postnatal age (PNA), and birth order (BO). Two-month-olds (n = 60) and 6-month-olds (n = 122) were tested. Results revealed that (1) at 2 months, infants with longer GL have higher luminance CS; (2) at both ages, CS significantly increases over a ~21-day range of PNA, but this effect is stronger in 2- than 6-month-olds and stronger for chromatic than luminance CS; (3) at 2 months, boys have higher luminance CS than girls; and (4) at 2 months, firstborn infants have higher CS, while at 6 months, non-firstborn infants have higher CS. The results for PNA/GL are consistent with the possibility that P pathway development is more influenced by variables tied to visual experience (PNA), while M pathway development is more influenced by variables unrelated to visual experience (GL). Other variables, including prenatal environment, are also discussed. PMID:19810800

  4. The Impact of Subject Age, Gender, and Arch Length on Attitudes of Syrian Dentists towards Shortened Dental Arches.

    PubMed

    Nassani, Mohammad Zakaria; Al-Nahhal, Tammam Ibrahim; Kujan, Omar; Tarakji, Bassel; Kay, Elizabeth Jane

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to investigate the impact of subject age, gender, and arch length on dentists' attitudes towards unrestored shortened dental arches. Materials and Methods. 93 Syrian dentists were interviewed and presented with 24 scenarios for male and female subjects of different ages and shortened dental arches of varying length. Participants were asked to indicate on a standardized visual analogue scale how they would value the health of the mouth if the posterior space was left unrestored. Results. A value of 0.0 represented the worst possible health state for a mouth and 1.0 represented the best. The highest mean value (0.73) was assigned to a shortened dental arch with missing second molar teeth in the mouth of a 70-year-old subject. A 35-year-old female subject with an extremely shortened dental arch (all molar and premolar teeth are missing) attracted the lowest mean value (0.26). The statistical analysis indicated a significant decrease in the value placed on unrestored shortened dental arches as the number of remaining teeth decreased (p < 0.008). While subject gender had almost no impact on dentists' attitudes towards shortened dental arches, the scenarios for the older shortened dental arch subjects attracted significantly higher values compared to the scenarios for the younger subjects (p < 0.017). Conclusion. Subject age and arch length affect dentists' attitudes towards shortened dental arches, but subject gender does not.

  5. An exploratory examination of the relationships among emotional intelligence, elementary school science teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, race/ethnicity, gender, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okech, Allan P.

    The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships among emotional intelligence, teacher self-efficacy, length of teaching experience, and age in a sample of south Texas public school teachers. Additionally, the study examined differences in emotional intelligence between male teachers and female teachers, and among African American, Hispanics, and White teachers. Participants were 180 elementary science teachers from south Texas public schools. The sample was made up of 14 (7.8%) males and 166 (92.2%) females. Regarding race/ethnicity, the study sample consisted of 31 (17.2%) African Americans (3 males and 28 females), 49 (27.2) Hispanics (7 males and 42 females), 98 (54.4%) Whites (3 males and 95 females), and 2 (1.1%) "Other" (1 male and 1 female). Participants ranged in age from 23 years to 65 years. Five hypotheses were proposed and tested to address the relationships under investigation. The study employed a mixed methods---correlational and causal-comparative---research design approach. Three instruments, the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (Mayer, Caruso, & Salovey, 1999), the Science Teaching Efficacy Beliefs Instrument (Riggs & Enochs, 1990), and a demographics questionnaire were utilized to collect the data. An independent-measures t test, the Pearson r, and the one-way MANOVA were used to analyze the data. A Significant positive relationship was found between "emotional intelligence" and "teacher self-efficacy." Data analyses, however, failed to support hypothesized relationships between "emotional intelligence" and "length of teaching experience," and between "emotional intelligence" and "age". Additionally, statistical analyses of the data collected for this study supported predicted statistically significant differences in "emotional intelligence" between male and female teachers, and among the three race/ethnicity groupings. Based on these findings, recommendations for the application of the construct of "emotional intelligence" in

  6. Telomere length variations in aging and age-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Saliha; Raza, Syed Tasleem; Mahdi, Farzana

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are gene sequences present at chromosomal ends and are responsible for maintaining genome integrity. Telomere length is maximum at birth and decreases progressively with advancing age and thus is considered as a biomarker of chronological aging. This age associated decrease in the length of telomere is linked to various ageing associated diseases like diabetes, hypertension, Alzheimer's disease, cancer etc. and their associated complications. Telomere length is a result of combined effect of oxidative stress, inflammation and repeated cell replication on it, and thus forming an association between telomere length and chronological aging and related diseases. Thus, decrease in telomere length was found to be important in determining both, the variations in longevity and age-related diseases in an individual. Ongoing and progressive research in the field of telomere length dynamics has proved that aging and age-related diseases apart from having a synergistic effect on telomere length were also found to effect telomere length independently also. Here a short description about telomere length variations and its association with human aging and age-related diseases is reviewed.

  7. Short day lengths delay reproductive aging.

    PubMed

    Place, Ned J; Tuthill, Christiana R; Schoomer, Elanor E; Tramontin, Anthony D; Zucker, Irving

    2004-09-01

    Caloric restriction and hormone treatment delay reproductive senescence in female mammals, but a natural model of decelerated reproductive aging does not presently exist. In addition to describing such a model, this study shows that an abiotic signal (photoperiod) can induce physiological changes that slow senescence. Relative to animals born in April, rodents born in September delay their first reproductive effort by up to 7 mo, at which age reduced fertility is expected. We tested the hypothesis that the shorter day lengths experienced by late-born Siberian hamsters ameliorate the reproductive decline associated with advancing age. Short-day females (10L:14D) achieved puberty at a much later age than long-day animals (14L:10D) and had twice as many ovarian primordial follicles. At 10 mo of age, 86% of females previously maintained in short day lengths produced litters, compared with 58% of their long day counterparts. Changes in pineal gland production of melatonin appear to mediate the effects of day length on reproductive aging; only 30% of pinealectomized females housed in short days produced litters. Exposure to short days induces substantial decreases in voluntary food intake and body mass, reduced ovarian estradiol secretion, and enhanced production of melatonin. One or more of these changes may account for the protective effect of short day lengths on female reproduction. In delaying reproductive senescence, the decrease in day length after the summer solstice is of presumed adaptive significance for offspring born late in the breeding season that first breed at an advanced chronological age.

  8. Gender Relations and Applied Research on Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2010-01-01

    As a concept in gerontology, gender appears as lists of traits learned through socialization when theorized at all. I argue for a framework that theorizes the intersections of relations of gender inequality with those of age. This framework holds that men and women gain resources and bear responsibilities, in relation to one another, by virtue of…

  9. Age, gender and health among African Americans.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, T R; Thanh, V T

    1997-01-01

    Public policy and epidemiological studies have not adequately addressed age and gender differences on important health dimensions among African Americans. The purpose of this study was to examine gender and health among five age groups of African Americans. A sample of 1,174 respondents age 24 to 85 was selected from the 1986 Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) Study. Regression analysis was performed using a hierarchical model to examine age and gender on five dimensions of health: functional health, chronic conditions, satisfaction with health, self-ratings of health, and activities of daily living (ADL) limitations controlling for age, education, income, and marital status among five age groups of African Americans. Results revealed that in the 24-39 age group, men had fewer chronic conditions and less ADL limitations, yet rated their health poorer than their female counterparts. In the 75 and over age group men had better functional health yet were less satisfied with their health than women. Control variables were significantly related to objective and subjective dimensions of health especially among the younger age groups. Overall, gender differences persist mainly among the youngest and oldest age groups despite variations in the above demographic variables. Implications for social work practice and future research are discussed.

  10. Gender and age differences in food cognition.

    PubMed

    Rappoport, L; Peters, G R; Downey, R; McCann, T; Huff-Corzine, L

    1993-02-01

    Results from three studies relevant to a model of food cognition based on the evaluative dimensions pleasure, health, and convenience are reported. In the first study, discriminant analyses of the evaluative ratings (n = 248) of 35 meals and snacks yielded significant gender and age differences on the pleasure and health dimensions. Separate factor analyses of the pleasure and health ratings revealed that males and females grouped foods differently on these criteria. The factor analysis of convenience ratings suggested that males and females perceive the meaning of convenience differently. In the second study, 336 college students rated 27 meals on the three evaluative dimensions and also indicated their preferences for each meal. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences could be significantly predicted, and other results showed that as compared to males, females give higher health, pleasure and convenience ratings to healthy meals. The third study employed a modified free association technique to investigate gender and age differences in the meanings of nine familiar foods. Data from 96 males and females aged 18 to 86 revealed a substantial variety of significant age and gender differences for specific foods. It is suggested that taken together, these results indicate important cognitive and affective sources for gender and age-related food attitudes. PMID:8452376

  11. Relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hernandez, Lilian; Marek, Edmund A.; Renner, John W.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and intellectual development. Random samples of 70 females and 70 males were selected with each sex group equally divided into a low-age and a high-age group. The low-age group ranged in age from 16.25 years to 16.75 years and the high-age group from 16.76 years to 17.25 years. The Piaget tasks selected to measure cognitive development were: Conservation of Volume, Separation of Variables, and Equilibrium in the Balance and Combination of Colorless Chemical Liquids. Data from this research produced these findings: (1) males demonstrate a higher level of intellectual development than females, (2) males mature intellectually earlier than females, (3) the value of the conservation of volume task as a component of a battery of formal tasks depends upon whether the decisions are to be made on the basis of the total-task results or on individual task performance, and (4) there appear to be factors other than age and gender that are related to the development of formal operational reasoning. These investigators hypothesize that experiences is another important factor.

  12. Articulation rate across dialect, age, and gender.

    PubMed

    Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert A; O'Neill, Caitlin; Salmons, Joseph

    2009-07-01

    The understanding of sociolinguistic variation is growing rapidly, but basic gaps still remain. Whether some languages or dialects are spoken faster or slower than others constitutes such a gap. Speech tempo is interconnected with social, physical and psychological markings of speech. This study examines regional variation in articulation rate and its manifestations across speaker age, gender and speaking situations (reading vs. free conversation). The results of an experimental investigation show that articulation rate differs significantly between two regional varieties of American English examined here. A group of Northern speakers (from Wisconsin) spoke significantly faster than a group of Southern speakers (from North Carolina). With regard to age and gender, young adults read faster than older adults in both regions; in free speech, only Northern young adults spoke faster than older adults. Effects of gender were smaller and less consistent; men generally spoke slightly faster than women. As the body of work on the sociophonetics of American English continues to grow in scope and depth, we argue that it is important to include fundamental phonetic information as part of our catalog of regional differences and patterns of change in American English.

  13. The Meaning of Gender while Aging with Paralytic Polio

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Tracie; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Walker, Janiece; Scott, Tiffany; Choban, Robin

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the influence of gender on aging with childhood onset paralytic polio. The hermeneutic phenomenological exploration of gender was done using multiple qualitative interviews with 25 women, age 55 to 75 years of age, who had polio since before 14 years of age. We noted three themes: 1) The movement of her body, 2) Integrating body and gender, and 3) Gender discrepancies. Findings are discussed in the context of gendered expectations and the women’s bodies. PMID:21240713

  14. Gendered Perceptions of Aging: An Examination of College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Anne E.; von Rohr, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Few studies examine how the gendered nature of aging impacts young adults--shaping their images of later life, attitudes toward elderly persons, aging anxieties, and conceptions of the start of "old age." We examine gender differences in young adults' views of elders and the aging process using a survey of college students and content analysis of…

  15. Does Gender Matter? an Exploratory Study of Perspectives Across Genders, Age and Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-11-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the social hierarchy. Analysis indicated that there were differences between male and female views on these dimensions of gender, and that age and educational levels were also influential. While younger respondents from both genders demonstrated flexibility in their definitions of gender and expressed strong support for gender equality, they were noticeably lacking in their knowledge of the historical context of gender relations and did not show the skills required to realise their ideals of gender equality, especially when compared to older respondents of both genders with higher levels of educational attainment.

  16. Gender and Age Differences in Awareness and Endorsement of Gender Stereotypes about Academic Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz-Costes, Beth; Copping, Kristine E.; Rowley, Stephanie J.; Kinlaw, C. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    We measured age and gender differences in children's awareness and endorsement of gender stereotypes about math, science, and verbal abilities in 463 fourth, sixth, and eighth graders. Children reported their perceptions of adults' beliefs and their own stereotypes about gender differences in academic abilities. Consistent with study…

  17. Does Gender Matter? An Exploratory Study of Perspectives across Genders, Age and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carinci, Sherrie; Wong, Pia Lindquist

    2009-01-01

    Using a convenience sample and survey research methods, the authors seek to better understand how perspectives on gender are shaped by individuals' age, level of education and gender. Study participants responded in writing to scenarios and survey questions, revealing their personal views on gender as an identity category and as a marker in the…

  18. Predicting perceptions of date rape: an examination of perpetrator motivation, relationship length, and gender role beliefs.

    PubMed

    Angelone, David J; Mitchell, Damon; Lucente, Lauren

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of multiple offender motivations (including no indication of a motivation), relationship length, and gender role beliefs on perceptions of a male-on-female date rape. A sample of 348 U.S. college students read a brief vignette depicting a date rape and completed a questionnaire regarding their attributions about the victim (culpability, credibility, trauma, pleasure) and perpetrator (culpability, guilt, sentencing recommendations). Results indicate that providing observers with information about the perpetrator's motivation was associated with lower victim blame. Relationship length is not predictive of rape attributions. Egalitarian gender role attitudes are associated with lower levels of victim blame. Overall, gender role attitudes exert a more significant influence on rape attributions than participant gender. The findings suggest that knowledge of an offender's motivation as well as observers' gender role attitudes can influence attributions about the culpability of victims and perpetrators of date rape.

  19. Estimation of gestational age from gall-bladder length.

    PubMed

    Udaykumar, K; Udaykumar, Padmaja; Nagesh, K R

    2016-01-01

    Establishing a precise duration of gestation is vital in situations such as infanticide and criminal abortions. The present study attempted to estimate the gestational age of the foetus from gall-bladder length. Foetuses of various gestational age groups were dissected, and the length of the gall bladder was measured. The results were analysed, and a substantial degree of correlation was statistically confirmed. This novel method is helpful when the foetus is fragmented, putrefied or eviscerated, where this method can be used as an additional parameter to improve the accuracy of foetal age estimation. PMID:25990829

  20. Gendered perceptions of aging: an examination of college students.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anne E; von Rohr, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Few studies examine how the gendered nature of aging impacts young adults--shaping their images of later life, attitudes toward elderly persons, aging anxieties, and conceptions of the start of "old age." We examine gender differences in young adults' views of elders and the aging process using a survey of college students and content analysis of student-drawn sketches of elders (N = 391). Results indicate that both genders hold more positive images of elderly women than men; however, they view "old age" as beginning at a younger age for women. In addition, we find that, compared with men, women report later starts of "old age" for both genders and more favorable attitudes toward elders, but also greater aging anxiety.

  1. Antidepressant Prescription and Suicide Rates: Effect of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J. John

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in…

  2. Fatigue Severity among African Americans: Gender and Age Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Sharon; Jason, Leonard A.; Taylor, Renee R.; Torres-Harding, Susan R.; Helgerson, Jena; Witter, Elizabeth

    2002-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between fatigue, age, and gender among African Americans, Caucasians, and Latinos. Survey results found significant age and gender interactions among African Americans and Caucasians. African American women and older African American men had the highest fatigue rates. There was no significant difference in levels of…

  3. Psychotherapists' Gender Stereotypes: Perceiver Characteristics, Target Age, and Target Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Barbara F.; And Others

    The literature on social cognition and intergroup relations suggests that gender and age are social concepts which, because they are at the same level of abstraction, may produce interactive effects on person perception judgments. The purpose of this study was to explore gender stereotypes that therapists hold about people who differ in age;…

  4. Postnatal Foot Length to Determine Gestational Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wyk, Lizelle Van; Smith, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Gestational age is a critical factor in the management, decision-making, prognostication and follow-up of newborn infants. It is also essential for research and epidemiology. In the absence of an early assessment of fetal gestation by abdominal ultrasound, many neonatal units in developing countries determine gestational age by neonatal scores and last menstrual period-both of which are highly inaccurate. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether postnatal foot length measurement could accurately determine gestational age in a specified South African hospitalized neonatal population. Foot length was measured with a plastic Verniere's caliper. Foot length was shown to correlate well with gestational age (r = 0.919,p < 0.001). Intra-observer and inter-observer variability of foot length measurements was low. Foot length can therefore be used with high accuracy to determine the gestational age in a population where there is poor access to or utilization of antenatal sonar. PMID:26758249

  5. Postnatal Foot Length to Determine Gestational Age: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Wyk, Lizelle Van; Smith, Johan

    2016-04-01

    Gestational age is a critical factor in the management, decision-making, prognostication and follow-up of newborn infants. It is also essential for research and epidemiology. In the absence of an early assessment of fetal gestation by abdominal ultrasound, many neonatal units in developing countries determine gestational age by neonatal scores and last menstrual period-both of which are highly inaccurate. The aim of this pilot study was to determine whether postnatal foot length measurement could accurately determine gestational age in a specified South African hospitalized neonatal population. Foot length was measured with a plastic Verniere's caliper. Foot length was shown to correlate well with gestational age (r = 0.919,p < 0.001). Intra-observer and inter-observer variability of foot length measurements was low. Foot length can therefore be used with high accuracy to determine the gestational age in a population where there is poor access to or utilization of antenatal sonar.

  6. Association of gender and length of stay among Puerto Ricans hospitalized with decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Alnajashi, Mohammad A; Almasoud, Mohammed A; Aldaham, Sami A; Acuña, Juan Manuel; Zevallos, Juan C

    2016-07-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a serious, chronic, and progressive condition which may require hospitalization if decompensated. Each year, in the UnitedStates, there are approximately 1 million hospitalizations due to decompensated HF at a cost of $39 billion. Because limited information examining the association between gender and length of stay (LOS) is available in the published literature for Puerto Ricans hospitalized with decompensated HF, we aim to investigate gender differences related to LOS in this population.This study is a secondary data analysis of the Puerto Rico Cardiovascular Disease Surveillance System database, which is a nonconcurrent prospective study carried out in 2007 and 2009. LOS was dichotomized into ≤5 days or ≥6 days (extended) categories. The χ test was used to examine associations between categorical variables. Binary logistic regression was used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios of extended LOS. Collinearity was assessed using Pearson correlation coefficients. A P value of 0.05 and 95% confidence intervals were used to evaluate statistical significance.A total of 1724 patients (47.6% women) comprised our study population. The average age of women was 72.5 ± 13.4 years; the average age of men was 67.2 ± 14.5 years. For both women and men, median LOS was 5 days (interquartile range = 5 days). Women were more likely than men to have diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, but current smoking was higher in men than in women. The proportion of patients with extended LOS was similar for men (43.3%) and women (45.1%) (P = 0.448). Likewise, the odds for extended LOS was comparable for both genders (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.4). Patients admitted with recurrent decompensated HF hospitalizations had shorter LOS than patients with initial episodes (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.6, 0.9). However, factors that prolonged the LOS included the presence of renal failure (OR = 1.7; 95% IC = 1.3, 2

  7. Piagetian Conservation Tasks in Ghanaian Children: The Role of Geographical Location, Gender and Age Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assan, Evelyn Ama; Sarfo, Jacob Owusu

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the influence of geographical location, gender and age on the performance of Piagetian Conservation tasks. Four conservation tasks; conservation of liquid, length, substance amount and number respectively were administered to children [4-6 years] from rural and urban Ghana and their performance on each task were recorded.…

  8. Children's Ocular Components and Age, Gender, and Ethnicity

    PubMed Central

    Twelker, J. Daniel; Mitchell, G. Lynn; Messer, Dawn H.; Bhakta, Rita; Jones, Lisa A.; Mutti, Donald O.; Cotter, Susan A.; Kleinstein, Robert N.; Manny, Ruth E.; Zadnik, Karla

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This cross-sectional report includes ocular component data as a function of age, gender, and ethnicity from the Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Ethnicity and Refractive Error (CLEERE) Study. Methods The ocular components of 4881 school-aged children were examined using cycloplegic autorefraction (refractive error), keratometry (corneal curvature), ultrasonography (axial dimensions), and videophakometry (lens curvature). Results The average age (± SD) was 8.8 ± 2.3 years, and 2458 were girls (50.4%). Sixteen percent were African American, 14.8% were Asian, 22.9% were Hispanic, 11.6% were Native American, and 34.9% were White. More myopic/less hyperopic refractive error was associated with greater age, especially in Asians, less in Whites and African Americans. Corneal power varied slightly with age, with girls showing a greater mean corneal power. Native-American children had greater corneal toricity with a markedly flatter horizontal corneal power. Anterior chambers were deeper with age, and boys had deeper anterior chambers. Native-American children had the shallowest anterior chambers and Whites the deepest. Girls had higher Gullstrand and calculated lens powers than boys. Boys had longer vitreous chambers and axial lengths, and both were deeper with age. Native Americans had the longest vitreous chambers and Whites the shortest. Conclusions Most ocular components showed little clinically meaningful variation by ethnicity. The shallower anterior chambers and deeper vitreous chambers of Native-American children appeared to be offset by flatter corneas. The relatively deeper anterior chamber and shallower vitreous chambers of White children appeared to be offset by steeper corneas. Asian children had more myopic spherical equivalent refractive errors, but for a given refractive error the ocular parameters of Asian children were moderate in value compared to those of other ethnic groups. Asian children may develop longer, myopic eyes more often

  9. Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Garga; Nakayama, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia is characterized by a severe deficit in face-identity recognition. Most developmental prosopagnosics do not report deficits of facial age or gender perception. We developed tasks for evaluating facial age and gender processing and used them in the largest group of developmental prosopagnosics (N = 18) tested on facial age and gender perception. Care was taken to ensure that the tests were sufficiently sensitive to subtle deficits and required holistic processing as assessed by strong inversion effects in control subjects. Despite severe facial identity deficits, developmental prosopagnosics largely performed these discriminations comparably to controls. The common descriptor "faceblind" implied by the term prosopagnosia is inaccurate as certain kinds of nonidentity facial information, which we call physiognomic features, are processed well by both prosopagnosics and age-matched controls alike. Normal facial age and gender perception in developmental prosopagnosics is consistent with parallel processing models in the cognitive architecture of face processing.

  10. Age and gender interactions in short distance triathlon performance.

    PubMed

    Etter, Franziska; Knechtle, Beat; Bukowski, Arkadiusz; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the participation and performance trends as well as the age and gender interaction at the Olympic distance 'Zürich Triathlon' (1.5 km swim, 40 km cycle and 10 km run) from 2000 to 2010 in 7,939 total finishers (1,666 females and 6,273 males). Female triathletes aged from 40 to 54 years significantly (P < 0.05) increased their participation while the participation of younger females and males remained stable. Males of 50-54 years of age and females of 45-49 years of age improved their total race time. For elite top five overall triathletes, mean gender differences in swimming, cycling, running and overall race time were 15.2 ± 4.6%, 13.4 ± 2.3%, 17.1 ± 2.5%, and 14.8 ± 1.8%, respectively. For both elite and age group athletes, the gender difference in cycling time was significantly (P <0.001) lower than for swimming and running. The gender difference in overall Olympic distance triathlon performance increased after the age of 35 years, which appeared earlier compared to long distance triathlon as suggested by previous studies. Future investigations should compare gender difference in performance for different endurance events across age to confirm a possible effect of exercise duration on gender difference with advancing age.

  11. The Intersection of Gender and Age: An Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gander, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    The understanding of gender inequality for women entering work has not been subject to significant research or theorizing. This small study indicated that young women entering the workplace are subject to direct discrimination and by using an intersectionality approach this paper proposes that the intersection of gender and young age results in…

  12. Antidepressant prescription and suicide rates: effect of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, Sandor; Szanto, Katalin; Rihmer, Zoltan; Mazumdar, Sati; Harrison, Katrin; Mann, J John

    2008-08-01

    To determine whether the effect of antidepressant exposure on suicide rate is modified by age and gender in Hungary, annual antidepressant prescription rates and suicide rates of about 10 million inhabitants between 1999-2005 were analyzed by age and gender groups. The suicide rate was inversely related to the increased use of antidepressants in both genders. The strongest association was found in the oldest age groups, where the increase in antidepressant use was highest, while there was no association in the under 20 or 50-69 age groups in either gender. Antidepressant prescription rate was related to suicide rate after controlling for divorce rate or unemployment rate, but not after controlling for alcohol consumption rate.

  13. Predicting Perceptions of Date Rape: An Examination of Perpetrator Motivation, Relationship Length, and Gender Role Beliefs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angelone, David J.; Mitchell, Damon; Lucente, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to examine the influence of multiple offender motivations (including no indication of a motivation), relationship length, and gender role beliefs on perceptions of a male-on-female date rape. A sample of 348 U.S. college students read a brief vignette depicting a date rape and completed a questionnaire regarding…

  14. Effects of age and gender on physical performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our purpose was to assess the effects of age and gender on physical performance using one-hour swimming performance and participation in 2,173 man and 2,098 women, aged 19 – 91 years from a long distance (one-hour) national competition. Decline in performance with aging was found to be quadratic rat...

  15. Age, gender, and reasons for living among Australian adults.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2011-12-01

    Reasons for living have been identified as protective factors in relation to suicide, and much research has documented gender differences in reasons for living. In contrast, little research has investigated age differences in reasons for living. In the current study, the relationship of age to reasons for living was investigated, as was whether age and gender interact to influence reasons for living. A community sample of Australian adults (N = 970) aged 18 to 95 years (M = 48.40, SD = 20.85) completed the Reasons for Living Inventory. Results for the main effects indicated that being female was associated with higher total, child-related concerns and fear of suicide (FS) scores, whereas increasing age was associated with higher total, responsibility to family (RF), FS, and moral objections scores. Age and gender interacted to influence RF, FS, and fear of social disapproval. For each of these reasons for living, increasing age was associated with higher scores for men; however, there was no association between age and these reasons for living scores among women. Overall, the results indicate that the influence of age, gender, or the combination of the two varies according to the reason for living being investigated.

  16. Age, Gender, and Reasons for Living among Australian Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaren, Suzanne

    2011-01-01

    Reasons for living have been identified as protective factors in relation to suicide, and much research has documented gender differences in reasons for living. In contrast, little research has investigated age differences in reasons for living. In the current study, the relationship of age to reasons for living was investigated, as was whether…

  17. Influences of Age and Gender on Workers' Goals for Retirement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, Douglas A.; Jacobs-Lawson, Joy M.; Neukam, Kirstan A.

    2002-01-01

    Having clear goals for retirement is a critical determinant of life satisfaction and adjustment during the post-employment transition period. The purpose of the present study was to explore individuals' goals for retirement and determine whether age and gender differences exist among those goals. A sample of 55 working adults (aged 20-67) were…

  18. Age and Gender Correlates of Pulling in Pediatric Trichotillomania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panza, Kaitlyn E.; Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Our goals were to examine clinical characteristics and age and gender correlates in pediatric trichotillomania. Method: A total of 62 children (8-17 years of age) were recruited for a pediatric trichotillomania treatment trial and characterized using structured rating scales of symptoms of hairpulling and common comorbid conditions. We…

  19. Gender, age, and ethnicity in immigration for an Australian nation.

    PubMed

    Fincher, R

    1997-02-01

    An analysis of Australian immigration policy since the Second World War is presented. The emphasis is on the gender and age of preferred immigrants, rather than on their race or place of birth. "The author proposes that selection of immigrant settlers in Australia since World War 2 has been gendered as well as racialised, often combining particular sexisms with particular racisms and specifying the ways that ethnicity and gender should coexist in immigrants of different age groups. She notes implications for immigrants once in Australia (especially women) of the category under which they have entered the country. And she suggests that a new phase relating immigration to redefinition of the Australian nation, in which the temporary migration of skilled workers is preferred to their permanent migration, may be beginning; a phase whose modes of regulation and outcomes are as distinctively gendered as were those of their predecessors."

  20. Gender and age do not influence the ability to work.

    PubMed

    Padula, Rosimeire Simprini; da Silva Valente, Luciana do Socorro; de Moraes, Mônica Vasconcelos; Chiavegato, Luciana Dias; Cabral, Cristina Maria Nunes

    2012-01-01

    Work capacity is related to physical, environmental and psychosocial factors and is influenced by individual characteristics and occupations. The aim of this study was to evaluated the relationship between work capacity, gender and age. 360 people employed at an institution of higher education of both genders and similar age were asked to participate in this study. The ability to work was analyzed using Work Ability Index (WAI). Descriptive statistical, Pearson correlations and ANOVA test was applied. Of these, 197 workers who participated in the study completed and returned the questionnaire. The results show there weren't any significant differences between work ability in relation to gender and age, but we observed an increase variability of responses for WAI score in older workers. No significant differences in the perception of the ability of work between men and women..

  1. Affective Computing and the Impact of Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Rukavina, Stefanie; Gruss, Sascha; Hoffmann, Holger; Tan, Jun-Wen; Walter, Steffen; Traue, Harald C.

    2016-01-01

    Affective computing aims at the detection of users’ mental states, in particular, emotions and dispositions during human-computer interactions. Detection can be achieved by measuring multimodal signals, namely, speech, facial expressions and/or psychobiology. Over the past years, one major approach was to identify the best features for each signal using different classification methods. Although this is of high priority, other subject-specific variables should not be neglected. In our study, we analyzed the effect of gender, age, personality and gender roles on the extracted psychobiological features (derived from skin conductance level, facial electromyography and heart rate variability) as well as the influence on the classification results. In an experimental human-computer interaction, five different affective states with picture material from the International Affective Picture System and ULM pictures were induced. A total of 127 subjects participated in the study. Among all potentially influencing variables (gender has been reported to be influential), age was the only variable that correlated significantly with psychobiological responses. In summary, the conducted classification processes resulted in 20% classification accuracy differences according to age and gender, especially when comparing the neutral condition with four other affective states. We suggest taking age and gender specifically into account for future studies in affective computing, as these may lead to an improvement of emotion recognition accuracy. PMID:26939129

  2. Human Aging Is a Metabolome-related Matter of Gender.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Maté, Ianire; Naudí, Alba; Mota-Martorell, Natalia; Portero-Otín, Manuel; De la Fuente, Mónica; Pamplona, Reinald

    2016-05-01

    A molecular description of the mechanisms by which aging is produced is still very limited. Here, we have determined the plasma metabolite profile by using high-throughput metabolome profiling technologies of 150 healthy humans ranging from 30 to 100 years of age. Using a nontargeted approach, we detected 2,678 metabolite species in plasma, and the multivariate analyses separated perfectly two groups indicating a specific signature for each gender. In addition, there is a set of gender-shared metabolites, which change significantly during aging with a similar tendency. Among the identified molecules, we found vitamin D2-related compound, phosphoserine (40:5), monoacylglyceride (22:1), diacylglyceride (33:2), and resolvin D6, all of them decreasing with the aging process. Finally, we found three molecules that directly correlate with age and seven that inversely correlate with age, independently of gender. Among the identified molecules (6 of 10 according to exact mass and retention time), we found a proteolytic product (l-γ-glutamyl-l-leucine), which increased with age. On the contrary, a hydroxyl fatty acid (25-hydroxy-hexacosanoic), a polyunsaturated fatty acid (eicosapentaenoic acid), two phospholipids (phosphocholine [42:9]and phosphoserine [42:3]) and a prostaglandin (15-keto-prostaglandin F2α) decreased with aging. These results suggest that lipid species and their metabolism are closely linked to the aging process.

  3. Inflammation, But Not Telomere Length, Predicts Successful Ageing at Extreme Old Age: A Longitudinal Study of Semi-supercentenarians.

    PubMed

    Arai, Yasumichi; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen M; Takayama, Michiyo; Abe, Yukiko; Takebayashi, Toru; Koyasu, Shigeo; Suematsu, Makoto; Hirose, Nobuyoshi; von Zglinicki, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    To determine the most important drivers of successful ageing at extreme old age, we combined community-based prospective cohorts: Tokyo Oldest Old Survey on Total Health (TOOTH), Tokyo Centenarians Study (TCS) and Japanese Semi-Supercentenarians Study (JSS) comprising 1554 individuals including 684 centenarians and (semi-)supercentenarians, 167 pairs of centenarian offspring and spouses, and 536 community-living very old (85 to 99 years). We combined z scores from multiple biomarkers to describe haematopoiesis, inflammation, lipid and glucose metabolism, liver function, renal function, and cellular senescence domains. In Cox proportional hazard models, inflammation predicted all-cause mortality with hazard ratios (95% CI) 1.89 (1.21 to 2.95) and 1.36 (1.05 to 1.78) in the very old and (semi-)supercentenarians, respectively. In linear forward stepwise models, inflammation predicted capability (10.8% variance explained) and cognition (8(.)6% variance explained) in (semi-)supercentenarians better than chronologic age or gender. The inflammation score was also lower in centenarian offspring compared to age-matched controls with Δ (95% CI) = - 0.795 (- 1.436 to - 0.154). Centenarians and their offspring were able to maintain long telomeres, but telomere length was not a predictor of successful ageing in centenarians and semi-supercentenarians. We conclude that inflammation is an important malleable driver of ageing up to extreme old age in humans.

  4. Leukocyte telomere length and prevalence of age-related diseases in semisupercentenarians, centenarians and centenarians' offspring.

    PubMed

    Tedone, Enzo; Arosio, Beatrice; Gussago, Cristina; Casati, Martina; Ferri, Evelyn; Ogliari, Giulia; Ronchetti, Francesco; Porta, Alessandra; Massariello, Francesca; Nicolini, Paola; Mari, Daniela

    2014-10-01

    Centenarians and their offspring are increasingly considered a useful model to study and characterize the mechanisms underlying healthy aging and longevity. The aim of this project is to compare the prevalence of age-related diseases and telomere length (TL), a marker of biological age and mortality, across five groups of subjects: semisupercentenarians (SSCENT) (105-109years old), centenarians (CENT) (100-104years old), centenarians' offspring (CO), age- and gender-matched offspring of parents who both died at an age in line with life expectancy (CT) and age- and gender-matched offspring of both non-long-lived parents (NLO). Information was collected on lifestyle, past and current diseases, medical history and medication use. SSCENT displayed a lower prevalence of acute myocardial infarction (p=0.027), angina (p=0.016) and depression (p=0.021) relative to CENT. CO appeared to be healthier compared to CT who, in turn, displayed a lower prevalence of both arrhythmia (p=0.034) and hypertension (p=0.046) than NLO, characterized by the lowest parental longevity. Interestingly, CO and SSCENT exhibited the longest (p<0.001) and the shortest (p<0.001) telomeres respectively while CENT showed no difference in TL compared to the younger CT and NLO. Our results strengthen the hypothesis that the longevity of parents may influence the health status of their offspring. Moreover, our data also suggest that both CENT and their offspring may be characterized by a better TL maintenance which, in turn, may contribute to their longevity and healthy aging. The observation that SSCENT showed considerable shorter telomeres compared to CENT may suggest a progressive impairment of TL maintenance mechanisms over the transition from centenarian to semisupercentenarian age.

  5. Age and Gender Differences in Teen Relationship Violence

    PubMed Central

    Hokoda, Audrey; Martin del Campo, Miguel A.; Ulloa, Emilio C.

    2016-01-01

    Research shows that abuse in adolescence can start early and current literature regarding gender differences in Teen Relationship Violence (TRV) is inconsistent. Age and Gender differences in TRV were examined. Measures assessing TRV and its correlates were completed by 231 teens from 7th, 9th, and 11th grade classes. A 2 (gender) by 3 (grade) multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant effects for grade and gender indicating that 7th graders have lower perpetration and victimization of TRV, less anger control, and fewer positive conflict resolution behaviors than 9th and 11th graders. Furthermore, girls perpetrate more physical and emotional abuse while boys perpetrate more sexual abuse. Results have implications for timing and content of prevention programs addressing dating violence in adolescence. PMID:26989341

  6. The effects of age and gender on laryngeal aerodynamics.

    PubMed

    Goozée, J V; Murdoch, B E; Theodoros, D G; Thompson, E C

    1998-01-01

    A computerized airflow/air pressure analysis system, the Aerophone II Model 6800 (Kay Elemetrics Corp.), was used to assess the effects of age and gender on laryngeal aerodynamics. A sample of 56 male and 53 female normal speaking subjects was divided into six age groups (20-30; 31-40; 41-50; 51-60; 61-70 and 71-80 years). The laryngeal aerodynamic parameters measured included phonatory (mean) flow rate, estimated subglottal pressure, laryngeal airway resistance, phonatory sound pressure level, phonatory power, and phonatory efficiency. Most comfortable phonation, vocal efficiency, and running speech tasks were used to collect the aerodynamic data. Comfortable pitch and loudness levels were used for each of these tasks. Age and gender effects were found for a number of the phonatory (mean) flow rate and phonatory sound pressure level values. Results failed, however, to indicate age or gender effects for the estimated subglottal pressure, laryngeal airway resistance, phonatory power and phonatory efficiency parameters. High intersubject variability was found for the phonatory flow rate, laryngeal airway resistance, phonatory power and phonatory efficiency values. Estimated subglottal pressure values, however, appeared to vary the least among subjects. The results are discussed with respect to factors that might influence laryngeal aerodynamics, such as underlying laryngeal anatomical and physiological age-related changes and gender-related differences. The clinical implications of the findings for the assessment and treatment of individuals with voice disorders using the Aerophone II are also discussed.

  7. Schizotypy in adolescence: the role of gender and age.

    PubMed

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Lemos-Giráldez, Serafín; Muñiz, José; García-Cueto, Eduardo; Campillo-Alvarez, Angela

    2008-02-01

    Schizotypy is a multidimensional personality construct that appears to indicate psychosis proneness. Supposedly, schizotypal traits behave differently depending on a person's age and gender, but few studies have examined this relationship. In our study we used the Thinking and Perceptual Style Questionnaire and the Junior Schizotypy Scales. The sample was made up of 321 students (169 males) with an age range of 12 to 17 years. The results show significant differences in gender and age groups. Males score higher than females on Physical Anhedonia, Social Anhedonia, and Impulsive Non-Conformity scales, while females score higher or Positive Symptoms, Negative Evaluation, and Social Paranoia scales. Significant differences were also found among age groups: Unusual experiences, self-referent ideation, social paranoia, thought disorder, and negative evaluation were more frequent in later stages of adolescence. However, the meaning of this difference could be interpreted in terms of emotional turbulence rather than as a direct indicator of vulnerability to psychosis. PMID:18277226

  8. Japanese Cooperative and Competitive Attitudes: Age and Gender Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwalb, David W.; Shwalb, Barbara J.

    1985-01-01

    Finds that (1) while females were significantly more cooperative and males more competitive than were subjects of the opposite sex, both sexes responded much more positively toward cooperative than competitive items and (2) cooperative and competitive orientation varies across activities. Age, gender, and situational factors were related to…

  9. Effect of Age, Country, and Gender on Music Listening Preferences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeBlanc, Albert; Jin, Young Chang; Stamou, Lelouda; McCrary, Jan

    1999-01-01

    Examines the music listening preferences of 2,042 students from Greece, South Korea, and the United States using a survey that listed selections from art music, traditional jazz, and rock music. Finds that age, gender, and country all exerted influence, but the variables did not perform the same way in each country. (CMK)

  10. Age and Gender Differences in Adolescents' Homework Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kackar, Hayal Z.; Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.; Grzetich, Janel

    2011-01-01

    Extant data collected through the Experience Sampling Method were analyzed to describe adolescents' subjective experiences of homework. Analyses explored age and gender differences in the time adolescents spend doing homework, and the situational variations (location and companions) in adolescents' reported concentration, effort, interest,…

  11. Role Voicing, Gender, and Age in Preschool Play Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, R. Keith

    1996-01-01

    Analyzes play discourse participation frameworks in groups of different gender and age compositions, focusing on different ways that children "voice" a pretend play role. Uses a preschool classroom for an observational study. Finds significant differences in voicing used by older and younger play groups. Discusses results with respect to the…

  12. Professor Age and Gender Affect Student Perceptions and Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joye, Shauna W.; Wilson, Janie H.

    2015-01-01

    Student evaluations provide rich information about teaching performance, but a number of factors beyond teacher effectiveness influence student evaluations. In this study we examined the effects of professor gender and perceived age on ratings of effectiveness and rapport as well as academic performance. We also asked students to rate professor…

  13. Gender, Age, and Behavior Differences in Early Adolescent Worry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen L.; Teufel, James A.; Birch, David A.; Kancherla, Vijaya

    2006-01-01

    Early adolescents in the United States are increasingly exposed to a culture of worrisome messages. A degree of adolescent worry is normal, but the likelihood of a young person being anxious or depressed increases with the perceived number of worries. This study examined the effect of age, gender, and worry behavior on frequency of 8 adolescent…

  14. Gender scripts and age at marriage in India.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sonalde; Andrist, Lester

    2010-08-01

    Research on marriage in developing countries has been somewhat narrow in scope because of both conceptual and data limitations. While the feminist literature recognizes marriage as a key institutional site for the production and reproduction of gender hierarchies, little is known about the processes through which this relationship operates. This article uses data from the newly collected India Human Development Survey 2005 for 27,365 ever-married women aged 25-49 to explore ways in which different dimensions of gender in Indian society shape the decisions regarding age at marriage. We explore the impact of three dimensions of gender: (1) economic factors, such as availability of wage employment, dowry expectations, and wedding expenses; (2) indicators offamilial empowerment, such as women s role in household decision making and access to and control over resources; and (3) markers of gender performance, such as observance of purdah and male-female separation in the household. Results from hierarchical linear models confirm the importance of markers of gender performance but fail to demonstrate a large role for economic factors and familial empowerment.

  15. Gender Scripts and Age at Marriage in India

    PubMed Central

    DESAI, SONALDE; ANDRIST, LESTER

    2010-01-01

    Research on marriage in developing countries has been somewhat narrow in scope because of both conceptual and data limitations. While the feminist literature recognizes marriage as a key institutional site for the production and reproduction of gender hierarchies, little is known about the processes through which this relationship operates. This article uses data from the newly collected India Human Development Survey 2005 for 27,365 ever-married women aged 25–49 to explore ways in which different dimensions of gender in Indian society shape the decisions regarding age at marriage. We explore the impact of three dimensions of gender: (1) economic factors, such as availability of wage employment, dowry expectations, and wedding expenses; (2) indicators of familial empowerment, such as women’s role in household decision making and access to and control over resources; and (3) markers of gender performance, such as observance of purdah and male-female separation in the household. Results from hierarchical linear models confirm the importance of markers of gender performance but fail to demonstrate a large role for economic factors and familial empowerment. PMID:20879683

  16. Anatomy of the larynx and pharynx: effects of age, gender and height revealed by multidetector computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Inamoto, Y; Saitoh, E; Okada, S; Kagaya, H; Shibata, S; Baba, M; Onogi, K; Hashimoto, S; Katada, K; Wattanapan, P; Palmer, J B

    2015-09-01

    Although oropharyngeal and laryngeal structures are essential for swallowing, the three-dimensional (3D) anatomy is not well understood, due in part to limitations of available measuring techniques. This study uses 3D images acquired by 320-row area detector computed tomography ('320-ADCT'), to measure the pharynx and larynx and to investigate the effects of age, gender and height. Fifty-four healthy volunteers (30 male, 24 female, 23-77 years) underwent one single-phase volume scan (0.35 s) with 320-ADCT during resting tidal breathing. Six measurements of the pharynx and two of larynx were performed. Bivariate statistical methods were used to analyse the effects of gender, age and height on these measurements. Length and volume were significantly larger for men than for women for every measurement (P < 0.05) and increased with height (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis was performed to understand the interactions of gender, height and age. Gender, height and age each had significant effects on certain values. The volume of the larynx and hypopharynx was significantly affected by height and age. The length of pharynx was associated with gender and age. Length of the vocal folds and distance from the valleculae to the vocal folds were significantly affected by gender (P < 0.05). These results suggest that age, gender and height have independent and interacting effects on the morphology of the pharynx and larynx. Three-dimensional imaging and morphometrics using 320-ADCT are powerful tools for efficiently and reliably observing and measuring the pharynx and larynx.

  17. Bodacious Berry, Potency Wood and the Aging Monster: Gender and Age Relations in Anti-Aging Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calasanti, Toni

    2007-01-01

    This paper situates age discrimination within a broader system of age relations that intersects with other inequalities, and then uses that framework to analyze internet advertisements for the anti-aging industry. Such ads reinforce age and gender relations by positing old people as worthwhile only to the extent that they look and act like those…

  18. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans.

    PubMed

    Shagina, N B; Tolstykh, E I; Degteva, M O; Anspaugh, L R; Napier, B A

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitations for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on (90)Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has a similar structure to the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly re-evaluated: gastrointestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0-80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general populations exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  19. Age and gender specific biokinetic model for strontium in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Shagina, N. B.; Tolstykh, E. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2015-03-01

    A biokinetic model for strontium in humans is necessary for quantification of internal doses due to strontium radioisotopes. The ICRP-recommended biokinetic model for strontium has limitation for use in a population study, because it is not gender specific and does not cover all age ranges. The extensive Techa River data set on 90Sr in humans (tens of thousands of measurements) is a unique source of data on long-term strontium retention for men and women of all ages at intake. These, as well as published data, were used for evaluation of age- and gender-specific parameters for a new compartment biokinetic model for strontium (Sr-AGe model). The Sr-AGe model has similar structure as the ICRP model for the alkaline earth elements. The following parameters were mainly reevaluated: gastro-intestinal absorption and parameters related to the processes of bone formation and resorption defining calcium and strontium transfers in skeletal compartments. The Sr-AGe model satisfactorily describes available data sets on strontium retention for different kinds of intake (dietary and intravenous) at different ages (0–80 years old) and demonstrates good agreement with data sets for different ethnic groups. The Sr-AGe model can be used for dose assessment in epidemiological studies of general population exposed to ingested strontium radioisotopes.

  20. Gender and age-based differences in computed-tomography measurements of the orophaynx

    PubMed Central

    Shigeta, Yuko; Ogawa, Takumi; Venturin, Jaqueline; Nguyen, Manuel; Clark, Glenn T; Enciso, Reyes

    2008-01-01

    Objective To examine the influence of aging and body-mass-index (BMI) on the oropharynx configuration in male and female Japanese patients. Study design This study examined the computed tomography (CT) images of 19 male and 19 females, group matched for age and BMI. The airway and the soft tissue volumes between the posterior nasal spine and top of the epiglottis were compared. Results The patient's height, total oropharynx length (TOL), and lower oropharynx lengths and volume measurements (soft tissue and airway) demonstrated statistically significant gender differences. Men consistently had larger TOL and volumes than women. In men, TOL changed with age, and age was a significant predictor of lower oropharynx length. In males, the upper oropharynx soft tissue volume decreased significantly with age and lower oropharynx soft tissue volume increased significantly with age. In females no significant relationship was identified. Conclusion The airway lengthens with aging in males and we speculate that it becomes more collapsible, which in turn could contribute to obstructive sleep apnea. PMID:18602313

  1. Age and Gender Differences in Motivational Manifestations of the Big Five from Age 16 to 60

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Regula; Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Allemand, Mathias; Penke, Lars

    2013-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated age and gender differences in motivational manifestations of the Big Five in a large German-speaking Internet sample (N = 19,022). Participants ranging in age from 16 to 60 years completed the Five Individual Reaction Norms Inventory (FIRNI; Denissen & Penke, 2008a), and two traditional Big Five…

  2. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enevoldsen, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian; Lönn, Lars; Henneberg, Kaj-Åge; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2012-03-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work is to investigate the blood flow patterns within a group of healthy volunteers (six females, eight males) aged 23 to 76 years to identify changes and differences related to age and gender. The healthy volunteers were categorized by gender (male/female) and age (below/above 35 years). Subject-specific flow and geometry data were acquired using the research interface on a Profocus ultrasound scanner (B-K Medical, Herlev, Denmark; segmentation of 3D magnetic resonance angiography (Magnetom Trio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany). The largest average diameter was among the elderly males (19.7 (+/- 1.33) mm) and smallest among the young females (12.4 (+/- 0.605) mm). The highest peak systolic velocity was in the young female group (1.02 (+/- 0.336) m/s) and lowest in the elderly male group (0.836 (+/- 0.127) m/s). A geometrical change with age was observed as the AA becomes more bended with age. This also affects the blood flow velocity patterns, which are markedly different from young to elderly. Thus, changes in blood flow patterns in the AA related to age and gender are observed. Further investigations are needed to determine the relation between changes in blood flow patterns and AAA development.

  3. Spatial interaction models from Irish commuting data: variations in trip length by occupation and gender

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Kelly, Morton E.; Niedzielski, Michael A.; Gleeson, Justin

    2012-10-01

    Core and peripheral contrasts in journey-to-work trip length can be interpreted as imputing the relative value of origin and destination accessibility (yielding theoretical proxies for rent and wages). Because the main variables are shown to be critically dependent on spatial structure, they may be interpreted as showing the shadow prices due to comparative location. There is also a unifying connection between these results and the existing literature on many dimensions: rent gradients, accessibility, and emissivity. In an empirical example, the advantages of a panoramic view of national commuting statistics are shown, using an Irish data set. Variations in the rates of participation in trip making by location, occupation, and gender are examined. Places that emit more trips than would be expected from their relative location are identified. Further, examining ways in which such emissivity is sensitive to a change in trip length highlights the regions where trips could possibly be adjusted to produce a shorter average trip length or which might be especially sensitive to reduction in employment. A careful reinterpretation of one of the key outputs from a calibrated spatial interaction model is shown to be consistent with the declining rent gradient expected from Alonso's theory of land use.

  4. The Influence of Age and Gender on Rehabilitation Outcomes in Nontraumatic Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    New, Peter W; Epi, M Clin

    2007-01-01

    Study Design: Retrospective, 3-year case series. Objective: To investigate the relationship between gender and age and a range variables in patients with nontraumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Setting: Tertiary medical unit specializing in rehabilitation of patients with nontraumatic SCI. Method: Participants were a consecutive series of 70 adult inpatients with nontraumatic SCI undergoing initial rehabilitation. The variables of interest were demographic characteristics, clinical features, complications, mortality, length of stay (LOS), mobility, bladder and bowel continence, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores. Results: Men were younger than women, but the difference was not statistically significant (median 64 years vs 72.5 years, P =0.2). There was no statistically significant relationship between age or gender and the following: American Spinal Injury Association grade, level of injury, many SCI complications, mortality, LOS, walking ability, bladder management, and fecal continence. The only SCI complication that was related to age was pressure ulcers (<65 years = 20% vs ≥65 years = 50%, P = 0.04). Patients discharged home were more likely to be younger (P = 0.01) and male (P = 0.03). There was a significant negative correlation between patients' age and the discharge Rasch-transformed FIM motor (Spearman's ρ =−0.30, P = 0.015) and cognitive (Spearman's ρ =−0.25, P = 0.04) subscores. There were no significant relationships between gender and FIM subscale scores. Conclusions: Gender and age do not significantly influence most aspects of rehabilitation in patients with nontraumatic SCI. Age alone should not be used as a discriminator of ability to benefit from nontraumatic SCI rehabilitation. PMID:17684888

  5. Telomere Length in Aged Mayak PA Nuclear Workers Chronically Exposed to Internal Alpha and External Gamma Radiation.

    PubMed

    Scherthan, Harry; Sotnik, Natalia; Peper, Michel; Schrock, Gerrit; Azizova, Tamara; Abend, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres consist of GC-rich DNA repeats and the "shelterin" protein complex that together protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. Telomeres shorten with age due to incomplete end replication and upon exposure to environmental and intrinsic stressors. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to modulate telomere length. However, the response of telomere length in humans chronically exposed to radiation is poorly understood. Here, we studied relative telomere length (RTL) by IQ-FISH to leukocyte nuclei in a group of 100 workers from the plutonium production facility at the Mayak Production Association (PA) who were chronically exposed to alpha-emitting ((239)Pu) radiation and/or gamma (photon) radiation, and 51 local residents serving as controls, with a similar mean age of about 80 years. We applied generalized linear statistical models adjusted for age at biosampling and the second exposure type on a linear scale and observed an age-dependent telomere length reduction. In those individuals with the lowest exposure, a significant reduction of about 20% RTL was observed, both for external gamma radiation (≤1 Gy) and internal alpha radiation (≤0.05-0.1 Gy to the red bone marrow). In highly exposed individuals (>0.1 Gy alpha, 1-1.5 Gy gamma), the RTL was similar to control. Stratification by gender revealed a significant (∼30%) telomere reduction in low-dose-exposed males, which was absent in females. While the gender differences in RTL may reflect different working conditions, lifestyle and/or telomere biology, absence of a dose response in the highly exposed individuals may reflect selection against cells with short telomeres or induction of telomere-protective effects. Our observations suggest that chronic systemic exposure to radiation leads to variable dose-dependent effects on telomere length. PMID:27340887

  6. Telomere Length in Aged Mayak PA Nuclear Workers Chronically Exposed to Internal Alpha and External Gamma Radiation.

    PubMed

    Scherthan, Harry; Sotnik, Natalia; Peper, Michel; Schrock, Gerrit; Azizova, Tamara; Abend, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres consist of GC-rich DNA repeats and the "shelterin" protein complex that together protect chromosome ends from fusion and degradation. Telomeres shorten with age due to incomplete end replication and upon exposure to environmental and intrinsic stressors. Exposure to ionizing radiation is known to modulate telomere length. However, the response of telomere length in humans chronically exposed to radiation is poorly understood. Here, we studied relative telomere length (RTL) by IQ-FISH to leukocyte nuclei in a group of 100 workers from the plutonium production facility at the Mayak Production Association (PA) who were chronically exposed to alpha-emitting ((239)Pu) radiation and/or gamma (photon) radiation, and 51 local residents serving as controls, with a similar mean age of about 80 years. We applied generalized linear statistical models adjusted for age at biosampling and the second exposure type on a linear scale and observed an age-dependent telomere length reduction. In those individuals with the lowest exposure, a significant reduction of about 20% RTL was observed, both for external gamma radiation (≤1 Gy) and internal alpha radiation (≤0.05-0.1 Gy to the red bone marrow). In highly exposed individuals (>0.1 Gy alpha, 1-1.5 Gy gamma), the RTL was similar to control. Stratification by gender revealed a significant (∼30%) telomere reduction in low-dose-exposed males, which was absent in females. While the gender differences in RTL may reflect different working conditions, lifestyle and/or telomere biology, absence of a dose response in the highly exposed individuals may reflect selection against cells with short telomeres or induction of telomere-protective effects. Our observations suggest that chronic systemic exposure to radiation leads to variable dose-dependent effects on telomere length.

  7. Age determination by back length for African savanna elephants: extending age assessment techniques for aerial-based surveys.

    PubMed

    Trimble, Morgan J; van Aarde, Rudi J; Ferreira, Sam M; Nørgaard, Camilla F; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C; Moss, Cynthia J

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables.

  8. Age Determination by Back Length for African Savanna Elephants: Extending Age Assessment Techniques for Aerial-Based Surveys

    PubMed Central

    Trimble, Morgan J.; van Aarde, Rudi J.; Ferreira, Sam M.; Nørgaard, Camilla F.; Fourie, Johan; Lee, Phyllis C.; Moss, Cynthia J.

    2011-01-01

    Determining the age of individuals in a population can lead to a better understanding of population dynamics through age structure analysis and estimation of age-specific fecundity and survival rates. Shoulder height has been used to accurately assign age to free-ranging African savanna elephants. However, back length may provide an analog measurable in aerial-based surveys. We assessed the relationship between back length and age for known-age elephants in Amboseli National Park, Kenya, and Addo Elephant National Park, South Africa. We also compared age- and sex-specific back lengths between these populations and compared adult female back lengths across 11 widely dispersed populations in five African countries. Sex-specific Von Bertalanffy growth curves provided a good fit to the back length data of known-age individuals. Based on back length, accurate ages could be assigned relatively precisely for females up to 23 years of age and males up to 17. The female back length curve allowed more precise age assignment to older females than the curve for shoulder height does, probably because of divergence between the respective growth curves. However, this did not appear to be the case for males, but the sample of known-age males was limited to ≤27 years. Age- and sex-specific back lengths were similar in Amboseli National Park and Addo Elephant National Park. Furthermore, while adult female back lengths in the three Zambian populations were generally shorter than in other populations, back lengths in the remaining eight populations did not differ significantly, in support of claims that growth patterns of African savanna elephants are similar over wide geographic regions. Thus, the growth curves presented here should allow researchers to use aerial-based surveys to assign ages to elephants with greater precision than previously possible and, therefore, to estimate population variables. PMID:22028925

  9. Age and Gender Differences in the Relation between Self-Concept Facets and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arens, A. Katrin; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    This study tested whether the gender intensification hypothesis applies to relations between multiple domain-specific self-concept facets and self-esteem. This hypothesis predicts gender-stereotypic differences in these relations and assumes they intensify with age. Furthermore, knowledge about gender-related or age-related differences in…

  10. Age, gender, kinship and caregiver burden in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tramonti, Francesco; Bongioanni, Paolo; Leotta, Rebecca; Puppi, Irene; Rossi, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease that affects the motor neurons and causes progressive physical impairment. Also, other functions, such as breathing, swallowing and speech are compromised, and the loss of independence makes caregiver burden extremely high. The present study aimed at evaluating the differences in the caregiver burden due to age, gender and kinship. Women reported a higher physical and social burden than men, and partners scored higher in several dimensions of the caregiver burden when compared to sons and daughters. With respect to adult child caregivers, daughters reported higher levels of developmental burden than sons. Age has a significant impact on the caregiver burden, especially for the time dedicated to assistance and physical burden; disease severity is significantly related to the physical burden as well, and also with the developmental burden. PMID:24588639

  11. Gender differences in health and aging of Atlantic cod subject to size selective fishery

    PubMed Central

    Carney Almroth, Bethanie; Sköld, Mattias; Nilsson Sköld, Helen

    2012-01-01

    Summary We have analyzed health and physiological aging parameters in male and female Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua, captured in Kattegat, Skagerrak and in Öresund. Gender differences were clearly evident in a number of variables. Males had longer liver telomeres and higher catalase activities than females, while females had higher superoxide dismutase activity, liver somatic index and condition factor. Effects of age were found for males where levels of the antioxidant glutathione and telomere length declined with age, indicating physiological aging. Liver somatic index increased and percentage oxidized glutathione decreased with age. Between-site comparisons of males show that percentage oxidized glutathione and catalase were lowest in Kattegat, whereas protein carbonyls and condition factor were higher in Skagerrak. Females, on the other hand, showed no differences between sites or indications of somatic aging or age-related effects in egg quality, indicating that older and larger female cod are healthy and show no changes in eggs with age. In contrast, males showed indications of physiological aging and lower condition than females. The results emphasize the importance of conserving old mature fish, in particular high egg-productive females, when managing fisheries. PMID:23213487

  12. Comparing the Relationship Between Age and Length of Disability Across Common Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Jetha, Arif; Besen, Elyssa; Smith, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the association between age and disability length across common chronic conditions. Methods: Analysis of 39,915 nonwork-related disability claims with a diagnosis of arthritis, diabetes, hypertension, coronary artery disease, depression, low back pain, chronic pulmonary disease, or cancer. Ordinary least squares regression models examined age-length of disability association across chronic conditions. Results: Arthritis (76.6 days), depression (63.2 days), and cancer (64.9 days) were associated with longest mean disability lengths; hypertension was related to shortest disability lengths (41.5 days). Across chronic conditions, older age was significantly associated with longer work disability. The age–length of disability association was most significant for chronic pulmonary disease and cancer. The relationship between age and length of work disability was linear among most chronic conditions. Conclusions: Work disability prevention strategies should consider both employee age and chronic condition diagnosis. PMID:27164446

  13. Are the leukocyte telomere length attrition and telomerase activity alteration potential predictor biomarkers for sporadic TAA in aged individuals?

    PubMed

    Balistreri, Carmela R; Pisano, Calogera; Martorana, Adriana; Triolo, Oreste F; Lio, Domenico; Candore, Giuseppina; Ruvolo, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    A large variability in occurrence, complications, and age/gender manifestations characterizes individual susceptibility of sporadic thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA), even in subjects with the same risk factor profiles. The reasons are poorly understood. On the other hand, TAA pathophysiology mechanisms remain unclear than those involved in abdominal aorta aneurysms. However, recent evidence is suggesting a crucial role of biological ageing in inter-individual risk variation of cardiovascular diseases, including sporadic TAA. Biological age rather than chronological age is a better predictor of vascular risk. Relevant assumptions support this concept. In confirming this evidence and our preliminary data, the mean of blood leukocyte telomere length, through use of terminal restriction fragment assay and in blood samples from sporadic TAA patients and controls, was examined. Telomerase activity was also analyzed in two groups. In addition, we verified the weight of genetic inflammatory variants and the major TAA risk factors in telomere/telomerase impairment. Aorta histopathological abnormalities and systemic inflammatory mediators were ultimately correlated with telomere/telomerase impairment. Data obtained demonstrated shorter telomeres and a reduced telomerase activity in TAA patients significantly associated with a genetic inflammatory risk profile, age, gender, smoking, hypertension, a histopathological phenotype, and higher levels of systemic inflammatory mediators than controls. In conclusion, telomere and telomerase activity's detection might be used as predictor biomarkers of sporadic TAA. Their impairment also suggests a strong role of vascular ageing in sporadic TAA, evocated by both environmental and genetic inflammatory factors.

  14. Clinical and surgical implications regarding morphometric variations of the medial wall of the orbit in relation to age and gender.

    PubMed

    Morales-Avalos, Rodolfo; Santos-Martínez, Arlette Gabriela; Ávalos-Fernández, Cesia Gisela; Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Sánchez-Mejorada, Gabriela; Montemayor-Alatorre, Adolfo; Martínez-Fernández, David A; Espinosa-Uribe, Abraham G; Mohamed-Noriega, Jibran; Cuervo-Lozano, Edgar E; Mohamed-Hamsho, Jesús; Quiroga-García, Oscar; Lugo-Guillen, Roberto A; Guzmán-López, Santos; Elizondo-Omaña, Rodrigo E

    2016-09-01

    The ethmoidal foramens are located on the medial wall of the orbit and are key reference points for intraoperative orientation. Detailed knowledge of the anatomy, bony landmarks and morphometric characteristics of the medial wall of the orbit is essential for various surgical procedures. The aim of this study was to determine the morphometric variations in the medial wall of the orbit and establish significant variations regarding age and gender. A total of 110 orbits were analyzed and subdivided by age (over or under 40 years) and gender. The distances of the medial wall of the orbit between the anterior lacrimal crest, the ethmoidal foramen, the optic canal and the interforamina were determined. Safe surgical areas were sought. Statistical tests were used to determine the differences between groups. In men, there is a safe surgical area proximal to the anterior and posterior ethmoidal foramen. In women, this area is in the posterior third of the medial wall of the orbit between the posterior ethmoidal foramen and the optic canal. Regarding variation according to age, the results of this study suggested that the anteroposterior diameter of the medial wall increases with age. This study showed that the anteroposterior total length of the medial orbit wall is similar between genders of similar age, increases with age, and has significant variations in the distances between the various structures that make up the medial orbit wall with regard to gender and age.

  15. Gender, ageing & carework in East and Southern Africa: A review

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 58 million persons aged 60-plus live in sub-Saharan Africa; by 2050 that number will rise sharply to 215 million. Older Africans traditionally get care in their old age from the middle generation. But in East and Southern Africa, HIV has hollowed out that generation, leaving many older persons to provide care for their children’s children without someone to care for him or herself in old age. Simultaneously, the burden of disease among older persons is changing in this region. The result is a growing care deficit. This article examines the existing literature on care for and by older persons in this region, highlighting understudied aspects of older persons’ experiences of ageing and care – including the positive impacts of carework, variation in the region, and the role of resilience and pensions. We advance a conceptual framework of gendered identities – for both men and women – and intergenerational social exchange to help focus and understand the complex interdependent relationships around carework, which are paramount in addressing the needs of older persons in the current care deficit in this region, and the Global South more generally. PMID:25947225

  16. AGE AND GENDER DIFFERENCES IN ACUTE STROKE HOSPITAL PATIENTS.

    PubMed

    Kes, Vanja Bašić; Jurašić, Miljenka-Jelena; Zavoreo, Iris; Lisak, Marijana; Jelec, Vjekoslav; Matovina, Lucija Zadro

    2016-03-01

    Stroke is the second leading cause of death and the most important cause of adult disability worldwide and in Croatia. In the past, stroke was almost exclusively considered to be a disease of the elderly; however, today the age limit has considerably lowered towards younger age. The aim of this study was to determine age and gender impact on stroke patients in a Croatian urban area during one-year survey. The study included all acute stroke patients admitted to our Department in 2004. A compiled stroke questionnaire was fulfilled during hospitalization by medical personnel on the following items: stroke risk factors including lifestyle habits (smoking and alcohol), pre-stroke physical ability evaluation, stroke evolution data, laboratory and computed tomography findings, outcome data and post-stroke disability assessment. Appropriate statistical analysis of numerical and categorical data was performed at the level of p < 0.05. Analysis was performed on 396 patients, 24 of them from the younger adult stroke group. Older stroke patients had worse disability at hospital discharge and women had worse disabilities at both stroke onset and hospital discharge, probably due to older age at stroke onset. Younger patients recovered better, while older patients had to seek secondary medical facilities more often, as expected. The most important in-hospital laboratory findings in young stroke patients were elevated lipid levels, while older patients had elevated serum glucose and C-reactive protein. Stroke onset in younger patients most often presented with sudden onset headache; additionally, onset seizure was observed more frequently than expected. Stroke risk factor analysis showed that women were more prone to hypertension, chronic heart failure and atrial fibrillation, whereas men had carotid disease more frequently, were more often smokers and had higher alcohol intake. Additionally, age analysis showed that heart conditions and smoking were more prevalent among older

  17. The Effects of Age, Gender, and 4-H Involvement on Life Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haas, Bruce E.; Mincemoyer, Claudia C.; Perkins, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    The study reported here examined the effects of age, gender, and 4-H involvement in clubs on life skill development of youth ages eight to 18 over a 12-month period. Regression analyses found age, gender, and 4-H involvement significantly influenced life skill development. Results found that females have higher levels of competencies in life…

  18. Exploring the relationship between age and tenure with length of disability

    PubMed Central

    Young, Amanda E.; Pransky, Glenn

    2015-01-01

    Background The aging of the workforce, coupled with the changing nature of career tenure has raised questions about the impact of these trends on work disability. This study aimed to determine if age and tenure interact in relating to work disability duration. Methods Relationships were investigated using random effects models with 239,359 work disability claims occurring between 2008 and 2012. Results A 17‐day difference in the predicted length of disability was observed from ages 25 to 65. Tenure moderated the relationship between age and length of disability. At younger ages, the length of disability decreased as tenure increased, but at older age, the length of disability increased as tenure increased. Discussion Results indicate that although there is a relationship between length of disability and tenure, age makes a greater unique contribution to explaining variance in length of disability. Future research is needed to better understand why specifically age shows a strong relationship with length of disability and why that relationship varies with age. Am. J. Ind. Med. 58:974–987, 2015. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Industrial Medicine Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26010587

  19. Gender bias in the evaluation of new age music.

    PubMed

    Colley, Ann; North, Adrian; Hargreaves, David J

    2003-04-01

    Eminent composers in Western European art music continue to be predominantly male and eminence in contemporary pop music is similarly male dominated. One contributing factor may be the continuing under-valuation of women's music. Possible anti-female bias in a contemporary genre was investigated using the Goldberg paradigm to elicit judgments of New Age compositions. Since stronger stereotyping effects occur when information provided about individuals is sparse, fictitious male and female composers were presented either by name only or by name with a brief biography. Evidence for anti-female bias was found in the name-only condition and was stronger when liking for the music was controlled. Other findings were the tendency for females to give higher ratings, and the association of gender differences in liking of the music with ratings of quality in the name-only condition. These results are relevant to the design of formal assessment procedures for musical composition.

  20. Gender-age environmental associates of adolescent low back pain.

    PubMed

    Grimmer, K; Williams, M

    2000-08-01

    This paper describes adolescent low back pain and tests its associations with environmental features of backpack load, time spent carrying loads, time sitting, and time playing sport, using data from 1269 adolescents in twelve volunteer high schools in Adelaide, South Australia. Backpacks were the preferred method of load carrying, two-thirds of wearers preferring to carry the load over two shoulders. The average load weighed 5.3 kg (approximating 10% of body weight). The youngest students carried approximately the same amount as the oldest students. Girls were more likely than boys to report recent low back pain, and there were gender- and age-specific associations between recent low back pain, the amount of time spent sitting, the backpack load and time spent carrying it, and time playing sport. Body mass was not a confounder of any association. These findings support ongoing concerns regarding environmental contributions to adolescent low back pain. PMID:10975661

  1. Longitudinal changes of telomere length and epigenetic age related to traumatic stress and post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Boks, Marco P; van Mierlo, Hans C; Rutten, Bart P F; Radstake, Timothy R D J; De Witte, Lot; Geuze, Elbert; Horvath, Steve; Schalkwyk, Leonard C; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Broen, Jasper C A; Vermetten, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have reported an association between traumatic stress and telomere length suggesting that traumatic stress has an impact on ageing at the cellular level. A newly derived tool provides an additional means to investigate cellular ageing by estimating epigenetic age based on DNA methylation profiles. We therefore hypothesise that in a longitudinal study of traumatic stress both indicators of cellular ageing will show increased ageing. We expect that particularly in individuals that developed symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) increases in these ageing parameters would stand out. From an existing longitudinal cohort study, ninety-six male soldiers were selected based on trauma exposure and the presence of symptoms of PTSD. All military personnel were deployed in a combat zone in Afghanistan and assessed before and 6 months after deployment. The Self-Rating Inventory for PTSD was used to measure the presence of PTSD symptoms, while exposure to combat trauma during deployment was measured with a 19-item deployment experiences checklist. These groups did not differ for age, gender, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, military rank, length, weight, or medication use. In DNA from whole blood telomere length was measured and DNA methylation levels were assessed using the Illumina 450K DNA methylation arrays. Epigenetic ageing was estimated using the DNAm age estimator procedure. The association of trauma with telomere length was in the expected direction but not significant (B=-10.2, p=0.52). However, contrary to our expectations, development of PTSD symptoms was associated with the reverse process, telomere lengthening (B=1.91, p=0.018). In concordance, trauma significantly accelerated epigenetic ageing (B=1.97, p=0.032) and similar to the findings in telomeres, development of PTSD symptoms was inversely associated with epigenetic ageing (B=-0.10, p=0.044). Blood cell count, medication and premorbid early life trauma exposure did not

  2. Analysis of the age of Panax ginseng based on telomere length and telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jiabei; Jiang, Chao; Peng, Huasheng; Shi, Qinghua; Guo, Xiang; Yuan, Yuan; Huang, Luqi

    2015-01-23

    Ginseng, which is the root of Panax ginseng (Araliaceae), has been used in Oriental medicine as a stimulant and dietary supplement for more than 7,000 years. Older ginseng plants are substantially more medically potent, but ginseng age can be simulated using unscrupulous cultivation practices. Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division until they reach a critical length, at which point cells enter replicative senescence. However, in some cells, telomerase maintains telomere length. In this study, to determine whether telomere length reflects ginseng age and which tissue is best for such an analysis, we examined telomerase activity in the main roots, leaves, stems, secondary roots and seeds of ginseng plants of known age. Telomere length in the main root (approximately 1 cm below the rhizome) was found to be the best indicator of age. Telomeric terminal restriction fragment (TRF) lengths, which are indicators of telomere length, were determined for the main roots of plants of different ages through Southern hybridization analysis. Telomere length was shown to be positively correlated with plant age, and a simple mathematical model was formulated to describe the relationship between telomere length and age for P. ginseng.

  3. Gender Concept Development and Preschool-Aged Children in the United States and Egypt.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerscheid, Jean D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Tested the gender understanding of 31 American and 31 Egyptian children. American children had a higher mean score on gender identity than Egyptian children. Found significant positive relationships between subject's age and two gender constructs, identity and stability. (Author/BJV)

  4. The impact of graded levels of day length on turkey health and behavior to 18 weeks of age.

    PubMed

    Vermette, C; Schwean-Lardner, K; Gomis, S; Grahn, B H; Crowe, T G; Classen, H L

    2016-06-01

    The impact of graded levels of day length on turkey health and behavior was determined in hens and toms raised to 18 wk of age. Birds were allocated to one of 4 lighting treatments (trt) providing 14 (14L), 17 (17L), 20 (20L), and 23 (23L) h of day length. Two time-replicated trials were completed with each, providing 2 rooms per lighting trt and each room having 3 hen (n = 720) and 3 tom (n = 480) pens. Data collection included gait score (GS), the incidence of footpad dermatitis (FPD), breast buttons and blisters, ocular size and pressure (males only), and behavioral observations (males only). Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3 based on a completely randomized design nested within 4 lighting trt. Regression analysis established relationships between response criteria and day length. Differences were considered significant at P ≤ 0.05 and trends noted at P ≤ 0.10. Gait score, FPD, and the incidence of breast buttons and blisters were assessed on 5 birds per pen at 11 and 17 wk of age. Average GS increased linearly with day length at 11 and 17 wk for both hens and toms, but the effect was larger in toms. Day length did not affect FPD, but more lesions and severe scores were found for hens than toms. The presence of breast buttons and blisters increased linearly with day length (11 wk) with the effect on blisters predominately seen in toms. Eye weight and size increased with increasing day length at 12 and 18 wk. Ocular pressure was not affected by day length. Infrared cameras recorded tom behavior over a 24 h period, and behaviors were classified over 10-min intervals using a scan sampling technique at 11 and 17 wk. Alterations in behavioral repertoire were observed with a linear increase in inactive resting and a linear decrease in standing, walking, preening, and environmental and feather pecking behaviors with increased day length. To conclude, day length affected bird mobility and incidence of breast blisters in an age- and gender-specific manner, and time

  5. Gender and Age-Appropriate Enrolment in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    Secondary school enrolment in Uganda has historically favoured males over females. Recently, however, researchers have reported that the secondary enrolment gender gap has significantly diminished, and perhaps even disappeared in Uganda. Even if gender parity is being achieved for enrolment broadly, there may be a gender gap concerning…

  6. Colorectal Cancer Screening Based on Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Martin C.S.; Ching, Jessica Y.L.; Chan, Victor C.W.; Lam, Thomas Y.T.; Luk, Arthur K.C.; Wong, Sunny H.; Ng, Siew C.; Ng, Simon S.M.; Wu, Justin C.Y.; Chan, Francis K.L.; Sung, Joseph J.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated whether age- and gender-based colorectal cancer screening is cost-effective. Recent studies in the United States identified age and gender as 2 important variables predicting advanced proximal neoplasia, and that women aged <60 to 70 years were more suited for sigmoidoscopy screening due to their low risk of proximal neoplasia. Yet, quantitative assessment of the incremental benefits, risks, and cost remains to be performed. Primary care screening practice (2008–2015). A Markov modeling was constructed using data from a screening cohort. The following strategies were compared according to the Incremental Cost Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) for 1 life-year saved: flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) 5 yearly; colonoscopy 10 yearly; FS for each woman at 50- and 55-year old followed by colonoscopy at 60- and 70-year old; FS for each woman at 50-, 55-, 60-, and 65-year old followed by colonoscopy at 70-year old; FS for each woman at 50-, 55-, 60-, 65-, and 70-year old. All male subjects received colonoscopy at 50-, 60-, and 70-year old under strategies 3 to 5. From a hypothetical population of 100,000 asymptomatic subjects, strategy 2 could save the largest number of life-years (4226 vs 2268 to 3841 by other strategies). When compared with no screening, strategy 5 had the lowest ICER (US$42,515), followed by strategy 3 (US$43,517), strategy 2 (US$43,739), strategy 4 (US$47,710), and strategy 1 (US$56,510). Strategy 2 leads to the highest number of bleeding and perforations, and required a prohibitive number of colonoscopy procedures. Strategy 5 remains the most cost-effective when assessed with a wide range of deterministic sensitivity analyses around the base case. From the cost effectiveness analysis, FS for women and colonoscopy for men represent an economically favorable screening strategy. These findings could inform physicians and policy-makers in triaging eligible subjects for risk-based screening, especially in countries with limited colonoscopic

  7. Implementation of age and gender recognition system for intelligent digital signage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Heon; Sohn, Myoung-Kyu; Kim, Hyunduk

    2015-12-01

    Intelligent digital signage systems transmit customized advertising and information by analyzing users and customers, unlike existing system that presented advertising in the form of broadcast without regard to type of customers. Currently, development of intelligent digital signage system has been pushed forward vigorously. In this study, we designed a system capable of analyzing gender and age of customers based on image obtained from camera, although there are many different methods for analyzing customers. We conducted age and gender recognition experiments using public database. The age/gender recognition experiments were performed through histogram matching method by extracting Local binary patterns (LBP) features after facial area on input image was normalized. The results of experiment showed that gender recognition rate was as high as approximately 97% on average. Age recognition was conducted based on categorization into 5 age classes. Age recognition rates for women and men were about 67% and 68%, respectively when that conducted separately for different gender.

  8. A correlation study of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes and kidney function with age.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Guang; Wang, Yong; Hou, Kai; Jia, Lin-Pei; Ma, Jie; Zhao, De-Long; Zhu, Shu-Ying; Bai, Xiao-Juan; Cai, Guang-Yan; Wang, Yan-Ping; Sun, Xue-Feng; Chen, Xiang-Mei

    2015-06-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the association between telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes and kidney function in various age groups of a healthy population. A total of 139 healthy individuals were divided into five groups according to their age: 35‑44, 45‑54, 55‑64, 65‑74 and >75 years old. Peripheral blood leukocytes were obtained and the telomere restriction fragment (TRF) length was assayed using a digoxigenin‑labeled hybridization probe in Southern blot assays. Laboratory assays of kidney function were also performed. A correlation was observed between TRF length and age (r=‑0.314, P<0.001), with the telomere length of the individuals >75 years group being significantly shorter than the telomere length of the 35‑44, 45‑54 and 55‑64 years age groups (P<0.05). By contrast, the TRF length for males versus females did not differ for any of the age groups, while a correlation was observed between TRF length and serum levels of cystatin C (r=‑0.195, P<0.05). There was also a correlation between TRF length and glomerular filtration rate (r=‑0.184, P<0.05). The current study demonstrated that in this cohort, leukocyte telomere length reduced with age and was correlated with serum levels of cystatin C and glomerular filtration rate. Therefore, TRF length is associated with kidney function and may serve as a marker of aging.

  9. Cross-Sectional Study of Gender Role Conflict Examining College-Aged and Middle-Aged Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cournoyer, Robert J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    College-aged (n=88) and middle-aged (n=89) men completed 5 measures that assess gender role conflict and psychological well-being. Results indicate that, compared with college-aged men, middle-aged men were less conflicted about success, power, and competition, but were more conflicted about work and family responsibilities. The discussion focuses…

  10. Skin pentosidine and telomere length do not covary with age in a long-lived seabird.

    PubMed

    Rattiste, Kalev; Klandorf, Hillar; Urvik, Janek; Sepp, Tuul; Asghar, Muhammad; Hasselquist, Dennis; Cooey, Crissa; Hõrak, Peeter

    2015-08-01

    The questions about why and how senescence occurs in the wild are among the most pertinent ones in evolutionary ecology. Telomere length is a commonly used marker for aging, while other biomarkers of aging have received considerably less attention. Here we studied how another potent indicator of aging-skin pentosidine concentration-relates to age and blood telomere length in a long-lived seabird with well-documented reproductive senescence. We found no associations between telomere length, skin pentosidine and chronological age in male common gulls (Larus canus), aging from 2 to 30 years. However, the variance in telomere length was 4.6 times higher among the birds older than 13 years, which hints at relaxed selection on telomere length among the birds that have passed their prime age of reproduction. These results suggest that physiological and chronological ages may be largely uncoupled in our study system. Furthermore, our findings do not support a hypothesis about the presence of a common physiological factor (e.g., such as oxidative stress) that would cause covariation between two independent markers of aging.

  11. How Gender Influences the Effect of Age on Self-Efficacy and Training Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bausch, Sonja; Michel, Alexandra; Sonntag, Karlheinz

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has shown age and gender differences in training, but the results have been mixed and their combined influence is only rarely examined. We fill those gaps by analysing age and gender effects on self-efficacy and training success. Study participants were trainees in an e-learning time- and self-management behaviour modelling…

  12. The Relationship between Gender and Age of First Concern in Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horovitz, Max; Matson, Johnny L.; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    The age at which parents first developed concerns over their child's development was examined in 965 toddlers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and atypical development to examine the potential role of gender. A two-way analysis of covariance was conducted with gender and diagnosis entered as independent variables, age at assessment entered as…

  13. Friendship Quality in Youth Sport: Relationship to Age, Gender, and Motivation Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Maureen R.; Smith, Alan L.

    2002-01-01

    Examined age and gender differences in the quality of sport friendship, noting relationships between friendship quality and motivation-related variables and reexamining the validity of the Sport Friendship Quality Scale (SFQS). Adolescent tennis players completed the SFQS and other measures. Age and gender differences in friendship emerged.…

  14. Age and Gender Differences in Depression across Adolescence: Real or "Bias"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beek, Yolanda; Hessen, David J.; Hutteman, Roos; Verhulp, Esmee E.; van Leuven, Mirande

    2012-01-01

    Background: Since developmental psychologists are interested in explaining age and gender differences in depression across adolescence, it is important to investigate to what extent these observed differences can be attributed to measurement bias. Measurement bias may arise when the phenomenology of depression varies with age or gender, i.e., when…

  15. Irregularly shaped otoliths from saugers prevent back-calculation of length at previous ages in Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krueger, K.L.; Hubert, W.A.

    1997-01-01

    We collected otoliths from saugers Stizostedion canadense in Boysen Reservoir, Bighorn Reservoir, and the Bighorn River in Wyoming to evaluate age and growth. All otoliths in our samples (264 fish) were irregularly shaped, and the irregularities became more pronounced with increasing age of the fish. Age estimates with irregular otoliths were possible, but back-calculation of length at previous ages was not possible as a result of radically inconsistent lengths of radii. It should not be assumed that otoliths can be used for back calculation of length at age among all stocks of sauger. The assumption of regular otolith formation within a stock should be tested before obtaining samples of otoliths for age and growth assessment.

  16. Dynamics of telomere length in different age groups in a Latvian population.

    PubMed

    Zole, Egija; Pliss, Liana; Ranka, Renate; Krumina, Astrida; Baumanis, Viesturs

    2013-12-01

    The shortening of telomeres with ageing is a well-documented observation; however, the reported number of nucleotides in telomeres varies between different laboratories and studies. Such variability is likely caused by ethnic differences between the populations studied. Until now, there were no studies that investigated the variability of telomere length in a senescent Latvian population of the most common mitochondrial haplogroups, defined as H (45%), U (25%), Y chromosomal N1c (40%) and R1a1 (40%). Telomere length was determined in 121 individuals in different age groups, including a control group containing individuals of 20-40 years old and groups of individuals between 60-70 years old, 71-80 years old, 81-90 years old, and above 90 years old. Telomere length was determined using the Southern blot telomeric restriction fragment assay (TRF). Decreased telomere length with ageing was confirmed, but a comparison of centenarians and individuals between 60-90 years of age did not demonstrate a significant difference in telomere length. However, significant variability in telomere length was observed in the control group, indicating probable rapid telomere shortening in some individuals that could lead up to development of health status decline appearing with ageing. Telomere length measured in mononuclear blood cells (MNC) was compared with the telomere length measured in whole peripheral white blood cells (WBC) using TRF. Telomere length in MNC was longer than in WBC for the control group with individuals 20 to 40 years old; in contrast, for the group of individuals aged 65 to 85 years old, measured telomere length was shorter in MNC when compared to WBC.

  17. Age-related gestation length adjustment in a large iteroparous mammal at northern latitude.

    PubMed

    Mysterud, Atle; Røed, Knut H; Holand, Øystein; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Nieminen, Mauri

    2009-09-01

    1. There is considerable interest in patterns of age-dependent reproductive effort and reproductive timing of large iteroparous mammals living in strongly seasonal environments. Due to lack of data on both timing of mating and birth, there is generally little insight into whether variation in gestation length play a role for life-history patterns observed for large mammals at northern latitudes. 2. Based on data on both timing of mating and birth of 88 female reindeer (and paternity confirmed with DNA fingerprinting), we explore the view that adjustment of gestation length plays a role in the reproductive tactic. 3. Observed gestation lengths of reindeer varied between 211 and 229 days (mean of 221 days). Consistent with a dynamic view of gestation length, variation could be predicted from life-history traits. Gestation length was longer for male than female offspring, which is expected in polygynous species where males benefit more from extra allocation of maternal resources. Gestation length increased with maternal age both due to direct effects and indirect effects linked to earlier mating of older, heavier females. Early mating females increased gestation length. A relatively small effect of female age on birth mass operated through variation in gestation length. 4. Our analysis supports the view that adjustment of gestation length is a part of the reproductive tactic of large mammals in northern environments.

  18. Fetal kidney length as a useful adjunct parameter for better determination of gestational age

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mete G.; Mustafa, Aynur; Ozcan, Huseyin C.; Tepe, Neslihan B.; Kurt, Huseyin; Akcil, Emre; Gunduz, Reyhan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the validity of fetal kidney length and amniotic fluid index (AFI) in labor dating. Methods: This prospective study included 180 pregnant women followed up in the outpatient clinic at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Gaziantep University, Turkey, between January 2014 and January 2015. The gestational age (GA) was estimated by early fetal ultrasound measures and last menstrual period. Routine fetal biometric parameters, fetal kidney length, and amniotic fluid index were measured. We studied the correlation between fetal kidney length, amniotic fluid index, and gestational age. Result: The mean gestational age depending on last menstrual period and early ultrasound was 31.98±4.29 (24-39 weeks). The mean kidney length was 35.66±6.61 (19-49 mm). There was a significant correlation between gestational age and fetal kidney length (r=0.947, p=0.001). However, there was a moderate negative correlation between GA and AFI. Adding fetal kidney length to the routine biometrics improved the effectiveness of the model used to estimate GA (R2=0.965 to R2=0.987). Conclusion: Gestational age can be better predicted by adding fetal kidney length to other routine parameters. PMID:27146616

  19. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group - young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside "headmaster") or feminine roles (badante "social care worker"), followed by a male (padre "father") or female kinship term (madre "mother"). The task was to decide if the two words - the role noun and the kinship term - could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press 'yes,' when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  20. Gender stereotypes across the ages: On-line processing in school-age children, young and older adults

    PubMed Central

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Warren, Paul; Pesciarelli, Francesca; Cacciari, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Most research to date on implicit gender stereotyping has been conducted with one age group – young adults. The mechanisms that underlie the on-line processing of stereotypical information in other age groups have received very little attention. This is the first study to investigate real time processing of gender stereotypes at different age levels. We investigated the activation of gender stereotypes in Italian in four groups of participants: third- and fifth-graders, young and older adults. Participants heard a noun that was stereotypically associated with masculine (preside “headmaster”) or feminine roles (badante “social care worker”), followed by a male (padre “father”) or female kinship term (madre “mother”). The task was to decide if the two words – the role noun and the kinship term – could describe the same person. Across all age groups, participants were significantly faster to respond, and significantly more likely to press ‘yes,’ when the gender of the target was congruent with the stereotypical gender use of the preceding prime. These findings suggest that information about the stereotypical gender associated with a role noun is incorporated into the mental representation of this word and is activated as soon as the word is heard. In addition, our results show differences between male and female participants of the various age groups, and between male- and female-oriented stereotypes, pointing to important gender asymmetries. PMID:26441763

  1. The epigenetic clock and telomere length are independently associated with chronological age and mortality

    PubMed Central

    Marioni, Riccardo E; Harris, Sarah E; Shah, Sonia; McRae, Allan F; von Zglinicki, Thomas; Martin-Ruiz, Carmen; Wray, Naomi R; Visscher, Peter M; Deary, Ian J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Telomere length and DNA methylation have been proposed as biological clock measures that track chronological age. Whether they change in tandem, or contribute independently to the prediction of chronological age, is not known. Methods: We address these points using data from two Scottish cohorts: the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921) and 1936 (LBC1936). Telomere length and epigenetic clock estimates from DNA methylation were measured in 920 LBC1936 participants (ages 70, 73 and 76 years) and in 414 LBC1921 participants (ages 79, 87 and 90 years). Results: The epigenetic clock changed over time at roughly the same rate as chronological age in both cohorts. Telomere length decreased at 48–67 base pairs per year on average. Weak, non-significant correlations were found between epigenetic clock estimates and telomere length. Telomere length explained 6.6% of the variance in age in LBC1921, the epigenetic clock explained 10.0%, and combined they explained 17.3% (all P < 1 × 10−7). Corresponding figures for the LBC1936 cohort were 14.3%, 11.7% and 19.5% (all P < 1 × 10−12). In a combined cohorts analysis, the respective estimates were 2.8%, 28.5% and 29.5%. Also in a combined cohorts analysis, a one standard deviation increase in baseline epigenetic age was linked to a 22% increased mortality risk (P = 2.6 × 10−4) whereas, in the same model, a one standard deviation increase in baseline telomere length was independently linked to an 11% decreased mortality risk (P = 0.06). Conclusions: These results suggest that telomere length and epigenetic clock estimates are independent predictors of chronological age and mortality risk. PMID:27075770

  2. Paternal age and telomere length in twins: the germ stem cell selection paradigm.

    PubMed

    Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Dalgård, Christine; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D; Halekoh, Ulrich; Möller, Sören; Kimura, Masayuki; Horvath, Kent; Kark, Jeremy D; Christensen, Kaare; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Aviv, Abraham

    2015-08-01

    Telomere length, a highly heritable trait, is longer in offspring of older fathers. This perplexing feature has been attributed to the longer telomeres in sperm of older men and it might be an 'epigenetic' mechanism through which paternal age plays a role in telomere length regulation in humans. Based on two independent (discovery and replication) twin studies, comprising 889 twin pairs, we show an increase in the resemblance of leukocyte telomere length between dizygotic twins of older fathers, which is not seen in monozygotic twins. This phenomenon might result from a paternal age-dependent germ stem cell selection process, whereby the selected stem cells have longer telomeres, are more homogenous with respect to telomere length, and share resistance to aging.

  3. "It's your badge of inclusion": the Red Hat Society as a gendered subculture of aging.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Anne E; Pai, Manacy; Redmond, Rebecca

    2012-12-01

    Although studies document the health-enhancing effects of social engagement, they reveal little about the underlying mechanisms operating within specific organizational contexts. Limited attention is given to the role of inequality--particularly age and gender--in shaping either the organizations to which we belong or their consequences for our well-being. We address this issue by examining the Red Hat Society, a social organization for middle-aged and older women. Interviews with members (n=52) illustrate how age and gender inequality interact to shape the organization, which can be viewed as a gendered subculture of aging. Drawing on this framework, we discuss four processes through which participation generates benefits for older women involved in age- and gender-segregated organizations: enhancing social networks, countering invisibility, creating positive frames for aging experiences, and promoting youthful identities.

  4. Correlations among brain gray matter volumes, age, gender, and hemisphere in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    To determine the relationship between age and gray matter structure and how interactions between gender and hemisphere impact this relationship, we examined correlations between global or regional gray matter volume and age, including interactions of gender and hemisphere, using a general linear model with voxel-based and region-of-interest analyses. Brain magnetic resonance images were collected from 1460 healthy individuals aged 20-69 years; the images were linearly normalized and segmented and restored to native space for analysis of global gray matter volume. Linearly normalized images were then non-linearly normalized and smoothed for analysis of regional gray matter volume. Analysis of global gray matter volume revealed a significant negative correlation between gray matter ratio (gray matter volume divided by intracranial volume) and age in both genders, and a significant interaction effect of age × gender on the gray matter ratio. In analyzing regional gray matter volume, the gray matter volume of all regions showed significant main effects of age, and most regions, with the exception of several including the inferior parietal lobule, showed a significant age × gender interaction. Additionally, the inferior temporal gyrus showed a significant age × gender × hemisphere interaction. No regional volumes showed significant age × hemisphere interactions. Our study may contribute to clarifying the mechanism(s) of normal brain aging in each brain region.

  5. The Age-Length-Onset Problem in Research on Second Language Acquisition among Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Gillian

    2006-01-01

    Studies investigating the possible effects of age at immigration (a proxy for age at onset of second language learning) on second language acquisition among immigrants often explicitly take the effect of length of residence in the destination country (a measure of exposure to opportunities to learn the second language) into account. A third…

  6. Unique Roles of Mothering and Fathering in Child Anxiety; Moderation by Child's Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Marjolein; Bogels, Susan M.; van der Bruggen, Corine C.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the associations between the parenting dimensions autonomy granting, over control, and rejection and children's anxiety, in relation to parent and child gender and child age. Elementary school-aged children (n = 179, M[subscript age] = 10.27, SD = 1.30), adolescents (n = 127, M[subscript age] = 15.02, SD = 1.54) and both their parents…

  7. Hand preference of individuals with blindness in everyday activities: The effects of age of sight loss, age, and gender.

    PubMed

    Argyropoulos, Vassilios; Sideridis, Georgios D; Papadimitriou, Vassilios

    2014-08-01

    The research aims of the present study were: (a) to assess the hand preference of blind persons in everyday activities on the basis of gender, type of blindness, and age; and (b) to conduct the above analysis at both the item level and the latent trait level, after concluding the optimum factor structure of the instrument. Participants were 82 individuals with visual impairments and blindness. Their mean age was 29.99 years. Handedness was evaluated using a modified version of the Edinburgh Handedness Inventory (Oldfield, 1971). When comparing handedness preferences across age of sight loss, gender, and age groups results indicated that there were significant differences in preference for several everyday tasks across age of sight loss and age groups but not gender. These results were also confirmed at the latent-trait mean level. The present findings add to the extant literature that highlighted hand preferences for individuals with visual impairments and blindness.

  8. Age and gender might influence big five factors of personality: a preliminary report in Indian population.

    PubMed

    Magan, Dipti; Mehta, Manju; Sarvottam, Kumar; Yadav, Raj Kumar; Pandey, R M

    2014-01-01

    Age and gender are two important physiological variables which might influence the personality of an individual. The influence of age and gender on big five personality domains in Indian population was assessed in this cross-sectional study that included 155 subjects (female = 76, male = 79) aged from 16-75 years. Big five personality factors were evaluated using 60-item NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) at a single point in time. Among the big five factors of personality, Conscientiousness was positively correlated (r = 0.195; P < 0.05) with age in total study population, and retained the significance (P < 0.05) in men only when analyzed by gender subgroups. Further, age and gender sub-group analysis also showed that Neuroticism was inversely correlated with age in women aged 26-35 years (P < 0.05). Neuroticism and Extraversion showed a positive correlation with age in men aged 36-45 years (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Neuroticism was inversely correlated with age in men aged 46-55 years (P < 0.05). This preliminary report suggested that personality traits might change with age, and is gender-dependent.

  9. Cannabis use, gender and age of onset of schizophrenia: data from the ÆSOP study.

    PubMed

    Donoghue, Kim; Doody, Gillian A; Murray, Robin M; Jones, Peter B; Morgan, Craig; Dazzan, Paola; Hart, Jozella; Mazzoncini, Rodolfo; Maccabe, James H

    2014-03-30

    An earlier age of onset of schizophrenia has been identified as a poor prognostic indicator. The current study examines the interaction effect of gender and cannabis use on age of onset of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder. This research forms part of a two-centre epidemiological study of first-episode psychosis and included individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and an age of onset between age 16 and 45. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazards regression were used to compare the effects of cannabis use and gender on age of first symptom of schizophrenia. Akaike's information criteria were used to find the model with the best fit to the data. Cannabis users had an earlier age of first symptom than non-users. There was an interaction with gender; the gender difference in age of onset was diminished in cannabis smokers compared with non-cannabis smokers. The model including cannabis use interacting with gender was the most parsimonious model, followed by cannabis use alone. The addition of other illegal drug use did not improve the model. Cannabis use is associated with an earlier age of onset of schizophrenia, and the gender difference in age of onset is reduced among cannabis smokers.

  10. Age and Input in the Acquisition of Grammatical Gender in Dutch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the effect of age of first exposure and the quantity and quality of input to which non-native acquirers (L2ers) are exposed in their acquisition of grammatical gender in Dutch. Data from 103 English-speaking children, preteens and adults were analyzed for gender agreement on definite determiners. It was observed that…

  11. Student Participation and Instructor Gender in the Mixed-Age College Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Jay R.; Henney, Amanda L.

    1998-01-01

    A study investigated students' classroom interaction in 16 courses at a small extension campus of Indiana University Purdue University Columbus. Results indicate attendance patterns, student age, week in the semester, course level, and time of day were significant predictors of student interaction level. Impact of gender and instructor gender was…

  12. An Investigation of Age and Gender Differences in Physical Self-Concept among Turkish Late Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asci, F. Hulya

    2002-01-01

    Evaluates age and gender differences in physical self-concept of Turkish university students. The Physical Self-Perception Profile was administered to participants for assessing physical self-concept. Multivariate analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect for gender, but no significant main effect for year in school. Univariate…

  13. Suicide Attempts in Israel: Age by Gender Analysis of a National Emergency Departments Database

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Daphna; Haklai, Ziona; Stein, Nechama; Gordon, Ethel-Sherry

    2006-01-01

    An analysis of all emergency department admissions in Israel classified as an attempted suicide in the years 1996-2002 was done to examine attempted suicide rates by age and gender with particular attention to adolescents and young adults. Gender differences in attempted suicide rates were significant only during adolescence and young adulthood,…

  14. Media Representations of Bullying toward Queer Youth: Gender, Race, and Age Discrepancies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paceley, Megan S.; Flynn, Karen

    2012-01-01

    In 2010, media coverage on the bullying of queer youth increased dramatically. This study examined online news media's portrayal of the gender, race, and age of bullying victims. Content analyses of ten sources were compared to research on the dynamics of sexuality-based bullying. Discrepancies were found for gender and race (with White males…

  15. The Effects of Age, Authority, and Gender on Perceptions of Statutory Rape Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahl, Daniel; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2012-01-01

    Using a sample of 2,838 students from a Southwestern university in the United States, the authors examine the effect of respondent's gender, the adult's gender, the age gap between the adult and teen, and the adult's authority, on students' perceptions of vignettes describing adult-teen sexual relationships. Specifically, the authors investigate…

  16. Molecular seasonal, age and gender distributions of Cryptosporidium in diarrhoeic Egyptians: distinct endemicity.

    PubMed

    El-Badry, A A; Al-Antably, A S A; Hassan, M A; Hanafy, N A; Abu-Sarea, E Y

    2015-12-01

    Cryptosporidiosis is a worldwide gastrointestinal disease caused by the protozoan Cryptosporidium parasite. It has a broad range of seasonal and age-related prevalence. We aimed to study the molecular prevalence and seasonality of Cryptosporidium over a period of 1 year in a cohort of Egyptian diarrhoeic patients. Stool samples were collected from 865 diarrhoeic patients attending outpatient clinics of Cairo University hospitals, from all age groups over a 12-month period, examined microscopically for faecal Cryptosporidium oocysts by the acid-fast staining method and for copro-DNA detection using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) assays. PCR-positive samples were characterised molecularly by nPCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine Cryptosporidium genotypes. Cryptosporidium copro-DNA was detected in 19.5% of the collected samples throughout the year, with a major peak in summer (August) and a small rise in spring (April). Infection was mainly C. hominis (95.8%) followed by C. parvum (3.0%), affecting all age groups, with predominance in the pre-school age group, and decrease with age. There were statistically significant associations between the detection of Cryptosporidium and season, diarrhoea, patient age and drinking water, while gender, contact with animals and presence of mucus in stool showed no association. Cryptosporidium in diarrhoeic Egyptians was of distinct endemicity, with the bi-model mostly influenced by population dynamics, with a clear high prevalence in pre-school children and predominating anthroponotic (C. hominis) transmission throughout the year. The obtained results highlight Cryptosporidium as a water contaminant and an important cause of health problems in Egypt, necessitating further studies of the risk factors. PMID:26440040

  17. Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grauer, Kit

    1996-01-01

    This publication focuses on the theme "Gender." Articles include: (1) "Sex! Violence! Death! Art Education for Boys" (Riita Vira; Finland); (2) "Pedagogy for a Gender Sensitive Art Practice" (Rita Irwin; Canada); (3) "Women's Conscientiousness of Gender in Art and Art Education in Brazil" (Ana Mae Barbosa; Brazil); (4) "Gender Issues in United…

  18. Exploiting quality and texture features to estimate age and gender from fingerprints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Lugini, Luca; Cukic, Bojan

    2014-05-01

    Age and gender of an individual, when available, can contribute to identification decisions provided by primary biometrics and help improve matching performance. In this paper, we propose a system which automatically infers age and gender from the fingerprint image. Current approaches for predicting age and gender generally exploit features such as ridge count, and white lines count that are manually extracted. Existing automated approaches have significant limitations in accuracy especially when dealing with data pertaining to elderly females. The model proposed in this paper exploits image quality features synthesized from 40 different frequency bands, and image texture properties captured using the Local Binary Pattern (LBP) and the Local Phase Quantization (LPQ) operators. We evaluate the performance of the proposed approach using fingerprint images collected from 500 users with an optical sensor. The approach achieves prediction accuracy of 89.1% for age and 88.7% for gender.

  19. An Investigation of Gender and Age Differences in Academic Motivation and Classroom Behaviour in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bugler, Myfanwy; McGeown, Sarah; St. Clair-Thompson, Helen

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated gender- and age-related differences in academic motivation and classroom behaviour in adolescents. Eight hundred and fifty-five students (415 girls and 440 boys) aged 11-16 ("M" age = 13.96, "SD" = 1.47) filled in a questionnaire that examined student academic motivation and teachers completed a…

  20. School Subject Preferences: Age and Gender Differences Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Ann; Comber, Chris

    2003-01-01

    Presents a study that focused on the school subject preferences of 11-12 year old girls (n=144) and boys (n=218) and 15-16 year old girls (n=269) and boys (n=300). Reports that there are gender differences in subject preference, while more traditional subjects were favored. (CMK)

  1. Cadmium in moose kidney and liver--age and gender dependency, and standardisation for environmental monitoring.

    PubMed

    Danielsson, Rolf; Frank, Adrian

    2009-10-01

    In the northern hemisphere moose has been found to be suitable as a monitoring animal for the presence of cadmium in the environment. The metal accumulates mainly in the kidney and the liver, with the rate of accumulation dependent on age and possibly also on gender. Collection of tissue material often results in sample selections with disparate age and gender composition, which makes comparison between different regions and different studies difficult. A previous large scale investigation of metals in kidney and liver from moose in Sweden provided Cd data (n = 3,817 and 3,802, respectively) to further explore the relation between Cd accumulation and age/gender. Based on local averages, the individual deviations were analysed with respect to the factors age and gender resulting in an 'ageing function' for each gender and organ. In addition, estimates of the pure individual variations were obtained; the standard deviations correspond to a factor 1.7-1.9 for the Cd concentration, which indicates that 25-30 samples are needed to give a representative mean value (with RSD approximately 10%). In order to be able to compare results from different studies, all individual results can be transformed to represent a 'standard moose' with respect to age and gender. A comparison along these lines was undertaken between Cd levels in Alaska and Sweden. Finally, a relationship between the Cd levels in kidney and liver was derived, providing at least rough estimates for kidney from liver values (or vice versa).

  2. Age and Gender Effects on Wideband Absorbance in Adults with Normal Outer and Middle Ear Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazlan, Rafidah; Kei, Joseph; Ya, Cheng Li; Yusof, Wan Nur Hanim Mohd; Saim, Lokman; Zhao, Fei

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of age and gender on wideband energy absorbance in adults with normal middle ear function. Method: Forty young adults (14 men, 26 women, aged 20-38 years), 31 middle-aged adults (16 men, 15 women, aged 42-64 years), and 30 older adults (20 men, 10 women, aged 65-82 years) were assessed. Energy absorbance…

  3. Maximum length and age of round gobies (Apollonia melanostomus) in Lake Huron

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Black, M. Glen

    2009-01-01

    The round goby (Apollonia [Neogobius] melanostomus,) an invasive species, is generally smaller and shorter-lived in the Great Lakes than it native range. We examined 30 large male round gobies from trawl samples taken in Lake Huron and used otoliths to determine their age and back-calculated growth. Standard lengths ranged from 76 to 97 mm, and the oldest fish were age-5. Low water temperatures in nearshore regions of Lake Huron might cause slow growth and late maturation.

  4. Morphometric evaluation of the frontal sinus in relation to age and gender in subjects residing in Davangere, Karnataka

    PubMed Central

    Soman, Bhakti A.; Sujatha, G. P.; Lingappa, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The main objective of the study was morphometric evaluation of the frontal sinus in relation to age and gender and to establish its forensic importance and application. Materials and Method: The study group consisted of 200 subjects (100 males and 100 females) in the age groups 14-20 years, 21-30 years, 31-45 years, 45 years and above. Posteroanterior (PA) cephalogram radiographs were taken using standardized technique. The processed films were traced and frontal sinus pattern was established as per Yoshino's classification system. Results: The mean values for length, width, and area of the frontal sinus were found to be higher in males as compared to females and area of frontal sinuses increase with age except in males who were 45 years and above. The left width, left area, and bilateral asymmetry in relation to gender was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The morphologic evaluation of frontal sinus is a useful technique to determine gender and seems promising in personal identification. PMID:27051227

  5. Decreasing initial telomere length in humans intergenerationally understates age-associated telomere shortening.

    PubMed

    Holohan, Brody; De Meyer, Tim; Batten, Kimberly; Mangino, Massimo; Hunt, Steven C; Bekaert, Sofie; De Buyzere, Marc L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-08-01

    Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father's age at birth of his offspring (FAB), could explain the discrepancy in shortening rate measurements. We evaluated whether changes occur in initial telomere length over multiple generations in three large datasets and identified paternal birth year (PBY) as a variable that reconciles the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional measurements. We also clarify the association between FAB and offspring telomere length, demonstrating that this effect is substantially larger than reported in the past. These results indicate the presence of a downward secular trend in telomere length at birth over generational time with potential public health implications.

  6. Decreasing initial telomere length in humans intergenerationally understates age-associated telomere shortening

    PubMed Central

    Holohan, Brody; De Meyer, Tim; Batten, Kimberly; Mangino, Massimo; Hunt, Steven C; Bekaert, Sofie; De Buyzere, Marc L; Rietzschel, Ernst R; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Woodring E; Shay, Jerry W

    2015-01-01

    Telomere length shortens with aging, and short telomeres have been linked to a wide variety of pathologies. Previous studies suggested a discrepancy in age-associated telomere shortening rate estimated by cross-sectional studies versus the rate measured in longitudinal studies, indicating a potential bias in cross-sectional estimates. Intergenerational changes in initial telomere length, such as that predicted by the previously described effect of a father’s age at birth of his offspring (FAB), could explain the discrepancy in shortening rate measurements. We evaluated whether changes occur in initial telomere length over multiple generations in three large datasets and identified paternal birth year (PBY) as a variable that reconciles the difference between longitudinal and cross-sectional measurements. We also clarify the association between FAB and offspring telomere length, demonstrating that this effect is substantially larger than reported in the past. These results indicate the presence of a downward secular trend in telomere length at birth over generational time with potential public health implications. PMID:25952108

  7. Role of leptin G-2548A polymorphism in age- and gender-specific development of obesity.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Adeela; Rana, Sobia; Mahmood, Saqib; Saeed, Shahid

    2015-09-01

    Leptin is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, and therefore, is central to adipositysensing pathway. We examined the relationship of the leptin G-2548A polymorphism with obesity and obesityrelated anthropometric and metabolic parameters in a total of 394 (239 obese and 155 non-obese) subjects between 5 and 45 years of age. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, leptin and leptin receptor were determined, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The LEP G-2548A polymorphism showed association with obesity in children and adolescents (less than or equal to 18 years of age) but not in adults. However, analysis by gender stratification revealed association with obesity in girls only. In addition, G-2548A polymorphism showed association with BMI, WC, HC, fasting blood glucose and serum leptin levels. This suggests that G-2548A polymorphism may influence the susceptibility to metabolic disturbances and obesity at an early life. Further investigation with a larger sample size is required to validate the effect of LEP G-2548A polymorphism in obese Pakistani girls. PMID:26333398

  8. Role of leptin G-2548A polymorphism in age- and gender-specific development of obesity.

    PubMed

    Shahid, Adeela; Rana, Sobia; Mahmood, Saqib; Saeed, Shahid

    2015-09-01

    Leptin is involved in the regulation of food intake and energy expenditure, and therefore, is central to adipositysensing pathway. We examined the relationship of the leptin G-2548A polymorphism with obesity and obesityrelated anthropometric and metabolic parameters in a total of 394 (239 obese and 155 non-obese) subjects between 5 and 45 years of age. Body weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HC) and blood pressure (BP) were measured. Body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin, leptin and leptin receptor were determined, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. Genotyping was carried out by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The LEP G-2548A polymorphism showed association with obesity in children and adolescents (less than or equal to 18 years of age) but not in adults. However, analysis by gender stratification revealed association with obesity in girls only. In addition, G-2548A polymorphism showed association with BMI, WC, HC, fasting blood glucose and serum leptin levels. This suggests that G-2548A polymorphism may influence the susceptibility to metabolic disturbances and obesity at an early life. Further investigation with a larger sample size is required to validate the effect of LEP G-2548A polymorphism in obese Pakistani girls.

  9. Greater length-for-age increases the odds of attaining motor milestones in Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Shibani; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Dearden, Kirk A; Marsh, David R; Ha, Tran Thu; Tran, Thach Duc; Pachón, Helena

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood malnutrition has been associated with delayed development. Limited data exist however about the timing of developmental delay early in life. We assessed motor milestone (MM) achievement using the World Health Organization's windows of achievement for gross motor milestones. We performed secondary analysis of baseline data of 158 Vietnamese children aged 5-18 months from a randomized community intervention trial. Median age of motor milestone achievement was compared to WHO reported medians. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify socioeconomic, anthropometric and dietary factors associated with motor milestone achievement during the windows of achievement. Thirty four per cent of the children were stunted. Median age of MM achievement of Vietnamese children lagged by 2.4-3.7 months, compared to the WHO median for all MMs. Greater length-for-age increased the odds for walking with assistance, standing alone and walking alone by more than 3 times. Greater weight-for-age increased the odds by 3.6 for hand-and-knees crawling. Likewise, frequency of daily complementary feeding raised the odds by 3.6 for standing with assistance. In this first application of WHO windows of achievement in Viet Nam, pre-schoolers achieved motor milestones later than WHO reported median age. High prevalence of stunting and association of length-for-age with motor milestone achievement underscore the importance of addressing chronic malnutrition to optimize children's growth and development.

  10. Let me guess how old you are: effects of age, gender, and facial expression on perceptions of age.

    PubMed

    Voelkle, Manuel C; Ebner, Natalie C; Lindenberger, Ulman; Riediger, Michaela

    2012-06-01

    Perceptions of age influence how we evaluate, approach, and interact with other people. Based on a paramorphic human judgment model, the present study investigates possible determinants of accuracy and bias in age estimation across the adult life span. For this purpose, 154 young, middle-aged, and older participants of both genders estimated the age of 171 faces of young, middle-aged, and older men and women, portrayed on a total of 2,052 photographs. Each face displayed either an angry, fearful, disgusted, happy, sad, or neutral expression (FACES database; Ebner, Riediger, & Lindenberger, 2010). We found that age estimation ability decreased with age. Older and young adults, however, were more accurate and less biased in estimating the age of members of their own as compared with those of the other age group. In contrast, no reliable own-gender advantage was observed. Generally, the age of older faces was more difficult to estimate than the age of younger faces. Furthermore, facial expressions had a substantial impact on accuracy and bias of age estimation. Relative to other facial expressions, the age of neutral faces was estimated most accurately, while the age of faces displaying happy expressions was most likely underestimated. Results are discussed in terms of methodological and practical implications for research on age estimation.

  11. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500

  12. Age and gender differences in self-esteem-A cross-cultural window.

    PubMed

    Bleidorn, Wiebke; Arslan, Ruben C; Denissen, Jaap J A; Rentfrow, Peter J; Gebauer, Jochen E; Potter, Jeff; Gosling, Samuel D

    2016-09-01

    Research and theorizing on gender and age differences in self-esteem have played a prominent role in psychology over the past 20 years. However, virtually all empirical research has been undertaken in the United States or other Western industrialized countries, providing a narrow empirical base from which to draw conclusions and develop theory. To broaden the empirical base, the present research uses a large Internet sample (N = 985,937) to provide the first large-scale systematic cross-cultural examination of gender and age differences in self-esteem. Across 48 nations, and consistent with previous research, we found age-related increases in self-esteem from late adolescence to middle adulthood and significant gender gaps, with males consistently reporting higher self-esteem than females. Despite these broad cross-cultural similarities, the cultures differed significantly in the magnitude of gender, age, and Gender × Age effects on self-esteem. These differences were associated with cultural differences in socioeconomic, sociodemographic, gender-equality, and cultural value indicators. Discussion focuses on the theoretical implications of cross-cultural research on self-esteem. (PsycINFO Database Record

  13. Age and growth rates of North Atlantic eel larvae ( Anguilla spp.), based on published length data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesch, F. W.

    1998-03-01

    The age of glass eels arriving at the European coasts is estimated by different authors to range from 3/4 to 3+years; some of these estimates are based on counts of “daily rings”. The present study reviews published data on North Atlantic length frequency distributions. The only years for which larvae samples are available from the spawning area to the European continental slope are 1979 and, to a certain extent, also 1922. In the spring of both years, length frequency distributions exhibited two distinct maxima which are considered to belong to the AG 0 (mean lengths 12 and 18 mm for 1979 and 1922, respectively) and the AG I (47 and 44 mm). In addition, a third, less distinct maximum is visible and the existence of an AG II must be considered. Growth during the first year of life is calculated using the means of total lengths of sufficiently large samples, collected with progressing season, of the years 1920, 21, 22, 79, 81. From the resulting linear regressions for Anguilla anguilla until the beginning of winter, a daily length increase of 0.15 mm was estimated. Growth of A. rostrata was faster (0.22 mm·day-1) Daily length increase of A. anguilla in winter was only 0.03 mm; during a possible second summer 0.06 0.09 mm·day-1 and during a possible third summer considerably less. There is a length increase of the European eel larvae from south to north, known also from glass eels, which makes evaluation of length increase from west to east even more difficult. A higher age of glass eels in the north than in the south is therefore likely.

  14. The effects of age and gender on plasma levels of 63 cytokines.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Anders; Carlsson, Lena; Gordh, Torsten; Lind, Anne-Li; Thulin, Måns; Kamali-Moghaddam, Masood

    2015-10-01

    Cytokines play important roles as regulators of cell functions, and over the last decades a number of cytokine assays have been developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokines. Plasma samples were collected from 33 healthy blood donors. The samples were analyzed using a multiplex proximity extension assay (PEA) allowing simultaneous measurement of 92 cytokines and four technical controls. Biomarkers with less than 80% quantitative results were excluded leaving 63 cytokines that were analyzed for the effects of gender and age. The plasma level of three of the investigated biomarkers (DNER, MCP-4 and MMP-10) were found to be significantly different for the two genders (adjusted p-value<0.05), and 15 of the biomarkers (CCL11, CCL25, CDCP1, CSF-1, CXCL11, CXCL9, FGF-23, Flt3L, HGF, IL-10RB, MCP-3, MCP-4, MMP-10, OPG, VEGF-A) were significantly associated with age. This study reveals the effects of age and gender on a large number of cytokine assays. CXCL5 and TNFB were significantly higher in females, while the other markers with significant gender-dependent differences were higher in males. For the markers that were significantly associated with age, only CXCL6 was found to decrease with age, while the other biomarkers increased with age.

  15. Association of suicide rates for elderly age bands with gender equality.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit

    2008-06-01

    A lower sex ratio (male to female) of elderly suicide rates in several Asian countries have been attributed to gender inequality on several parameters. The association of two proxy measures of gender equality (value of the gender empowerment measure and the gender-related development index) and the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. was examined using multiple linear regression. The two proxy measures of gender equality did not account for significant variance in the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates in the age bands 65-74 yr. and 75+ yr. Association of gender equality with the male to female sex ratio of suicide rates requires further clarification in both cross-sectional studies across different countries and longitudinal studies within individual countries for all age bands. Such studies should, in addition to the GEM and the GDI, include other measures of gender equality including sex differences in educational attainment, income, poverty, housing, employment, access to healthcare and social welfare services, and urbanisation.

  16. Parameterization of European perch Perca fluviatilis length-at-age data using stochastic Gompertz growth models.

    PubMed

    Troynikov, V S; Gorfine, H K; Ložys, L; Pūtys, Z; Jakubavičiūtė, E; Day, R W

    2011-12-01

    Three stochastic versions of the Gompertz growth model were used to parameterize total length (L(T) )-at-age data for perch Perca fluviatilis, an important target species for commercial and recreational fishers and a food species for predatory fishes and aquatic birds. Each model addresses growth heterogeneity by incorporating random parameters from a specific positive distribution: Weibull, gamma or log-normal. The modelling outputs for each version of the model provide L(T) distributions for selected ages and percentiles of L(T) at age for both males and females. The results highlight the importance of using a stochastic approach and the logistic-like growth pattern for analysing growth data for P. fluviatilis in Curonian Lagoon (Lithuania). Outputs from this modelling can be extended to a stochastic analysis of fish cohort dynamics, incorporating all length-based biological relationships, and the selectivity-related interactions between fish cohorts and fishing gear.

  17. NMR imaging estimates of muscle volume and intramuscular fat infiltration in the thigh: variations with muscle, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Hogrel, Jean-Yves; Barnouin, Yoann; Azzabou, Noura; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Voit, Thomas; Moraux, Amélie; Leroux, Gaëlle; Behin, Anthony; McPhee, Jamie S; Carlier, Pierre G

    2015-06-01

    Muscle mass is particularly relevant to follow during aging, owing to its link with physical performance and autonomy. The objectives of this work were to assess muscle volume (MV) and intramuscular fat (IMF) for all the muscles of the thigh in a large population of young and elderly healthy individuals using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to test the effect of gender and age on MV and IMF and to determine the best representative slice for the estimation of MV and IMF. The study enrolled 105 healthy young (range 20-30 years) and older (range 70-80 years) subjects. MRI scans were acquired along the femur length using a three-dimension three-point Dixon proton density-weighted gradient echo sequence. MV and IMF were estimated from all the slices. The effects of age and gender on MV and IMF were assessed. Predictive equations for MV and IMF were established using a single slice at various femur levels for each muscle in order to reduce the analysis process. MV was decreased with aging in both genders, particularly in the quadriceps femoris. IMF was largely increased with aging in men and, to a lesser extent, in women. Percentages of MV decrease and IMF increase with aging varied according to the muscle. Predictive equations to predict MV and IMF from single slices are provided and were validated. This study is the first one to provide muscle volume and intramuscular fat infiltration in all the muscles of the thigh in a large population of young and elderly healthy subjects. PMID:26040416

  18. The exonuclease Nibbler regulates age-associated traits and modulates piRNA length in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Feltzin, Virzhiniya L; Khaladkar, Mugdha; Abe, Masashi; Parisi, Michael; Hendriks, Gert-Jan; Kim, Junhyong; Bonini, Nancy M

    2015-01-01

    Nibbler (Nbr) is a 3′-to-5′ exonuclease that trims the 3′end of microRNAs (miRNAs) to generate different length patterns of miRNAs in Drosophila. Despite its effect on miRNAs, we lack knowledge of its biological significance and whether Nbr affects other classes of small RNAs such as piRNAs and endo-siRNAs. Here, we characterized the in vivo function of nbr by defining the Nbr protein expression pattern and loss-of-function effects. Nbr protein is enriched in the ovary and head. Analysis of nbr null animals reveals adult-stage defects that progress with age, including held-up wings, decreased locomotion, and brain vacuoles, indicative of accelerated age-associated processes upon nbr loss. Importantly, these effects depend on catalytic residues in the Nbr exonuclease domain, indicating that the catalytic activity is responsible for these effects. Given the impact of nbr on miRNAs, we also analyzed the effect of nbr on piRNA and endo-siRNA lengths by deep-sequence analysis of libraries from ovaries. As with miRNAs, nbr mutation led to longer length piRNAs – an effect that was dependent on the catalytic residues of the exonuclease domain. These analyses indicate a role of nbr on age-associated processes and to modulate length of multiple classes of small RNAs including miRNAs and piRNAs in Drosophila. PMID:25754031

  19. The exonuclease Nibbler regulates age-associated traits and modulates piRNA length in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Feltzin, Virzhiniya L; Khaladkar, Mugdha; Abe, Masashi; Parisi, Michael; Hendriks, Gert-Jan; Kim, Junhyong; Bonini, Nancy M

    2015-06-01

    Nibbler (Nbr) is a 3'-to-5' exonuclease that trims the 3'end of microRNAs (miRNAs) to generate different length patterns of miRNAs in Drosophila. Despite its effect on miRNAs, we lack knowledge of its biological significance and whether Nbr affects other classes of small RNAs such as piRNAs and endo-siRNAs. Here, we characterized the in vivo function of nbr by defining the Nbr protein expression pattern and loss-of-function effects. Nbr protein is enriched in the ovary and head. Analysis of nbr null animals reveals adult-stage defects that progress with age, including held-up wings, decreased locomotion, and brain vacuoles, indicative of accelerated age-associated processes upon nbr loss. Importantly, these effects depend on catalytic residues in the Nbr exonuclease domain, indicating that the catalytic activity is responsible for these effects. Given the impact of nbr on miRNAs, we also analyzed the effect of nbr on piRNA and endo-siRNA lengths by deep-sequence analysis of libraries from ovaries. As with miRNAs, nbr mutation led to longer length piRNAs - an effect that was dependent on the catalytic residues of the exonuclease domain. These analyses indicate a role of nbr on age-associated processes and to modulate length of multiple classes of small RNAs including miRNAs and piRNAs in Drosophila. PMID:25754031

  20. Estimating age from recapture data: Integrating incremental growth measures with ancillary data to infer age-at-length

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, Mitchell J.; Link, William A.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the age of individuals in wild populations can be of fundamental importance for answering ecological questions, modeling population demographics, and managing exploited or threatened species. Significant effort has been devoted to determining age through the use of growth annuli, secondary physical characteristics related to age, and growth models. Many species, however, either do not exhibit physical characteristics useful for independent age validation or are too rare to justify sacrificing a large number of individuals to establish the relationship between size and age. Length-at-age models are well represented in the fisheries and other wildlife management literature. Many of these models overlook variation in growth rates of individuals and consider growth parameters as population parameters. More recent models have taken advantage of hierarchical structuring of parameters and Bayesian inference methods to allow for variation among individuals as functions of environmental covariates or individual-specific random effects. Here, we describe hierarchical models in which growth curves vary as individual-specific stochastic processes, and we show how these models can be fit using capture–recapture data for animals of unknown age along with data for animals of known age. We combine these independent data sources in a Bayesian analysis, distinguishing natural variation (among and within individuals) from measurement error. We illustrate using data for African dwarf crocodiles, comparing von Bertalanffy and logistic growth models. The analysis provides the means of predicting crocodile age, given a single measurement of head length. The von Bertalanffy was much better supported than the logistic growth model and predicted that dwarf crocodiles grow from 19.4 cm total length at birth to 32.9 cm in the first year and 45.3 cm by the end of their second year. Based on the minimum size of females observed with hatchlings, reproductive maturity was estimated

  1. Estimating age from recapture data: Integrating incremental growth measures with ancillary data to infer age-at-length

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eaton, M.J.; Link, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Estimating the age of individuals in wild populations can be of fundamental importance for answering ecological questions, modeling population demographics, and managing exploited or threatened species. Significant effort has been devoted to determining age through the use of growth annuli, secondary physical characteristics related to age, and growth models. Many species, however, either do not exhibit physical characteristics useful for independent age validation or are too rare to justify sacrificing a large number of individuals to establish the relationship between size and age. Length-at-age models are well represented in the fisheries and other wildlife management literature. Many of these models overlook variation in growth rates of individuals and consider growth parameters as population parameters. More recent models have taken advantage of hierarchical structuring of parameters and Bayesian inference methods to allow for variation among individuals as functions of environmental covariates or individual-specific random effects. Here, we describe hierarchical models in which growth curves vary as individual-specific stochastic processes, and we show how these models can be fit using capture-recapture data for animals of unknown age along with data for animals of known age. We combine these independent data sources in a Bayesian analysis, distinguishing natural variation (among and within individuals) from measurement error. We illustrate using data for African dwarf crocodiles, comparing von Bertalanffy and logistic growth models. The analysis provides the means of predicting crocodile age, given a single measurement of head length. The von Bertalanffy was much better supported than the logistic growth model and predicted that dwarf crocodiles grow from 19.4 cm total length at birth to 32.9 cm in the first year and 45.3 cm by the end of their second year. Based on the minimum size of females observed with hatchlings, reproductive maturity was estimated to

  2. Sexual Orientation Disparities in Adolescent Cigarette Smoking: Intersections With Race/Ethnicity, Gender, and Age

    PubMed Central

    Corliss, Heather L.; Rosario, Margaret; Birkett, Michelle A.; Newcomb, Michael E.; Buchting, Francisco O.; Matthews, Alicia K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined sexual orientation differences in adolescent smoking and intersections with race/ethnicity, gender, and age. Methods. We pooled Youth Risk Behavior Survey data collected in 2005 and 2007 from 14 jurisdictions; the analytic sample comprised observations from 13 of those jurisdictions (n = 64 397). We compared smoking behaviors of sexual minorities and heterosexuals on 2 dimensions of sexual orientation: identity (heterosexual, gay–lesbian, bisexual, unsure) and gender of lifetime sexual partners (only opposite sex, only same sex, or both sexes). Multivariable regressions examined whether race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified sexual orientation differences in smoking. Results. Sexual minorities smoked more than heterosexuals. Disparities varied by sexual orientation dimension: they were larger when we compared adolescents by identity rather than gender of sexual partners. In some instances race/ethnicity, gender, and age modified smoking disparities: Black lesbians–gays, Asian American and Pacific Islander lesbians–gays and bisexuals, younger bisexuals, and bisexual girls had greater risk. Conclusions. Sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, gender, and age should be considered in research and practice to better understand and reduce disparities in adolescent smoking. PMID:24825218

  3. Clinimetric Testing in Mexican Elders: Associations with Age, Gender, and Place of Residence

    PubMed Central

    Tavano-Colaizzi, Lorena; Arroyo, Pedro; Loria, Alvar; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana Bertha; Pérez-Zepeda, Mario Ulises

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the ability of five clinimetric instruments to discriminate between subjects >60 years of age living at home versus those living in a residency. Methods: Trained nutritionists applied five instruments (cognition/depression/functionality/nutrition/appetite) to 285 subjects with majorities of women (64%), aged <80 years (61%), and home residents (54%). Results: Multivariable regression models were generated for each instrument using age, gender, and residency as independent variables. Age was associated with worsening scores in the five instruments whereas residency showed association in three instruments, and gender in two. Score-age regressions by place of residency showed differences suggesting that Mundet residents had increasingly worse scores with increasing age than home dwellers for cognition, depression, and nutrition. Also, living at home prevented the worsening of depression with increasing age. In contrast, functionality and appetite deteriorated at a similar rate for home and Mundet residents suggesting an inability of these two instruments to discriminate between settings. Score-age regressions by gender suggested that males have less cognitive problems at 60 and 80 years of age but not at 100 years, and better appetite than women at all ages. Conclusion: Increasing age proved to be associated to worsening scores in the five instruments but only three were able to detect differences according to setting. An interesting observation was that living at home appeared to prevent the depression increase with increasing age seen in Mundet residents. PMID:25593910

  4. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain

  5. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen’s ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true ‘mass participation’ ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the ‘Marathon des Sables’; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the ‘Ultraman Hawaii’ and ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’, and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require

  6. Radiographic Evaluation of Mandible to Predict the Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jyothi Shiv; Mohan, Vinay

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study is been conducted using digital panoramic radiographs for predicting age in various age groups and the accuracy of the parameters were accessed as age advances. Materials and Methods: The selected 300 panoramic images were divided into 3 age group of Group A (25-34 years), Group B (35-44 years), and Group C (45 -54 years). Each group comprised of 100 subjects in which 50 were males & 50 females. The age changes were evaluated using five parameters collectively, which were: Gonial angle, Antegonial angle, Mental foramen, Mandibular canal, Mandibular foramen. These parameters were evaluated on panoramic radiographs for age prediction and changes in their position as age advances. Results: Among all the parameters changes in Mandibular canal and mandibular foramen was found to be highly significant (p value ≤0.05) as age advances. Conclusion: These parameters can be used to predict the age of the individual as there were significant changes in Mandibular canal and Mandibular foramen as age advances. For Further studies large sample size, and recent modalities in radiography like CBCT or CT scan are required. PMID:25478451

  7. Offspring's leukocyte telomere length, paternal age, and telomere elongation in sperm.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Masayuki; Cherkas, Lynn F; Kato, Bernet S; Demissie, Serkalem; Hjelmborg, Jacob B; Brimacombe, Michael; Cupples, Adrienne; Hunkin, Janice L; Gardner, Jefferey P; Lu, Xiaobin; Cao, Xiaojian; Sastrasinh, Malinee; Province, Michael A; Hunt, Steven C; Christensen, Kaare; Levy, Daniel; Spector, Tim D; Aviv, Abraham

    2008-02-01

    Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a complex genetic trait. It shortens with age and is associated with a host of aging-related disorders. Recent studies have observed that offspring of older fathers have longer LTLs. We explored the relation between paternal age and offspring's LTLs in 4 different cohorts. Moreover, we examined the potential cause of the paternal age on offspring's LTL by delineating telomere parameters in sperm donors. We measured LTL by Southern blots in Caucasian men and women (n=3365), aged 18-94 years, from the Offspring of the Framingham Heart Study (Framingham Offspring), the NHLBI Family Heart Study (NHLBI-Heart), the Longitudinal Study of Aging Danish Twins (Danish Twins), and the UK Adult Twin Registry (UK Twins). Using Southern blots, Q-FISH, and flow-FISH, we also measured telomere parameters in sperm from 46 young (<30 years) and older (>50 years) donors. Paternal age had an independent effect, expressed by a longer LTL in males of the Framingham Offspring and Danish Twins, males and females of the NHLBI-Heart, and females of UK Twins. For every additional year of paternal age, LTL in offspring increased at a magnitude ranging from half to more than twice of the annual attrition in LTL with age. Moreover, sperm telomere length analyses were compatible with the emergence in older men of a subset of sperm with elongated telomeres. Paternal age exerts a considerable effect on the offspring's LTL, a phenomenon which might relate to telomere elongation in sperm from older men. The implications of this effect deserve detailed study. PMID:18282113

  8. The association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with Rorschach scores.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Gregory J; Giromini, Luciano; Viglione, Donald J; Reese, Jennifer B; Mihura, Joni L

    2015-02-01

    We examined the association of gender, ethnicity, age, and education with 60 Rorschach scores using three clinical and nonclinical samples of adults and youths (ns = 640, 249, and 241). As anticipated for our data sets, there were no reliable associations for gender, ethnicity, or adult age. However, in adults years of education was associated with variables indicative of complexity, the articulation of subtlety and nuance, cognitive synthesis, and coping resources. In the clinical sample of youths, increasing age was primarily associated with more conventional perception and less illogical thought processes. Limitations are discussed in conjunction with further research that could address them, along with implications for applied practice. PMID:25059682

  9. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    PubMed

    Galbany, Jordi; Tung, Jenny; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years) from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge) with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank), but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size. PMID:25950700

  10. Canine Length in Wild Male Baboons: Maturation, Aging and Social Dominance Rank

    PubMed Central

    Galbany, Jordi; Tung, Jenny; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2015-01-01

    Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04–20.45 years) from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge) with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank), but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size. PMID:25950700

  11. Canine length in wild male baboons: maturation, aging and social dominance rank.

    PubMed

    Galbany, Jordi; Tung, Jenny; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C

    2015-01-01

    Canines represent an essential component of the dentition for any heterodont mammal. In primates, like many other mammals, canines are frequently used as weapons. Hence, tooth size and wear may have significant implications for fighting ability, and consequently for social dominance rank, reproductive success, and fitness. We evaluated sources of variance in canine growth and length in a well-studied wild primate population because of the potential importance of canines for male reproductive success in many primates. Specifically, we measured maxillary canine length in 80 wild male baboons (aged 5.04-20.45 years) from the Amboseli ecosystem in southern Kenya, and examined its relationship with maturation, age, and social dominance rank. In our analysis of maturation, we compared food-enhanced baboons (those that fed part time at a refuse pit associated with a tourist lodge) with wild-feeding males, and found that food-enhanced males achieved long canines earlier than wild-feeding males. Among adult males, canine length decreased with age because of tooth wear. We found some evidence that, after controlling for age, longer canines were associated with higher adult dominance rank (accounting for 9% of the variance in rank), but only among relatively high-ranking males. This result supports the idea that social rank, and thus reproductive success and fitness, may depend in part on fighting ability mediated by canine size.

  12. Age and Gender Differences in Coping Style across Various Problems: Omani Adolescents' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Bahrani, Muna; Aldhafri, Said; Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali; Alzubiadi, Abdulqawi

    2013-01-01

    This study examines adolescents' coping styles, with relation to their gender and age and level, of six types of problems. The participants were 1843 adolescents (51.7% female and 48.3% male) from the Sultanate of Oman with a mean age of 15.75. Two scales examining general adaptive and maladaptive coping styles and levels of school, economic,…

  13. Perceiving Age and Gender in Unfamiliar Faces: An fMRI Study on Face Categorization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Holger; Kloth, Nadine; Gullmar, Daniel; Reichenbach, Jurgen R.; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2012-01-01

    Efficient processing of unfamiliar faces typically involves their categorization (e.g., into old vs. young or male vs. female). However, age and gender categorization may pose different perceptual demands. In the present study, we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare the activity evoked during age vs. gender…

  14. School Effects and Ethnic, Gender and Socio-Economic Gaps in Educational Achievement at Age 11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2014-01-01

    There are long-standing achievement gaps in England associated with socio-economic status (SES), ethnicity and gender, but relatively little research has evaluated interactions between these variables or explored school effects on such gaps. This paper analyses the national test results at age 7 and age 11 of 2,836 pupils attending 68 mainstream…

  15. Effects of Gender, Age, and Education on Assertiveness in a Nigerian Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeizugbo, Eucharia U.

    2003-01-01

    Two hundred fourteen (214) married persons, 101 men and 113 women aged 20-60, with at least high school education, participated in the study which investigated the effects of gender, age, and educational attainment on assertiveness among married persons in Nigeria. The Assertive Behavior Assessment scale (ABAS; Onyeizugbo, 1998) was used to…

  16. Searching for the Kinkeepers: Historian Gender, Age, and Type 2 Diabetes Family History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordimaina, Alicia M.; Sheldon, Jane P.; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Jayaratne, Toby Epstein

    2015-01-01

    Kinkeepers facilitate family communication and may be key to family medical history collection and dissemination. Middle-aged women are frequently kinkeepers. Using type 2 diabetes (T2DM) as a model, we explored whether the predicted gender and age effects of kinkeeping can be extended to family medical historians. Through a U.S. telephone survey,…

  17. Measurement Invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale across Gender and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Wells, Craig; Paino, Mercedes; Lemos-Giraldez, Serafin; Villazon-Garcia, Ursula; Sierra, Susana; Garcia-Portilla Gonzalez, Ma Paz; Bobes, Julio; Muniz, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The main objective of the present study was to examine measurement invariance of the Reynolds Depression Adolescent Scale (RADS) (Reynolds, 1987) across gender and age in a representative sample of nonclinical adolescents. The sample was composed of 1,659 participants, 801 males (48.3%), with a mean age of 15.9 years (SD = 1.2). Confirmatory…

  18. Adolescents' Definitions of Bullying: The Contribution of Age, Gender, and Experience of Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Hollie; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzgerald, Amanda; Dolphin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to examine adolescents' definitions of bullying in a nationally representative sample of adolescents in Ireland. Definitions of bullying were examined according to age, gender, and bullying experiences. A sample of 4358 adolescents aged 12-19 years (M = 14.99 years, SD = 1.63) provided their definitions of…

  19. Impact of IQ, Age, SES, Gender, and Race on Autistic Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine differences in autism severity and symptoms as a function of IQ, age, SES, gender, and race while simultaneously controlling these variables in 777 children with autism using a comprehensive measure evaluating 30 core and associated symptoms of autism. The children were 1-17 years of age with IQs from 9 to…

  20. Gender-specific regulation of response to thyroid hormone in aging

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Similar to other systems, the endocrine system is affected by aging. Thyroid hormone, the action of which is affected by many factors, has been shown to be associated with longevity. The most useful marker for the assessment of thyroid hormone action is TSH level. Although age and gender are believed to modify the pituitary set point or response to free thyroid hormone concentration, the precise age- and gender-dependent responses to thyroid hormone have yet to be reported. Methods We analyzed the results of 3564 thyroid function tests obtained from patients who received medication at both out- and inpatient clinics of Shinshu University Hospital. Subjects were from among those with thyroid function test results in the normal or mildly abnormal range. Based on a log-linear relationship between the concentrations of FHs and TSH, we established the putative resistance index to assess the relation between serum FH and TSH levels. Results Free thyroid hormone and TSH concentration showed an inverse log-linear relation. In males, there was a negative relationship between the free T3 resistance index and age. In females, although there were no relationships between age and FHs, the indices were positively related to age. Conclusions These findings indicated that there is a gender-specific response to thyroid hormone with aging. Although the TSH level is a useful marker for the assessment of peripheral thyroid hormone action, the values should be interpreted carefully, especially with regard to age- and gender-related differences. PMID:22280879

  1. Cutaneous Resonance Running Time Varies with Age, Body Site and Gender in a Normal Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Shujun; Man, Wenyan; Fluhr, Joachim W.; Song, Shunpeng; Elias, Peter M; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2010-01-01

    Background/objectives One phenomenon of skin aging is loss of cutaneous elasticity. Measurement of cutaneous resonance running time (CRRT) is a method to assess skin elasticity. Yet, information regarding directional changes of CRRT associated with age, body sites and gender is not yet available. In the present study, we assessed whether changes in CRRT vary with age, body sites and gender in a normal Chinese population. Methods A Reviscometer was used to measure CRRTs in various directions on the left dorsal hand, the forehead and the left canthus of 806 normal Chinese volunteers, aged 2.5-94 years. Results With aging, CRRTs decreased in all directions on the hand, the forehead, and the canthus. A more dramatic reduction of CRRTs on the forehead and the canthus were observed at both the 2–8 and 3–9 o’clock directions. CRRTs in males aged 11– 20 years old were longer than those in females at some directions on all three body sites. Females between 21 and 40 years old showed longer CRRTs than males in some directions of the hand. There were no gender differences in subjects aged 0–10 (except on the canthus) and over 81 years old. Conclusion CRRTs vary with age, body sites and gender. PMID:21039906

  2. Kenyan Student-Teacher Counsellors' Creativity and Its Relationship with Their Gender, Age, and Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinai, Theresia Kavuli

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was: (1) assess creativity of postgraduate student-teacher counselors whose age range was 25-54 years old, and teaching experience of 4-25 years; and (2) to find out whether age, gender, and teaching experience influence creativity. Seventy-two participants (43 females and 29 males) responded to the ICAS (Ibadan Creativity…

  3. Age, Race, and Gender Differences in Depressive Symptoms: A Lifespan Developmental Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracken, Bruce A.; Reintjes, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    This study considered depressive symptoms among a normative sample of 1,900 children, adolescents, and adults (950 males and 950 females) divided across four age-levels to investigate the developmental progression of depressive symptoms by age, race/ethnicity, and gender. The national normative sample of the Clinical Assessment of Depression (CAD)…

  4. Gender difference in health and its determinants in the old-aged population in India.

    PubMed

    Dhak, Biplab

    2009-09-01

    This paper examines the gender differential in health and its socioeconomic and demographic determinants in the old-age population of India based on the National Sample Survey 60th round data collected in 2004. As in developed countries, older women in India report poorer self-reported health and experience greater immobility compared with men. Stepwise logistic regression analysis shows that the gender differential in health is linked to various socioeconomic and demographic variables and that the gender gap could be narrowed with appropriate policy intervention. Specifically, paying special attention towards improving the socioeconomic status of widowed/separated women could attenuate a substantial portion of the observed gender gap in the health of the old-age population. PMID:19563694

  5. Women and substance abuse: gender, age, and cultural considerations.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Sally J; Andrade, Rosi A C; Ruiz, Bridget S

    2009-01-01

    Historically, data has shown that a smaller percentage of women use alcohol and illicit substances compared to men, and that frequency of use has been lower among women compared to use among men. Although this data on usage may be true, researchers also acknowledge that substance use among women has been a hidden issue, one not realistically acknowledged by society, especially prior to the mid-1960s. Along with this, more recent data indicates that rates of substance use among women are increasing. Factors contributing to this increase in substance abuse have begun to receive considerable attention, and recent research suggests that many issues exist that are unique to substance use among women. The purpose of this article is to discuss gender specific considerations in women's substance abuse by examining the history of substance use among women; analyzing gender-specific factors, including physiological factors, trauma-related factors, mental health issues, and cultural considerations that impact on women's substance use; articulating treatment approaches for working with substance abusing women and girls; and providing recommendations for further research in this area.

  6. Age and gender as independent predictors of violence under the influence of alcohol in Zurich, Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Mica, Ladislav; Oesterle, Linda; Werner, Clément M L; Simmen, Hans-Peter

    2015-04-01

    Violent behaviour associated with alcohol consumption is frequently reported by different media. Clinical data analysing the correlation between alcohol intoxication, age, gender and violence are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age, gender and blood alcohol content on violent behaviour under the influence of alcohol under central European conditions. Three hundred patients admitted to the emergency department were included into this study in the time period from January 01. to December 31. 2009. The inclusion criteria were a blood alcohol content (BAC) of ≥10 mmol/l, any traumatic injury and an age ≥16 years. Violence was defined as an evitable act committed by others leading to patient's hospitalisation. The data were compared with Wilcoxon and χ2-test for proportions. The data were considered as significant if p<0,05. Predictive quality was evaluated by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Independent predictors were analyzed by logistic regression analysis. The average age was 36,9±16,9 years (range: 16-84 years), 259 (86%) males and 41 (24%) females. There was a significant difference in gender (odds ratio for gender male 2,88; CI 95%: 1,24-6,67; p<0,001) and age dependent (odds ratio for each year of age 0,94; CI 95%: 0,93-0,96; p<0,0001) violence with no correlation to blood alcohol content found. Logistic regression analysis revealed male gender and young age as an independent predictor for violence. These results clarify the relationship between alcohol, age, gender and violence and have important implications for municipal-level alcohol policies.

  7. Age-gender differences in the postural sway during squat and stand-up movement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Kwon, Yuri; Ho, Yeji; Jeon, Hyeong-Min; Bang, Min-Jung; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Park, Byung Kyu; Cho, Yeong Bin

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of falling among elderly female has been reported to be much higher than that of elderly male. Although the gender differences in the elderly were reported for the static postural sway, there has been no investigation of the gender difference for the dynamic postural sway. This study investigates how age and gender affect the postural sway during dynamic squat and stand-up movement. 124 subjects (62 subjects for each of young and elderly) performed consecutive squat and stand-up movement, 2 times in one session, and 2 sessions per subject. Center of pressure (COP) was measured using force platform during the test. Outcome measures included peak-to-peak sways of the COP (COP sway) in the sagittal plane (anteroposterior) and frontal plane (mediolateral) and also those normalized by body height. Two-way ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were performed for the outcome measures with the independent factors of age and gender. All outcome measures, excluding mediolateral COP sway, showed significant interaction of age and gender (p<0.05). Post-hoc test revealed that only female showed increase in COP sway with age. When normalized by height, increase in COP sways (both directions) with age significant only in women resulted in greater sways in elderly female than elderly male. This may be related to the greater fall rate of elderly female than that of elderly men while performing dynamic activities. PMID:25226975

  8. Age-gender differences in the postural sway during squat and stand-up movement.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Won; Kwon, Yuri; Ho, Yeji; Jeon, Hyeong-Min; Bang, Min-Jung; Jun, Jae-Hoon; Eom, Gwang-Moon; Park, Byung Kyu; Cho, Yeong Bin

    2014-01-01

    Incidence of falling among elderly female has been reported to be much higher than that of elderly male. Although the gender differences in the elderly were reported for the static postural sway, there has been no investigation of the gender difference for the dynamic postural sway. This study investigates how age and gender affect the postural sway during dynamic squat and stand-up movement. 124 subjects (62 subjects for each of young and elderly) performed consecutive squat and stand-up movement, 2 times in one session, and 2 sessions per subject. Center of pressure (COP) was measured using force platform during the test. Outcome measures included peak-to-peak sways of the COP (COP sway) in the sagittal plane (anteroposterior) and frontal plane (mediolateral) and also those normalized by body height. Two-way ANOVA and post-hoc comparisons were performed for the outcome measures with the independent factors of age and gender. All outcome measures, excluding mediolateral COP sway, showed significant interaction of age and gender (p<0.05). Post-hoc test revealed that only female showed increase in COP sway with age. When normalized by height, increase in COP sways (both directions) with age significant only in women resulted in greater sways in elderly female than elderly male. This may be related to the greater fall rate of elderly female than that of elderly men while performing dynamic activities.

  9. The influence of gender and age on disability following ischemic stroke: the Framingham study.

    PubMed

    Kelly-Hayes, Margaret; Beiser, Alexa; Kase, Carlos S; Scaramucci, Amy; D'Agostino, Ralph B; Wolf, Philip A

    2003-01-01

    The magnitude of disability among elderly stroke survivors is substantial. There have been few community-based estimates of the contribution gender and older age make to stroke-related disability and outcome. Using the original Framingham Study cohort, we documented gender-specific neurological deficits and disability differences in stroke survivors at six months post-stroke. Logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate odds ratios, comparing men and women, and adjusting for age, and age and stroke subtype. Age and gender-matched controls were then compared to distinguish stroke-related disability from disability associated with general aging. Results showed that almost half (43%) of all elderly stroke survivors in the cohort had moderate to severe neurological deficits. In the crude analyses, women were more dependent in ADLs (33.9% vs 15.6%), less likely to walk unassisted (40.3% vs 17.8%), and living in nursing homes (34.9 % vs 13.3%). After adjusting for age and stroke subtype, it was older age that accounted for the severity of disability. When compared to age and gender-matched controls, stroke cases were significantly more disabled in all domains studied. In this elderly cohort, more women experienced initial strokes and were more disabled at 6 months post-stroke than men. However, older age at stroke onset, not gender or stroke subtype, was associated with greater disability. Health care providers need to understand that strokes occur later in life for women and that because of age, women are at greater risk for disability and institutionalization.

  10. Human age estimation from blood using mRNA, DNA methylation, DNA rearrangement, and telomere length.

    PubMed

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Liu, Fan; Kokmeijer, Iris; Choi, Ying; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Broer, Linda; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Lewin, Jörn; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the age of unknown persons, or persons with unknown age, can provide important leads in police investigations, disaster victim identification, fraud cases, and in other legal affairs. Previous methods mostly relied on morphological features available from teeth or skeletal parts. The development of molecular methods for age estimation allowing to use human specimens that possess no morphological age information, such as bloodstains, is extremely valuable as this type of samples is commonly found at crime scenes. Recently, we introduced a DNA-based approach for human age estimation from blood based on the quantification of T-cell specific DNA rearrangements (sjTRECs), which achieves accurate assignment of blood DNA samples to one of four 20-year-interval age categories. Aiming at improving the accuracy of molecular age estimation from blood, we investigated different types of biomarkers. We started out by systematic genome-wide surveys for new age-informative mRNA and DNA methylation markers in blood from the same young and old individuals using microarray technologies. The obtained candidate markers were validated in independent samples covering a wide age range using alternative technologies together with previously proposed DNA methylation, sjTREC, and telomere length markers. Cross-validated multiple regression analysis was applied for estimating and validating the age predictive power of various sets of biomarkers within and across different marker types. We found that DNA methylation markers outperformed mRNA, sjTREC, and telomere length in age predictive power. The best performing model included 8 DNA methylation markers derived from 3 CpG islands reaching a high level of accuracy (cross-validated R(2)=0.88, SE±6.97 years, mean absolute deviation 5.07 years). However, our data also suggest that mRNA markers can provide independent age information: a model using a combined set of 5 DNA methylation markers and one mRNA marker could provide

  11. Human age estimation from blood using mRNA, DNA methylation, DNA rearrangement, and telomere length.

    PubMed

    Zubakov, Dmitry; Liu, Fan; Kokmeijer, Iris; Choi, Ying; van Meurs, Joyce B J; van IJcken, Wilfred F J; Uitterlinden, André G; Hofman, Albert; Broer, Linda; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Lewin, Jörn; Kayser, Manfred

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the age of unknown persons, or persons with unknown age, can provide important leads in police investigations, disaster victim identification, fraud cases, and in other legal affairs. Previous methods mostly relied on morphological features available from teeth or skeletal parts. The development of molecular methods for age estimation allowing to use human specimens that possess no morphological age information, such as bloodstains, is extremely valuable as this type of samples is commonly found at crime scenes. Recently, we introduced a DNA-based approach for human age estimation from blood based on the quantification of T-cell specific DNA rearrangements (sjTRECs), which achieves accurate assignment of blood DNA samples to one of four 20-year-interval age categories. Aiming at improving the accuracy of molecular age estimation from blood, we investigated different types of biomarkers. We started out by systematic genome-wide surveys for new age-informative mRNA and DNA methylation markers in blood from the same young and old individuals using microarray technologies. The obtained candidate markers were validated in independent samples covering a wide age range using alternative technologies together with previously proposed DNA methylation, sjTREC, and telomere length markers. Cross-validated multiple regression analysis was applied for estimating and validating the age predictive power of various sets of biomarkers within and across different marker types. We found that DNA methylation markers outperformed mRNA, sjTREC, and telomere length in age predictive power. The best performing model included 8 DNA methylation markers derived from 3 CpG islands reaching a high level of accuracy (cross-validated R(2)=0.88, SE±6.97 years, mean absolute deviation 5.07 years). However, our data also suggest that mRNA markers can provide independent age information: a model using a combined set of 5 DNA methylation markers and one mRNA marker could provide

  12. Morphological study of extrauterine length of the fallopian tube at different age group in Bangladeshi people.

    PubMed

    Ara, Z G; Islam, M S; Sultana, S Z; Mannan, S; Zaman, U K; Rahman, M M; Sen, S

    2010-01-01

    This cross sectional descriptive study was done to see the length of the right & left fallopian tube in Bangladeshi female and to increase the knowledge regarding variational anatomy in our country. Sixty post mortem specimens containing uterus, uterine tube, ureter and surrounding structures were collected by non random or purposive sampling technique from cadavers of different age groups and fixed in 10% formol saline solution. This study was carried out in the department of Anatomy of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2006 to June 2007. Gross and fine dissection was carried out to study the length of fallopian tube (right & left). In this study our findings were compared with those of the standard text books. Maximum length of fallopian tube was found in middle age group (B = 13 to 45 years). It is about 9.19 cm in right side and 8.82 cm in left side. It is also important to note that more kinking was observed in middle age group. PMID:20046169

  13. Men's Perceptions of an Acquaintance Rape: The Role of Relationship Length, Victim Resistance, and Gender Role Attitudes.

    PubMed

    Angelone, D J; Mitchell, Damon; Grossi, Laura

    2015-08-01

    Sexual aggression is a persistent and prevalent issue in the United States, which often results in a number of psychological, emotional, and physical consequences for victims. The current study examined whether the length of relationship between the victim and perpetrator, level of victim resistance, and observers' gender role attitudes play a role in observers' perceptions of an alleged sexual assault. Participants included 297 male college students from a public university in the Northeastern United States. Contrary to hypotheses, there were no significant effects for length of relationship on participants' attributions. Relative to no resistance, verbal and physical strategies by the victim predicted higher levels of victim credibility, perpetrator culpability, and perpetrator guilt, as well as lower levels of victim culpability and perceived victim pleasure. Endorsement of traditional adversarial sex role beliefs and hostile sexist attitudes, as opposed to egalitarian attitudes, were associated with the attribution of less credibility to the victim, perceived victim trauma, perpetrator culpability, perpetrator guilt, and shorter recommended prison sentences, as well as greater victim culpability and perceived victim pleasure. Laypersons' perceptions of sexual assault merit further study, as they are relevant to juror decision making and third party responses to sexual victimization (e.g., peer support for victim) and can contribute to the secondary victimization and recovery of survivors of sexual assault.

  14. Heterotyic and homotypic continuity: the moderating effects of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Wendy M; Ostrander, Rick

    2008-10-01

    The longitudinal relationships between depression, anxiety, conduct problems, and inattention were investigated. The present study attempted to overcome the methodological limitations of prior research on childhood co-occurring syndromes by using continuous measures of constructs, controlling for multiple symptoms at baseline, and considering the role of age and gender. Using a community sample of 6-11 year-old children, we found evidence of homotypic and heterotypic continuity in baseline characteristics and their symptoms 5 years later. Notably, inattention and conduct problems were stable over time regardless of age or gender. Additionally, inattention predicted subsequent depression, a relationship unaffected by overlapping psychopathology. With attention problems considered, conduct problems did not predict future depression as others have predicted. Instead, depression in young children was a unique risk factor for subsequent conduct problems. Similarly, most other relationships were moderated by age or gender. The implications for understanding childhood psychopathology and for designing prevention and treatment programs are discussed. PMID:18461437

  15. Heterotyic and homotypic continuity: the moderating effects of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Reinke, Wendy M; Ostrander, Rick

    2008-10-01

    The longitudinal relationships between depression, anxiety, conduct problems, and inattention were investigated. The present study attempted to overcome the methodological limitations of prior research on childhood co-occurring syndromes by using continuous measures of constructs, controlling for multiple symptoms at baseline, and considering the role of age and gender. Using a community sample of 6-11 year-old children, we found evidence of homotypic and heterotypic continuity in baseline characteristics and their symptoms 5 years later. Notably, inattention and conduct problems were stable over time regardless of age or gender. Additionally, inattention predicted subsequent depression, a relationship unaffected by overlapping psychopathology. With attention problems considered, conduct problems did not predict future depression as others have predicted. Instead, depression in young children was a unique risk factor for subsequent conduct problems. Similarly, most other relationships were moderated by age or gender. The implications for understanding childhood psychopathology and for designing prevention and treatment programs are discussed.

  16. Age and Gender Differences in Emotion Regulation Strategies: Autobiographical Memory, Rumination, Problem Solving and Distraction.

    PubMed

    Ricarte Trives, Jorge Javier; Navarro Bravo, Beatriz; Latorre Postigo, José Miguel; Ros Segura, Laura; Watkins, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Our study tested the hypothesis that older adults and men use more adaptive emotion regulatory strategies but fewer negative emotion regulatory strategies than younger adults and women. In addition, we tested the hypothesis that rumination acts as a mediator variable for the effect of age and gender on depression scores. Differences in rumination, problem solving, distraction, autobiographical recall and depression were assessed in a group of young adults (18-29 years) compared to a group of older adults (50-76 years). The older group used more problem solving and distraction strategies when in a depressed state than their younger counterparts (ps .06). Ordinary least squares regression analyses with bootstrapping showed that rumination mediated the association between age, gender and depression scores. These results suggest that older adults and men select more adaptive strategies to regulate emotions than young adults and women with rumination acting as a significant mediator variable in the association between age, gender, and depression. PMID:27425806

  17. Prediction of Elderly Anthropometric Dimension Based On Age, Gender, Origin, and Body Mass Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indah, P.; Sari, A. D.; Suryoputro, M. R.; Purnomo, H.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Studies have indicated that elderly anthropometric dimensions will different for each person. To determine whether there are differences in the anthropometric data of Javanese elderly, this study will analyze whether the variables of age, gender, origin, and body mass index (BMI) have been associated with elderly anthropometric dimensions. Age will be divided into elderly and old categories, gender will divide into male and female, origins were divided into Yogyakarta and Central Java, and for BMI only use the normal category. Method: Anthropometric studies were carried out on 45 elderly subjects in Sleman,Yogyakarta. Results and Discussion: The results showed that some elderly anthropometric dimensions were influenced by age, origin, and body mass index but gender doesn't significantly affect the elderly anthropometric dimensions that exist in the area of Sleman. The analysis has provided important aid when designing products that intended to the Javanese elderly Population.

  18. School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version: Factorial Invariance and Latent Mean Differences Across Gender and Age in Spanish Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingles, Candido J.; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M.; Marzo, Juan C.; Martinez-Monteagudo, Maria C.; Estevez, Estefania

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short Version across gender and age groups for 2,367 Spanish students, ranging in age from 12 to 18 years. Configural and measurement invariance were found across gender and age samples for all dimensions of the School Anxiety Inventory-Short…

  19. Prediction of age and gender using digital radiographic method: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Poongodi, V.; Kanmani, R.; Anandi, M. S.; Krithika, C. L.; Kannan, A.; Raghuram, P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Aim and Objective: To investigate age, sex based on gonial angle, width and breadth of the ramus of the mandible by digital orthopantomograph. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 panoramic radiographic images were selected. The age of the individuals ranged between 4 and 75 years of both the gender - males (113) and females (87) and selected radiographic images were measured using KLONK image measurement software tool with linear, angular measurement. The investigated radiographs were collected from the records of SRM Dental College, Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Radiographs with any pathology, facial deformities, if no observation of mental foramen, congenital deformities, magnification, and distortion were excluded. Results: Mean, median, standard deviation, derived to check the first and third quartile, linear regression is used to check age and gender correlation with angle of mandible, height and width of the ramus of mandible. Conclusion: The radiographic method is a simpler and cost-effective method of age identification compared with histological and biochemical methods. Mandible is strongest facial bone after the skull, pelvic bone. It is validatory to predict age and gender by many previous studies. Radiographic and tomographic images have become an essential aid for human identification in forensic dentistry forensic dentists can choose the most appropriate one since the validity of age and gender estimation crucially depends on the method used and its proper application. PMID:26538907

  20. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people.

  1. Gender, Race, and Age: The Content of Compound Stereotypes Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Andreoletti, Carrie; Leszczynski, Jennifer P; Disch, William B

    2015-07-01

    While stereotypes about gender, race, and age (particularly old age) have been studied independently, few have examined the content of compound stereotypes that consider the intersection of gender, race, and age. Using a within-subjects design, we examined stereotypes as a function of target gender (male, female), race (Black, White), and age across the life span (adolescent, young adult, middle-aged, young-old, and old-old). Participants rated 20 target groups on 10 attributes representative of either an agentic (e.g., ambitious) or communal (e.g., considerate) orientation. Participants were presented only with categorical information (e.g., Black, 85-year-old, males), and ordering of categorical information and target groups was counterbalanced across participants. We hypothesized differential effects of target gender and race as a function of age. Multivariate analyses of variance on each attribute revealed significant main effects that supported traditional stereotype research, but significant interactions revealed a more complicated picture. Overall, results showed that while gender stereotypes about agency and communion generally hold up across the life span, they are more applicable to White than Black targets. Results also supported the notion that we hold unique stereotypes based on multiple social categories rather than simply perceiving one social category as more salient than another, which was best exemplified in the case of Black female targets that were less likely to be perceived in gender stereotypic ways across the life span. We suggest stereotype research needs to shift to accommodate for the complexity and diversity of real people. PMID:26610722

  2. Gender Transitions in Later Life: A Queer Perspective on Successful Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fabbre, Vanessa D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Most understandings of successful aging are developed within a heteronormative cultural framework, leading to a dearth of theoretical and empirical scholarship relevant to lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) older adults. This study explores the experiences of transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition in later life in order to develop culturally diverse conceptualizations of health and wellness in older age. Design and Methods: Using the extended case method, in-depth interviews were conducted with male-to-female-identified persons (N = 22) who have seriously contemplated or pursued a gender transition past the age of 50. In addition, 170hr of participant observation was carried out at 3 national transgender conferences generating ethnographic field notes on the topics of aging and gender transitions in later life. Results: Interpretive analyses suggest that many transgender older adults experience challenges to their gender identities that put their emotional and physical well-being at risk. Contemporary queer theory is used to understand these experiences and argue that greater attention to experiences of queer “failure” and negotiating “success on new terms” may be integral aspects of growth and development for transgender older adults. Implications: The Baby Boom generation is aging in a post-Stonewall, LGBTQ civil rights era, yet gerontology’s approach to gender and sexual identity has largely been formulated from a heteronormative perspective. A framework for understanding older transgender persons’ experiences informed by queer theory offers a new orientation for conceptualizing successful aging in the lives of marginalized gender and sexual minorities. PMID:25161264

  3. Adult Age, Gender, and Race Group Differences in Images of Aging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foos, Paul W.; Clark, M. Cherie; Terrell, Debra F.

    2006-01-01

    Younger and older African American and Caucasian American adults, who were matched by age ("M" age = 40.63 years), completed a survey on perceptions of aging and subjective age. The 2 groups did not differ in the age they considered someone to be old ("M" age = 74.5 years). However, when asked which age was the happiest age, African Americans…

  4. Cervical spine geometry in the automotive seated posture: variations with age, stature, and gender.

    PubMed

    Desantis Klinich, Kathleen; Ebert, Sheila M; Van Ee, Chris A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Prasad, Monica; Reed, Matthew P; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2004-11-01

    In the mid 1970s, UMTRI investigated the biomechanical properties of the head and neck using 180 "normal" adult subjects selected to fill eighteen subject groups based on age (young, mid-aged, older), gender, and stature (short, medium, and tall by gender). Lateral-view radiographs of the subjects' cervical spines and heads were taken with the subjects seated in a simulated automotive neutral posture, as well as with their necks in full-voluntary flexion and full-voluntary extension. Although the cervical spine and lower head geometry were previously measured manually and documented, new technologies have enabled computer digitization of the scanned x-ray images and a more comprehensive and detailed analysis of the variation in cervical spine and lower head geometry with subject age, stature, and gender. After scanning the radiographic images, 108 skeletal landmarks on the cervical vertebrae and 10 head landmarks were digitized. The resulting database of cervical spine and head geometry was used to study cervical spine curvature, vertebral dimensions, and head/neck orientation as functions of age, gender, and stature. The data were used to characterize neutral posture cervical spine curvatures using two methods: a curvature index and Bézier spline functions. Lateral-view vertebral dimensions were also calculated for each subject, and a cascading series of equations was developed to estimate vertebral size and shape for a selected age, stature, and gender. The orientation of the cervical spine was defined using a neck chord angle, where the neck chord was varied to use different anatomical landmarks and estimates of joint centers for the top and bottom of the neck chord. Results from the study have been incorporated into a MS-Access based software package that allows researchers and modelers to generate cervical spine geometries for occupants of a specified age, gender, and stature. The program allows selection of individual occupants from the database that meet

  5. The moderating roles of gender and age in tablet computer adoption.

    PubMed

    Hur, Won-Moo; Kim, Hanna; Kim, Wan-Min

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between perceived usefulness, ease of use, and enjoyment and attitude toward tablet computers, and between social influence and use intentions for such devices, as moderated by gender and age. Results from a partial least squares analysis using a sample of 482 consumers in South Korea showed that perceived usefulness and enjoyment have a positive effect on attitude toward tablets, while social influence and attitude toward tablet computers have a positive influence on intention to use tablets. Furthermore, gender and age moderated the relationship between perceived ease of use and attitude toward tablets.

  6. How diversity gets lost: Age and gender in design practices of information and communication technologies.

    PubMed

    Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an "other," and consequently their input was neglected. These views were thus materialized in design and reinforce such views in powerful yet unobtrusive ways.

  7. How diversity gets lost: Age and gender in design practices of information and communication technologies.

    PubMed

    Oudshoorn, Nelly; Neven, Louis; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2016-01-01

    This article adopts an intersectional approach to investigate how age, gender, and diversity are represented, silenced, or prioritized in design. Based on a comparative study of design practices of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for young girls and older people, this article describes differences and similarities in the ways in which designers tried to cope with diversity. Ultimately diversity was neglected, and the developers relied on hegemonic views of gender and age, constructed older people and young girls as an "other," and consequently their input was neglected. These views were thus materialized in design and reinforce such views in powerful yet unobtrusive ways. PMID:26918623

  8. Length velocity acceleration at 9 months of age in a representative birth cohort of Dutch infants.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, J; Brand, R; Massa, G; Herngreen, W P; Wit, J M

    2000-01-01

    According to the ICP (infancy-childhood-puberty) growth model, statural growth can be divided into three partially superimposed components assumed to represent different physiologic mechanisms. This model predicts a sudden acceleration of length velocity (LV) at the onset of the childhood component around 9 months. The existence of such an infancy-childhood growth spurt has not yet been firmly corroborated by epidemiological studies. In the present study length measurements were made at the target ages of 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 24 months in a birth cohort of 2034 infants. In order to check whether length growth showed a continuous smooth pattern, different mathematical models were fitted to the individual growth curves. The models included Count and Guo functions, 5th order polynomial and combinations of 5th order polynomial with the logarithmic term of the Count function and the square root term of the Guo function. We showed that in boys and girls there is a small but systematic lack of fit of the mathematical modeling, due to a sudden acceleration of LV around 9 months. In addition there was an increase in variation of attained length at this age. Comparison of unbalanced ANOVA models with and without addition of dummy variables for the target ages confirmed that there was an acceleration around 9 months that, if corrected for, leads to a significantly improved model fit (likelihood ratio test p < 0.0001). In absolute terms of LV, the misfit at 9 months was not greater than 0.5 cm/year on average. We conclude that the results of this study support the existence of a late infancy growth spurt. In our opinion, however, the magnitude of the phenomenon does not legitimate construction and use of discontinuous growth references such as the ICP reference.

  9. Gender Differences in Physical Aggression: A Prospective Population-Based Survey of Children before and after 2 Years of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baillargeon, Raymond H.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Keenan, Kate; Cote, Sylvana; Perusse, Daniel; Wu, Hong-Xing; Boivin, Michel; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    There has been much controversy over the past decades on the origins of gender differences in children's aggressive behavior. A widely held view is that gender differences emerge sometime after 2 years of age and increase in magnitude thereafter because of gender-differentiated socialization practices. The objective of this study was to test…

  10. Liking and Identifying Emotionally Expressive Music: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Patrick G.; Schellenberg, E. Glenn; Stalinski, Stephanie M.

    2011-01-01

    Adults and children 5, 8, and 11 years of age listened to short excerpts of unfamiliar music that sounded happy, scary, peaceful, or sad. Listeners initially rated how much they liked each excerpt. They subsequently made a forced-choice judgment about the emotion that each excerpt conveyed. Identification accuracy was higher for young girls than…

  11. Age and Gender Differences in the Predictors of Adolescent Drinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, James G.; Bolitho, Floyd; Bertrand, Lorne D.

    1998-01-01

    Predictors of alcohol consumption were investigated across age and sex among junior and senior high school students (N=1,942). The dominant predictor for young boys was whether their friends drink; for girls it was related to interpersonal disorder. Peer pressure was important for older girls and continued dominant for boys. (EMK)

  12. Age and Gender as Relocation Stress Variables of the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Samuel W.; And Others

    A questionnaire to identify the time to adjust, sources of stress, and importance of services was completed by 241 residents (68 percent), median age 70 years, of a continuing care retirement community (CCRC). The answers to these questions provided valuable information; however, an equally important finding was the variability of responses…

  13. Auditory brainstem response in neonates: influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio

    PubMed Central

    Angrisani, Rosanna M. Giaffredo; Bautzer, Ana Paula D.; Matas, Carla Gentile; de Azevedo, Marisa Frasson

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of gender and weight/gestational age ratio on the Auditory Brainstem Response (ABR) in preterm (PT) and term (T) newborns. METHODS: 176 newborns were evaluated by ABR; 88 were preterm infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). The preterm infants were compared to 88 term infants - 44 females (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age) and 44 males (22 small and 22 appropriate for gestational age). All newborns had bilateral presence of transient otoacoustic emissions and type A tympanometry. RESULTS: No interaural differences were found. ABR response did not differentiate newborns regarding weight/gestational age in males and females. Term newborn females showed statistically shorter absolute latencies (except on wave I) than males. This finding did not occur in preterm infants, who had longer latencies than term newborns, regardless of gender. CONCLUSIONS: Gender and gestational age influence term infants' ABR, with lower responses in females. The weight/gestational age ratio did not influence ABR response in either groups. PMID:24473955

  14. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region

    PubMed Central

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M.; Alencar, João C.; Fichman, Helenice C.; Marques, Priscila d. N.; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7–10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598

  15. Brazilian Normative Data on Letter and Category Fluency Tasks: Effects of Gender, Age, and Geopolitical Region.

    PubMed

    Hazin, Izabel; Leite, Gilmara; Oliveira, Rosinda M; Alencar, João C; Fichman, Helenice C; Marques, Priscila D N; de Mello, Claudia Berlim

    2016-01-01

    Verbal fluency is a basic function of language that refers to the ability to produce fluent speech. Despite being an essentially linguistic function, its measurements are also used to evaluate executive aspects of verbal behavior. Performance in verbal fluency (VF) tasks varies according to age, education, and cognitive development. Neurodevelopmental disorders that affect the functioning of frontal areas tend to cause lower performance in VF tasks. Despite the relative consensus that has been reached in terms of the use of VF tasks for the diagnosis of dyslexia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, few studies have considered regional variations in Brazil. The present study sought to provide normative data on VF tasks in children by considering gender, age, education, and geopolitical region of origin with auxiliary purposes in neuropsychological diagnosis of disorders that occur with executive changes The study included 298 participants, 7-10 years of age of both genders, who performed three letter fluency tasks and three category fluency tasks. The data were subjected to correlational and variance analyses, with age and gender as factors. No effect of gender on the children's performance was found. However, significant differences between age groups were observed, with better performance in letter tasks in older children and better performance in letter tasks compared with category tasks. Significant regional differences in performance on the letter VF task were observed. These results reinforce the importance of regional normative data in countries with high regional cultural variations, such as Brazil. PMID:27242598

  16. Stretch-shortening cycle muscle power in women and men aged 18-81 years: Influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Edwén, C E; Thorlund, J B; Magnusson, S P; Slinde, F; Svantesson, U; Hulthén, L; Aagaard, P

    2014-08-01

    This study explored the age-related deterioration in stretch-shortening cycle (SSC) muscle power and concurrent force-velocity properties in women and men across the adult life span. A total of 315 participants (women: n = 188; men: n = 127) aged 18-81 years performed maximal countermovement jumps on an instrumented force plate. Maximal SSC leg extension power expressed per kg body mass (Ppeak) was greater in men than in women across the adult age span (P < 0.001); however, this gender difference was progressively reduced with increasing age, because men showed an ∼50% faster rate of decline in SSC power than women (P < 0.001). Velocity at peak power (VPpeak) was greater in men than in women (P < 0.001) but declined at a greater rate in men than in women (P = 0.002). Vertical ground reaction force at peak power (FPpeak) was higher in men than in women in younger adults only (P < 0.001) and the age-related decline was steeper in men than in women (P < 0.001). Men demonstrated a steeper rate of decline in Ppeak than women with progressive aging. This novel finding emerged as a result of greater age-related losses in men for both force and velocity. Consequently, maximal SSC power production was observed to converge between genders when approaching old age.

  17. Infant temperament: stability by age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Bornstein, Marc H; Putnick, Diane L; Gartstein, Maria A; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the 1st year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (< 9 months) interassessment intervals and small to medium for longer (> 10 months) intervals.

  18. Infant Temperament: Stability by Age, Gender, Birth Order, Term Status, and SES

    PubMed Central

    Bornstein, Marc H.; Putnick, Diane L.; Gartstein, Maria A.; Hahn, Chun-Shin; Auestad, Nancy; O’Connor, Deborah L.

    2015-01-01

    Two complementary studies focused on stability of infant temperament across the first year and considered infant age, gender, birth order, term status, and socioeconomic status (SES) as moderators. Study 1 consisted of 73 mothers of firstborn term girls and boys queried at 2, 5, and 13 months of age. Study 2 consisted of 335 mothers of infants of different gender, birth order, term status, and SES queried at 6 and 12 months. Consistent positive and negative affectivity factors emerged at all time-points across both studies. Infant temperament proved stable and robust across gender, birth order, term status, and SES. Stability coefficients for temperament factors and scales were medium to large for shorter (<9 months) inter-assessment intervals and small to medium for longer (>10 months) intervals. PMID:25865034

  19. Age-adjusted recipient pretransplantation telomere length and treatment-related mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Calado, Rodrigo T.; Busson, Marc; Abrams, Jeffrey; Adoui, Nadir; Robin, Marie; Larghero, Jérôme; Dhedin, Nathalie; Xhaard, Alienor; Clave, Emmanuel; Charron, Dominique; Toubert, Antoine; Loiseau, Pascale; Socié, Gérard; Young, Neal S.

    2012-01-01

    Telomere attrition induces cell senescence and apoptosis. We hypothesized that age-adjusted pretransplantation telomere length might predict treatment-related mortality (TRM) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Between 2000 and 2005, 178 consecutive patients underwent HSCT from HLA-identical sibling donors after myeloablative conditioning regimens, mainly for hematologic malignancies (n = 153). Blood lymphocytes' telomere length was measured by real-time quantitative PCR before HSCT. Age-adjusted pretransplantation telomere lengths were analyzed for correlation with clinical outcomes. After age adjustment, patients' telomere-length distribution was similar among all 4 quartiles except for disease stage. There was no correlation between telomere length and engraftment, GVHD, or relapse. The overall survival was 62% at 5 years (95% confidence interval [CI], 54-70). After a median follow-up of 51 months (range, 1-121 months), 43 patients died because of TRM. The TRM rate inversely correlated with telomere length. TRM in patients in the first (lowest telomere length) quartile was significantly higher than in patients with longer telomeres (P = .017). In multivariate analysis, recipients' age (hazard ratio, 1.1; 95% CI, .0-1.1; P = .0001) and age-adjusted telomere length (hazard ratio, 0.4; 95% CI; 0.2-0.8; P = .01) were independently associated with TRM. In conclusion, age-adjusted recipients' telomere length is an independent biologic marker of TRM after HSCT. PMID:22948043

  20. Evolution of age and length at maturation of Alaskan salmon under size-selective harvest.

    PubMed

    Kendall, Neala W; Dieckmann, Ulf; Heino, Mikko; Punt, André E; Quinn, Thomas P

    2014-02-01

    Spatial and temporal trends and variation in life-history traits, including age and length at maturation, can be influenced by environmental and anthropogenic processes, including size-selective exploitation. Spawning adults in many wild Alaskan sockeye salmon populations have become shorter at a given age over the past half-century, but their age composition has not changed. These fish have been exploited by a gillnet fishery since the late 1800s that has tended to remove the larger fish. Using a rare, long-term dataset, we estimated probabilistic maturation reaction norms (PMRNs) for males and females in nine populations in two basins and correlated these changes with fishery size selection and intensity to determine whether such selection contributed to microevolutionary changes in maturation length. PMRN midpoints decreased in six of nine populations for both sexes, consistent with the harvest. These results support the hypothesis that environmental changes in the ocean (likely from competition) combined with adaptive microevolution (decreased PMRNs) have produced the observed life-history patterns. PMRNs did not decrease in all populations, and we documented differences in magnitude and consistency of size selection and exploitation rates among populations. Incorporating evolutionary considerations and tracking further changes in life-history traits can support continued sustainable exploitation and productivity in these and other exploited natural resources. PMID:24567750

  1. Age and gender disparities in the risk of carotid revascularization procedures.

    PubMed

    Giannopoulos, Sotirios; Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Vasdekis, Spyros N; Boviatsis, Efstathios; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos Iota; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2013-10-01

    The potential effect of age and gender stratification in the outcome of patients with carotid artery stenosis undergoing carotid revascularization procedures (CRP) may have important implications in clinical practice. Both European Stroke Organization and American Heart Association guidelines suggest that age and sex should be taken into account when selecting a CRP for an individual patient. We reviewed available literature data through Medline and Embase. Our search was based on the combination of terms: age, gender, sex, carotid artery stenosis, carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Postoperative stroke and mortality rates increased with age after any CRP (CEA or CAS), especially in patients aged over 75 years. Older patients with carotid artery stenosis undergoing CAS were found to have a nearly double risk of stroke or death compared with CEA, while CEA was found to benefit more patients aged over 70 years with symptomatic carotid artery stenosis. Male patients with symptomatic or asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis had lower stroke/mortality rates and benefited more from CEA compared with females. For the periprocedural risk of stroke or death in patients with carotid artery stenosis after CAS no sex differences were found. Therefore, CEA appears to have lower perioperative risks than CAS in patients aged over 70 years, and thus should be the treatment of choice if not contraindicated. The periprocedural risk of CEA is lower in men than in women, while there was no effect of gender on the periprocedural risk of CAS.

  2. Gender, aging and longevity in humans: an update of an intriguing/neglected scenario paving the way to a gender-specific medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ostan, Rita; Monti, Daniela; Gueresi, Paola; Bussolotto, Mauro; Franceschi, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Data showing a remarkable gender difference in life expectancy and mortality, including survival to extreme age, are reviewed starting from clinical and demographic data and stressing the importance of a comprehensive historical perspective and a gene–environment/lifestyle interaction. Gender difference regarding prevalence and incidence of the most important age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, Type 2 diabetes, disability, autoimmunity and infections, are reviewed and updated with particular attention to the role of the immune system and immunosenescence. On the whole, gender differences appear to be pervasive and still poorly considered and investigated despite their biomedical relevance. The basic biological mechanisms responsible for gender differences in aging and longevity are quite complex and still poorly understood. The present review focuses on centenarians and their offspring as a model of healthy aging and summarizes available knowledge on three basic biological phenomena, i.e. age-related X chromosome inactivation skewing, gut microbiome changes and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA genetic variants. In conclusion, an appropriate gender-specific medicine approach is urgently needed and should be systematically pursued in studies on healthy aging, longevity and age-related diseases, in a globalized world characterized by great gender differences which have a high impact on health and diseases. PMID:27555614

  3. Gender, aging and longevity in humans: an update of an intriguing/neglected scenario paving the way to a gender-specific medicine.

    PubMed

    Ostan, Rita; Monti, Daniela; Gueresi, Paola; Bussolotto, Mauro; Franceschi, Claudio; Baggio, Giovannella

    2016-10-01

    Data showing a remarkable gender difference in life expectancy and mortality, including survival to extreme age, are reviewed starting from clinical and demographic data and stressing the importance of a comprehensive historical perspective and a gene-environment/lifestyle interaction. Gender difference regarding prevalence and incidence of the most important age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, Type 2 diabetes, disability, autoimmunity and infections, are reviewed and updated with particular attention to the role of the immune system and immunosenescence. On the whole, gender differences appear to be pervasive and still poorly considered and investigated despite their biomedical relevance. The basic biological mechanisms responsible for gender differences in aging and longevity are quite complex and still poorly understood. The present review focuses on centenarians and their offspring as a model of healthy aging and summarizes available knowledge on three basic biological phenomena, i.e. age-related X chromosome inactivation skewing, gut microbiome changes and maternally inherited mitochondrial DNA genetic variants. In conclusion, an appropriate gender-specific medicine approach is urgently needed and should be systematically pursued in studies on healthy aging, longevity and age-related diseases, in a globalized world characterized by great gender differences which have a high impact on health and diseases. PMID:27555614

  4. Influence of Age and Gender in Takotsubo Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Birke; Sechtem, Udo

    2016-10-01

    Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) occurs predominantly in elderly females but young individuals and children may also be affected. There are no consistent differences between men and women regarding age, symptoms, prehospital delay, or clinical course. Mortality has been reported to be higher in males. The QTc interval may be disproportionately prolonged in male patients in the days after admission predisposing them to ventricular arrhythmias. The higher level of cardiac markers in males with TTS may be related to the greater frequency of physical stress before the onset of TTS. Understanding the pathogenetic background may lead to preventive/therapeutic means against this life-threatening disease. PMID:27638022

  5. [The (in)visible gender of third age in nursing knowledge].

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Maria do Livramento Fortes; Tyrrel, Maria Antonieta Rubio

    2005-01-01

    This is a bibliographic study in which a research of scientific production regarding to Woman in the Third Age was proceeded, analizing the catalogue of Dissertations and Thesis of the Center of Studies and Researches in Nursing (CEPEn) of the Brazilian Association of Nursing (ABEn) available in CD-ROM, comprising the period from 1979 to 1999. The objective was to know the removals and approaches in nursing knowledge concerning the study object from the doctorate thesis "The ageing women's knowledge and health practices in gender perspective". It was concluded that the issue of woman in the third age was investigated in few studies. In addition, those researches' objects was strongly removed from gender issues, demonstrating that sexual approach of ageing was out of consideration, as well as denial of woman's social roles.

  6. The impact of aging and gender on brain viscoelasticity.

    PubMed

    Sack, Ingolf; Beierbach, Bernd; Wuerfel, Jens; Klatt, Dieter; Hamhaber, Uwe; Papazoglou, Sebastian; Martus, Peter; Braun, Jürgen

    2009-07-01

    Viscoelasticity is a sensitive measure of the microstructural constitution of soft biological tissue and is increasingly used as a diagnostic marker, e.g. in staging liver fibrosis or characterizing breast tumors. In this study, multifrequency magnetic resonance elastography was used to investigate the in vivo viscoelasticity of healthy human brain in 55 volunteers (23 females) ranging in age from 18 to 88 years. The application of four vibration frequencies in an acoustic range from 25 to 62.5 Hz revealed for the first time how physiological aging changes the global viscosity and elasticity of the brain. Using the rheological springpot model, viscosity and elasticity are combined in a parameter mu that describes the solid-fluid behavior of the tissue and a parameter alpha related to the tissue's microstructure. It is shown that the healthy adult brain undergoes steady parenchymal 'liquefaction' characterized by a continuous decline in mu of 0.8% per year (P<0.001), whereas alpha remains unchanged. Furthermore, significant sex differences were found with female brains being on average 9% more solid-like than their male counterparts rendering women more than a decade 'younger' than men with respect to brain mechanics (P=0.016). These results set the background for using cerebral multifrequency elastography in diagnosing subtle neurodegenerative processes not detectable by other diagnostic methods.

  7. Gender and Age Differences in How Children Cope with Daily Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales Rodriguez, Francisco Manuel; Trianes Torres, Maria Victoria; Miranda Paez, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study of coping among students accounts for an interesting subject, as having coping skills guarantees a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The present study aims to analyze the role played by age and gender on the coping strategies used by Andalusian school students to cope with situations of daily stress. These situations…

  8. Playing-Related Musculoskeletal Problems in Child Instrumentalists: The Influence of Gender, Age and Instrument Exposure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranelli, Sonia; Smith, Anne; Straker, Leon

    2011-01-01

    Playing-related musculoskeletal problems (PRMP) are common in adult musicians. The limited available evidence suggests PRMP are common in children and adolescents and that risk factors may be similar. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of PRMP in children and adolescents and their associations with female gender, age and…

  9. Social Cognitive Predictors of Peer Acceptance at Age 5 and the Moderating Effects of Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Munoz, Jose M.; Carreras, Maria R.; Braza, Paloma; Garcia, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sanchez-Martin, Jose R.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of…

  10. The Effects of Person versus Performance Praise on Children's Motivation: Gender and Age as Moderating Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpus, Jennifer Henderlong; Lepper, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine how gender and age moderate the long-term and post-failure motivational consequences of person versus performance praise. In Study 1, fourth- and fifth-grade students (n = 93) engaged in a puzzle task while receiving either no praise, person praise, product praise, or process praise. Following a subsequent…

  11. Effects of Age, Gender and Educational Background on Strength of Motivation for Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school),…

  12. Academic Performance, Age, Gender, and Ethnicity in Online Courses Delivered by Two-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, Bruce; Rude-Parkins, Carolyn; Githens, Rod P.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects the demographic variables age, gender, and ethnicity and their interactions had on academic performance in online courses delivered by public two-year colleges in Kentucky. The study controlled for previous academic performance measured by cumulative grade point average (GPA). The study used a random sample (N =…

  13. Invariance of an Extended Technology Acceptance Model Across Gender and Age Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Tunku Badariah Tunku; Madarsha, Kamal Basha; Zainuddin, Ahmad Marzuki; Ismail, Nik Ahmad Hisham; Khairani, Ahmad Zamri; Nordin, Mohamad Sahari

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we examined the likelihood of a TAME (extended technology acceptance model), in which the interrelationships among computer self-efficacy, perceived usefulness, intention to use and self-reported use of computer-mediated technology were tested. In addition, the gender- and age-invariant of its causal structure were evaluated. The…

  14. Gender Differences in the Age-Changing Relationship between Instrumentality and Family Contact in Emerging Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, Joel R.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Cohen, Patricia; Gilligan, Carol; Chen, Henian; Crawford, Thomas N.; Kasen, Stephanie

    2006-01-01

    Data from the Children in the Community Transitions Study were used to examine gender differences in the impact of family contact on the development of finance and romance instrumentality from ages 17 to 27 years. Family contact decreased among both men and women across emerging adulthood, although it decreased more rapidly in men than in women.…

  15. The Relationship of Time Perspective to Age, Gender, and Academic Achievement among Academically Talented Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mello, Zena R.; Worrell, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Time perspective is a useful psychological construct associated with educational outcomes (Phalet, Andriessen, & Lens, 2004) and may prove fruitful for research focusing on academically talented adolescents. Thus, the relationship of time perspective to age, gender, and academic achievement was examined among 722 academically talented middle and…

  16. Gender Differences in Food Preferences of School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caine-Bish, Natalie L.; Scheule, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools have the opportunity, through the National School Lunch Program and Local School Wellness Policies, to have a significant impact on healthy eating behaviors. An understanding of children's and adolescents' food preferences in relation to gender and age will facilitate the successful creation of both healthy and financially…

  17. Do Age and Gender Make a Difference in the Relationship between Intellectual Styles and Abilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Li-Fang

    2010-01-01

    This article reports two studies that aim at further distinguishing intellectual styles from abilities by taking into account the confounding effects of age and gender on the relationship between these two constructs. Two independent groups of secondary school students responded to the "Thinking Styles Inventory-Revised" and took the "Sternberg…

  18. Intersectionality and Disability Harassment: The Interactive Effects of Disability, Race, Age, and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Linda R.; Chan, Fong; McMahon, Brian T.

    2012-01-01

    A possible interaction among the characteristics of disability, race, gender, and age was examined with respect to formal allegations of disability harassment. Using data from the National Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) Research Project, the authors examined whether there was an interaction…

  19. Transferable Skills Representations in a Portuguese College Sample: Gender, Age, Adaptability and Vocational Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rocha, Magda

    2012-01-01

    The departing point of this study is the theoretical framework of "Making the Match project" (Evers and Rush in Management Learning 27:275-299, 1996) about how to develop a common language among stakeholders regarding transferable skills. Thus, the paper examines the impact of demographic variables (age and gender) and developmental dimensions…

  20. Age, Gender and Job Satisfaction among Elementary School Head Teachers in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghazi, Safdar Rehman; Maringe, Felix

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore general job satisfaction of elementary school head teachers in Pakistan with respect to their age and gender. One hundred and eighty head teachers were sampled from government elementary schools of Toba Tek Singh, Punjab, Pakistan, to collect the relevant data using a modified version of the Minnesota…

  1. Attachment and Self-Evaluation in Chinese Adolescents: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Hairong; Thompson, Ross A.; Ferrer, Emilio

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated age and gender differences in the quality of attachment to mothers, fathers, and peers, and the association of attachment with measures of self-evaluation in 584 Chinese adolescents in junior high, high school, and university. Their responses to the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment indexed attachment quality, and…

  2. The effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Talalaj, Izabela Anna Walery, Maria

    2015-06-15

    Highlights: • An effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was presented. • The waste accumulation index is influenced by a number of unemployed women. • Greater share of women in society contributes to greater waste production. • A model describing the analyzed dependences was determined. - Abstract: In this study the effect of gender and age structure on municipal waste generation was investigated. The data from 10-year period, from 2001 to 2010 year, were taken into consideration. The following parameters of gender and age structure were analyzed: men and woman quantity, female to male ratio, number of working, pre-working and post-working age men/women, number of unemployed men/women. The results have showed a strong correlation of annual per capita waste generation rate with number of unemployed women (r = 0.70) and female to male ratio (r = 0.81). This indicates that waste generation rate is more depended on ratio of men and women that on quantitative size of each group. Using the regression analysis a model describing the dependence between female to male ratio, number of unemployed woman and waste quantity was determined. The model explains 70% of waste quantity variation. Obtained results can be used both to improve waste management and to a fuller understanding of gender behavior.

  3. How to Improve Adolescents' Sun Protection Behavior? Age and Gender Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Christine; Tzelepis, Flora; Parfitt, Nicholas; Girgis, Afaf

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore adolescents' self-reported reasons for sun protection, as adolescents as a group continue to have poor sun protection practices. Methods: Seventeen age- and gender-segregated focus groups were conducted in Australian high schools. Results: Reasons for using sun protection included personal comfort, appearance, policies, fear…

  4. A Way Forward: Nurturing the Imagination at the Intersection of Race, Class, Gender, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockhart-Gilroy, Annie A.

    2016-01-01

    Those who are oppressed often find themselves internalizing voices that limit their ability. This article focuses on a population that falls on the non-hegemonic side of the intersection of race, class, gender, and age: Black girls from poor and working-class backgrounds. From my work with youth, I have noticed that internalizing these limiting…

  5. Mathematics Confidence, Grade-Level Choice, Gender, and Age in Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Lesley Knoth

    2012-01-01

    Problem: The purpose of the study was to determine whether teachers' mathematics confidence influenced their choice of grade level. The study also examined whether there was a difference in teachers' mathematics confidence based on their age or gender. Method: A 6-item Mathematics Survey was distributed to 83 single-and multiple-subject…

  6. Adolescents' Perceptions of Male Involvement in Relational Aggression: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Curt; Heath, Melissa Allen; Bailey, Benjamin M.; Coyne, Sarah M.; Yamawaki, Niwako; Eggett, Dennis L.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared age and gender differences in adolescents' perceptions of male involvement in relational aggression (RA). After viewing two of four video clips portraying RA, each participating adolescent (N = 314; Grades 8-12) answered questions related to rationalizing bullying behaviors--specifically minimizing bullying, blaming…

  7. Students' Perspective (Age Wise, Gender Wise and Year Wise) of Parameters Affecting the Undergraduate Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumari, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study is to examine the students' perspective (age wise, gender wise and year wise) of parameters affecting the undergraduate engineering education system present in a private technical institution in NCR [National Capital Region], Haryana. It is a descriptive type of research in nature. The data has been collected with the…

  8. Asking Scientists: A Decade of Questions Analyzed by Age, Gender, and Country

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baram-Tsabari, Ayelet; Sethi, Ricky J.; Bry, Lynn; Yarden, Anat

    2009-01-01

    Nearly 79,000 questions sent to an Internet-based Ask-A-Scientist site during the last decade were analyzed according to the surfer's age, gender, country of origin, and the year the question was sent. The sample demonstrated a surprising dominance of female contributions among K-12 students (although this dominance did not carry over to the full…

  9. Acceptance of Genetic Testing in a General Population: Age, Education and Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aro, A. R.; Hakonen, A.; Hietala, M.; Lonnqvist, J.; Niemela, P.; Peltonen, L; Aula, P.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of age, education, and gender on acceptance of genetic testing were studied. Finnish participants responded to a questionnaire presenting reasons for and against genetic testing (N=1,967). Intentions to take genetic tests, worries, and experience of genetic test or hereditary disease were also assessed. Results are presented and discussed.…

  10. Sweepnet captures of Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera:Miridae) adult genders and age-classes in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Management of the western tarnished plant bug, Lygus hesperus Knight, in cotton usually relies on population estimates obtained using the sweepnet. Recent studies indicated adult L. hesperus gender and physiological age influence feeding behavior, within-plant distribution, and injury to cotton. W...

  11. Effects of Age, Gender, School Class on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Skills of Nigerian Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onyeaso, Adedamola Olutoyin; Onyeaso, Chukwudi Ochi

    2016-01-01

    Background: The need for training of schoolchildren on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) as potential bystander CPR providers is growing globally but Nigeria is still behind and lacks basic necessary data. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of age, gender and school class on CPR skills of Nigerian secondary school…

  12. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis to incorporate age uncertainty in growth curve analysis and estimates of age from length: Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwarz, L.K.; Runge, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    Age estimation of individuals is often an integral part of species management research, and a number of ageestimation techniques are commonly employed. Often, the error in these techniques is not quantified or accounted for in other analyses, particularly in growth curve models used to describe physiological responses to environment and human impacts. Also, noninvasive, quick, and inexpensive methods to estimate age are needed. This research aims to provide two Bayesian methods to (i) incorporate age uncertainty into an age-length Schnute growth model and (ii) produce a method from the growth model to estimate age from length. The methods are then employed for Florida manatee (Trichechus manatus) carcasses. After quantifying the uncertainty in the aging technique (counts of ear bone growth layers), we fit age-length data to the Schnute growth model separately by sex and season. Independent prior information about population age structure and the results of the Schnute model are then combined to estimate age from length. Results describing the age-length relationship agree with our understanding of manatee biology. The new methods allow us to estimate age, with quantified uncertainty, for 98% of collected carcasses: 36% from ear bones, 62% from length.

  13. The Influence of Age and Gender on the Pro/Antioxidant Status in Young Healthy People.

    PubMed

    Kowalska, Katarzyna; Milnerowicz, Halina

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of age and gender on the pro/antioxidant balance in young healthy subject aged 20-40 years. The individuals were divided into women: aged 20-25 years (group A), aged 32-39 years (group B), and men aged 20-25 years (group C). In blood, the metals, markers of oxidative stress and antioxidants were estimated. The Cu level and Cu/Zn ratio in group B was higher than in group A. There were no differences in metals concentrations between groups A and C. The similar levels of malondialdehyde concentrations and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities were observed in all groups. The decrease in glutathione reduced and glutathione peroxidase was in group B than in group A. The higher glutathione reduced, lower glutathione oxidized concentrations and glutathione-dependent enzymes (glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase) were observed in group C when compared to group A. The superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were higher in groups B and C than in group A.The age and gender have an influence on the pro/antioxidant status in healthy people aged 20-40 years. The main antioxidants responsible for the removal of free radicals in men aged 20-25 years and women aged 32-39 years are superoxide dismutase and catalase, while the glutathione peroxidase activity declines. The detoxification being mediated through glutathione is weakened in women aged 32-39 years. PMID:27650614

  14. Age and gender-related differences in a spatial memory task in humans.

    PubMed

    León, Irene; Tascón, Laura; Cimadevilla, José Manuel

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive skills decline with age. Our ability to keep oriented in our surrounding environment was demonstrated to be influenced by factors like age and gender. Introduction of virtual reality based tasks improved assessment of spatial memory in humans. In this study, spatial orientation was assessed in a virtual memory task in order to determine the effect of aging and gender on navigational skills. Subjects from 45 to 74 years of age were organized in three groups (45-54, 55-64, 65-74 years old). Two levels of difficulty were considered. Results showed that males outperformed females in 65-74 years-old group. In addition to this, females showed a more noticeable poor performance in spatial memory than males, since memory differences appeared between all age groups. On the other hand, 65-74 year-old males showed an impaired performance in comparison with 45-54 year-old group. These results support that spatial memory becomes less accurate as we age and gender is an important factor influencing spatial orientation skills.

  15. Age and gender differences in ability emotional intelligence in adults: A cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Rosario; Sorrel, Miguel A; Fernández-Pinto, Irene; Extremera, Natalio; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo

    2016-09-01

    The goal of the current investigation was to analyze ability emotional intelligence (EI) in a large cross-sectional sample of Spanish adults (N = 12,198; males, 56.56%) aged from 17 to 76 years (M = 37.71, SD = 12.66). Using the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), which measures ability EI according to the 4 branches of the Mayer and Salovey EI model. The authors examined effects of gender on ability EI, as well as the linear and quadratic effects of age. Results suggest that gender affects the total ability EI score as well as scores on the 4 EI branches. Ability EI was greater in women than men. Ability EI varied with age according to an inverted-U curve: Younger and older adults scored lower on ability EI than middle-aged adults, except for the branch of understanding emotions. These findings strongly support the idea that both gender and age significantly influence ability EI during aging. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27570984

  16. Attitudes about Aging and Gender among Young, Middle Age, and Older College-Based Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laditka, Sarah B.; Fischer, Mary; Laditka, James N.; Segal, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Using an updated version of the Aging Semantic Differential, 534 younger, middle age, and older participants from a college community rated female and male targets categorized as ages 21-34 and 75-85. Participants also provided views about their own aging. Repeated measures of analysis of variance examined attitudinal differences by age and gender…

  17. Aging and visual length discrimination: sequential dependencies, biases, and the effects of multiple implicit standards.

    PubMed

    Norman, J Farley; Cheeseman, Jacob R; Baxter, Michael W; Thomason, Kelsey E; Adkins, Olivia C; Rogers, Connor E

    2014-05-01

    Younger (20-25 years of age) and older (61-79 years) adults were evaluated for their ability to visually discriminate length. Almost all experiments that have utilized the method of single stimuli to date have required participants to judge test stimuli relative to a single implicit standard (for a rare exception, see Morgan, On the scaling of size judgements by orientational cues, Vision Research, 1992, 32, 1433-1445). In the current experiments, we not only asked participants to judge lengths relative to a single implicit standard, but they also compared test stimuli to two different implicit standards within the same blocks of trials. We analyzed our participants' judgments to evaluate whether significant sequential dependencies occurred. We found that while individual younger and older adults possessed similar length difference thresholds and exhibited similar overall biases, the judgments of older adults within individual blocks of trials were more strongly biased (than younger adults) by preceding responses (i.e., their judgments on any given trial were more strongly affected by responses to previously viewed stimuli). In addition, the judgments of both younger and older adults were more strongly biased by preceding responses in the blocks of trials with multiple implicit standards. Overall, our results are consistent with the operation of the tracking mechanism described by Criterion-setting theory (Lages and Treisman, Spatial frequency discrimination: Visual long-term memory or criterion setting? Vision Research, 1998, 38, 557-572). PMID:24705076

  18. The Role of Gender and Age on Students' Perceptions towards Online Education Case Study: Sakarya University, Vocational High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabaj, Fahme

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out and analyze the role of gender and age on the perceptions of students to the distant online program offered by Vocational High School in Sakarya University. The research is based on a questionnaire as a mean of data collection method to find out the role of age and gender on the student's perceptions toward…

  19. The Role of Gender and Age on Students' Perceptions towards Online Education. Case Study: Sakarya University, Vocational High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabaj, Fahme

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to find out and analyze the role of gender and age on the perceptions of students to the distant online program offered by Vocational High School in Sakarya University. The research is based on a questionnaire as a mean of data collection method to find out the role of age and gender on the student's perceptions toward…

  20. Gender and Age-Dependent Etiology of Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Magliano, Enrico; Grazioli, Vittorio; Deflorio, Loredana; Leuci, Antonia Isabella; Mattina, Roberto; Romano, Paolo; Cocuzza, Clementina Elvezia

    2012-01-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most frequent community-acquired infections worldwide. Escherichia coli is the most common UTI pathogen although underlying host factors such as patients' age and gender may influence prevalence of causative agents. In this study, 61 273 consecutive urine samples received over a 22-month period from outpatients clinics of an urban area of north Italy underwent microbiological culture with subsequent bacterial identification and antimicrobial susceptibility testing of positive samples. A total of 13 820 uropathogens were isolated and their prevalence analyzed according to patient's gender and age group. Overall Escherichia coli accounted for 67.6% of all isolates, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (8.8%), Enterococcus faecalis (6.3%), Proteus mirabilis (5.2%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (2.5%). Data stratification according to both age and gender showed E. coli isolation rates to be lower in both males aged ≥60 years (52.2%), E. faecalis and P. aeruginosa being more prevalent in this group (11.6% and 7.8%, resp.), as well as in those aged ≤14 years (51.3%) in whom P. mirabilis prevalence was found to be as high as 21.2%. Streptococcus agalactiae overall prevalence was found to be 2.3% although it was shown to occur most frequently in women aged between 15 and 59 years (4.1%). Susceptibility of E. coli to oral antimicrobial agents was demonstrated to be as follows: fosfomycin (72.9%), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (72.9%), ciprofloxacin (76.8%), ampicillin (48.0%), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (77.5%). In conclusion, both patients' age and gender are significant factors in determining UTIs etiology; they can increase accuracy in defining the causative uropathogen as well as providing useful guidance to empiric treatment. PMID:22629135

  1. Effects of age and gender on success and death of mountaineers on Mount Everest.

    PubMed

    Huey, Raymond B; Salisbury, Richard; Wang, Jane-Ling; Mao, Meng

    2007-10-22

    Increasing numbers of climbers are attempting Mount Everest, the highest mountain on Earth. We compiled interview data and computed the probabilities of summiting and of dying as a function of climber age and gender (2211 climbers, spring season) for the period of 1990-2005. Men and women had similar odds of summiting and of dying. However, climbers older than 40 years have reduced odds of summiting, and those older than 60 years have increased odds of dying, especially when descending from the summit. On Mount Everest, phenotypic selection appears blind to gender but favours young mountaineers.

  2. Eating attitudes and body shape perceptions among elite rowers: effects of age, gender and weight category.

    PubMed

    Terry, P C; Waite, J

    1996-03-01

    This study examined the influence of age, gender and weight category upon measures associated with eating disorders. Elite rowers (N = 124) participating in the 1994 Great Britain National Squad trials, completed the Eating Attitude Test (EAT) and the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ). Subjects were grouped according to whether they competed in the Lightweight (Female: < 59 kg, N = 31; Male: < 72.5 kg, N = 31) or Heavyweight (Female: N = 31; Male: N = 31) category. Results revealed significantly higher EAT and BSQ scores among the Lightweight group, 16.2% of whom showed EAT scores above the threshold associated with eating disorders. Females showed significantly higher BSQ scores than males. The interaction effect was significant for BSQ, indicating a much greater increase in scores from heavyweight to lightweight for females than for males. EAT and BSQ scores were inversely correlated with age. These results suggest that the risk of eating disorders among elite rowers is mediated by age, gender and weight category.

  3. Gender, aging, poverty and health: Survival strategies of older men and women in Nairobi slums

    PubMed Central

    Mudege, Netsayi N.; Ezeh, Alex C.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is based on data from focus group discussions and in-depth individual interviews carried out in two slum areas, Korogocho and Viwandani in Nairobi, Kenya. It discusses how the division between domestic sphere and public sphere impacts on survival during, and adaptation to old age. Although this paper adopts some of the tenets of the life course approach, it posits that women's participation in the domestic sphere may sometimes give them a ‘gender advantage’ over men in terms of health and adaptation to old age. The paper also discusses the impact of gender roles on the cultivation of social networks and how these networks in turn impact on health and social adjustment as people grow older. It investigates how older people are adjusting and coping with the new challenges they face as a result of high morbidity and mortality among adults in the reproductive age groups. PMID:19907648

  4. Assessment of Oro-Maxillofacial Trauma According to Gender, Age, Cause and Type of the Injury

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Marko; Sikora, Miroslav; Leović, Dinko; Mumlek, Ivan; Macan, Darko

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The occurrence and causes of maxillofacial trauma varies in different regions of the world. The aim of this study was to identify the occurrence, types and causes of maxillofacial injuries according to the age and gender differences in patients treated at the Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, University Hospital Center Osijek, between January 2011 and December 2013. Materials and methods A total of 64 patients, 41 males (64.1%) and 23 females (35.9%), aged from 18 to 86 years (mean age 42) participated in the study. Data collected and analyzed included gender, age, cause of injury and the type of maxillofacial injuries. Results The most common cause of injuries in both gender groups was falling down (39% males; 65% females). The second leading cause of injuries in males was interpersonal violence (29%) and in females traffic accident (26%) (p<0.05). The most common type of injury in both gender groups was bone injury (50%; in males zygomatic bones 55%, in females mandible 40%) (p>0.05). The most common causes of injuries in the youngest patients was violence (43%), and in others fall (50-70%; p<0.05). The most common reported type of injury in all age groups was bone injury (more than 50%; p>0.05). The majority of the falls and violence caused bone tissue injuries, and soft tissue and dentalveolar injuries were detected in traffic and sports accidents (p>0.05). Conclusion Falling down was the most common cause of oro-maxillofacial injuries in both men and women and in all three age groups. The leading type of injury was bone injury. The data obtained from this study provide important information for future prevention from injuries.

  5. Regional and Gender Study of Neuronal Density in Brain during Aging and in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Ordóñez, Cristina; del Valle, Eva; Navarro, Ana; Tolivia, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Learning processes or language development are only some of the cognitive functions that differ qualitatively between men and women. Gender differences in the brain structure seem to be behind these variations. Indeed, this sexual dimorphism at neuroanatomical level is accompanied unequivocally by differences in the way that aging and neurodegenerative diseases affect men and women brains. Objective: The aim of this study is the analysis of neuronal density in four areas of the hippocampus, and entorhinal and frontal cortices to analyze the possible gender influence during normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Human brain tissues of different age and from both sexes, without neurological pathology and with different Braak's stages of AD, were studied. Neuronal density was quantified using the optical dissector. Results: Our results showed the absence of a significant neuronal loss during aging in non-pathological brains in both sexes. However, we have demonstrated specific punctual significant variations in neuronal density related with the age and gender in some regions of these brains. In fact, we observed a higher neuronal density in CA3 and CA4 hippocampal areas of non-pathological brains of young men compared to women. During AD, we observed a negative correlation between Braak's stages and neuronal density in hippocampus, specifically in CA1 for women and CA3 for men, and in frontal cortex for both, men and women. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated a sexual dimorphism in the neuronal vulnerability to degeneration suggesting the need to consider the gender of the individuals in future studies, regarding neuronal loss in aging and AD, in order to avoid problems in interpreting data.

  6. Regional and Gender Study of Neuronal Density in Brain during Aging and in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Pinilla, Eva; Ordóñez, Cristina; del Valle, Eva; Navarro, Ana; Tolivia, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Learning processes or language development are only some of the cognitive functions that differ qualitatively between men and women. Gender differences in the brain structure seem to be behind these variations. Indeed, this sexual dimorphism at neuroanatomical level is accompanied unequivocally by differences in the way that aging and neurodegenerative diseases affect men and women brains. Objective: The aim of this study is the analysis of neuronal density in four areas of the hippocampus, and entorhinal and frontal cortices to analyze the possible gender influence during normal aging and in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Methods: Human brain tissues of different age and from both sexes, without neurological pathology and with different Braak's stages of AD, were studied. Neuronal density was quantified using the optical dissector. Results: Our results showed the absence of a significant neuronal loss during aging in non-pathological brains in both sexes. However, we have demonstrated specific punctual significant variations in neuronal density related with the age and gender in some regions of these brains. In fact, we observed a higher neuronal density in CA3 and CA4 hippocampal areas of non-pathological brains of young men compared to women. During AD, we observed a negative correlation between Braak's stages and neuronal density in hippocampus, specifically in CA1 for women and CA3 for men, and in frontal cortex for both, men and women. Conclusion: Our data demonstrated a sexual dimorphism in the neuronal vulnerability to degeneration suggesting the need to consider the gender of the individuals in future studies, regarding neuronal loss in aging and AD, in order to avoid problems in interpreting data. PMID:27679571

  7. Age, education, and the gender gap in the sense of control.

    PubMed

    Slagsvold, Britt; Sørensen, Annemette

    2008-01-01

    High sense of control is related to benefits in many aspects of life, and education is known to be strongly related to sense of control. In this article we explore why women tend to feel a lower sense of control than men, and why the sense of control tends to be lower among the elderly than among younger people. In particular we explore the role played by education in explaining age- and gender differences in sense of control. The analysis is based on data from the first wave of the Norwegian NorLAG study, with a representative sample of adults aged 40-79 in 30 municipalities. We find that education accounts for some of the age and gender differences in sense of control, but the mediating effects of education are rather modest. We find an increasing gender gap in sense of control with age, and this increasing gap is completely explained by differences in education. Gender differences in sense of control is explained completely by four factors, which are related to resources and power; physical health, education, living with a partner, and leadership experience. Age differences in sense of control are only partially explained. Education, physical health and employment status cuts the age effect on sense of control to half. The effect of education on sense of control is partly mediated through what we suggest are tangible benefits of education, namely health, employment, and leadership experience. Education also influences individuals through socialization mechanisms. We view agentive orientation as a psychological benefit of education, and measure this characteristic with Bem's (1981) sex-role scale on masculinity. Agentive orientation completely explains the remaining effect of education on sense of control.

  8. Production activities and economic dependency by age and gender in Europe: A cross-country comparison

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Bernhard; Prskawetz, Alexia; Freund, Inga

    2015-01-01

    We compare selected European countries using an economic dependency ratio which emphasizes the role of age-specific levels of production and consumption. Our analysis reveals large differences in the age- and gender-specific level and type of production activities across selected European countries and identifies possible strategies to adjust age-specific economic behaviour to an ageing population. The cross-country differences in economic dependency of children and elderly persons are largely determined by the age at which people enter, respectively exit, the labour market. The ability of the working age population to support children and elderly persons in turn is strongly influenced by the participation of women in paid work. We also provide a measure for the age-specific production and consumption in form of unpaid household work. The inclusion of unpaid household work leads to a decrease of the gender differences in production activities and indicates that the working age population supports children and elderly persons not only through monetary transfers but also through services produced by unpaid work (e.g. childcare, cooking, cleaning…). Given the available data, we cannot distinguish the age profile of consumption by gender and have to assume – in case of unpaid work - that each member of the household consumes the same. Hence, our results have to be regarded as a first approximation only. Our paper aims to argue that a reform of the welfare system needs to take into account not only public transfers but also private transfers, in particular the transfers in form of goods and services produced through unpaid household work. PMID:26110107

  9. Gender Transitions in Later Life: The Significance of Time in Queer Aging

    PubMed Central

    Fabbre, Vanessa D.

    2014-01-01

    Concepts of time are ubiquitous in studies of aging. This article integrates an existential perspective on time with a notion of queer time based on the experiences of older transgender persons who contemplate or pursue a gender transition in later life. Interviews were conducted with male-to-female identified persons aged 50 years or older (N=22), along with participant observation at three national transgender conferences (N=170 hours). Interpretive analyses suggest that an awareness of “time left to live” and a feeling of “time served” play a significant role in later life development and help expand gerontological perspectives on time and queer aging. PMID:24798691

  10. A method for estimating gestational age of fetal remains based on long bone lengths.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Cristiana; Curate, Francisco; Cunha, Eugénia

    2016-09-01

    The estimation of gestational age (GA) in fetal human remains is important in forensic settings, particularly to assess fetal viability, in addition to often being the only biological profile parameter that can be assessed with some accuracy for non-adults. The length of long bone diaphysis is one of the most frequently used methods for fetal age estimation. The main objective of this study was to present a simple and objective method for estimating GA based on the measurements of the diaphysis of the femur, tibia, fibula, humerus, ulna, and radius. Conventional least squares regression equations (classical and inverse calibration approaches) and quick reference tables were generated. A supplementary objective was to compare the performance of the new formulae against previously published models. The sample comprised 257 fetuses (136 females and 121 males) with known GA (between 12 and 40 weeks) and was selected based on clinical and pathological information. All measurements were performed on radiographic images acquired in anonymous clinical autopsy records from spontaneous and therapeutic abortions in two Portuguese hospitals. The proposed technique is straightforward and reproducible. The models for the GA estimation are exceedingly accurate and unbiased. Comparisons between inverse and classical calibration show that both perform exceptionally well, with high accuracy and low bias. Also, the newly developed equations generally outperform earlier methods of GA estimation in forensic contexts. Quick reference tables for each long bone are now available. The obtained models for the estimation of gestational age are of great applicability in forensic contexts. PMID:27251047

  11. Effects of age and step length on joint kinetics during stepping task.

    PubMed

    Bieryla, Kathleen A; Buffinton, Christine

    2015-07-16

    Following a balance perturbation, a stepping response is commonly used to regain support, and the distance of the recovery step can vary. To date, no other studies have examined joint kinetics in young and old adults during increasing step distances, when participants are required to bring their rear foot forward. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine age-related differences in joint kinetics with increasing step distance. Twenty young and 20 old adults completed the study. Participants completed a step starting from double support, at an initial distance equal to the individual's average step length. The distance was increased by 10% body height until an unsuccessful attempt. A one-way, repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the effects of age on joint kinetics during the maximum step distance. A two-way, repeated measures, mixed model ANOVA was used to determine the effects of age, step distance, and their interaction on joint kinetics during the first three step distances for all participants. Young adults completed a significantly longer step than old adults. During the maximum step, in general, kinetic measures were greater in the young than in the old. As step distance increased, all but one kinetic measure increased for both young and old adults. This study has shown the ability to discriminate between young and old adults, and could potentially be used in the future to distinguish between fallers and non-fallers.

  12. Estimating the color of maxillary central incisors based on age and gender

    PubMed Central

    Gozalo-Diaz, David; Johnston, William M.; Wee, Alvin G.

    2008-01-01

    Statement of problem There is no scientific information regarding the selection of the color of teeth for edentulous patients. Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate linear regression models that may be used to predict color parameters for central incisors of edentulous patients based on some characteristics of dentate subjects. Material and methods A spectroradiometer and an external light source were set in a noncontacting 45/0 degree (45-degree illumination and 0-degree observer) optical configuration to measure the color of subjects’ vital craniofacial structures (maxillary central incisor, attached gingiva, and facial skin). The subjects (n=120) were stratified into 5 age groups with 4 racial groups and balanced for gender. Linear first-order regression was used to determine the significant factors (α=.05) in the prediction model for each color direction of the color of the maxillary central incisor. Age, gender, and color of the other craniofacial structures were studied as potential predictors. Final predictions in each color direction were based only on the statistically significant factors, and then the color differences between observed and predicted CIELAB values for the central incisors were calculated and summarized. Results The statistically significant predictors of age and gender accounted for 36% of the total variability in L*. The statistically significant predictor of age accounted for 16% of the total variability in a*. The statistically significant predictors of age and gender accounted for 21% of the variability in b*. The mean ΔE (SD) between predicted and observed CIELAB values for the central incisor was 5.8 (3.2). Conclusions Age and gender were found to be statistically significant determinants in predicting the natural color of central incisors. Although the precision of these predictions was less than the median color difference found for all pairs of teeth studied, and may be considered an acceptable precision, further

  13. Gender and age variations in the self-image of Jamaican adolescents.

    PubMed

    Smith, D E; Muenchen, R A

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationships among gender, age, and self-image of adolescents attending three secondary schools in Jamaica. The relatively few studies that have been done regarding self-perceptions of these youth are not only dated but have utilized a unidimensional conceptualization of the self. The Offer Self-Image Questionnaire which employs a multidimensional construct of the self was administered to a sample of 174 Jamaican adolescents ranging in age from 14 to 18 years (M = 15.90 years, SD = 1.21). Results revealed statistically significant effects for both gender and age. Gender was found to be significant on one self-image dimension: Morals, while age differences were evident on six dimensions: Social Relationships, Morals, Sexual Attitudes, Mastery of the External World, Vocational and Educational Goals, and Emotional Health. The results in some instances were contrary to those of past research. Discussion focused on cultural socialization and other factors affecting youth in Jamaican society.

  14. Immunohistochemical patterns in the interfollicular Caucasian scalps: influences of age, gender, and alopecia.

    PubMed

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Loussouarn, Geneviève; Panhard, Ségolène; Saint Léger, Didier; Mellul, Myriam; Piérard, Gérald E

    2013-01-01

    Skin ageing and gender influences on the scalp have been seldom studied. We revisited the changes in the interfollicular scalp. The study was performed on a population of 650 volunteers (300 women and 350 men) for over 7 years. Three age groups were selected in both genders, namely, subjects aged 20-35, 50-60, and 60-70 years. The hair status was further considered according to nonalopecic and alopecic patterns and severity (discrete, moderate, and severe). Biopsies from the parietal area were processed for immunohistochemistry. Stromal cells were distinguished according to the presence of vimentin, Factor XIIIa, CD117, and versican. Blood and lymphatic vessels were highlighted by Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and human podoplanin immunoreactivities, respectively. Actinic elastosis was identified by the lysozyme coating of elastic fibres. The epidermis was explored using the CD44 variant 3 and Ki67 immunolabellings. Biplot analyses were performed. Immunohistochemistry revealed a prominent gender effect in young adults. Both Factor XIIIa+ dermal dendrocytes and the microvasculature size decreased with scalp ageing. Alopecia changes mimicked stress-induced premature senescence. PMID:24455724

  15. Serum transthyretin levels in senile systemic amyloidosis: effects of age, gender and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Buxbaum, Joel; Koziol, James; Connors, Lawreen H

    2008-12-01

    Serum transthyretin (TTR) levels are reduced in familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). A single study of patients with senile systemic amyloidosis (SSA) in Sweden found that those individuals also had a significantly lower mean serum TTR concentration than age- and gender-matched controls. To determine if the same phenomenon prevailed in an ethnically more heterogeneous population, we compared the serum TTR levels, as determined by ELISA, in 45 documented SSA patients with congestive heart failure, 20 AL patients with congestive heart failure and population controls. Serum TTR concentrations in the controls were influenced in a statistically significant manner by age, gender and ethnicity. Although it is unlikely that such differences are clinically relevant, they must be considered when assessing the meaning of serum TTR concentrations in any clinically defined population. The serum concentrations in patients with SSA did not differ from age, gender and ethnically matched controls or from a group of AL patients with significant clinical cardiac involvement. We also compared TTR concentrations in 12 African-Americans carrying the TTR V122I allele with those in 826 African-Americans who were homozygous wild type at the TTR locus. The TTR V122I carriers had significantly lower serum TTR concentrations than appropriate controls even though the majority of such individuals had not reached the age of clinical or anatomic risk, i.e. over 60. Thus, as in carriers of other TTR mutations the serum TTR level is lower than normal, despite having a much later appearance of clinical disease. PMID:19065297

  16. Helminth egg excretion with regard to age, gender and management practices on UK Thoroughbred studs.

    PubMed

    Relf, V E; Morgan, E R; Hodgkinson, J E; Matthews, J B

    2013-04-01

    Few studies have described the combined effect of age, gender, management and control programmes on helminth prevalence and egg shedding in grazing equines. Here, fecal samples collected from 1221 Thoroughbred horses, residing at 22 studs in the UK, were analysed. The distribution of strongyle eggs amongst individuals in relation to age, gender and management practices was investigated. Fecal worm egg counts (FWECs), described as the number of eggs per gramme (epg) of feces, were determined using a modification of the salt flotation method. The FWEC prevalence (mean%) of strongyles, Parascaris equorum, tapeworm spp. and Strongyloides westeri was 56, 9, 4 and 8%, respectively. Strongyle, P. equorum, tapeworm spp. and S. westeri infections were detected on 22 (100%), 11 (50%), 9 (41%) and 8 (36%) of studs, respectively. Within all age and gender categories, strongyle FWECs were highly over-dispersed (arithmetic mean = 95 epg, aggregation parameter k=0·111) amongst horses. Animal age, last anthelmintic type administered and management practices (for example, group rotation on grazing) most strongly influenced strongyle prevalence and level of egg shedding (P < 0·05). Overall, 11% of equines (range: 234-2565 epg) were responsible for excreting 80% of the strongyle eggs detected on FWEC analysis. The results confirm that the judicious application of targeted treatments has potential to control equine strongyle populations by protecting individual horses from high burdens, whilst promoting refugia for anthelmintic susceptible genotypes.

  17. Gender and Age Impacts on the Association Between Thyroid Function and Metabolic Syndrome in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhaowei; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Qing; Liu, Li; Song, Kun; Tan, Jian; Jia, Qiang; Zhang, Guizhi; Wang, Renfei; He, Yajing; Ren, Xiaojun; Zhu, Mei; He, Qing; Wang, Shen; Li, Xue; Hu, Tianpeng; Liu, Na; Upadhyaya, Arun; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Jianping

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between thyroid dysfunction and metabolic syndrome (MS) is complex. We aimed to explore the impact of gender and age on their association in a large Chinese cohort. This cross-sectional study enrolled 13,855 participants (8532 male, 5323 female), who self-reported as healthy without any known previous diseases. Clinical data including anthropometric measurements, thyroid function, and serum metabolic parameters were collected. The associations between thyroid function and MS of both genders were analyzed separately after dividing thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), free triiodothyronine (FT3), and age into subgroups. MS risks were calculated by binary logistic regression models. Young males had significantly higher MS prevalence than females, yet after menopause, females had higher prevalence than males. Females had higher incidence of thyroid dysfunction than males. By using TSH quartiles as the categorical variables and the lowest quartile as reference, significantly increased MS risk was demonstrated in quartile 4 for males, yet quartiles 3 and 4 for females. By using FT3 quartiles as the categorical variables, significantly increased MS risk was demonstrated in quartile 2 to 4 for females only. By using age subgroups as the categorical variables, significantly increased MS risk was shown in both genders, with females (4.408–58.455) higher than males (2.588–4.943). Gender and age had substantial influence on thyroid function and MS. Females with high TSH and high FT3 had higher MS risks than males. Aging was a risk for MS, especially for females. Urgent need is necessary to initiate interventional programs. PMID:26683929

  18. The effects of age, authority, and gender on perceptions of statutory rape offenders.

    PubMed

    Sahl, Daniel; Keene, Jennifer Reid

    2012-12-01

    Using a sample of 2,838 students from a Southwestern university in the United States, the authors examine the effect of respondent's gender, the adult's gender, the age gap between the adult and teen, and the adult's authority, on students' perceptions of vignettes describing adult-teen sexual relationships. Specifically, the authors investigate four dependent variables related to perceptions of the crime: the adult offender's emotional motivation, whether the adult is a sexual predator, whether the adult should have limited interactions with children, and whether the adult should be included on a sex offender registry. ANOVA analysis revealed that a large age gap between the adult and teen, the presence of authority in the relationship, and respondent's gender were significant predictors of perceptions of the offender as a predator and sex offender. The offender's gender significantly predicted respondents' perceived motivations but had no effect on opinions regarding sex offender registration. The authors discuss the implications of these findings for perceptions of statutory rape.

  19. Outcome of carpal tunnel decompression: the influence of age, gender, and occupation

    PubMed Central

    Majid, I.; Clarke, M.; Kershaw, C. J.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of age, gender, and occupation on the outcome of carpal tunnel decompression. A total of 479 patients (342 females, 137 males) with a mean age of 56 years undergoing 608 carpal tunnel decompressions were prospectively studied. Outcome was assessed using the Brigham Hospital carpal tunnel questionnaire at two weeks pre-operatively and six months post-operatively. Cases were divided into four age categories (less than 40 years of age, 40–59, 60–79, and over 80 years of age) and two occupation (repetitive and non-repetitive) groups. The mean differences for both the symptom-severity and functional-status scores amongst the four age categories were similar and no significant difference was found. The mean differences for both the symptom-severity and functional-status scores between females and males and the two occupation groups were similar and no significant differences were found. The majority of the patient’s symptoms improved following carpal tunnel decompression. However, we found no influence of age, gender, or occupation on the outcome of carpal tunnel decompression in our series of patients. PMID:18923831

  20. A Rising Tide: The Increasing Age and Psychiatric Length of Stay for Individuals with Mild Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, D.; Keown, P.; Scott, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: It is unclear whether the substantial decline in number and duration of admissions for patients with intellectual disability (ID) have occurred uniformly over time with respect to age, gender, severity of disability, legal status and location of treatment. Method: A retrospective analysis of NHS (National Health Service) admissions for…

  1. Lateralization of Resting State Networks and Relationship to Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Agcaoglu, O.; Miller, R.; Mayer, A.R.; Hugdahl, K.; Calhoun, V.D.

    2014-01-01

    Brain lateralization is a widely studied topic, however there has been little work focused on lateralization of intrinsic networks (regions showing similar patterns of covariation among voxels) in the resting brain. In this study, we evaluate resting state network lateralization in an age and gender-balanced functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) dataset comprising over 600 healthy subjects ranging in age from 12 to 71. After establishing sample-wide network lateralization properties, we continue with an investigation of age and gender effects on network lateralization. All data was gathered on the same scanner and preprocessed using an automated pipeline (Scott et al., 2011). Networks were extracted via group independent component analysis (gICA) (Calhoun, Adali, Pearlson, & Pekar, 2001). Twenty-eight resting state networks discussed in previous (Allen et al., 2011) work were re-analyzed with a focus on lateralization. We calculated homotopic voxelwise measures of laterality in addition to a global lateralization measure, called the laterality cofactor, for each network. As expected, many of the intrinsic brain networks were lateralized. For example, the visual network was strongly right lateralized, auditory network and default mode networks were mostly left lateralized. Attentional and frontal networks included nodes that were left lateralized and other nodes that were right lateralized. Age was strongly related to lateralization in multiple regions including sensorimotor network regions precentral gyrus, postcentral gyrus and supramarginal gyrus; and visual network regions lingual gyrus; attentional network regions inferior parietal lobule, superior parietal lobule and middle temporal gyrus; and frontal network regions including the inferior frontal gyrus. Gender showed significant effects mainly in two regions, including visual and frontal networks. For example, the inferior frontal gyrus was more right lateralized in males. Significant effects of age

  2. Telomere length change plateaus at 4 years of age in Latino children: associations with baseline length and maternal change.

    PubMed

    Wojcicki, Janet M; Shiboski, Stephen; Heyman, Melvin B; Elwan, Deena; Lin, Jue; Blackburn, Elizabeth; Epel, Elissa

    2016-06-01

    Telomeres are the protective complexes at the end of chromosomes, required for genomic stability. Little is known about predictors of attrition in young children or the relationship between parental and child patterns of telomere change. Telomere length was assessed twice over one year, at 4 and at 5 years of age, in Latino preschool children (n = 77) and their mothers (n = 70) in whole blood leukocytes. Maternal and child rates of attrition during the same time period were compared in 70 mother-child pairs. More children showed lengthened telomeres over one year compared to their mothers and very few children showed attrition (2.6 %). Approximately 31 % of children and 16 % of mothers displayed lengthening over one year while 66 % of children showed maintenance in contrast with 74 % of mothers. The strongest predictor for child telomere length change was child's baseline telomere length (r = -0.61, p < 0.01). Maternal rate of change was associated with child rate of change (r = 0.33, p < 0.01). After controlling for child baseline telomere length, the relationship between child and maternal rate of change trended towards significance (Coeff = 0.20, 95 % CI -0.03 to 0.43; p = 0.08). We found primarily maintenance and lengthening from 4 to 5 years of age in children, with minimal telomere attrition, indicating that most of the telomere loss happens in the first 4 years, plateauing by age 4. Lastly, we found close to 10 % of the variance in rate of change in children shared by mothers. While some of this shared variance is genetic, there are likely environmental factors that need to be further identified that impact rate of telomere length change. PMID:26965507

  3. How sex- and age-disaggregated data and gender and generational analyses can improve humanitarian response.

    PubMed

    Mazurana, Dyan; Benelli, Prisca; Walker, Peter

    2013-07-01

    Humanitarian aid remains largely driven by anecdote rather than by evidence. The contemporary humanitarian system has significant weaknesses with regard to data collection, analysis, and action at all stages of response to crises involving armed conflict or natural disaster. This paper argues that humanitarian actors can best determine and respond to vulnerabilities and needs if they use sex- and age-disaggregated data (SADD) and gender and generational analyses to help shape their assessments of crises-affected populations. Through case studies, the paper shows how gaps in information on sex and age limit the effectiveness of humanitarian response in all phases of a crisis. The case studies serve to show how proper collection, use, and analysis of SADD enable operational agencies to deliver assistance more effectively and efficiently. The evidence suggests that the employment of SADD and gender and generational analyses assists in saving lives and livelihoods in a crisis. PMID:23905768

  4. Age and gender-invariant features of handwritten signatures for verification systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AbdAli, Sura; Putz-Leszczynska, Joanna

    2014-11-01

    Handwritten signature is one of the most natural biometrics, the study of human physiological and behavioral patterns. Behavioral biometrics includes signatures that may be different due to its owner gender or age because of intrinsic or extrinsic factors. This paper presents the results of the author's research on age and gender influence on verification factors. The experiments in this research were conducted using a database that contains signatures and their associated metadata. The used algorithm is based on the universal forgery feature idea, where the global classifier is able to classify a signature as a genuine one or, as a forgery, without the actual knowledge of the signature template and its owner. Additionally, the reduction of the dimensionality with the MRMR method is discussed.

  5. Swedish pupils' suggested coping strategies if cyberbullied: differences related to age and gender.

    PubMed

    Frisén, Ann; Berne, Sofia; Marin, Lina

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the coping strategies that Swedish 10 and 12 year-olds (N = 694) suggested they would use if they were cyberbullied, with a special focus on whether there are differences in these strategies related to age and gender. The most commonly suggested coping strategy was telling someone, especially parents and teachers (70.5%). Surprisingly few of the pupils reported that they would tell a friend (2.6%). Differences in suggested coping strategies were found related to age and gender. Findings are discussed in relation to the Swedish sociocultural context as well as in relation to the implications for prevention strategies against cyberbullying. PMID:25040330

  6. The effect of gender and age differences on media selection in small and medium tourism enterprises.

    PubMed

    Dehkordi, Majid A; Zarei, Behrouz; Dehkordi, Shabnam A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the impact that gender and age differences have on the communication media selection within the context of small and medium tourism enterprises (SMEs). Media Richness Theory (MRT) was used to assess media preferences in the firms. Using a mail questionnaire, data from 78 firms were collected on seven popular media in use. Historical data of the firms, media characteristics, and other firm-specific factors were included in the analysis. The results indicated that there are substantial gender and age differences in term of communication media selection. This is consistent with MRT and highlights the importance of choosing the appropriate media in SMEs, according with the employee's behaviors, in order to achieve better outcomes and to smooth the path towards good performance in the future.

  7. Self-esteem and emotional health in adolescents--gender and age as potential moderators.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Unni K; Espnes, Geir A

    2012-12-01

    The present paper investigates possible gender and age differences on emotional states (depression and anxiety) and self-esteem as well as the association between self-esteem and emotional states. The cross-sectional sectional sample consists of 1,209 adolescents 13-18 years from public elementary and secondary schools in mid-Norway. The results showed that girls reported higher scores on state anxiety and state depression, whereas boys consistently scored higher on self-esteem in all age groups. Self-esteem was strongly and inversely associated with both state depression and state anxiety. An interaction effect of gender by self-esteem was found on state depression, where the association was stronger for girls than for boys. The associations found give support for the positive role of self-esteem in relation to adolescents' emotional health and well-being.

  8. Impact of gender, age and experience of pilots on general aviation accidents.

    PubMed

    Bazargan, Massoud; Guzhva, Vitaly S

    2011-05-01

    General aviation (GA) accounts for more than 82% of all air transport-related accidents and air transport-related fatalities in the U.S. In this study, we conduct a series of statistical analyses to investigate the significance of a pilot's gender, age and experience in influencing the risk for pilot errors and fatalities in GA accidents. There is no evidence from the Chi-square tests and logistic regression models that support the likelihood of an accident caused by pilot error to be related to pilot gender. However, evidence is found that male pilots, those older than 60 years of age, and with more experience, are more likely to be involved in a fatal accident.

  9. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation. PMID:25936840

  10. Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infancy increases length- and weight-for-age but not BMI to 6 years when controlling for effects of maternal smoking.

    PubMed

    Currie, L M; Tolley, E A; Thodosoff, J M; Kerling, E H; Sullivan, D K; Colombo, J; Carlson, S E

    2015-07-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) are added to infant formula but their effect on long-term growth of children is under studied. We evaluated the effects of feeding LCPUFA-supplemented formula (n = 54) compared to control formula (n = 15) throughout infancy on growth from birth-6 years. Growth was described using separate models developed with the MIXED procedure of SAS(®) that included maternal smoking history and gender. Compared to children fed control formula, children who consumed LCPUFA supplemented formula had higher length-/stature-/and weight-for-age percentiles but not body mass index (BMI) percentile from birth to 6 years. Maternal smoking predicted lower stature (2-6 years), higher weight-for-length (birth-18 months) and BMI percentile (2-6 years) independent of LCPUFA effects. Gender interacted with the effect of LCPUFA on stature, and the relationship between smoking and BMI, with a larger effect for boys. Energy intake did not explain growth differences. A relatively small control sample is a limitation.

  11. Effects of age, gender and educational background on strength of motivation for medical school.

    PubMed

    Kusurkar, Rashmi; Kruitwagen, Cas; ten Cate, Olle; Croiset, Gerda

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of selection, educational background, age and gender on strength of motivation to attend and pursue medical school. Graduate entry (GE) medical students (having Bachelor's degree in Life Sciences or related field) and Non-Graduate Entry (NGE) medical students (having only completed high school), were asked to fill out the Strength of Motivation for Medical School (SMMS) questionnaire at the start of medical school. The questionnaire measures the willingness of the medical students to pursue medical education even in the face of difficulty and sacrifice. GE students (59.64 ± 7.30) had higher strength of motivation as compared to NGE students (55.26 ± 8.33), so did females (57.05 ± 8.28) as compared to males (54.30 ± 8.08). 7.9% of the variance in the SMMS scores could be explained with the help of a linear regression model with age, gender and educational background/selection as predictor variables. Age was the single largest predictor. Maturity, taking developmental differences between sexes into account, was used as a predictor to correct for differences in the maturation of males and females. Still, the gender differences prevailed, though they were reduced. Pre-entrance educational background and selection also predicted the strength of motivation, but the effect of the two was confounded. Strength of motivation appears to be a dynamic entity, changing primarily with age and maturity and to a small extent with gender and experience.

  12. [Adolescents with gender identity disorder: reconsideration of the age limits for endocrine treatment and surgery].

    PubMed

    Nakatsuka, Mikiya

    2012-01-01

    The third versions of the guideline for treatment of people with gender identity disorder (GID) of the Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology does not include puberty-delaying hormone therapy. It is recommended that feminizing/masculinizing hormone therapy and genital surgery should not be carried out until 18 year old and 20 year old, respectively. On the other hand, the sixth (2001) and the seventh (2011) versions of the standards of care for the health of transsexual, transgender, and gender nonconforming people of World Professional Association for Transgender Health (WPATH) recommend that transsexual adolescents (Tanner stage 2, [mainly 12-13 years of age]) are treated by the endocrinologists to suppress puberty with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists until age 16 years old, after which cross-sex hormones may be given. A questionnairing on 181 people with GID diagnosed in the Okayama University Hospital (Japan) showed that female to male (FTM) transsexuals hoped to begin masculinizing hormone therapy at age of 15.6 +/- 4.0 (mean +/- S.D.) whereas male to female (MTF) transsexuals hoped to begin feminizing hormone therapy as early as age 12.5 +/- 4.0, before presenting secondary sex characters. After confirmation of strong and persistent cross-gender identification, adolescents with GID should be treated with cross-gender hormone or puberty-delaying hormone to prevent developing undesired sex characters. These treatments may prevent transsexual adolescents from attempting suicide, being depressive, and refusing to attend school. Subsequent early breast and genital surgery may help being employed in desired sexuality.

  13. Employment Hardship Among Older Workers: Does Residential and Gender Inequality Extend Into Older Age?

    PubMed Central

    Slack, Tim; Jensen, Leif

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. The realities of a rapidly aging society make the employment circumstances of older workers an increasingly important social issue. We examine the prevalence and correlates of underemployment among older Americans, with a special focus on residence and gender, to provide an assessment of the labor market challenges facing older workers. Methods. We analyzed data from the March Current Population Surveys for the years 2003, 2004, and 2005. We used descriptive statistics to explore the prevalence of underemployment among older workers and developed multivariate models to assess the impact of age, residence, and gender on the likelihood of underemployment, net of other predictors. Results. We found clear disadvantages for older workers relative to their middle-aged counterparts, and particular disadvantages for older rural residents and women. Multivariate models showed that the disadvantages of older age held net of other predictors. The results also indicated that much of the disadvantage faced by older rural workers and women was explained by factors other than age, particularly education. Discussion. In an aging society, underemployment among older workers comes at an increasing social cost. Policies aimed at supporting older workers and alleviating employment hardship among them are increasingly in the public interest. PMID:18332197

  14. A Reappraisal of Developing Permanent Tooth Length as an Estimate of Age in Human Immature Skeletal Remains.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Spake, Laure; Liversidge, Helen M

    2016-09-01

    This study expands on existing juvenile age prediction models from tooth length by increasing sample size and using classical calibration. A sample of 178 individuals from two European known sex and age skeletal samples was used to calculate prediction formulae for each tooth for each sex separately and combined. Prediction errors, residuals, and percentage of individuals whose real age fell within the 95% prediction interval were calculated. An ANCOVA was used to test sex and sample differences. Tooth length for age does not differ between the samples except for the canine and second premolar, and no statistically significant sex differences were detected. The least prediction error was found in the incisors and the first molar, and the highest prediction error was found in the third molar. Age prediction formulae provided here can be easily used in a variety of contexts where tooth length is measured from any isolated tooth. PMID:27320642

  15. Gender, aging, and work: aging workers' strategies to confront the demands of production in maquiladora plants in nogales, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Adarga, Mireya Scarone; Becerril, Leonor Cedillo; Champion, Catalina Denman

    2010-01-01

    This work is part of a qualitative socio-cultural investigation with a group of men and women 40 years and older in the maquila export industry in Nogales, Sonora, Mexico. In 1994, as a result of the North American Free Trade Agreement, maquila plants combined traditional intensive work methods with new "just in time" production norms that impacted work and health conditions, particularly in older, or aging, workers. The workers that were interviewed for this study show a reduction in their functional ability to work starting at 40 years of age. Work organization demands, general health conditions, and a decrease in physical abilities brings these 40-year-old workers to prematurely construct an image of themselves as aging workers and to develop coping strategies that vary by gender.

  16. Negative perceptions about condom use in a clinic population: comparisons by gender, race and age.

    PubMed

    Crosby, R; Shrier, L A; Charnigo, R; Sanders, S A; Graham, C A; Milhausen, R; Yarber, W L

    2013-02-01

    We sought to elucidate the associations of 13 items assessing negative perceptions about condom use with gender, age and race in a sample of clinic attendees. Patients from four clinics, in three US cities, were recruited (N = 928). Data were collected using audio-computer-assisted self-interviewing. The primary measure was a 13-item adapted version of the Condom Barriers Scale. Logistic regression and chi-square tests were employed to relate the 13 items to gender, age and race. Gender, race and age all had significant associations with negative perceptions of condoms and their use. A primary finding was a large number of significant differences between men and women, with negative perceptions more common among women than among men. For African Americans, especially women, negative perceptions were more common among older participants than among younger participants. In conclusion, important demographic differences regarding negative perceptions may inform the tailoring of intervention efforts that seek to rectify negative perceptions about condoms and thus promote condom use among individuals at risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in the USA. On the other hand, our findings also suggest that the majority of STI clinic attendees may hold positive perceptions about condoms and their use; maintaining and building upon these positive perceptions via education, counselling, and access is also important. PMID:23467292

  17. PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS AND LEUKOCYTE TELOMERE LENGTH: UNDERLYING MECHANISMS LINKING MENTAL ILLNESS WITH CELLULAR AGING

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Daniel; Epel, Elissa S.; Mellon, Synthia H.; Penninx, Brenda W.; Révész, Dóra; Verhoeven, Josine E.; Reus, Victor I.; Lin, Jue; Mahan, Laura; Hough, Christina M.; Rosser, Rebecca; Bersani, F. Saverio; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Wolkowitz, Owen M.

    2015-01-01

    Many psychiatric illnesses are associated with early mortality and with an increased risk of developing physical diseases that are more typically seen in the elderly. Moreover, certain psychiatric illnesses may be associated with accelerated cellular aging, evidenced by shortened leukocyte telomere length (LTL), which could underlie this association. Shortened LTL reflects a cell’s mitotic history and cumulative exposure to inflammation and oxidation as well as the availability of telomerase, a telomere-lengthening enzyme. Critically short telomeres can cause cells to undergo senescence, apoptosis or genomic instability, and shorter LTL correlates with poorer health and predicts mortality. Emerging data suggest that LTL may be reduced in certain psychiatric illnesses, perhaps in proportion to exposure to the psychiatric illnesses, although conflicting data exist. Telomerase has been less well characterized in psychiatric illnesses, but a role in depression and in antidepressant and neurotrophic effects has been suggested by preclinical and clinical studies. In this article, studies on LTL and telomerase activity in psychiatric illnesses are critically reviewed, potential mediators are discussed, and future directions are suggested. A deeper understanding of cellular aging in psychiatric illnesses could lead to re-conceptualizing them as systemic illnesses with manifestations inside and outside the brain and could identify new treatment targets. PMID:25999120

  18. Gender- and age-related differences in heart rate dynamics: are women more complex than men?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, S. M.; Goldberger, A. L.; Pincus, S. M.; Mietus, J.; Lipsitz, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study aimed to quantify the complex dynamics of beat-to-beat sinus rhythm heart rate fluctuations and to determine their differences as a function of gender and age. BACKGROUND. Recently, measures of heart rate variability and the nonlinear "complexity" of heart rate dynamics have been used as indicators of cardiovascular health. Because women have lower cardiovascular risk and greater longevity than men, we postulated that there are important gender-related differences in beat-to-beat heart rate dynamics. METHODS. We analyzed heart rate dynamics during 8-min segments of continuous electrocardiographic recording in healthy young (20 to 39 years old), middle-aged (40 to 64 years old) and elderly (65 to 90 years old) men (n = 40) and women (n = 27) while they performed spontaneous and metronomic (15 breaths/min) breathing. Relatively high (0.15 to 0.40 Hz) and low (0.01 to 0.15 Hz) frequency components of heart rate variability were computed using spectral analysis. The overall "complexity" of each heart rate time series was quantified by its approximate entropy, a measure of regularity derived from nonlinear dynamics ("chaos" theory). RESULTS. Mean heart rate did not differ between the age groups or genders. High frequency heart rate power and the high/low frequency power ratio decreased with age in both men and women (p < 0.05). The high/low frequency power ratio during spontaneous and metronomic breathing was greater in women than men (p < 0.05). Heart rate approximate entropy decreased with age and was higher in women than men (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS. High frequency heart rate spectral power (associated with parasympathetic activity) and the overall complexity of heart rate dynamics are higher in women than men. These complementary findings indicate the need to account for gender-as well as age-related differences in heart rate dynamics. Whether these gender differences are related to lower cardiovascular disease risk and greater longevity in

  19. Age-Related Declines and Disease-Associated Variation in Immune Cell Telomere Length in a Wild Mammal

    PubMed Central

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Hares, Michelle; Young, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes (‘immune cells’), stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such observations generalise to the immune cell populations of wild vertebrates living under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we examine longitudinal changes in the mean telomere lengths of immune cells in wild European badgers (Meles meles). Our findings provide the first evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune cell telomere lengths in a wild vertebrate. That the rate of age-related decline in telomere length appears to be steeper within individuals than at the overall population level raises the possibility that individuals with short immune cell telomeres and/or higher rates of immune cell telomere attrition may be selectively lost from this population. We also report evidence suggestive of associations between immune cell telomere length and bovine tuberculosis infection status, with individuals detected at the most advanced stage of infection tending to have shorter immune cell telomeres than disease positive individuals. While male European badgers are larger and show higher rates of annual mortality than females, we found no evidence of a sex difference in either mean telomere length or the average rate of within-individual telomere attrition with age. Our findings lend support to the view that age-related declines in the telomere lengths of immune cells may provide one potentially general mechanism underpinning age-related declines in immunocompetence in natural populations. PMID:25268841

  20. Age-related declines and disease-associated variation in immune cell telomere length in a wild mammal.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Christopher; Delahay, Richard; Hares, Michelle; Young, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Immunosenescence, the deterioration of immune system capability with age, may play a key role in mediating age-related declines in whole-organism performance, but the mechanisms that underpin immunosenescence are poorly understood. Biomedical research on humans and laboratory models has documented age and disease related declines in the telomere lengths of leukocytes ('immune cells'), stimulating interest their having a potentially general role in the emergence of immunosenescent phenotypes. However, it is unknown whether such observations generalise to the immune cell populations of wild vertebrates living under ecologically realistic conditions. Here we examine longitudinal changes in the mean telomere lengths of immune cells in wild European badgers (Meles meles). Our findings provide the first evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune cell telomere lengths in a wild vertebrate. That the rate of age-related decline in telomere length appears to be steeper within individuals than at the overall population level raises the possibility that individuals with short immune cell telomeres and/or higher rates of immune cell telomere attrition may be selectively lost from this population. We also report evidence suggestive of associations between immune cell telomere length and bovine tuberculosis infection status, with individuals detected at the most advanced stage of infection tending to have shorter immune cell telomeres than disease positive individuals. While male European badgers are larger and show higher rates of annual mortality than females, we found no evidence of a sex difference in either mean telomere length or the average rate of within-individual telomere attrition with age. Our findings lend support to the view that age-related declines in the telomere lengths of immune cells may provide one potentially general mechanism underpinning age-related declines in immunocompetence in natural populations. PMID:25268841

  1. A Primrose Path? Moderating Effects of Age and Gender in the Association between Green Space and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Bos, Elisabeth H.; van der Meulen, Leon; Wichers, Marieke; Jeronimus, Bertus F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored whether the association between green space and mental health is moderated by age and gender. Questionnaires on psychopathology and quality of life were filled out by 4924 individuals from the general Dutch population and regressed on greenness levels. Green space was associated with better mental health, but only in specific age and gender groups, and only in a 3 km, not a 1 km buffer. The moderating effects of age and gender may be explained by whether or not people have the opportunity to make use of their green living environment. PMID:27187428

  2. A Primrose Path? Moderating Effects of Age and Gender in the Association between Green Space and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Bos, Elisabeth H; van der Meulen, Leon; Wichers, Marieke; Jeronimus, Bertus F

    2016-05-11

    This paper explored whether the association between green space and mental health is moderated by age and gender. Questionnaires on psychopathology and quality of life were filled out by 4924 individuals from the general Dutch population and regressed on greenness levels. Green space was associated with better mental health, but only in specific age and gender groups, and only in a 3 km, not a 1 km buffer. The moderating effects of age and gender may be explained by whether or not people have the opportunity to make use of their green living environment.

  3. A Primrose Path? Moderating Effects of Age and Gender in the Association between Green Space and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Bos, Elisabeth H; van der Meulen, Leon; Wichers, Marieke; Jeronimus, Bertus F

    2016-01-01

    This paper explored whether the association between green space and mental health is moderated by age and gender. Questionnaires on psychopathology and quality of life were filled out by 4924 individuals from the general Dutch population and regressed on greenness levels. Green space was associated with better mental health, but only in specific age and gender groups, and only in a 3 km, not a 1 km buffer. The moderating effects of age and gender may be explained by whether or not people have the opportunity to make use of their green living environment. PMID:27187428

  4. Influences of sex, age and education on attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes towards gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age and education to inform programming. Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age and education. Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e., early marriage, forced marriage and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p < 0.03) except for forced marriage (p = 0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and by age. The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices.

  5. Influences of sex, age, and education on attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices in South Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jennifer; Hacker, Michele; Averbach, Sarah; Modest, Anna M.; Cornish, Sarah; Spencer, Danielle; Murphy, Maureen; Parmar, Parveen

    2014-01-01

    Background Prolonged conflict in South Sudan exacerbated gender disparities and inequities. This study assessed differences in attitudes toward gender inequitable norms and practices by sex, age, and education to inform programming. Methods Applying community-based participatory research methodology, 680 adult respondents, selected by quota sampling, were interviewed in seven South Sudanese communities from 2009 to 2011. The verbally administered survey assessed attitudes using the Gender Equitable Men scale. Data were stratified by sex, age, and education. Results Of 680 respondents, 352 were female, 326 were male, and two did not report their sex. The majority of respondents agreed with gender inequitable household roles, but the majority disagreed with gender inequitable practices (i.e. early marriage, forced marriage, and inequitable education of girls). Respondents who reported no education were more likely than those who reported any education to agree with gender inequitable practices (all p<0.03) except for forced marriage (p=0.07), and few significant differences were observed when these responses were stratified by sex and age. Conclusion The study reveals agreement with gender inequitable norms in the household, but an overall disagreement with gender inequitable practices in sampled communities. The findings support that education of both women and men may promote gender equitable norms and practices. PMID:25026024

  6. Health, Lifestyle, and Gender Influences on Aging Well: An Australian Longitudinal Analysis to Guide Health Promotion

    PubMed Central

    Kendig, Hal; Browning, Colette J.; Thomas, Shane A.; Wells, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    A primary societal goal for aging is enabling older people to continue to live well as long as possible. The evidence base around aging well (“healthy,” “active,” and “successful” aging) has been constructed mainly from academic and professional conceptualizations of mortality, morbidity, functioning, and psychological well-being with some attention to lay views. Our study aims to inform action on health promotion to achieve aging well as conceptualized by qualitative research identifying what older Australians themselves value most: continuing to live as long as possible in the community with independence in daily living, and good self-rated health and psychological well-being. Multivariate survival analyses from the Melbourne longitudinal studies on healthy aging program found that important threats to aging well for the total sample over a 12-year period were chronological age, multi-morbidity, low perceived social support, low nutritional score, and being under-weight. For men, threats to aging well were low strain, perceived inadequacy of social activity, and being a current smoker. For women, urinary incontinence, low physical activity and being under-weight were threats to aging well. The findings indicate that healthy lifestyles can assist aging well, and suggest the value of taking gender into account in health promotion strategies. PMID:25072042

  7. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  8. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; de Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia ( wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered.

  9. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; De Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia (wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered. PMID:20676599

  10. Variations of immune parameters in terrestrial isopods: a matter of gender, aging and Wolbachia.

    PubMed

    Sicard, Mathieu; Chevalier, Frédéric; De Vlechouver, Mickaël; Bouchon, Didier; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Ecological factors modulate animal immunocompetence and potentially shape the evolution of their immune systems. Not only environmental parameters impact on immunocompetence: Aging is one major cause of variability of immunocompetence between individuals, and sex-specific levels of immunocompetence have also been frequently described. Moreover, a growing core of data put in light that vertically transmitted symbionts can dramatically modulate the immunocompetence of their hosts. In this study, we addressed the influence of gender, age and the feminising endosymbiont Wolbachia (wVulC) on variations in haemocyte density, total PO activity and bacterial load in the haemolymph of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. This host-symbiont system is of particular interest to address this question since: (1) wVulC was previously shown as immunosuppressive in middle-aged females and (2) wVulC influences sex determination. We show that age, gender and Wolbachia modulate together immune parameters in A. vulgare. However, wVulC, which interacts with aging, appears to be the prominent factor interfering with both PO activity and haemocyte density. This interference with immune parameters is not the only aspect of wVulC virulence on its host, as reproduction and survival are also altered.

  11. Gender Differences in Drinking Practices in Middle Aged and Older Russians

    PubMed Central

    Bobrova, Natalia; West, Robert; Malyutina, Darya; Malyutina, Sofia; Bobak, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Aims: The study investigated gender differences in drinking patterns and the reasons behind them among men and women in the Russian city of Novosibirsk. Methods: A mixed method, combining quantitative and qualitative data, was conducted based on the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe cohort study. The quantitative study included 4268 men and 5094 women aged 45–69 years; of those, 20 men and 24 women completed an in-depth interview. Results: The quantitative data revealed a large gap in drinking patterns in general between genders. Women drank less often and much smaller quantities than that of men. For example, 19% of men, vs. 1% of women, were classified as problem drinkers (two or more positive answers on the CAGE questionnaire). These differences were not explained by socioeconomic factors. Qualitative data have shown that gender roles and a traditional culture around women's and men's drinking were the main reasons for the reported drinking behaviour, whereby women were consistently expected to drink much less than men in terms of preference for strong beverages, drinking frequency and quantity of alcohol consumed. Conclusion: The study confirmed that large differences exist between Russian men's and women's drinking; these differences may be largely explained by gender roles. PMID:21075855

  12. Associations of Student Temperament and Educational Competence with Academic Achievement: The Role of Teacher Age and Teacher and Student Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullola, Sari; Jokela, Markus; Ravaja, Niklas; Lipsanen, Jari; Hintsanen, Mirka; Alatupa, Saija; Keltikangas-Jarvinen, Liisa

    2011-01-01

    We examined associations of teacher-perceived student temperament and educational competence with school achievement, and how these associations were modified by students' gender and teachers' gender and age. Participants were 1063 Finnish ninth-graders (534 boys) and their 29 Mother Language teachers (all female) and 43 Mathematics teachers (17…

  13. Desperately Seeking the Self: Gender, Age, and Identity in Tillie Olsen's "Tell Me a Riddle" and Michelle Herman's "Missing."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maierhofer, Roberta

    1999-01-01

    Using feminist theory, critical reading of novels by Olsen and Herman uncovers a process of constructing identity in the face of social pressures regarding gender. Repudiation of stereotypes leads to definition of the self not based on gender- or age-defined positions. (SK)

  14. Characterization of aging in organic materials on atomic-, meso- and macro-length scales by {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Assink, R.A.; Jamison, G.M.; Alam, T.M.; Gillen, K.T.

    1997-10-01

    A fundamental understanding of aging in an organic material requires that one understand how aging affects the chemical structure of a material, and how these chemical changes are related to the material`s macroscopic properties. This level of understanding is usually achieved by examining the material on a variety of length scales ranging from atomic to meso-scale to macroscopic. The authors are developing and applying several {sup 13}C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy experiments to characterize the aging process of organic materials over a broad range of length scales. Examples of studies which range from atomic to macroscopic will be presented.

  15. Age and gender leucocytes variances and references values generated using the standardized ONE-Study protocol.

    PubMed

    Kverneland, Anders H; Streitz, Mathias; Geissler, Edward; Hutchinson, James; Vogt, Katrin; Boës, David; Niemann, Nadja; Pedersen, Anders Elm; Schlickeiser, Stephan; Sawitzki, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Flow cytometry is now accepted as an ideal technology to reveal changes in immune cell composition and function. However, it is also an error-prone and variable technology, which makes it difficult to reproduce findings across laboratories. We have recently developed a strategy to standardize whole blood flow cytometry. The performance of our protocols was challenged here by profiling samples from healthy volunteers to reveal age- and gender-dependent differences and to establish a standardized reference cohort for use in clinical trials. Whole blood samples from two different cohorts were analyzed (first cohort: n = 52, second cohort: n = 46, both 20-84 years with equal gender distribution). The second cohort was run as a validation cohort by a different operator. The "ONE Study" panels were applied to analyze expression of >30 different surface markers to enumerate proportional and absolute numbers of >50 leucocyte subsets. Indeed, analysis of the first cohort revealed significant age-dependent changes in subsets e.g. increased activated and differentiated CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets, acquisition of a memory phenotype for Tregs as well as decreased MDC2 and Marginal Zone B cells. Males and females showed different dynamics in age-dependent T cell activation and differentiation, indicating faster immunosenescence in males. Importantly, although both cohorts consisted of a small sample size, our standardized approach enabled validation of age-dependent changes with the second cohort. Thus, we have proven the utility of our strategy and generated reproducible reference ranges accounting for age- and gender-dependent differences, which are crucial for a better patient monitoring and individualized therapy. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27144459

  16. US health spending trends by age and gender: selected years 2002-10.

    PubMed

    Lassman, David; Hartman, Micah; Washington, Benjamin; Andrews, Kimberly; Catlin, Aaron

    2014-05-01

    This article presents estimates of personal health care spending by age and gender in selected years during the period 2002-10 and an analysis of the variation in spending among children, working-age adults, and the elderly. Our research found that in this period, aggregate spending on children's health care increased at the slowest rate. However, per capita spending for children grew more rapidly than that for working-age adults and the elderly. Per capita spending for the elderly remained about five times higher than spending for children. Overall, females spent more per capita than males, but the gap had decreased by 2010. The implementation of Medicare Part D, the effects of the recent recession, and the aging of the baby boomers affected the spending trends and distributions during the period of this study.

  17. Gender differentials and old age survival in the Nairobi slums, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Rachel; Chepngeno-Langat, Gloria; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane

    2016-08-01

    This paper examines gender differentials in survival amongst older people (50+ years) in the Nairobi slums and to the best of our knowledge is the first study of its kind in an urban African setting. The results provide evidence contrary to the expected paradox of poorer self-rated health yet better survival amongst older women. Older women in the Nairobi slums have poorer self-rated health and poorer circumstances across other factors, including disability and socio-economic status. Further, older women in the slums do not have better survival. The conventional female advantage in mortality only becomes apparent after accounting for the cumulative influence of individual characteristics, social networks, health and socio-economic status, suggesting the female advantage in unadjusted old-age mortality does not apply to contexts where women experience significant disadvantage across multiple life domains. This highlights the urgent need to redress the support, status and opportunities available for women across the life course in contexts such as the Nairobi slums. In addition, a greater number of factors differentiate mortality risk amongst men than amongst women, suggesting inequality amongst slum dwelling older men and highlighting the need for gender sensitive interventions which account for the particular needs of both genders in old age.

  18. Gender Differences in the Association Between Morbidity and Mortality Among Middle-Aged Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Guéguen, Alice; Ferrie, Jane; Shipley, Martin; Martikainen, Pekka; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Goldberg, Marcel; Marmot, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. We examined gender differences in mortality, morbidity, and the association between the 2. Methods. We used health data from 2 studies of middle-aged men and women: the British Whitehall II cohort of employees from 20 civil service departments in London and the 1989 French GAZEL (this acronym refers to the French gas and electric companies) of employees of France's national gas and electricity company. Participants were aged 35 to 55 years when assessed for morbidity and followed up for mortality over 17 years. Results. Male mortality was higher than female mortality in Whitehall II (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.28, 1.91) and the GAZEL cohort (HR = 1.99; CI = 1.66, 2.40). Female excess morbidity was observed for some measures in the Whitehall II data and for 1 measure in the GAZEL data. Only self-reported sickness absence in the Whitehall II data was more strongly associated with mortality among men (P = .01). Conclusions. Mortality was lower among women than among men, but morbidity was not consistently higher. The lack of gender differences in the association between morbidity and mortality suggests that this is not a likely explanation for the gender paradox, which refers to higher morbidity but lower mortality among women than among men. PMID:18235071

  19. The influence of age and gender on the utility of computed tomography to diagnose acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Antevil, Jared; Rivera, Louis; Langenberg, Bret; Brown, Carlos V R

    2004-10-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of age and gender on the utility of diagnostic computed tomography (CT) for appendicitis. We retrospectively studied all adult patients undergoing appendectomy from January 2000 through December 2002 (633 patients). Patients 15-30 years old ("younger") were compared to patients >30 ("older") and further subdivided by gender. CT accuracy and the influence of CT on negative appendectomy (NA) rates for each group were evaluated. CT was associated with a lower NA rate in older patients (23% vs 8%, P = 0.004) but had no effect on NA rate in younger patients (26% vs 20%, P = 0.2). Appendiceal CT had greater sensitivity, negative predictive value, and accuracy in older than in younger patients. When subdivided by gender, CT was associated with lower NA rates for all female patients but had no effect in either age group of men. Although CT may be more accurate in patients older than 30 years, it has the greatest benefit in female patients, where it is associated with lower NA rates in all adult patients. CT should be strongly considered for all female patients before operation for suspected appendicitis. Further study is needed to determine which, if any, male patients benefit from preoperative CT.

  20. Three-dimensional analysis of the cervical spine kinematics: effect of age and gender in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Lansade, Céline; Laporte, Sébastien; Thoreux, Patricia; Rousseau, Marc-Antoine; Skalli, Wafa; Lavaste, François

    2009-12-15

    STUDY DESIGN.: A three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the cervical spine kinematics in vivo about a large asymptomatic database in order to evaluate the impact of age and gender on the neck's performances. OBJECTIVE.: To investigate the effect of age and gender on kinematical parameters of the cervical spine, specifically quantitative parameters concerning coupled movements and proprioception, using the infra-red POLARIS measurement system. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA.: Cervical spine kinematics has been investigated in vivo by numerous authors using various devices. However, few is known about the influence of gender and age on the 3D cervical biomechanics, specifically regarding coupled movements and proprioceptive abilities. METHODS.: A total of 140 asymptomatic volunteers (70 men and 70 women) aged 20 to 93 years old were enrolled. The noninvasive infrared system Polaris was used to quantify the 3D range of motion (ROM) of cervical spine and to evaluate proprioceptive abilities. For validating the protocol in terms of reproducibility, 12 volunteers were tested 3 times by 2 independent operators. RESULTS.: The standard error of measurement for the maximal ROM in the 3 space planes was 5%. Gender had no significant influence on the 3D cervical ROM, except for the "70-79 years old" group. Age had a significant influence on all main movements showing 0.55 degrees to 0.79 degrees magnitude decrease per decade. Age and gender had no significant influence on coupled movements. "Head-to-Target" proprioception was significantly affected by the age only in the horizontal plane. CONCLUSION.: A data base for cervical ROM, pattern of motion, and proprioceptive capability was established in population of 140 healthy subjects of various age and gender. Significant age-related decrease in ROM and proprioceptive abilities were observed in this study. Coupled movements did not vary with gender or age; however, their role in the cervical performance increased with age since main

  1. Gender-specific factors associated with shorter sleep duration at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-12-01

    Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as <12 h. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. The mean sleep duration was 12 h 35 ± 56 min, with 91% of the children napping. Patterns of risk factors associated with SSD differed according to gender. In addition to parental presence when falling asleep, short sleep duration was associated strongly positively with high BMI Z-score and TV viewing duration among boys and with familial home child-minding and lower scores on the 'fruits and vegetables' dietary pattern among girls. These results suggest either a patterning of parental behaviours that differs according to gender, or a gender-specific sleep physiology, or both.

  2. Gender-specific factors associated with shorter sleep duration at age 3 years.

    PubMed

    Plancoulaine, Sabine; Lioret, Sandrine; Regnault, Nolwenn; Heude, Barbara; Charles, Marie-Aline

    2015-12-01

    Total sleep duration has been decreasing among children in the last decades. Short sleep duration (SSD) has been associated with deleterious health consequences, such as excess weight/obesity. Risk factors for SSD have already been studied among school-aged children and adolescents, but inconsistent results have been reported regarding possible gender differences. Studies reporting such relationships are scarce in preschoolers, despite the importance of this period for adopting healthy behaviour. We aimed to investigate factors associated with SSD in 3-year-old boys (n = 546) and girls (n = 482) in a French Mother-Child Cohort (EDEN Study). Children were born between 2003 and 2006 in two French university hospitals. Clinical examinations and parent self-reported questionnaires allowed us to collect sociodemographic (e.g. income, education, family situation, child-minding system), maternal [e.g. body mass index (BMI), parity, depression, breastfeeding duration] and child's characteristics (e.g. gender, birth weight, term, physical activity and TV viewing duration, food consumption, usual sleep time). Sleep duration/24-h period was calculated and SSD was defined as <12 h. Analyses were performed using logistic regression. The mean sleep duration was 12 h 35 ± 56 min, with 91% of the children napping. Patterns of risk factors associated with SSD differed according to gender. In addition to parental presence when falling asleep, short sleep duration was associated strongly positively with high BMI Z-score and TV viewing duration among boys and with familial home child-minding and lower scores on the 'fruits and vegetables' dietary pattern among girls. These results suggest either a patterning of parental behaviours that differs according to gender, or a gender-specific sleep physiology, or both. PMID:26041449

  3. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20–79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  4. [GENDER AND AGE DIFFERENCES IN THE TREATMENT OF CHRONIC HEART FAILURE AT HOSPITAL OBSERVATIONS STAGE].

    PubMed

    Dadashova, G M

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of literature shows that very little data are available on gender differences and age-specific drug use in the treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF). In this work, the character of drug therapy was studied as dependent on the age and sex of patients with CHF under in-hospital observation conditions. Among hospitalized patients with CHF, an important role is played by modern drug therapy. Gender differences were found in respect of therapy with ACE inhibitors, which was used in men more frequently than in women (89 and 78%, respectively, p <0.001). Aldosterone antagonists were used in the treatment of women much less frequently than in men (32.9 and 42%, respectively, p < 0.001). Loop diuretics are more frequently prescribed to men (48 and 40%, respectively, p < 0.001) and thiazide diuretics, to women (38.9 and 27%, respectively, p < 0.001). In older age groups, CHF treatment both in men (p < 0.05) and in women (p < 0.001) is characterized by decreased use of beta-adrenoblockers and increased use of aldosterone antagonists (p < 0.05). In women, older age groups meet increased prescription frequency of ACE inhibitors/ARBs (from 79.1 to 95.3%p < 0.01) and aldosterone antagonists (from 29.3 to 38.2% p < 0.001). PMID:27416677

  5. Gender- and Age-Specific REE and REE/FFM Distributions in Healthy Chinese Adults.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu; Yang, Xue; Na, Li-Xin; Li, Ying; Sun, Chang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    Basic data on the resting energy expenditure (REE) of healthy populations are currently rare, especially for developing countries. The aims of the present study were to describe gender- and age-specific REE distributions and to evaluate the relationships among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. This cross-sectional survey included 540 subjects (343 women and 197 men, 20-79 years old). REE was measured by indirect calorimetry and expressed as kcal/day/kg total body weight. The data were presented as the means and percentiles for REE and the REE to fat-free mass (FFM) ratio; differences were described by gender and age. Partial correlation analysis was used to analyze the correlations between REE, tertiles of REE/FFM, and glycolipid metabolism and eating behaviors. In this study, we confirmed a decline in REE with age in women (p = 0.000) and men (p = 0.000), and we found that men have a higher REE (p = 0.000) and lower REE/FFM (p = 0.021) than women. Furthermore, we observed no associations among glycolipid metabolism, eating behaviors, and REE in healthy Chinese adults. In conclusion, the results presented here may be useful to clinicians and nutritionists for comparing healthy and ill subjects and identifying changes in REE that are related to aging, malnutrition, and chronic diseases. PMID:27598192

  6. Cerebral glucose metabolic patterns in Alzheimer's disease. Effect of gender and age at dementia onset

    SciTech Connect

    Small, G.W.; Kuhl, D.E.; Riege, W.H.; Fujikawa, D.G.; Ashford, J.W.; Metter, E.J.; Mazziotta, J.C.

    1989-06-01

    No previous study of Alzheimer's disease has, to our knowledge, assessed the effect of both age at dementia onset and gender on cerebral glucose metabolic patterns. To this end, we used positron emission tomography (fludeoxyglucose F 18 method) to study 24 patients with clinical diagnoses of probable Alzheimer's disease. Comparisons of the 13 patients with early-onset dementia (less than 65 years of age) with the 11 patients with late-onset dementia (greater than 65 years of age) revealed significantly lower left parietal metabolic ratios (left posterior parietal region divided by the hemispheric average) in the early-onset group. The metabolic ratio of posterior parietal cortex divided by the relatively disease-stable average of caudate and thalamus also separated patients with early-onset dementia from those with late-onset dementia, but not men from women. Further comparisons between sexes showed that, in all brain regions studied, the 9 postmenopausal women had higher nonweighted mean metabolic rates than the 15 men from the same age group, with hemispheric sex differences of 9% on the right and 7% on the left. These results demonstrate decreased parietal ratios in early-onset dementia of Alzheimer's disease, independent of a gender effect.

  7. Aggression at Age 5 as a Function of Prenatal Exposure to Cocaine, Gender, and Environmental Risk

    PubMed Central

    Bendersky, Margaret; Bennett, David; Lewis, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine childhood aggression at age 5 in a multiple risk model that includes cocaine exposure, environmental risk, and gender as predictors. Methods Aggression was assessed in 206 children by using multiple methods including teacher report, parent report, child’s response to hypothetical provocations, and child’s observed behavior. Also examined was a composite score that reflected high aggression across contexts. Results Multiple regression analyses indicated that a significant amount of variance in each of the aggression measures and the composite was explained by the predictors. The variables that were independently related differed depending on the outcome. Cocaine exposure, gender, and environmental risk were all related to the composite aggression score. Conclusions Cocaine exposure, being male, and a high-risk environment were all predictive of aggressive behavior at 5 years. It is this group of exposed boys at high environmental risk that is most likely to show continued aggression over time. PMID:15827351

  8. Social cognitive predictors of peer acceptance at age 5 and the moderating effects of gender.

    PubMed

    Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Muñoz, José M; Carreras, María R; Braza, Paloma; García, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2009-09-01

    In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of social intelligence on peer acceptance, as well as several other effects that were moderated by gender: a significant and positive effect of verbal ability on social acceptance was found for boys; appearance-reality distinction was found to have a positive effect on social acceptance in the case of girls; and although empathy had a significant positive effect on social acceptance for both boys and girls, this effect was more pronounced among boys. Our results suggest that abilities promoting peer acceptance are different for boys and girls.

  9. Social cognitive predictors of peer acceptance at age 5 and the moderating effects of gender.

    PubMed

    Braza, Francisco; Azurmendi, Aitziber; Muñoz, José M; Carreras, María R; Braza, Paloma; García, Ainhoa; Sorozabal, Aizpea; Sánchez-Martín, José R

    2009-09-01

    In this study we examined the effects of social intelligence, empathy, verbal ability and appearance-reality distinction on the level of peer acceptance, as well as the moderating role of gender. Participants were 98 five-year-old children (43 boys and 55 girls; mean age 5 years 3 months for boys and girls). Our results showed a main effect of social intelligence on peer acceptance, as well as several other effects that were moderated by gender: a significant and positive effect of verbal ability on social acceptance was found for boys; appearance-reality distinction was found to have a positive effect on social acceptance in the case of girls; and although empathy had a significant positive effect on social acceptance for both boys and girls, this effect was more pronounced among boys. Our results suggest that abilities promoting peer acceptance are different for boys and girls. PMID:19994576

  10. The effects of age, gender, and crash types on drivers' injury-related health care costs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Sijun; Neyens, David M

    2015-04-01

    There are many studies that evaluate the effects of age, gender, and crash types on crash related injury severity. However, few studies investigate the effects of those crash factors on the crash related health care costs for drivers that are transported to hospital. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationships between drivers' age, gender, and the crash types, as well as other crash characteristics (e.g., not wearing a seatbelt, weather condition, and fatigued driving), on the crash related health care costs. The South Carolina Crash Outcome Data Evaluation System (SC CODES) from 2005 to 2007 was used to construct six separate hierarchical linear regression models based on drivers' age and gender. The results suggest that older drivers have higher health care costs than younger drivers and male drivers tend to have higher health care costs than female drivers in the same age group. Overall, single vehicle crashes had the highest health care costs for all drivers. For males older than 64-years old sideswipe crashes are as costly as single vehicle crashes. In general, not wearing a seatbelt, airbag deployment, and speeding were found to be associated with higher health care costs. Distraction-related crashes are more likely to be associated with lower health care costs in most cases. Furthermore this study highlights the value of considering drivers in subgroups, as some factors have different effects on health care costs in different driver groups. Developing an understanding of longer term outcomes of crashes and their characteristics can lead to improvements in vehicle technology, educational materials, and interventions to reduce crash-related health care costs.

  11. Apathy in Parkinson's disease is related to executive function, gender and age but not to depression

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Antonia; Zimmermann, Ronan; Gschwandtner, Ute; Hatz, Florian; Bousleiman, Habib; Schwarz, Nadine; Fuhr, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in executive functions occur in up to 93% of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Apathy, a reduction of motivation and goal-directed behavior is an important part of the syndrome; affecting both the patients as well as their social environment. Executive functions can be subdivided into three different processes: initiation, shifting and inhibition. We examined the hypotheses, (1) that apathy in patients with Parkinson's disease is only related to initiation and not to shifting and inhibition, and (2) that depression and severity of motor signs correlate with apathy. Fifty-one non-demented patients (19 = female) with PD were evaluated for apathy, depression and executive functions. Executive function variables were summarized with an index variable according to the defined executive processes. Linear regression with stepwise elimination procedure was used to select significant predictors. The significant model (R2 = 0.41; p < 0.01) revealed influences of initiation (b = −0.79; p < 0.01), gender (b = −7.75; p < 0.01), age (b = −0.07; p < 0.05) and an age by gender interaction (b = 0.12; p < 0.01) on apathy in Parkinson's disease. Motor signs, depression and level of education did not influence the relation. These results support an association of apathy and deficits of executive function in PD. Initiation strongly correlates with apathy, whereas depression does not. We conclude, that initiation dysfunction in a patient with Parkinson's disease heralds apathy. Apathy and depression can be dissociated. Additionally, apathy is influenced by age and gender: older age correlates with apathy in men, whereas in women it seems to protect against it. PMID:25642187

  12. Influence of age, gender, and race on nitric oxide release over acupuncture points-meridians

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Sheng-Xing; Lee, Paul C.; Jiang, Isabelle; Ma, Eva; Hu, Jay S.; Li, Xi-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of age, gender and race on nitric oxide (NO) release over acupuncture points, meridian without acupoint, and non-meridian regions of the Pericardium (PC) and Bladder (BL) meridian as well as aging on LU meridian in 61 healthy subjects. Biocapture tubes were attached to the skin surface, and total nitrite and nitrate was biocaptured and quantified using chemiluminescence. In elder ages compared to adults, NO levels over the ventral forearm were significantly decreased over LU on radial regions but not altered over PC on medial regions. Conversely, NO content was elevated over BL regions only in overweight/obesity of elder ages. NO levels over PC regions were marginally elevated in overweight/obese males compared to females but did not alter between races. These results suggest a selective reduction of NO release over LU meridian with aging, which is consistent with a progressive decline in lung function and increase in chronic respiratory disease in elder ages. Increased NO levels along the BL meridian in older obese subjects may reflect a modified NO level along somatic-bladder pathway for counteracting bladder dysfunctions with aging. Both of them support somatic-organ connections in the meridian system associated with potential pathophysiological changes with aging. PMID:26621821

  13. Relation of left ventricular thickness to age and gender in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Maron, Barry J; Casey, Susan A; Hurrell, David G; Aeppli, Dorothee M

    2003-05-15

    Left ventricular (LV) wall thickening is the most consistent clinical marker of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC), and characteristically increases substantially during adolescence. In this study, we used 2-dimensional echocardiography to develop a cross-sectional profile of LV wall thicknesses in adult patients with HC. We studied a regional community-based cohort of 239 consecutively enrolled patients (aged 18 to 91 years). On average, maximum LV wall thickness decreased relative to increasing age (p = 0.007) within 4 age groups: 22.8 +/- 5.1 mm (18 to 39 years) to 22.1 +/- 5.1 mm (40 to 59 years) to 21.1 +/- 3.7 mm (60 to 74 years) to 20.8 +/- 3.6 mm (>or=75 years). The LV thickness index (summation of wall thicknesses in all 4 segments) also decreased with age (p = 0.017): 63.0 +/- 12.2 mm to 59.8 +/- 11.9 mm to 58.3 +/- 10.4 mm to 57.9 +/- 9.8 mm. Decreasing magnitude of LV hypertrophy was independently associated with increasing age, but not with other relevant disease variables, such as symptoms and outflow obstruction. However, when separated by gender, this inverse relation between age and LV wall thickness was statistically significant only for women (p = 0.007). In conclusion, in an unselected HC cohort, cross-sectional analysis showed a modest but statistically significant inverse relation between age and LV hypertrophy that was largely gender-specific for women. This association constitutes another facet of the natural history of this complex and heterogenous disease and may reflect disproportionate occurrence of premature death in young patients with HC with marked hypertrophy or possibly gradual LV remodeling.

  14. Physical Disability Trajectories in Older Americans with and without Diabetes: The Role of Age, Gender, Race or Ethnicity, and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Ching-Ju; Wray, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This research combined cross-sectional and longitudinal data to characterize age-related trajectories in physical disability for adults with and without diabetes in the United States and to investigate if those patterns differ by age, gender, race or ethnicity, and education. Design and Methods: Data were examined on 20,433 adults aged 51…

  15. Age estimation of immature human skeletal remains from the diaphyseal length of the long bones in the postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Abrantes, Joana; Humphrey, Louise T

    2014-09-01

    Age at death in immature human skeletal remains has been estimated from the diaphyseal length of the long bones, but few studies have actually been designed specifically for the purpose of age estimation and those which have, show important caveats. This study uses regression and classical calibration to model the relationship between age and diaphyseal length of the six long bones, in a sample of 184 known sex and age individuals (72 females and 112 males), younger than 13 years of age, selected from Portuguese and English skeletal collections. Age estimation models based on classical calibration were obtained for each of the six long bones, and separately for each sex and for the sexes combined, and also for the entire sample and when it is subdivided into two subsamples at the age of 2 years. Comparisons between inverse and classical calibration show there is a systematic bias in age estimations obtained from inverse calibration. In the classical calibration models, the length of the femur provides the most accurate estimates of age. Age estimates are more accurate for the male subsample and for individuals under the age of 2 years. These results and a test of previously published methods caution against inverse calibration as a technique for developing age estimation methods even from the immature skeleton. Age estimation methods developed using cemetery collections of identified human skeletons should not be uncritically applied to present-day populations from the same region since many populations have experienced dramatic secular trends in growth and adult height over the last century.

  16. Age and gender effects on nasal respiratory function in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Vig, P S; Zajac, D J

    1993-05-01

    One hundred and ninety-seven normal individuals between the ages of 5 and 73 years were evaluated to determine nasal resistance, nasal cross-sectional area, and respiratory mode during quiet breathing. Subjects were categorized into three age groups. Nasal resistance and respiratory mode were directly determined using posterior rhinomanometry and the SNORT technique, respectively. Nasal cross-sectional area was estimated using the hydrokinetic equation. Results indicated significant effects of age on all variables; significant gender differences were found for respiratory mode. Weak correlations were found between respiratory mode and nasal resistance. The results are presented as normative data on nasorespiratory characteristics to facilitate diagnostic and treatment decisions relative to individuals with normal morphology as well as to patients with craniofacial anomalies. A fundamental issue of both clinical and theoretical importance arising from the study pertains to the definitions of normality and impairment.

  17. Age and gender effects on nasal respiratory function in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Vig, P S; Zajac, D J

    1993-05-01

    One hundred and ninety-seven normal individuals between the ages of 5 and 73 years were evaluated to determine nasal resistance, nasal cross-sectional area, and respiratory mode during quiet breathing. Subjects were categorized into three age groups. Nasal resistance and respiratory mode were directly determined using posterior rhinomanometry and the SNORT technique, respectively. Nasal cross-sectional area was estimated using the hydrokinetic equation. Results indicated significant effects of age on all variables; significant gender differences were found for respiratory mode. Weak correlations were found between respiratory mode and nasal resistance. The results are presented as normative data on nasorespiratory characteristics to facilitate diagnostic and treatment decisions relative to individuals with normal morphology as well as to patients with craniofacial anomalies. A fundamental issue of both clinical and theoretical importance arising from the study pertains to the definitions of normality and impairment. PMID:8292136

  18. Questions of culture, age and gender in the epidemiology of suicide.

    PubMed

    Webster Rudmin, Floyd; Ferrada-Noli, Marcello; Skolbekken, John-Arne

    2003-09-01

    Cultural values were examined as predictors of suicide incidence rates compiled for men and women in six age groups for 33 nations for the years 1965, 1970, 1975, 1980, and 1985. Hofstede's cultural values of Power-Distance, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Masculinity (i.e., social indifference) were negative correlates of reported suicide, and Individualism was a strong positive correlate. The proportion of variance in suicide reports generally related to these four cultural values was R2 = 0.25. Suicide by women and by middle-aged people was most related to cultural values, even though international variance in suicide is greater for men and for the elderly. Suicide incidence for girls and young women showed unique negative correlations with Individualism. For all age groups, Individualism predicted a greater preponderance of male suicides, and Power-Distance predicted more similar male and female suicide rates. Social alienation and Gilligan's feminist theory of moral judgment were hypothesized to explain some gender differences.

  19. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing.

  20. Effect of age and gender on sudomotor and cardiovagal function and blood pressure response to tilt in normal subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Low, P. A.; Denq, J. C.; Opfer-Gehrking, T. L.; Dyck, P. J.; O'Brien, P. C.; Slezak, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    Normative data are limited on autonomic function tests, especially beyond age 60 years. We therefore evaluated these tests in a total of 557 normal subjects evenly distributed by age and gender from 10 to 83 years. Heart rate (HR) response to deep breathing fell with increasing age. Valsalva ratio varied with both age and gender. QSART (quantitative sudomotor axon-reflex test) volume was consistently greater in men (approximately double) and progressively declined with age for all three lower extremity sites but not the forearm site. Orthostatic blood pressure reduction was greater with increasing age. HR at rest was significantly higher in women, and the increment with head-up tilt fell with increasing age. For no tests did we find a regression to zero, and some tests seem to level off with increasing age, indicating that diagnosis of autonomic failure was possible to over 80 years of age.

  1. How avoidant attachment influences subjective well-being: an investigation about the age and gender differences.

    PubMed

    Li, Tianyuan; Fung, Helene H

    2014-01-01

    Intimate relationship is a significant factor that influences older adults' subjective well-being. Avoidant attachment reflects a basic working model regarding interpersonal relationships. The current study aims to test how age and gender moderate the effect of avoidant attachment to spouse on subjective well-being. Fifty-six married couples aged from 20 to 79 years in Hong Kong were recruited for the study. Their avoidant attachment to spouse and subjective well-being were measured by questionnaires. In general, avoidant attachment to spouse was found to undermine subjective well-being. More importantly, age significantly moderated the negative association between avoidant attachment and subjective well-being, but the direction of the moderating effect was opposite for husbands and wives. Compared with their younger counterparts, the detrimental effect of avoidant attachment on subjective well-being was weaker for older wives but stronger for older husbands. The results suggest that marital relationship may play different roles in different life stages for the two genders. In later adulthood, males may become more dependent on the marital relationship to maintain subjective well-being, whereas females can be relatively independent.

  2. [Categorical and dimensional assessment of "psychopathy" in German offenders. Prevalence, gender differences and age factors].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, S; Paelecke, M; Kahle, I; Marneros, A

    2003-11-01

    The personality construct "psychopathy" is of utmost importance in legal prognosis. In the last 20 years, a multitude of empirical research proved the predictive validity of this concept concerning the degree of dangerousness represented by an offender. In the present study, a representative, nonselected sample of 416 offenders was examined using the Screening Version of the Psychopathy Checklist (PCL:SV). The data were analysed both categorically and dimensionally according to the three-factor model proposed by Cooke and Michie. In comparison to North American Studies the prevalence of high scorers was significantly lower, implicating intercultural differences. Analyses of the effects of gender yielded higher scores on each of the three factors in male offenders. Concerning different age cohorts, it turned out that the arrogant and deceitful interpersonal style and deficient affective experience remained stable, whereas the impulsive and irresponsible behavioral style decreased with increasing age. Therefore, our results point out intercultural differences already shown in the prevalence of "psychopathy" and confirm the effects of gender and age concerning this construct. PMID:14598037

  3. A study of gender, strain and age differences in mouse liver glutathione-S-transferase.

    PubMed

    Egaas, E; Falls, J G; Dauterman, W C

    1995-01-01

    The hepatic cytosolic glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity in four strains of the mouse and one strain of the rat was studied with the substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), ethachrynic acid (ETHA), cumene hydroperoxide (CU) and atrazine as the in vitro substrates. In the mouse, significant gender, strain and age-related differences in the GST activity towards CDNB and atrazine were found between adolescent and sexually mature males and females of the CD-1, C57BL/6, DBA/2 and Swiss-Webster strains, and the differences were larger with atrazine as the substrate. With DCNB and CU a similar tendency was observed, however not significant for all strains. The GST activity towards ETHA was also gender and strain specific, but revealed no age-related differences. The herbicide atrazine seems to be a useful substrate in the study of strain and age-related differences in the mouse GST class Pi.

  4. The thickness of the ligamentum flavum in relation to age and gender.

    PubMed

    Safak, Alp Alper; Is, Merih; Sevinc, Ozdemir; Barut, Cagatay; Eryoruk, Nesrin; Erdogmus, Besir; Dosoglu, Murat

    2010-01-01

    Hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum (LF) can reduce the diameter of the spinal canal posteriorly. Such stenosis may significantly compress the dural sac and nerve roots, resulting in symptoms, even without a bulging anulus fibrosus or herniated nucleus pulposus. We conducted an anatomical study to determine the influence of age and gender on the thickness of the LF at the lower lumbar levels using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The thickness of 1,280 ligaments was determined at the L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels from MRIs. We screened 320 patients (152 males [47.5%] and 168 females [52.5%]) between 21 and 82 years of age. There were no significant differences in LF thickness with respect to gender (P > 0.05). Age was not correlated with the thicknesses of the LF. The left LF at the L4-L5 and L5-S1 levels was significantly thicker than on the right side (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the LF thicknesses at L5-S1 bilaterally were significantly greater than on the corresponding sides at L4-L5 (P < 0.05). The LF is an important anatomical structure, which might cause low back or leg pain. Therefore, the thickness of the LF should be measured and evaluated carefully in the case of spinal stenosis.

  5. Cold and warmth perception mapped for age, gender, and body area.

    PubMed

    Harju, Eva-Liz

    2002-01-01

    Reference data on cold and warmth perception at three different body areas are provided based on 24 young (20-30 years) and 24 elderly (55-65 years) healthy women and men. Perception thresholds (method of limits), perceived intensity (free-number magnitude estimation), and perceived quality (verbal descriptors) were assessed for cold and for warmth at thenar, the upper arm, the knee, and the foot. Inter-individual comparison of perceived-intensity scales for cold and warmth was achieved by a Master Scaling procedure utilizing thenar as a reference area. Perception thresholds showed gender difference for cold at thenar, and interaction effect of age and gender for heat-pain tolerance at the upper arm. In contrast, perceived intensity of cold and warmth showed multiple effects of age, gender, and specific body area (also for the nociceptive channels). For instance, at the knee, elderly women's perceived intensity for stimulation in the nociceptive range was elevated for both cold and warmth, as compared to young women and men, and to elderly men. Conversely, at the upper arm, elderly women's perceived intensity for the corresponding nociceptive range was lowered, as compared to young women and young men, and to elderly men. At the foot, both elderly women's and men's perceived intensity of cold and warmth was lowered, as compared to young women and men. Overall, the perceived quality of perceptions did not differ between groups. The present findings on age differences in perceived intensity of cold and warmth at the upper arm, knee and foot in healthy women and men provide reference data hitherto lacking for diagnostic work in patients with somatosensory dysfunctions and ongoing pain.

  6. Does smoking, age or gender affect the protein phenotype of extracellular vesicles in plasma?

    PubMed

    Bæk, R; Varming, K; Jørgensen, M M

    2016-08-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are involved in several diseases, which have formed the basis for the potential use of EV analyses in a clinical setting. The protein phenotype of EVs can provide information on the functionality of the vesicles and may be used for identification of disease-related biomarkers. With this extensive study of 161 healthy individuals it was elucidated that certain markers of plasma EVs are influenced by demographic variations such as gender, age and smoking status. When the purpose is to use EVs as a diagnostic tool, it should be emphasized how important it is to choose the correct demographic group when comparing marker levels of plasma EVs. PMID:27470710

  7. Assessment of gestational age of the Asian fetus by the sonar measurement of crown-rump length and biparietal diameter.

    PubMed

    Parker, A J; Davies, P; Newton, J R

    1982-10-01

    Two populations of pregnant Asian and European women were scanned using linear array real-time ultrasound machines. Measurements were made of fetal crown-rump length (CRL) up to 14 weeks gestational age and of biparietal diameter (BPD) up to 20 weeks gestational age. Polynomial growth curves relating CRL and BPD measurements to their gestational ages were fitted to the data by the method of unweighted least squares. There were no significant differences between the Asian and European parameters for the CRL and BPD curves. European nomograms may be used to establish Asian fetal gestational age up to 20 weeks.

  8. Childhood Adversities Are Associated with Shorter Telomere Length at Adult Age both in Individuals with an Anxiety Disorder and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Kananen, Laura; Surakka, Ida; Pirkola, Sami; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lönnqvist, Jouko; Peltonen, Leena; Ripatti, Samuli; Hovatta, Iiris

    2010-01-01

    Accelerated leukocyte telomere shortening has been previously associated to self-perceived stress and psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia and mood disorders. We set out to investigate whether telomere length is affected in patients with anxiety disorders in which stress is a known risk factor. We also studied the effects of childhood and recent psychological distress on telomere length. We utilized samples from the nationally representative population-based Health 2000 Survey that was carried out between 2000–2001 in Finland to assess major public health problems and their determinants. We measured the relative telomere length of the peripheral blood cells by quantitative real-time PCR from 321 individuals with DSM-IV anxiety disorder or subthreshold diagnosis and 653 matched controls aged 30–87 years, who all had undergone the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. While telomere length did not differ significantly between cases and controls in the entire cohort, the older half of the anxiety disorder patients (48–87 years) exhibited significantly shorter telomeres than healthy controls of the same age (P = 0.013). Interestingly, shorter telomere length was also associated with a greater number of reported childhood adverse life events, among both the anxiety disorder cases and controls (P = 0.005). Childhood chronic or serious illness was the most significantly associated single event affecting telomere length at the adult age (P = 0.004). Self-reported current psychological distress did not affect telomere length. Our results suggest that childhood stress might lead to accelerated telomere shortening seen at the adult age. This finding has potentially important implications supporting the view that childhood adversities might have a considerable impact on well being later in life. PMID:20520834

  9. Gender, age, society, culture, and the patient's perspective in the functional gastrointestinal disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Lin; Toner, Brenda B; Fukudo, Shin; Guthrie, Elspeth; Locke, G Richard; Norton, Nancy J; Sperber, Ami D

    2006-04-01

    Patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGID) often experience emotional distress, a perceived lack of validation, and an unsatisfactory experience with health care providers. A health care provider can provide the patient with a framework in which to understand and legitimize their symptoms, remove self-doubt or blame, and identify factors that contribute to symptoms that the patient can influence or control. This framework can be strengthened with the consideration of various important factors that impact FGID but are often overlooked. These include gender, age, society, culture, and the patient's perspective. There is evidence for sex- and gender-related differences in FGID, particularly irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Whereas the majority of FGID, including IBS, bloating, constipation, chronic functional abdominal pain, and pelvic floor dysfunction, are more prevalent in women than men, functional esophageal and gastroduodenal disorders do not appear to vary by gender. Limited studies suggest that sex differences in visceral perception, cardioautonomic responses, gastrointestinal motility, and brain activation patterns to visceral stimuli exist in IBS. Gender differences in social factors, psychological symptoms, and response to psychological treatments have not been adequately studied. However, there appears to be a greater clinical response to serotonergic agents developed for IBS in women compared to men. The impact of social and cultural factors on the meaning, expression, and course of FGID are important. The prevalence of IBS appears to be lower in non-Western than Western countries. Although further studies are needed, the existing literature suggests that they are important to consider from both research and clinical perspectives. PMID:16678557

  10. INSIG2 is Associated with Lower Gain in Weight-for-Length Between Birth and Age 6 Months

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ann Chen; Gillman, Matthew W.; Taveras, Elsie M.; Litonjua, Augusto A.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers have described the association of a common DNA polymorphism, rs7566605, near INSIG2 (insulin-induced gene 2) with obesity in multiple independent populations that include subjects ages 11–60 years.1 To our knowledge, no studies have examined the association of this polymorphism with weight status during early childhood. We explored the association of the rs7566605 polymorphism with weight-for-length among 319 children at 6 months and 3 years participating in Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. In contrast to studies of older individuals, CC homozygosity was associated with lower gain in weight-for-length z-score between birth and age 6 months than GG homozygosity or GC heterozygosity. At age 3, we did not find an association. The association of INSIG2 gene with obesity may change direction with age. PMID:20354568

  11. Age and Heat Stress as Determinants of Telomere Length in a Long-Lived Fish, the Siberian Sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Simide, Rémy; Angelier, Frédéric; Gaillard, Sandrine; Stier, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten at each cell division due to the end-replication problem but also in response to oxidative stress. Consequently, telomeres shorten with age in many endotherms, and this shortening is accelerated under stressful environmental conditions. Data in ectotherm vertebrates remain scarce so far, so our goal was to review existing data for fish and to test the influence of age and stress on telomere length in a very long-lived fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Our review of the literature revealed age-related telomere shortening in approximately half of the published studies. In the Siberian sturgeon, we found a significant telomere shortening with age, both at the intraindividual level using red blood cells (-12.5% in 16 mo) and at the interindividual level using cross-sectional samples of fin over an age range of 8 yr. We also found that heat stress (30°C) significantly reduced telomere length by 15.0% after only 1 mo of exposure. Our results highlight that both age and stressful environmental conditions might be important determinants of telomere length in fish. PMID:27617363

  12. Age and Heat Stress as Determinants of Telomere Length in a Long-Lived Fish, the Siberian Sturgeon.

    PubMed

    Simide, Rémy; Angelier, Frédéric; Gaillard, Sandrine; Stier, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten at each cell division due to the end-replication problem but also in response to oxidative stress. Consequently, telomeres shorten with age in many endotherms, and this shortening is accelerated under stressful environmental conditions. Data in ectotherm vertebrates remain scarce so far, so our goal was to review existing data for fish and to test the influence of age and stress on telomere length in a very long-lived fish, the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Our review of the literature revealed age-related telomere shortening in approximately half of the published studies. In the Siberian sturgeon, we found a significant telomere shortening with age, both at the intraindividual level using red blood cells (-12.5% in 16 mo) and at the interindividual level using cross-sectional samples of fin over an age range of 8 yr. We also found that heat stress (30°C) significantly reduced telomere length by 15.0% after only 1 mo of exposure. Our results highlight that both age and stressful environmental conditions might be important determinants of telomere length in fish.

  13. Preliminary results in the redox balance in healthy cats: influence of age and gender.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Cristina; Pereira, Victor; Abuelo, Angel; Guimarey, Rebeca; García-Vaquero, Marco; Benedito, José L; Hernández, Joaquín

    2013-04-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) impairs organic function and is considered causally related to cellular senescence and death. This study aims to evaluate if the redox balance varies in relation to age and gender in healthy cats. To quantify the oxidative status of this species we determined the oxidative damage as serum reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) and the total serum antioxidant capacity (SAC). In addition, we used the ratio of ROM to SAC as a measure of the oxidative balance, with higher values meaning higher oxidative stress (oxidative stress index). Our results suggest that the male population is at oxidative risk when compared with females, especially between the age of 2 and 7 years. Nutritional strategies in this population looking for additional antioxidant support would probably avoid the oxidative stress status that predisposes to chronic processes in senior male cats. Further clinical trials in this field are recommended.

  14. [Gender and age differences in the cognitive, psychophysiological, and behavioral responses of social anxiety in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Inglés, Cándido J; Piqueras, José A; García-Fernández, José M; García-López, Luis J; Delgado, Beatriz; Ruiz-Esteban, Cecilia

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gender and age differences in adolescents' social anxiety in the factor scores of the Social Phobia subscale from the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory (SP-SPAI): Social Interactions, Focus of Attention, Cognitive and Somatic Symptoms and Avoidance and Escape Behaviors. The sample consisted of 2,543 students of Secondary Education between 12 and 17 years. Results are shown for the general sample (N= 2,543) and for the sample of adolescents classified as high social anxiety group (n= 317). Regarding the first group, girls obtained higher total scores on the Social Phobia scale and on all factors except for Avoidance and Escape (d= .32 - .35). Concerning the high anxiety group, the analyses revealed that boys avoid and escape from social situations more frequently than girls (d= .23). No age differences were found in the factor scores for any of the two samples.

  15. Children's understanding and experience of mixed emotions: the roles of age, gender, and empathy.

    PubMed

    Zajdel, Ruth T; Bloom, Jill Myerow; Fireman, Gary; Larsen, Jeff T

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the development of children's ability report understanding and experiencing allocentric mixed emotions, and explored the relation of gender and empathic ability to these skills. Participants (128 elementary school-aged children [63 boys, 65 girls]) were shown a movie clip with bittersweet themes to elicit mixed emotions. Findings from this study are consistent with prior research (Larsen, To, & Fireman, 2007), supporting a developmental progression in children's ability to both understand and report experiencing mixed emotions, with the two as distinct skills and children reporting understanding earlier than experiencing of emotions. Consistent with previous research, girls performed significantly better on the emotion experience task. Finally, results provided evidence that empathy partially mediates the relationship between age and reports of mixed emotion experience, but no evidence that empathy plays a role in mixed emotional understanding.

  16. Age, gender, and interpersonal behavior development using the FIRO-BC.

    PubMed

    Burton, S A; Goggin, W C

    1985-04-01

    It has been argued that many human behaviors follow predictable developmental patterns, or stages. The FIRO-BC was given to 9- through 13-year-old children (n = 282) to test for a stage-like progression in interpersonal behavior development. The data presented here failed to evidence an age-related progression. However, gender differences did appear in 11-year-olds and increased dramatically by age 13. Geographical differences were found in that the present data differed significantly from the normative data presented in the FIRO manual. The data also support the notion that, at least within the southern population tested. interpersonal behavior may be more related to puberty than has been previously supposed.

  17. Association between breed, gender and age in relation to cardiovascular disorders in insured dogs in Japan

    PubMed Central

    INOUE, Mai; HASEGAWA, Atsuhiko; HOSOI, Yuta; SUGIURA, Katsuaki

    2015-01-01

    The association between breed, gender and age and cardiovascular disorders in the insured dog population in Japan was investigated, using multiple logistic regression analysis and data from 299,555 dogs insured between April 2010 and March 2011. The overall annual prevalence of cardiovascular disorder diagnosis was 2.1%. Using the Miniature Dachshund as the reference breed, Cavalier King Charles Spaniel had the highest odds of cardiovascular disorder with a ratio of 16.2 (95% confidence interval: 14.4–18.2), followed by Maltese, Pomeranian, Chihuahua and Shih Tzu. Male dogs had increased odds of 1.2 (1.1–1.3). The dogs had increased odds of having cardiovascular disorder by 1.5 times as their age increased by one year. PMID:26460315

  18. Gender and age differences in mixed metal exposure and urinary excretion

    SciTech Connect

    Berglund, Marika; Lindberg, Anna-Lena; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Yunus, Mohammad; Grander, Margaretha; Loennerdal, Bo; Vahter, Marie

    2011-11-15

    Background: Little is known about the variation in exposure to toxic metals by age and gender and other potential modifying factors. We evaluated age and gender differences by measurements of metal/element concentrations in urine in a rural population in Matlab, Bangladesh, in three age groups: 8-12 (N=238), 14-15 (N=107) and 30-88 (N=710) years of age, living in an area with no point sources of metal exposure but where elevated water arsenic concentrations are prevalent. Results: We found marked differences in urine concentrations of metals and trace elements by gender, age, tobacco use, socioeconomic and nutritional status. Besides a clearly elevated urinary arsenic concentration in all age groups (medians 63-85 {mu}g As/L), and despite the low degree of contamination from industries and traffic, the urine concentrations of toxic metals such as cadmium and lead were clearly elevated, especially in children (median 0.31 {mu}g Cd/L and 2.9 {mu}g Pb/L, respectively). In general, women had higher urinary concentrations of toxic metals, especially Cd (median 0.81 {mu}g/L) compared to men (0.66 {mu}g/L) and U (median 10 ng/L in women, compared to 6.4 ng/L in men), while men had higher urinary concentrations of the basic and essential elements Ca (69 mg/L in men, 30-50 years, compared to 52 mg/L in women), Mg (58 mg/L in men compared to 50 mg/L in women), Zn (182 {mu}g/L in men compared to 117 {mu}g/L in women) and Se (9.9 {mu}g/L in men compared to 8.7 {mu}g/L in women). Manganese was consistently higher in females than in males in all age groups, suggesting a biological difference between females and males in Mn metabolism. Increasing socioeconomic status decreased the toxic metal exposure significantly in children and especially in men. Poor iron status was detected in 17% of children, adolescents and women, but only in 6% of men. Also zinc deficiency was more prevalent in females than in males. Conclusions: Women and children seemed to be more at risk for toxic

  19. Single Stance Stability and Proprioceptive Control in Older Adults Living at Home: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    Riva, Dario; Mamo, Carlo; Fanì, Mara; Saccavino, Patrizia; Rocca, Flavio; Momenté, Manuel; Fratta, Marianna

    2013-01-01

    In developed countries, falls in older people represent a rising problem. As effective prevention should start before the risk becomes evident, an early predictor is needed. Single stance instability would appear as a major risk factor. Aims of the study were to describe single stance stability, its sensory components, and their correlation with age and gender. A random sample of 597 older adults (319 men, 278 women) living at home, aged 65–84, was studied. Stability tests were performed with an electronic postural station. The single stance test showed the impairment of single stance stability in older individuals (75–84 yrs). The significant decline of stability in the older subjects may be explained by the impairment of proprioceptive control together with the decrease in compensatory visual stabilization and emergency responses. Younger subjects (65–74 yrs) exhibited better, but still inadequate, proprioceptive control with compensatory visual stabilization. Gender differences appeared in older subjects: women were significantly less stable than men. The measurement of the sensory components of single stance stability could aid in the early detection of a decay in antigravity movements many years before the risk of falling becomes evident. Adequate proprioceptive control could mitigate the effects of all other risks of falling. PMID:23984068

  20. Culture, age and gender: effects on quality of predicted self and colleague reactions.

    PubMed

    Greipp, M E

    1996-02-01

    Ethnocentrism on the part of health care workers has been documented in the literature and has led to misdiagnosis, mistreatment and undertreatment of culturally diverse individuals worldwide. Aversive Insidious Racism and Ingroup Favoritism theories were used as the guiding framework for this study. Two hundred and sixty-eight female nurses from a large, urban, multi-service hospital in the United States were surveyed to identify those psychosocial variables (age, gender and culture status of the client) which enhanced and/or inhibited their predicted reactions with clients and which have the power to contribute to unethical decision making and less than ethical client care. The findings of this study, which is the first to examine nurses' predicted self and colleague reactions to multiple client variables concurrently, demonstrated that Client Gender as a main effect was not significant in itself when examining self and colleague predictions. Client Age as a main effect was significant for self predictions, p < 0.006, and for colleague predictions, p < 0.000. Client Culture as a main effect was significant for self predictions, p < 0.001 and for colleague predictions, p < 0.001. Many two-way and three-way interaction effects were significant. Subjects consistently predicted more favorable self reactions than colleague reactions, supporting Aversive Insidious Racism theory. Study findings did not consistently support Ingroup Favoritism theory. Subjects did not predict most favorable reactions with Caucasian female clients.

  1. Energy-related parameters and their association with age, gender, and morphometric measurements in healthy donkeys.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, F J; Estepa, J C; Gonzalez-De Cara, C A; Aguilera-Aguilera, R; Toribio, R E; Perez-Ecija, A

    2015-05-01

    Donkeys are commonly afflicted by endocrine and metabolic disturbances but few studies have investigated endocrine variables involved in energy regulation and their association with morphometric indices, age or gender in this species. Hemostatic and clinical differences have been demonstrated between horses and donkeys, so to consider both species as metabolically and endocrinologically similar could lead to misdiagnosis. In this study, plasma concentrations of glucose, triglycerides and endocrine factors involved in energy homeostasis (insulin, glucagon, leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and insulin-like growth factor [IGF]-1) were measured and their association with morphometric variables (body condition score, neck scoring and body mass index), gender and age was determined in 62 healthy donkeys. In addition, a neck scoring system specific for donkeys was developed. Insulin, glucagon, leptin and IGF-1 concentrations were found to be similar between donkeys and other species, but adiponectin and active ghrelin were lower in donkeys than horses. Donkeys with larger neck scores and body mass indices had higher triglyceride, leptin and IGF-1 concentrations. A sexual dimorphism was observed on all morphometric measurements and plasma glucose concentrations independent of adiposity. Younger animals had lower morphometric measurements and triglyceride and leptin concentrations.

  2. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study.

    PubMed

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population. PMID:27313602

  3. Gender and Age Related Effects While Watching TV Advertisements: An EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Cartocci, Giulia; Cherubino, Patrizia; Rossi, Dario; Modica, Enrica; Maglione, Anton Giulio; di Flumeri, Gianluca; Babiloni, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present paper is to show how the variation of the EEG frontal cortical asymmetry is related to the general appreciation perceived during the observation of TV advertisements, in particular considering the influence of the gender and age on it. In particular, we investigated the influence of the gender on the perception of a car advertisement (Experiment 1) and the influence of the factor age on a chewing gum commercial (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 results showed statistically significant higher approach values for the men group throughout the commercial. Results from Experiment 2 showed significant lower values by older adults for the spot, containing scenes not very enjoyed by them. In both studies, there was no statistical significant difference in the scene relative to the product offering between the experimental populations, suggesting the absence in our study of a bias towards the specific product in the evaluated populations. These evidences state the importance of the creativity in advertising, in order to attract the target population. PMID:27313602

  4. Consistency of the Proteome in Primary Human Keratinocytes With Respect to Gender, Age, and Skin Localization*

    PubMed Central

    Sprenger, Adrian; Weber, Sebastian; Zarai, Mostafa; Engelke, Rudolf; Nascimento, Juliana M.; Gretzmeier, Christine; Hilpert, Martin; Boerries, Melanie; Has, Cristina; Busch, Hauke; Bruckner-Tuderman, Leena; Dengjel, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    Keratinocytes account for 95% of all cells of the epidermis, the stratified squamous epithelium forming the outer layer of the skin, in which a significant number of skin diseases takes root. Immortalized keratinocyte cell lines are often used as research model systems providing standardized, reproducible, and homogenous biological material. Apart from that, primary human keratinocytes are frequently used for medical studies because the skin provides an important route for drug administration and is readily accessible for biopsies. However, comparability of these cell systems is not known. Cell lines may undergo phenotypic shifts and may differ from the in vivo situation in important aspects. Primary cells, on the other hand, may vary in biological functions depending on gender and age of the donor and localization of the biopsy specimen. Here we employed metabolic labeling in combination with quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to assess A431 and HaCaT cell lines for their suitability as model systems. Compared with cell lines, comprehensive profiling of the primary human keratinocyte proteome with respect to gender, age, and skin localization identified an unexpected high proteomic consistency. The data were analyzed by an improved ontology enrichment analysis workflow designed for the study of global proteomics experiments. It enables a quick, comprehensive and unbiased overview of altered biological phenomena and links experimental data to literature. We guide through our workflow, point out its advantages compared with other methods and apply it to visualize differences of cell lines compared with primary human keratinocytes. PMID:23722187

  5. Chemical signals in the stingless bee, Frieseomelitta varia, indicate caste, gender, age, and reproductive status.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Túlio M; Turatti, Izabel C C; Lopes, Norberto P; Zucchi, Ronaldo

    2009-10-01

    Chemical compounds on the cuticle are a rich source of information used during interactions among social insects. Despite the multitude of studies on these substances and their function in ants, wasps, and honeybees, little is known about this subject in stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae, Meliponini). We studied the chemical composition of the cuticle of the stingless bee, Frieseomelitta varia, by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), to investigate potential chemical variation among castes, gender, age, and reproductive status. We found differences in the cuticular hydrocarbon composition among workers, males, and queens, recording both qualitative and quantitative differences among individuals of different ages and gender. The cuticle of physogastric queens presented a chemical profile that was distinct from all other groups in the analysis, with high relative abundances of alkenes and alkadienes with 27, 29, and 31 carbon atoms. We discuss the possibility that these compounds signal a queen's presence to the colony, thereby initiating all vital worker-queen interactions. PMID:19813058

  6. Gender differences in vocational rehabilitation service predictors of successful competitive employment for transition-aged individuals with autism.

    PubMed

    Sung, Connie; Sánchez, Jennifer; Kuo, Hung-Jen; Wang, Chia-Chiang; Leahy, Michael J

    2015-10-01

    As males and females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience different symptomology, their needs for vocational rehabilitation (VR) are unique as they transition into adulthood. This study examined the effects of gender differences in VR service predictors on employment outcomes for transition-aged individuals with ASD. A total of 1696 individuals (857 males and 839 females) were analyzed from a sample of RSA-911 data of FY 2011. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results revealed both gender-independent VR service predictors (with job placement and on-the-job supports more beneficial for both genders) and gender-specific predictors of employment (with counseling and guidance, job search assistance, and other services more beneficial for the male group). This study provides support for individualized gender-specific VR services for people with ASD.

  7. Noninvasive markers of bone metabolism in the rhesus monkey: normal effects of age and gender

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cahoon, S.; Boden, S. D.; Gould, K. G.; Vailas, A. C.

    1996-01-01

    Measurement of bone turnover in conditions such as osteoporosis has been limited by the need for invasive iliac bone biopsy to reliably determine parameters of bone metabolism. Recent advances in the area of serum and urinary markers of bone metabolism have raised the possibility for noninvasive measurements; however, little nonhuman primate data exist for these parameters. The purpose of this experiment was to define the normal range and variability of several of the newer noninvasive bone markers which are currently under investigation in humans. The primary intent was to determine age and gender variability, as well as provide some normative data for future experiments in nonhuman primates. Twenty-four rhesus macaques were divided into equal groups of male and female according to the following age groupings: 3 years, 5-10 years, 15-20 years, and > 25 years. Urine was collected three times daily for a four-day period and measured for several markers of bone turnoverm including pyridinoline (PYD), deoxypyrodinoline (DPD), hydroxyproline, and creatinine. Bone mineral density measurements of the lumbar spine were performed at the beginning and end of the study period. Serum was also obtained at the time of bone densitometry for measurement of osteocalcin levels by radioimmunoassay. There were no significant differences in bone mineral density, urine PYD, or urine DPD based on gender. Bone density was lowest in the youngest animals, peaked in the 15-20-year group, but again decreased in the oldest animals. The osteocalcin, PYD, and DPD levels followed an inversely related pattern to bone density. The most important result was the relative age insensitivity of the ratio of PYD:DPD in monkeys up to age 20 years. Since bone density changes take months or years to become measurable and iliac biopsies are invasive, the PYD/DPD marker ratio may have important implications for rapid noninvasive measurement of the effects of potential treatments for osteoporosis in the non

  8. The influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing strategy during a 100-km ultramarathon.

    PubMed

    Renfree, Andrew; Crivoi do Carmo, Everton; Martin, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to analyse the influence of performance level, age and gender on pacing during a 100-km ultramarathon. Results of a 100-km race incorporating the World Masters Championships were used to identify differences in relative speeds in each 10-km segment between participants finishing in the first, second, third and fourth quartiles of overall positions (Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively). Similar analyses were performed between the top and bottom 50% of finishers in each age category, as well as within male and female categories. Pacing varied between athletes achieving different absolute performance levels. Group 1 ran at significantly lower relative speeds than all other groups in the first three 10-km segments (all P < 0.01), and significantly higher relative speeds than Group 4 in the 6th and 10th (both P < 0.01), and Group 2 in the 8th (P = 0.04). Group 4 displayed significantly higher relative speeds than Group 2 and 3 in the first three segments (all P < 0.01). Overall strategies remained consistent across age categories, although a similar phenomenon was observed within each category whereby 'top' competitors displayed lower relative speeds than 'bottom' competitors in the early stages, but higher relative speeds in the later stages. Females showed lower relative starting speeds and higher finishing speeds than males. 'Top' and 'bottom' finishing males displayed differing strategies, but this was not the case within females. Although pacing remained consistent across age categories, it differed with level of performance within each, possibly suggesting strategies are anchored on direct competitors. Strategy differs between genders and differs depending on performance level achieved in males but not females. PMID:26034882

  9. Decision Making after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury: Trajectory of Recovery and Relationship to Age and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Adam T.; Hanten, Gerri R.; Li, Xiaoqi; Vasquez, Ana C.; Wilde, Elisabeth A.; Chapman, Sandra B.; Levin, Harvey S.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine longitudinal patterns of decision making based on risk and reward using a modified version of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) in children who had sustained traumatic brain injury (TBI) and children with orthopedic injury (OI). Participants were 135 children and adolescents with TBI (n=71) or OI (n=64) who were 7 to 17 years at the time of injury were enrolled and assessed prospectively at baseline and at follow-up intervals of 3, 12, 18, and 24 months after injury. Groups were similar in age, socioeconomic status, and gender. Participants chose from four decks of cards with the aim of maximizing earnings across 100 trials. Two of the decks offered relatively small rewards and relatively small losses, but were advantageous over the course of the experiment. The other two decks offered large rewards, but also introduced occasional large losses, and were considered disadvantageous over the course of the experiment. The variable of interest was the proportion of advantageous decks chosen across trials. Longitudinal analysis of the pattern of change across two years revealed a three-way interaction among injury group, age, and the quadratic term of interval-since-injury,. In this interaction, the effect of age weakened in the TBI group across time, as compared to the OI group, which showed stronger quadratic patterns across the recovery intervals that differed by age. The OI group generally outperformed the TBI group. In addition, analyses revealed a three-way interaction among group, gender and the cubic term of post-injury interval, such that overall, males improved a great deal with time, but females showed small gains, regardless of injury group. PMID:22138008

  10. Age- and Gender-Based Patterns in Youth All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) Riding Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Jinnah, Hamida; Stoneman, Zolinda

    2016-01-01

    Injuries to youth on all-terrain vehicles (ATVs) have been increasing exponentially in recent years. Youth under age 16 years are 4 times more likely to require emergency room treatments. This study explored the relationships and differences in ATV risk and safety behaviors based on age, gender, and age at ATV driving/riding initiation. Data were collected from 180 farm youth between 10 and 19 years of age. The study brought to light an important factor that influences risky ATV behaviors of youth, namely, their age at ATV driving and riding initiation. The sooner that youth (boys and girls) were exposed to ATVs, including riding with their family or friends, the sooner they started driving ATVs themselves, and the more likely they were to indulge in several ATV risk behaviors when older. This effect was more pronounced for boys than girls. Overall, girls in this study were equally likely to engage in many of the risky ATV behaviors, such as taking and giving rides on single-seat ATVs, driving adult-sized ATVs, driving ATVs on public roads, and driving ATVs really fast. However, they were less likely to wear protective attire, leaving them more vulnerable to injuries and fatalities during crashes. Implications of the findings and future directions are discussed.

  11. Age and Gender Related Changes in the Normal Human Brain using Hybrid Diffusion Imaging (HYDI)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yu-Chien; Field, Aaron S.; Whalen, Paul J.; Alexander, Andrew L.

    2011-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging has been widely used to study brain diseases, disorders, development and aging. However, few studies have explored the effects of aging on diffusion imaging measures with higher b-values. Further the water diffusion in biological tissues appears bi-exponential although this also has not been explored with aging. In this study, hybrid diffusion imaging (HYDI) was used to study fifty-two healthy subjects with an age range from 18 to 72 years. The HYDI diffusion-encoding scheme consisted of five concentric q-space shells with b-values raging from 0 to 9375 s/mm2. Quantitative diffusion measures were investigated as a function of age and gender using both region-of-interest (whole brain white matter, genu and splenium of corpus callosum, posterior limb of the internal capsule) and whole-brain voxel based analyses. Diffusion measures included measures of the diffusion probability density function (zero displacement probability, and mean squared displacement), bi-exponential diffusion (i.e. volume fractions of fast/slow diffusion compartments and fast/slow diffusivities), and DTI measures (fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity). The bi-exponential volume fraction, the fast diffusivity, and the axial diffusivity measures (f1, D1 and Da) were found to be more sensitive to normal aging than the restricted, slow and radial diffusion measures (Po, D2 and Dr). The bi-exponential volume fraction, f1, showed the most widespread age-dependence in the voxel-based analyses although both FA and mean diffusivity did show changes in frontal white matter regions that may be associated with age-related decline. PMID:20932911

  12. Ageing gender-specific "Biomarkers of Homeostasis", to protect ourselves against the diseases of the old age.

    PubMed

    Berghella, Anna Maria; Contasta, Ida; Marulli, Giuseppe; D'Innocenzo, Carlo; Garofalo, Ferdinando; Gizzi, Francesca; Bartolomucci, Marco; Laglia, Giacomo; Valeri, Marisa; Gizzi, Mario; Friscioni, Mauro; Barone, Mario; Del Beato, Tiziana; Secinaro, Enzo; Pellegrini, Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Low-grade inflammatory state causes the development of the principal chronic-degenerative pathologies related with ageing. Consequently, it is required a better comprehension of the physiologic origins and the consequences of the low-grade inflammatory state for the identification of 1) the basic mechanisms that lead to the chronic inflammatory state and, after that, to the progression toward the pathologies and 2) the parallel identification of the prognostic biomarkers typical of these passages. These biomarkers could bring to several improvements in the health quality, allowing an early diagnosis and more effective treatments for: a) the prevention strategies on the healthy population, to assure a healthy longevity and b) the identification of personalized treatment in patients, to assure the benefit of the therapy. For the identification of these biomarkers it is necessary to consider that the ageing processes produce alterations of the physiologic systems and that these modifications compromise the communications between these networks: this state constitutes an obstacle for an appropriate physiologic homeostasis, that plays a fundamental role for the safeguard of the health. It is also to be considered that immune senescence affects both men and women, but it does it in different ways: a sexual dimorphism of immune pathways in the setting of immune response homeostasis is normally present, as we previously underlined. Therefore we hypothesize that, in order to prevent the development of the chronic-degenerative pathologies related with ageing, it is important to identify "Biomarkers of Homeostasis " specific for each gender: these are biologic molecules that should be measurable in a practical and no-invasive way and whose variations can quantify the male and female risk of losing the physiologic system homeostatic capacity. This competence is not only critical in the control of inflammation, but it is also prognostic for the passages from low

  13. Influence of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds analyzed by an electronic nose

    PubMed Central

    Dragonieri, Silvano; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Carratu, Pierluigi; Ranieri, Teresa; Resta, Onofrio

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of age and gender on the profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds. We evaluated 68 healthy adult never-smokers, comparing them by age and by gender. Exhaled breath samples were analyzed by an electronic nose (e-nose), resulting in "breathprints". Principal component analysis and canonical discriminant analysis showed that older subjects (≥ 50 years of age) could not be distinguished from younger subjects on the basis of their breathprints, as well as that the breathprints of males could not distinguished from those of females (cross-validated accuracy, 60.3% and 57.4%, respectively).Therefore, age and gender do not seem to affect the overall profile of exhaled volatile organic compounds measured by an e-nose. PMID:27167436

  14. Does whom you work with matter? Effects of referent group gender and age composition on managers' compensation.

    PubMed

    Ostroff, Cheri; Atwater, Leanne E

    2003-08-01

    Much research has examined gender and age effects on compensation, concluding that a wage gap exists favoring men and negative stereotypes against older workers persist. Although the effect of an employee's gender or age has been widely studied, little work has examined the impact of the demographic characteristics of a focal employee's immediate referent groups (e.g., subordinates, peers, or supervisors) on pay. The effect of the gender and age composition of a focal manager's subordinates, peers, and supervisor on the manager's compensation levels was investigated in a sample of 2,178 managers across a wide range of organizations and functional areas. After controlling for a number of human capital variables, results indicated that not only does a wage gap favoring men exist, but also managerial pay is lower when managers' referent groups are largely female, when subordinates are outside the prime age group, and when peers and supervisors are younger. PMID:12940411

  15. Chronic Lead Exposure and Mixed Factors of Gender×Age×Brain Regions Interactions on Dendrite Growth, Spine Maturity and NDR Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Weizhen; Yang, Qian-Qian; Wang, Shuang; Xu, Yi; Wang, Hui-Li

    2015-01-01

    NDR1/2 kinase is essential in dendrite morphology and spine formation, which is regulated by cellular Ca2+. Lead (Pb) is a potent blocker of L-type calcium channel and our recent work showed Pb exposure impairs dendritic spine outgrowth in hippocampal neurons in rats. But the sensitivity of Pb-induced spine maturity with mixed factors (gender×age×brain regions) remains unknown. This study aimed to systematically investigate the effect of Pb exposure on spine maturity in rat brain with three factors (gender×age×brain regions), as well as the NDR1/2 kinase expression. Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to Pb from parturition to postnatal day 30, 60, 90, respectively. Golgi-Cox staining was used to examine spine maturity. Western blot assay was applied to measure protein expression and real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR assay was used to examine mRNA levels. The results showed chronic Pb exposure significantly decreased dendritic length and impaired spine maturity in both rat hippocampus and medial prefrontal cortex. The impairment of dendritic length induced by Pb exposure tended to adolescence > adulthood, hippocampus > medial prefrontal cortex and female > male. Pb exposure induced significant damage in spine maturity during adolescence and early adult while little damage during adult in male rat brain and female medial prefrontal cortex. Besides, there was sustained impairment from adolescence to adulthood in female hippocampus. Interestingly, impairment of spine maturity followed by Pb exposure was correlated with NDR1/2 kinase. The reduction of NDR1/2 kinase protein expression after Pb exposure was similar to the result of spine maturity. In addition, NDR2 and their substrate Rabin3 mRNA levels were significantly decreased by Pb exposure in developmental rat brain. Taken together, Pb exposure impaired dendrite growth and maturity which was subject to gender×age×brain regions effects and related to NDR1/2 signal expression. PMID:26368815

  16. The Role of Adolescents' Morality and Identity in Volunteering. Age and Gender Differences in a Process Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Goethem, Anne A. J.; van Hoof, Anne; van Aken, Marcel A. G.; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Boom, Jan; de Castro, Bram Orobio

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explain adolescents' volunteering in terms of their morality and identity and to examine the moderation effect of gender and age in this process. Data were collected among 698 Dutch adolescents aged 12 to 20 (M = 15.19; SD = 1.43). Adolescents' moral reasoning was positively associated with understanding moral issues…

  17. Jump into the Void? Factors Related to a Preferred Retirement Age: Gender, Social Interests, and Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaisen, Magnhild; Thorsen, Kirsten; Eriksen, Sissel H.

    2012-01-01

    Using the frameworks of the life course perspective and continuity theory, this study focuses on the association among working people between gender and specific leisure activities, social interests and individuals' preferred retirement age. The study is based on the first wave of the Norwegian Life Course, Aging and Generation (NorLAG) study,…

  18. Bullying in German Primary Schools: Gender Differences, Age Trends and Influence of Parents' Migration and Educational Backgrounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Marees, Nandoli; Petermann, Franz

    2010-01-01

    The study discussed herein assessed the prevalence of bullying and analysed possible predictors for bullying in a sample of urban primary school-age children. Factors considered were students' gender and age differences as well as parents' educational level and migration backgrounds. Using a cross-informant approach (self- and teacher-reports),…

  19. Race and Gender Differences in Perceived Caregiver Availability for Community-Dwelling Middle-Aged and Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, David L.; Haley, William E.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Clay, Olivio J.; Howard, George

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Informal family caregivers are increasingly recognized as critical for meeting the needs of individuals with chronic diseases associated with aging. This study examined race and gender differences in perceived informal caregiver availability for participants aged 45 and older in a large national epidemiological study. Design and Methods:…

  20. The Influence of Moral Disengagement, Morally Based Self-Esteem, Age, and Gender on Traditional Bullying and Cyberbullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robson, Claire; Witenberg, Rivka T.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated moral disengagement, morally based self-esteem, age, and gender as predictors of traditional bullying and cyberbullying. The participants were 210 Australian school students aged 12 to 15, evenly split between males and females. Salient predictors of traditional bullying were overall moral disengagement, and the…

  1. Gender and Age Effects Interact in Preschoolers' Help-Seeking: Evidence for Differential Responses to Changes in Task Difficulty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, R. Bruce; Cothran, Thomas; McCall, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    This study explored preschool age and gender differences in help-seeking within the theoretical framework of scaffolded problem-solving and self-regulation (Bruner, 1986; Rogoff, 1990; Vygotsky, 1978; 1986). Within-subject analyses tracked changes in help-seeking among 62 preschoolers (34 boys, 28 girls, mean age 4.22 years) solving a challenging…

  2. Normative data on nasalance scores for Swedish as measured on the Nasometer: influence of dialect, gender, and age.

    PubMed

    Brunnegård, Karin; van Doorn, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to establish normative nasalance values for Swedish speaking children as measured with the Nasometer(trade mark) II, and to investigate differences due to regional dialect, gender, and age. Two hundred and twenty healthy children aged 4-5, 6-7, and 9-11 years were included. Group mean nasalance scores for four speech stimuli were calculated and compared. There were no significant differences due to dialect or gender for children in the study. For age there was a significant difference on nasal sentences between the youngest group of children and the other two groups, age 4-5 vs age 6-7 (t = -2.844, p = .006) and for age 4-5 vs age 9-11 (t = -2.888, p = .005). The results from this study have both clinical significance for Swedish SLPs working with resonance disorders, and theoretical significance for linguists studying features of dialects and languages.

  3. Research on ageing, health and gender: A long and winding road. Reply to Månsdotter's 'Further thoughts on gender and lifetime health'.

    PubMed

    Perrig-Chiello, Pasqualina; Hutchison, Sara

    2010-01-01

    This contribution is a reply to Dr. Månsdotter's comments on our discussion paper 'Health and well-being in old age: the pertinence of a gender mainstreaming approach in research' published in Gerontology [Gerontology 2010 (in press)]. Even though the comments are interesting and comprehensible, they cannot be left unanswered, this primarily because they are based on weak empirical evidence. (1) It is broadly uncontested that gender is not static. However, the conclusion that the more egalitarian division of parental duties can be viewed as an indicator for reduction of the gender gap in longevity and health is highly speculative. There is not enough empirical evidence to substantiate this position. (2) The 'caring hypothesis' proposed by Månsdotter, which holds that caring fathers develop less risky lifestyles and increased worries, is a possible, but not a sufficient explanation for gender convergence of physical and psychological health in future generations. Such a convergence seems to be heavily co-determined by the changing lifestyles of women. (3) From a lifespan developmental perspective, androgyny does not mean gender equality, but a necessary openness of an individual for the positive traits of the opposing gender role, an essential trait for successful ageing. (4) Månsdotter's doubts concerning the implementation of gender mainstreaming in gerontological research and practice because of society's limited resources are not comprehensible. Exactly because economical resources are limited, and exactly because men and women have different resources and disadvantages due to their specific bio-psycho-social realities, the most efficient way of dealing with the gender gaps in health is with a differentialapproach. (5) The concluding recommendation of Månsdotter for more openness as a scientific position regarding the impact of gender roles on human health and well-being stands in contrast to her claim for normative standpoints and prioritization of either

  4. Associations of gender and age groups on the knowledge and use of drug information resources by American pharmacists

    PubMed Central

    Carvajal, Manuel J.; Clauson, Kevin A.; Gershman, Jennifer; Polen, Hyla H.

    Objective To explore knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists and identify patterns influenced by gender and age-group classification. Methods A survey questionnaire was mailed nationwide to 1,000 practitioners working in community (n = 500) and hospital (n = 500) settings who answer drug information questions as part of their expected job responsibilities. Responses pertaining to drug information resource use and knowledge of different types of drug-related queries, resource media preferences, and perceived adequacy of resources maintained in the pharmacy were analyzed by gender and age group. The t statistic was used to test for significant differences of means and percentages between genders and between age groups. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize other findings. Results Gender and age group classification influenced patterns of knowledge and use of drug information resources by pharmacists. They also affected pharmacists’ perceptions of the most common types of questions prompting them to consult a drug information reference, as well as the resources consulted. Micromedex, exclusively available in electronic format, was the most commonly consulted resource overall by pharmacists. Lexi-Comp Online was the leading choice by women, preferred over Micromedex, but was not one of the top two resources selected by men. Conclusions This study successfully identified the influence of gender and age-group classification in assessing drug information resource knowledge and use of general and specific types of drug-related queries. PMID:24155853

  5. Age, gender and litter-related variation in T-lymphocyte cytokine production in young pigs

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, Johanna; Kruijt, Leo; Scholten, Jan Willem; Boersma, Wim J A; Buist, Willem G; Engel, Bas; van Reenen, Cornelis G

    2005-01-01

    The capacity of farm animals to produce cytokines could be an important determinant of robustness and health. From research in rodents and humans it appears that the production and the balance of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 2 (Th2)-type cytokines influences susceptibility to autoimmune and infectious diseases. It is known that pigs show a large variation in many immune response parameters. So far the extent of individual variation in the production of Th1- and Th2-type cytokines in commercial outbred pigs has not been reported. In the current experiment we determined mRNA expression, as well as protein production of cytokines in 32 pigs from eight litters. From each litter two male and two female pigs were tested at 2, 5 and 8 weeks of age. Two Th1-type cytokines, interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma, and two Th2-type cytokines, IL-4 and IL-10, were measured after phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulation of blood mononuclear cells. Cytokine production and the Th1/Th2-ratio were highly variable. The variation in cytokine protein production was moderately consistent across ages, i.e. pigs that produced high levels of cytokine at 2 weeks of age tended to do so as well at 5 and 8 weeks of age. Cytokine production tended to increase with age, and gilts and boars differed in their IL-2/IL-4 ratio. Unexpectedly, age, gender and litter effects often differed for mRNA and protein production data. We hypothesize that cytokine production is a consistent trait in pigs, especially at the protein production level. Future investigations in more animals and across a wider age range are necessary. PMID:16011518

  6. Variation of Biophysical Parameters of the Skin with Age, Gender, and Body Region

    PubMed Central

    Firooz, Alireza; Sadr, Bardia; Babakoohi, Shahab; Sarraf-Yazdy, Maryam; Fanian, Ferial; Kazerouni-Timsar, Ali; Nassiri-Kashani, Mansour; Naghizadeh, Mohammad Mehdi; Dowlati, Yahya

    2012-01-01

    Background. Understanding the physiological, chemical, and biophysical characteristics of the skin helps us to arrange a proper approach to the management of skin diseases. Objective. The aim of this study was to measure 6 biophysical characteristics of normal skin (sebum content, hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity) in a normal population and assess the effect of sex, age, and body location on them. Methods. Fifty healthy volunteers in 5 age groups (5 males and females in each) were enrolled in this study. A multifunctional skin physiology monitor (Courage & Khazaka electronic GmbH, Germany) was used to measure skin sebum content, hydration, TEWL, erythema index, melanin index, and elasticity in 8 different locations of the body. Results. There were significant differences between the hydration, melanin index, and elasticity of different age groups. Regarding the locations, forehead had the highest melanin index, where as palm had the lowest value. The mean values of erythema index and melanin index and TEWL were significantly higher in males and anatomic location was a significant independent factor for all of 6 measured parameters. Conclusion. Several biophysical properties of the skin vary among different gender, age groups, and body locations. PMID:22536139

  7. Influences of competition level, gender, player nationality, career stage and playing position on relative age effects.

    PubMed

    Schorer, J; Cobley, S; Büsch, D; Bräutigam, H; Baker, J

    2009-10-01

    Relative age, referring to the chronological age differences between individuals within annually age-grouped cohorts, is regarded as influential to an athlete's development, constraining athletic skill acquisition. While many studies have suggested different mechanisms for this effect, they have typically examined varying sports, precluding an examination of the possible inter-play between factors. Our three studies try to bridge this gap by investigating several moderators for relative age effects (RAEs) in one sport. Handball is a sport with position-specific demands, high cultural relevance and a performance context with established developmental structures and levels of representation for males and females. In Study 1, we investigated the influence of competition level and gender on RAEs before adulthood. In Study 2, elite participation, player nationality and stage of career are considered during adulthood. In Study 3, playing position and laterality (i.e., right vs left handedness) are investigated as moderators. Collectively, the results emphasize the complex inter-play of direct and indirect influences on RAEs in sports, providing evidence toward explaining how RAEs influence the development and maintenance of expertise.

  8. Clinical assessment of balance: normative data, and gender and age effects.

    PubMed

    Vereeck, Luc; Wuyts, Floris; Truijen, Steven; Van de Heyning, Paul

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide age specific normative data of clinical gait and balance tests and to determine to what extent gender contributes to differences in postural control. Standing balance and walking performance was tested in 318 asymptomatic adults. The logistic regression, using both 10- and 30-second time limits as a dichotomization point, revealed a significant age effect for standing on foam with eyes closed, tandem Romberg with eyes closed (TR-EC), and one leg stance (eyes open and closed). The actual effect of decline was different for each test. Both tandem gait and dynamic gait index showed a ceiling effect up to 60 years of age, with a rapid decline of performance for subjects in their seventies. Linear regression equations indicated that for both men and women, timed up and go test (TUG) times increased with age, but even older subjects should perform the TUG in 10 seconds or less. Women performed significantly poorer on the TUG and TR-EC (30-second time limit). PMID:18236239

  9. Weather and age-gender effects on the projection of future emergency ambulance demand in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Ho-Ting

    2015-03-01

    An accurate projection for ambulance demand is essential to enable better resource planning for the future that strives to either maintain current levels of services or reconsider future standards and expectations. More than 2 million cases of emergency room attendance in 2008 were obtained from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority to project the demand for its ambulance services in 2036. The projection of ambulance demand in 2036 was computed in consideration of changes in the age-gender structure between 2008 and 2036. The quadratic relation between average daily temperature and daily ambulance demand in 2036 was further explored by including and excluding age-gender demographic changes. Without accounting for changes in the age-gender structure, the 2036 ambulance demand for age groups of 65 and above were consistently underestimated (by 38%-65%), whereas those of younger age groups were overestimated (by 6%-37%). Moreover, changes in the 2008 to 2036 age-gender structure also shift upward and emphasize relationships between average daily temperature and daily ambulance demand at both ends of the quadratic U-shaped curve. Our study reveals a potential societal implication of ageing population on the demand for ambulance services.

  10. Weather and age-gender effects on the projection of future emergency ambulance demand in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Lai, Poh-Chin; Wong, Ho-Ting

    2015-03-01

    An accurate projection for ambulance demand is essential to enable better resource planning for the future that strives to either maintain current levels of services or reconsider future standards and expectations. More than 2 million cases of emergency room attendance in 2008 were obtained from the Hong Kong Hospital Authority to project the demand for its ambulance services in 2036. The projection of ambulance demand in 2036 was computed in consideration of changes in the age-gender structure between 2008 and 2036. The quadratic relation between average daily temperature and daily ambulance demand in 2036 was further explored by including and excluding age-gender demographic changes. Without accounting for changes in the age-gender structure, the 2036 ambulance demand for age groups of 65 and above were consistently underestimated (by 38%-65%), whereas those of younger age groups were overestimated (by 6%-37%). Moreover, changes in the 2008 to 2036 age-gender structure also shift upward and emphasize relationships between average daily temperature and daily ambulance demand at both ends of the quadratic U-shaped curve. Our study reveals a potential societal implication of ageing population on the demand for ambulance services. PMID:23070758

  11. Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants Predicts Telomere Length in Older Age: Results from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Guzzardi, Maria Angela; Iozzo, Patricia; Salonen, Minna K.; Kajantie, Eero; Airaksinen, Riikka; Kiviranta, Hannu; Rantakokko, Panu; Eriksson, Johan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    As the population ages, the occurrence of chronic pathologies becomes more common. Leukocyte telomere shortening associates to ageing and age-related diseases. Recent studies suggest that environmental chemicals can affect telomere length. Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are most relevant, since they are ingested with foods, and accumulate in the body for a long time. This longitudinal study was undertaken to test if circulating POPs predict telomere length and shortening in elderly people. We studied 1082 subjects belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study (born 1934-1944), undergoing two visits (2001-2004 and 2011-2014). POPs (oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, p, p’-DDE, PCB 153, BDE 47, BDE 153) were analysed at baseline. Relative telomere length was measured twice, ’10 years apart, by quantitative real-time PCR. Oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB-153 levels were significant predictors of telomere length and shortening. In men, we did not find a linear relationship between POPs exposure and telomere shortening. In women, a significant reduction across quartiles categories of oxychlordane and trans-nonachlor exposure was observed. Baseline characteristics of subjects in the highest POPs categories included higher levels of C-reactive protein and fasting glucose, and lower body fat percentage. This is one of few studies combining POPs and telomere length. Our results indicate that exposure to oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor and PCB 153 predicts telomere attrition. This finding is important because concentrations of POPs observed here occur in contemporary younger people, and may contribute to an accelerated ageing. PMID:27699078

  12. Effect of age, gender and exercise on salivary dehydroepiandrosterone circadian rhythm profile in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Al-Turk, Walid; Al-Dujaili, Emad A S

    2016-02-01

    There has been a lot of effort by scientists to elucidate the multi functions of the naturally occurring hormone, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). However, to plan research experiments optimally, it is important first to characterize the diurnal rhythm in healthy individuals. The aim of this research was to investigate the daily circadian rhythms of DHEA among the 2 genders, and the effect of age and exercise on salivary DHEA circadian rhythms. Volunteers (20-39 and 40-60 years) were recruited for 2 studies investigating the salivary DHEA circadian rhythm. The first study looked at the effect of gender and age on DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days, and the second study explored the effect of exercise on DHEA circadian rhythm in males. DHEA levels were estimated by a sensitive and specific ELISA method. The results showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants groups, however the profile was flatter in the older female group. There was a significant difference between age and gender groups particularly at 8.00 h. In young males DHEA reduced from 541.1 ± 101.3 (mean ± sd) at 8.00 h to 198.9 ± 90.7 pg/mL at 18.00 h; p<0.0001, and young females from 401.6 ± 149.5 to 215.4 ± 95.3 pg/mL; p<0.001. In older males DHEA reduced from 267.5 ± 32.4 to 132.5 ± 46.7 pg/mL; p<0.001, and older females from 147.7 ± 78.1 to 89.5 ± 29.1 pg/mL; p=0.05. DHEA levels on 2 non-consecutive days showed some variations but this was not significant. Aerobic exercise has significantly increased DHEA levels at 2 time points of the day (p=0.05) in male subjects. In conclusion, our study showed a clear daily circadian rhythm in salivary DHEA in all participants was observed, but the profile was flatter in the older groups.

  13. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation Between Age Cohort and Three-Dimensional Wisdom in Iranian Culture.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Fereshte; Kadivar, Parvin; Ardelt, Monika; Asgari, Ali; Farzad, Valiollah

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether gender moderated the association between age cohort and the cognitive, reflective, and compassionate dimensions of wisdom, using an Iranian sample of 439 adults from three age cohorts: young (18-34), middle-aged (35-54), and older (55 and above). Results indicated that the interaction effect between gender and age cohort was significant for three-dimensional wisdom and all three wisdom dimensions. Compared with younger women and older men, older women tended to have less education and to score lower on the cognitive wisdom dimension, but they had similar average scores as older men on the compassionate wisdom dimension. Overall, the association between age and wisdom was only positive for men, due mainly to the positive relation between age and the reflective and compassionate wisdom dimensions for men after adjusting for education. The results are interpreted with reference to generation gaps, socialization of men versus women, and life experiences and opportunities. PMID:26610721

  14. Gender as a Moderator of the Relation Between Age Cohort and Three-Dimensional Wisdom in Iranian Culture.

    PubMed

    Cheraghi, Fereshte; Kadivar, Parvin; Ardelt, Monika; Asgari, Ali; Farzad, Valiollah

    2015-07-01

    This study examined whether gender moderated the association between age cohort and the cognitive, reflective, and compassionate dimensions of wisdom, using an Iranian sample of 439 adults from three age cohorts: young (18-34), middle-aged (35-54), and older (55 and above). Results indicated that the interaction effect between gender and age cohort was significant for three-dimensional wisdom and all three wisdom dimensions. Compared with younger women and older men, older women tended to have less education and to score lower on the cognitive wisdom dimension, but they had similar average scores as older men on the compassionate wisdom dimension. Overall, the association between age and wisdom was only positive for men, due mainly to the positive relation between age and the reflective and compassionate wisdom dimensions for men after adjusting for education. The results are interpreted with reference to generation gaps, socialization of men versus women, and life experiences and opportunities.

  15. Choroidal volume variations with age, axial length, and sex in healthy subjects: a three-dimensional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Barteselli, Giulio; Chhablani, Jay; El-Emam, Sharif; Wang, Haiyan; Chuang, Janne; Kozak, Igor; Cheng, Lingyun; Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe; Freeman, William R.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To demonstrate the three-dimensional choroidal volume distribution in healthy subjects using enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and to evaluate its association with age, sex, and axial length. Design Retrospective case series. Participants One hundred and seventy six eyes from 114 subjects with no retinal or choroidal disease. Methods EDI SD-OCT imaging studies for healthy patients who had undergone a 31-raster scanning protocol on a commercial SD-OCT device were reviewed. Manual segmentation of the choroid was performed by two retinal specialists. Macular choroidal volume map and three-dimensional topography were automatically created by the built-in software of the device. Mean choroidal volume was calculated for each Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) subfield. Regression analyses were used to evaluate the correlation between macular choroidal volume and age, sex, and axial length. Main Outcome Measures Three-dimensional topography and ETDRS-style volume map of the choroid. Results Three-dimensional topography of the choroid and volume map was obtained in all cases. The mean choroidal volume was 0.228 ± 0.077 mm3 for the center ring and 7.374 ± 2.181 mm3 for the total ETDRS grid. The nasal quadrant showed the lowest choroidal volume, and the superior quadrant the highest. The temporal and inferior quadrants did not show different choroidal volume values. Choroidal volume in all the EDTRS rings was significantly correlated with axial length after adjustment for age (P<0.0001), with age after adjustment for axial length (P<0.0001) and with sex after adjustment for axial length (P<0.05). Choroidal volume decreases by 0.54 mm3 (7.32%) for every decade and by 0.56 mm3 (7.59%) for every mm of axial length. Males have a 7.37% greater choroidal volume compared to that of females. Conclusions EDI SD-OCT is non-invasive and well-tolerated procedure with an excellent ability to visualize three

  16. The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density in the middle years of life (ages 20-60 years old)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrier, J.; Land, S.; Buysse, D. J.; Kupfer, D. J.; Monk, T. H.

    2001-01-01

    The effects of age and gender on sleep EEG power spectral density were assessed in a group of 100 subjects aged 20 to 60 years. We propose a new statistical strategy (mixed-model using fixed-knot regression splines) to analyze quantitative EEG measures. The effect of gender varied according to frequency, but no interactions emerged between age and gender, suggesting that the aging process does not differentially influence men and women. Women had higher power density than men in delta, theta, low alpha, and high spindle frequency range. The effect of age varied according to frequency and across the night. The decrease in power with age was not restricted to slow-wave activity, but also included theta and sigma activity. With increasing age, the attenuation over the night in power density between 1.25 and 8.00 Hz diminished, and the rise in power between 12.25 and 14.00 Hz across the night decreased. Increasing age was associated with higher power in the beta range. These results suggest that increasing age may be related to an attenuation of homeostatic sleep pressure and to an increase in cortical activation during sleep.

  17. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children's ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children's ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers. PMID:26136697

  18. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6–16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children’s ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6–16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers. PMID:26136697

  19. Simultaneous estimation of effects of gender, age and walking speed on kinematic gait data.

    PubMed

    Røislien, Jo; Skare, Øivind; Gustavsen, Marit; Broch, Nana L; Rennie, Linda; Opheim, Arve

    2009-11-01

    Analysis of variations in normal gait has received considerable attention over the last years. However, most such analyses are carried out on one explanatory variable at a time, and adjustments for other possibly influencing factors are often done using ad hoc methods. As a result, it can be difficult to know whether observed effects are actually a result of the variable under study. We wanted to simultaneously statistically test the effect of gender, age and walking speed on gait in a normal population, while also properly adjusting for the possibly confounding effects of body height and weight. Since point-by-point analysis does not take into account the time dependency in the data, we turned to functional data analysis (FDA). In FDA the whole gait curve is represented not by a set of points, but by a mathematical function spanning the whole gait cycle. We performed several multiple functional regression analyses, and the results indicate that walking speed is the main factor influencing gait in the reference material at our motion analysis laboratory. This effect is also largely unaffected by the presence of other variables in the model. A gender effect was also apparent in several planes and joints, but this effect was often more outspoken in the multiple than in the univariate regression analyses, highlighting the importance of adjusting for confounders like body height and weight.

  20. Directing wayfinders with maps: the effects of gender, age, route complexity, and familiarity with the environment.

    PubMed

    Harrell, W A; Bowlby, J W; Hall-Hoffarth, D

    2000-04-01

    The participants were 360 Canadian undergraduates. After receiving written scenarios involving a campus visitor seeking direction to a nearby destination (simple route) or a distant destination (complex route), they drew maps to that destination. The authors varied the visitor's gender, age, and familiarity with campus. They analyzed the content of the students' maps in terms of cardial indicators (compass grid, correct north-south orientation), landmarks, labeled buildings, directional arrows, and supplemental written directions. The men tended to provide more cartographically complete maps than the women, though there were no gender differences in use of landmarks or labeled buildings. The men were significantly more inclined than the women to take visitor characteristics into account, providing more complete maps to visitors navigating complex routes, to newcomers, and to older visitors who were unfamiliar with the campus. The men had more confidence that their maps would successfully lead visitors to their destinations. Route complexity led to greater use of landmarks, labeled buildings, and cardinal indicators. The participants' self-reported familiarity with campus had little effect on their direction giving, except for a greater use of labeled buildings in maps.

  1. Indirectly Estimating International Net Migration Flows by Age and Gender: The Community Demographic Model International Migration (CDM-IM) Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Jiang, Leiwen

    2015-01-01

    Although data for the total number of international migrant flows is now available, no global dataset concerning demographic characteristics, such as the age and gender composition of migrant flows exists. This paper reports on the methods used to generate the CDM-IM dataset of age and gender specific profiles of bilateral net (not gross) migrant flows. We employ raw data from the United Nations Global Migration Database and estimate net migrant flows by age and gender between two time points around the year 2000, accounting for various demographic processes (fertility, mortality). The dataset contains information on 3,713 net migrant flows. Validation analyses against existing data sets and the historical, geopolitical context demonstrate that the CDM-IM dataset is of reasonably high quality. PMID:26692590

  2. Leukocyte telomere length is associated with advanced age-related macular degeneration in the Han Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Weng, Xiaoling; Zhang, Hong; Kan, Mengyuan; Ye, Junyi; Liu, Fatao; Wang, Ting; Deng, Jiaying; Tan, Yanfang; He, Lin; Liu, Yun

    2015-09-01

    Telomeres located at the ends of chromosomes are involved in genomic stability and play a key role in various cancers and age-related diseases. Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a late-onset, age-associated progressive neurodegenerative disease, which includes the geographic atrophy (GA) subtype and the choroidal neovascularization (CNV) subtype. To better understand how leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is related to AMD, we conducted an association study in 197 AMD patients and 259 healthy controls using the established quantitative PCR technique. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association of LTL and AMD with the age-adjusted ratio of the telomere length to the copy number of a single-copy gene (T/S). Notably, we found a significant association between AMD and LTL (OR=2.24; 95% CI=1.68-3.07; P=0.0001) after adjusting for age and sex. Furthermore, the results showed a strongly significant association between the GA subtype and the LTL (OR=4.81; 95% CI=3.15-7.82; P=0.0001) after adjusting for age and sex. Our findings provide evidence of the role that LTL plays in the pathological mechanisms of AMD, mainly in the GA subgroup but not the CNV subgroup.

  3. Variations in GP–patient communication by ethnicity, age, and gender: evidence from a national primary care patient survey

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Jenni; Lloyd, Cathy; Campbell, John; Roland, Martin; Abel, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Background Doctor–patient communication is a key driver of overall satisfaction with primary care. Patients from minority ethnic backgrounds consistently report more negative experiences of doctor–patient communication. However, it is currently unknown whether these ethnic differences are concentrated in one gender or in particular age groups. Aim To determine how reported GP–patient communication varies between patients from different ethnic groups, stratified by age and gender. Design and setting Analysis of data from the English GP Patient Survey from 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, including 1 599 801 responders. Method A composite score was created for doctor–patient communication from five survey items concerned with interpersonal aspects of care. Mixed-effect linear regression models were used to estimate age- and gender-specific differences between white British patients and patients of the same age and gender from each other ethnic group. Results There was strong evidence (P<0.001 for age by gender by ethnicity three-way interaction term) that the effect of ethnicity on reported GP–patient communication varied by both age and gender. The difference in scores between white British and other responders on doctor–patient communication items was largest for older, female Pakistani and Bangladeshi responders, and for younger responders who described their ethnicity as ‘Any other white’. Conclusion The identification of groups with particularly marked differences in experience of GP–patient communication — older, female, Asian patients and younger ‘Any other white’ patients — underlines the need for a renewed focus on quality of care for these groups. PMID:26541182

  4. Changing Attitudes Toward Care of Aging Parents: The Influence of Education, International Travel, and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Compernolle, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Population aging is a key public health issue facing many nations, and is particularly pronounced in many Asian countries. At the same time, attitudes toward filial obligation are also rapidly changing, with a decreasing sense that children are responsible for caring for elderly parents. This investigation blends the family versus nonfamily mode of social organization framework with a life course perspective to provide insight into the processes of ideational change regarding filial responsibility, highlighting the influence of education and international travel. Using data from a longitudinal study in Nepal—the Chitwan Valley Family Study—results demonstrate that education and international travel are associated with a decrease in attitudes toward filial obligation. However, findings further reveal that the impact of education and international travel vary both across the life course and by gender. PMID:25866415

  5. Variations in Decision-Making Profiles by Age and Gender: A Cluster-Analytic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Rebecca; Strough, JoNell; Parker, Andrew M.; de Bruin, Wandi Bruine

    2015-01-01

    Using cluster-analysis, we investigated whether rational, intuitive, spontaneous, dependent, and avoidant styles of decision making (Scott & Bruce, 1995) combined to form distinct decision-making profiles that differed by age and gender. Self-report survey data were collected from 1,075 members of RAND’s American Life Panel (56.2% female, 18–93 years, Mage = 53.49). Three decision-making profiles were identified: affective/experiential, independent/self-controlled, and an interpersonally-oriented dependent profile. Older people were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the independent/self-controlled profile. Women were less likely to be in the affective/experiential profile and more likely to be in the interpersonally-oriented dependent profile. Interpersonally-oriented profiles are discussed as an overlooked but important dimension of how people make important decisions. PMID:26005238

  6. Gender and age are associated with healthy food purchases via grocery voucher redemption

    PubMed Central

    Hardin-Fanning, F; Gokun, Y

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Grocery vouchers that specifically target foods associated with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk result in increased consumption of those foods. In regions with disproportionately high CVD rates, there is little research concerning the impact of vouchers on purchases of risk-reducing foods when there are no restrictions placed on grocery voucher redemption. Since many food assistance programs place few restrictions on type of foods that can be purchased, identifying demographic factors associated with purchasing habits is a prerequisite to promoting healthy eating. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations of age, gender, education and income level with purchasing of healthful foods through the use of a grocery voucher in a rural food desert (poverty rate of ≥20% and ≥33% of residents living >16 km from a large grocery store) with high rates of chronic disease. Methods The effectiveness of an intervention that included a media campaign, a $5 grocery voucher, local heart healthy food branding and a grocery store event was tested. Brief nutritional articles were published in both local newspapers during four consecutive weeks. These articles explained the physiological actions of healthy foods and listed a health-promoting recipe. During the fourth week of the media campaign, a voucher for a $5 grocery gift card redeemable at one of either community grocery stores was also printed in both local newspapers. In each store, foods that are known to be associated with a reduced risk of CVD were marked with a blue logo. Participants (N=311) completed a questionnaire that assessed demographics and usual servings of fruits, vegetables and grains. Participants received a $5 grocery card and a list of labelled foods. Returned grocery receipts were stapled to the questionnaires to analyse the relationship between demographics and food choices. Results Participants who bought at least one labelled food item were older (M=48.5, SD=14

  7. Social integration and healthy aging in Japan: how gender and rurality matter.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Kimiko; Johnson, Nan E

    2010-06-01

    The current study analyzed the 1999 and 2001 waves of the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging. Two measures of social integration were associated with lower risks of being physically disabled or depressed at Wave 1 and with a lower risk of progressing into deeper levels of physical disability and depression by Wave 2. Ceteris paribus, compared to elderly urbanites, elderly ruralites had a much higher risk of being physically disabled but much lower odds of being depressed. And compared to elderly men, elderly women had similar risks of being physically disabled but much higher odds of being depressed. Suggestions are made on how future research on longevity in Japan, the world's most longevous nation, can explore the links among social integration, place, gender, and the postponement of mortality. PMID:20440547

  8. Race-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of US children.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Vijay; Hampl, Jeffrey S; Betts, Nancy M

    2003-11-01

    Race-, gender- and age-specific differences in dietary micronutrient intakes of 1- to 10-year-old US children were evaluated. Three-day, dietary intakes from the US Department of Agriculture's Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals were evaluated. Data from 1895 children (967 males, 928 females; 1,540 Whites, 355 Blacks) who resided in the 48 conterminous states were analyzed. Micronutrient intakes, intakes as percent of the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) and percent of children who consumed < or =67% of the RDA were computed. Black males compared with White males, Black females compared with White females and White females compared with White males had significantly lower dietary intakes for several micronutrients. More Black males than White males had intakes < or =67% of the RDA for vitamin E, calcium and zinc. Blacks and female children were at a greater risk for vitamin A, vitamin E, calcium, iron and zinc deficiency. PMID:14522694

  9. Regularity of daily life in relation to personality, age, gender, sleep quality and circadian rhythms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monk, T. H.; Petrie, S. R.; Hayes, A. J.; Kupfer, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    A diary-like instrument to measure lifestyle regularity (the 'Social Rhythm Metric'-SRM) was given to 96 subjects (48 women, 48 men), 39 of whom repeated the study after at least one year, with additional objective measures of rest/activity. Lifestyle regularity as measured by the SRM related to age, morningness, subjective sleep quality and time-of-day variations in alertness, but not to gender, extroversion or neuroticism. Statistically significant test-retest correlations of about 0.4 emerged for SRM scores over the 12-30 month delay. Diary-based estimates of bedtime and waketime appeared fairly reliable. In a further study of healthy young men, 4 high SRM scorers ('regular') had a deeper nocturnal body temperature trough than 5 low SRM scorers ('irregular'), suggesting a better functioning circadian system in the 'regular' group.

  10. Age and gender dependent development of Theory of Mind in 6- to 8-years old children.

    PubMed

    Calero, Cecilia I; Salles, Alejo; Semelman, Mariano; Sigman, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    The ability to attribute different mental states to distinct individuals, or Theory of Mind (ToM), is widely believed to be developed mostly during preschool years. How different factors such as gender, number of siblings, or coarse personality traits affect this development is not entirely agreed upon. Here, we introduce a computerized version of the scaled ToM suite of tasks introduced by Wellman and Liu (2004), which allows us to meaningfully test ToM development on children 6 to 8-years old. We find that kids this age are still not entirely proficient in all ToM tasks, and continue to show a progression of performance with age. By testing this new age range, too, we are able to observe a significant advantage of girls over boys in ToM performance. Other factors such as number of siblings, birth order, and coarse personality traits show no significant relation with the ToM task results. Finally, we introduce a novel way to quantify the scaling property of the suite involving a sequence of set inclusions on one hand and a comparison between specially tailored sets of logistic models on the other. These measures confirm the validity of the scale in the 6- to 8-years old range.

  11. Children's one-hand catching as a function of age, gender, and ball location.

    PubMed

    Fischman, M G; Moore, J B; Steele, K H

    1992-12-01

    A sizable body of literature exists on the product characteristics and developmental sequence for two-hand catching, but to date there is no description of the developmental characteristics of simple one-hand catching in young children. This study investigated the influence of age, gender, and ball location on children's one-hand catching. Boys and girls (N = 240) ranging in age from 5 to 12 years attempted to catch a total of 24 tennis balls, tossed from a 9-ft distance. Tosses were directed to four locations: (a) Waist, (b) Shoulder, (c) Above-the-Head, and (d) Out-to-the-Side. Descriptive data consisted of the percentage of successful catches at each ball location, and the hand-arm orientation selected by the child as a function of ball location. Results revealed that catching performance improved with age, boys caught more balls than girls, ball location influenced catching success, and, in general, the location of the toss constrained the child's selection of an appropriate hand-arm orientation. With the possible exception of the Shoulder location for girls, even very young children are sensitive to the perceptual aspects of the toss and respond with an appropriate orientation. PMID:1439158

  12. Normal swallowing acoustics across age, gender, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume.

    PubMed

    Youmans, Scott R; Stierwalt, Julie A G

    2011-12-01

    Cervical auscultation has been proposed as an augmentative procedure for the subjective clinical swallowing examination due to the tangible differences between normal and dysphagic swallowing sounds. However, the research is incomplete regarding cervical auscultation and swallowing acoustics in that the differences between the sounds of normal versus dysphagic swallowing have yet to be fully understood or quantified. The swallows of 96 reportedly healthy adults, balanced for gender and divided into younger, middle, and older age groups, were audio-recorded while ingesting several boluses of varying viscosity and volume. The audio signals were then analyzed to determine their temporal and acoustic characteristics. Results indicated increasing pharyngeal swallowing duration with increasing age, bolus viscosity, and bolus volume. In addition, an increased duration to peak intensity with increasing age was found in one of our two analyses, as well as with some of the more viscous versus less viscous boluses. Men and older persons produced higher peak intensities and peak frequencies than women and younger persons. Thin liquids were produced with more intensity than honey or more viscous boluses, and with greater frequency than mechanical soft solids. Larger volumes resulted in greater peak frequency values. Some of the acoustic measurements appear to be more useful than others, including the duration of the acoustic swallowing signal and the within-subjects peak intensity variable. We noted that differences in swallowing acoustics were more related to changes in viscosity rather than volume. Finally, within-participant observations were more useful than between-participant observations.

  13. Children's one-hand catching as a function of age, gender, and ball location.

    PubMed

    Fischman, M G; Moore, J B; Steele, K H

    1992-12-01

    A sizable body of literature exists on the product characteristics and developmental sequence for two-hand catching, but to date there is no description of the developmental characteristics of simple one-hand catching in young children. This study investigated the influence of age, gender, and ball location on children's one-hand catching. Boys and girls (N = 240) ranging in age from 5 to 12 years attempted to catch a total of 24 tennis balls, tossed from a 9-ft distance. Tosses were directed to four locations: (a) Waist, (b) Shoulder, (c) Above-the-Head, and (d) Out-to-the-Side. Descriptive data consisted of the percentage of successful catches at each ball location, and the hand-arm orientation selected by the child as a function of ball location. Results revealed that catching performance improved with age, boys caught more balls than girls, ball location influenced catching success, and, in general, the location of the toss constrained the child's selection of an appropriate hand-arm orientation. With the possible exception of the Shoulder location for girls, even very young children are sensitive to the perceptual aspects of the toss and respond with an appropriate orientation.

  14. Survey of Anatomy and Root Canal Morphology of Maxillary First Molars Regarding Age and Gender in an Iranian Population Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mandana; Safi, Yaser; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Khayat, Akbar; Eftekhar, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of maxillary first molars with regards to patients’ age and gender with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: A total of 149 CBCT scans from 92 (67.1%) female and 57 (31.3%) male patients with mean age of 40.5 years were evaluated. Tooth length, presence of root fusion, number of the roots and canals, canal types based on Vertucci’s classification, deviation of root and apical foramen in coronal and sagittal planes and the correlation of all items with gender and age were recorded. The Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis and Fisher’s exact tests were used to analyze these items. Results: The rate of root fusion was 1.3%. Multiple canals were present in the following frequencies: four canals 78.5%, five canals 11.4% and three canals 10.1%. Additional canal was detected in 86.6% of mesiobuccal roots in which Vertucci’s type VI configuration was the most prevalent followed by type II and I. Type I was the most common one in distobuccal and palatal roots. There was no statistically significant difference in the canal configurations in relation to gender and age as well as the incidence root or canal numbers (P>0.05). The mean tooth length was 19.3 and 20.3 mm in female and male patients, respectively which was statistically significant (P<0.05). Evaluation of root deviation showed that most commonly, a general pattern of straight-distal in the mesiobuccal and straight-straight for distobuccal and palatal roots occurred. In mesiobuccal roots, straight and distal deviations were more dominant in male and female, respectively (P<0.05). The prevalence of apical foramen deviation in mesiobuccal and palatal roots statistically differed with gender. Conclusion: The root and canal configuration of Iranian population showed different features from those of other populations. PMID:27790259

  15. Brain perfusion SPECT in the mouse: normal pattern according to gender and age.

    PubMed

    Apostolova, Ivayla; Wunder, Andreas; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Michel, Roger; Stemmer, Nina; Lukas, Mathias; Derlin, Thorsten; Gregor-Mamoudou, Betina; Goldschmidt, Jürgen; Brenner, Winfried; Buchert, Ralph

    2012-12-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is a useful surrogate marker of neuronal activity and a parameter of primary interest in the diagnosis of many diseases. The increasing use of mouse models spawns the demand for in vivo measurement of rCBF in the mouse. Small animal SPECT provides excellent spatial resolution at adequate sensitivity and is therefore a promising tool for imaging the mouse brain. This study evaluates the feasibility of mouse brain perfusion SPECT and assesses the regional pattern of normal Tc-99m-HMPAO uptake and the impact of age and gender. Whole-brain kinetics was compared between Tc-99m-HMPAO and Tc-99m-ECD using rapid dynamic planar scans in 10 mice. Assessment of the regional uptake pattern was restricted to the more suitable tracer, HMPAO. Two HMPAO SPECTs were performed in 18 juvenile mice aged 7.5 ± 1.5weeks, and in the same animals at young adulthood, 19.1 ± 4.0 weeks (nanoSPECT/CTplus, general purpose mouse apertures: 1.2kcps/MBq, 0.7mm FWHM). The 3-D MRI Digital Atlas Database of an adult C57BL/6J mouse brain was used for region-of-interest (ROI) analysis. SPECT images were stereotactically normalized using SPM8 and a custom made, left-right symmetric HMPAO template in atlas space. For testing lateral asymmetry, each SPECT was left-right flipped prior to stereotactical normalization. Flipped and unflipped SPECTs were compared by paired testing. Peak brain uptake was similar for ECD and HMPAO: 1.8 ± 0.2 and 2.1 ± 0.6 %ID (p=0.357). Washout after the peak was much faster for ECD than for HMPAO: 24 ± 7min vs. 4.6 ± 1.7h (p=0.001). The general linear model for repeated measures with gender as an intersubject factor revealed an increase in relative HMPAO uptake with age in the neocortex (p=0.018) and the hippocampus (p=0.012). A decrease was detected in the midbrain (p=0.025). Lateral asymmetry, with HMPAO uptake larger in the left hemisphere, was detected primarily in the neocortex, both at juvenile age (asymmetry index AI=2.7 ± 1

  16. Healthy Eating Habits among the Population of Serbia: Gender and Age Differences

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks’ Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the ‘knowledge’ variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia. PMID:25995724

  17. Healthy eating habits among the population of Serbia: gender and age differences.

    PubMed

    Jovičić, Ana Đ

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine healthy eating habits of the population of Serbia through three dimensions: knowledge, problems, and feelings as well as to determine whether there are any differences between genders and among different age-groups. The research instrument was an Eating Habits Questionnaire (EHQ) which consisted of 35 items. There were 382 respondents involved in the study. The reliability and factor structure of the questionnaire were verified by using factor analysis. The results of MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference in the habits concerning healthy eating between men and women [F (3,378)=4.26, p=0.006; Wilks' Lambda=0.97]. When the results for the dependent variables (knowledge, problems, and feelings) were considered separately, it was determined that there is no significant difference between men and women, which confirms the results of the t-test. The effect of age on the three dimensions of healthy eating habits was examined within three age-groups, by using ANOVA. The results showed that knowledge about healthy eating increases with age [F (2,379)=6.14, p=0.002] as well as positive feelings which occur as a result of healthy eating [F (2,379)=3.66, p=0.027]. Unlike ANOVA, MANOVA showed difference among the age-groups only when it came to the 'knowledge' variable. This study is important as it shows the current state of awareness on healthy eating habits in the researched populace and may be the basis for further research in this field in Serbia.

  18. Longitudinal patterns in flathead catfish relative abundance and length at age within a large river: Effects of an urban gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paukert, C.P.; Makinster, A.S.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the spatial variation of flathead catfish (Pylodictis olivaris) relative abundance and growth in the 274 km long Kansas River to determine if population dynamics of catfish are related to urbanization. Electrofishing was conducted at 462 random sites throughout the river in summer, 2005-2006 to collect fish. Relative abundance of age 1 fish (???200mm), subadult (>200-400mm) and adult fish (>400 mm) ranged from 0.34 to 14.67 fish h-1, mean length at age 1 was 165 (range: 128-195) mm total length (TL) and mean length at age 3 was 376 mm TL (range: 293-419mm TL). The proportion of land use within 200 m of the river edge was between 0 and 0.54 urban. River reaches with high relative abundance of age 1 flathead catfish had high relative abundance of subadult and adult catfish. River reaches with fast flathead catfish growth to age 1 had fast growth to age 3. High urban land use and riprap in the riparian area were evident in river reaches near the heavily populated Kansas City and Topeka, Kansas, USA. Reaches with increased number of log jams and islands had decreased riparian agriculture. Areas of low urbanization had faster flathead catfish growth (r = 0.67, p = 0.005). Relative abundance of flathead catfish was higher in more agricultural areas (r = -0.57, p = 0.02). Changes in land use in riverine environments may alter population dynamics of a fish species within a river. Spatial differences in population dynamics need to be considered when evaluating riverine fish populations. Published in 2008 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. "Don't Be Such a Baby!" Competence and Age as Intersectional Co-Markers on Children's Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Anette; Heikkilä, Mia; Sundhall, Jeanette

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show how norms about age intersect with gender and thus create social positions about incompetent and competent children. The paper also analyzes the relationship between gender, incompetence, and notions of "the baby." The theoretical framework uses concepts taken from gender theory (Butler, "Gender…

  20. Length of residence, age and patterns of medicinal plant knowledge and use among women in the urban Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper explores patterns of women’s medicinal plant knowledge and use in an urban area of the Brazilian Amazon. Specifically, this paper examines the relationship between a woman’s age and her use and knowledge of medicinal plants. It also examines whether length of residence in three different areas of the Amazon is correlated with a woman’s use and knowledge of medicinal plants. Two of the areas where respondents may have resided, the jungle/seringal and farms/colonias, are classified as rural. The third area (which all of the respondents resided in) was urban. Methods This paper utilizes survey data collected in Rio Branco, Brazil. Researchers administered the survey to 153 households in the community of Bairro da Luz (a pseudonym). The survey collected data on phytotherapeutic knowledge, general phytotherapeutic practice, recent phytotherapeutic practice and demographic information on age and length of residence in the seringal, on a colonia, and in a city. Bivariate correlation coefficients were calculated to assess the inter-relationships among the key variables. Three dependent variables, two measuring general phytotherapeutic practice and one measuring phytotherapeutic knowledge were regressed on the demographic factors. Results The results demonstrate a relationship between a woman’s age and medicinal plant use, but not between age and plant knowledge. Additionally, length of residence in an urban area and on a colonia/farm are not related to medicinal plant knowledge or use. However, length of residence in the seringal/jungle is positively correlated with both medicinal plant knowledge and use. Conclusions The results reveal a vibrant tradition of medicinal plant use in Bairro da Luz. They also indicate that when it comes to place of residence and phytotherapy the meaningful distinction is not rural versus urban, it is seringal versus other locations. Finally, the results suggest that phytotherapeutic knowledge and use should be

  1. Age-related declines in immune response in a wild mammal are unrelated to immune cell telomere length.

    PubMed

    Beirne, Christopher; Waring, Laura; McDonald, Robbie A; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2016-02-24

    Senescence has been hypothesized to arise in part from age-related declines in immune performance, but the patterns and drivers of within-individual age-related changes in immunity remain virtually unexplored in natural populations. Here, using a long-term epidemiological study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), we (i) present evidence of a within-individual age-related decline in the response of a key immune-signalling cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFNγ), to ex vivo lymphocyte stimulation, and (ii) investigate three putative drivers of individual variation in the rate of this decline (sex, disease and immune cell telomere length; ICTL). That the within-individual rate of age-related decline markedly exceeded that at the population level suggests that individuals with weaker IFNγ responses are selectively lost from this population. IFNγ responses appeared to decrease with the progression of bovine tuberculosis infection (independent of age) and were weaker among males than females. However, neither sex nor disease influenced the rate of age-related decline in IFNγ response. Similarly, while ICTL also declines with age, variation in ICTL predicted neither among- nor within-individual variation in IFNγ response. Our findings provide evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune performance in a wild mammal and highlight the likely complexity of the mechanisms that generate them. PMID:26888036

  2. Age-related declines in immune response in a wild mammal are unrelated to immune cell telomere length

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Laura; McDonald, Robbie A.; Delahay, Richard; Young, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Senescence has been hypothesized to arise in part from age-related declines in immune performance, but the patterns and drivers of within-individual age-related changes in immunity remain virtually unexplored in natural populations. Here, using a long-term epidemiological study of wild European badgers (Meles meles), we (i) present evidence of a within-individual age-related decline in the response of a key immune-signalling cytokine, interferon-gamma (IFNγ), to ex vivo lymphocyte stimulation, and (ii) investigate three putative drivers of individual variation in the rate of this decline (sex, disease and immune cell telomere length; ICTL). That the within-individual rate of age-related decline markedly exceeded that at the population level suggests that individuals with weaker IFNγ responses are selectively lost from this population. IFNγ responses appeared to decrease with the progression of bovine tuberculosis infection (independent of age) and were weaker among males than females. However, neither sex nor disease influenced the rate of age-related decline in IFNγ response. Similarly, while ICTL also declines with age, variation in ICTL predicted neither among- nor within-individual variation in IFNγ response. Our findings provide evidence of within-individual age-related declines in immune performance in a wild mammal and highlight the likely complexity of the mechanisms that generate them. PMID:26888036

  3. Longitudinal decline of leukocyte telomere length in old age and the association with sex and genetic risk

    PubMed Central

    Berglund, Kari; Reynolds, Chandra A.; Ploner, Alexander; Gerritsen, Lotte; Hovatta, Iiris; Pedersen, Nancy L.; Hägg, Sara

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein structures at the ends of chromosomes. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening has been associated with advanced age. However, most studies use cross-sectional data, hence, the aim of our study was to model longitudinal trajectories of LTL attrition across 20 years at old age. Assessments of LTL were done by qPCR in SATSA (Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging; N=636 individuals). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with age were estimated, the latter using latent growth curve analysis. A genetic risk score (GRS) for LTL was further assessed and included in the models. We confirmed an inverse cross-sectional association of LTL with age (B=−0.0022 T/S-ratio; 95% CI: −0.0035, −0.0009, p-value=0.0008). Longitudinal LTL analyses adjusted for sex (1598 samples; ≤5 measurements) suggested modest average decline until 69 years of age but accelerating decline after 69 years, with significant inter-individual variation. Women had on average ∼6% T/S-ratio units longer LTL at baseline, and inclusion of the GRS improved the model where four risk alleles was equivalent to the effect size difference between the sexes. In this cohort of old individuals, baseline LTL varied with age, sex and genetic background. The rate of change of LTL accelerated with age and varied considerably between individuals. PMID:27391763

  4. Longitudinal decline of leukocyte telomere length in old age and the association with sex and genetic risk.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Kari; Reynolds, Chandra A; Ploner, Alexander; Gerritsen, Lotte; Hovatta, Iiris; Pedersen, Nancy L; Hägg, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein structures at the ends of chromosomes. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening has been associated with advanced age. However, most studies use cross-sectional data, hence, the aim of our study was to model longitudinal trajectories of LTL attrition across 20 years at old age. Assessments of LTL were done by qPCR in SATSA (Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging; N=636 individuals). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with age were estimated, the latter using latent growth curve analysis. A genetic risk score (GRS) for LTL was further assessed and included in the models. We confirmed an inverse cross-sectional association of LTL with age (B=-0.0022 T/S-ratio; 95% CI: -0.0035, -0.0009, p-value=0.0008). Longitudinal LTL analyses adjusted for sex (1598 samples; ≤5 measurements) suggested modest average decline until 69 years of age but accelerating decline after 69 years, with significant inter-individual variation. Women had on average ~6% T/S-ratio units longer LTL at baseline, and inclusion of the GRS improved the model where four risk alleles was equivalent to the effect size difference between the sexes. In this cohort of old individuals, baseline LTL varied with age, sex and genetic background. The rate of change of LTL accelerated with age and varied considerably between individuals. PMID:27391763

  5. Longitudinal decline of leukocyte telomere length in old age and the association with sex and genetic risk.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Kari; Reynolds, Chandra A; Ploner, Alexander; Gerritsen, Lotte; Hovatta, Iiris; Pedersen, Nancy L; Hägg, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Telomeres are DNA-protein structures at the ends of chromosomes. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) shortening has been associated with advanced age. However, most studies use cross-sectional data, hence, the aim of our study was to model longitudinal trajectories of LTL attrition across 20 years at old age. Assessments of LTL were done by qPCR in SATSA (Swedish Adoption/Twin Study of Aging; N=636 individuals). Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations with age were estimated, the latter using latent growth curve analysis. A genetic risk score (GRS) for LTL was further assessed and included in the models. We confirmed an inverse cross-sectional association of LTL with age (B=-0.0022 T/S-ratio; 95% CI: -0.0035, -0.0009, p-value=0.0008). Longitudinal LTL analyses adjusted for sex (1598 samples; ≤5 measurements) suggested modest average decline until 69 years of age but accelerating decline after 69 years, with significant inter-individual variation. Women had on average ~6% T/S-ratio units longer LTL at baseline, and inclusion of the GRS improved the model where four risk alleles was equivalent to the effect size difference between the sexes. In this cohort of old individuals, baseline LTL varied with age, sex and genetic background. The rate of change of LTL accelerated with age and varied considerably between individuals.

  6. Socioeconomic status overrides age and gender in determining health-seeking behaviour in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Syed Masud; Tomson, Göran; Petzold, Max; Kabir, Zarina Nahar

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the health-seeking behaviour of elderly members (aged > 60 years) of households in rural Bangladesh, to ascertain how their behaviour differs from that of younger people (aged 20-59 years) living in the same household and to explore the determinants of health-seeking behaviour. METHODS: Structured interviews were conducted to elicit information on the health-seeking behaviour of household members aged > 20 years. Respondents were asked about major illnesses occurring within 15 days prior to the interview. The sample consisted of 966 households that had at least one resident who was aged > 60 (32% of 3031 households). FINDINGS: We found no major differences in health-seeking behaviour between elderly people and younger adults. On average about 35% (405/1169) of those who reported having been ill during the previous 15 days in both age groups chose self-care/self-treatment; for both age groups the most commonly consulted type of provider was a paraprofessional such as a village doctor, a medical assistant or a community health worker. A household's poverty status emerged as a major determinant of health-seeking behaviour. The odds ratio (OR) that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from unqualified allopathic practitioners was 0.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.40-0.78); the odds ratio that individuals from poor households would seek treatment from qualified allopathic practitioners was 0.7 (95% CI = 0.60-0.95). For self-care or self-treatment it was 1.8 (95% CI = 1.43-2.36). Patients' level of education affected whether they avoided self-care/self-treatment and drugstore salespeople (who are usually unlicensed and untrained but who diagnose illnesses and sell medicine) and instead chose a formal allopathic practitioner (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.15-1.96). When a household's poverty status was controlled for, there were no differences in age or gender in terms of health-care expenditure. CONCLUSION: We found that socioeconomic

  7. Proteome-wide alterations on adipose tissue from obese patients as age-, diabetes- and gender-specific hallmarks

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Serrano, María; Camafeita, Emilio; García-Santos, Eva; López, Juan A.; Rubio, Miguel A.; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio; Vázquez, Jesús; Peral, Belén

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a main global health issue and an outstanding cause of morbidity and mortality predisposing to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Huge research efforts focused on gene expression, cellular signalling and metabolism in obesity have improved our understanding of these disorders; nevertheless, to bridge the gap between the regulation of gene expression and changes in signalling/metabolism, protein levels must be assessed. We have extensively analysed visceral adipose tissue from age-, T2DM- and gender-matched obese patients using high-throughput proteomics and systems biology methods to identify new biomarkers for the onset of T2DM in obesity, as well as to gain insight into the influence of aging and gender in these disorders. About 250 proteins showed significant abundance differences in the age, T2DM and gender comparisons. In diabetic patients, remarkable gender-specific hallmarks were discovered regarding redox status, immune response and adipose tissue accumulation. Both aging and T2DM processes were associated with mitochondrial remodelling, albeit through well-differentiated proteome changes. Systems biology analysis highlighted mitochondrial proteins that could play a key role in the age-dependent pathophysiology of T2DM. Our findings could serve as a framework for future research in Translational Medicine directed at improving the quality of life of obese patients. PMID:27160966

  8. Proteome-wide alterations on adipose tissue from obese patients as age-, diabetes- and gender-specific hallmarks.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Serrano, María; Camafeita, Emilio; García-Santos, Eva; López, Juan A; Rubio, Miguel A; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres, Antonio; Vázquez, Jesús; Peral, Belén

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a main global health issue and an outstanding cause of morbidity and mortality predisposing to type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular diseases. Huge research efforts focused on gene expression, cellular signalling and metabolism in obesity have improved our understanding of these disorders; nevertheless, to bridge the gap between the regulation of gene expression and changes in signalling/metabolism, protein levels must be assessed. We have extensively analysed visceral adipose tissue from age-, T2DM- and gender-matched obese patients using high-throughput proteomics and systems biology methods to identify new biomarkers for the onset of T2DM in obesity, as well as to gain insight into the influence of aging and gender in these disorders. About 250 proteins showed significant abundance differences in the age, T2DM and gender comparisons. In diabetic patients, remarkable gender-specific hallmarks were discovered regarding redox status, immune response and adipose tissue accumulation. Both aging and T2DM processes were associated with mitochondrial remodelling, albeit through well-differentiated proteome changes. Systems biology analysis highlighted mitochondrial proteins that could play a key role in the age-dependent pathophysiology of T2DM. Our findings could serve as a framework for future research in Translational Medicine directed at improving the quality of life of obese patients. PMID:27160966

  9. Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, Ram Ballabh; Upadhyay, Juhi; Agrawal, Pankaj; Rao, Nirmala N

    2012-01-01

    Background: With development and function, the mandibular angle has shown changes in size and shape. A variation in mandibular angle with age, gender, and even the dental status has been observed, which is supported by radiographic and anthropometric studies. Aims: The aim of this study were to evaluate relationship between complete loss of teeth and changes in the gonial angle; the study further intends to evaluate any variation in gonial angle with age and gender. The study intends to assess the reliability and accuracy of age and gender determination using gonial angle as a parameter. Materials and Methods: A total of 185 subjects (91 males; 89 females) were included in the study and were divided into five groups on the basis of the chronological age. Physico-forensic anthropometry and lateral cephalometric methods were used to record the gonial angle. Results: The present study shows a definite decrease in the gonial angle with advancing age, but the intergroup analysis does not follow a significant pattern. The study showed no correlation of gonial angle with gender. However, the study observed a 6° increase in gonial angle for edentulous subjects. Conclusion: Gonial angle has been used as an adjuvant forensic parameter, but its reliability is questionable, as the mandible does not follow one characteristic pattern. Gonial angle does show changes with dentition status, which may be attributed to physiologic function of the mandible. However, when evidence is scanty, it can be used to direct the investigation. PMID:23087579

  10. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-07-23

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China.

  11. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012–2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132–1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673–0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094–1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  12. Gender Difference on the Association between Dietary Patterns and Obesity in Chinese Middle-Aged and Elderly Populations.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ya-Qun; Li, Fan; Meng, Pai; You, Jie; Wu, Min; Li, Shu-Guang; Chen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns are linked to obesity, but the gender difference in the association between dietary patterns and obesity remains unclear. We explored this gender difference in a middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai. Residents (n = 2046; aged ≥45 years; 968 men and 1078 women) who participated in the Shanghai Food Consumption Survey were studied. Factor analysis of data from four periods of 24-h dietary recalls (across 2012-2014) identified dietary patterns. Height, body weight, and waist circumference were measured to calculate the body mass index. A log binominal model examined the association between dietary patterns and obesity, stratified by gender. Four dietary patterns were identified for both genders: rice staple, wheat staple, snacks, and prudent patterns. The rice staple pattern was associated positively with abdominal obesity in men (prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.358; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.132-1.639; p = 0.001), but was associated negatively with general obesity in women (PR = 0.745; 95% CI: 0.673-0.807; p = 0.031). Men in the highest quartile of the wheat staple pattern had significantly greater risk of central obesity (PR = 1.331; 95% CI: 1.094-1.627; p = 0.005). There may be gender differences in the association between dietary patterns and obesity in middle-aged and elderly populations in Shanghai, China. PMID:27455322

  13. Age and Gender Differences in the Well-Being of Midlife and Aging Parents with Children with Mental Health or Developmental Problems: Report of a National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha, Jung-Hwa; Hong, Jinkuk; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from the Study of Midlife in the United States (MIDUS), this article examines: (1) the effect of having children with developmental or mental health problems on parents mental and physical health, (2) the extent to which this effect varies by parental age and gender, and (3) the effects of disability-related factors on the well-being of…

  14. The interaction of glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length in judgements of speaker size, sex, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-11-01

    Glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL) are related to the size, sex, and age of the speaker but it is not clear how the two factors combine to influence our perception of speaker size, sex, and age. This paper describes experiments designed to measure the effect of the interaction of GPR and VTL upon judgements of speaker size, sex, and age. Vowels were scaled to represent people with a wide range of GPRs and VTLs, including many well beyond the normal range of the population, and listeners were asked to judge the size and sex/age of the speaker. The judgements of speaker size show that VTL has a strong influence upon perceived speaker size. The results for the sex and age categorization (man, woman, boy, or girl) show that, for vowels with GPR and VTL values in the normal range, judgements of speaker sex and age are influenced about equally by GPR and VTL. For vowels with abnormal combinations of low GPRs and short VTLs, the VTL information appears to decide the sex/age judgement.

  15. Phenotype, donor age and gender affect function of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are attractive for cell-based therapies ranging from regenerative medicine and tissue engineering to immunomodulation. However, clinical efficacy is variable and it is unclear how the phenotypes defining bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs as well as donor characteristics affect their functional properties. Methods BM-MSCs were isolated from 53 (25 female, 28 male; age: 13 to 80 years) donors and analyzed by: (1) phenotype using flow cytometry and cell size measurement; (2) in vitro growth kinetics using population doubling time; (3) colony formation capacity and telomerase activity; and (4) function by in vitro differentiation capacity, suppression of T cell proliferation, cytokines and trophic factors secretion, and hormone and growth factor receptor expression. Additionally, expression of Oct4, Nanog, Prdm14 and SOX2 mRNA was compared to pluripotent stem cells. Results BM-MSCs from younger donors showed increased expression of MCAM, VCAM-1, ALCAM, PDGFRβ, PDL-1, Thy1 and CD71, and led to lower IL-6 production when co-cultured with activated T cells. Female BM-MSCs showed increased expression of IFN-γR1 and IL-6β, and were more potent in T cell proliferation suppression. High-clonogenic BM-MSCs were smaller, divided more rapidly and were more frequent in BM-MSC preparations from younger female donors. CD10, β1integrin, HCAM, CD71, VCAM-1, IFN-γR1, MCAM, ALCAM, LNGFR and HLA ABC were correlated to BM-MSC preparations with high clonogenic potential and expression of IFN-γR1, MCAM and HLA ABC was associated with rapid growth of BM-MSCs. The mesodermal differentiation capacity of BM-MSCs was unaffected by donor age or gender but was affected by phenotype (CD10, IFN-γR1, GD2). BM-MSCs from female and male donors expressed androgen receptor and FGFR3, and secreted VEGF-A, HGF, LIF, Angiopoietin-1, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and NGFB. HGF secretion correlated negatively to the expression of CD71, CD140b and

  16. Aerobic exercise, subjective health and psychological well-being within age and gender subgroups.

    PubMed

    Ransford, H E; Palisi, B J

    1996-06-01

    This research examines relationships between different forms of aerobic exercise (swim, walk, jog, dance) and two measures of health: subjective health and psychological well-being. We hypothesize that the relationship between aerobic exercise and subjective health/well-being will be notably stronger for older than younger persons and females than males. This prediction is based on Homans' exchange theory of investments and rewards. Since social norms concerning aerobic exercise are likely to be weaker among older (than younger) persons and among women than men, older persons and women who do exercise are making special investments and should expect greater rewards (good health). The concept of 'exercise norms' implies social comparisons with others. Accordingly, age comparative data were analyzed to see if older persons who exercise see themselves as more active than their age peers than do younger persons. Data come from a national probability sample of 3025 adults (National Survey of Personal Health Practices and Consequences). As predicted, exercise was much more strongly related to subjective health and well-being among older than younger respondents. In the main, the gender hypothesis was not supported.

  17. College Students' Chronological Age Predicts Marital Happiness Regardless of Length of Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Powers, Justina; Laverghetta, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    A revised version of the Quality Marriage Index (QMI) was used to examine demographic correlates of marital satisfaction. We administered the revised QMI to a sample of college students and found a significant positive correlation between age and relationship satisfaction. We suggest that this increase in relationship satisfaction could be due to…

  18. Bad marriage, broken heart? Age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risks among older adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57-85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework.

  19. Bad Marriage, Broken Heart? Age and Gender Differences in the Link between Marital Quality and Cardiovascular Risks among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57–85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts; and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

  20. Bad marriage, broken heart? Age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risks among older adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Waite, Linda

    2014-12-01

    Working from a life course perspective, we develop hypotheses about age and gender differences in the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk and test them using data from the first two waves of the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. The analytic sample includes 459 married women and 739 married men (aged 57-85 in the first wave) who were interviewed in both waves. We apply Heckman-type corrections for selection bias due to mortality and marriage. Cardiovascular risk is measured as hypertension, rapid heart rate, C-reactive protein, and general cardiovascular events. Results suggest that changes in marital quality and cardiovascular risk are more closely related for older married people than for their younger counterparts and that the link between marital quality and cardiovascular risk is more pronounced among women than among men at older ages. These findings fit with the gendered life course perspective and cumulative disadvantage framework. PMID:25413802

  1. Early Adolescent Age and Gender Differences in Patterns of Emotional Self-Disclosure to Parents and Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    This study explored adolescent age and gender differences in patterns of emotional self-disclosure to parents and friends. An additional purpose was to describe how familial and individual developmental characteristics influence patterns of adolescent emotional disclosure. The sample consisted of 174 junior high school students between 12 and 15…

  2. Early Adolescent Age and Gender Differences in Patterns of Emotional Self-Disclosure to Parents and Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papini, Dennis R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored adolescent age and gender differences in patterns of emotional self-disclosure to parents and friends among 174 junior high school students. Found that girls exhibited greater emotional self-disclosure to parents and peers than did males, and that emotional self-disclosure to friends was greatest among older adolescents. (Author/NB)

  3. Gender Differences in Vocational Rehabilitation Service Predictors of Successful Competitive Employment for Transition-Aged Individuals with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Connie; Sánchez, Jennifer; Kuo, Hung-Jen; Wang, Chia-Chiang; Leahy, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    As males and females with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience different symptomology, their needs for vocational rehabilitation (VR) are unique as they transition into adulthood. This study examined the effects of gender differences in VR service predictors on employment outcomes for transition-aged individuals with ASD. A total of 1696…

  4. UTAUT Model for Blended Learning: The Role of Gender and Age in the Intention to Use Webinars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khechine, Hager; Lakhal, Sawsen; Pascot, Daniel; Bytha, Alphonse

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to determine the factors that explain the acceptance of a webinar system (Elluminate) in a blended learning course by students. The effects of gender and age as moderating variables were also studied. Our hypotheses were based on the unified theory of acceptance and use of the technology model, which was proven to be…

  5. Gender and Age as Moderators of the Relationship between the Efficacy of Vocational Teachers' Personal Resources and Strain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pithers, Robert T.; Soden, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    Results of the Occupational Stress Inventory completed by 256 vocational teachers showed a significant negative relationship between personal resources (recreation, self-care, social support, rational/cognitive) and occupational strain, differing by gender, age, and type of strain (vocational, psychological, interpersonal, physical). Women and…

  6. The Subtlety of Age, Gender, and Race Barriers: A Case Study of Early Career African American Female Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jean-Marie, Gaetane

    2013-01-01

    While all educational leaders face challenges in achieving success, African American female principals often face a unique set of challenges associated with the complexity of their gender, race, and, as examined in this study, age. This case study investigates the experiences of two highly visible, early career African American female principals…

  7. Do the Instructors Differ in Their Behavioral Intention to Adopt E-Learning Based on Age, Gender, and Internet Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altawallbeh, Manal; Thiam, Wun; Alshourah, Sultan; Fong, Soon Fook

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is to examine if there are differences of the age, gender, and internet experience on behavioural intention to adopt e-learning of the instructors in Jordanian universities. The paper takes a social, and technical approach in its investigation by using a research model based on the ANOVA and t-test Analysis to identify if…

  8. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson "et al." ("Counsellor Education & Supervision" 41: 120-130, 1992) was…

  9. The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version and Adolescent and Adult Recidivism-- Considerations with Respect to Gender, Ethnicity, and Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Keira C.; Olver, Mark E.; Wong, Stephen C. P.

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigated the predictive accuracy of the Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV; A. E. Forth, D. S. Kosson, & R. D. Hare, 2003) for youth and adult recidivism, with respect to gender, ethnicity, and age, in a sample of 161 Canadian young offenders who received psychological services from an outpatient mental health…

  10. The Impact of Teachers' Age, Gender and Experience on the Use of Information and Communication Technology in EFL Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahdi, Hassan Saleh; Al-Dera, Abdullah Sa'ad

    2013-01-01

    The integration of information and communication technology (ICT) into language teaching and learning depends on many factors. Some of these factors are associated with teachers. Teachers play a crucial role in the integration of ICT. This study investigates the impact of teacher's age, experience, and gender on the integration of ICT into…

  11. Disparity in Autism Spectrum Disorder Prevalence among Taiwan National Health Insurance Enrollees: Age, Gender and Urbanization Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shang-Wei; Chiang, Po-Huang; Lin, Lam-Ping; Lin, Jin-Ding

    2012-01-01

    The present study aims to characterize the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) in Taiwan while examining the effects of age, gender, and urbanization on ASD occurrence. A cross-sectional study was conducted to analyze data from 895,639 random health insurance claimants who claimed medical services in the year 2007. Autism was defined…

  12. Changes in Returns to Education in India, 1983-94: By Gender, Age-Cohort and Location. Center Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duraisamy, P.

    There is hardly any estimate of returns to schooling in India based on national level representative data for the recent period. This paper provides estimates of the economic returns to education in India by gender, age cohort, and location (by rural-urban) for the most recent period 1993-94, and also evaluates the changes in returns over a period…

  13. Predictors of Adult Men's Gender-Role Conflict: Race, Class, Unemployment, Age, Instrumentality-Expressiveness, and Personal Strain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stillson, Richard W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Men (n=134) of different ages, races, classes, personality characteristics, and work statuses were assessed with Gender Role Conflict Scale, Personal Strain Questionnaire, and Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Two meaningful and independent male constellations linking 9 of 13 demographic, psychological, and strain variables with 3 patterns of…

  14. Effects of Autistic Traits on Social and School Adjustment in Children and Adolescents: The Moderating Roles of Age and Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Mei-Ni; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Huang, Hui-Yi; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the associations between children's and adolescents' autistic-like social deficits and school and social adjustment as well as the moderating roles of age and gender in these associations. The sample consisted of 1321 students (48.7% boys) in Grade 1 to Grade 8 from northern Taiwan. Children's and adolescents' autistic-like…

  15. Who Gets Ahead?: The Effect of Age, Disability, Ethnicity and Gender on Teachers' Careers and Implications for School Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; Powney, Janet; Hall, Stuart; Davidson, Julia

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results from a 12-month study of teachers' career progress in schools in England and the ways in which headteachers and teachers perceive that age, disability, ethnicity and gender affect teachers' career prospects. Many teachers thought that they had been promoted because of their personal traits, such as drive,…

  16. Gender Differences in Physical Health and Psychosocial Well Being among Four Age-Groups of Elderly People in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmel, Sara; Bernstein, Judith H.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which the well-established gender differences in physical and psychosocial well being in adulthood persist throughout different age groups of elderly persons, in order to support one of two opposing hypotheses: the convergence and divergence hypotheses. Data were collected by structured…

  17. Diagnosing Intellectual Disability in a Forensic Sample: Gender and Age Effects on the Relationship between Cognitive and Adaptive Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan C.

    2005-01-01

    Background: The relationship between adaptive behaviour and cognitive functioning in offenders with intellectual disabilities is not well researched. This study aims to examine gender and age effects on the relationship between these two areas of functioning. Method: The "Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales" (VABS) and the "Kaufman Brief…

  18. The Relation of Age, Gender, Ethnicity, and Risk Behaviors to Self-Esteem among Students in Nonmainstream Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connor, Jennifer M.; Poyrazli, Senel; Ferrer-Wreder, Laura; Grahame, Kamini Maraj

    2004-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated self-esteem in relation to age, gender, ethnicity, and risk behaviors among a sample of nonmainstream students. Participants were 149 students in the 6th to 12th grades from two non-mainstream schools (one charter and one alternative school). Self-esteem and youth risk behaviors were determined by using a…

  19. Examining Preschoolers' Nutrition Knowledge Using a Meal Creation and Food Group Classification Task: Age and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holub, Shayla C.; Musher-Eizenman, Dara R.

    2010-01-01

    Eating behaviours begin to develop during early childhood, but relatively little is known about preschoolers' nutrition knowledge. The current study examined age and gender differences in this knowledge using two tasks: food group classification and the creation of unhealthy, healthy and preferred meals. Sixty-nine three- to six-year-old children…

  20. Ethnic and Gender Trends for Cardiovascular Risk Behaviors in Anglo and Mexican American Children, Ages Four to Seven.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nader, Philip R.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined gender and ethnic trends in Mexican American and Anglo preschoolers at home and school using physical, physiological, dietary, activity, and socioenvironmental assessments. Height and total skinfolds showed significant ethnic differences, confirming that preschool represents an age of rapid habit and behavior development…

  1. The Impact of Gender, Family Type and Age on Undergraduate Parents' Perception of Causes of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Onoyase, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the Impact of Gender, Family type and Age on undergraduate parents' perception of causes of child Sexual Abuse. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. There was a review of relevant literature. The population for the study were 2014 sandwich contact students of Delta State University, Abraka who…

  2. A Study of Associations between Age, Race, Gender, and Adult Learners Graduating from a Distant-Learning Master's Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naughton, Deborah Trupp

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on adult learners' age, race, gender, and whether they graduated from a distant-learning, master in the art of teaching program at an accredited college during the three academic semesters that comprised the 2007-2008 school year. The dependent variable used in this study consisted of whether adult learners graduated from a…

  3. The Relationship between Age, Gender, Historical Change, and Adults' Perceptions of Mental Health and Mental Health Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currin, James B.; Hayslip, Bert, Jr.; Temple, Jeff R.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of age, historical change, and gender on perceptions of mental health and mental health services. Using multidimensional measures to assess such perceptions among older adults (1977, 1991, 2000), and younger adults (1991, 2000), we expected that older adults would have less positive mental health…

  4. Math Growth Trajectories of Students with Disabilities: Disability Category, Gender, Racial, and Socioeconomic Status Differences from Ages 7 to 17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Xin; Lenz, Keith B.; Blackorby, Jose

    2013-01-01

    This study examined math growth trajectories by disability category, gender, race, and socioeconomic status using a nationally representative sample of students ages 7 to 17. The students represented 11 federal disability categories. Compared with the national norming sample, students in all 11 disability categories had lower math achievement…

  5. Senescence, aging, and malignant transformation mediated by p53 in mice lacking the Brca1 full-length isoform.

    PubMed

    Cao, Liu; Li, Wenmei; Kim, Sangsoo; Brodie, Steven G; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2003-01-15

    Senescence may function as a two-edged sword that brings unexpected consequences to organisms. Here we provide evidence to support this theory by showing that the absence of the Brca1 full-length isoform causes senescence in mutant embryos and cultured cells as well as aging and tumorigenesis in adult mice. Haploid loss of p53 overcame embryonic senescence but failed to prevent the adult mutant mice from prematurely aging, which included decreased life span, reduced body fat deposition, osteoporosis, skin atrophy, and decreased wound healing. We further demonstrate that mutant cells that escaped senescence had undergone clonal selection for faster proliferation and extensive genetic/molecular alterations, including overexpression of cyclin D1 and cyclin A and loss of p53. These observations provide the first in vivo evidence that links cell senescence to aging due to impaired function of Brca1 at the expense of tumorigenesis.

  6. The Cardioprotective Effect of Vitamin E (Alpha-Tocopherol) Is Strongly Related to Age and Gender in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Lin, Ze-Bang; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Jing-Feng; Chen, Yang-Xin; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Xi; Ou, Zhi-Jun; Ou, Jing-Song

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin E (VitE) only prevented cardiovascular diseases in some patients and the mechanisms remain unknown. VitE levels can be affected by aging and gender. We hypothesize that age and gender can influence VitE’s cardioprotective effect. Mice were divided into 4 groups according to age and gender, and each group of mice were divided into a control group and a VitE group. The mice were administered water or VitE for 21 days; Afterward, the cardiac function and myocardial infarct size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis were measured after myocardial ischemia reperfusion(MI/R). VitE may significantly improved cardiac function in young male mice and aged female mice by enhancing ERK1/2 activity and reducing JNK activity. Enhanced expression of HSP90 and Bcl-2 were also seen in young male mice. No changes in cardiac function and cardiac proteins were detected in aged male mice and VitE was even liked to exert a reverse effect in cardiac function in young mice by enhancing JNK activity and reducing Bcl-2 expression. Those effects were in accordance with the changes of myocardial infarction size and cardiomyocyte apoptosis in each group of mice. VitE may reduce MI/R injury by inhibiting cardiomyocyte apoptosis in young male mice and aged female mice but not in aged male mice. VitE was possibly harmful for young female mice, shown as increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis after MI/R. Thus, we speculated that the efficacy of VitE in cardiac protection was associated with age and gender. PMID:26331272

  7. Gender differences in self-concept and psychological well-being in old age: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pinquart, M; Sörensen, S

    2001-07-01

    Because of women's higher risk of being widowed, having health problems, and needing care, one might expect them to have a more negative self-concept and lower subjective well-being (SWB). However, women may also have greater access to sources of SWB (e.g., relations to adult children) and may engage in processes to protect the self (e.g., lowered aspirations). Meta-analysis was used to synthesize findings from 300 empirical studies on gender differences in life satisfaction, happiness, self-esteem, loneliness, subjective health, and subjective age in late adulthood. Older women reported significantly lower SWB and less positive self-concept than men on all measures, except subjective age, although gender accounted for less than 1% of the variance in well-being and self-concept. Smaller gender differences in SWB were found in younger than in older groups. Statistically controlling for gender differences in widowhood, health, and socioeconomic status decreased gender differences in SWB. Cohort differences in SWB are reported as well.

  8. Gender Disparity in Late-life Cognitive Functioning in India: Findings From the Longitudinal Aging Study in India

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Regina; Feeney, Kevin; Langa, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. To examine gender disparities in cognitive functioning in India and the extent to which education explains this disparity in later life. Methods. This study uses baseline interviews of a prospective cohort study of 1,451 community-residing adults 45 years of age or older in four geographically diverse states of India (Karnataka, Kerala, Punjab, Rajasthan). Data collected during home visits includes cognitive performance tests, and rich sociodemographic, health, and psychosocial variables. The cognitive performance tests include episodic memory, numeracy, and a modified version of the Mini-Mental State Examination. Results. We find gender disparity in cognitive function in India, and this disparity is greater in the north than the south. We also find that gender disparities in educational attainment, health, and social and economic activity explain the female cognitive disadvantage in later life. Discussion. We report significant gender disparities in cognitive functioning among older Indian adults, which differ from gender disparities in cognition encountered in developed countries. Our models controlling for education, health status, and social and economic activity explain the disparity in southern India but not the region-specific disparity in the northern India. North Indian women may face additional sources of stress associated with discrimination against women that contribute to persistent disadvantages in cognitive functioning at older ages. PMID:24622150

  9. Time of Admission, Gender and Age: Challenging Factors in Emergency Renal Colic - A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Behzadnia, Mohammad Javad; Javadzadeh, Hamid Reza; Saboori, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Background Nephrolithiasis is a relatively common problem and a frequent Emergency Department (ED) diagnosis in patients who present with acute flank/abdominal pain. The pain management in these patients is often challenging. Objectives To investigate the most effective dose of morphine with the least side effects in emergency renal colic patients. Materials and Methods 150 renal colic patients who experienced a pain level of 4 or greater, based on visual analog scale (VAS) at admission time were included. Pain was scored on a 100 mm VAS (0 = no pain, 100 = the worst pain imagined). When patients arrived at ED, a physician would examine the patients and assessed initial pain score, then filled a questionnaire according to the patient information. Patients were assigned to receive 2.5 mg morphine sulfate intravenously. We monitored patients’ visual analog scale (VAS), and adverse events at different time points (every 15 minutes) for 90 minutes. Additional doses of intravenous morphine (2.5 mg) were administered if the patient still had pain. (Max dose: 10 mg). The cumulative dose of morphine, defined as the total amount of morphine prescribed to each patient during the 90 minutes of the study, was recorded. Patients were not permitted to use any nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as coadjuvant analgesics during the study period. Subjects with inadequate pain relief at 90 minutes received rescue morphine and were excluded from the study. The primary end point in this study was pain relief at 90 minutes, defined as either VAS<40 or decrease of 50% or more as compared to the initial VAS. The secondary objective was to detect the occurrence of adverse effects at any time points in ED. Results The studied patients consisted of 104 men and 46 women with the mean age of 43 ±14 years (range, 18 to 75 years). There was no statistically significant difference between the mean age and gender differences in pain response. Rescue analgesia at 30 minutes were given in 54

  10. Gender difference in the association of hyperuricemia with hypertension in a middle-aged Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-Fang; Shu, Long; Wang, Shuai; Wang, Xiao-Qin; Mu, Min; Hu, Chun-Qiu; Liu, Kai-Yong; Zhao, Qi-Hong; Hu, An-La; Bo, Qing-Li; Tao, Fang-Biao; Sheng, Jie

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we report the relationship between hyperuricemia and hypertension in a middle-aged Chinese population, emphasizing the difference of gender. The cross-sectional study was conducted among 1776 adults aged 45-60 years, who participated in the Hefei Nutrition and Health Study (2012). Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid (SUA)> 420 μmol/l for men, and > 360 μmol/l for women. Hypertension was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥ 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90 mmHg. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical data were collected using standardized procedures. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the relationship between hyperuricemia and hypertension with adjustment of potential confounding factors. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), SBP, DBP, fasting glucose, SUA and the prevalence of hyperuricemia and hypertension were significantly higher in male than in female (p < 0.001). Females had significantly higher levels of triglycerides (TG) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol (5.23 ± 0.87 vs 5.12 ± 1.01, p < 0.05, 1.50 ± 0.37 vs 1.28 ± 0.41, respectively.) than males. Simple correlation analysis showed that SUA was positively associated with WC and TG. In addition, after adjusting for potential confounders, hyperuricemia was associated with increased risk of hypertension in both males and females, with odds ratios (95% CI) of 1.680 (1.110-2.543) and 1.065 (1.012-1.118), respectively. Conclusions: The association of hyperuricemia with hypertension was stronger in males than in females, and middle-aged men with hyperuricemia had greater association with hypertension. Our findings remain to be confirmed in future prospective studies.

  11. Gender Associated Lipid and Apolipoprotein Profile in Patients with Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Majkic-Singh, Nada T.; Stankovic, Sanja S.; Kosanovic-Jakovic, Natalija G.; Zoric, Lepsa D.; Radosavljevic, Aleksandra P.; Terzic, Dragana D.; Stojanovic, Jecka Z.

    2011-01-01

    The role of lipid parameters disorder in the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze lipid profile in these patients and to test the influence of gender on lipid profile of AMD patients, especially in the early and late form of the disease. 82 patients with AMD (mean age 70.3 yrs) and 80 age-matched control subjects were included in this study. Serum lipid and apolipoproteiin levels were determined using standardized methods. AMD patients had significantly higher values of total cholesterol (P=0.000), HDL-cholesterol (P=0.0003) and LDL-cholesterol (P=0.000) compared to control group. Significantly higher values of apo A1 (P=0.039), apo E (P=0.002), total-cholesterol (P=0.000), LDL-chol. (P=0.026), total HDL-chol (P=0.000), HDL3-chol. (P=0.005) and non-HDL-cholesterol (P=0.029) were found in female AMD patients compared to males with AMD. Females with the advanced form of the disease had significantly higher total cholesterol (P=0.006), HDL-C (P=0.004), non HDL-C (P=0.05) and apo E (P=0.014) compared to males with the same form of the disease. There is a significant disorder of lipid parameters in AMD patients especially in females. More severe forms of AMD are followed by the increase of atherogenic lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, and females have higher values of these parameters compared to males with the same form of AMD.

  12. Interactive effects of age and gender on EEG power and coherence during a short-term memory task in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Kober, Silvia Erika; Reichert, Johanna Louise; Neuper, Christa; Wood, Guilherme

    2016-04-01

    The effects of age and gender on electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during a short-term memory task were assessed in a group of 40 healthy participants aged 22-63 years. Multi-channel EEG was recorded in 20 younger (mean = 24.65-year-old, 10 male) and 20 middle-aged participants (mean = 46.40-year-old, 10 male) during performance of a Sternberg task. EEG power and coherence measures were analyzed in different frequency bands. Significant interactions emerged between age and gender in memory performance and concomitant EEG parameters, suggesting that the aging process differentially influences men and women. Middle-aged women showed a lower short-term memory performance compared to young women, which was accompanied by decreasing delta and theta power and increasing brain connectivity with age in women. In contrast, men showed no age-related decline in short-term memory performance and no changes in EEG parameters. These results provide first evidence of age-related alterations in EEG activity underlying memory processes, which were already evident in the middle years of life in women but not in men.

  13. Age- and Gender-related Disparities in Primary Percutaneous Coronary Interventions for Acute ST-segment elevation Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Tal, Kali; Erne, Paul; Radovanovic, Dragana; Windecker, Stephan; Jüni, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous analyses reported age- and gender-related differences in the provision of cardiac care. The objective of the study was to compare circadian disparities in the delivery of primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) according to the patient’s age and gender. Methods We investigated patients included into the Acute Myocardial Infarction in Switzerland (AMIS) registry presenting to one of 11 centers in Switzerland providing primary PCI around the clock, and stratified patients according to gender and age. Findings A total of 4723 patients presented with AMI between 2005 and 2010; 1319 (28%) were women and 2172 (54%) were ≥65 years of age. More than 90% of patients <65 years of age underwent primary PCI without differences between gender. Elderly patients and particularly women were at increased risk of being withheld primary PCI (males adj. HR 4.91, 95% CI 3.93–6.13; females adj. HR 9.31, 95% CI 7.37–11.75) as compared to males <65 years of age. An increased risk of a delay in door-to-balloon time >90 minutes was found in elderly males (adj HR 1.66 (95% CI 1.40–1.95), p<0.001) and females (adj HR 1.57 (95% CI 1.27–1.93), p<0.001), as well as in females <65 years (adj HR 1.47 (95% CI 1.13–1.91), p = 0.004) as compared to males <65 years of age, with significant differences in circadian patterns during on- and off-duty hours. Conclusions In a cohort of patients with AMI in Switzerland, we observed discrimination of elderly patients and females in the circadian provision of primary PCI. PMID:26352574

  14. Hwa-Byung among middle-aged Korean women: family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunha; Hogge, Ingrid; Ji, Peter; Shim, Young R; Lothspeich, Catherine

    2014-05-01

    We surveyed 395 Korean middle-aged women and examined how their perceptions of family relationships, gender-role attitudes, and self-esteem were associated with Hwa-Byung (HB; Korean anger syndrome). Our regression analyses revealed that participants who reported worse family relationship problems experienced more HB symptoms. Having profeminist, egalitarian attitudes toward women's gender roles was also associated with more HB symptoms. Self-esteem was not significantly associated with HB. Based on the results, we suggest that what is crucial to understanding HB is not how women evaluate themselves, but rather the level of stress caused by family relationship problems and their perception of women's roles.

  15. Prenatal factors associated with birth weight and length and current nutritional status of hospitalized children aged 4-24 months.

    PubMed

    Mariante Giesta, Juliana; Ramón da Rosa, Suélen; Moura Pessoa, Juliana Salino; Lúcia Bosa, Vera

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the associations of prenatal factors with birth weight and length, as well as current nutritional status, of children hospitalized in southern Brazil. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 300 child-mother pairs. Children were between 4 and 24 months old. They were at the inpatient unit or pediatric emergency department of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Anthropometric data were collected, and a questionnaire on gestational data was answered by the children's mothers. Maternal variables of interest were: prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), gestational weight gain, smoking and/or use of alcohol, use of illicit drugs, gestational diabetes and/ or high blood pressure. Children's variables of interest were: sex, gestational age, birth weight (BW) and birth length (BL), and current anthropometric data [body mass index for age (BMI/A), height for age (H/A), and weight for age (W/A)]. The gestational weight gain and smoking were associated with BW. We also found that H/A was associated with BW and BL, W/A was associated with BW, and BMI/A was associated with BL. The gestational weight gain was associated with BL, diabetes was associated with BW and BL, and high blood pressure was associated with low height in the first two years of life. We concluded that prenatal factors may have an influence on both BW and BL, causing the birth of small and large for gestational age children, and thus affecting their growth rate during the first years of life.

  16. Do Gender Differences Exist in the Academic Identification of African-American Elementary-School Aged Children?

    PubMed Central

    McMillian-Robinson, M. Monique; Frierson, Henry T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2014-01-01

    The disidentification hypothesis predicts that African-American boys achieve less in school than African-American girls do because boys have less personal investment in doing well academically (i.e., they are disidentified). When do such gender differences emerge? Using self-perception and achievement data from longitudinal studies of children (N = 113) at high-risk for academic problems because they come from low-income families, the authors examined whether elementary school-aged and early adolescent African-American boys are more prone to low achievement and disidentification than African-American girls. Multiple regression analyses indicated no gender differences in reading or mathematics achievement between boys and girls at age 8 or at age 12. At 12, African-American boys’ self-esteem was predicted by academic performance in ways similar to that of African-American girls. Thus, no gender differences emerged in elementary school achievement and no gender-specific disengagement patterns were confirmed among at-risk African-American students. PMID:24790256

  17. Sports and Exercise at Different Ages and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Later Life--Data from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).

    PubMed

    Saßenroth, Denise; Meyer, Antje; Salewsky, Bastian; Kroh, Martin; Norman, Kristina; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and sports have repeatedly been reported to be associated with telomere length. We studied the association of different types of sports across different stages of life on relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL) in advanced age.815 participants (397 men) from the Berlin Aging Study II aged over 61 years were included in the analysis. rLTL was measured by real time PCR and physical activity was determined retrospectively by questionnaire, assessing type and duration of sports in the past as well as currently. Five separate multiple linear regression models adjusted for various control variables were performed. 67.3% of participants exercised currently, whereas 19.4% performed sports only between the age of 20 and 30. rLTL was higher in subjects who stated to exercise currently (N = 456), and in subjects who engaged in endurance (N = 138) or intensive activity sports (N = 32). Current physical activity was positively associated with rLTL in the risk factor adjusted regression model (β = 0.26, p < 0.001) and practicing sports for a minimum of 10 years preceding the assessment had a significant effect on rLTL (β = 0.39, p = 0.011). The highest impact was seen for intensive activity sports (β = 0.79, p < 0.001) and physical activity since at least 42 years (β = 0.47, p = 0.001). However, physical activity only between 20 and 30 years of age did not affect rLTL in old age when compared to no sports at all (β = -0.16, p = 0.21). Physical activity is clearly associated with longer rLTL. The effect is seen with longer periods of physical activity (at least 10 years), with intensive sports activities having the greatest impact on rLTL. Our data suggest that regular physical activity for at least 10 years is necessary to achieve a sustained effect on rLTL.

  18. Sports and Exercise at Different Ages and Leukocyte Telomere Length in Later Life – Data from the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II)

    PubMed Central

    Saßenroth, Denise; Meyer, Antje; Salewsky, Bastian; Kroh, Martin; Norman, Kristina; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Demuth, Ilja

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity and sports have repeatedly been reported to be associated with telomere length. We studied the association of different types of sports across different stages of life on relative leukocyte telomere length (rLTL) in advanced age.815 participants (397 men) from the Berlin Aging Study II aged over 61 years were included in the analysis. rLTL was measured by real time PCR and physical activity was determined retrospectively by questionnaire, assessing type and duration of sports in the past as well as currently. Five separate multiple linear regression models adjusted for various control variables were performed. 67.3% of participants exercised currently, whereas 19.4% performed sports only between the age of 20 and 30. rLTL was higher in subjects who stated to exercise currently (N = 456), and in subjects who engaged in endurance (N = 138) or intensive activity sports (N = 32). Current physical activity was positively associated with rLTL in the risk factor adjusted regression model (β = 0.26, p < 0.001) and practicing sports for a minimum of 10 years preceding the assessment had a significant effect on rLTL (β = 0.39, p = 0.011). The highest impact was seen for intensive activity sports (β = 0.79, p < 0.001) and physical activity since at least 42 years (β = 0.47, p = 0.001). However, physical activity only between 20 and 30 years of age did not affect rLTL in old age when compared to no sports at all (β = -0.16, p = 0.21). Physical activity is clearly associated with longer rLTL. The effect is seen with longer periods of physical activity (at least 10 years), with intensive sports activities having the greatest impact on rLTL. Our data suggest that regular physical activity for at least 10 years is necessary to achieve a sustained effect on rLTL. PMID:26630493

  19. Age at first birth and the length of the second birth interval: is a positive relationship universal in modern populations?

    PubMed

    Swanson, D A

    1986-06-01

    "Age at first birth has been found to be positively associated with the length of the second birth interval in several studies. One researcher has hypothesized that such a relationship would be found in any population in which contraception is widespread and women are exposed to non-maternal roles. However, in this study a positive relationship is not found for caucasian women in Hawaii, a population in which contraception is wide-spread and women are exposed to non-maternal roles. The findings suggest a revision of the hypothesis to accommodate more complex relationships."

  20. The influence of age, gender and other information technology use on young people's computer use at school and home.

    PubMed

    Harris, C; Straker, L; Pollock, C

    2013-01-01

    Young people are exposed to a range of information technologies (IT) in different environments, including home and school, however the factors influencing IT use at home and school are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate young people's computer exposure patterns at home and school, and related factors such as age, gender and the types of IT used. 1351 children in Years 1, 6, 9 and 11 from 10 schools in metropolitan Western Australia were surveyed. Most children had access to computers at home and school, with computer exposures comparable to TV, reading and writing. Total computer exposure was greater at home than school, and increased with age. Computer activities varied with age and gender and became more social with increased age, at the same time parental involvement reduced. Bedroom computer use was found to result in higher exposure patterns. High use of home and school computers were associated with each other. Associations varied depending on the type of IT exposure measure (frequency, mean weekly hours, usual and longest duration). The frequency and duration of children's computer exposure were associated with a complex interplay of the environment of use, the participant's age and gender and other IT activities.

  1. Marital status, gender, and depression: analysis of the baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA).

    PubMed

    Jang, Soong-Nang; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chang, Jiyeun; Boo, Kachung; Shin, Hyun-Gu; Lee, Hyejung; Cho, Sung-il

    2009-12-01

    Marital status is a robust predictor of health outcomes in Western populations. However, data from Asian cultures remain sparse, and some studies suggest marked gender differences in the health benefits of marriage among Asian populations. We investigated the influence of marital status on depressive symptoms in older adult Koreans. Data were obtained from a sample of adults aged 45 to 85 years (4016 men, 5003 women) who participated in the 2006 cross-sectional baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. A multiple regression model was used to examine the association between marital status and depressive symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status, living arrangement, disability, and number of chronic diseases. In women aged 75 to 85 years, no significant differences were found between women who were married versus those who were widowed, divorced, or separated with regard to depressive symptoms. These findings were driven by increasing depressive symptoms among married women with age. Whereas divorced and widowed men in the sample reported higher rates of depressive symptoms than did married men, the difference between married vs. widowed/divorced women converged as they aged. This pattern of depressive symptoms by gender and life stage may reflect the distinctive influence of the Asian context on relations between men and women, such as traditional gender roles and patriarchal norms for older generation.

  2. Marital status, gender, and depression: analysis of the baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA).

    PubMed

    Jang, Soong-Nang; Kawachi, Ichiro; Chang, Jiyeun; Boo, Kachung; Shin, Hyun-Gu; Lee, Hyejung; Cho, Sung-il

    2009-12-01

    Marital status is a robust predictor of health outcomes in Western populations. However, data from Asian cultures remain sparse, and some studies suggest marked gender differences in the health benefits of marriage among Asian populations. We investigated the influence of marital status on depressive symptoms in older adult Koreans. Data were obtained from a sample of adults aged 45 to 85 years (4016 men, 5003 women) who participated in the 2006 cross-sectional baseline survey of the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Depressive symptoms were measured by the 10-item Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale. A multiple regression model was used to examine the association between marital status and depressive symptoms, controlling for socioeconomic status, living arrangement, disability, and number of chronic diseases. In women aged 75 to 85 years, no significant differences were found between women who were married versus those who were widowed, divorced, or separated with regard to depressive symptoms. These findings were driven by increasing depressive symptoms among married women with age. Whereas divorced and widowed men in the sample reported higher rates of depressive symptoms than did married men, the difference between married vs. widowed/divorced women converged as they aged. This pattern of depressive symptoms by gender and life stage may reflect the distinctive influence of the Asian context on relations between men and women, such as traditional gender roles and patriarchal norms for older generation. PMID:19819601

  3. Personality, gender, and age in the language of social media: the open-vocabulary approach.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Ramones, Stephanie M; Agrawal, Megha; Shah, Achal; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Seligman, Martin E P; Ungar, Lyle H

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 700 million words, phrases, and topic instances collected from the Facebook messages of 75,000 volunteers, who also took standard personality tests, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age. In our open-vocabulary technique, the data itself drives a comprehensive exploration of language that distinguishes people, finding connections that are not captured with traditional closed-vocabulary word-category analyses. Our analyses shed new light on psychosocial processes yielding results that are face valid (e.g., subjects living in high elevations talk about the mountains), tie in with other research (e.g., neurotic people disproportionately use the phrase 'sick of' and the word 'depressed'), suggest new hypotheses (e.g., an active life implies emotional stability), and give detailed insights (males use the possessive 'my' when mentioning their 'wife' or 'girlfriend' more often than females use 'my' with 'husband' or 'boyfriend'). To date, this represents the largest study, by an order of magnitude, of language and personality. PMID:24086296

  4. Personality, Gender, and Age in the Language of Social Media: The Open-Vocabulary Approach

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, H. Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C.; Kern, Margaret L.; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Ramones, Stephanie M.; Agrawal, Megha; Shah, Achal; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ungar, Lyle H.

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 700 million words, phrases, and topic instances collected from the Facebook messages of 75,000 volunteers, who also took standard personality tests, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age. In our open-vocabulary technique, the data itself drives a comprehensive exploration of language that distinguishes people, finding connections that are not captured with traditional closed-vocabulary word-category analyses. Our analyses shed new light on psychosocial processes yielding results that are face valid (e.g., subjects living in high elevations talk about the mountains), tie in with other research (e.g., neurotic people disproportionately use the phrase ‘sick of’ and the word ‘depressed’), suggest new hypotheses (e.g., an active life implies emotional stability), and give detailed insights (males use the possessive ‘my’ when mentioning their ‘wife’ or ‘girlfriend’ more often than females use ‘my’ with ‘husband’ or 'boyfriend’). To date, this represents the largest study, by an order of magnitude, of language and personality. PMID:24086296

  5. Functional osteoclastogenesis: the baseline variability in blood donor precursors is not associated with age and gender.

    PubMed

    Pivetta, Eliana; Wassermann, Bruna; Bulian, Pietro; Steffan, Agostino; Colombatti, Alfonso; Polesel, Jerry; Spessotto, Paola

    2015-10-13

    Mononuclear osteoclast precursors circulate in the monocyte fraction of peripheral blood and form multinuclear cells with all osteoclastic phenotypic characteristics when cultured in the presence of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL). The method to obtain osteoclast precursors from peripheral blood is simple but the number of recovered osteoclasts is often largely insufficient for functional analyses. The original aim of this study was to develop a rapid and efficient method that could overcome the donor variability and enrich the osteoclast precursors from a small volume of peripheral blood as a basis for future clinical studies to correlate the differentiation potential of circulating osteoclast precursors with bone lesions in cancer patients. We improved the efficiency of osteoclastogenesis by reducing isolation and purification times and overcame the use of flow cytometry and immunomagnetic purification procedures. In our culture system the osteoclast number was increased several-fold and the precursors were able to reach a full differentiation within seven days of culture. Both age as well as gender differences in osteoclastogenesis efficiency were no longer evident by processing limited volume blood samples with this simple and rapid method.

  6. Personality, gender, and age in the language of social media: the open-vocabulary approach.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, H Andrew; Eichstaedt, Johannes C; Kern, Margaret L; Dziurzynski, Lukasz; Ramones, Stephanie M; Agrawal, Megha; Shah, Achal; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David; Seligman, Martin E P; Ungar, Lyle H

    2013-01-01

    We analyzed 700 million words, phrases, and topic instances collected from the Facebook messages of 75,000 volunteers, who also took standard personality tests, and found striking variations in language with personality, gender, and age. In our open-vocabulary technique, the data itself drives a comprehensive exploration of language that distinguishes people, finding connections that are not captured with traditional closed-vocabulary word-category analyses. Our analyses shed new light on psychosocial processes yielding results that are face valid (e.g., subjects living in high elevations talk about the mountains), tie in with other research (e.g., neurotic people disproportionately use the phrase 'sick of' and the word 'depressed'), suggest new hypotheses (e.g., an active life implies emotional stability), and give detailed insights (males use the possessive 'my' when mentioning their 'wife' or 'girlfriend' more often than females use 'my' with 'husband' or 'boyfriend'). To date, this represents the largest study, by an order of magnitude, of language and personality.

  7. Age and gender difference in non-drafting ultra-endurance cycling performance - the ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, there was an increased interest in investigating the gender difference in performance and the age of peak performance in ultra-endurance performances such as ultra-triathlon, ultra-running, and ultra-swimming, but not in ultra-cycling. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gender difference in ultra-cycling performance and the age of peak ultra-cycling performance in the 720-km ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’, the largest European qualifier for the ‘Race Across America’. Methods Changes in the cycling speed and age of 985 finishers including 38 women and 947 men competing in the Swiss Cycling Marathon from 2001 to 2012 covering a distance of 720 km with a change of altitude of 4,993 m were analyzed using linear regression. Results The gender difference in performance was 13.6% for the fastest cyclists ever, 13.9% ± 0.5% for the three fastest cyclists ever and 19.1% ± 3.7% for the ten fastest cyclists ever. The gender difference in performance for the annual top three women and men decreased from 35.0% ± 9.5% in 2001 to 20.4% ± 7.7% in 2012 (r2 = 0.72, p = 0.01). The annual top three women improved cycling speed from 20.3 ± 3.1 km h−1 in 2003 to 24.8 ± 2.4 km h−1 in 2012 (r2 = 0.79, p < 0.01). The cycling speed of the annual top three men remained unchanged at 30.2 ± 0.6 km h−1 (p > 0.05). The age of peak performance for the ten fastest finishers ever was 35.9 ± 9.6 years for men and 38.7 ± 7.8 years for women, respectively (p = 0.47). Conclusions The gender difference in ultra-cycling performance decreased over the 2001 to 2012 period in the 720-km Swiss Cycling Marathon for the annual top three cyclists and reached approximately 14%. Both women and men achieved peak performance at the age of approximately 36 to 39 years. Women might close the gender gap in ultra-endurance cycling in longer cycling distances. Future studies need to investigate the gender difference in performance in the Race Across America, the

  8. Gender Differences in Sleep Disturbance among Elderly Koreans: Hallym Aging Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is an important component in our lives as it is necessary throughout one’s entire life span. This study was conducted to elucidate whether there are gender differences in sleep quality and what factors can affect sleep quality in community-dwelling elderly Koreans. A total of 382 subjects (175 males and 207 females) were recruited among elderly aged 45 or over who participated in the 2010 Hallym Aging Study (HAS). They were invited to a general hospital and were evaluated for socioeconomic status, smoking history, and various clinical measures. Sleep quality was assessed by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). A higher score indicates poorer subjective sleep quality, (PSQI global score > 5 suggests sleep disturbance). After adjusting for potential covariates, our results show that alcohol increases the odds for poor sleep (odds ratio [OR] = 3.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.11–10.10) in males. In females, lack of exercise was the major risk factor of poor sleep as they are 4.46 times more likely to suffer from low sleep quality than those who exercise regularly (95% CI=1.56–13.75). Stress was also a risk factor for poor sleep. It was 5.60 times higher in the “always have stress” group than the “do not have stress” group (95% CI = 1.54–20.34). Thus, alcohol consumption is associated with men’s sleep quality, while exercise and stress level affect women’s. PMID:27709844

  9. Lunch eating behavior of preschool children. Effects of age, gender, and type of beverage served.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J F

    To examine the eating behavior of preschool children offered chocolate-flavored or plain milk at lunch, food consumption by 135 children, aged 18-66 months, was measured. Four different menus were served six times during a 12-week period, each menu being presented twice with each of three test beverages, plain milk (18.1 kcal/oz), sucrose-sweetened chocolate milk (29.4 kcal/oz), or aspartame-sweetened chocolate milk (18.6 kcal/oz). The type of milk beverage served had no significant effect on the consumption of other food items offered at that meal. Subjects did drink significantly more chocolate milk than plain milk during all meals and consequently consumed significantly more energy during those meals in which sucrose-sweetened chocolate milk was served. A macronutrient analysis of lunch-time food intake for each menu revealed significant differences in protein, fat, and carbohydrate content among the four menus. Older children consumed significantly more milk and more energy per lunch-time meal than did younger preschoolers, but no other consistent age-related differences were observed. No significant gender differences were detected in any of the statistical analyses conducted. These findings suggest that young children do not reduce the intake of other food items at a meal to compensate for the increased energy intake that results from excessive sucrose-sweetened milk consumption. Aspartame-sweetened milk increases milk intake in small children without providing them with the additional calories of sucrose-sweetened milk.

  10. Age, Strain, and Gender as Factors for Increased Sensitivity of the Mouse Lung to Inhaled Ozone

    PubMed Central

    Vancza, Elizabeth M.; Galdanes, Karen; Gunnison, Al; Hatch, Gary; Gordon, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Ozone (O3) is a respiratory irritant that leads to airway inflammation and pulmonary dysfunction. Animal studies show that neonates are more sensitive to O3 inhalation than adults, and children represent a potentially susceptible population. This latter notion is not well established, and biological mechanisms underlying a predisposition to pollution-induced pulmonary effects are unknown. We examined age and strain as interactive factors affecting differential pulmonary responses to inhaled O3. Male and female adult mice (15 weeks old) and neonates (15–16 days old) from eight genetically diverse inbred strains were exposed to 0.8 ppm O3 for 5 h. Pulmonary injury and lung inflammation were quantified as total protein concentration and total polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) number in lavage fluid recovered 24-h postexposure. Dose-response and time-course curves were generated using SJL/J pups, and 18O lung burden dose was assessed in additional mice. Interstrain differences in response to O3 were seen in neonatal mice: Balb/cJ and SJL/J being most sensitive and A/J and 129x1/SvJ most resistant. The PMN response to O3 was greater in neonates than in adults, specifically for SJL/J and C3H/HeJ strains, independent of dose. Small gender differences were also observed in adult mice. Variation in protein concentrations and PMN counts between adults and pups were strain dependent, suggesting that genetic determinants do play a role in age-related sensitivity to O3. Further research will help to determine what genetic factors contribute to these heightened responses, and to quantify the relative contribution of genes vs. environment in O3-induced health effects. PMID:19066396

  11. Impact of Air Pollution on Age and Gender Related Increase in Cough Reflex Sensitivity of Healthy Children in Slovakia

    PubMed Central

    Demoulin-Alexikova, Silvia; Plevkova, Jana; Mazurova, Lenka; Zatko, Tomas; Alexik, Mikulas; Hanacek, Jan; Tatar, Milos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies show higher cough reflex sensitivity (CRS) and cough outcomes in children compared to adults and in females compared to males. Despite close link that exists between cough and environment the potential influence of environmental air pollution on age- and gender -related differences in cough has not been studied yet. Purpose: The purpose of our study was to analyse whether the effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) from parental smoking and PM10 from living in urban area are implied in age- and gender-related differences in cough outcomes of healthy, non-asthmatic children. Assessment of CRS using capsaicin and incidence of dry and wet cough was performed in 290 children (mean age 13.3 ± 2.6 years (138 females/152 males). Results: CRS was significantly higher in girls exposed to ETS [22.3 μmol/l (9.8–50.2 μmol/l)] compared to not exposed girls [79.9 μmol/l (56.4–112.2 μmol/l), p = 0.02] as well as compared to exposed boys [121.4 μmol/l (58.2–253.1 μmol/l), p = 0.01]. Incidence of dry cough lasting more than 3 weeks was significantly higher in exposed compared to not exposed girls. CRS was significantly higher in school-aged girls living in urban area [22.0 μmol/l (10.6–45.6 μmol/l)] compared to school-aged girls living in rural area [215.9 μmol/l (87.3–533.4 μmol/l); p = 0.003], as well as compared to teenage girls living in urban area [108.8 μmol/l (68.7–172.9 μmol/l); p = 0.007]. No CRS differences were found between urban and rural boys when controlled for age group. No CRS differences were found between school-aged and teenage boys when controlled for living area. Conclusions: Our results have shown that the effect of ETS on CRS was gender specific, linked to female gender and the effect of PM10 on CRS was both gender and age specific, related to female gender and school-age. We suggest that age and gender related differences in incidence of cough and CRS might be, at least partially

  12. Age of Acquisition and Sensitivity to Gender in Spanish Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Speakers of gender-agreement languages use gender-marked elements of the noun phrase in spoken-word recognition: A congruent marking on a determiner or adjective facilitates the recognition of a subsequent noun, while an incongruent marking inhibits its recognition. However, while monolinguals and early language learners evidence this…

  13. Mental Rotation Performance in Primary School Age Children: Are There Gender Differences in Chronometric Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jansen, P.; Schmelter, A.; Quaiser-Pohl, C.; Neuburger, S.; Heil, M.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to the well documented male advantage in psychometric mental rotation tests, gender differences in chronometric experimental designs are still under dispute. Therefore, a systematic investigation of gender differences in mental rotation performance in primary-school children is presented in this paper. A chronometric mental rotation…

  14. Gender-Inclusive Housing Preferences: A Survey of College-Aged Transgender Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krum, Tiana E.; Davis, Kyle S.; Galupo, M. Paz

    2013-01-01

    Traditional on-campus housing assignments at colleges and universities are made on the basis of legal sex, where students are housed only with other students of the same legal sex. This method is problematic for transgender and gender-nonconforming students, who may not identify with the gender assigned to them at birth. Recently, some…

  15. Fatigue and mood correlates of sleep length in three age-social groups: School children, students, and employees.

    PubMed

    Oginska, Halszka; Pokorski, Janusz

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to trace the consequences of insufficient sleep, in terms of chronic sleep reduction rather than acute sleep deprivation, on fatigue, mood, cognitive performance self-estimations, and daytime sleepiness in different age-social groups. The age group of the subjects reflects their social situation and their working time organization: adolescents (n = 191) obeyed the strict school schedules with starting times often before 08:00 h; university students (n = 115) had more flexible timetables; young employees (n = 126) were engaged in regular morning schedules or irregular daytime hours or day and night shifts. A questionnaire study determined the declared need of sleep, self-reported sleep length, chronic fatigue (using a scale comprised of eight fatigue symptoms and four mood and three cognitive items), and daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale). The declared need for sleep decreased in subsequent age groups from 9 h 23 min in school children to 8 h 22 min in university students and to 7 h 37 min in young employees. Consequently, the discrepancy between preferred and real sleep length (sleep deficit) was the largest in adolescents: 106 min. Females showed a greater need of sleep than males (p = .025) and significantly more fatigue, mood, and cognitive problems; they also exhibited higher level of daytime sleepiness (p < .000). The sleep index (reported sleep length related to requirements) correlated significantly with all health issues in women (p < .000), while only with fatigue symptoms in men (p = .013). Actual sleep length was unrelated to mood and fatigue issues; the declared individual need of sleep and sleep index showed significant associations, especially in the group of adolescents. The most frequent complaints of adolescents included tiredness on awakening (46%), nervousness, and general weakness; university students reported excessive drowsiness (50%), tension, and nervousness; employees suffered mostly from negative moods

  16. When Does the Gender Difference in Rumination Begin? Gender and Age Differences in the Use of Rumination by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jose, Paul E.; Brown, Isobel

    2008-01-01

    A cross-sectional non-clinical sample of 1,218 adolescents, aged 10-17 years, completed measures of stress, rumination, and depression to allow tests of the response style theory of S. Nolen-Hoeksema [J Res Adolesc 4:519-534, 1994] in adolescents, in particular whether increasing levels of stress and rumination in early adolescence are predictive…

  17. Age and gender diversity as determinants of performance and health in a public organization: the role of task complexity and group size.

    PubMed

    Wegge, Jürgen; Roth, Carla; Neubach, Barbara; Schmidt, Klaus-Helmut; Kanfer, Ruth

    2008-11-01

    The influence of age and gender composition on group performance and self-reported health disorders was examined with data from 4,538 federal tax employees working in 222 natural work unit groups. As hypothesized, age diversity correlated positively with performance only in groups solving complex decision-making tasks, and this finding was replicated when analyzing performance data collected 1 year later. Age diversity was also positively correlated with health disorders--but only in groups working on routine decision-making tasks. Gender composition also had a significant effect on group performance, such that groups with a high proportion of female employees performed worse and reported more health disorders than did gender-diverse teams. As expected, effects of gender composition were most pronounced in large groups. Effects of age diversity were found when controlling for gender diversity and vice versa. Thus, age and gender diversity seem to play a unique role in performance and well-being. The moderating role of task complexity for both effects of age diversity and the moderating role of group size for both effects of gender diversity further suggest that the impact of these 2 variables depends on different group processes (e.g., knowledge exchange, variation in gender salience).

  18. Gender and age effects interact in preschoolers' help-seeking: evidence for differential responses to changes in task difficulty.

    PubMed

    Thompson, R Bruce; Cothran, Thomas; McCall, Daniel

    2012-11-01

    This study explored preschool age and gender differences in help-seeking within the theoretical framework of scaffolded problem-solving and self-regulation (Bruner, 1986; Rogoff, 1990; Vygotsky, 1978; 1986). Within-subject analyses tracked changes in help-seeking among 62 preschoolers (34 boys, 28 girls, mean age 4.22 years) solving a challenging puzzle with an adult. The goal was to document whether age and gender interact with fluctuating difficulty to affect children's spontaneous help-seeking. ANOVAs indicated that girls used more help-seeking during difficult segments of the task, despite performance equal to the boys. This pattern was strongest among older girls, who outperformed all other children and used the most help-seeking. Partial correlations, controlling for solving time, indicated that age predicted children's help-seeking during the most difficult segments of the task, but only among girls. Gender differences in social-linguistic maturation and cognitive development are discussed within the framework of Vygotskian theory and related educational practice. PMID:22217160

  19. Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents: factorial invariance and latent mean differences across gender and age in Spanish adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ingles, Candido J; La Greca, Annette M; Marzo, Juan C; Garcia-Lopez, Luis J; Garcia-Fernandez, Jose M

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about the factorial invariance across gender and age for self-report measures of social anxiety in adolescence. This study examined the factorial invariance and latent mean differences of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) across gender and age groups in 1570 Spanish adolescents (54% girls), ranging in age from 14 to 17 years. Equality of factor structures was compared using multi-group confirmatory factor analyses. Measurement invariance for the correlated three-factor model of the SAS-A was found across gender and age samples. Analyses of latent mean differences revealed that girls exhibited higher means than boys on two SAS-A subscales, Fear of Negative Evaluation and Social Avoidance and Distress-New (SAD-New). In addition, on the SAD-New subscale, the structured means significantly diminished from 14-year olds to 16- and 17-year olds and from 15-year olds to 17-year olds. Findings are discussed in terms of the use of the SAS-A with Spanish adolescents.

  20. Moderating Effects of Gender on Outcomes Associated with Stressful Life Events Among Elementary School-Age Youth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Poquiz, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Stressful life events have been associated with child and adolescent maladjustment, including elevated levels of aggression and anxiety (Attar et al. in J Clin Child Psychol 23:391-400, 1994; Fox et al. in J Adolesc 33:43-54, 2010). However, gender specific outcomes associated with stressful life events among elementary school-age youth are less known. Accordingly, the current study examined the role of gender in the associations between stressful life events and anxiety and proactive and reactive aggression. Participants included 294 elementary school-age children (M = 8.71, SD = 1.17, 50.7 % male). Regression analyses indicated that stressful life events were positively associated with anxiety and reactive, but not proactive, aggression. There were no gender differences with regard to the associations with anxiety symptoms or proactive aggression. However, gender moderated the association between stressful life events and reactive aggression, such that stressful life events were only positively associated with reactive aggression for boys. Future directions and implications of this research are presented.

  1. Gender differences in circulating endothelial progenitor cell colony-forming capacity and migratory activity in middle-aged adults.

    PubMed

    Hoetzer, Greta L; MacEneaney, Owen J; Irmiger, Heather M; Keith, Rebecca; Van Guilder, Gary P; Stauffer, Brian L; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2007-01-01

    Middle-aged women have a lower prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular events compared with men. The mechanisms responsible for this gender-specific difference are unclear. Numeric and functional impairments of bone marrow-derived circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are associated with increased cardiovascular and cerebrovascular morbidity and mortality. It is currently unknown whether there are gender-related differences in EPC number and function in middle-aged adults. We tested the hypothesis that EPCs isolated from middle-aged women demonstrate greater colony-forming capacity and migratory activity compared with men of similar age. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 50 sedentary adults, 25 men (59 +/- 1 years of age) and 25 women (58 +/- 1 years of age). Mononuclear cells were isolated and preplated for 2 days, and nonadherent cells were further cultured for 7 days to determine EPC colony-forming units. Migratory activity of EPCs was determined using a modified Boyden chamber. The number of EPC colony-forming units was significantly higher (approximately 150%) in samples collected from women (16 +/- 3) compared with that collected from men (7 +/- 1). In addition, EPC migration (relative fluorescent units) was approximately 40% greater in women (729 +/- 74) than in men (530 +/- 67). In conclusion, these results demonstrate that EPC colony-forming capacity and migratory activity are higher in middle-aged women than in men.

  2. Urban and rural Differences in the Prevalence of Gender and Age specific Obesity and related Health Behaviors in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Han, Young Shin; Kang, Seung-ho

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to discuss the residential difference in gender and age specific prevalence of obesity by body mass index (BMI) and obesity related health behaviors in the Republic of Korea. A total of nationally representative 2,583 men and 3,087 women (age: 20-64 yr) was used as subjects from 1998 National Health and Nutrition Survey. All statistics were calculated using SUDAAN to consider a stratified multistage probability sampling design. The prevalence of obesity (BMI≥25) was significantly different by age, gender and residential areas. Although younger men aged 20-49 yr did not show a residential difference in the prevalence of obesity, men aged 50-64 yr showed differences, highest in big cities and lowest in rural areas. However, in women, a higher prevalence was observed in rural areas compared to urban areas in the younger age group (20-49 yr), but not in the older age group. Residential differences of obesity related health behaviors existed mostly in the older population, but not in the younger population. The urban-rural differences demonstrate the various stages of behavioral transition that Korea is currently undergoing. Therefore, different strategies considering those factors are needed to manage obesity problems in Korea. PMID:16224141

  3. Age, Gender, and Ethnicity of Counsellor Trainees and Corresponding Counselling Self-Efficacy: Research Findings and Implications for Counsellor Educators.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sarah; Tracz, Susan; Lucey, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the counselling self-efficacy of students in a counsellor education programme, in regard to age, gender, and ethnicity characteristics. To assess counselling self-efficacy, the Counselling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) of Larson et al. (Counsellor Education & Supervision 41: 120-130, 1992) was administered at the end of a semester to counselling students engaged in different stages of a counsellor training program. No significant differences were found in regard to gender and age-group categories, but significant differences were found among ethnic groups. It was found that Asian and White students generally had similar and also lower counselling self-efficacy means than the other ethnic groups in the sample in regard to several counselling-specific categories. Implications for counsellor educators in training counselling students of diverse characteristics are discussed.

  4. Compulsive buying--a growing concern? An examination of gender, age, and endorsement of materialistic values as predictors.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Helga

    2005-11-01

    Compulsive buying is an understudied, but growing, dysfunctional consumer behaviour with harmful psychological and financial consequences. Clinical perspectives treat it as a psychiatric disorder, whereas recent proposals emphasize the increasing endorsement of materialistic values as a cause of uncontrolled buying (e.g. Dittmar, 2004b; Kasser & Kanner, 2004). The present research aims to improve understanding of compulsive buying through examining gender, age, and endorsement of materialistic values as key predictors in three UK questionnaire studies, which sampled individuals who had contacted a self-help organization and residentially matched 'controls' (N = 330), consumer panelists from a multinational corporation (N = 250), and 16- to 18-year-old adolescents (N = 195). The results confirmed previously documented gender differences, and showed that younger people are more prone to compulsive buying. The central findings were that materialistic value endorsement emerged as the strongest predictor of individuals' compulsive buying, and that it significantly mediated the observed age differences.

  5. Comparing the Effects of Age, BMI and Gender on Severe Injury (AIS 3+) in Motor-Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrick M.; Flannagan, Carol A.C.; Reed, Matthew P.; Cunningham, Rebecca M.; Rupp, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The effects of age, body mass index (BMI) and gender on motor vehicle crash (MVC) injuries are not well understood and current prevention efforts do not effectively address variability in occupant characteristics. Objectives 1) Characterize the effects of age, BMI and gender on serious-to-fatal MVC injury 2) Identify the crash modes and body regions where the effects of occupant characteristics onthe numbers of occupants with injuryis largest, and thereby aid in prioritizing the need forhuman surrogates that the represent different types of occupant characteristics and adaptive restraint systems that consider these characteristics. Methods Multivariate logistic regression was used to model the effects of occupant characteristics (age, BMI, gender), vehicle and crash characteristics on serious-to-fatal injuries (AIS 3+) by body region and crash mode using the 2000-2010 National Automotive Sampling System (NASS-CDS) dataset. Logistic regression models were applied to weighted crash data to estimate the change in the number of annual injured occupants with AIS 3+ injury that would occur if occupant characteristics were limited to their 5th percentiles (age ≤ 17 years old, BMI ≤ 19 kg/m2) or male gender. Results Limiting age was associated with a decrease inthe total number of occupants with head [8,396, 95% CI 6,871-9,070] and thorax injuries [17,961, 95% CI 15,960 – 18,859] across all crash modes, decreased occupants with spine [3,843, 95% CI 3,065 – 4,242] and upper extremity [3,578, 95% CI 1,402 – 4,439] injuries in frontal and rollover crashes and decreased abdominal [1,368, 95% CI 1,062 – 1,417] and lower extremity [4,584, 95% CI 4,012 – 4,995] injuries in frontal impacts. The age effect was modulated by gender with older females morelikely to have thorax and upper extremity injuries than older males. Limiting BMI was associated with 2,069 [95% CI 1,107 – 2,775] fewer thorax injuries in nearside crashes, and 5,304 [95% CI 4,279 – 5

  6. Quality of life in patients suffering from seborrheic dermatitis: influence of age, gender and education level.

    PubMed

    Szepietowski, Jacek C; Reich, Adam; Wesołowska-Szepietowska, Ewa; Baran, Eugeniusz

    2009-07-01

    Seborrheic dermatitis is a common inflammatory skin condition occurring mostly on the face, scalp and chest. Despite its high frequency, the impact of seborrheic dermatitis on patients' quality of life (QoL) has not been studied well so far. The objectives of this study were to analyse how seborrheic dermatitis affects the patients' QoL and which socio-economic factors could modulate QoL in these patients. A total of 3000 patients with seborrheic dermatitis and/or dandruff were enrolled into the study. All participants were divided into subgroups according to gender, age and education level. A specially designed questionnaire with demographic and clinical details of patients as well as Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was completed during a patient visit in an outpatient clinic. Data were collected by local dermatologists who were instructed regarding the inclusion and exclusion criteria and the questionnaires were sent back to us upon completion. The mean DLQI score for all patients was 6.92±5.34 points. Patients with dandruff had significantly better QoL than subjects with seborrheic dermatitis (5.34±4.67 points vs. 7.73±5.3 points, respectively; P<0.001) or individuals with dandruff plus seborrheic dermatitis (7.54±5.6 points, P<0.001). In addition, women, younger patients and subjects with higher educational level were more affected than the rest of the patients. Seborrheic dermatitis had significant, negative influence on patients' QoL. Observed discrepancies between subgroups could be explained by different roles played by different patient subgroups in the society. DLQI can be successfully used for the assessment of QoL in large populational studies. PMID:18793259

  7. Gender across Generations: Patterns of Similarity between Young Adults and Their Middle-Aged and Aging Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huyck, Margaret Hellie; And Others

    Biological sex remains a powerful source of differential socialization and experience. These studies were designed to enhance the understanding of gender identity, the psychosocial aspects of sexual differentiation. The focus was upon changes and continuities, in terms of development along the adult life course and as reflective of social change.…

  8. Lack of correlation between age and/or gender with the force utilized in cleaning an anesthesia machine.

    PubMed

    Gold, Kathryn M; Lucas, Anne; Hitchins, Victoria M

    2013-01-01

    Several human factors influence the cleaning of reusable medical devices and equipment. This study evaluated whether a correlation exists between age and/or gender of a person cleaning, with the force applied to remove artificial blood soil on the surface of an anesthesia machine. The findings from this study may be used to increase our understanding of human factors in the cleaning of reusable medical equipment and suggest improvements in equipment design to address issues of concern. PMID:23919797

  9. Age and Gender Differences in Physical Capability Levels from Mid-Life Onwards: The Harmonisation and Meta-Analysis of Data from Eight UK Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Rachel; Hardy, Rebecca; Aihie Sayer, Avan; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Birnie, Kate; Cooper, Cyrus; Craig, Leone; Deary, Ian J.; Demakakos, Panayotes; Gallacher, John; McNeill, Geraldine; Martin, Richard M.; Starr, John M.; Steptoe, Andrew; Kuh, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Using data from eight UK cohorts participating in the Healthy Ageing across the Life Course (HALCyon) research programme, with ages at physical capability assessment ranging from 50 to 90+ years, we harmonised data on objective measures of physical capability (i.e. grip strength, chair rising ability, walking speed, timed get up and go, and standing balance performance) and investigated the cross-sectional age and gender differences in these measures. Levels of physical capability were generally lower in study participants of older ages, and men performed better than women (for example, results from meta-analyses (N = 14,213 (5 studies)), found that men had 12.62 kg (11.34, 13.90) higher grip strength than women after adjustment for age and body size), although for walking speed, this gender difference was attenuated after adjustment for body size. There was also evidence that the gender difference in grip strength diminished with increasing age,whereas the gender difference in walking speed widened (p<0.01 for interactions between age and gender in both cases). This study highlights not only the presence of age and gender differences in objective measures of physical capability but provides a demonstration that harmonisation of data from several large cohort studies is possible. These harmonised data are now being used within HALCyon to understand the lifetime social and biological determinants of physical capability and its changes with age. PMID:22114723

  10. Assessment of Telomere Length in Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffinized Human Tissue Is Confounded by Chronological Age and Storage Duration

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten with physiological aging but undergo substantial restoration during cancer immortalization. Increasingly, cancer studies utilize the archive of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues in diagnostic pathology departments. Conceptually, such studies would be confounded by physiological telomere attrition and loss of DNA integrity from prolonged tissue storage. Our study aimed to investigate these two confounding factors. 145 FFPE tissues of surgically-resected, non-diseased appendixes were retrieved from our pathology archive, from years 2008 to 2014. Cases from 2013 to 2014 were categorized by patient chronological age (0–20 years, 21–40 years, 41–60 years, > 60 years). Telomere lengths of age categories were depicted by telomere/chromosome 2 centromere intensity ratio (TCR) revealed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Material from individuals aged 0–20 years from years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010, and 2008 were compared for storage effect. Telomere integrity was assessed by telomere fluorescence intensity (TFI). Epithelial TCRs (mean ± SD) for the respective age groups were 4.84 ± 2.08, 3.64 ± 1.21, 2.03 ± 0.37, and 1.93 ± 0.45, whereas corresponding stromal TCRs were 5.16 ± 2.55, 3.84 ± 1.36, 2.49 ± 1.20, and 2.93 ± 1.24. A trend of inverse correlation with age in both epithelial and stromal tissues is supported by r = -0.69, p < 0.001 and r = -0.42, p < 0.001 respectively. Epithelial TFIs (mean ± SD) of years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010 and 2008 were 852.60 ± 432.46, 353.04 ± 127.12, 209.24 ± 55.57 and 429.22 ± 188.75 respectively. Generally, TFIs reduced with storage duration (r = -0.42, p < 0.001). Our findings agree that age-related telomere attrition occurs in normal somatic tissues, and suggest that an age-based reference can be established for telomere studies on FFPE tissues. We also showed that FFPE tissues archived beyond 2 years are suboptimal for telomere analysis. PMID:27598341

  11. Assessment of Telomere Length in Archived Formalin-Fixed, Paraffinized Human Tissue Is Confounded by Chronological Age and Storage Duration.

    PubMed

    Kong, Po-Lian; Looi, Lai-Meng; Lau, Tze-Pheng; Cheah, Phaik-Leng

    2016-01-01

    Telomeres shorten with physiological aging but undergo substantial restoration during cancer immortalization. Increasingly, cancer studies utilize the archive of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues in diagnostic pathology departments. Conceptually, such studies would be confounded by physiological telomere attrition and loss of DNA integrity from prolonged tissue storage. Our study aimed to investigate these two confounding factors. 145 FFPE tissues of surgically-resected, non-diseased appendixes were retrieved from our pathology archive, from years 2008 to 2014. Cases from 2013 to 2014 were categorized by patient chronological age (0-20 years, 21-40 years, 41-60 years, > 60 years). Telomere lengths of age categories were depicted by telomere/chromosome 2 centromere intensity ratio (TCR) revealed by quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization. Material from individuals aged 0-20 years from years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010, and 2008 were compared for storage effect. Telomere integrity was assessed by telomere fluorescence intensity (TFI). Epithelial TCRs (mean ± SD) for the respective age groups were 4.84 ± 2.08, 3.64 ± 1.21, 2.03 ± 0.37, and 1.93 ± 0.45, whereas corresponding stromal TCRs were 5.16 ± 2.55, 3.84 ± 1.36, 2.49 ± 1.20, and 2.93 ± 1.24. A trend of inverse correlation with age in both epithelial and stromal tissues is supported by r = -0.69, p < 0.001 and r = -0.42, p < 0.001 respectively. Epithelial TFIs (mean ± SD) of years 2013/2014, 2011/2012, 2009/2010 and 2008 were 852.60 ± 432.46, 353.04 ± 127.12, 209.24 ± 55.57 and 429.22 ± 188.75 respectively. Generally, TFIs reduced with storage duration (r = -0.42, p < 0.001). Our findings agree that age-related telomere attrition occurs in normal somatic tissues, and suggest that an age-based reference can be established for telomere studies on FFPE tissues. We also showed that FFPE tissues archived beyond 2 years are suboptimal for telomere analysis. PMID:27598341

  12. Impact of scale space search on age- and gender-related changes in MRI-based cortical morphometry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Boucher, Maxime; Rosa-Neto, Pedro; Evans, Alan C

    2013-09-01

    In magnetic resonance imaging based brain morphometry, Gaussian smoothing is often applied to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and to increase the detection power of statistical parametric maps. However, most existing studies used a single smoothing filter without adequately justifying their choices. In this article, we want to determine the extent for which performing a morphometry analysis using multiple smoothing filters, namely conducting a scale space search, improves or decreases the detection power. We first compared scale space search with single-filter analysis through a simulated population study. The multiple comparisons in our four-dimensional scale space searches were corrected for using a unified P-value approach. Our results illustrate that, compared with a single-filter analysis, a scale space search analysis can properly capture the variations in analysis results caused by variations in smoothing, and more importantly, it can obviously increase the sensitivity for detecting brain morphometric changes. We also show that the cost of an increased critical threshold for conducting a scale space search is very small. In the second experiment, we investigated age and gender effects on cortical volume, thickness, and surface area in 104 normal subjects using scale space search. The obtained results provide a perspective of scale space theory on the morphological changes with age and gender. These results suggest that, in exploratory studies of aging, gender, and disease, conducting a scale space search is essential, if we are to produce a complete description of the structural changes or abnormalities associated with these dimensions.

  13. Mothers, daughters and midlife (self)-discoveries: gender and aging in the Amanda Cross' Kate Fansler series.

    PubMed

    Domínguez-Rué, Emma

    2012-12-01

    In the same way that many aspects of gender cannot be understood aside from their relationship to race, class, culture, nationality and/or sexuality, the interactions between gender and aging constitute an interesting field for academic research, without which we cannot gain full insight into the complex and multi-faceted nature of gender studies. Although the American writer and Columbia professor Carolyn Gold Heilbrun (1926-2003) is more widely known for her best-selling mystery novels, published under the pseudonym of Amanda Cross, she also authored remarkable pieces of non-fiction in which she asserted her long-standing commitment to feminism, while she also challenged established notions on women and aging and advocated for a reassessment of those negative views. To my mind, the Kate Fansler novels became an instrument to reach a massive audience of female readers who might not have read her non-fiction, but who were perhaps finding it difficult to reach fulfillment as women under patriarchy, especially upon reaching middle age. Taking her essays in feminism and literary criticism as a basis and her later fiction as substantiation to my argument, this paper will try to reveal the ways in which Heilbrun's seemingly more superficial and much more commercial mystery novels as Amanda Cross were used a catalyst that informed her feminist principles while vindicating the need to rethink about issues concerning literary representations of mature women and cultural stereotypes about motherhood. PMID:22939539

  14. Time Trends in Self-Rated Health and Disability in Older Spanish People: Differences by Gender and Age

    PubMed Central

    GIRON, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Background: To analyse time trends in self-rated health in older people by gender and age and examine disability in the time trends of self-rated health. Methods: The data used come from the Spanish National Health Surveys conducted in 2001, 2003, 2006 and 2011–12. Samples of adults aged 16 yr and older were selected. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the association between age, gender, socio-economic status, marital status, disability and self-rated health across period study. Results: Women exhibited lower (higher) prevalence of good self-rated health (disability) compared to men. The multivariate analysis for time trends found that good self-rated health increased from 2001 to 2012. Overall, variables associated with a lower likelihood of good self-rated health were: being married or living with a partner, lower educational level, and disability. Conclusion: Trends of good self-rated health differ by gender according to socio-demographic factors and the prevalence of disability. PMID:27141490

  15. Dynamics of the ankle joint analyzed through moment-angle loops during human walking: gender and age effects.

    PubMed

    Crenna, Paolo; Frigo, Carlo

    2011-12-01

    Aim of this study was to provide a non-invasive assessment of the dynamic properties of the ankle joint during human locomotion, with specific focus on the effects of gender and age. Accordingly, flexion-extension angles and moments, obtained through gait analysis, were used to generate moment-angle loops at the ankle joint in 120 healthy subjects walking at a same normalized speed. Four reproducible types of loops were identified: Typical Loops, Narrow, Large and Yielding loops. No significant changes in the slopes of the main loop phases were observed as a function of gender and age, with the exception of a relative increase in the slope of the descending phase in elderly males compared to adult females. As for the ergometric parameters, the peak ankle moment, work produced and net work along the cycle were slightly, but significantly affected, with progressively decrease in the following order: Adult Males, Adult Females, Elderly Males and Elderly Females. The evidence that only few of the quantitative aspects of moment-angle loops were affected suggests that the control strategy which regulates the biomechanical properties of the ankle joint during walking is rather robust and qualitatively consistent across genders and age.

  16. Gender and Age Differences in Hourly and Daily Patterns of Sedentary Time in Older Adults Living in Retirement Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bellettiere, John; Carlson, Jordan A.; Rosenberg, Dori; Singhania, Anant; Natarajan, Loki; Berardi, Vincent; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Sears, Dorothy D.; Moran, Kevin; Crist, Katie; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    Background Total sedentary time varies across population groups with important health consequences. Patterns of sedentary time accumulation may vary and have differential health risks. The purpose of this study is to describe sedentary patterns of older adults living in retirement communities and illustrate gender and age differences in those patterns. Methods Baseline accelerometer data from 307 men and women (mean age = 84±6 years) who wore ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers for ≥ 4 days as part of a physical activity intervention were classified into bouts of sedentary time (<100 counts per minute). Linear mixed models were used to account for intra-person and site-level clustering. Daily and hourly summaries were examined in mutually non-exclusive bouts of sedentary time that were 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+, 60+, 90+ and 120+ minutes in duration. Variations by time of day, age and gender were explored. Results Men accumulated more sedentary time than women in 1+, 5+, 10+, 20+, 30+, 40+, 50+ and 60+ minute bouts; the largest gender-differences were observed in 10+ and 20+ minute bouts. Age was positively associated with sedentary time, but only in bouts of 10+, 20+, 30+, and 40+ minutes. Women had more daily 1+ minute sedentary bouts than men (71.8 vs. 65.2), indicating they break up sedentary time more often. For men and women, a greater proportion of time was spent being sedentary during later hours of the day than earlier. Gender differences in intra-day sedentary time were observed during morning hours with women accumulating less sedentary time overall and having more 1+ minute bouts. Conclusions Patterns identified using bouts of sedentary time revealed gender and age differences in the way in which sedentary time was accumulated by older adults in retirement communities. Awareness of these patterns can help interventionists better target sedentary time and may aid in the identification of health risks associated with sedentary behavior. Future studies

  17. Lower-extremity strength profiles and gender-based classification of basketball players ages 9-22 years.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Patricia A; Vardaxis, Vassilios G

    2009-03-01

    Despite an increase in women sports participants and recognition of gender differences in injury patterns (e.g., knee), few normative strength data exist beyond hamstrings and quadriceps measures. This study had 2 purposes: to assess the lower-extremity strength of women (W) and men (M) basketball players who were 9-22 years old, and to determine which strength measures most correctly classify the gender of 12- to 22-year-old athletes. Fifty basketball players (26 W, 24 M) without ligamentous or meniscal injury performed concentric isokinetic testing of bilateral hip, knee, and ankle musculature. We identified maximal peak torques for the hip (flexors, extensors, abductors, adductors), knee (flexors and extensors), and ankle (plantar flexors and dorsiflexors), and we formed periarticular (hip, knee, and ankle), antigravity, and total leg strength composite measures. We calculated mean and 95% confidence intervals. With body mass-height normalization, most age and gender differences were small. Mean values were typically higher for older vs. younger players and for men vs. women players. Mean values were often lower for girls 12-13 years vs. those 9-10 years. In the age group of 16-22 years, men had stronger knee flexors, hip flexors, plantar flexors, and total leg strength than women. Men who were 16-22 years old had stronger knee flexors and hip flexors than did younger men and women players. Based on discriminant function, knee strength measures did not adequately classify gender. Instead, total leg strength measures had correct gender classifications of 74 and 69% (jackknifed) with significant multivariate tests (p = 0.025). For researchers and practitioners, these results support strength assessment and training of the whole lower extremity, not just knee musculature. Limited strength differences between girls 9-10 years old and those 12-13 years old suggest that the peripubertal period is an important time to target strength development.

  18. Circulating Cathelicidin Concentrations in a Cohort of Healthy Children: Influence of Age, Body Composition, Gender and Vitamin D Status.

    PubMed

    Stukes, Taylor M; Shary, Judith R; Wei, Wei; Ebeling, Myla D; Dezsi, Kaleena B; Shary, Frank S; Forestieri, Nina E; Hollis, Bruce W; Wagner, Carol L

    2016-01-01

    Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2-7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OH)D and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OH)D at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child's current level); and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student's t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort's median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6-3368.6) and did not correlate with 25(OH)D, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively). Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001). Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child's current 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively). This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OH)D values and warrants additional studies for further observation. PMID:27152524

  19. Circulating Cathelicidin Concentrations in a Cohort of Healthy Children: Influence of Age, Body Composition, Gender and Vitamin D Status

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Cathelicidin is an antimicrobial peptide whose circulating levels are related to vitamin D status in adults. This study sought to determine if circulating cathelicidin concentrations in healthy children are related to the age of the child, body composition and vitamin D status at birth and at the time of the study visit. Blood samples were obtained during yearly visits from 133 children, ages 2–7, whose mothers had participated in a pregnancy vitamin D supplementation RCT. Radioimmunoassay and ELISA were performed to analyze 25(OH)D and cathelicidin, respectively. Statistical analyses compared cathelicidin concentrations with concentrations of 25(OH)D at various time points (maternal levels throughout pregnancy, at birth, and child’s current level); and with race/ethnicity, age, gender, BMI, percent fat, and frequency of infections using Student’s t-test, χ2, Wilcoxon ranked-sum analysis, and multivariate regression. The cohort’s median cathelicidin concentration was 28.1 ng/mL (range: 5.6–3368.6) and did not correlate with 25(OH)D, but was positively correlated with advancing age (ρ = 0.236 & p = 0.005, respectively). Forty patients evaluated at two visits showed an increase of 24.0 ng/mL in cathelicidin from the first visit to the next (p<0.0001). Increased age and male gender were correlated with increased cathelicidin when controlling for race/ethnicity, percent fat, and child’s current 25(OH)D concentration (p = 0.028 & p = 0.047, respectively). This study demonstrated that as children age, the concentration of cathelicidin increases. Furthermore, male gender was significantly associated with increased cathelicidin concentrations. The lack of association between vitamin D status and cathelicidin in this study may be due to the narrow range in observed 25(OH)D values and warrants additional studies for further observation. PMID:27152524

  20. Effect of data length and bin numbers on distribution entropy (DistEn) measurement in analyzing healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Udhayakumar, Radhagayathri K; Karmakar, Chandan; Peng Li; Palaniswami, Marimuthu

    2015-01-01

    Complexity analysis of a given time series is executed using various measures of irregularity, the most commonly used being Approximate entropy (ApEn), Sample entropy (SampEn) and Fuzzy entropy (FuzzyEn). However, the dependence of these measures on the critical parameter of tolerance `r' leads to precarious results, owing to random selections of r. Attempts to eliminate the use of r in entropy calculations introduced a new measure of entropy namely distribution entropy (DistEn) based on the empirical probability distribution function (ePDF). DistEn completely avoids the use of a variance dependent parameter like r and replaces it by a parameter M, which corresponds to the number of bins used in the histogram to calculate it. When tested for synthetic data, M has been observed to produce a minimal effect on DistEn as compared to the effect of r on other entropy measures. Also, DistEn is said to be relatively stable with data length (N) variations, as far as synthetic data is concerned. However, these claims have not been analyzed for physiological data. Our study evaluates the effect of data length N and bin number M on the performance of DistEn using both synthetic and physiologic time series data. Synthetic logistic data of `Periodic' and `Chaotic' levels of complexity and 40 RR interval time series belonging to two groups of healthy aging population (young and elderly) have been used for the analysis. The stability and consistency of DistEn as a complexity measure as well as a classifier have been studied. Experiments prove that the parameters N and M are more influential in deciding the efficacy of DistEn performance in the case of physiologic data than synthetic data. Therefore, a generalized random selection of M for a given data length N may not always be an appropriate combination to yield good performance of DistEn for physiologic data.